Page 1

www.climatecontrolme.com

Case-in point: Creating a green data centre p48

Perspectives: BMS and the art of long-term thinking p30 Heat insulation and triple glazing p40

News GEA introduces raspberry freezing technique p15

releases Let's watch our footprints p26 England National Heat Map p16

Spotlight: Air filtration and the need to quantify p50

JCI appoints new COO p7

Plus: Marketplace, Comings&Goings

SEPTEMBER 2012

Simple as they may sound, good design and right equipment selection are key to acoustic comfort in DCPs

Sound

sense

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Vol. 7 No. 9 | September 2012 04 from the editor

Dos and dust-nots

happenings

06 The region 14 At large 22 Marketplace

24 D-Code The seal of efficiency

Since duct-leakage issues have a direct bearing on the comfort level of occupants, the problems need to be addressed promptly, says Billy Prewitt.

PERSPECTIVES 26 Let’s watch our footprints...

The Ecological Footprint tracks humanity’s demands on the biosphere by comparing humanity’s consumption against the Earth’s regenerative capacity. A look at how the UAE is faring.

contents

38

COVER STORY

Sound sense

While comfort and safety of operators may be achieved by ensuring that they use appropriate ear protection devices, good design and the right equipment selection can go a long way in reducing noise levels within a plant room and beyond, says Albert Haykal.

30 BMS – need for long-term thinking

HAPPENINGS IN THE REGION

Michael Scriven believes that not factoring in energy-efficient control features in a project is a myopic way of looking at cost cutting, and reiterates the importance of building maintenance systems.

Al-Futtaim Engineering wins Ministry of Education contract PAGE 8

32 Stemming the leak

A look at how minimal leakage and inlet temperature variations will maximise access to free cooling hours, efficiency of the chiller system and return air temperatures.

40 The burden of the weight

Tighter regulations on heat insulation and constantly increasing energy prices are driving forward the trend towards triple glazing in architecture.

CASE-IN POINT 48 Creating a green data centre

UAE University, Al Ain, and Schneider Electric joined hands to reduce the carbon footprint on the campus. We bring you the case study.

Spotlight 50 The need to quantify

In Part I or our series on air filtration, Dr Iyad Al-Attar argues that the science of air filtration is driven by its quest for perfection, which is why filter testing is critically important.

HAPPENINGS AT LARGE

UK retailers embrace climatefriendly refrigeration PAGE 20

34

perspective

Ponder before you purchase Florian Beduchaud demonstrates that the total cost of ownership is an essential consideration and knowing it helps make the correct purchasing decision.

September 2012

www.climatecontrolme.com

3


from the

editor

Publisher Dominic De Sousa Managing Director & Associate Publisher Frédéric Paillé | fred@cpi-industry.com Editorial Director & Associate Publisher B Surendar | surendar@cpi-industry.com

Dos AND

F

COO Nadeem Hood | nadeem@cpidubai.com

DUST-NOTS

Contributing Editors Pratibha Umashankar prati@cpi-industry.com Anoop K Menon anoop@cpi-industry.com

or almost 13 months at a stretch, Kuwait-based air filtration consultant, Dr Iyad Al Attar held court on all things air filtration. The series, which started in February 2011, looked at the history of air filtration and progressed to performance characteristics, such as the parameters affecting pressure drop and the face velocity effect on efficiency; filter design, including the different types of media and their characteristics and the different filtration stages; aerosol characteristics; and the effect of climate on filter performance. For me perhaps the most interesting part of the series was when he elaborated on sand storms. I remember him telling once how when viewed from a sandstorm perspective, air filtration was an absolute necessity and not an after-thought or something that could be avoided; despite compelling evidence, he rued, air filtration was simply not getting its place in the sun. Dust in the GCC countries is mainly in the form of silica, which when inhaled at a certain concentration, is a threat to the human body. By extension, it is not to be viewed as an “exotic component” for deploying only in specific places and not in everyday residential and commercial spaces. Dust does not discriminate, so why should decision-makers? Further, given the intensity of sandstorms in the region, it is perhaps essential to aim for higher efficiencies in air filtration. Dr Al Attar advocates 95% efficiency as opposed to the internationally accepted 65% efficiency, adding that intelligent filter design available in the market makes highefficiency filtration possible and accessible, in terms of energy consumption. In old designs, he says, a 95% efficient filter would require about 170 pascals. However, with newer designs, he says, it is possible to achieve the same efficiency with 95 pascals. Despite compelling evidence, the perception lingers that high-efficiency air filtration is expensive. And then of course, there is the mother of all impediments – “the capital cost involved can be avoided”. Dr Al Attar is starting a new series in this issue. The compulsion is to elaborate on the science and technology in greater detail. We live in an age of nano particle sizers, which has opened the doors to a better understanding of dust particles. There is now scope to conduct research on even lower particle sizes to characterise filter performance, on sizes lower than 500 nanos, he says with enthusiasm. It opens up the possibility of probing further in terms of flow rates. It’s going to be quite a ride, I reckon!

Business Development Consultant Stephanie McGuinness stephanie@cpi-industry.com Design Genesis Salao | getty@cpi-industry.com Ulysses Galgo | uly@cpi-industry.com Webmaster Troy Maagma | troy@cpidubai.com Database/ Subscriptions Manager Purwanti Srirejeki purwanti@cpi-industry.com Advertising Enquiries Frédéric Paillé: +971 50 7147204 fred@cpi-industry.com Stephanie McGuinness: +971 50 6679359 stephanie@cpi-industry.com USA and Canada Kanika Saxena Director (North America) 25 Kingsbridge Garden Cir Suite 919 Mississauga, ON, Canada L5R 4B1 kanika@cpi-industry.com Tel/fax: +1 905 890 5031 Euro Zone and UK Sicking Industrial Marketing Wilhelm Sicking 45130 Essen - Emmastrasse 44 Tel: +49 (0)201-779861 Fax: +49 (0)201-781741 Andreas Sicking 59872 Freienohl - Kurt-Schumacher-Str. 16 Tel: +49 (0)2903-3385-70 Fax: +49 (0)2903-3385-82 sicking-media@email.de • www.sicking.de China Sean Xiao Hui China Business Media Group Room 403, Block 17, Wuyimingzhu, No 6 Jinshan Road, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350008, China Tel: +86 591 8386 3000

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Climate Control Middle East September 2012

Published by

Case-in point: Creatin

Perspectives: BMS

Heat insulation and triple glazing p40

g a green data centre

and the art of long-term

p48

thinking p30

Let's watch our footpri

Spotlight: Air filtratio

www.climatecontrolm

e.com News GEA introduc es raspber ry freezing techniq ue

England releases nts p26 National

n and the need to quantif

y p50

p15

JCI appoints

Heat Map p16 new COO p7 Plus: Marketplace, Comings&Goings

SEPTEMBER 2012

Simple as they may sound, good design and right equipment selection are key to acoustic comfort in DCPs

Printed by: Excel Printing Press, Sharjah, UAE

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happenings the region

Solar power and smart grid technology in Bahrain

EDB commends Petra Solar, BAPCO and NOGA on five megawatt project

T

he Bahrain Economic Development Board (EDB) congratulated Petra Solar, Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO) and the National Oil & Gas Authority (NOGA), following the announcement of an agreement on a five megawatt distributed smart solar energy project. Revealing this in a news release, Petra Solar said

that the scheme will provide solar energy and increased efficiency through the use of smart grid technology to a number of locations in the country, including the BAPCO township of Awali and the University of Bahrain. According to the announcement, Bahrain EDB has been closely involved in the development of the

project since initiating discussions with Petra Solar in the United States in 2010. Expressing satisfaction at the launch of the project, Kamal bin Ahmed, Minister of Transportation and Acting Chief Executive of the EDB Board, said: “Investment in this sort of technology is a key part of our plans to create high-quality jobs for Bahrainis through sustainable economic growth for the long term. Importantly, this investment will not only create jobs directly but also create benefits for other companies by improving energy efficiency.” Dr Shihab Kuran, President and CEO, Petra Solar, added: “Solar power and a stable electric grid are critical elements to Bahrain developing economic and energy security. In

Awali, we are deploying solar power, plus we are building a wireless smart grid network, which are the building blocks for command and control of smart cities.” Featuring a high-tech R&D component in Bahrain, the project marks the first step in plans to build a powerful ecosystem in Awali, based on its technology, EDB claimed.

QSTec’s CEO addresses business forum

Welcomes opportunities for collaboration with German companies

E

mirates German solar companies were urged to collaborate with Qatar Solar Technologies (QSTec) to share and create knowledge in building a new industry in Qatar. Sharing this information through a communiqué, QSTec revealed that Dr Khalid K Al Hajri, the Chairman and CEO of QSTec, addressed the audience at the 15th German-Arab Business

6

Forum in Berlin, held between June 13 and 15 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Berlin. Speaking at the forum, Al Hajri reportedly said: “As an industry, we need to work together to research and develop new solar products, technologies and applications. QSTec is building an industry of solar energy for the future, and welcome opportunities for collaboration with

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

the industry’s most progressive and innovative companies.” The communiqué revealed that QSTec, a joint venture between Qatar Foundation (70%), SolarWorld AG (29%) and the Qatar Development Bank (1%), is an integrated solar company, and is building a polysilicon production plant in Ras Laffan Industrial City with the intention of generating solar energy. Initially, the

plant will produce 8,000 metric tonnes (MTPY) of polysilicon per year and is designed to expand as demand grows, the communiqué added. Polysilicon is the essential building block of the world’s most efficient solar energy technologies and helps harness solar power by being converted into wafers, cells and the solar modules and panels that produce solar energy, QSTec explained.


Aldar announces financial results

Reports posting strong performance for second quarter of 2012

A

ldar, the Abu Dhabibased property development, management and investment company, has announced its financial results for second quarter of 2012, and has revealed that that its revenue for the period has increasing 497% to AED 4,631.2million (Q2 2011: AED 775.7 million) and posted a net profit of AED 417.9 million, up 228% from AED 127.3 million during the same period last year. The revenues were driven by the successful handover of 1,058 residential units on Al Raha Beach units, Aldar claimed, and added that its delivery programme will continue into the second half of the year with a focus on delivery and handover of the remaining units and land plots at Al Raha Beach. Speaking against the

backdrop of its positive balance sheets, Ali Eid Almheiri, Chairman of Aldar Properties, commented: “Aldar’s results clearly demonstrate its strong financial position. Impressive quarterly performance has been driven by the delivery of a substantial volume of units to our customers, including the Government of Abu Dhabi. During the second half of the year Aldar will continue to deliver strong revenues and predictable cash flows. This stability enables us to focus on our long-term strategy – to remain Abu Dhabi’s pre-eminent developer. We have a strong pipeline of development projects to deliver over the second half of the year and into 2013 and we look forward to contributing profitably to Abu Dhabi’s future real estate pipeline.”

EmiratesGBC launches e-library Will provide educational resources on sustainability

E

mirates Green Building Council (EmiratesGBC), avowedly an independent forum aimed at conserving the environment by strengthening and

promoting green building practices, has announced launching its Academy page on its official web site: http://www.emiratesgbc.org/ egbc/emirates/index.php,

comings &goings

Johnson Controls appoints new COO

Ramon Genemaras brings on board experience in international business operations

J

ohnson Controls Global WorkPlace Solutions (GWS) has announced appointing Ramon Genemaras to the newly created position of Chief Operating Officer. Genemaras brings a wealth of experience in international business operations, the announcement said, and added that he joins Johnson Controls GWS from Tyco Security Solutions, where he was Vice President of Global Operations and was responsible for driving operational excellence across the global business. Previously, he worked at GE for 17 years in a variety of international engineering, manufacturing and operational leadership roles, the announcement said. Johnson Controls GWS, Vice President and General Manager, Guy Holden, said about the appointment: “This appointment reinforces our vision to be the leading provider of workplace services to the world’s major organisations. It’s strategically significant in the global development of our business, as it will bring the company’s operations and regional infrastructure under a single leader. As our market has become more global, the scale and complexity of our operations have increased. Ramon will ensure that we continue to deliver excellent services to our global customers.” Genemaras, saying that he was looking forward to joining the business at such an exciting time of growth and opportunity, added: “Operational efficiency and effectiveness are vital in times of economic uncertainty. To sustain the GWS vision as a leading provider of workplace solutions, global operational performance and strategic account engagement are essential.”

which, EmiratesGBC says will provide technical papers and resources on sustainability. EmiratesGBC claimed that it was a valuable resource to the industry, and a onestop-source for publications related to green building practices, with over 300 technical reports by different authors already accessible online. The Academy page was created in collaboration Continued on Page 8

September September2012 2012

www.climatecontrolme.com www.climatecontrolme.com

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happenings the region

Al-Futtaim Engineering wins Ministry of Education contract

MEP maintenance of HVAC facilities will cover 250 schools in Dubai and the Northern Emirates

M

EP maintenance of HVAC facilities covering 250 schools in Dubai and the Northern Emirates. Al-Futtaim Engineering has announced that it has signed a multi-million-dirham contract with the UAE Ministry of Education. The contract will see the Al-Futtaim Group company undertake MEP Murli Serpakkam maintenance of HVAC facilities covering 250 schools in Dubai and the Northern Emirates, the announcement added. The contract was reportedly signed by His Excellency Humaid Mohammed Obaid Al Qatami, Minister of Education, and Murli Serpakkam, Acting Managing Director, Al Futtaim Engineering. On the occasion, Serpakkam said: “We are, indeed, pleased with the trust placed by the Ministry of Education in our capabilities. This prestigious contract comes close on the heels of other significant maintenance contracts with companies, including the Dubai Islamic Bank, the Government of Sharjah and the First Gulf Bank. Al-Futtaim Engineering was chosen due to our reputation for providing quality MEP maintenance services and this project is a firm endorsement of our ability to deliver industry bench-marked services.”

8

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

EmiratesGBC launches e-library (from page 7)

with various global and regional green building councils, strategic partners and other industry stakeholders, it added. Elucidating on the launch, Adnan Sharafi, EmiratesGBC Chairman, said: “One of the primary goals of EmiratesGBC is to strengthen awareness on sustainable built environments by sharing global best practices with the industry stakeholders. Serving as a link between the various organisations working in the sector and the industry, we continuously update our members and the public at large on the various measures that can be pursued to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. The Academy is a strong repository of information on sustainable building development practices drawn from around the world, and will serve as an invaluable referral source.” Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry has reportedly contributed a case study to the Academy section of the EmiratesGBC website and shares its experience of ‘greening’ their existing office complex without massive investments, serving as a model for the region. Commenting on this, HE Hamad Buamim, Director General, Dubai

Chamber of Commerce & Industry, said: “We are happy to share our example of being the first existing building in the Arab world and only the fourth outside North America to achieve the prestigious Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Existing Building certification from the US Green Building Council. Through our green initiatives, we have been able to reduce water and energy consumption by 77% and 47% respectively, leading to accumulated savings of around AED 7.1 million between 1998 and 2008. We want to encourage other organisations to follow our lead and realise the benefits that green buildings provide for our country and the wider region.” According to The Emirates Solar Industry Association (ESIA), it has added a valuable report on solar power being viable across the MENA region to the Academy. Commenting on this, Vahid Fotuhi, President of ESIA, said: “The Emirates Solar Industry Association is delighted to be part of this latest EGBC initiative. This new portal will serve as very useful research tool and ESIA is very happy to be able to contribute to it as a testament of our ongoing cooperation with EmiratesGBC.”


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happenings the region

Manazel and Lulu sign agreement Will open largest hypermarket in Abu Dhabi

M

anazel Real Estate, owner of Capital Mall in Mohammad bin Zayed City in Abu Dhabi, has announced signing of a lease agreement with Lulu Hypermarket at Capital Mall with a rental space totaling 220,000m². The deal was endorsed by Mohammad M Al Qubaisi, Manazel Real Estate’s Chairman, and Youssuf Ali Mosliam, President of Lulu Hypermarket Group, the announcement added. Commenting on the significance of the agreement, Al Qubaisi said: “This agreement falls in line with our commitment to provide the best facilities and services that appeal to the commercial and services sector on one hand, and contribute to the development and prosperity of Capital Mall’s surrounding neighbourhoods on the other, and coheres with Abu Dhabi 2030 Vision for urban development in the Capital. We will spare no effort in helping out and facilitating Lulu Hypermarket’s transition to Capital Mall, as well as all other tenants who chose Capital Mall to house their brands.” Speaking about the new endeavour, Ali Mosliam said: “This move corresponds with our strategy which aims at providing a Lulu Hypermarket in the newly developed urban sectors in Abu Dhabi, so we can be closer to them. Choosing Capital Mall to house the biggest hypermarket in Abu Dhabi was a result of its ideal location at Mohammad bin Zayed City, and its proximity to Khalifa City A, Al Falah, Al Raha Beach, Bani Yas and Al Shawamekh.”

Officials of Manazel and Lulu at the signing ceremony

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Climate Control Middle East September 2012

Transguard wins HHPC certification

Contract cleaning team at Dubai Marina Mall scores 100% during air quality audit process

T

ransguard Group, a part of the Emirates Group, along with its partner Diversey, a supplier of sustainable cleaning and hygiene solutions, has become the first company in the Middle East to be certified under Healthy High Performance Cleaning (HHPC) audit process in the Dubai Marina Mall. Announcing this, Transguard claimed that applying its stringent Children’s and Schools Certification criteria to measure the effect of cleaning on Indoor Air Quality, internationally-recognised Greenguard Environmental Institute (GEI) approved the patented Diversey cleaning programme.

From L to R: Ian Veazey, I&L Sales Director, Diversey Gulf; Charlotte Butt, FM Services Account Manager Transguard Group; Tanu Chowdhury, Site Manager for Transguard at Dubai Marina Mall; Mike Kitchen, Head of FM Services, Transguard Group and Geoff Shewry, Deputy MD of Transguard Group

Commenting on the audit process, Charlotte Butt, FM Services Account Manager, Transguard Group, said: “We conducted a series of practical training sessions for our staff, such as how to minimise misting of chemicals in spray applications and how to use dilution control systems. Once finished, we were audited by Diversey and our compliance was validated.” Ian Veazey, I&L Sales Director, Diversey Gulf, added: “The programme combines certified cleaning products and microfibre with clear procedures to form the first cleaning programme certified for Indoor Air Quality. There is no room for error; all of the procedures in 14 key areas covering dust mopping and carpet care to pest management and spills, must be met comprehensively, and Transguard is the first company in the Middle East to do so.” ERRATUM A news update in the August 2012 issue of Climate Control Middle East, titled ‘Vastu opens its doors for business’, mentioned Shafiq Khoory as the Director of MKH Holding. The correct name of the company is MHK Holding. The error is regretted. — Editor


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happenings the region

comings Ingersoll Rand opens new HQ in Dubai &goings

I

refrigeration) • Ingersoll Rand Security Technologies (Schlage, CISA, Von Duprin, Briton, LCN, Bricard, Interflex)

ngersoll Rand has announced opening its new regional headquarters in the Business Bay area of Dubai on August 21. Occupying two floors of the 56-story U-Bora commercial tower, the office serves as the Middle East and Africa centre for all Ingersoll Rand strategic brands, the announcement added. The company listed its following brands which would be represented at the new headquarters: • Club Car (golf and utility vehicles) • Ingersoll Rand Industrial Technologies (air compressor systems, tools, pumps, material handling) • Trane (air conditioning solutions, controls and services for residential, commercial and industrial application) • Thermo King (transport

In the context of the opening of the new premises, Johan Samuelsson, Vice President for Ingersoll Rand Climate Solutions (Europe, Middle East, India and Africa), said: “The new space is a great platform for the company, our employees and, most importantly, our customers. Whilst we’re very excited about the move, we kept the opening ceremony low-key, because we’ve occupied a series of premises in Dubai over the 30 years we’ve been based here. This is simply the next step in ensuring that our customers receive the support they deserve and our employees have a conducive working environment.”

The tower building housing the new Ingersoll Rand regional headquarters in the Business Bay area of Dubai in the U-Bora Tower. Ingersoll Rand offices are located on the 17th and the 18th floors of the tower building.

ASHRAE UPDATE , Yo u r t r u s t e d pa r t n e r f o r Yo u r engineering, energY and environment solutions

ASHRAE Qatar Oryx Chapter announces seminar

Will focus on green energy and smart HVAC solutions

A

SHRAE Qatar Oryx Chapter has announced that it will conduct a day-long seminar in association with Jumbo Electronics, Qatar, and LG, on September 15. The seminar, on “Green Energy & Smart HVAC Solution”, will be held at the College of North Atlantic, with Arun Pai, Assistant Manager, Air Conditioners for Middle East Operations, LG Electronics Gulf, Dubai, as the key speaker. According to the organisers, there are 120 seats available, which will be offered on a first-come-first-serve basis. The organisers stressed that attendees need to register before September 14, after which the registrations will be closed.

eng i ne e r i n g

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phone +971 4 445 7131, +971 4 447 4407 Fax +971 4 447 4410 p.o.Box 125787, Jumeirah Lakes towers tiffany tower, 30th Floor - Dubai, U.a.e. info@en3solutions.com www.en3solutions.com

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12

Engineering

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

Energy

Environment

Programme details: Date: Saturday, September 15 Time: 9am to 1pm (including lunch and coffee breaks) Venue: Gate 2, Building 1, Lecture Hall 1, The College of the North Atlantic, Qatar

Communication contacts: Ghassan Trabolsi Mobile:+97433855815 E-mail: gatrabolsi@gmail.com Kinan Fahs Mobile: +97466580391 E-mail: fahs_kinan@hotmail.com

Ticket Fee: Free for ASHRAE members and QR50 for non-members, to be paid at the registration desk


happenings at large

Chillventa to start on October 8 Chillventa Congressing is event highlight

T

he organisers of Chillventa 2012, the annual international trade fair held at the Nuremberg exhibition centre, which focuses on refrigeration, air conditioning, ventilation and heat pumps, have announced the changed opening days this year. The

event will now start on October 8, with the knowhow highlight – Chillventa Congressing. The exhibition then opens its doors on October 9 for three days – until October 11. The core theme of Chillventa is the thermodynamic refrigeration process and all the associated

GEA Bock F18 Compressor GEA Grasso MS compressor

applications, equipment and services, the announcement added. The organisers claimed that the event has seen an appreciable growth and a large international share, with more than 900 exhibitors from all over the world set to present their products at the fair and eminent speakers invited to deliver talks at the Chillventa Congressing. According to the organisers, Federal Minister Altmeier will take over the patronage of Chillventa 2012.

Omega presents Planet Ocean film in Rio

Was created to change people’s perception of oceans and their environmental implications

P

lanet Ocean, a movie directed by Yann Arthus-Bertrand and Michael Pitiot in partnership with Omega, was premiered at Earth Summit 2012 in Rio, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 20 to 22. Announcing this, Omega said that the 90-minute documentary, which also draws on the talents of some of the world’s leading aerial and underwater cinematographers, oceanographers and biologists, was created to change the way people look at the oceans and to encourage them to imagine conservation and stewardship as responsibilities shared by everyone on Earth. Arthus-Bertrand said of his partnership with Omega,

14

“When Omega presented me with the Planet Ocean project, I accepted almost immediately; it was time to look at things directly, to illustrate and to denounce the dangers threatening our oceans and, therefore, our planet.” He also revealed that the film would be made available free of charge to any interested NGO in order to ensure that it reaches the widest possible audience. According to the announcement, the film aims to explain some of the planet’s greatest natural mysteries in ways that make them understandable and accessible to everyone and also allows young people to imagine that a more sustainable world is not only desirable but also achievable.

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

David Hannan, underwater chief cameraman, Yann Arthus-Bertrand and His Serene Highness Prince Albert II at the movie premiere in Rio.

His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco was also reportedly in the audience at the premiere and commented: “Our contemporaries must become aware of the major perils that this century has inflicted on the oceans and on the biosphere, of which they are essential regulators. By drawing the attention of the public to the very often poorly known

threats that hang over the oceans, by showing the work carried out by scientists and by sharing unique emotions, this film turns the spotlight on the urgency of the action needed to protect the oceans and the planet.” Omega said that its partnership with the film was created in the spirit of its decades-long support of oceanic health and exploration.


GEA introduces raspberry freezing technique Claims that new IQF freezing tunnel reduces operation costs

S

aying that raspberry processors have long faced challenges in maintaining the delicate attributes of the berry during the preservation process, GEA Refrigeration Canada, formerly GEA Aerofreeze Systems, has

announced introducing a new A series (Aerofreeze) IQF tunnel for freezing raspberries without the need for liquid nitrogen or cryogenic precrusting. According to GEA, Enfield Farms, located in Lynden,

Washington State, USA, was the first customer to utilise the new tunnel design. GEA claimed that the tunnel delivers superior product quality with significantly reduced operation costs to fruit processors. “There is no other freezer currently available that can handle this type of product and deliver the required product quality,” said Robert Laflamme, president, GEA Refrigeration Canada. “We’ve been working over the past several years to develop a freezer that meets the unique

needs of this market.” Andy Enfield of Enfield Farms added: “We take pride in using the most progressive farming techniques and latest technology in processing to produce exceptional fruit. This new freezer is giving us greater control and a huge cost savings from our previous method of liquid nitrogen. This freezer has reduced our costs tremendously.”

Olympic Aquatics Centre uses eco-friendly cooling

Photo courtesy BaldBoris (wikimedia commons)

But other venues cling to systems harmful to the climate

Aerial view of the Olympic Park in London

W

hile all eyes were focused on the action in the pool, behind the scenes, the Olympic aquatic sports venue was also leading the

way in environmentally friendly cooling systems, London-based Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) revealed in a communiqué. Designed by Zaha Hadid,

the Aquatic Centre in London uses ammonia, one of a number of “natural” refrigerants that have either no or low global warming potential. This not only eliminates the need for HFCs, but also leads to greatly improved energy efficiency, EIA revealed. In addition to the Aquatics Centre, the Olympic Energy Centre also uses ammonia refrigerants, it added. Alasdair Cameron, Global Environment Campaigner with EIA, said: “It is fantastic to see the London Olympics waking up to the need to use environmentally friendly refrigerants as a means of reducing its carbon footprint, but this is just the start. The September 2012

next step will be to build on this experience so that future events, such as the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow can be completely HFC-free.” However, despite the positive signals being sent by the use of natural refrigerants in the Aquatics and Energy centres, other venues have failed to rise to the challenge, with the Olympic Stadium and media centres relying on HFC-based equipment, EIA pointed out. It highlighted that refrigeration and air conditioning are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, partly through the use of HFCs, which are often thousands of times more potent than carbon dioxide. Globally, HFCs account for about one per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions, and this could rise to nearly 20% by the middle of the century, unless urgent action is taken, EIA warned. www.climatecontrolme.com

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happenings at large

BACnet to hold forums in China and Singapore

Will throw light on emerging BACnet trends in Asia-Pacific region

B

ACnet International, an industry association that claims to facilitate the use of the BACnet protocol in building automation and control systems through interoperability testing, educational programmes and promotional activities, will hold the next two BACnet Forums on November 8, in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China, and on November 14 in Singapore. Announcing this, MarDirect said that the collaborative forums are being endorsed by BACnet

International and the BACnet Interest Group Europe (BIG-EU). The 4th BACnet Forum, which will take place in Chengdu, will be presented in partnership with the National Standardization Technical Committee for Intelligent Building and Residential Community Digitalization (SAC/TC426) and the BACnet Interest Group China/Asia (BIG-CA), and the BACnet Forum in Singapore will be presented by the BACnet Interest Group Asia-Australia (BIG-AA), the

announcement added. More information about the forums, they said, is available at: www. bacnetforum.org, and named Xiubo Li (china@mardirect.de) and Maria Estrada (estrada@mardirect.de) as the contact persons.

England releases National Heat Map Will help evolve strategy for more efficient, cleaner community heating

E

ngland’s Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) has released a heat map created by the UK organisation, The Centre for Sustainable Energy. Claiming that the heat map is significant because of its scale as it covers the entire country, DECC said that the creation of the National Heat Map is part of a government effort to come up with a comprehensive heat strategy. The heat strategy will identify how the country supplies and uses heat and create a policy framework to guide future reductions in the amount of energy that is used for heating buildings, DECC said. According to DECC, the National Heat Map was completed to support planning and deployment of local low-carbon energy projects in England by providing publicly accessible highresolution web-based maps of heat demand by area. DECC revealed that the UK uses more energy for heating than for transport or the generation of electricity. This year, the UK will spend around £33 billion on heat across the economy. In the light of this, the National Heat Map will help local governments and private investors identify places where new district heating networks can be constructed or existing networks expanded to reduce energy costs and increase fuel efficiency.

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Climate Control Middle East September 2012


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happenings at large

GEA Czech entities merge Operate under the umbrella of GEA Heat Exchangers

F

rom May 2012, the Czech companies, GEA LVZ, GEA Goedhart and GEA Klimatizaze, have started doing business under the name GEA Heat Exchangers, with headquarters in Liberec. Announcing this, the company explained that the move to merge the GEA product portfolio for refrigeration and air treatment in the Czech Republic was made to facilitate customers’ search for contact partners and to strengthen corporate competence. The products in the area of air treatment include, air handling units, fan coil units, air curtains, unit heaters, filter media, clean room components, and control systems, with the portfolio for refrigeration encompassing Goedhart air coolers

and condensers, the announcement added. “To combine our systems in the field of refrigeration and air handling technologies under one roof is an important step forward in our ongoing improvement management,” said Christoph Michel, Segment President of GEA Heat Exchangers. “This mutual country roof will create more efficient structures and processes, strengthen collaboration within the GEA Heat Exchangers Segment, and optimise our common customer care efforts.”

The contact persons in Sales will remain, with the result that existing customers can continue to get in touch with the liaisons with whom they are familiar, GEA said.

Sorubin tests new aerator Microluft found to be fully functional to treat unfiltered wastewater

S

orubin, a supplier of aeration products for water treatment, has announced that Microluft, its new version of bottommounted aerator, with newly designed wear plate and shredding slots, has successfully completed a three-month test-drive and has been found to be fully operational for unfiltered wastewater treatment. The hydraulics of Microluft were modified to make the aerator capable of handling impurities normally found in unfiltered wastewater, like fibre-clots, fabric pieces, hair and solid objects like hygiene products, Sorubin claimed, and added that a patent application has been filed for the new modified version of Microluft. 18

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

According to Sorubin, the tests were carried out at a wastewater treatment plant in Gravmark, northern Sweden. Sorubin explained that aeration is a legally required process in water treatment, during which, oxygen is

transferred into the water for purification and cleaning, and since Microluft is a bottom-mounted aerator, it entrains atmospheric air to the bottom of dams and ponds by creating a vortex in a pipe. The air reaches a specially designed impeller which disperses it as fine bubbles into the surrounding water. The company said that it expected the new product to have an impact on the pumping industry, as Microluft is potentially the first nonclogging wastewater pumping solution that does not require a support system to remain clog-free. “With our further developed Microluft, we can now provide energy effective aeration also in very difficult waters,” said Stefan Sandström, CEO of Sorubin. “In the summer, we are scheduled to start looking for a partner to bring Sorubin’s new, non-clogging technology to the wastewater pump industry.”


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happenings at large

UK retailers embrace climate-friendly refrigeration Chilling Facts IV reports that European counterparts ready for change, with many committing to HFC phase-outs

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he Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), a UK-based Non Governmental Organisation and charitable trust that investigates and campaigns against a wide range of environmental crimes, has announced the release of Chilling Facts IV, a report, which since its launch in 2008 has sought to encourage the retail sector to move away from refrigeration systems based on hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Labeling them as powerful global warming gases hundreds to thousands of times more potent than carbon dioxide

(CO2), the report points out that HFC emissions from commercial refrigeration in Europe equate to about 20 million tonnes of CO2 per year – that’s about one-third of Sweden’s annual greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, it reveals that climate-friendly supermarket refrigeration has gone mainstream, which signals a welcome trend. Supporting its claims, Chilling Facts IV report points out that from just 14 stores in the UK using climate-friendly refrigeration systems in 2008, 344 stores have now made the transition, with thousands of engineers

trained to service them – in the process debunking efficiency myths as retailers report significant reductions in energy use compared to conventional

Glasstec 2012 to hold Architectural Congress Will focus on sustainable and energy-efficient building design

T

he Architectural Congress, themed Appearances + Perspectives, will take place on October 24, as part of Glasstec 2012 – the international fair for the glass sector, being held from October 23 to 26 at the Düsseldorf Exhibition Center, Germany. Announcing this, the organisers said that the Architectural Congress marks the fourth time that architects, structural and air conditioning engineers as well as façade designers will get together, in what has become a fixed component in the

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supporting programme of the international trade fair. The Congress attracts a large number of architects and building designers, thanks to its comprehensive range of glass products for architectural purposes, the organisers claimed. The focus of the event, they said, is on issues concerning the design of buildings against the backdrop of the current sustainability and energy consumption discussion, as well as on consideration of the future value of aesthetics with regards to buildings. The Congress, sponsored

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

by the Chamber of Architects of North RhineWestphalia (AKNW), the Technical University of Delft and Ostwestfalen-Lippe University, is slated to have renowned presenters who will introduce their projects concerning creative use of glass in the building shell, the organisers added. Professor Ulrich Knaack, Technical University Delft/ Ostwestfalen-Lippe University, who will be the moderator during the Congress, said: “With a view to sustainable construction, glass is a very important material, and this applies

not only to the energy balance of a building. Technological progress opens up to architects and designers more and more opportunities for creative and aesthetic use of this material.” The Congress organisers revealed that the conference language is either German or English, with simultaneous interpretation being offered in the respective other language, and that tickets costing € 49 and are available online at www. glasstec.de, and include twoday admission to glasstec/ solarpeq 2012.


HFC systems. The report elaborates: Marks and Spencer, Sainsbury’s and Waitrose have been lauded for their rapid roll-out of climate-friendly refrigeration, with Waitrose now running a quarter of its estate on HFC-free systems. Discounters Aldi and Lidl have made good progress in rolling out HFC-free freezers, but have yet to do the same for chilled food. However, the report’s authors express concern over Tesco’s apparent slowdown. The retail giant set the standard in 2009 by announcing plans for 150

HFC-free stores by 2012, but has so far managed just 60, which the report says is particularly disappointing, given that Sainsbury’s has passed the 100 HFC-free stores mark. “As the biggest retailer in the UK, we’re concerned that Tesco is failing to meet its environmental commitments, especially as its competitors aren’t faltering in this way,” said EIA Senior Campaigner Fionnuala Walravens. “Tesco needs to speed up its roll-out of HFCfree refrigeration and make good on its promise to go HFC-free.” But, further afield, says the report, Tesco has made some progress in going HFC-free outside the UK, with 35HFCfree stores in Hungary. However, in an apparent U-turn on its 2009 strategy to go HFC-free in new stores across the UK and Central Europe, it has recently built 60 new stores in Poland which run on an HFC refrigerant blend with a high global warming potential.

According to EIA, this year, Chilling Facts has expanded its scope to include European retailers. The timing, it says, is significant, as the European Union is currently reviewing its policy on fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) and is considering phasing out HFCs, a move certain to change the face of the global commercial refrigeration. Chilling Facts IV finds that European retailers are ready for change, with many voluntarily committing to HFC phase-outs. In addition, feedback from continental Europe indicates UK retailers are falling behind the times with their negative approach to including doors on chilled food cabinets, the report adds. It highlights that what is needed now is legislation to level the playing field and encourage reluctant retailers to take responsibility for their climate impacts. EIA informs that Chilling Facts IV can be read and downloaded at http://ow.ly/ cqNUY.

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9/12/11 11:49:44 PM


marketplace

This section contains regional and international products information

JBT FoodTech

Frigoscandia FRIGoDRIVE M system and Frigoscandia FRIGoBELT NOVA

J

BT FoodTech, a supplier of integrated food processing solutions with modular design of its Frigoscandia GYRoCOMPACT chiller and freezer, has announced introducing what it claims to be the strongest ever self-stacking spiral. The combination of the new Frigoscandia FRIGoDRIVE M system and the new Frigoscandia FRIGoBELT NOVA take performance and reliability to the next level, says the manufacturer and adds that this will give higher capacity, more uptime and lower operating costs. The company lists other product features and advantages: n They are safe and efficient freezing solutions.

n Combined with a reliable refrigeration system, the highperformance Frigoscandia LVS FRIGoPAK will benefit the customer, both immediately and in the long-term. n JBT FoodTech’s database of over 15,000 application tests can provide detailed and reliable payback calculations developed over many years of experience in the freezing and cooling industry. n The company has local test equipment in all four continents. n It gives scheduled preventive inspections and maintenance of equipment, along with a range of other benefits like minimising unexpected and budget-shattering costs for reactive maintenance.

Lennox

Flexy EC rooftop units with new standards

S

aying that it wants to fulfill its commitment of creating energyefficient and environmentally friendly solutions and offer the same performances, whatever the capacity of its rooftop packaged units, Lennox has recently announced equipping its Flexy EC range with new standards. The manufacturer claims that Flexy EC now comes with an economiser and with the latest version of Lennox’s advanced controller (Climatic 60) to allow free-cooling or heating operation and intelligent fresh air management. The company lists the following product features and advantages: n It is available from 85 kW up to 230 kW as a cooling only or heat pump air-to-air or water-cooled unit and can be combined with auxiliary heater, such as gas. n When outside temperature is appropriate, there is no need to activate the thermodynamic circuit to maintain the required ambient temperature inside the building. n It comes with an analogue display for dirty filter that informs users when filters require maintenance. n Electronic expansion valves are now a standard feature on the Flexy EC to provide for more accurate regulation of the refrigeration circuit and to maintain high performance, whatever the outside temperature conditions or the load inside the building. n Direct reading of the refrigerant pressure and temperature is now possible on the Service Display, thanks to electronic pressure sensors. n It offers a new solution to recover energy: the previous air-to-air rotary heat exchanger has been upgraded to a much more efficient technology that increases the energy recovered from exhaust air leaving the building. n The e-Drive variable speed fan allows reducing the annual rooftop energy consumption by 30%.

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Climate Control Middle East September 2012

Neosys Evolution 800 kW air cooled chiller: R410A multi-scroll compressor

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aying Lennox, primarily known in Europe for its rooftop package units, unveiled its new 800 kW large scroll R410A chiller at “primo piano” during the MCE 2012 event. Revealing this, the company termed the chiller a “concept chiller”. According to Lennox, it intends to demonstrate its capabilities in the liquid chiller area and aims to strengthen its presence in retail and large commercial applications by offering best total cost of ownership solutions to its customers. The company lists other product features and advantages: n The 800 kW Neosys Evolution is a concept of a new high-efficiency air-cooled liquid chiller range fitted with very large R410A multi scroll compressors (New ZP 725 Copeland scroll compressors). n The unit includes eDrive EC fans and eDrive VSD water pump and electronic expansion valves that allow customers to save energy, especially in part-load operation. n The 60hp large scroll compressor is the right technology for commercial systems up to 1MW capacity, with large brazed plate heat exchanger and large micro channel aluminum coils.


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JORDAN Amman Sources For Engineering Supplies Co Ltd +96265525255 sources@sourcesjo.com KAZAKHSTAN Almaty TOO Zhana Tau Stroy +7727-262-8986 main.lca@gmail.com KUWAIT Ras Salmiya Gulf Facilities General Trading +96525757630 samjau@gft-kw.com

PAKISTAN Karachi Khan Brothers +922134526002 / 3 / 4 / 5 amankhan@khanbrothers.net

TURKEY Istanbul ATC Air Trade Centre Ltd Sti +902122834510 atc.turkey@airtradecentre.com

QATAR Doha Gulf Facilities Trading Co WLL +97444501152 milad_gft@hotmail.com

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Abu Dhabi Faisal Jassim Trading Company LLC +97126219772 m.abulwafa@fjtco.com

SAUDI ARABIA Al Khobar Al Saadeh Trading Establishment +96638674958 alsaadeh@alsaadeh.com

LEBANON Beirut Air Distribution Center S A R L +9611353823 sales@adclb.com

SAUDI ARABIA Jeddah Al Saadeh Trading Establishment +96626620886 alsaadeh@alsaadeh.com

OMAN Muscat Khimji Ramdas - A/C Division +96824852760 s.vishnu@kr.om

SAUDI ARABIA Riyadh Al Saadeh Trading Establishment +96614780643 alsaadeh@alsaadeh.com

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Dubai Western Technological Equipments +97142994124 wtech@emirates.net.ae YEMEN Sana’a Al-Rashed Trading Centre +9671680770 rashed7@y.net.ye


D-Code

A Climate Control Middle East campaign on demystifying the world of ducting

The seal of

efficiency Since duct-leakage issues have a direct bearing on the comfort level of occupants, the problems need to be addressed promptly, says Billy Prewitt. Occupant comfort in

a commercial facility plays a critical role in productivity, because productivity goes down if the occupants are not comfortable. Therefore, the onus lies on facility managers to identify the root cause of thermal comfort issues and ensure that repairs are carried out effectively. Leakage in the ducts affects the HVAC system and, in turn, affects occupant comfort and, therefore, must be addressed immediately. However, the general tendency is to speed up fans, change motors and carry out other similar inconsequential changes to the system when occupants complain of discomfort. These changes are not only ineffective but also costly, as they demand labour and equipment upgrades as well as additional energy. Another factor to be considered is that if leakage issues are not immediately and effectively addressed, occupants might take matters into their own hands and press into service fans or heaters or hijack thermostats. In the light of this, validation of recommended repairs is especially relevant to thermal comfort issues in a building. Identifying the real problem is the first step towards having a truly

24

efficient comfort system. Testing the HVAC ductwork in both new construction and existing structures can be completed in various ways. One suggested method would be to use a duct leakage tester. This device positively pressurises the ductwork and, then, measures the amount of leakage at the specific pressure. Another option to test for leakage would be to use a smoke machine. This

The general tendency is to speed up fans, change motors and carry out other similar inconsequential changes to the system when occupants complain of discomfort visual confirmation allows leakage to be pinpointed and patched. Some use a soapy solution on areas that are potentially susceptible to leaks. It needs to be noted that duct leakage is a given, and testing will expedite the proper system repair. Justifying the expense for repairing a leaking duct system is made easier by using standard airflow calculations. There is an online program available which allows users to

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

calculate the energy savings from a one- to 20-year period. The calculations involve multiple inputs, such as building square footage, local utility rates, and leakage before and after sealing. This program allows a facility manager to see the benefits of tightening up the ductwork without extensive mechanical system and airflow. The climate and location of buildings play a big role in the discernible cost and energy savings. The more diverse the temperature changes, the greater the potential cost savings will be. Many of the comfort issues of occupants can be solved if the root problem of duct leakage is addressed. Testing

the ductwork for leakage is the first step in solving this overwhelming system challenge. Once the leakage is detected and evaluated, sealing the ducts and re-balancing the system can be done, which will lead to increased occupant comfort and energy savings. Taking into consideration the vital role played by ducts, it is important to address complaints promptly and test the ductwork for leakage and completely seal the system. Testing and sealing the ducts in a building will lead to a truly efficient HVAC system. The writer is Marketing Manager, Carlisle HVAC. He can be contacted at Billy.Prewitt@ CarlisleHVAC.com


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perspective ecological footprint

Let’s watch our

footprints..

The Ecological Footprint Initiative was launched in 2007 through a partnership between the Ministry of Environment and Water, Environment Agency, Abu Dhabi, EWS-WWF and the Global Footprint Network, transforming the UAE from a country with one of the highest per capita Ecological Footprints in the world to one with some of the most advanced Ecological Footprint science. Here is a summary of the report on the initiative. From 2007 to 2011, the Ecological Footprint Initiative succeeded in verifying the UAE footprint, identifying the breakdown of the footprint by sector and developed a scientific scenario-modelling tool for decision makers that assesses the impact of

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Climate Control Middle East September 2012

different policies to reduce the country’s footprint by 2030. In 2012, the partnership welcomed the Emirates Authority for Standardisation and Metrology. The Ecological Footprint Initiative is now continuing to verify the

UAE’s footprint, developing an energy efficiency standard for domestic lighting and conducting a socio-economic analysis to prioritise policies that will help manage both the demand and supply of energy and desalinated water.


The Ecological Footprint

The Ecological Footprint tracks humanity’s demands on the biosphere by comparing humanity’s consumption against the Earth’s regenerative capacity, or biocapacity. It does this by calculating the area required to produce the resources people consume, the area occupied by infrastructure, and the area of forest required for sequestering CO2 not absorbed by the ocean. The report highlights that it takes 1.5 years for the Earth to regenerate the renewable resources that people use, and absorb to CO2 waste they produce, in that same year. The average global per capita footprint is about 2.7 global hectares; Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE have some of the highest per capita Ecological Footprints at 11.68, 9.72, and 8.44, followed by Denmark at 8.25 and the USA at 7.19.

The summary – a journey towards a lower footprint

The United Arab Emirates is a rapidly developing country which has experienced a long period of extraordinary economic growth, resulting in an increasing rate of consumption of natural resources. As a hot and dry country, the UAE requires energy for cooling and for desalination of domestic water supplies. Combined with this is the inefficient consumption of natural resources. These factors have resulted in a high per capita Ecological Footprint (Footprint) for the UAE, which is currently the third highest in the world at 8.4 global hectares (gha)

per person. About 80% of this footprint is due to the consumption of carbonintensive goods and services and, in particular, energy. In 2007, the UAE launched the Ecological Footprint Initiative to address its high per capita Footprint, and in doing so, became the third country in the world after Japan and Switzerland to embark on in-depth research to understand and manage its Footprint. The initiative was set up through a unique public, private and civil society partnership between the Ministry of Environment and Water; the Environment Agency, Abu Dhabi; Emirates Wildlife Society in association with WWF (EWS-WWF); and the Global Footprint Network, and more recently with the Emirates Authority for Standardisation and

Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE have some of the highest per capita Ecological Footprint at 11.68, 9.72, and 8.44, followed by Denmark at 8.25 and the USA at 7.19 Metrology. By working to understand the UAE’s natural resource consumption patterns, the partners have helped catalyse change in both societal awareness and policy development: in its

first two years, the initiative verified the UAE’s Ecological Footprint data and identified the contribution of different sectors to the country’s footprint. It discovered that households in the UAE are responsible for 57% of the country’s consumption, followed by business and industry contributing 30% and the government sector contributing 12%. As a result, the need to empower

society to play an active role in reducing the country’s Ecological Footprint was highlighted. To help address this issue among the UAE community, EWS-WWF launched its Heroes of the UAE awareness campaign in partnership with the Environment Agency, Abu Dhabi. In 2010, the initiative outlined how a set of different policies are

Global and regional urgency to tackle climate change The partnership of the Ecological Footprint Initiative confirms its ongoing commitment towards reducing the UAE’s Ecological Footprint, and highlights the need to continue establishing science-based policies, in light of international launch of the Living Planet Report 2012. With desert ecosystems, hot and dry climates, increased and wasteful consumption of natural resources and having experienced periods of rapid growth, Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE feature prominently in the report with high per capita Ecological Footprints. More than 70% of these countries footprints are attributed to the consumption of carbon intensive goods and services (such as energy), which echoes a global pattern where carbon is the main contributor to the world’s Ecological Footprint, at 54%. This highlights the need for more urgent action to reduce carbon emissions, which cause climate change, and adapt to its inevitable impacts. The report highlights the fact that the GCC region is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change with potential implications, such as

September 2012

increasing temperatures, sea level rise threatening coastal developments and tourism, threatened food production and water resources, adverse impacts on human health and negative impacts on biodiversity, such as the bleaching of coral reefs in the region. This would be likely to affect the country’s development, economy and human health. Supporting the need for more action to address climate change and our over consumption of natural resources, HE Dr Rashid Bin Fahad, Chairman of the Ecological Footprint Initiative and Minister of the Environment and Water, said: “As part of the global community, the UAE is developing and adopting international best practices to promote clean energy and efficient use of resources. This is evidenced by the steps taken to include the environment as a core pillar in its development visions, such as the UAE Vision 2021 and the UAE’s Green Economy Initiative.” HE Bin Fahad stressed that no sector alone can solve these issues and so there is a need to continue working collaboratively and constructively to realise a

www.climatecontrolme.com

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perspective ecological footprint more sustainable path for the UAE and the world. Encouraging the region to move forward with effective and urgent action to mitigate its Footprint and adapt to the impacts of climate change, Ida Tillich, Acting Director General of EWS-WWF, the secretariat of the Ecological Footprint Initiative said: “With the region’s unique circumstances, the GCC countries have a great opportunity to play a pivotal role demonstrating how countries can contribute to a low carbon future through adopting renewable energy options and managing demand of natural resources. The

UAE, in particular, has started taking strides in this regard. One example is the Ecological Footprint Initiative, which is now developing an energy efficiency standard for domestic lighting for the country while conducting socio-economic analysis to prioritise policies to help manage both the demand and supply of energy and desalinated water. Our natural environment is the integral foundation for our heritage, and we are eager to continue working in partnership with all sectors of society to develop more sustainably within the limits of our one planet.”

The Living Planet Report Published by WWF every two years, the Living Planet Report measures the state and health of our ecosystems and the extent of human demands on these ecosystems. Using the Ecological Footprint Indicator, this year’s Living Planet Report highlights that humanity’s consumption of natural resources such as energy, food, fibre and timber is 1.5 times more than the Earth can regenerate. The report is intended to be the monitoring instrument for measuring and assessing the state of global biodiversity (through the Living Planet Index) and human demands on nature (through the Ecological Footprint). The Living Planet Report 2012 uses data dated from 2008 Living Planet Index: The Living Planet Index reflects changes in the state of the planet’s biodiversity, using trends in population size for vertebrate species from

28

different biomes and regions to calculate average changes in abundance over time. It includes data from more than 9,000 different wildlife monitoring schemes collected in a wide variety of ways – ranging from counting the number of individual animals, to camera trapping, to surveys of nesting sites and animal traces. The Living Planet Report 2012 highlights a global average decline of about 28% in vertebrate populations between 1970 and 2008. The report acts as a health check on our planet and estimates that by 2030 we will need the equivalent of two planets to meet our annual demands of energy and resources. We can create a prosperous future that provides food, water and energy for the nine billion people who will be sharing the planet in 2050. But changes must be made to reduce our carbon footprint and consuming better, wiser and less.

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

needed to help address consumption issues related to energy and water. By focusing on the supply and demand of energy and water, the analysis showed that by the year 2030, measures such as more ambitious renewable energy targets, stronger building codes and energy efficiency standards for appliances, could help reduce CO2 emissions for the emirate of Abu Dhabi by up to 40% and the UAE’s per capita Footprint by 1 gha/person. This scenario modelling demonstrated the clear need for any footprint mitigation strategy to include a portfolio of policy measures as the cumulative impact is much greater than individual policies. By strengthening and continuing such sciencebased analysis, the initiative can help decision makers implement policies and strategies to mitigate the impacts of rapid development. The second phase of the initiative began in 2012 and follows a three track process: Track 1 focuses on the development of a policy demonstration cycle for a low-hanging fruit

policy option, specifically research to inform the development of a UAE lighting standard for the household sector. Track 2 focuses on conducting a socio-economic assessment of policies outlined in the first phase of the initiative. Track 3 will look into verifying the UAE’s Footprint and communicating the results to policy makers. The experiences and vital knowledge gained from the Ecological Footprint Initiative have benefited the country by creating opportunities for UAE government leaders and residents to move towards increasingly sustainable development. Initiatives that actively encourage sustainable development, and most importantly, facilitate collaboration between the public, private and civil society sectors, bringing everyone’s efforts together, are essential to catalyse the change needed for the UAE, the region and the world to make the transition towards a sustainable future within our one planet limit. 


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perspective BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

BMS – need for long-term thinking

Michael Scriven believes that not factoring in energy-efficient control features in a project is a myopic way of looking at cost cutting, and reiterates the importance of building maintenance systems.

A

t a recent energy conference that looked into ways of reducing carbon emissions from non-domestic buildings, based on a number of real-life case studies, one of the main findings was that good building control systems

Control systems tend not to include energy efficiency features, where the choice of controls is led by a performance specification or a design-andbuild contractor 30

are a key driver to achieving low carbon buildings in operation. I, of course, agree wholeheartedly with the conclusion, as it is something that I have been saying for many years. However, the current market in the UAE

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

poses a number of challenges for providers of controls and users. Challenges start at the contractual stage. In the UAE, customers need to be encouraged and educated to think about their building controls from day one.

Control systems tend not to include energy-efficiency features, where the choice of controls is led by a performance specification or a design-and-build contractor. Many developers do away with BMS systems, as they consider it a capital cost


saving – a truly criminal act on the environment. Building owners and operators need to understand that in order to have in place a BMS system that ensures energyefficient (and low-carbon) building operation, they have to make the objective clear from the start and not accept other unsatisfactory alternatives. Long-term thinking is required in order to ensure that energy-efficient controls features are not value engineered out of the project. While the industry can do its best to educate people in general, only those paying the bills can really make this happen. Another important point to bear in mind is that BMS systems are regarded as a must-have in most of today’s commercial buildings. This means that controls are ubiquitous, but because they are everywhere, no one really sees them. People expect to have them in a building,

but selling the idea that training and specialised maintenance have a value to business managers, who may not always see the point of it. However, the industry has clearly shown that where controls were considered successful by customers, there was always an individual who understood controls and was motivated to use them. Finding this person and, perhaps, others who can also be trained in using the system, along with routine maintenance by specialist contractors are the keys to the successful use of controls for low-energy building operation in the long term. 

The writer is Business Development Manager, Optima International. He can be contacted at: michael@optimain.ae.

There seems to be little interest in anyone wanting to take ownership to ensure that controls deliver low-carbon outcomes yet there seems to be little interest in anyone wanting to take ownership to ensure that controls deliver low-carbon outcomes. This might seem like an insignificant point, but it highlights an important issue in training and handover and routine maintenance by skilled professionals. Even if the control system in a new building is explained extensively to the facilities manager at handover, staff changes and lack of ongoing maintenance of the control systems imply that this knowledge can easily slip out of a business. The challenge is not the training itself,

September 2012

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perspective MOTORS SUSTAINABLE AIRFLOW MANAGEMENT

Stemming the leak Chatsworth Products, a California-based manufacturer providing voice, data and security products, as well as service solutions that store and secure technology equipment, has come up with a white paper as part of its ongoing development of sustainable airflow management solutions. It endeavours to define efficient cooling solutions for data centres by asking, “How much containment is enough?” We bring a bird’s eye view.

T

he primary aim of the white paper titled “How much containment is enough?” Chatsworth Products (CPI) claims, is to help data centre managers and facilities directors personalise their airflow containment needs, options and returns on investment (ROI). Its avowed goal is to also provide tactics that can help data centres manage the rising cooling costs associated with dense servers and networking equipment, and prepare for sustainability efforts like the impending California Title24-2013 Energy Code or best practices, as defined by the European Data Centre Code of Conduct. In defining the strategies, this white paper explains the following: • How minimal leakage and inlet temperature variations will maximise access to free cooling hours, efficiency of the chiller system and return

32

air temperatures • Comparison strategies for fire suppression, work environment temperatures, retrofits, raised floors, thermal ride through and more • Quick ROI on containment through high cooling unit efficiencies and increased partial economisation hours • Containment solutions for equipment with suboptimised airflow paths, such as side-to-side, front-

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

to-side, side-to-rear, sideto-front and rear-to-front Answering the question, “How much containment is enough?” CPI Global Technology Manager, Ian Seaton explains that an optimum degree of airflow containment cannot be reached through a onesize-fits-all solution. The true measurement of any containment solution is dependent upon using a Hot Aisle, Cold Aisle or Cabinet Containment strategy that has been optimised for

airflow, static pressure, leakage, bypass air and temperature variance. Seaton further defines the argument by presenting real-world case studies of data centres that benefited from lowered costs and reduced energy usage through improved aisle containment strategies. According to CPI, “How Much Containment is Enough?” is available for download at www. chatsworthproducts.co.uk/ how-much-containment-isenough-white-paper. 


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perspective MOTORS TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP

Ponder before you purchase The initial investment represents only a fraction of the true cost of ownership of an air conditioning system, says Florian Beduchaud, and demonstrates that the total cost of ownership is an essential consideration and knowing it helps make the correct purchasing decision.

W

hile investing in an air conditioning system, the arguments typically made are: • The price is the most important factor • Energy savings is not relevant to me • If I pay more, what will the payback time be? I shall endeavour to counter the arguments.

How to make the correct investment decision When deciding to purchase an air conditioning system, the total cost of ownership (TCO: also known as life cycle cost, overall cost of ownership or even overall cost) is an essential consideration in taking the correct investment decision. The initial purchase cost of a piece of equipment is only part of the true cost of ownership of an air conditioning system. Everything does not necessarily have to boil down

34

Air conditioning systems that have very good energy performance are often more expensive to build than others but, in terms of overall cost, they are, in theory, far more economical to the argument that the price is the most important factor. But if someone is ready to accept an on-cost for a machine that performs better, our customers have every legitimate right to ask themselves: “If I pay more, what will the payback time be?” The TCO thus makes it possible to balance

Climate Control Middle East September 2012


investment choices by looking at the savings they could then generate over the life of the air conditioning system. Air conditioning systems that have very good energy performance are often more expensive to build than others, but in terms of overall cost, they are, in theory, far more economical. That, of course, has to be demonstrated. But we will revisit the issue later.

What does Total Cost of Ownership mean?

The Total Cost of Ownership is the cumulative cost of a product throughout the length of its life cycle – from its design to its dismantling. It takes account of all costs, including the

costs of installation, operating costs, compliance with standards, maintenance costs and the cost of recycling at the end of its life. The initial investment or outlay represents only a fraction of the true cost of ownership of an air conditioning system. A comparison of total cost between different cooler technologies can be cited as an example. The analysis and evaluation of this cost are managerial tools that help in the decisionmaking process in order to inform design choices, and enlighten purchasers in their selection of a product. The Total Cost of Ownership can be represented by the following formula: TCO = Cacq + Cins + Cene

Figure 1: The Total Cost of Ownership at a glance

September 2012

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perspective TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP

To give an analogy, an iced water production unit may be 15% less expensive than its competitor. But because of its lower energy efficiency, ultimately, it represents a far higher cost to the end-user. Conversely, it might be thought that with the cost of energy ultimately representing the greatest share of the expenditure, the

To sum up ... Why Total Cost of Ownership?

Figure 2: Average breakdown of costs after 15 years for a liquid cooler

Photos courtesy of Lennox

+ Clab + Crep + Cpro + Cenv + Crecy • TCO = Total Cost of Ownership • Cacq = Cost of acquiring the equipment (initial investment or outlay) • Cins = Installation and start-up costs • Cene = Cost of energy • Clab = Operating cost (labour) • Crep = Maintenance and repair costs • Cpro = Cost of production down-time • Cenv = Costs associated with the environment • Crecy = Costs of decommissioning and dismantling

Figure 4: Comparison between total costs in comfort application (Source: Lennox -TCO™ calculation tool)

best overall cost is obtained with machines that are highly efficient. That is true if, and only if, the additional purchase cost is reasonable and if the investor is prepared to factor in the payback time. Thus, when making the decision to purchase an air conditioning system, it is important to compare the

investment alternatives while keeping in mind the true costs throughout the life cycle, as shown in Figure 2. Let us consider the example of a tertiary building requiring 500 kW of cooling. The customer may hesitate between solution A “R410A multi-scroll cooler” which is a solution with a high

WORLD LEADING VALVES

• TCO is essential for making a fair comparison between various proposals. • TCO provides all the information necessary for economically justifying an investment. • TCO is the basis for calculating the payback time.

energy efficiency ratio (ESEER 4.1) and solution B 'Centrifugal cooler with magnetic bearings of the Turbocor', which enjoys a very high energy efficiency ratio (ESEER 5.1) with air condensation.  The writer is Head of chiller products at Lennox and can be reached at florian.beduchaud@ lennoxeurope.com

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Climate Control Middle East September 2012

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perspective MOTORS SOUND-BITE: NOISE LEVELS IN DISTRICT COOLING PLANTS

Sound sense While comfort and safety of operators may be achieved by ensuring that they use appropriate ear protection devices, good design and the right equipment selection can go a long way in reducing noise levels within a plant room and beyond, says Albert Haykal.

T

he issue of sound or noise from large chiller plants or district cooling facilities is a vast and complex subject. Broadly speaking, it should essentially take into account three distinct “audiences” or areas – operators in the plant room, occupants elsewhere in the building and people in the surrounding area. While suggestions, tests and measurements on sound levels from equipment manufacturers is the appropriate place to start the discussion on the topic, it is important to note that this may not be sufficient and needs to be augmented by a third-party acoustics specialist. Typically, large-scale district cooling plants will use water-cooled chillers, which are located inside a plant room. ARI Standard 5751994 (Method of Measuring Machinery Sound within an Equipment Space) provides

38

the relevant guidelines for the requisite measurement, evaluation and compilation of sound data for such installations. For external, aircooled installations, reference to ARI 370 is applicable. However, it is important to note that due to varying mechanical room conditions, sound pressure measurements of chillers at the jobsite will vary from measurements taken in the laboratory or a test facility. The usual rating is an average “A” weighted sound (pressure) level at a metre’s distance from the equipment. “A” weighted sound pressure levels simulate what the human ear perceives. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) uses this criterion as its measurement standard. But there are many other measures, values and factors that attempt to define sound – in fact, far too many to cover within the scope of this article.

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

It is important to note that due to varying mechanical room conditions, sound pressure measurements of chillers at the jobsite will vary from measurements taken in the laboratory or a test facility

While the comfort and safety of operators may be achieved by ensuring that they use appropriate ear protection devices, good design and careful equipment selection can make a considerable difference to sound levels within a plant room and beyond. Speed is the key. High rpm equipment will usually generate more noise. Pumps and chillers are the two key culprits. However, by selecting lowspeed direct-drive centrifugal chillers (3,000 rpm) rather than high-speed gear-driven units (typically 8000 rpm) it is possible to dramatically


C

reduce sound levels at source. A similar approach can be taken with the pumps. Sound pressure levels for chillers vary with the head (saturated condensing temperature – evaporator suction temperature), tonnage, and the size of the areas radiating sound. The highest sound levels for a given centrifugal chiller is typically experienced at partload conditions with a high entering condenser water temperature. This is because higher entering condenser water at part load increases the compressor pressure ratio, resulting in higher head and higher sound levels. Another good reason to install an effective chiller plant manager that will ensure the minimum number of chillers is operating each at close to full load. Having taken steps to prevent excessive sound by selecting low-speed, lownoise equipment, a few other measures may also be considered:

M

Y

CM

MY

CY CMY

K

be transmitted to the building through the floor.

Flexible transition

Vibration can also be transmitted through piping. Engineers, therefore, frequently use a flexible transition in the piping to dampen vibration.

Location

Location also plays an important role generation. Large plant rooms located high in a building are likely to be very challenging to attenuate; those located lower, for example, in a basement are much easier to handle.

Mass-damping

In extremely sensitive areas, it may be appropriate to consider installing chillers and pumps on isolated floors and use mass-damping techniques. Externally, cooling towers need to be added to the equation alongside chillers and pumps. Again, selecting low-speed fans and pumps and ensuring the most remote location will all work to provide occupants not only with great cooling but also some peace and quiet. 

Acoustic blanket

One approach is the installation of an acoustic blanket to attenuate sound levels. However, it should be noted that such methods usually only marginally reduce sound power levels and are expensive.

Neoprene shear pads

The installation of appropriate Neoprene shear pads or spring isolators can reduce low-frequency vibration (rumble) that may

The writer is Centrifugal Chiller Leader, Trane Middle East and Africa, and is a recognised expert in centrifugal chillers and district cooling applications. He can be contacted at albert_haykal@trane.com

Probedruck

September 2012

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39


perspective Heat insulation

THE BURDEN OF THE WEIGHT Tighter regulations on heat insulation and constantly increasing energy prices are driving forward the trend towards triple glazing in architecture. The use of thin glass offers an opportunity to counter the associated increased weight of glass.

G

lass is an ideal material for application in building shells. The transparent material can be used in a variety of applications and – irrespective of the type of finishing – fulfills individual functions. Modern insulation glass offers reliable heat insulation and solar protection, prevents high noise pollution and also, if required, corresponds to the highest safety levels. In addition, individual design highlights can also be achieved through the use of glass. The elementary functions of glass products in the building shell also include heat insulation. In view of the increasingly tighter legal requirements placed on architectural heat insulation and the rising energy prices in recent decades, the glass industry has been continually further developing its products and has achieved considerable improvements in efficiency.

STRINGENT REQUIREMENTS Despite the versatility of glass, the limits of physics

40

According to the European Union Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), which came into force in 2010, as early as January 2021, only “nearly zero-energybuildings” are to be erected in the private construction sector cannot, however, be overcome even with the use of perfected glass formats and highly functional coatings. In the case of double (insulation) glazing, which has been used over decades, the limit has already been reached with a heat transfer co-efficient (Ug-value) of 1.0 W/m2K. To satisfy the current heat insulation requirements by law, this value is absolutely

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

The trend towards triple insulation glazing and ever larger units is leading to high glass weights and placing greater requirements on the installation team. Photo: Messe Düsseldorf

At glasstec 2010, with their 18 x 3.3 metre triple insulation glass pane (10/18/10/18/10), insulation glass manufacturer, Henze Glas showed which glass dimensions can now be realized. Photo: Messe Düsseldorf


The triple structure of insulation glazing is set to become a successive standard

sufficient, but not for future requirements. According to the European Union Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), which came into force in 2010, as early as January 2021, only “nearly zero-energy-buildings” are to be erected in the private construction sector – in other words, buildings which require almost no external

energy supply. For new buildings, which are used by the authorities as the owners on an owner-occupier basis, this requirement will apply two years earlier. As poorly insulated existing buildings account for a large part of high building energy consumption, here too, the minimum requirements for heat insulation applying to new buildings have to be satisfied for larger restoration projects and new extensions.

TRIPLE INSULATION GLAZING REFLECT MARKET TRENDS In order to fulfill the expected high requirements placed on energy efficiency in buildings, insulation glazing will also have to achieve even

better results in future. The glass industry is, therefore, increasingly relying on triple insulation glazing. With U values of up to 0.5 W/m2K, in the past this functional glazing was previously mostly fitted in passive housing. In the last five years, sales of high-insulation glazing have, however, risen dramatically, because when it comes to glazing, an increasing number of building owners are relying on high-energy efficiency – even if their buildings have not reached the level of passive housing. According to the German Flat Glass Manufacturers’ Association (Bundesverband Flachglas), in the period from 2008 to 2011 alone,

the share accounted for by triple insulation glazing of total glazing sales in Germany rose by around 10% to over 50%. For the current year, the association already expects a share of around 60%. And the upward trend will continue further. “We are convinced that the market share will grow to over 90%. This trend is being accelerated by the forthcoming Energy Savings Ordinance (Energieeinsparverordnung EnEV), which will probably prescribe the use of triple insulation glazing,” explains Jochen Grönegräs, Executive Director of the German Flat Glass Manufacturers’ Association, and Managing

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perspective Heat insulation

In parallel with the increase in energy efficiency, in the residential as well as commercial construction sector, the trend towards ever larger glass units is continuing

Director of the Multi-Pane Insulating Glass Quality Association (Gütegemeinschaft Mehrscheiben-Isolierglas). Triple glazing in the

Scandinavian countries of Sweden and Finland, along with Austria and Switzerland, have a very high market share, and one can see similar trend perspectives as those in Germany. In view of the current trend, the specialist world is in agreement – at least in central and northern Europe, the triple structure of insulation glazing is set to become a successive standard. In parallel with the increase in energy efficiency, in the residential as well as commercial construction sector, the trend towards ever larger glass units is continuing. Architects and building owners want to have an open room

glasstec 2012 The solutions the glass sector is seeking to use in mastering the challenges of the future in the high insulation multi-pane insulation glass segment will be presented at glasstec 2012 – the world fair for the glass sector – which will be held from 23 to 26 October in Düsseldorf, Germany. In addition to the broad range of construction glass, the international trade fair will also provide a comprehensive overview of the latest production and finishing technologies along with the entire spectrum of glass applications.

Thin glass in photovoltaics Pre-stressed thin glass is already being used even in the solar energy sector to reduce the weight of glass modules. According to the manufacturers, the life cycle of these modules is clearly higher than those modules based on film laminates. In addition, due to the higher mechanical rigidness, we can forego the enclosing aluminium frame. As a result, the thin glass modules are also suitable for the increasingly significant buildingintegrated installation of photovoltaic elements. ambience for their buildings with the maximum amount of daylight incidence and highest degree of external views. In winter the glazing should also ensure solar energy generation.

HIGHER GLASS PANE WEIGHT

The two current trends basically present no problem for the insulation glazing manufacturers. The know-how and technology involved in the manufacture of corresponding products are available.

42

Climate Control Middle East September 2012


One way to reduce the surface weight of triple insulation glass is to reduce the glass thickness. Graphics: ift Rosenheim

The weight can also be reduced by the use of synthetic film in the inter-pane space. Graphics: ift Rosenheim

The problematic nature of climatic burdens (suction and pressure effect on glass panes and the edge seal), which is increasingly a feature of triple insulation glazing due to the larger inter-pane volume, can be overcome. What is problematic, however, is the increasing weight of the glass panes. By comparison, a glass pane measuring one square metre, designed as double insulation glazing with 2 x 4 mm and 16 mm inter-pane gap, weighs 20 kilogrammes. The same format as triple insulation glazing in the 4/12/4/12/4 format already weighs 30 kilogrammes. The increase in weight by 50% has far-reaching consequences. The insulation glazing manufacturers must, therefore, gear their in-house processes to the heavy glass panes. While transportation becomes

more expensive because the maximum loading capacity for trucks is already reached with fewer units and the fittings, manufacturers have to deliver extremely durable solutions. In the window sector, this presents a special challenge, because in this area, the aim is to develop high-load bearing fittings which can reliably hold the heavy elements in place for over decades, whilst at the same time, conveying a filigree impression. Even at this stage, fittings systems are already reaching their limits in this balancing act between the requirements. On top of this, the frame profiles for façades and windows also have to be adjusted to take the high weights. The installation and

The development of light, highinsulation vacuum glass, which has been on-going for years now, has still not really moved forward sufficiently for it to be used in classic window and facade construction

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43


perspective Heat insulation

Photo courtesy of http://www.riverdalenetzero.ca

fitting teams are particularly affected by the increased weight of the construction elements. For them the trend towards triple insulation glazing means a considerably increased burden. “The weight is enormous, particularly in old buildings where no technical aids can be used; the burden is striking, and personnel are clearly called upon much more than before,” reports Martin Gutmann, Master of the Federal Glazers’ Guild, who goes on to say, “If you are unlucky, you also have to do with triple sound-proof or burglary-proof glazing. Then the weight of the glass panes is even higher.” The situation is also made more difficult by the increased weight of the thermally optimised frame profiles.

THIN GLASS AS A SOLUTION CONCEPT

In view of this problem area, the glass industry, insulation glazing manufacturers and research institutes are working intensively on solutions. Their aim is to reduce glass pane weight without cutting down on its energetic functionality. The development of light, high-insulation vacuum glass, which has been ongoing for years now, has still not really moved forward sufficiently for it to be used in classic window and façade construction. However, use of the very thin glass panes is already practical in flat roof-top windows in standard sizes. A further possible solution is light, transparent synthetic film and plates, which are aimed at replacing the central pane in insulation glazing. Whether this technology will assert

44

Quadruple-glazed windows

itself on a broad front or not depends on the practicality and durability of the products as well as on their acceptance by the end-customers. The application of thin glass appears to be the most potentially successful. As early as 2004, architect Prof Stefan Behling, who for some years now, has been presenting the latest trends and developments from the glass industry in the “Glass technology live” special show as part of the leading international glass trade fair glasstec, declared: “In the flat-screen sector, thin glass is becoming part of a revolution. At some stage perhaps whole walls, ceilings and floors will be able to change.” In the area of

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

entertainment and communication electronics, his forecast relating to modern smartphones and also products, such as Apple's iPad, which are almost exclusively operated using thin glass touch-screens, has long since become reality. In addition, the current development tendencies on the insulation glass market confirm that Stefan Behling is right with his expectation for the architecture sector. Today, windows incorporating triple insulation glazing are already available on the market, and are no longer produced using triple 4 mm, but triple 3 mm-thick heat-treated glass panes. This means a weight reduction of one quarter. And even thinner glass is possible.

The aim of the project is to investigate which measures can be used to reduce the surface weight of multi-pane (insulation) glass and the effects resulting from this


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perspective Heat insulation objection can be summed up as follows: Although the glass is lighter through the reduced thickness of the individual planes, at the same time, edge breakage risk has increased. The supporters of thin glass in contrast, point to the higher durability of the thermally hardened glass. An alternative to synthetic film is the positioning of plastic plates in the inter-pane space.

A further way to reduce weight lies in the use of plastic plates in the interpane space in combination with integrated, laminated plastics in the inner and outer pane of the insulation glazing.

The overview shows the varying surface weights of differently structured triple insulation glass.

In the insulation glass sector, industry tests are already under way using hardened glass in the 3/2/3 mm format. Machine manufacturer Lisec recently received the 2012 Austrian State Prize in the “Research and Innovation” category in recognition of its special pre-stress technology. It enables the manufacture of

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flexible and robust glass in a thickness of only 2 mm without optical distortions. According to the company, the light thin glass is outstandingly suited for use in modern architecture. When it comes to the thin glass used in insulation glass theme, critics point the increased breakage risk of the thinner glass panes. Their

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

JOINT RESEARCH PROJECT

In order to explore the possibilities of weight reduction in multi-pane insulation glazing on a well-founded, secure basis, the renowned Rosenheim Institute of Window Technology (Institut für Fenstertechnik - ift Rosenheim), in cooperation with the German Flat Glass Manufacturers’ Association, has launched the “Energyefficient multi-pane insulation glass – “Investigations into technical measures aimed at the reduction of glass pane weight” project. The aim of the project is to investigate which measures can be used to reduce the surface weight of multipane (insulation) glass and the effects resulting from this. Norbert Sack, Head of Research and Development at the Rosenheim Institute of Window Technology and Project Director, explains in this connection: “A reduction in the surface weight of triple insulation glazing is desirable and would in principle be possible through the use of thinner glass or transparent plastics. Thinner glass could be used in all three levels – on the outside, the room side as well as the central pane of triple insulation glazing.” He believes that within the framework of the project, however, no general investigation of all

the principle factors was possible. On the contrary, decision-making bases for an assessment and future implementation should be developed. BF Executive Director, Jochen Grönegräs, adds: “We have included an assessment programme especially for 3 x 3 mm format insulation glass in the project in order to increase awareness for this theme. If the calculation bases are taken into account, it is definitely possible to manufacture insulation glass in the 3 x 3 format.” In view of the relevant heat insulation (Ug-value), total energy transmission (g-value) and translucence (τV) values, insulation glass using thin glass comes closest to matching the values of conventional triple insulation glass. And in the area of sound-proofing too, the integration of soundproof film or varying glass thicknesses ensures a high level of protection. While the trade world is still conducting an intensive discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of using thinner glass, individual insulation glass manufacturers are pressing ahead in the competition for optimised insulation values. Even at this stage, on the Internet, you can find references to quadruple insulation glazing, which with 3 mm-thick glass, is designed to deliver an Ugvalue of 0.3 W/m2K – a questionable development, because this format once again brings us back to the starting problem – the quadruple pane is just as heavy as today’s conventional triple glass with standard format. 


case-in point

Creating a green data centre UAE University, Al Ain, and Schneider Electric joined hands to reduce the carbon footprint on the campus. We bring you the case study.

CLAIM

Schneider Electric delivers green data centre solution to UAE University, Al Ain.

THE BACKGROUND

Established in 1976 and credited with being the first comprehensive national

university in the UAE, the United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) announced plans for a new campus in Al Ain. One of its objectives was to create a sustainable facility. Schneider Electric was commissioned to achieve the goal.

CASE STUDY

Aim and scope: The company’s scope of work encompassed IT integration design build and delivery of a green data centre infrastructure for the new campus. UAEU’s Green ICT Vision mandated the ICT deployment mission to follow the environmental and sustainable philosophy of the Three Rs – reduce, re-use and recycle. Methods employed: Specific solutions put forward by Schneider included the implementation of an Infrastructure-embedded solution comprising Schneider Electric Racks/Enclosures, In-Row RP cooling units, Schneider Electric In-Row RD Cooling units and Schneider ElectricN+1 UPS units. • It created a separate 48

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

dedicated university data centre. • It retro-fitted the Faculty of IT (FIT) building to reuse existing space and provide cooling. • It installed an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) system and back-up generator.

CONCLUSION

Schneider Electric’s solutions helped the UAEU save its entire real-estate carbon footprint, reuse existing space, provide efficient cooling, have UPS systems, and back-up generator facilities. Deploying sustainable strategies facilitated this achievement. Other positive outcomes: The FIT building also now hosts 20 advanced ICT laboratories, including an 8.3 T-Flop super grid computer, and the UAEU NetPop room providing WAN, LAN, Internet and Ankabut (Internet 2) connectivity. The


newly established Schneider Electric data centre provides the backbone for the next generation unified intelligent network – one of the largest academic networks in the region with more than 350 wiring closets connected to over 25,000 IP ports that offer a link to the UAEU data centre via redundant fibre. Following the implementation of the data centre, Schneider Electric was recognised with the ‘Green Award for Sustainability’ for the UAE University data centre project.

meantime, UAEU is able to conserve its capital budget as well as gain OPEX benefits from having the IT load requirement and infrastructure supply closely matched to one another. “The Schneider Electric data centre delivered what we needed, both for immediate and future requirements. The UAEU’s planned focus on using green ICT as the key driver of its educational emphasis is paying off with the new green ICT campus.” Commenting on the benefit of

working with a client from the very earliest stage of the design process, Sameer Nagrash, Enterprise Accounts Manager, IT Business, Schneider Electric said: “The design of the data centre solution was orchestrated by the UAEU’s design team. However, in our capacity as a trusted adviser, we worked to ensure that the key solution and technology was selected. Within our capacity as project managers, we coordinated with all involved parties to ensure deadlines were adhered to.” 

COMMENTS AND COMMENDATIONS

What the key players say ... Muhammed Imran, Acting Director ICT, UAEU said: “As our services and applications become more centralised and more converged, the demand on our data centre will begin to grow, as we’ll require more robust equipment. Schneider Electric’s Infrastructure provides a modular approach to data centre deployment. Not only does the new data

UAEU is able to conserve its capital budget as well as gain OP-EX benefits from having the IT load requirement and infrastructure supply closely matched to one another centre provide more capacity, but it also has room for more equipment cabinets to meet growth needs. When the time comes, the UPS can be upgraded with additional power and battery modules, and the cooling with additional units. In the September 2012

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Spotlight This is the first in a multi-part, in-depth series on air filtration

THE NEED TO

QUANTIFY After providing a broad sweep of the various issues involved in air filtration in his scientifically researched and highly acclaimed first series, Dr Iyad Al-Attar begins his new series, wherein he conducts an in-depth analysis of the subject and offers his erudite insights. In Part I, he argues that the science of air filtration is driven by its quest for perfection, which is why filter testing is critically important.

T The physics of the air movement is fundamental to the behaviour of suspended particles. MPPS (Most Penetrating Particle Size) shifts to a smaller particle size as the face velocity increases. The real challenge lies in inculcating professional air filtration practices. The important question we need to ask ourselves at this juncture

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is: By becoming acutely aware of the escalating energy costs, increasing frequency of sand storms, reoccurring volcanic eruptions and the dynamics of environmental changes, could we orchestrate our techniques, approaches and attitudes to confront all these challenges?

THE DAILY DAYDREAM

I notice wet streets every day when I drive to work. Presumably, this is a result of the early morning domestic car washing activity, which takes place on a daily basis. It makes me wonder if it is possible to quantify the amount of water used per carwash. As a corollary, I think that it

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

Performance assessment requires data acquisition about the relevant characteristics to serve the intended purpose, namely, appropriate filter selection would be a fruitful exercise to obtain the figures for the amount of water wasted by subtracting the minimum amount of water required from the total amount of

water actually used. A ballpark estimate tells me that the amount of water used per carwash is over three litres per day, which surely exceeds the daily water intake of an average adult per day1. If we think of how much it costs governments to supply a litre of water to our homes through desalination plants, piping networks and filtration systems, we will realise its value. And if we give a serious thought to people in the third world countries who thirst for a drop of water regardless of its potable quality, I am sure we will not be able to waste water with such impunity. Using water provided


by the municipality to excessively clean cars is, therefore, an avoidable luxury. Some may even argue that hard water could affect the car paint in the long run and advise treating the water to remove its hardness prior to treating the cars to the “softest-ever car washing spa experience”. Typically, at this point, my daydreaming ends, as I arrive at my workplace. However, no matter how much we make ourselves oblivious to the environmental changes around us, the odious stench of the harsh reality will certainly remind us that facts will not cease to exist just because we ignore them – that our natural resources are limited and energy is

of our actions on the resources we have.

QUANTIFICATION – A SACRED DUTY

Determining the MPPS is of vital importance because the corresponding minimum efficiency is a dominant consideration in the design and operation of air filters not free and that this will eventually prove cataclysmic to our planet. It will not be long before we are compelled to change our perspective and shift our focus towards quantifying the impact

Figure 1: Typical fractional efficiency curve around the MPPS

In my early years of engineering, I was taught that engineers are born to quantify. We were, therefore, instructed to describe physical quantities precisely. Expressions such as “The destination is very far/very near; the mass is very heavy/very light; the volume is very large/very small” were no longer acceptable in the engineering context. Precision was the aim. This was realised and facilitated by quantification using accurate units of measurement. By the same token, in the field of air filtration, expressions, such as “This filter has good/ very good/excellent efficiency” do not amount to a valid statement, and in certain contexts, could be misleading or a major cause of confusion. To assess the efficiency of a filter, we need to use the right engineering terms denoting the performance characteristics and numerical quantification in a manner that is universally accepted and referred to.

THE QUEST FOR PRECISION

Figure 2: Initial efficiency according to DIN 1822 versus particle size for different flow rates for a HEPA filter

The science of air filtration is driven by its quest for precision and certainty, which makes filter testing critically important. Such testing requires facilities and applicable experimental methods to provide the desired data for filter performance

assessment. The precision and budgetary aspects are no less important to making the data available; the two aspects are usually directly proportional. Performance assessment requires data acquisition about the relevant characteristics to serve the intended purpose, namely appropriate filter selection. Clearly, an engineering process such as filtration requires accurate quantification, which consequently presupposes a fundamental understanding of the physics involved. This prerequisite is absolutely essential. We, therefore, need to realise the importance of measurements and of describing a quantity in terms of precisely defined units. When the filtration process is addressed, the physics of the particle motion is fundamental, as it defines the flow of air over and around the particle movement in relation to the air itself, and to a surface such as a filter fibre. It would also set the stage to establish the discussion of studying particle deposition and the corresponding mechanisms. Further, the physics of particle motion is important not only in filtration but also in the process of sampling, as it would explain the fluid mechanics of air flow in the vicinity of the aerosol sampler2.

INITIAL FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY, PARTICLE SIZE AND FACE VELOCITY When the term “initial” is used in addressing the

September 2012

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Spotlight

By becoming acutely aware of the escalating energy costs, increasing frequency of sand storms, reoccurring volcanic eruptions and the dynamics of environmental changes, could we orchestrate our techniques, approaches and attitudes to confront all these challenges?

“efficiency and pressure drop”, it signifies assessing the filter performance prior to any dust loading. The filter efficiency is reported at the MPPS, which is the particle size that the filter scores its minimum efficiency at. Let us review the basic concept before we examine the impact of face velocity variations on filter efficiency. Figure 1 illustrates a typical efficiency-particle size relation, which shows that as the particle size increases, the efficiency decreases, until the MPPS is reached. Beyond the MPPS, the efficiency increases with increase of particle size. It also highlights the region where diffusion, interception and impaction dominate respectively, as well as the shaded region which represents uncollected particles by the air filter. Therefore, the objective is to minimise the shaded region as much as possible. At this point, we need to

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ask ourselves how face velocity variations affect the fractional efficiency. The relationship between initial fractional efficiency versus the particle size and face velocity are illustrated in Figure 2. Filter efficiency decreases with the increase of the filter face velocity (flow rates: 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m3/h) for particle sizes surrounding the MPPS region. At finer particle size, Brownian motion increases with decreasing particle size and the diffusive deposition of particles increases as particle size decreases. At larger particle size beyond MPPS, the effect of face velocity on the efficiency becomes increasingly negligible3. Another observation in the same Figure concerns the shift of the MPPS to a smaller particle size as the face velocity increases. It is evident that the shaded region discussed earlier increases with the increase of face velocity, which represents lower overall

Climate Control Middle East September 2012

filter efficiency. Determining the MPPS is of vital importance, because the corresponding minimum efficiency is a dominant consideration in the design and operation of air filters. Efficiency measurement for particle size range around the MPPS region is critically important for the following reasons: • It determines the particle size at which the filter scores its minimum efficiency, and consequently, this particle size becomes the MPPS of the filter at tested flow rate (face velocity). In other words, the filter efficiency is reported at the MPPS at the rated air flow.

• Any minor variation, inconsistencies and/ or lack of precision in measuring fractional efficiency could misinform us of the data of the MPPS position on

It is important to note that operating the filter at higher face velocities than the rated one would lead to performance deviation from the associated test report the efficiency curve. This would lead to reporting incorrect minimum efficiency, since the MPPS would also be incorrect. It is important to note that operating the filter at higher face velocities than the rated one would lead to performance deviation from the associated test report. Another aspect to be considered seriously is


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particle re-entrainment and the role face velocity elevation could play in it. Re-entrainment of fine particles occurs as particles could get detached after they have attached themselves to the fibre surface. This could also alter the MPPS. Increasing the air flow rate (face velocity) could cause surface area losses and, consequently, reduce permeability. When the total effective surface area is reduced, it contributes further to the increase of air velocity. This would simply suggest that in actuality, less filtration media is participating in the filtration action. Further, it would shorten air residence time in the vicinity of fibre surface, which leads to lower likelihood of a particle to be captured by a fibre surface, thus reducing diffusive deposition.

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Climate Control Middle East September 2012

Air filtration is a science that touches the lives of humans on a daily basis. But before we improve it and make it a more efficient tool at our disposal, it is important to determine our attitude towards it in the first place – whether we regard it as a science that demands development or simply a business transaction driven by price reduction that requires marketing. Unfortunately, many of us believe that any technology, regardless of its nature and application, will eventually get commercialised and marketed. Marketing air filters necessitates acquiring the requisite

technical background knowledge to be able to appropriately recognise customers’ needs and competently identifying ways that would serve both the end-user and the application at hand. While filter manufacturers aim to strike a balance between maintaining sustainable profit margins while satisfying the overall purpose of air filtration, the real challenge lies in bringing to the transaction the added touch to serve humanity by inculcating professional air filtration practices through precise quantification. 

References:

1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Drinking_water 2 Vincent, James H. 2007. “Aerosol Sampling: Science, Standards, Instrumentation and Applications” John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 Pramod Kulkarni (Editor), Paul A. Baron (Editor), Klaus Willeke (Editor)., 2005. “Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications”. Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The writer is a renowned air filtration consultant. He can be contacted at iyad@iyadalattar. com


Profile for CPI Industry

CCME September 2012  

September 2012 issue of Climate Control Middle East

CCME September 2012  

September 2012 issue of Climate Control Middle East

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