Page 1

Special feature: Dubai Municipality's Green Building Code p44 Product Focus Air Purifiers p41 Country focus India p48 Abu Dhabi unveils LubiT bags News DSI reports strong fiscal 2011 p6 new utility bill p12

award p18


Chillventa reports encouraging response p20


PLUS: Event round-up, Comings & Goings, Marketplace

Getting into the groove p58 Filtration stages p75

MARCH 2012



We examined the scope of the Emirates Quality Mark and its implications for the whole HVAC industry SPECIAL REFRIGERANTS ok at the basics Back to theec tor

UNEP former dir asing elaborates on the ph g tin ple de eon out of oz refrigerants

A relo refrigerantsmerits A review of the e of various alternativ s refrigerant




Vol. 7 No. 3 | MARCH 2012

A CLIMATE ConTroL MIddLE EAsT supplement


CHAIN DIFSC 2012: raising global

food safety standards We brIng you exCluSIve poSt-event Coverage oF the Seventh DubaI InternatIonal FooD SaFety ConFerenCe (DIFSC), aS part oF our halF-yearly Supplement, FooD ChaIn.

DIFSC 2012


2012 draws the food and 30 DIFSC refrigeration industries

Key DM food safety initiatives and ISO 17020 recognition dominate plenary session

55 cover story

04 from the editor

The spy who loved cheese


Tested and approved

We examined the scope of the Emirates Quality Mark and its implications for the whole HVAC industry.


06 The region 18 At large 22 Marketplace


2012 AHR Expo sets all-time attendance record

This year’s AHR Expo attracted more than 58,000 HVACR professionals from all over the globe.

38 D-cODE

In this issue, we focused on duct connectors, duct sealings and fabric ducting.

Air purifiers

Valeria Camerino reports on how the region’s current lack of compliance with international standards might pose some safety risks for air purifier end-users.

44 Special Feature

We reviewed Dubai Municipality's Green Building Code, asking manufacturers how they plan to align themselves to the objectives behind the regulations.

48 Country report


33 A need for closer collaboration

Food industry rep advocates the need to work hand in hand with HVACR industry to ensure food safety

experts address virus 35 Global outbreak challenges

Discuss prevention and reduction measures

of hospitals in Dubai report 36 45% FBD

Typhoid, paratyphoid and amoebic dysentery most common among reported cases

58 perspective

Getting into the groove Larry Thau highlights the design benefits and advantages of the grooved piping method when used to accomodate thermal expansion and contraction.

Making the cut Dr Laurentiu Pestritu takes the readers through the paces of installing insulation in Part 2 of the series on insulation.

75 spotlight

India’s HVACR players are vying for a place under its sun, which spells great opportunities for the sector.

to the basics 64 Back UNEP former director

Filtration stages

Dr. Iyad Al-Attar discusses the function of each filtration stage and the filter design required.


elaborates on the phasing out of ozone-depleting refrigerants

A relook at the refrigerants

A review of the merits of various alternative refrigerants

March 2012


from the


Publisher Dominic De Sousa

The spy who loved cheese


Managing Director & Associate Publisher Frédéric Paillé | Editorial Director & Associate Publisher B Surendar | COO Nadeem Hood | Assistant Editor Valeria Camerino |

uring Gulfood 2012, in Dubai from February 19 to 22, I had the opportunity of moderating a symposium track, titled ‘The role of cold chain management in food safety’. The Symposium, organised by Dubai Municipality, as part of the Dubai International Food Safety Conference (DIFSC), and conducted by Climate Control Middle East, was an occasion for a stirring presentation by Anil Nair of Kraft Foods. The presentation was a rare interaction between an end-user and the refrigeration industry. Rare in its transparent nature and a blunt stating of facts, that is. Nair narrated an episode involving Philadelphia Cheese, which is part of Kraft Foods (before I proceed any further, please note, this is not a subliminal attempt at promoting either the brand or the company; their mention is to merely be specific in the description). Nair described how a distributor had repeatedly complained that consignment after consignment of the cheese to a particular retail outlet in the GCC was showing up spoilt and that he was being forced to take back the brand from the retailer. Suspecting something was amiss, Nair asked to inspect the retailer’s storage facility, which was duly turned down. Keen to get to the bottom of the matter, Nair went undercover – he travelled in a transport refrigeration truck to the facility as a helper. His covert operation revealed “temperature abuse” at the retail side of things. To quote one specific instance, the transport refrigeration truck containing the cheese was opened for inspection in high-ambient conditions, causing hot air to enter the truck. There was little urgency shown in closing the door, which meant prolonged exposure of the cheese to the hot outside air. Subsequent to his investigation, backed by photographic evidence, Nair briefed the distributor, who, in turn, informed the retailer. The response from the retailer was positive and earnest, and the situation was rectified. While the story serves to highlight an enlightened end-user, who instead of taking umbrage to interference from a food processing company, chose to address the issue, it also brings home the need for vigilance in ensuring all links of the cold chain are strong, without exception.

Contributing Editors Pratibha Umashankar Anoop K Menon Business Development Consultant Stephanie McGuinness Design Genesis Salao | Ulysses Galgo | Webmaster Troy Maagma | Database/ Subscriptions Manager Purwanti Srirejeki Advertising Enquiries Frédéric Paillé: +971 50 7147204 Stephanie McGuinness: +971 50 6679359 USA and Canada Kanika Saxena Director (North America) 25 Kingsbridge Garden Cir Suite 919 Mississauga, ON, Canada L5R 4B1 Tel/fax: +1 905 890 5031 Euro Zone and UK Sicking Industrial Marketing Wilhelm Sicking 45130 Essen - Emmastrasse 44 Tel: +49 (0)201-779861 Fax: +49 (0)201-781741 Andreas Sicking 59872 Freienohl - Kurt-Schumacher-Str. 16 Tel: +49 (0)2903-3385-70 Fax: +49 (0)2903-3385-82 • China Sean Xiao Hui China Business Media Group Room 403, Block 17, Wuyimingzhu, No 6 Jinshan Road, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350008, China Tel: +86 591 8386 3000

B Surendar

Published by

Did you know that Climate Control Middle East is also available electronically? Get a digitised (Zinio is a digital publishing firm based in the USA.)

copy of the magazine every month, before the issue goes for print! As a bonus, the digital version includes such features as a keyword search, annotation, highlight, note-making and hot links. For more details, please access digital

Special feature: Dubai Municipality's Green www.climatecontrolme. com Building Code p44 Country focus India Product Focus Air p48 Purifiers p41 News DSI reports strong


Getting into the

groove p58 Spotlight Filtration stages p75

fiscal 2011 p6 Chillventa reports encouraging response p20

PLUS: Event round-u

Abu Dhabi unveils new utility bill p12

p, Comings & Goings,


We examined the scope of the Emirates Qualit and its implications y Mark for the whole HVAC industry

© Copyright 2012 CPI. All rights reserved.


UNEP former director elaborates on the phasing out of ozone-depleting refrigerants

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

Head Office PO Box 13700 Dubai, UAE Tel: +971 4 375 68 30 Fax: +971 4 43 419 06 Web: Printed by: Excel Printing Press, Sharjah, UAE

A relook at the refrigerants

A review of the merits of various alternative refrigerants



LubiT bags award p18


MARCH 2012


Get the next issue of Climate Control Middle East early!

While the publishers have made every effort to ensure the accuracy of all information in this magazine, they will not be held responsible for any errors therein.

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happenings the region

DSI reports strong fiscal 2011 Claims net profit of AED 220 million and AED 3.1 billion in revenues

Khaldoun Tabari


aying that the figures indicate a revenue growth of 68% and a net profit growth of 36% in comparison to fiscal 2010, Drake & Scull International PJSC (DSI), has announced a net profit of AED 220 million and AED 3.1 billion in revenues for fiscal year 2011 ended December 31. According to DSI, earnings per share

(EPS) in 2010 was AED 0.072 compared to AED 0.095 recorded during the same period this year. Reportedly, the total project awards announced in 2011 reached AED 4.4 billion in comparison to AED 3.4 billion awarded in 2010, and the order backlog reached a record high of AED 7.1 billion, representing a year over year increase of 43%.

Commenting on the announcement, Khaldoun Tabari, CEO of DSI, said: “We are satisfied with the results and closed 2011 on track in achieving our growth objective for the year through the civil, MEP and water and power subsidiaries across the region. 2011 has been a year of growth and consolidation for the company, as we have acquired during the last two years four companies that have significantly contributed to top line and bottom line growth. Our aim in 2012 is to sustain our growth in the MENA region and to pursue our expansion plan in Asia.” Osama Hamdan, CFO, DSI, added: “The top line growth is attributed to the company’s increased momentum in projects execution and ability to secure more contracts in the region. The remarkable increase in profits is a testament of our commitment to cost reduction, our efficiency and diligence in project execution. Our focus remains on cost control and collections to ensure a healthy cash flow to maintain our strong balance sheet. The civil business was a major contributor to the revenues and we expect this trend to continue in 2012.”

DSI bags government project

MEP agreement worth AED 127 million inked for major facility in Abu Dhabi


rake & Scull Abu Dhabi has announced signing a Letter of Agreement to perform MEP works for a government facility in Abu Dhabi. The project, which is worth AED 127 million, is DSI’s first MEP agreement in Abu Dhabi for 2012. Calling it an excellent beginning for the company’s activities in Abu Dhabi for the year, Khaldoun Tabari, CEO,


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

DSI, said: “Abu Dhabi is definitely making its own mark within the region’s construction industry, as it overhauls its urban landscape. This agreement puts us at the heart of the emirate’s development agenda in 2012.” Ahmad Al Naser, Regional Operations Director of DSI, added: “The MEP works will commence immediately on the project, and we

expect to hand over the facility in March 2013.” He added: “Abu Dhabi remains a strategic market for DSI, where it first operated in the region, evolved and accumulated a great level of expertise through the execution of a prestigious profile of iconic projects across the residential, commercial, healthcare, and hospitality industries over the past 45 years.”

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happenings the region

Region becoming big oil consumer Report claims that energy-saving measures can benefit UAE


riven by increased population and escalating commercial and residential demand for electricity, especially in the summer months, Gulf States have

become significant consumers of oil. Confirming this, global management consulting firm, Oliver Wyman, in its report, titled Delivering on the energy efficiency promise of the Middle

East, notes that natural gas supplies no longer meet local demand, and oil exporting countries have started to tap into money-generating fuel oil reserves, impacting both local economic growth and global energy security. Against this scenario, a recent research by Oliver Wyman has reportedly found that, to address the issue, even modest steps towards greater energy efficiency by MENA countries would result in meaningful savings. The report concludes that the upside of energy efficiency for a country like the UAE, which wishes to enhance its competitiveness, is big. Oliver Wyman claims that annual energy costs could be reduced by US$3 billion by 2030, assuming constant electricity production costs, with the majority of these savings (~51%) coming in the residential sector, followed by the commercial (~38%) and industrial sectors (~11%). “The time is ripe for MENA countries to take a closer look at energy efficiency technologies and programmes,” noted Marc Hormann, Oliver Wyman partner and co-author of the study. “Even moderate adoption of proven energy efficiency measures could reduce energy demand by a one-quarter to one-half in the year 2030, greatly freeing up capital.”

Kahramaa appoints Eversheds Will be the sole legal adviser to Qatar General Electricity and Water Co


he Doha office of international law firm, Eversheds, has announced that it has been appointed to advise Qatar General Electricity and Water Co (Kahramaa) in relation to its strategies for the improvement and expansion of electricity and water supply in Qatar. It claims that it is the sole legal adviser appointed to advise the company on implementing and developing Kahramaa’s current strategies to meet the demands of growth through sustainable practice. The


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

firm will be working in consortium with consulting engineering company, Energoprojekt ENTEL and professional services firm, PWC. According to the announcement, Suzannah Newboult will lead the Eversheds team from Qatar, with additional support from Tim Armsby, partner in Eversheds’ Abu Dhabi projects team. In the context of her firm being appointed by Kahramaa, Suzannah Newboult said: “Qatar is in a period of rapid growth, which has generated a need for the expansion and

improvement of utilities in line with ever-increasing standards for quality and environmental sustainability. We look forward to working with Kahramaa, and its other consultants, to provide the vital infrastructure needed to support the country’s growth. Eversheds has a great track record of working with Qatari organisations on complex projects such as this. Together with Energoprojekt-Entel and PWC, we will take a solutions-led approach to the challenges that the Qatar region and its utilities sector pose.”

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The International District Energy Association is pleased to invite colleagues and participants in the clean energy industry to Chicago for our 103rd Annual Conference & Trade Show. Conference Highlights: • Special Pre-Conference Workshop and Release of the U.S. Community Energy Development Guide IDEA is working with Michael King, author and editor of the UK publication Community Energy: Planning, Development and Delivery Guide and several Sponsors to produce and disseminate a document for the U.S. market. The Guide is intended to inform planners, developers and economic development officials on the energy project development process. The conference will feature panel discussions & presentations focusing on a broad range of topics: • Insights from Leading International Cities • District Energy Infrastructure: Essential for Energy-Efficient Communities • Energy, Water & Environmental Outlook

Our Host… Thermal Chicago – owner and operator of one of the world’s largest downtown district cooling systems – 100,000 tons capacity with five interconnected plants using innovative ice thermal storage. Technical Tours to be scheduled.

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happenings the region

Jotun rides on World Cup bandwagon Reports over QAR 150 million-worth completed and ongoing projects


otun Paints has revealed that its participation in Qatar Projects 2012, held from February 5 to 8, at the Grand Hyatt Hotel in Doha, Qatar, was part of its continuing move to strengthen its market presence across Qatar’s rapidly growing paint segment, which has been estimated to be worth over QAR 300 million. To date, Jotun has also reported a total of over QAR 150 million-worth of projects that have either been completed, ongoing or are currently in the pipeline. According to Jotun, the key drivers for the paint segment’s upward movement include cost/pricing, LEED/green and QSAS-compliance and international specification and product quality. The strong construction boom prompted by the preparations for Qatar’s hosting of the 2022 FIFA World Cup has also spurred a large demand for paint and coatings like

comings &goings

Eversheds appoints new partner Tim Armsby joins law firm to strengthen its presence in the region


nternational law firm Eversheds has announced appointing Trowers & Hamlins’ partner and energy and infrastructure specialist, Tim Armsby, as a partner across its Middle East offices. Through this move, the firm says that it has reinforced its commitment to the Middle East region, where it recently merged with the Arab law consortium, KSLG and now has six offices across the region. According to Eversheds, Armsby has over 10 years’ experience of advising on complex transactions in the MENA region, with the unique distinction of having advised on every social infrastructure Public Private Partnership (PPP) project launched in Egypt to date. He specialises in energy and infrastructure projects, construction and upstream oil and gas, it adds. Tim’s experience reportedly includes advising the Government of Jordan on the cross-border Arab Gas Pipeline Project, advising the Egyptian Ministry of Finance in relation to three PPP projects and advising it in relation to the planned first nuclear power plant in the country.


Gunnar Eikebu

intumescent coating, floor coating, powder coating, decorative coating, marine and protective coating, Jotun said, and added that market reports have also revealed a strong preference for products that adhere to ‘green’ standards. “Qatar continues to be a very important market for us, where we confidently see the potential of continuous growth, which is being driven by the influx of construction projects in preparation for FIFA World Cup in 2022,” said Gunnar Eikebu, Country Manager, Jotun Paints, Qatar.

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

“I was attracted to Eversheds due to its formidable presence in the Middle East, Arabic capability and the quality of work the firm provides,” said Armsby, commenting on his appointment. “When it comes to energy, the Middle East is the centre of the world, and we foresee many new projects being launched over the coming years. In addition, more and more Middle East governments are looking towards PPP-type structures to assist in the provision of infrastructure projects and the firm’s track record in this sector speaks for itself. I am excited to be part of such a progressive firm, in such a dynamic part of the world, and look forward to diversifying and expanding the existing practice.” Chris Jobson, Eversheds’ Middle East managing partner, added: “Eversheds has trebled its presence in the Middle East, and, as part of our commitment to growth in the region, we are constantly looking at talented individuals to join our firm. Tim is an extremely distinguished lawyer and we look forward to welcoming him into the firm.”

Tabreed announces financial results Claims group’s total installed capacity across the region reaches 749,125 RT


ational Central Cooling Company PJSC (Tabreed), the Abu Dhabi-based district cooling utility company, has released its 2011 unaudited full year financial results, which it says reflects the company’s strong operating performance, driven by its core chilled water business. New plants and customer connections, combined with improved organisational efficiencies, increased net profit (attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent) by 34% to AED 182.7 million, up from AED 136.8 million in 2010, it said. The company revealed its operational highlights for year ended 31 December 2011, which is as follows: n Eleven new plants came online during 2011 n Capacity added during the year: 45,800 RT – eight per cent increase from 2010 n New connections achieved in 2011: 78,115 RT – 16% increase from 2010 n Installed capacity in the UAE has reached 587,325 RT and connected capacity 555,181 RT n Group’s installed capacity across the region has reached 749,125 RT and connected capacity 703,176 RT Against the backdrop of the company’s positive financial showing, Waleed Al Mokarrab Al Muhairi, Tabreed’s chairman, said: “Our full year performance, in particular our revenue growth and significantly increased profitability, demonstrates the success of our strategy of focusing on the chilled water business, improving operational efficiencies and applying stricter cost discipline across the business. Our strategy will

remain constant in the year ahead, as we complete our buildout programme and build upon the notable achievements of 2011. Our stakeholders recognise district cooling as a vital utility because of the energy-efficient, cost-effective and reliable cooling it provides. As the partner of choice for leading institutions, Tabreed will capitalise on future demand for cooling that will be driven by the continued investment in and diversification of the Abu Dhabi and other regional economies.” Sujit S Parhar, Tabreed’s CEO, added: “As these results demonstrate, Tabreed has a solid fundamental business model driven by its core chilled water business, underpinned by its strict cost discipline and continuously improving organisational efficiencies. During 2011, we successfully completed the construction of 11 plants, eight for the Dubai Metro Green Line, which has increased our total connected capacity in the UAE to 555,181 RT. With 95% of our total capacity contracted through long-term contracts with customers, Tabreed is now well-positioned to continue to deliver sustainable and recurring revenues and profits.”

Aldes appoints new CEO Third generation of Lacroix family takes over


ldes has announced appointing Stanislas Lacroix as its new CEO. He succeeds his father, Bruno Lacroix, who leaves his operational functions to the third generation of the Lacroix family. According to Aldes, Bruno Lacroix will continue to actively participate in the Aldes Group by representing the company at different organisations and advisory authorities. Aldes has shared a brief profile of its new CEO: Born in 1971, Lacroix graduated from the École Supérieure de Gestion of Paris in Chartered Accounting, and in 1993, started his career at Monétique Chèque Edit as an Administration and Finance Deputy Director, where he worked for two years. Thereafter, he went to the USA to join Aldes subsidiary. Back in France in 1995, he was part of Calor (SEB Group) as Sales Administration and Business Controller. In 1999, he joined the family company, first as a Logistics Manager and then as an Organisations Director. Since 2005, he was the company’s General Manager.

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happenings the region

Abu Dhabi unveils new utility bill Separate water and electricity bills provide more information to help change consumer behaviour


he Regulation & Supervision Bureau (RSB) has announced that, starting this month, a new utility bill for water and electricity will be rolled out across the Emirate of Abu Dhabi that will provide customers with more information, which will help them manage their utility consumption. All water and electricity customers will receive separate utility bills showing the Government subsidy. In addition, residential customers will have two consumption bands indicating an “idealaverage” and above “ideal-average” range of consumption. According to the RSB, the consumption bands give residential customers an average range to benchmark their water and electricity use, essentially as a tool to manage consumption, depending on whether they live in an apartment or villa. The green “tick” symbol will show the ideal-average and the red “exclamation” symbol will indicate the above ideal-average. Thus, the customers can adjust their electricity and water use to keep within the ideal range for their type of property. While nationals will continue to receive free water, and electricity for

nominal prices, the new bill will be sent to them as an information tool to help build awareness about consumption. The announcement explained that to ensure customers were not taken by surprise by the new billing system, an information campaign was introduced before the March ‘go-live’ date, which highlighted the key changes and addressed concerns and questions that many customers may have had. Based on an energy consumption theme, the campaign introduced two consumption symbols as tools for behaviour change. Over the past week, Abu Dhabi residents have been exposed to the start of an advertising campaign – Are you in the green or in the red? The RSB pointed out that the Government subsidy represented a large part of the actual cost of producing and delivering water and electricity to the customers, for which they do not pay. It is hoped that by seeing the actual cost of the utility, customers will realise the Government’s contribution to the sector. This, in turn, is expected to increase awareness among them. The RSB revealed that the new bill would be rolled out in phases during

March and April, starting with residential and business customers. However, as bills are mailed throughout a month’s cycle, not all customers will see the new bill immediately. Also, additional services, such as online viewing of the new bill, bill reprints and online statements for corporate accounts will be introduced in April. To address the issue of ‘more paper’, an email option will supplement the existing SMS “total to pay” alert, the announcement explained. The new billing system reportedly uses a personalised customer communications platform, which will enable an entire range of billing solutions to be introduced. Speaking on behalf of the sector, Nicholas Carter, Director General of the Regulation and Supervision Bureau, said: “With an upward trend in population and economic growth, the Government of Abu Dhabi is aware of the pressure this puts on the country’s resources. Steps taken now will help ensure the continuous and secure supply of water and electricity into the future. As the tariff stays the same, the new bill is one way to address consumption and influence long-term behavioural change.” Mohammed Bin Jarsh, Deputy Managing Director of Abu Dhabi Distribution Company, added: “Peak summer demand drives a core part of the sector’s costs, and it is consumer behaviour at this time of year that we need to influence. Based on current use, we know that most of our customers will be ‘in the red’ for the summer months. By encouraging customers to use efficient appliances and adjust their air conditioning, we can reduce our electricity use significantly.”

Eurocooler participates in MEE Claims its radiators can cool complete range of transformers


urocooler, manufacturer of cooling radiators for the power transformer industry, announced that it presented its products in the French Pavilion at the Middle East Electricity Exhibition (MEE) 2012 in Dubai, held from February 7 to 9, at Hall 6, Stand F 13.


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

The company revealed that its specific know-how is based on its technical expertise, such as stamping metal cutting, welding and surface treatment. Claiming that its header-type radiators – central/offset/cut section/ swan neck – catered to different

customer needs, Eurocooler added that it is able to fulfill the cooling of a complete range of transformers from 100 KVA to 1500 MVA of power. It highlighted that all its radiators are dilatable, and can accept variations of volume of oil generated by differences of temperature.

happenings the region

DC PRO honoured Makes it to the Dubai SME 100 ranking


ubai SME, the agency of the Department of Economic Development in Dubai (DED) mandated to develop the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector, has announced the first-ever Dubai SME


100 ranking of companies, in a ceremony held at the Dubai World Trade Centre on February 12. DC PRO Engineering, Dubai, which focuses on district cooling engineering and green buildings MEP design, has

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

RANK COMPANY NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76


77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100


been recognised as one of the companies figuring the list of 100. It won the award in the Human Capital Development category. Sharing the news with Climate Control Middle East, George Berbari, founder and CEO of DC Pro Engineering, said: “DC PRO Engineering has scored high on Human Capital Development, where the certification, publications and awards received were considered. Due to the impact of the financial crisis, the engineering companies were affected, and that

reflected on our financial results, where profits dramatically reduced during the last two years. But we managed to sustain the company and increase our staff to around 55, from 45 in 2008.” The companies that made it into the first list of top 100 SMEs were honoured by His Highness Shaikh Ahmad Bin Saeed Al Maktoum, Chairman of the Economic Sector Committee in Dubai, President of Dubai Civil Aviation and Chairman and Chief Executive of Emirates Airlines and Group.

HBMeU honours award winners Climate Control Middle East's B Surendar among Pan-Arab Media Quality Award recipients


amdan Bin Mohammed e-University (HBMeU), in what it said was in line with its commitment to fostering a culture of quality and honouring creativity and excellence, announced hosting the Pan-Arab Media Quality Award 2011/2012. Running under the theme, “Alleviating the negative impact of the global recession on our society: What role can quality play? How will it boost economic activity and provide hope for the future?”, the fifth edition of the award reportedly reflected HBMeU’s belief in the importance of quality in promoting competitiveness and boosting overall development in the Middle East. According to the university, the award is aimed at all media professionals in the Arab world and covered the four categories of print, TV, radio and digital media in both Arabic and English formats. The list of this year’s winners is as follows: Heba Abd El Hamed from Alam Rakamy Website, Egypt, in the Digital Media category; Siham Chafai from Al Fujairah Radio in the Radio category; Ahmad Qasem from Decision Makers in the TV category;

and B Surendar from Climate Control Middle East (CPI Industry); and MA Cleofe Maceda from Gulf News in the Print category. On the occasion, Dr Mansoor Al Awar, Chancellor of HBMeU, said:

“Over the past few years, the Pan-Arab Media Quality Award has proven its success, both as a leading platform for spreading a culture of quality and excellence on a large scale across the Arab media. Total Quality Management has gained increasing attention, especially given the recent economic challenges around the world. It plays an effective role in the success of development strategies and in the attainment of tangible and positive results in various economic, social, environmental and scientific areas.” Serine El Salhat, General Coordinator, Pan-Arab Media Quality Award, HBMeU, added: “The Award is regarded as one of the leading initiatives to enhance awareness on quality in journalism and the media industry, and create an integrated media environment based on innovation, creativity and transparency. This initiative underlines the University’s commitment to raising further awareness among all segments of Arab media on the importance of establishing comprehensive quality management.”

March 2012


happenings the region

Trane offers rental services

Company says its temporary cooling solutions now available in the UAE


ointing out that in a building’s lifecycle, temporary cooling needs can arise due to a planned event or emergency, Trane has announced the availability of Trane Rental Services in the UAE. The company says that it can be applied to facilities including healthcare, industrial, lodging, retail and educational buildings. In addition

to the UAE, the service is also available throughout Europe and India, Trane added. The company cited the following instances where its supplemental and backup solutions could help meet nonpermanent cooling requirements: n Emergencies: In case of a natural disaster or unexpected equipment failure, the rental units generate cooling, allowing building managers to assess the best long-term solution. n Increased capacity: Supplemental cooling can be provided in case a facility’s cooling load temporarily exceeds the capacity of existing systems. n Planned outages: During chiller plant upgrades, renovations, retrofits or replacements, it can provide continuous cooling. n Special events and on-site services: it can provide temporary chillers and on-site services for events,

such as exhibitions, ice skating rinks and outdoor festivals. “Not meeting their building’s cooling needs, even partially, can generate substantial costs and stress for building managers,” said Jose Laloggia, Service and Parts Leader for the Trane Commercial Business in Europe, Middle East, India and Africa. “Trane Rental Services offer an immediate solution, short or long-term, that is tailored to the customer’s specific requirements.” Hardeep Singh, Service, Parts and Customer Care Leader for Trane Middle East & Africa, added: “Our rental chillers have been re-engineered for demanding rental applications and are specifically selected for their fast installation and easy operation. Moreover, Trane rental chillers are thoroughly inspected after each application to ensure that they are ready when you need them.”

VTS Group organises Qatar seminar Discusses methods to calculate ventilation network efficiency


he VTS Group held its first product seminar in January in Doha, Qatar, as part of a series planned for the year. About 80 representatives of the HVACR industry reportedly participated in the event, among whom were entrepreneurs, consultants and investors interested in the Group’s innovative solutions. The topic of the discussion was Ventus Central Unit Series. The seminar was chaired by Cyprian Estemberg, Product Manager VTS, who touched upon topics, such as advanced technology and innovative casing construction; methods to calculate ventilation network efficiency with reference to


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

the ventilator operation (SFP); and advantages of Ventus central unit over other competing products. Calling the seminar a great success, Muhammed Fazal Rashid, Managing

Director VTS Group, and seminar organiser, said: “Product seminars create not only huge possibilities for knowledge and experience exchange, they are also a great occasion to promote the company and what it has to offer amongst designers, investors and potential clients. Organising such regular seminars allows us not only to gain new partners but also to strengthen VTS’ image as an expert in the ventilation-air conditioning industry.” VTS revealed that its next international seminars will take place in India, China and Russia.

Empower reports 25% profit increase 2011 net profit reached AED 162 million


egional district cooling services provider, Emirates Central Cooling Systems Corporation (Empower), recorded a net profit of AED 162 million for fiscal year ended December 2011, representing a 25 percent increase over 2010. The company’s total revenues reached AED 670 million, an increase of 40 percent over the previous year. The results were announced at a press conference held at Dubai Grand Hyatt Hotel on February 28. Ahmed Bin Shafar, CEO of Empower, said: “Empower’s operations grew remarkably in 2011 due to higher demand. We also expanded our footprint and enhanced the infrastructure and network in real estate projects to cater to the needs of our rapidly increasing client base. Moreover, the company worked on training its personnel across all levels, which has definitely contributed to these positive results.” Bin Shafar revealed that the company’s funding options for its expanding operations, included internal cash generated from operations, medium to long term funding from banks and financial institutions, and shareholders equity contributions. He added that Empower adopted a clear strategy for 2011, an extension of the company’s strategy in previous years. Bin Shafar said this strategy revolved around creating cooling capacities based on the actual demand for district cooling services. The company also increased its personnel by 12 percent in 2011.

Empower, a joint venture between Dubai Technology and Media Free Zone (TECOM) Investments and Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA), also achieved an increase of 12 percent in its cooling capacity, with over 370,000 Refrigeration Tonnes (RT) in 2011. Bin Shafar expressed his satisfaction over the company’s performance which, he said, was in line with the growth of the district cooling sector itself in the UAE. He emphasised that the UAE continues to be a leading player in the district cooling industry, not only in the region but also on the global front. He mentioned the challenges holding back the development of the industry in the UAE, which included lack of visibility to project development timelines and a robust strategy for capacity creation in many of the district cooling companies, which has led them to financial difficulties. Bin Shafar claimed that the Gulf district cooling industry is growing at a rate of 15 to 20 percent and the biggest obstacle in the way of its progress was the absence of long term planning among the companies working in the industry. He pointed out that the Middle East was still in its infancy in district cooling, compared to the scale of development across the region, and commended the regional governments for encouraging the uptake of environment-friendly cooling technologies.

March 2012


happenings at large

LubiT bags award Enerconcept's wall-mounted solar hot air collector is the first solar product to win AHR Innovation Award


anada-based solar air heating equipment manufacturer Enerconcept has announced winning the Innovation Award for its LubiT wallmounted solar hot air collector at the AHR Expo 2012 in Chicago on January 24. LubiT won the Product of the Year award in the Best Heating Category and was the first solar product to ever win an AHR Innovation Award in the 10-year event, competing against nearly 200 international entries, the announcement added.

According to Enerconcept, LubiT, which is patented, is the world’s most efficient solar hot air device as per third-party certification test ratings by the Canadian Standards Association (CSAInternational). The CSA lists it as up to 81% efficient with a 1.20 performance factor, which is 20 to 58% greater than any competing products, the company claimed, and added that the product’s efficiency is derived from its patented perforated glazing design that minimises heat loss and

Christian Vachon, (middle), President, Enerconcept Technologies, receives the AHR Innovation Award for the LubiT solar hot air collector from Ajita Rajendra, (left) Chairman, AHRI, and Ron Jarnagin, President, ASHRAE, at the AHR Expo 2012 in Chicago delivers paybacks ranging from zero for new construction to five years for retrofits. “The Lubi has no moving parts, requires no maintenance, doesn’t freeze or overheat and is easily integrated architecturally and aesthetically into a building’s existing HVAC system by

an HVAC contractor,” said Christian Vachon, President, Enerconcept Technologies, and the inventor of the Lubi. The competition was co-sponsored by ASHRAE, AHRI and the International Exposition Company (IEC), and was judged by a panel of HVACR experts.

CEE announces revised criteria Revised efficiency initiative incorporates IEER for commercial HVAC equipment and adds specification for VRF


he Boston-based Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) has announced the availability of the revised High Efficiency commercial air conditioning and heat pump initiative. Comprising efficiency programme administrators from the United States and Canada, CEE aims at unifying programme approaches across jurisdictions to increase impact in fragmented markets. The revised version includes a high-efficiency energy performance specification for commercial air conditioning and heat pump equipment. According to the CEE communiqué, by incorporating criteria based on Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio (IEER), and adding specifications for high efficiency variable refrigerant flow (VRF) multi-split air conditioners and heat pumps, the updated CEE


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

Commercial unitary AC and HP specification provides efficiency programme administrators with an improved basis for claiming savings across the full range of equipment operation. CEE members reportedly worked closely with manufacturers and trade associations during the revision process. Paul Doppel of Mitsubishi

Electric Cooling & Heating commented: “CEE has been very conscientious about developing the new Commercial AC and HP specification, especially with regard to the VRF system specifications. CEE has been inclusive with VRF manufacturers to make sure that the specification was consistent with the ASHRAE and DOE standards and the industry capabilities. They are to be applauded for their exceptional work!” Stephen Yurek, President and CEO of the AHRI, added: “We are pleased to contribute to the process of updating this important specification. This project, and many like it, is representative of what we can do when we work together towards a common goal.”

ACC awarded US$ 90 million contract Company will renovate Nile Ritz Carlton in downtown Cairo


rabian Construction Co (ACC) has announced being awarded a US$ 90 million contract to covert the historic Nile Hilton into The Nile Ritz-Carlton hotel. The renovation project includes interior finishing and MEP work scheduled to be completed in 18 months. According to ACC, it will be responsible for the interior cladding and finishing of all facilities, rooms and the hotel casino. US-based Hill International is the project manager.

Built in 1959, the 370room property located along the shores of the Nile and surrounded by downtown Cairo is reportedly undergoing extensive renovation of its facilities in order to re-emerge as a full-fledged Ritz-Carlton. The project will include modernising the 13-storey hotel owned by Misr Hotels, a subsidiary of The Holding Company for Tourism, Hotels and Cinema that spans 64,000 square metres, the announcement added.

March 2012


happenings at large

Embraco launches bivolt control Claims electronic solution adjusts voltage of the system


aying that voltage transformers are needed typically for equipment like refrigerators, freezers or refrigerator counters, which significantly increase the cost of the system and the space occupied by it in the final product, Embraco, a manufacturer of hermetic compressors for refrigeration, has announced introducing a commercially feasible solution to the problem. Launched in December 2011, the innovative solution is made up of a compressor developed with an electronic circuit board, which recognises the input voltage being applied to the product, automatically adjusting the voltage supplied to the system loads – compressor, fan, defrost resistance and light bulb. With an installed capacity of 2.5 million units for the new product, the first bivolt solution has reached the market in Brazil, a country where there are two standard

technological expertise, also in electronics, made the feasibility of a simple, efficient and unique solution possible in the refrigeration market,” said Roberto H Campos, Embraco’s Vice President of Business and Marketing, highlighting the product’s feature.

voltages: 127 V and 220 V, Embraco revealed. According to the company, the bivolt compressors are compatible with domestic refrigerators and freezers, but it will also offer bivolt compressors for light commercial applications, such as refrigerator counters and refrigerated display cases. Embraco emphasises that the new development, which

has generated five patents, benefits manufacturers, consumers and especially retailers, who will be able to better calculate their inventory to meet demands of peak consumption and will find it easier to plan distribution logistics and carry out regional promotions. “Our history of innovation associated with the

“Our history of innovation associated with the technological expertise, also in electronics, made the feasibility of a simple, efficient and unique solution possible in the refrigeration market.”

Chillventa reports encouraging response Says preparations in full swing for the 2012 version


hillventa, the international event which focuses on refrigeration, air conditioning, ventilation and heat pumps, has announced accelerated activity at its exhibition halls in Nürnberg in preparation for the new edition to be held from October 9 to 11. According to the organisers, the application documents have already been


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

sent out and the feedback from exhibitors has been encouraging. The organisers claimed that 90% of the 2010 space has already been firmly booked and that the Chillventa Congressing supporting programme will take place as usual the day before the event, on Monday, October 8. They added that the highlights of the 2012 versions are: a high degree of internationality, compact

presentations of heat pumps in Hall 7 and comprehensive information at the Chillventa Congressing. “The mood in the sector is good and the positive feedback from the exhibitors makes us optimistic that we can build on the extraordinary success of the 2010 exhibition,” said Exhibition Director, Gabriele Hannwacker. “We’re really looking forward to Chillventa 2012.”

GEA Wordbock now an app The online dictionary for the refrigeration industry is available as iPhone app and for Android operating systems


fter introducing Wordbock – the dictionary for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry – in November last year, GEA Bock has announced that the tool is now available as an iPhone app and for smartphones with the Android operating system. According to GEA Bock, suppliers of process technology and components for the food and energy industries, after the online version of the tool became a big success, the company has now taken the next step to present the GEA Wordbock app. With this, the company said that a free tool to translate technical terms of the refrigeration and air conditioning industry is even more easy to access. GEA Bock claimed that the free app contains the entire dictionary for experts, and

March 2012

provides the correct translation in German, English, French, Spanish and Russian. It also revealed that the continuously growing database currently has more than 600 words per language and contains all the important words around the compressor and refrigeration technology. The preparation of a presentation or a lecture or the translation of a white paper is thereby not only made easy but also much quicker, it added. The GEA Wordbock app can be accessed free of charge on the website on the Apple App Store and in the Android Market, the company revealed.



This section contains regional and international products information


MR constant airflow regulator


ldes has introduced MR, a newly developed constant airflow regulator (CAR), which it says helps improve Indoor Air Quality. Aldes claims that it is a smart solution to balance airflows in HVAC ductwork to a constant level through a passive control, ensuring thermal comfort. The manufacturer lists the following product features and benefits: n It can be used for both air supply and return/exhaust. n Its wide range automatically regulates airflow rates between 15 and 1100m3/h, and avoids under-ventilation or over-ventilation, making it energy efficient. n It ensures correct airflows within a pressure range of 50-200 Pa, while high pressure version ensures correct airflows within a pressure range of 150-600 Pa.

n Its operating temperature range is between -10°C and +60°C. n It automatically adjusts to compensate for changes in duct length, duct leakage, filter loading, and damper settings, to deliver designed airflow rate. n It eliminates on-site balancing of forced HVAC systems, while its design simplifies engineering work and compensates for minor errors caused by inflating-deflating action of the silicon bulb. n It can be directly inserted inside the branch ducts or terminal device locations. n Commonly used in heat and energy recovery systems, it ensures maximum efficiency. n It does not require commissioning/balancing after installation, and it’s easy to maintain.

Bell & Gossett

Circuit Sentry Flo-Setter


aying that it maintains the set flow rate within +/-five per cent, regardless of pressure fluctuation in the system, Bell & Gossett has launched Circuit Sentry Flo-Setter, a new balancing valve. The company claims that it is easy to install even next to a pipe bend or fitting. The manufacturer lists product features and benefits: n The easy-to-read gallons-per-minute scale on the lockable handle makes the flow setting user-friendly, while the integral P/T plugs allow verification of required

differential pressure. n It requires no instruments, charts or wheels. n It saves pump energy and improves coil efficiency. n The lockable handle allows simple adjustment to required flow rate, if specifications change. n It minimises commissioning time due to automatic balancing of the system. n No minimum straight pipe lengths are required before or after the valve. n Large open flow paths ensure clog-free operation.

Mittel Group

Stateview System II


ittel Group, the Swedish district energy infrastructure company, has announced the launch of Stateview System II, a new version of Stateview, which it claims is the group’s advanced system for detecting leaks in district energy systems. Among improvements in the new Stateview System II is a 10-fold increase of the wireless reach to 1,000 metres, giving field workers a much improved work environment, the company added. According to Mittel, Stateview System II is a portable diagnostic tool for district energy pipe networks and operates much like a radar, sending electrical signals along the pipes, and giving heating stations a valuable method for early detection of damaged pipes without the need to actually dig up the pipes or having to wait for the pipes to break. The manufacturer lists other product features and advantages: n Easier administration of data bases


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

n Upgraded server functionality n Easier and more user-friendly handling of the software –simpler installation, easier handling of updates and program additions n Improved functionality for the scheduling of tasks n Improved handling of information within work groups, with, for example, integrated community functionality Commenting on the new product, Johan Sjöström, Project Manager, Mittel, said: “District energy systems almost always represent huge investments, with a need to protect these investments and not allow disturbances to harm daily revenues. A long life span is crucial, since energy systems, like so many capital-intensive infrastructure investments, only start paying off nicely towards the end of the life length.” Stateview System II has been developed and marketed by Mittel’s subsidiary Stateview AB, based in Umeå, in northern Sweden.









P3isomac panels


3, manufacturer of pre-insulated aluminium panels and accessories for the construction and installation of air distribution ducts, has introduced P3isomac, saying that it has been created for panelling air handling units. The manufacturer claims that P3isomac system consists of: special sandwich panels with facings of either sheet metal or aluminium and plastic profiles and section bars for the framing, and adds that tools have been specifically developed for their preparation and mounting and frame borders. The company says that it also offers service for the cutting and framing of custom-made panels, which are delivered ready to be mounted. According to P3, the panels can be used for a wide range of applications, besides panelling of air handling units, like panelling of industrial gates, fan boxes and machine tools, suspended ceilings, partition walls and suction filters. The manufacturer lists the following product features and advantages: n The panels are produced utilising Hydrotec technology based on an international patent EP 1115771B1, which allows eliminating the greenhouse effect (GWP=0) and the impact on the ozone present in the atmosphere (ODP=0). n They are made of a polyurethane foam that, due to the high number of closed cells (exceeding 95%), has a specific heat conductivity value of 0,024 W/(m °C), thus providing a uniform and continuous thermal insulation. n The sandwich structure and the high density of the foam ensure a high level of soundproofing. n They are resistant to mechanical strains, responding well to traction and compression forces, erosion, deformation and corrosion. n The TSC system used for the production guarantees a continuity of thickness and adhesion between the sheet and the polyurethane foam. n The special PVC frame borders allow the panels to be fastened either from the inside or the outside, thus eliminating the problem of condensation, thanks to the thermal bridge created by the screws. n They are ready-made panels and come with either a do-it-yourself method or the turn key method. n They don’t need any extra work and hence don’t incur any extra cost. n The overall pneumatic seal ensures faster installation compared to the traditional screwon system, and allows easy AHU inspection. n The panel is easy to remove, thanks to the “Stopper” system, enabling internal inspection and maintenance of the ATU. n The absence of internal protrusions reduces the risk of injury during UTA maintenance and cleaning.


…STRONG PERFORMANCE. SIPOS 5 FLASH – THE INTELLIGENT ACTUATOR Combining soft start technology with precise control and power, the SIPOS 5 Flash effectively operates your valve into and out of the end position. The best way to protect your valve and to extend its durability. Your benefits: low maintenance and reduced life cycle costs. SIPOS 5 Flash – for long-term, no compromise solutions.

Leading in intelligent actuation • Switching off without overtorque • Valve monitoring through torque recording • Avoidance of water hammer /cavitation • Precise and repeatable control

SIPOS Aktorik GmbH · Im Erlet 2 · 90518 Altdorf · Germany · Phone: + 49 9187 9227- 0 · Fax: + 49 9187 9227-5111 ·


March 2012



This section contains regional and international products information


MCX Controller: MCX061V and LCX06C


aying that programmability has become a reality for a wide range of HVACR applications, Danfoss has introduced MCX061V and LCX06C – its latest MCX universal programmable controller range. Danfoss claims that the new range offers functionality, flexibility and reliability and adds that the modular design can be expanded with the EXC

expansion controls. Danfoss points out that added programmability makes it possible to find the programming solution that best suits the customer’s needs, while the open structure of the ACC accessory controls simplify connectivity with other standard communication protocols in the HVACR and industrial automation markets.


Compress your costs Spend time on things that really matter


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

Danfoss claims that the remote user interface allows programming the entire system’s function using the MMI controls. The manufacturer lists the following product features and benefits: MCX061V n It has a memory card slot to make software downloads easy, as well as data logging functions. n An Ethernet connection gives access to control data and web server functionalities. n With an integrated superheat control algorithm, it can also be used with a range of superheat sensor types, which makes cheaper sensors an option. n The integrated electronic expansion valve driver ensures maximum performance, while the 110-230 Vac power supply makes a transformer unnecessary. n With stable input signals, the possibility to count fast impulses for encoders or perform air speed readings and better control performance in terms of precision and tracking response, it is ideal for heat pumps, chillers, precision air conditioners and cold rooms with a single refrigeration circuit. LCX06C n With the 32x74mm – the smallest controller in the range, it is suitable for stand-alone applications, such as small chillers, heat pumps, AHU and thermoregulation units. n Since it is programmable, it can be used in a wide range of applications, providing the number and I/O type is compatible. n Modbus RS485 serial communication is also an option and the MYK programming tool makes it easy to select and download software. n OEMs can add special functions to the standard application software, or write new software in the C++ standard programming language. This allows one software package for the entire machine range.

Trox Technik

Air Water Cooling Sysytems: Chilled Beams


sserting that chilled beams have become the solution of choice for many design engineers, TROX TECHNIK has announced introducing TROX High Induction Exposed Active Chilled Beam, specifically adapted to suit more adverse climate conditions. This, it says, is in addition to its passive, active and multi-service chilled beam range. TROX claims that the adapted chilled beam allows for lower primary air requirement with increased induction for maximised cooling performance and optimum comfort levels. The manufacturer lists other benefits: n A maintenance-free system n An aesthetic solution with varied design possibilities n Significant energy savings n Reduced operating cost n In-house engineers to provide training and/or assistance


Building Information Modelling (BIM)

, Yo u r t r u s t e d pa r t n e r f o r Yo u r engineering, energY and environment solutions


BB has announced the availability of Building Information Modelling (BIM) for the company’s low voltage HVAC drives equipment. It says that this makes its Revit MEP family of products more easily available to architects and engineers during the design phase, and claims that it offers the most comprehensive BIM HVAC drive family available developed in full compliance with Autodesk Seek and Revit MEP standards. ABB reveals that it worked directly with Autodesk Seek and its partner, BIMAdvent, to ensure successful integration and compliance. According to ABB, because the ABB HVAC drive BIM family is fully Revit MEP and Autodesk Seek-compliant, it is available both from within Revit MEP, as well as on the Internet from the Autodesk Seek website by searching using the keywords: ABB, ACH550, HVAC Drive or VFD. In addition to the Revit files, both the family and the Autodesk Seek website include links to technical information on the specific ABB HVAC drive equipment, ABB added.

en gin eerin g

en ergy

en vironment

phone +971 4 445 7131, +971 4 447 4407 Fax +971 4 447 4410 p.o.Box 125787, Jumeirah Lakes towers tiffany tower, 30th Floor - Dubai, U.a.e.

the three Factor company

March 2012





event ROUND-UP

2012 AHR Expo sets all-time attendance record This year’s AHR Expo, which was held at Chicago’s McCormick Place from January 23 to January 25, attracted more than 58,000 HVACR professionals from all over the globe.


s the largest and most comprehensive HVACR exposition, the AHR Expo, produced and managed by International Exposition Company, attracts tens of thousands of attendees from all facets of the industry, including contractors, engineers, dealers, distributors, wholesalers, OEMs, architects, builders, industrial plant operators, facility owners and managers, agents and reps. AHR Expo show management announced that the 2012 exposition and conference has established a new all-time attendance record with nearly 40,000 registered visitors for the event, which was held at Chicago’s McCormick Place. Together with exhibitor personnel and other attendees, more than 58,000 HVACR professionals participated in the world’s largest HVACR event from January 23 through January 25. Since 1930, the AHR Expo has been the HVACR professional’s resource for new products, new ideas and new services. It’s a hands-on, interactive event that showcases a wide spectrum of equipment, systems and components. “We are delighted that we have established new all-time records for both 26

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

the size of the event and the best visitor attendance,” said Clay Stevens, President of International Exposition Company. “We hope this is an indication that the economy is on the upswing and will continue to improve.” Stevens also attributed the new records to the many new energy-efficient technologies and products in the marketplace, as well as pent-up demand for new equipment. A total of 1,968 exhibitors from 35 countries showcased their products and technologies, nearly tying the record of 1,989 companies that exhibited at the 2006 Chicago Show. In addition to the thousands of new products and technologies exhibited on the show floor, more than 100 education sessions were offered by ASHRAE and many other industry associations. “The show has been outstanding for us this year,” said Mark Handzel, Director of Marketing for Xylem RCW. These sentiments were echoed by Karl Schneider, VP of Marketing for FieldAware. “This is our first AHR Expo and we are amazed at the size and diversity of the attendee base – we were overwhelmed by the response.”

We are delighted that we have established new all-time records for both the size of the event and the best visitor attendance. We hope this is an indication that the economy is on the upswing and will continue to improve The AHR Expo is endorsed by a number of HVACR industry associations and is co-sponsored by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI). The Heating, Refrigeration and AirConditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI)

is an honorary sponsor. ASHRAE’s Winter Conference is held concurrently with the AHR Expo each year. At the 2012 AHR Expo Innovation Award Presentation Ceremony on January 24, the Product of the Year Award was presented to Melink Corporation for its Intelli-Hood Kitchen Ventilation Control product that, according to the company, can save up to 90% in fan energy. The hood adjusts the speed of the fan by measuring the temperature, steam and smoke in the hood. The system consistently runs at a minimum speed of 10% to 50% but can increase to speeds of up to 100% while cooking is taking place to provide complete smoke and vapour removal. Melink Corporation was selected from among the 10 Innovation Award winners for the prestigious Product of the Year honour. The Ohio-based company is a provider of energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions for commercial and institutional facilities. The company offers building commissioning services, kitchen ventilation controls and solar PV systems. At the expo, RectorSeal debuted two new A/C condensate overflow switches for all types of air conditioning units in residential, commercial and industrial markets. The Safe-T-Switch Models SS103E and SS500EP condensate overflow shutoff switches feature electronic probe sensors and an onboard LED display that provide water damage protection, diagnostics and monitoring of commercial and residential air-conditioning systems and their condensate drains. The SS103E combines the functionality of Safe-T-Switch’s Model SS1’s horizontal or vertical installation options with the Model SS3’s clip-on installation for primary or auxiliary drain pan edges. RectorSeal claimed that the switch is compatible with all air conditioning brands, offers the flexibility of vertical, horizontal or in-line installation, and also includes a 3/4-inch adapter, bushing and cap. The SS500EP also features the new electronic sensor probe and LED indicator and is UL-2043 plenum-rated, which offers compact water shutoff device for commercial down-flow rooftop units. Both patented switches’ microelectronics logic circuits March 2012


event round-up

continuously sample via dual-sensor probes and determine whether moisture presence is transient or permanent. The latter shuts down the system and sounds an alarm. The LED displays for the SS103E and SS500EP expedite on-site diagnostics with three LEDcoloured lights 1) Red ̶ unit is shutdown; 2) Yellow ̶ a shutdown event occurred within four days; and 3) Green ̶ no shutdown occurrence. During the Expo, Dectron Internationale, a US-based manufacturer of indoor air quality equipment, named SRS Enterprises, as its “Rep of the Year—2011”. It is the third consecutive year SRS Enterprises has won the award. SRS helped get several subsidiaries of Dectron Internationale equipment specified in a variety of large and small New York projects. “SRS Enterprises encompasses what we look for in a representative of the year,” said Harry Topikian, vice president of business development, Dectron. “They 28

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

sold a large number of units across the spectrum of Dectron’s product lines, including very high profile projects.” The 18-year-old manufacturer’s representative firm, which has offices in Brooklyn as well as Middletown, New Jersey, and covers the territories throughout New York City, Long Island, sold dozens of air treatment systems to the Croton and Catskill-Delaware Water Treatment plants that are responsible for the improved taste, odour, colour and quality of drinking water for the city of New York, according to Topikian. The scope of the projects included dehumidifier, make-up air, heating/ cooling and computer room precision air conditioning systems. Other projects comprise the New York Police Academy training pool, several YMCA natatoriums, Newton Creek Water Pollution Control and Manhattan Waste Water Treatment Plants, Carnegie 57 Hotel, Yaphank Correctional Facility, and various residential towers and private homes. 

A C LIMAT E c ont ro l mi ddle ea s t s u p p l e men t


CHAIN DIFSC 2012: raising global

food safety standards We bring you exclusive post-event coverage of the seventh Dubai International Food Safety Conference (DIFSC), as part of our half-yearly supplement, Food Chain.

DIFSC 2012 draws the food and refrigeration industries Key DM food safety initiatives and ISO 17020 recognition dominate plenary session BY B SURENDAR AND VALERIA CAMERINO

Initiatives taken by Dubai Municipality on food safety dominated the opening session of the 2012 Dubai International Food Safety Conference on February 21 at Al Mutaqa Hall of the Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre. H.E. Eng Hussain Nasser Lootah, the Director General of Dubai Municipality, inaugurated the Conference, into its seventh year. Khalid Mohammed Sharif, Director of the Food Control Department and David Tharp of IAFP gave key speeches. In his speech, Mr Sharif

spoke on the programmes initiated by Dubai Municipality, adding that while they were important, much more needed to be accomplished. One of the programmes, Mr Sharif said, involved cooperation with the Dubai Health Authority, with the aim of controlling and tackling diseases. The programme, he said, made it possible to reduce the number of food poisoning cases to 70 for every 1,000 people. In his speech, Mr Sharif also stressed on the importance of cooperation at the federal level and also at the GCC level

Above: Khalid Mohammed Sharif, and right: receiving the ISO accreditation certificate from H.E. Eng. Hussain Nasser Lootah


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

when it came to implementing key programmes. For IAFP, the conference represented the first time it was conducting a symposium on food safety, in association with Dubai Municipality. Tharp said that IAFP was proud to work to improve the broad appeal of the conference. “With these efforts, we can all benefit from a safer food supply, and we can help protect and improve the food that directly affects the safety,” Tharp said. The opening session was also an occasion for Dubai Municipality to announce the singular honour it had received in the form of the Accreditation Certificate for ISO 17020. It was the first time a government department in the region had received the qualification. Later, Caroline Smith DeWaal, Food Safety Director at the Centre for Science in Public Interest (CSPI), USA, addressed the audience, discussing the topic, ‘The Future of Food Safety’. “The issue of food safety is a concern for consumers around the world,” she said. One of CSPI’s initiatives is the Safe Food International project (SPI), which is aimed at collecting and analysing outbreak reports in three world regions to raise global safety standards. In DeWaal’s view, the key challenges the global food safety industry was currently facing included countries’

increasing reliance on food imports, as well as emerging pathogens, such as the one that, last year, caused the deadly E. coli outbreak in Germany. In her address, DeWaal said she believed that the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control points (HACCP) framework, which incorporated a scientific approach to assess food safety standards, was the way forward to control foodborne illnesses. However, it was paramount to carry out a thorough hazard analysis and institute controls for food safety hazards, such as active food-borne surveillance systems and rapid alert systems, she added. Countries like the US, Japan, UAE and Saudi Arabia, among others, are heavily reliant on food imports to feed their population, DeWaal said. The key challenge, she argued, was in identifying a method which would allow governments to control food safety hazards in foods that are not even present in the domestic food chain. DeWaal argued that the use of different sources of information and the role played by consumer organisations could significantly contribute to improving food safety standards. Furthermore, nongovernmental organisations, like WHO and FAO, needed to invest more in developing tools for food safety, she observed, although so far they have been often held back by shortage of funding.

Kraft Foods views food safety as a “moral and social responsibility” BY VALERIA CAMERINO

Azzam Alamaddin, Director, Corporate Affairs, Middle East & North Africa at Kraft Foods, one of the platinum sponsors of Dubai

International Food Safety Conference, said that his company’s commitment to improving global food safety standards is part

of its “moral and social responsibility”. “We started sponsoring the conference about four years ago,” Alammadin explained. “We chose this particular event because it’s the region’s leading food safety conference. Our sponsorship is not a simple marketing exercise: we believe that as a global food manufacturer, we have a moral and social responsibility to improve regional and global food safety standards.” As a platinum sponsor, the company will have a chance to share its knowledge and expertise through a number of technical presentations which will be delivered

by some of its food safety experts. He added that, in addition to complying with international food safety regulations, Kraft Foods also adheres to local and regional standards, including those issued by the GCC Standardization Organization (GSO). It also promotes food safety through a number of key steps, such as clear and detailed food labelling, which ensures that both retailers and end-users are aware of how to safely store its products, and a trusted partner network with a proven track record in food safety practices.

Lulu’s food safety initiatives target staff and consumers BY VALERIA CAMERINO

Lulu Hypermarket, one of the gold sponsors of Dubai International Food Safety Conference, has taken part in the event as part of the company’s CSR commitment, said Suraj P, Lulu Hygiene Manager. Throughout the year, the food retailer carries out a number of initiatives aimed at improving

food safety among its staff and its customers, such as the “Safe Kitchen” programme, as well as regular food safety classes at Dubai Arabian Centre. Furthermore, all Lulu supermarket employees undergo three levels of food safety training, Suraj explained. The hypermarket chain, which,

in addition to Dubai and Northern Emirates, where it has already adhered to the Person-In-Charge initiative, as required by local laws, also registers a strong presence in Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Yemen and Egypt, is in the process of implementing a similar programme across all of its stores.

March 2012


What the experts said... DIFSC continues to be an annual destination for food safety professionals across the region. One of the strengths of DIFSC is the environment that is created — those who work directly with front-line staff are often the most engaged members of the audience. This is a unique situation for such a large meeting. The meeting has been an excellent locale to engage in an open discussion of food safety risks and mitigation strategies. — Ben Chapman, Assistant Professor and Extension Food Safety Specialist | North Carolina State University

Whether food is locally grown or comes from all parts of the world, food safety is a matter of concern to all people, in all countries and regions. Most of these illnesses are entirely preventable with care throughout the food chain. From the farmer to the chef; from the food processor to the guy at the grill, everyone has a role to play in making safe food. ­­ Caroline Smith DeWaal, Food Safety Director, Center for — Science in the Public Interest | Washington DC

What is good about Dubai and this conference in particular is that it caters for people from around the globe. I am quite happy to see many of the participants from the developing and emerging countries, which primarily produce a lot of food. To me, this is where food safety begins: primary production. With more and more food-borne cases linked to the produce, I see a greater demand to tighten the control at the farm level. When delegates from India, Sudan, Egypt, China, etc. attend this conference, I see a real start towards enhancing food safety in these countries. — Bashir Hassan Yousif, Food Safety Expert


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

A need for closer collaboration

Food industry representative advocates the need for working hand in hand with HVACR industry to ensure food safety BY B SURENDAR

Anil Nair of Kraft Foods on February 21 pushed for closer collaboration with the HVACR industry to overcome challenges related to food contamination. Anil was presenting during a Food Safety Symposium session, titled ‘Role of Cold Chain Management in Food Safety’, in which he revealed the weakening of the chain at the retail stage. He pointed to the example of a case relating to the contamination of Philadelphia cheese (a Kraft product) at a retail outlet in the GCC. Investigation revealed improper handling practices, which resulted in temperature abuse and, hence, the spoiling of the cheese.

Alex Pachai

Ghaleb Abusaa

Citing the example, Nair said lack of awareness among some retailers led to food safety issues and that it was upon the food and the HVACR industries to commonly address the problem. The session also hosted presentations by refrigerant consultants and equipment manufacturers, who raised several issues related to handling and storage practices. In his presentation, Roberto Helena of Emerson Climate Technologies said that energy efficiency equipment came at a cost, and that it was important to look at the lifecycle cost while selecting refrigeration

March 2012

equipment. Alex Pachai of Johnson Controls said that while legislation was good, there was a pressing need for enforcement. Prakash Krishnamoorthy of Carrier Transicold stretched the enforcement point further when he said that it was essential to ensure that everybody checked the temperature during the transportation stage. Another key point the presenters raised was maintenance. Ghaleb Abusaa of consultancy firm, en3 Solutions, said that cleaning of cooling equipment was crucial to control microbial growth. B Surendar of Climate Control Middle East magazine chaired the session.


‘More of a maze than a straight line’ Academic from Dublin describes food chain as a complex entity Saying that the food chain is complex and more of a maze than a straight line, Dr Patrick Wall of the University College Dublin’s School of Public Health and Population Sciences said that no country could afford to be complacent. Dr Wall was speaking on Day 2 of DIFSC, during the session titled ‘Food-borne Illnesses: Investigation and Disease Surveillance’, in Al Mutaqa Hall. In his presentation, Dr Wall said regulations were useless unless they were enforced. In his presentation, he also spoke on the role of the forensic microbiologist, which he said, was to ‘barcode’ the bacteria from the outbreak back to where it came from. In several key outbreaks, he said, bacteria were found in low risk areas, and action was not taken. Forensic microbiology, he said, was recommended in industry. In his presentation, Dr Wall said that it was essential to adopt a broad and more comprehensive approach to investigating FBDs. Major causes that led to food poisoning outbreaks, he said, included contaminated ingredients, inadequate refrigeration, insufficient cooking, cross contamination (raw to cooked), untrained/ unsupervised staff and problems with premises.


DM spotlights its investigation and surveillance procedures Elaborates on work it is carrying out in collaboration with WHO and CDC BY B SURENDAR

The Dubai Municipality on Day 2 of DIFSC shared its investigation and surveillance procedures during a session titled ‘Food-borne Illnesses: Investigation and Disease Surveillance’, in Al Mutaqa Hall of the Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre. Dr Fatma Al Attar, representing Dubai Municipality, elaborated on a joint programme with World Health Organization

(WHO) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to strengthen food-borne disease surveillance with the aim of quickly identifying outbreaks. In her presentation, Dr Al Attar said that the Food Control Department of Dubai Municipality and the Dubai Health Authority had developed guidelines and created an ‘Outbreak Management Team’. The initiative, she added, included drafting a form for

people to complete to assist in identifying outbreaks. The form, she further added, was available online, as well. The investigation, Dr Al Attar said, included interviews with handlers, taking measurements and probing suspected foods. The number of notifications, Dr Al Attar revealed, had increased since the commencement of the programme.

Hegarty speaks of unfinished business

Several more food safety issues need to be addressed, says expert BY B SURENDAR

Vincent Hegarty gave the closing speech of DIFSC 2012 at Al Mutaqa Hall and, in the process, offered the audience much to reflect upon. Mr Hegarty said that the food industry had much to ponder over and that there was quite a bit of unfinished business. “Some people do lose their lives, because we are not doing our job appropriately to ensure food safety,” he said. “All of us, irrespective of which country we come from, have a lot of work to do.” Mr Hegarty itemised several areas that needed to be addressed. He spoke of how the presence of arsenic in various foods was a matter

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

of grave concern. He pointed to the examples of arsenic in apple and grape juice, rice and chicken meat. He also spoke of Bisphenol A (BPA). He was quick to add, however, that the debate still raged on whether it was safe or unsafe, with the French declaring it unsafe and banning it. Mr Hegarty also included food control materials (substances) in his list of ‘unfinished business’ issues. “We need to look at what kind of package we put our food into,” he said. “We take care of food safety in manufacturing, processing and handling, but what about packaging?” Another issue, Mr Hegarty said, was the application of

nano-technology in the food and agriculture sectors. This, he added, had potential food safety implications. Mr Hegarty identified street-vended foods and food fraud as other items under ‘unfinished business’. He said that food fraud posed a greater public health risk than traditional safety threats. “There are near infinite possibilities for food fraud,” he said. “We need an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the challenge.” Antimicrobial resistance, Mr Hegarty said, was another issue of concern, as was country of origin and traceability.

Audits vs Inspections

What makes food safer? BY VALERIA CAMERINO

During a Food Safety Symposium session on February 21, international food safety experts discussed the advantages and disadvantages of audits and inspections, comparing and contrasting the two assessment methods. Prof Eunice Taylor from Abu Dhabi Control Authority pointed out that in recent

Prof Eunice Taylor

years, in countries like the UK and the US, there has been widespread criticism of the standards of inspection of the enforcement officers. In the UK, this was mainly prompted by a number of major food poisoning cases, while in the US, several high-profile cases involving auditors led the public to question the vested interests of the auditors and their often “cosy” relationship with the auditees. Indeed, conflict of interest between the auditors and the companies paying them was seen as a key challenge to raising food safety standards by most speakers, including Prof Chris Griffith from Von Holy Consultants, South Africa, who delivered a presentation on “Why Food Safety Audits and Inspections might fail”. He observed that, although

across the globe, there has been a massive increase in food safety audits and inspections in the past ten to twelve years, there is little evidence that standards have improved, because the number of potential foodborne diseases keeps steadily increasing. Griffith said that there is widespread lack of confidence in government inspections, which on a number of occasions have failed to identify and act on major food safety violations, owing to shortage and lack of competence of environmental health officers, often resulting from limited financial resources. This situation has prompted businesses to increasingly resort to third party audits to reassure consumers about the safety and quality of their products. Richard Sprenger of Highfield (UK) chaired the session.

Global experts address virus outbreak challenges Discuss prevention and reduction measures Day 2 of DIFSC saw eminent virologists debating key challenges in microbiological testing. In a session titled “Worldwide Circulation of Foodborne Viruses: What about Virus Prevention, Detection Methods and GHP for Food borne Virus Control?” and held in Abu Dhabi Ballroom A of the Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Dr Fabienne Loisy-Harmon from the Centre Européen d’Expertise et de Recherche sur les Agents Microbiens (CERAAM), France, revealed that viruses, particularly norovirus and hepatitis A (HAV), are the first cause of disease outbreaks. She went on to describe a number of HAV cases linked to dried and semidried tomato consumption, as well as cases of norovirus infection from lettuce and oysters. Pointing out the differences between


bacteria and viruses, she explained that viruses are only a few nanometers long and, unlike bacteria, which can easily be cultivated, most viruses can’t be cultivated. The most common form of gastroenteritis is originated from norovirus, she said. In the USA alone, nearly 23 million cases of norovirus infection have been annually reported. The virus spreads through human waste, which can contaminate water used for irrigation, which results in food contamination. Sterilisation offers good results in terms of virus elimination, while pasteurisation has various effects. However, freezing and lyophilisation have proven ineffective in killing the virus, she pointed out. She added that sugar has a protective effect against the virus, as

clinical studies have proven that the higher the concentration of sugar, the lower the concentration of the virus. Genomic detection is currently the most effective method of virus detection. She concluded her presentation advocating an integrated approach in the fight against viruses, which would include risk assessment of the matrices, evaluation of the countries of origin, risk measurement and analytical surveillance plan. The session continued with a talk by Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba from the University of Madrid, who illustrated his research project on “Phylogenetic and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Characterisation of E.coli in street foods in Ghana”. The results of the project, which was carried out in 2010, highlighted the importance of educating farmers and

March 2012


street vendors on food safety principles. Mr Saba argued that indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry feeds increases antibiotics resistance in humans. Later, Dr Hamid Mohamed Ibrahim from Dubai Central Laboratory addressed the issue of “Detection and Prevention of Listeria Monocytogenes in Food”. He pointed that humans, animals and the environment serve as reservoirs of listeria, which is normally found in soil and water, but can be killed by pasteurisation and proper cooking. Listeriosis is a serious infection which is more likely to affect pregnant women, accounting for about 30% of annual cases worldwide. These, in turn, can infect the fetus, which may lead to miscarriage, stillbirth or birth defects. The afternoon session was opened by Sulhattin Yasar from Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey, who described the “European Union Risk Evaluation Process on Safety of Chemical Additives used in Animal Nutrition.” He pointed out that chemical additives are subject to extensive controls and assessments by a number of EU agencies before entering the European market and emphasised the importance of risk assessment, safety evaluation and official controls. Dr Anwar Saad from Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority, UAE, presented findings from “Surveillance of E.Coli O157 during 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Chilled Mince Meat sold in Abu Dhabi”. The study showed that, following the implementation of the HACCP protocol, the incidence of contaminated minced meat was dramatically reduced. Joseph Russell, Health Officer from Flathead CityCounty Health Department, USA, concluded the session, discussing the role of environmental health in a foodborne outbreak response. A successful foodborne outbreak response, he said, requires a coordinated effort, which involves environmental health, epidemiology, laboratory and law enforcement.



Climate Control Middle East March 2012

45% of hospitals in Dubai report FBD Typhoid, paratyphoid and amoebic dysentery most common among reported cases BY B SURENDAR

Asia Al Raeesi of Dubai Municipality revealed that 45 per cent of the hospitals in Dubai reported food-borne diseases and that typhoid, paratyphoid and amoebic dysentery were the most common among all the reported cases. Al Raeesi was speaking during the session titled ‘Food-borne Illnesses: Investigation and Disease Surveillance’, in Al Mutaqa Hall. She made the revelation during her presentation, which focused on the structure of the food-borne disease (FBD) outbreak inspection team at Dubai Municipality, and its roles and responsibilities. Al Raeesi described how the team functioned in the event of an FBD outbreak, what responsibilities it took, the function of the environmental health team and the epidemiological team, and the function of the food lab and the clinical lab. In her presentation, Al Raeesi described a recent

outbreak, during which Dubai Municipality received three complaints, and took action within 24 hours. As part of the action, Dubai Municipality interviewed the patients, contacted the hospital for verifying facts and interviewed all the attendees of the associated event. Dubai Municipality conducted a study, and chocolate mousse served at a food business in the city, came under suspicion. Dubai Municipality investigated the food business and discovered that it had used raw shell eggs and that there had been time and temperature abuse. Subsequent to that, Dubai Municipality banned the business from serving the dish until it rectified the situation. As a result of the episode, Dubai Municipality took measures to provide advice to all businesses to use pasteurised eggs in undercooked dishes.

DIFSC 2012 in pictures

The conference was characterised by key presentations and poster displays

March 2012



A Climate Control Middle East campaign on demystifying the world of ducting

Connecting the

ducts Elimination of vibrations and noise in air conditioning and heating systems is of utmost importance to ensure a quiet operation. Equally critical is to ensure that the correct fabric is used based on the environment where the equipment is installed, says Ravi Wadhwani.

Flexible duct

connectors are fabricated by roll forming a fiberglassbased coated fabric between two strips of sheet metal. A dual fold ensures that the fabric remains tightly fixed to the steel, enabling it to withstand high pressures. Using rivets, one part of the sheet metal is fixed to the mouth of the equipment, and the other part is fixed to the ducting. All duct connectors should be rated Class 1 as per ASTM E 84 test for fire and smoke, and should meet the requirements of NFPA 701 for surface spread of flame. Depending on the applications, higher specifications fabrics should be rated Class 1 as per BS 476, Part 7 and Class O as per BS 476, Part 6 tests for fire spread. A vinyl fabric is suitable to be used in clean air applications and is ideal for connecting to fan coil units, and air handling units. Toxic fumes in corrosive environments will damage the vinyl, and therefore neoprene-coated fiberglass fabric is recommended for 38

this type of installation. Smoke extract fans are rated to run for two hours at a temperature of 300°C. Using a connector which does not match this specification is very dangerous, as the fabric will melt due to the heat generated by the fire, and this will render the fan useless. A higher grade of silicon-based fiberglass fabric can withstand 300°C for two hours making it the ideal fabric to be used for high temperature applications. A common problem

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

experienced in duct connector installations is the condensation at the joints, in areas like the Middle East where the temperature difference is too high. The contractors would insulate the ducting till the connector, and keep the fabric part exposed. This will lead to sweating, and will affect the performance of the unit. In an effort to control condensation, some installers fix insulation over the fabric resulting in stiffening of the fabric. This renders the fabric ineffective to control the noise and the

vibrations. A proper method is to use an insulated duct connector, which has a filling of 25mm thick fiberglass sandwiched between two layers of fabric. This ensures that the flexibility of the fabric is maintained, while eliminating condensation.

The writer is Business Manager – HVAC at Hira Industries. He can be contacted at

Signed and

sealed In an age of stringent energy codes, and given the importance of energy efficiency in the building envelope, properly sealing ductwork is paramount to the building owner, argues John Guthrie.

There is no single

method of sealing ductwork that is suitable for every job, nor will any single sealant suit every contractor; understanding the difference between sealing methods and when each is preferable for a given job is essential for optimal energy efficiency and cost effectiveness. Anyone who has caulked a window or a section of tile in a bathroom is familiar with the cartridge method of sealing. The difference between sealing a window and sealing ductwork using a cartridge is that the sealant must be worked into the seam or gap. Caulking seals gaps with thick mastic, ensuring that air infiltration does not deter the energy efficiency of an HVAC system. Of the methods used to seal ductwork, caulk is one of the most detailed and precise. Narrow gaps, cracks, and other well-defined areas are easy to tackle with a caulking gun. Typically, such gaps are only 1/16th to perhaps Âź-inch wide, and the joint is clearly visible to the applicator. The

advantage of such a method is that applications tend to be extremely neat. A disadvantage to cartridges is the amount of jobsite waste that is created. A more labour-intensive method of sealing ductwork is the bucket and brush method. Unlike caulking, this method can be used to cover larger areas of unsealed ductwork with sealant. While attention to detail is extremely important when applying sealant using a caulking gun, the skill level required to apply sealant with a bucket and brush is comparatively low. The human element

can cause issues in other areas, however. Because people often become tired over the course of a workday, the thickness of applied material can be inconsistent. Furthermore, the material begins to cure once it is opened, meaning some product is wasted throughout the process. While an up-front investment exists for a sealant delivery system, sprayed duct sealant is an increasingly popular option. Such applications are four to five times less labour-intensive than other methods, which can offer a huge return on investment for the equipment – spray rigs can easily pay for themselves. With minimal occasional maintenance required the machine applies sealant consistently at 1,500 psi for the full workday. The jobsite trash is reduced dramatically as the sealant is provided in five-gallon pails. These rigs offer premium application and manifold labour savings, a huge advantage to the contractor who can afford

the investment. Sealing ductwork has reached a new level over the last decade. Because of increased testing and stricter energy codes, proper sealing is of the utmost concern for the HVAC expert. As a result, the skill set required for an applicator has increased dramatically. Knowing the appropriate application method for every job is more than an advantage in this day and age – it is a necessity.

March 2012

The writer is Regional Sales Manager, Carlisle HVAC. He can be contacted at john.guthrie@



A Climate Control Middle East campaign on demystifying the world of ducting

Condensation evaluation of permeable and impermeable materials for

fabric textile ductS

In this article, Tawfiq Attari addresses condensation concerns in fabric ducting applications.


When specifying a duct system design, an important consideration is the potential of condensation on the exterior surfaces. As metal duct is most commonly used, single wall metal duct is applied where condensation is not an issue, and double wall or insulated metal duct would be used to prevent condensation or heat gain/ loss. Designers of fabric duct systems also have options to control gathering of moisture and condensation on the outer walls of the ducts. Common fabrics are available in permeable or impermeable constructions. Impermeable fabrics typically are either manufactured as a solid film material or a woven construction with a coating on one or both sides. While the coating offers fabric stability for cutting and construction, it yields a defined barrier offering little thermal benefit. The temperature gradient from duct surface to room air is due to natural convection, 40

this concept in mind, the permeable fabric ducts can be considered a direct alternative

evaluations clearly identify concerns of condensation for impermeable materials (metal or impermeable fabrics). Fabric permeability rate has little effect - as tests results are similar between 1 cfm/ft2 and 2 & 6 cfm/ft2 fabrics.


Figure 1: Temperature Gradient for Impermeable Fabrics therefore very narrow, as shown in Figure 1. Permeable fabrics are generally a woven construction and are processed to a specific permeability (should not be less than 1 CFM/Sq feet at 0.5�WG static pressure). In theory, conditioned air passes through the fabric and creates a thin layer around the duct wall of tempered air. This boundary prevents the warm, moist room air from contacting the duct wall and generating condensate. With

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

Figure 2: Temperature Gradient for Permeable Fabrics to insulated or double wall metal ducts. Figure 2 reveals the expanded gradient for the permeable fabrics due to controlled outward airflow. Test results from a fabric duct manufacturer in USA in collaboration with BESS Lab, showed a significant reduction in condensation on permeable fabrics at 95% relative humidity. These consistent test conditions and various

For applications in which condensation is a concern, permeable fabrics yield the lowest possibility for condensation and show no condensation at 80% RH. It also shows no condensation in the indoor swimming pool application. Therefore, given that comfortable RH for people is around 50%, fabric duct can be used in any application without any fear of condensation. The author is Global Sales and Technical Director MENA at DuctSox. He can be contacted at tawfiq@

product focus Air purifiers

Clearing the air

Valeria Camerino reports on how the region’s current lack of compliance with international standards might pose some safety risks for air purifier end-users.


According to recent studies, residents of the GCC countries are at higher risk of suffering from asthma and other allergic reactions, due to local climatic conditions and an increase in greenery. This is why air purifiers, which use different methods to remove airborne contaminants and improve indoor air quality, are increasingly gaining ground in the Gulf markets. Noel Balani, Retail Development

Manager at Amancorp, the exclusive UAE distributor of Airfree products, explains that the most common techniques currently used to purify the air are heat sterilisation, filtration, ionisation, photocatalytic oxidation, UV, and ozone. “There is a mistaken belief that humidification and de-humidification also purify the air, e.g. those swirling bowls of water with fragrance,” he observes. Air purification is mainly based on the use of conventional filters (both HEPA, and non-HEPA) which filter out particles of a particular size. Another category is represented by ionisers which attach a charge to airborne particles which then precipitate,

and literally fall to the floor due to the heavy weight of a clump of charged particles stuck together. Ozone generators, on the Noel Balani other hand, release high concentrations of ozone in a limited space. Although this substance is an effective virucide/bactericide and

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March 2012


product focus Air purifiers

Sadly, few international standards exist in this field other than ASHRAE, which seem to be based on airflow and particulate matter and thus are not comprehensive enough to include bacteria, viruses and mould deodorising agent, it is also toxic at concentrations required to be effective, Balani points out. “Ozone is considered harmful to health and


corrosive according to the US Government Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and is therefore not recommended for use in occupied areas,” he says, adding that US consumer organisations have litigated against many ionic air purifier brands as sources of ozone and on the grounds of being ineffective. The majority of air purifiers currently available on the market remove larger particles such as dust. However, not many are effective against bacteria, viruses and mould – the most common and troublesome allergen given the region’s climate, Balani explains. “Most air purifiers require regular rigorous cleaning and/or replacement of consumables such as filters, bulbs or catalysts,” he says. “If regular maintenance is not carried out, which is generally the case, then air purification efficiency is greatly reduced and indeed, [the system becomes] a source of airborne contamination!” Balani claims that Airfree works using safe & natural

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

heat sterilisation which is completely maintenance free and doesn’t require any consumables. In his view, the key technical criteria that air purifiers should meet are effectiveness in destroying specified allergens (as opposed to just removing them), maintenance, level of noise, satisfactory coverage area, and electricity consumption. “Sadly, few international standards exist in this field other than ASHRAE, which seem to be based on airflow and particulate matter and thus are not comprehensive enough to include bacteria, viruses and mould,” he points out. As he explains, at present, there are no quality standards and certifications that air purifiers sold in the GCC markets must comply with. “They should be EU RoHS compliant and also pass international standards for electrical safety and fire risk,” he argues. “Most importantly, there should be some independent tests to show efficacy –

something which is critical to the consumer and is an area where the GCC could lead the world with a first in terms of standards.” Air purifiers are essentially energy-intensive devices. It requires huge amounts of energy to force air through HEPA filters, the most common kind of air purification technology used. Balani claims that Airfree, thanks to its low electricity consumption and the fact that doesn’t require any maintenance, responds to the needs for more sustainable and energy-efficient technologies and is increasingly chosen for this reason. However, he points out that, when purchasing air purifiers, end users are mainly concerned with the initial cost, “which can be very misleading once you factor in maintenance, consumables and energy over a three to five year period.” With regard to installation issues, Balani observes that incorrect positioning leads to poor maintenance or ineffective air purification. n

special feature

Dubai Municipality’s Green Building code

Making it real In January 2012, Dubai Municipality implemented a set of green building regulations, which include specific guidelines and recommendations for the commissioning, installation, operation and maintenance of HVAC equipment. We reviewed the code and its implications for the industry, asking manufacturers how they plan to align themselves to the objectives behind the regulations… By Valeria Camerino

Without a doubt, the muchawaited green building code represents a positive development for the whole industry, positioning Dubai at the forefront of the global efforts towards a sustainable and energy-efficient economy. It is a step in the right direction, that for some, was long-overdue. However, now that the new regulations are in place, one can’t help but wonder what challenges lie ahead. What will be the practical implications for the HVAC sector? How will Dubai Municipality ensure that the code is fully implemented? “Whilst the effects of the code will ultimately be farreaching, I anticipate that the greatest impact may be, or at least should be, around the aspect of indoor air quality. In particular, the provision of appropriate filtered and conditioned air for a building’s occupants.” Peter Blanchflower, Regional Marketing Leader, Trane EMEIA, observed. He added: “Currently the standards in many facilities 44

leave a lot to desire, which has a negative impact on comfort, health, soft furnishings and, in some extreme cases, the very structure of the building. Good indoor air quality can actually improve health, productivity and even real estate values.” In his view, in the long term, the regulations should drive higher standards across a wide range of design, construction and operating criteria, especially energy efficiency, water conservation, respect for the natural environment and the people who occupy the buildings. Indeed, he believes that the code will encourage the introduction of more sophisticated designs and better facilities management. “Significant opportunities exist for existing facilities to improve their environmental credentials and save money, such as adiabatic cooling retro-fit to existing chillers, energy audits, etc.,” Blanchflower said. However, he also admitted that manufacturers sometimes face some resistance from building owners when trying to sell the most environmentally friendly solutions. “Owners tend to be driven primarily by the economic/commercial model (ROI) and are not easily persuaded to pay more for something that has

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

Owners tend to be driven primarily by the economic/ commercial model and are not easily persuaded to pay more for something that has environmental benefits environmental benefits,” he pointed out. “Of course, on some occasions, the right environmental choice is also the lowest price. In this case it is win-win.” As far as new construction is concerned, building specifications often stress only effectiveness, fit for purpose or size requirements rather than environmental responsibility such as energy efficiency. This is why, he argued, regulations and guidelines have a valuable role to play in helping the market move

more rapidly towards a more environmentally responsible built environment. However, in Blanchflower’s view, it is very important for countries to adopt standards that cover large areas such as the Gulf or the Middle East, as “smaller markets than this can prove problematic for global players to serve.” As he explained, the risk for Dubai or indeed, any other small entity tailoring its own standards, is that this leads to a fragmentation or patch-work of standards across the world, thus making it increasingly difficult and expensive for global manufacturers to serve each of these markets. “If the individual standards become too difficult to align with, the big players may be forced to focus their greatest innovation towards the large markets where standards are harmonised,” he said. “This could leave smaller markets to be served only by local players who may not have the best research and development facilities or technologies. [And ultimately], it could lead to more expensive pricing for consumers.” Blanchflower believes that, to ensure that contractors, developers and building owners comply with the code, continued dialogue with all the stake holders is needed, along with improved certification of designs and inspection throughout the life of the project. He claimed that Trane has been at the forefront of energyefficient and environmentally responsible HVAC products and services for many years. “We are also working with ESMA & Estidama towards compliance, which is a stepping stone to help buildings be more efficient and less environmentally damaging,” he said.

If the individual standards become too difficult to align with, the big players may be forced to focus their greatest innovation towards the large markets where standards are harmonised

March 2012


special feature

Dubai Municipality’s Green Building code

Complying with DM regulations through VRV technology In January, Daikin McQuay hosted a technical seminar at Dubai Municipality’s City Hall auditorium, titled ‘VRV Systems & Dubai Green Regulations’. The presenters included Michel Farah, Business Development Manager (MEA), Daikin McQuay, Brij Sharma, Consulting Civil Engineer, Daikin McQuay, Firas Kneifati, VRV Product Manager, Daikin McQuay and Kuniyoshi Minato, Consulting Sales, Daikin McQuay. By Valeria Camerino (Inputs from B Surendar)


Brij Sharma

Firas Kneifati

Michel Farah

arah claimed that the current UAE strategy for green developments aimed at promoting renewable energy, dealing with climate change through the reduction of carbon emissions, and focusing on carbon capturing and storage technologies, generating energy from waste, is in line with the company’s philosophy. He explained that the building sector has the highest impact on natural resources, followed by transportation and industry. Indeed, in the US alone, buildings account for 40% of primary energy use, 72% of electricity consumption, 39% of CO2 emissions and 13.6% of potable water consumption.

However, he pointed out, green buildings can reduce energy use by 24-50%, CO2 emissions by 33-39%, water use by 40% and solid waste by 70%. “Generally speaking, reducing energy usage in buildings starts with architects and the building envelope, while the HVAC engineer will complement the architects’ efforts,” he said adding, “If the best systems in the world are not maintained properly, then they won’t give the performance they have been designed to achieve.” Farah reiterated that Daikin’s position on sustainability is similar to that held by Dubai Municipality. The company is keen on embracing the green

economy, although in the past, it has been held back by cost barriers, which have been gradually breaking. On the refrigerants side, the HVACR manufacturer is researching a new refrigerant for high-ambient temperature conditions and low global warming. Daikin’s eco-friendly innovations include VRV, the first inverter-driven multi system for large commercial applications, Farah claimed. In the Gulf region, he observed, air conditioning systems are designed for 46°C. The air conditioning is selected for maximum load but it operates under fluctuating part load for most of the time. Therefore, quickly adjusting


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

refrigerant flow is critical. In schools for example, Farah explained, high occupancy time is during daytime, whereas the air conditioning does not run at night. Variable needs are also found in residential households. That’s why seasonality and diversity are two key parameters that need to be considered while designing air conditioning systems. The air handling unit should, therefore, be selected based on two key criteria: a quick capacity adjustment by changing the load, as well as quick and accurate refrigerant flow control, which can be obtained through an inverterdriven compressor. As Farah claimed, VRV’s key technology includes: n Inverter-driven compressor (outdoor unit) n Motorised expansion valve (indoor unit) n CPU: Integrated control system “All three allow quick and flexible capacity control, leading to energy savings and comfort conditions,” he said. “In some apartments, air conditioning systems are oversized and they stop when the set-point is achieved. But then, the humidity rises, which leads to a feeling of wetness for the room occupants. With VRV, [refrigerant flow] is adjusting in real time.” Brij Sharma added that VRV can be used for diverse applications, from a onebedroom apartment to a 100-storey facility, unlike multisplits, which are usually used for residential applications, and chillers for large facilities. Splits and multisplits account for high power consumption, Sharma claimed. Furthermore, there is no centralised control available. In addition, they have non-modulating capacity control, because they work on thermostat control. There are also pipe length limitations, no diversification of loads and low comfort levels.

That results in damp, nonair-conditioned air, once the set point is achieved. Also, they are low on reliability, have high sound levels and high space requirements. Sharma went on to illustrate chilled water systems’ disadvantages. In his view, chilled water systems have large system sizes, low part load efficiencies and shared electricity billing, which results in a lower incentive to save. They also require design expertise, as well as a specialised maintenance team. Furthermore, the installation time is very long and they are not scalable, which means that adding capacity is a complicated process. “Upgrading systems in the case of existing buildings is complicated,” Sharma said. He claimed that VRV technology can overcome these challenges, as the systems comes in up to 58 different types and capacity indoor units. A VRV outdoor unit also has inverter-driven scroll compressors and standard scroll compressors. On the onset of load, the inverter compressor starts first. Once the unit realises there is a minimum of 50% load coming from all indoor units, the standard compressor takes over and beyond 50%, the inverter compressor takes over again. When the unit is started for the first time, it runs at 2 Hz per second and then it goes up to 210 hz per second. Sharma claimed that VRV systems have excellent performance at part load owing to inverter compressor technology. Kneifati delivered a presentation on how it was possible to comply with DM green building regulations by using VRV systems with particular regard to the following sections: n Section 4, Chapter 1.08: Inspection and cleaning of HVAC systems

n Section 4, Chapter 2.01: Thermal comfort n Section 5, Chapter 2.01: Energy efficiency Section 4, which concerns building vitality, stresses that the cleanness of HVAC equipment and systems must be maintained. Kneifati said that, in the case of other equipment, maintenance will need to be provided by an MEP company, whereas, VRV 3 includes a self-cleaning mechanism. A rotating brush in the cassette will clean the filter every night and store all the dust in a box; and every six months, the dust can be vacuumed away. This, he claimed, also allows to save power and increase energy efficiency, as it has been proven that on average, energy consumption is 10% higher when the filter is cleaned only once a year. With regard to thermal comfort regulations, the air conditioning system should be able to maintain comfortable indoor conditions 95% of the time. That is, the temperature should be between 22.5°C and 25.5°C. With VRV 3, the room temperature can be precisely controlled based on return air temperature (and/or) remote controller temperature sensor, Kneifati pointed out. Also, the inverter ducted unit feature makes it possible for automatic adjustment of the fan static pressure. With regard to acoustical comfort, Chapter 403.1 of Section 4 states that low noise levels should be maintained in all different types of buildings. Kneifati claimed that by using VRV 3 in the Dar El Hadi Hotel in Makkah, indoor unit sound was down to 25 dB, while outdoor unit sound was reduced to 45 dB. The noise level of the extract fan was higher than the noise level of VRV outdoor unit. Section 5, Chapter 2 of DM green building

regulations addresses resource effectiveness. According to 502.01, energy conservation and efficient building systems, EER for air conditioner greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/hour at 35°C should be greater than or equal to 9.5. Kneifati explained that VRV 3 can achieve 14.63 EER at full load (8 HP 100%), compared to 9.5 required by Dubai Municipality, and at part-load (8HP 60%), it can achieve 18.66 EER. As per Section 5, Chapter 2.01 on energy efficiency, EER for air conditioner greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/ hour at 46°C should be greater than or equal to 6.5. VRV 3 at full load can achieve an EER of 10.78 and an EER of 13.40 at partial load, he claimed. As per Section 5, Chapter 2.08 on control systems for HV&AC systems, separate thermostat control should be provided for each cooling zone. VRV, Kneifati said, has its own individual thermostat, but it can also be connected to infra-red remote control. Chapter 502.09 sets rules for control systems for hotel rooms. As per this, hotel room air conditioning should be controlled automatically, based on occupancy and window opening. This is possible with

VRV 3, he claimed. With regard to Chapter 503.04 on air conditioning metering, Kneifati pointed out that in district cooling, there are several cases of bill disputes. He explained that, instead of installing energy meters for each FCU and asking someone to read the meters, with VRV 3, a centralised controller can be used. A digital watt meter will ascertain how much the outdoor unit is consuming. Furthermore, an Excel sheet will detail out the following information: n Tenant A: X kWh n Tenant B: Y kWh n Tenant C: Z kWh The expansion valve controls the refrigerant flow for each indoor unit. This provides information on how much refrigerant flow for each indoor unit is going to the outdoor unit and, from there, to the Daikin centralised controller. Therefore, there is no need to hire someone to read the meter. Finally, Section 7, Chapter 1.05 of DM green building code states that all refrigerants should be ozonefriendly, with their ODP equalling zero. VRV uses R410A, which is zero ODP. “We therefore comply with the new regulations,” Kneifati said. n

Energy efficiency standards across the GCC Dubai is not the only area in the Gulf, which has shown significant commitment to reducing energy waste. Other Gulf countries are also paying more attention to this trend. Estidama’s Pearl Rating system, which was launched in Abu Dhabi in April 2010, is also aimed at reducing the negative impact that buildings exert on the environment. Within this context, Qatar has established the Qatar Green Building Council, as well as the Qatar Sustainability Assessment System (QSAS), while the Saudi Authority Standards Organisation is also now actively working towards introducing an energy efficiency labelling system for residential air-conditioners.

March 2012


country report INDIA

India’s self-congratulatory triumphalism may have toned down in the wake of the recent economic drag. But HVACR players are vying for a place under its sun, which spells great opportunities for the sector. Story by Pratibha Umashankar (with inputs from B Surendar)


With the ominous news of the GDP pegged at an uninspiring 6.1% in the last quarter of 2011 – a three-year low – making headlines, India’s fiscal honeymoon seems to 48

be over. But India continues to bask in its afterglow and appears to hold promise. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) especially in the food retail sector, with its attendant cold chain management, is the potential goldmine everyone is waiting to prospect, as against real estate development, which has lost its sheen, at least for now. Data centres and closed control cooling are the new buzzwords. Healthcare,

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

pharma, hospitality and IT sectors are poised to be the frontrunners, with the manufacturing industry coming a close second. It is this array of opportunities, both potential and real, which attracted participants to the 2012 edition of ACREX, the largest show in the country for air conditioning, refrigeration and allied building services, held in Bangalore, India from February 23 to 25.

P K Goel, General Manager (Marketing and Development in India) for Johnson Controls, present at the event, sums up the HVACR scenario in India: “Retail in India is definitely a new entrant. We see supermarkets, showrooms and shops. And it’s not just in Tier 1 cities but also in Tier 2 cities. We are also seeing investments in the hospitality industry, which includes medium-size hotels in suburbs. The next is

Lucas de Marchi

ISHRAE is launching a programme to get the training completed and the accreditation done

P K Goel healthcare. We have the ESIC (Employee State Insurance Corporation) hospitals, in the public sector. And in the private sector, you see new hospitals coming up and also renovation of existing facilities to meet global standards. The Ministry of Health in India has issued a notification that all healthrelated buildings have to be accredited and that all operating staff have to be trained and certified. And ISHRAE is launching a programme to get the training completed and the accreditation done. “In cities like Mumbai and Delhi, office space for IT is still being created. TCS and Infosys are expanding. So data centre jobs are being seen. Tata Telecom Services Limited (TTSL) has put up state-of-the-art technology using chilled beams to reduce airside power consumption and a combination of aircooled and water-cooled chillers. “Industrial expansion is also taking place. For instance, Ford is moving to Ahmedabad, and that might create substantial HVAC requirements. And on a pilot project basis, GIFT is planning to set up a cluster of buildings, which aim to meet green global standards

and centralised chilled water facilities. The steel industry is on a major expansion, with news that almost 50 million tonnes of steel production might be added to the existing capacity in a short span of time. One, therefore, sees a lot of steel-related HVAC requirements, be they process-related cooling or controls. “The Formula One event in Budh, in the central Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, was a feather in the cap for the HVAC industry, with controls and fire, safety and security systems installed to meet global standards. BMS (Building Management System) has almost become an integral part of large building developments and most hospitality and healthcare buildings are seen to install fire security systems.” FDI – the tantalising lowhanging fruit A recent UNCTAD survey projected India as the second most important FDI destination after China. Though telecommunication, construction and computer software and hardware are the big players, FDI in the retail sector holds the greatest potential. This is despite the fact that the unorganised retailing sector occupies an estimated 98%, while organised trade constitutes a mere two per cent. The Indian Government’s recent, if unadvised, hurry to welcome global retail giants into the closely guarded sector saw widespread protests, which forced it to put the idea in cold storage. But it is only a matter of time before the big players swamp the market, which is certain to have a cascading effect on the HVACR sector in the country, with an increase in demand for cold chain management. “Wal-Mart is trying to penetrate the Indian market, and we do see an opportunity,” says Lucas March 2012

DC a distant dream?

District cooling, which is no longer a novelty in the Middle East, is yet to strike roots in India. It’s still in its infancy and has a long way to go, say Pankaj Dharkar of Pankaj Dharkar & Associates and Chandru Gidwani of Perma-Pipe. However, “We have mixed developments happening in the country,” reveals Dharkar. “We are seeing a movement in that direction. A major district cooling plant is coming up in Gujarat (100,000 TR, going up to 300,000).” Adds Gidwani, “As a company, Perma-Pipe has installed the world’s longest heat-traced preinsulated pipeline for the oil and gas industry – 610 kilometres from Barmar in Rajasthan to Salaya – and also a 150-kilometre-long pipeline,” says Gidwani. “Also, Perma-Pipe did the pre-insulated piping for chilling at the Budh Circuit for the F1 racing. This was a centralised cooling project, and Voltas gave us the job. We also did a project with TCS in Pune (in Western India) for an SEZ (Special Economic Zone).” He considers India a growing and steady market. “Property developers have visited us, and I can see awareness here on district cooling and for preinsulated piping,” he says. Both Dharkar and Gidwani agree that district cooling is here to stay. However, Gidwani believes that the technology is flowing from the Middle East to India in this case. 


country report INDIA

de Marchi, who is with the export department of Brazilian company, Full Gauge Controls. “We’ll see a 20% to 30% increase in business,” says Deepak Malhotra, AVP (Operations) with the Air System Division of Fedders Lloyd Corporation Limited, optimistically. Goel concurs: “People who want to launch supermarket chains are gearing up in a big way to meet the requirements. And there are companies that look at cold chain developments of 500,000 square feet a month. This includes cold storages, ultra-low oxygen chambers, etc.” Raghavan Ravi, Managing Director, Tecumseh Products India, Pvt Ltd, agrees that FDI in retail in India could give the much-needed boost to the industry, and explains where his company could step in: “I think 20% of perishable goods should be handled through a cold chain process. We, as a company, have solutions for mobile and stagnant cold rooms and compressor technology. We can work with parties directly involved in cold chain or get into cold chain.” Avinash Prabhumirashi, Senior Manager, Marketing, 50

Chandru Gidwani with Kirloskar, which is a big presence at the back-end of the cold chain process, stands the issue of cold chain on its head when he says: “As a business, our concern is with the large warehouses. Indeed, the back-end is the nature of our business. We are not into the front-end of the process. But we see the need for a strengthening of the links at the transport and intermediate storage level, and ultimately, at the frontend level, which is retail. Such a situation is desirable for us, because if all the links are strengthened the overall

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

Varun Pahwa horticultural preservation will increase our business in refrigeration.” Ramesh Paranjpe, independent refrigeration consultant, on the other hand, voices the concerns of Indian stakeholders. “When the cold chain concept comes, the Government of India should make it mandatory that at least 40% of the produce they (the international supermarket giants) buy should be from local growers,” he says. He introduces an interesting variable which could give a boost to other ancillary

As long as everything is going to be computerised, it requires data centres, and for that you do need closed control solutions. Between Mumbai and Bangalore, the size of data centres is the largest in the world industries: “The National Horticulture Board is giving only subsidies for cold storage. But we are advocating the need for giving value addition for cold storage, like converting the produce to ready-to-

Sudeep Sethi eat products. Instead of throwing potatoes owing to excessive yield, we can make samosas and stuffed parathas, which can be frozen and sold. And export opportunities will open up.” While Prabhumirashi believes that the powers that be will certainly open up FDI, “because food cold chain is the focus of the Government”, Ravi Sharma, Senior Manager (R&D) at ETA Engineering Private Limited, labels it “a politically driven agenda”, but hastens to add that FDI in the retail sector would be a positive move by the Government. Even as the players in and outside the country eye the retail pie, Varun Pahwa of Bry-Air, sounds a caveat: “Europe wants more of the pie. They are all here for the long haul. But larger companies are probably thinking twice. There’s the inability of the central government to force things through in Parliament. Unless a clear government policy emerges, no one would make investments.” However, there is agreement that with the growing Indian market, stricter controls and health inspections are bound to be enforced sooner or later. And this is where global

Ravi Sharma players and local companies with world-class technology are ready to hit the ground running. Lucas de Marchi echoes this: “We realise there’s a market for a precise and reliable monitoring tool to take care of perishable goods and to ensure food safety. Currently, there’s no one giving the service, and we perceive an opportunity.” Data centres – a window of opportunity Data centres, with their need for server rooms, archive rooms, storage rooms, labs and closed control units, have witnessed an upswing after reaching a plateau stage. Alok Rajput of GEA, whose company showcased precision air conditioning units at Acrex, explains: “Overall, India is a growing market, because the government sector itself offers opportunities for business. As long as everything is going to be computerised, it requires data centres, and for that you do need closed control solutions.” Jagdeep Singh, the COO and Director (Marketing) of Climaveneta, which has a large variety of precision cooling systems like DX, chilled water systems, free cooling and inverter cooling, does some number

Alok Rajput

In the last two years, due to the telecom scandal, a lot of projects were placed on the backburner. But next year, we can hope to see an explosion of growth crunching: “In India, the bigger integrated data centres go for chilled water systems and smaller ones go for DX. Between Mumbai and Bangalore, the size of data centres is the largest in the world. The market size is about Rs 600 crores (USD 121 million approximately). This includes products, installation and maintenance. In addition to that, you have the market that can service the telecom March 2012

sector – the largest in the world. In the last two years, due to the telecom scandal, a lot of projects were placed on the backburner. But next year, we can hope to see an explosion of growth. Also, small companies have set up their own data centres and require two to three closed control units each, and constitute 15% to 16% of the total market. And this will grow to 80% in India. We’ll witness a realignment and resurgence of the telecom sector. The total data centre market in India will be worth Rs 12,000 crores (USD 1.4 billion) by the end of 2012.” However, Singh warns: “Everybody is trying to get a market share and, as a result, price levels have dropped to unsustainable levels. They are trying to make their money through AMCs. And that’s a problem we see. A leading air conditioning major in India made losses for the first time in 65 years, owing to cost cutting. Customers do want greater value for money and good quality, and hopefully this will change the situation.” Pahwa, whose company, Bry-Air’s strategy of spreading out in product lines and regions has reportedly seen a healthy growth, reveals that India is into innovation and that it is finding global markets for its products. “A new product is our gasphase filtration, which is essentially meant for data centres,” he says. “As a product coming out of India, it’s a game-changer. It has a new honeycomb filter, which blocks out sulphurs, chlorine, H2S and other sulphurs, which can cause havoc to computers. These gases are frequent culprits for the failure of IT equipment. Caio Tadeu Brandao, Export Sales Manager of Duro-Dyne, acknowledging this new shift, says, “In India, they’re making products not only for the domestic market but also for export.”


country report INDIA

The other frontrunners Sudeep Sethi, of SPC (S&P Coil Product Limited), whose company started its operations in India four years ago in Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai, says that there is discernible growth in the hospitality sector, backed by a strong domestic demand, especially in the mid-level hotels. He explains: “This sector is growing, because India is developing Tier 2 cities to decongest the big metros. All these have – or are developing – international airports, and that means more hotels.” With multi-specialty clinics, and as an offshoot of it, the pharma sector, has also witnessed growth. “Our equipment, like air purifiers and heat pumps, are perfect for the pharma industry,” says Sethi. Malhotra, speaking for Lloyds, adds, “Our AHU systems have UV, VFD, heatrecovery wheel features, which are ideal for pharma, a sector which has picked up.” AHUs – handle with care “It’s a slow market for HVAC in India,” is Ravi Sharma’s terse verdict. His company, ETA Engineering, has its own construction activities. “And that’s how we are surviving,” he admits, painting a grim picture, but adds, “The AHU market is very good and is picking up. But the standardised AHU market is very small here.” His concern, shared by others, is that there is stiff competition in the AHU segment for price, but not for quality. “People are not going for certification; the coils may be certified, but not the overall AHU,” Sharma points out. “Eurovent-type certification does not exist in India. ETA is the only company having Eurovent certification among AHU brands here.” ETA, among others, hopes that the concept of energy labeling enforcement will 52

Caio Tadeu Brandao

Deepak Malhotra

Raghavan Ravi

Avinash Prabhumirashi

Jagdeep Singh

that look only at the price. For us, this can be a very good market if we can have a good mix of quality and pricing. Otherwise, we’ll not be able to compete with local players. But in mid-sized to large projects, where they look at certification, we can add quality and price.” Brandao believes that commissioning is important from a building’s lifecycle point of view. “If the contractor has to replace faulty products once the building is in operation, it’ll increase costs two to three times,” he says. And for this, he wants ISHRAE (the Indian Society for Heating, Refrigerating and

Air Conditioning Engineers) to take the lead and advocate commissioning standards in India. Though ISHRAE is trying to push for a culture of commissioning, standardisation and better quality control, it still has a long way to go is the unanimous verdict. In the case of cold chain, the challenges become even more nuanced, as the process in India is not organised and seamless. Spoilage due to bad handling and packaging, as also power and lack of basic infrastructure are areas where more could be done, given the geographical distances the goods have to travel.

eventually come to India. “Currently, the Bureau of Energy Efficiency labeling is only for residential units. What about commercial, which is a major chunk?” Sharma asks rhetorically. Challenges While everyone wants to script a part of India’s growth story, it’s the murky subplot they find hard to negotiate. Lack of standardisation in procedure and equipment; non-existent infrastructure, logistics and port congestion, which make movement of goods difficult; government agenda, which is sometimes at variance with the ground reality; saturation in certain sectors; slow growth; unstable market conditions; shrinking profit margins; and stalled developments due to cash flow crunch are few of the road blocks that hamper the sector. But quality and pricing are the two most important hurdles that the HVACR sector faces in India say both new entrants and industry insiders. Brandao of Duro-Dyne voices this: “You have a mix of standard and nonstandard products. In prestigious developments, they ask for and make you follow standards and look at the certifications you have earned. But there are projects

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

“There’s storage and cold chain infrastructure in retail, but the transport refrigeration link is weak,” says Ravi of Tecumseh. “The power and infrastructure situation won’t change so fast, and is especially a problem in rural and semiurban areas.” He believes that solar-powered refrigeration, which Tecumseh has, could be a solution. “There’s a lot of research happening, and ‘minus temperatures’ are being achieved for refrigeration that is solar driven,” adds Pankaj

Dharkar of Pankaj Dharkar & Associates. Conclusion Looking at the litany of woes, one might be led to believe that the HVACR sector in India can be written off.


But if the success of ACREX 2012, where exhibitors (and visitors) came in droves to exchange notes and showcase technologically innovative and environmentally sustainable products and services, was anything to


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Climate Control Middle East March 2012

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cover story Emirates Quality Mark

Tested and

approved Emirates Authority for Standardization & Metrology (ESMA) issues two types of certificates: ECAS (Emirates Conformity Assessment Scheme), which is mandatory and was enforced at the beginning of the year, and EQM (Emirates Quality Mark), which is a distinction mark granted to a certain product to prove that it meets government-approved standards. We examine the scope of the EQM certification and its implications for the whole HVAC industry. By Valeria Camerino

T The introduction of the ECAS and EQM standards has been welcomed by the UAE’s HVACR industry as a huge step forward, as it is expected to significantly improve market transparency, promote fair competition

and, last but not least, reassure customers about product quality and safety. “ECAS is a huge development, because it provides transparency and a level playing field for the industry, and it empowers the customers,” Zakir Ahmed, Managing Director at NIA Limited said. “Local brands have no norms and standards dictating to them, and so some of them label 18,000 BTU as 24,000 BTU. So, you-the customer pays for 24,000 BTU, when it is only 18,000 BTU. With the ECAS energy

March 2012


cover story

Emirates Quality Mark

label, all the bad practices will be blocked.” Indeed, the new label will clearly state the capacity of the system and the amount of power the system will consume in a year. Mohamed Saleh Badri, ESMA Acting Director General explained that, as a national standards body, the organisation also established standards for the HVACR industry, initially focusing on safety and then addressing energy efficiency. “Energy use is a matter of concern for the UAE government,” Badri pointed out. “So it is a national interest to go for energy efficiency. That’s why green buildings and mass transportation are important. Reducing our energy consumption will also keep a check on carbon emissions.” As he observed, about 70% of a building’s total energy consumption is due to air conditioning. “It is not enough that the equipment is in good condition at the time of installation;


if maintenance is poor, if the filters are not regularly cleaned, it will impact energy use by 6-7%.” He was echoed by Mohammad Al Mulla, ESMA Director of Metrology Department and Acting Director of Standards Department. Al Mulla said that the main reason why the UAE has one of the largest ecological footprints in the world is people’s behaviour. “Commissioning of buildings is important,” he said. “It is important to locate outdoor units in the shade. Cleaning of filters is important. Also, it is important that the air conditioner is at the right temperature setting to minimise energy consumption and that we view the entire air conditioning system and not just the individual components. And you have to educate people, and that comes with time.” In developing the UAE standards, ESMA adopts

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

international standards, particularly the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for electrical equipment and appliances. However, Badri warned, “having standards, though, is not enough; somebody should enforce them.” He added: “We are now issuing laws and regulations on how to implement them. And we will monitor the implementation. We will work with different local governments, which will implement them. We will not implement the standards; others will.” As Khaled Abdulmajeed, Standard Engineer at ESMA explained, the purpose of a certification system is to give people the confidence that the products available on the local market have government approval, are safe to use and are of the highest quality. The standards body issues two types of certificates. One, Emirates Conformity Assessment Scheme (ECAS), is mandatory and the other,

Emirates Quality Mark (EQM), is voluntary. “We implemented ECAS in 2010 for 15 product categories. One of those products is air conditioning systems, because air conditioning systems are widely used here, owing to the high ambient [temperature] conditions,” he said. “The second, EQM, is awarded to factories to certify that the factory in question has a good system to control the safety and quality of the product.” Abdulmajeed claimed that the assessment process for a company to be awarded the EQM label is very strict, as the company applying for this certification must have a good quality management system in place and good quality control systems in its production line, a good quality plan for product testing and inspection, as well as a suitable facility to test the products. “So, auditors, when they go to any factories, will assess all these points,” he explained. “And if the factory does not have nonconforming elements, ESMA auditors will recommend EQM for three years.” To date, the brands that have been granted EQM include Gree, Carrier, Mitsubishi Electric, O General, LG and Al Essa (for window ACs only). Midea and Zamil are in the process of obtaining the certification. Ahmed from NIA, the regional distributor of Gree products, explained why the company decided to apply for EQM. “Every product imported into the UAE requires ESMA approval for quality and safety as per ESMA General Rules for Emirates Product Certification Scheme. EQM gives blanket approval for all the products manufactured by the company that are

Government institutions are pleased as it eliminates quality inspection from their side granted the ‘Certificate of Conformity’.” “Secondly,” he added, “it gives assurance to the end users that the brand that bears the EQM logo meets the highest standard for quality and performance.” Unlike ECAS, Ahmed pointed out, the EQM programme is a full risk assessment process, which involves a number of manufacturing and surveillance visits. To apply for EQM, NIA, which was officially awarded the certification on December 25, 2011, had to pay the required fees after the scrutiny of the following documents: 1 Trade License 2 Test reports 3 Controlled copy of relevant MS manual (Soft Copy/in CD/DVD) 4 Brief description of the manufacturing process 5 Plant equipment lay-out (scaled 1:50) 6 Vicinity map of the factory 7 Quality plan showing how to comply with specific standard 8 Evidence of approval from other conformity assessment bodies (if approved) 9 Copies of labels, markings, logos as required by specific standard The above process was followed by the visit of three

inspectors who assessed the company’s lab and testing facilities, the factory and manufacturing process and the quality management during a three-day factory inspection. Gree factory’s strong points [include] the way of controlling the product and the number of testing rooms,” ESMA’s Abdulmajeed said. “They have a very good control system and one of the best facilities for testing I have ever seen. They have qualified personnel.” NIA’s Ahmed believes that applying for EQM was very important to give credibility to the brand and guarantee quality assurance, giving complete peace of mind to consumers. “Government institutions are pleased as it eliminates quality inspection from their side,” Ahmed acknowledged. “Private businesses take it at face value. We are yet to test the reaction of individual customers as it is off season for air conditioners.” Didier Hardouin, General Manager at UTS Carrier, pointed out that the company decided to apply for this certification to meet the quality standards set by ESMA.”We appreciate and support ESMA’s initiatives and drives that ensure only the safest and efficient air conditioning equipment is available for the consumers here in the UAE,” Hardouin said. The company, which was granted the EQM label for its SAMCO products in November 2010, went through a number of steps required to obtain the certification. These included the application process, the assessment of the factory by ESMA auditors for a week, conformity remarks by ESMA, Carrier’s action plan for ESMA remarks and

finally, the award of EQM. Furthermore, in order to obtain the certification, the products had to meet IEC 60335-2-40 safety standard and ISO9001 quality standard. Customer response was extremely positive, according to Carrier, as the EQM label reassured them that the company comply with regional standards and manufacture products that qualify as per ESMA safety standards. As mentioned earlier, ESMA is a member of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and its certifications are recognised

We do support a GCC-wide regulation/ standard, provided it is for the whole market and not just regionspecific March 2012

in other countries, including the GCC. Furthermore, the standards body is currently working on a GCC-wide certification. “At present, we are preparing a draft and will be implementing it by 2014, I hope,” Abdulmajeed said. Commenting on the initiative, Ramzi AbuGhanem, Carrier UTS Residential Products Business Unit Manger said: “We do support a GCC-wide regulation/standard, provided it is for the whole market and not just region-specific.” He added that the company believes in providing quality, reliable and efficient products manufactured in compliance with standards that both the consumer and the market could benefit from and expects all air conditioning suppliers to adopt a similar approach. NIA’s Ahmed pointed out that the GCC market is fraught with products supplied with dubious specifications and substandard quality due to lack of regulation. Therefore, the introduction of regional standards would improve product quality and guarantee fair competition. “This exercise fixes a certain base line of quality for all manufacturers and makes competition fair and equitable for all parties,” he said. “With the GCC customs union, goods can flow across borders unhindered. Therefore, it’s best that all adherents to the union comply with a common standard.” n





Excess stress on the piping system can lead to problems like ruptures and leaks, as well as stress on boilers, chillers and other equipment and components. Larry Thau, making a case for grooved mechanical systems, highlights the design benefits and advantages of the grooved piping method when used to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction.

T The key to effectively accommodating thermal expansion and contraction in a building is to allow the predictable, controlled movement of piping itself. This can be done in a variety of ways, and


Climate Control Middle East March 2012

the selection of a specific method depends upon the engineer, the type of piping system and the project parameters. Thermal transients may impose stress on a piping system, as the pipe grows when heated and contracts when cooled. All materials, including pipe, experience dimension changes as a result of varying temperatures and their coefficient of expansion. This often occurs at directional changes in the pipework or causes ‘bowing’

at the mid points of long straight pipe runs, resulting in stress on the piping system and equipment. When a system is subjected to changes in temperatures, it may experience horizontal movement, vertical movement and angular deflection simultaneously. Additional strains on the piping system vary based on whether the piping is vertical or horizontal. For horizontal piping, the major obstacle is typically the space constraints around

the length and turns of the pipe. For vertical piping, considerations are different and should involve dynamic, static and elevation head calculations of the pressures and loads that are exerted on the bottom portion of the pipe. Carbon steel pipe will experience thermal expansion or contraction at a rate of 1.905cm for every 38°C change in temperature per every 30.48m of

For horizontal piping, the major obstacle is typically the space constraints around the length and turns of the pipe pipe. Piping subject to temperature changes is put in a condition of stress, with potentially damaging reactive forces on components or equipment. The forces generated during this thermal dimension change are often significant and the movement must be accommodated and controlled, to prevent transmission of these stresses throughout the piping system. Inadequate accommodation of this movement can result in business risks caused by excess stress on the piping system, including increased incidence of ruptures and leaks, increased stress on boilers, chillers, valves and other equipment and components, and increased downtime and labour expenses. This can negatively impact the owners of the building by resulting in

increased maintenance costs and potential business shutdowns. GROOVED ACCOMMODATION When accommodating thermal expansion and contraction, the grooved pipe joining system conforms to industry practices. Simultaneously, it provides design flexibility, reduces stress on the piping system and provides a more compact, easy-to-inspect and productive method of installation over other pipe-joining methods, such as welding or flanging. Additionally, with the grooved method, all sealing elements are combined within a metallic housing. Grooved mechanical couplings allow for movement in the pipe due to the design of the components. The dimensions of the coupling key are narrower than the groove in the pipe, allowing room for the

coupling key to move in the pipe groove. Additionally, the width of the coupling housing allows for pipe end separation. This leaves room for controlled linear and angular movement. The mechanical coupling remains a self-restrained joint, and the unique pressure-responsive design provides sealing even under deflection and pipe movement. Grooved mechanical couplings are a great alternative to welded U-shaped expansion loops, welded offsets, expansion joints and rubber bellows. These couplings are easier and faster to install and accommodate movement within the design capability of the coupling. Nonetheless, this takes place within the product`s ‘free range of motion’. Consequently, piping system movement caused by thermal expansion and contraction can be accommodated in smaller

spaces, with low stress on the components. There are four common methods for accommodating thermal pipe movement in a grooved system: 1. Providing an expansion joint utilising grooved mechanical pipe components 2. Allowing the system to ‘free-float’ 3. Utilising the linear movement/deflection capabilities of flexible grooved couplings 4. Providing an expansion loop utilising grooved mechanical components The selection of one of these methods is dependent on the system type, the scope of the project and the engineer’s preference. Since it is impossible to predict all system designs, this article will call attention to the design benefits and mechanical advantages of the grooved piping method when used to accommodate

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perspective The dimensions of the coupling key are narrower than the groove in the pipe, allowing room for the coupling key to move in the pipe groove thermal expansion and contraction. Utilising expansion joints: Grooved mechanical couplings are available with two distinct performance features. One class is designed as ‘rigid’ and the other as ‘flexible’. Rigid grooved mechanical couplings are designed to ‘fix’ the joint in its installed position, permitting neither linear or angular nor rotational movement at the joints. Flexible grooved mechanical couplings, on the other hand, are designed to allow controlled linear and angular movement at each joint that can accommodate pipeline deflection. Expansion joints are devices that can be compressed or expanded axially and are generally the most costly alternative for accommodating thermal movement. A


welded expansion joint is typically an expensive specialty joint, flanged into the system and requiring regular maintenance. More cost-effective expansion joints utilise grooved mechanical couplings and specially grooved, short pipe nipples with flexible couplings placed in long straight runs of pipe and pre-set to allow the desired amount of contraction and/or expansion. Axial movement can be adjusted by simply adding or removing couplings. When a series of flexible couplings are installed, the resulting grooved expansion joint will further protect equipment by reducing vibrations and stresses in the system. Whether using specialty expansion joints or a grooved expansion joint, the adjacent piping must be properly guided to ensure the movement is directed into the device and no lateral movement is experienced. Grooved expansion joints may be used as flexible connectors. However, they will not simultaneously provide full expansion and full deflection. Expansion joints installed horizontally require independent support to prevent deflection, which will reduce the available expansion. FREE-FLOATING SYSTEMS Flexible grooved couplings for linear movement and deflection: Grooved mechanical couplings are an alternative to welded U-shaped expansion loops, welded offsets, expansion joints and rubber bellows. Associated with a free floating system, flexible couplings are

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

Diagram A:

Diagram B: Linear movement tolerance

Diagram C

used in piping systems to accommodate piping thermal growth – without any additional components or piping configuration required. In this example, maximum linear movement values available at flexible grooved pipe joints are published under performance data for each coupling style. For design and illustration purposes, the figures in Diagram B should be reduced by the following factors to allow for pipe groove tolerances. Y = Misalignment (inches) G = Maximum Allowable Pipe End Movement (inches) as shown under performance data (reduce published value by Design Tolerance). Θ = Maximum Deection (degrees) from Centre Line as shown under performance data (reduce published value by Design Tolerance). D= Pipe Outside Diametre (inches) L= Pipe Length (inches) NOTE: Joints which are fully deflected can no longer

provide linear movement. Partially deflected joints will provide some portion of linear movement. Flexible grooved type couplings allow angular flexibility and rotational movement to take place at joints. These features provide advantages in installing and engineering piping systems, but must be considered when determining hanger and support spacing. As illustrated in Diagram C, it is obvious that this system would require further hangers to eliminate the drooping of the pipes that would occur. Hanger positions must be considered in relation to the angular and rotational movement that will occur at joints. Flexible couplings allow linear movement. Therefore pressure thrusts must be taken into account, which would allow the pipe ends to move to the maximum extent allowed by the coupling, and, which would accumulate at the end of the system if the joints had been installed butted or only partially opened when pressurised. By using flexible couplings at changes of direction and

directing the movement towards the directional change with properly placed anchors and guides, movement is accommodated by the joining method itself. This method also produces little or no additional stresses in the system, unlike a welded expansion loop. Flexible couplings also can be used strictly for their axial movement capabilities. In this case, straight runs are anchored on each end and the piping is guided at every other length. Each flexible joint is pre-gapped (either fully gapped or fully closed/butted) at installation to ensure that there are enough couplings to accommodate the expected expansion and/or contraction. Flexible grooved type couplings allow angular flexibility and rotational movement to take place at joints. In order to determine the appropriate number of couplings to use, the designer must compute the change in the linear length of the piping system by taking into account the length and size of the system and maximum and minimum operating temperatures.

In free floating systems, offsets of sufficient length must be used to accommodate movement without overdeflecting joints Where full linear movement is required, a grooved expansion joint can be used, but joints which are fully deflected can no longer provide linear movement. Partially deflected joints will provide some portion of linear movement. Furthermore, standard cut-grooved pipe will provide double the expansion and contraction or deflection capabilities of the same size standard roll-

March 2012



grooved pipe. When considering offsets utilising grooved mechanical joints, the latter must be capable of deflecting sufficiently to prevent harmful bending movements at the joints. If the pipes were to expand due to thermal changes, then further pipe growth would occur at the ends. Flexible couplings do not automatically provide for expansion or contraction of piping. The designer should always consider the best setting for pipe end gaps. In anchored systems, gaps must be set to handle combinations of expansion and contraction. In free floating systems, offsets of sufficient length must be used to accommodate movement without overdeflecting joints. EXPANSION LOOPS UTILISING FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS AND FITTINGS In vertical straight runs of pipe, expansion loops utilising a U-shaped pipe configuration can also be designed into the piping system to accommodate expansion and contraction. These can be designed as welded or grooved. Welded expansion loops require eight welded joints and


fittings to assemble. In a welded expansion loop, the piping bends or flexes to accommodate the straight run movement. Although this method works, the forces to bend and flex the pipe are much greater than in a grooved loop, and the forces generate a larger magnitude of stress, which requires larger anchors and guides to direct the movement and protect components and structures. The flexible mechanical joint can be used in expansion loops without inducing stresses in the pipes, elbows or joints. Also, it is important to note that expansion loops which utilise rigid couplings are not designed to accommodate angular deflection. However, an expansion loop which utilises rigid grooved copper couplings is designed to conform to industry standards. The deflection capability of flexible couplings allows for thermal growth/ contraction to be absorbed within the couplings at the elbows as the thermal forces induce deflection. A total of eight flexible grooved mechanical couplings, four grooved end 90-degree elbows and three pipe spools

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are required to complete each expansion loop. As system temperatures fall and the pipe run contracts, the loop expands and the deflection capability of the couplings accommodates this movement. As system temperatures increase, the opposite effect occurs as the pipe run expands and the loop contracts with the couplings accommodating the deflection in the opposite direction (see Diagrams A to C). Using flexible couplings in an expansion loop configuration reduces the amount of force needed to flex the loop, and the loop itself is much smaller. A loop constructed in this manner will be 1/2 to 1/3 the size of a welded loop with the same capacity. The space constraints of today’s buildings also make this a more attractive option in HVAC piping, though welded expansion loops are still required in some system applications. MAKING THE BEST CHOICE Grooved mechanical systems offer four different methods to provide flexible, controlled movement of a piping system. The selection of expansion joints, freefloating systems, flexible

couplings or expansion loops will be based on the type of piping system, the amount of anticipated movement and the mechanical engineer’s preference. In conclusion, choosing the grooved mechanical method is an efficient way to accommodate excess stress on any piping system. It eliminates incidents of ruptures and leaks due to thermal expansion, decreases maintenance needs of equipment, and simplifies the commissioning process. 

The writer is the Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer at Victaulic. Practising mechanical engineer for 35 years, he holds over 35 patents and lectures on piping technology around the world. He can be contacted at:

22-23 MAY 2012 | DUBAI, UAE







For further information on the event, contact MEHWISH HILAL: or +97143756840



In this review of the role that international summits have played in the phasing out of ozone-depleting refrigerants, Rajendra Shende, Chairman, TERRE Policy Centre, and Former Director, UNEP, examines the key challenges that countries across the globe are facing in balancing sustainability and economic development, explaining why it’s time to “go back to the basics”. 64

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T The more I reflect on the 25 impressive years since the signing of the Montreal Protocol, the more I realise what far-reaching lessons it holds for the global community today and how it is still important to make the right choice on the refrigerants for keeping us on track of the sustainable development. It may sound very elementary for many to think of the debates and criteria for the selection of the refrigerants. But it pays to go back to the basics, particularly when we are faced with defining moments for the technology choices. We are approaching the 20th Anniversary of the Rio summit, i.e. UN

Conference on Sustainable Development, popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit. The conference produced important global agreements, including ‘Agenda 21’, a plan of action adopted by over 178 governments to address human impacts on the environment at local, national and global levels, as well as key treaties on climate change, desertification and biodiversity. In June 2012 the world will look back at the action plan, commitments and targets in the event called Rio+20 in Brazil. It is being held when we are facing a “7 billion challenge” impregnated with financial, energy and food crises. Top it up with the environmental crises underlining the rapid buildup of greenhouse gases to the erosion of biodiversity and the 40% increase in the use of natural resources, and what we have is the recipe of exercise that needs “going back to basics”.

The simple decisions are going to impact in much larger proportion due to interconnected technologies. Improving the energy efficiency of the refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is directly linked to the selection of the refrigerants. The refrigeration and air conditioning sectors consume 15% of the world’s electricity and significant part of the fossil fuel in the transportation sector that secures food chain and human comforts. The direct and indirect links between the choice of refrigerants and food and energy security is evident. The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer has provided the opportunity to make early decisions on such choices. It brought the global community together to find a way to move forward in the compelling time-targeted approach. All countries agreed that the release of chlorofluorocarbon gases

March 2012

The refrigeration and air conditioning sectors consume 15% of the world’s electricity and significant part of the fossil fuel in the transportation sector that secures food chain and human comforts


perspective (CFC), which were used in aerosols and refrigerators, and the release of HCFCs that are still used in air conditioners, were intimately linked to the existence of life on earth. The industrialised world later provided the incremental financial and technical assistance to developing countries to implement the agreement. As Mario Molina, who in


1995 won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in elucidating the CFC threat to the earth’s ozone layer, said: “The Montreal Protocol is widely considered the most successful environmental treaty, phasing out almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals by 97% and placing the ozone layer on the path to recovery by midcentury.� What remains now

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is the phasing out of HCFCs, by which the world has an opportunity to address and contribute to energy and food security more than ozone security. In phasing out the vast majority of ozonedepleting substances, the Montreal Protocol created a whole range of new job opportunities in industrialised and developing countries. Recycling, retrofitting, containment and best practices, in addition to the implementation of energy standards and labelling, are just some of the new activities that were undertaken by industry and governments. These also opened up new vistas for employment. Enterprises in developing countries also

The world is also looking at China and India to develop low-GWP and energy-efficient air conditioning systems that would be economically and environmentally beneficial

benefited from a wave of technological innovation for upgrading their production lines and deploying the latest energy- and resourceefficient technologies. In 2007, all the signatories agreed to accelerate the phasing out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), the last remaining ozone-depleting substance which is still widely used in room air conditioners. Yet, while the Montreal Protocol has achieved much of what it set out to do, it still has some weighty challenges ahead. The 2005 IPCC/TEAP Special Report on Ozone and Climate, of which I was a coordinating lead author, exposed some alarming trends. • A threat from “banks” of ozone-depleting substances: Though the

production of CFCs has been phased out, CFC produced in the past (before 2010) exists in various equipment that is still running, like old refrigerators. Such CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances that still exist in equipment all over the world are called “banks”. About 21 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents contained in old equipment will inevitably seep into the atmosphere in the absence of any significant efforts to chemically destroy them by incineration. • Market imperatives: The centre of gravity for global air-conditioning with HCFCs is moving to China. The country faces multiple challenges. It has to supply the high global warming

potential (GWP) — a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas contributes to global warming - alternative airconditioning systems to the developed countries where such systems are allowed, such as the United States, and low GWP alternatives in places where there are regulations that ban the high GWP systems, such as the European Union. • The world is also looking at China and India to develop low-GWP and energy-efficient air conditioning systems that would be economically and environmentally beneficial. High ambient temperature in the developing countries would be the key barrier for energy-efficient

technologies. • High growth of HFCs: There is also the projected growth of HFCs, which were introduced to replace HCFCs. This increase in business-as-usual scenarios is alarming. Even developed countries continue with their use of HFCs as the refrigerants of choice. HFCs are powerful greenhouse gases and their emissions have to be controlled under the Kyoto Protocol. Forecasts indicate that the share of HFCs in the global fluorocarbon market will jump from 35% in 2008 to 58% in 2018. The world stands to lose the opportunity to contribute to sustainability and climate mitigation if we do not go back to the basics of the “Refrigerants Review”. 

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REFRIGERANTS With the implementation of international environmental protocols in the GCC countries becoming imminent, Dr M Ramaswamy examines the merits of various alternative refrigerants and offers suggestions to put the protocols into practice.


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i INTRODUCTION Air conditioning and food preservation are the basic requirements in most Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries due to the high ambient temperature conditions prevailing for seven to eight months in a year. The refrigeration industry is one of the major sectors which consume refrigerants – chemicals used to produce the refrigeration effect. Global concerns to save the environment from the depletion of stratospheric ozone have resulted in restrictions to regulate the production and trade of ozone- depleting substances (ODS) like Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) and hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) through the Montreal Protocol – an international treaty. Global warming due to greenhouse gases (GHGs) is another environmental concern. The Kyoto Protocol has, therefore, been formed to regulate the emission of these gases. While the Montreal Protocol primarily deals with the ozone layer protection, the Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 in Kyoto, concerns Green House Gas and Global Warming (GW). Broadly speaking, Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) are the two issues to be considered while selecting a suitable alternative refrigerant in addition to other thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties.

While ODP is based on the Montreal Protocol, GWP is covered by the Kyoto Protocol. Since the GCC countries are one of the major users of refrigeration and air conditioning technology, they are required to have a strategy and a road map in place to deal with serious environmental issues resulting from their heavy reliance on the technology. In fact, this needs to be given high priority. In recent years, many workshops and technical seminars dealing with ODS issues are being conducted across the GCC countries to create awareness among engineers, policy makers and technicians. This article offers suggestions which could lead to further discussion among HVAC professionals. ALTERNATIVES TO CFCS AND HCFCS According to Professor Mark McLinden, Research Chemical Engineer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the US, over 30 years of research and development would be required to arrive at and maintain the family of refrigerants which are presently being used in the refrigeration industry. Despite decades of research, not a single substance which can exactly replace CFCs and HCFCs has emerged so far. The present alternative refrigerants generally fall into three broad groups: HCFC and HCFC blends, HFC and HFC blends and natural refrigerants. Most of the HCFC blends have been developed to provide a low-cost retro fill, and are particularly useful in DX CFC systems. However, HCFCs are listed to be phased out, and hence the group has not gained much

favour in recent years. Natural refrigerants, like ammonia and hydrocarbons, have excellent thermodynamic properties, but flammability and compatibility with materials used for refrigeration system design limit their applications to only certain systems. However, this group is being supported by researchers, especially from the European Union, due to its lower GWP. Encouraging the use of natural refrigerants in various possible refrigeration and air conditioning applications can be considered one of the possible solutions and, therefore, merits discussion. The use of HFCs and their blends as an interim solution needs careful consideration, as well as the implementation of good practices while installing and servicing refrigeration systems. Promotion of good practices among the refrigeration fraternity can be regarded as an important step in the right direction, and needs to be taken further. REFRIGERANT LEAKAGE AND GOOD PRACTICES Regular and meticulous system maintenance in any of the HVAC systems is essential to reduce leakage. Refrigerant leakage can occur at any time throughout the lifetime of an HVAC plant. Therefore, diligent system maintenance, performance monitoring, reporting and documentation are the prime responsibilities of refrigeration and air conditioning service and maintenance engineers. In this regard, venting of refrigerants to the atmosphere should not be permitted. While dealing with leakage of refrigerants, their recovery and

Despite decades of research, not a single substance which can exactly replace CFCs and HCFCs has emerged so far recycling merit attention, as well as following the right procedure and documentation. REFRIGERANT RECOVERY, RECLAMATION, RECYCLING AND SAFETY ISSUES Refrigerant recovery is the term given to the removal of a refrigerant from a system for reuse or disposal. One way of dealing with this is to establish collection outlets similar to petrol pump outlets, at selected locations to collect and exchange the cylinders. However, the system and its management need proper planning and coordination among various stakeholders of the refrigeration industry. In this regard, the establishment of recovery and recycling centres at various locations in the GCC countries can be considered a topic for further discussion. REFRIGERANT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY It is important for HVAC engineers to ensure through accurate refrigerant reporting, that contractors and suppliers of refrigeration units identify and repair all leaks and use the knowledge and experience to correct potential for leakage on other systems. In this context, it would be good practice to issue

March 2012



Diligent system maintenance, performance monitoring, reporting and documentation are the prime responsibilities of refrigeration and air conditioning service and maintenance engineers proper certificates to refrigeration technicians after testing their skills through a common statutory body in the GCC countries. Additionally, it should be made mandatory to use only GCC-certified refrigeration technicians for all types of refrigerant management issues. In this regard, the onus lies on engineering societies of the GCC states to play a crucial role in implementing this proposal. TRAIN THE TRAINERS The majority of the refrigeration technicians who work in the unorganised sector are not aware of the damage they cause to the environment due to their ignorance. Therefore, it is the prime responsibility of refrigeration/HVAC engineers to educate the end-users and train the operators to recover, recycle, and retrofit, as well as work actively and positively to reduce refrigerant loss into the


are involved in. The creation of a pool of building service engineers to promote sustainable design during design and maintenance of facilities in the region can be considered a viable suggestion.

atmosphere. Refrigeration and HVAC engineers need to sort out a working plan to pool their expertise to train the trainers to spread the refrigerant recovery, reclamation and retrofit techniques among the HVAC fraternity in the GCC countries. The support of various local, non-governmental organisations can be enlisted to promote awareness among the community about this, with the assistance of the UNEP. A blueprint to train the trainers on the issues concerning refrigerants can be considered one of the suggestions that can be implemented by creating and enforcing international protocols. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES Given the seriousness of the problem and its implications, scientists and engineers are working to find alternative refrigeration technologies. Most of the new technologies come with their own merits and demerits. Solar cooling has tremendous potential and is emerging as a permanent solution to the problem of environment. Solar refrigeration is one of the technologies that should be given priority when choosing sustainable development options in the Gulf region, as abundant

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

solar energy is available in the region. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM) CDM is a method which allows voluntary reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries, in order to offset the required reductions in industrial nations. It is an essential first step for companies planning carbon emission reduction projects, and a positive initiative for a country’s environmental protection efforts. Dr. Mohamed Abdel Raouf Abdel Hamid from the Gulf Research Center (GRC) has prepared a policy which covers the issue of climate change in relation to the GCC countries. It discusses the GCC status with regard to carbon emissions market projects and CDM in the Arabian Gulf region. The development of an appropriate CDM policy, taking into account the social and cultural values of the region is one of the suggestions which needs urgent attention. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN CHECK Engineers, particularly from the Middle Eastern countries, can play a crucial role in promoting sustainable buildings. It is the responsibility of engineers to address the sustainability development criteria for the projects they

CONCLUSION The GCC countries being Article Five states, they are signatories of the Montreal Protocol, and need to phase out CFCS and HCFCs according to the period stipulated in the protocol. At present, though the Ministry of Environment in individual countries monitors the implementation of the Protocol, establishing a central nodal agency to implement it more effectively and efficiently is a possibility that needs serious and urgent attention. Assistance from the established organisations like New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Japan, can be sought, if necessary, in this regard. The GCC is actively considering implementing common social policies. Similarly, establishing a monitoring centre will prove to be mutually beneficial. Taking this a step further, the centre, once established, should form a draft strategy and a road map to implement international protocols, after careful analysis of all available data in the refrigeration industry.

The writer is a Technical Expert in Royal Court Affairs, Sultanate of Oman. He can be contacted at: mramaswamy@rca.





HAVE YOU REGISTERED YET? Refrigerants Review will examine the merits and demerits of a bouquet of refrigerant types, including HCFCs, HFCs, HFOs and natural refrigerants. The event will aim to identify the most appropriate refrigerants for high-, medium- and lowtemperature applications.


Rajendra Shende UNEP / TERRE Policy Centre

John E Thompson U.S. Department of State

Stephen O Andersen IGSD / TEAP

Mazen K Hussein Ministry of Environment, Lebanon

WHY YOU SHOULD ATTEND REFRIGERANTS REVIEW Listen to policy-based presentations and panel discussions by implementation bodies, regional and international governments and CEO’s of leading regional and international companies Network with influential refrigerant experts from around the world and in governments from the region and elsewhere. Interact with key personalities in Dubai Municipality in charge of monitoring refrigerants in the Emirate.

Torben Funder-Kristensen Danfoss A/S (Denmark)

Didier Coulomb IIR

Ghaleb Abusaa en3 Solutions Narciso M Zacarias Dubai Municipality

Meet exhibitors and learn of new technologies and approaches. Receive exposure in an international review event in a iconic, worldclass venue.

Nina Burhenne shecco

Mike Thompson Trane Commercial Systems Durwood Zaelke IGSD / Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California, Santa Barbara


Yaqoub Almatouq Kuwait National Ozone Committee Environmental Public Authority / Ministry of Social Affair & Labor, Kuwait

Reclaiming and recycling of refrigerants Global leakage rates, and the importance of identifying and plugging leaks Investigating rogue refrigerants

Martin Dieryckx Daikin Europe / Environment Research Center, Europe

Cindy Newberg US Environmental Protection Agency

Refrigerants Review has received widespread support from global implementation bodies and regional governments and government agencies. GOLD SPONSOR











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Proper insulation work in refrigeration and air conditioning applications ensures a longer lifespan of the units and minimises problems occurring later on. Dr Laurențiu Pestrițu takes the readers through the paces of installing insulation in Part 2 of the series on insulation.


Faulty installation practices while fitting of insulation material in an air conditiong system could prove to be expensive in the long run. It is, therefore, essential that professional insulators are properly equipped to do the job before they begin the insulating work. This could avoid false starts


in installing elastomeric insulation materials. An installer with the right set of tools and a professionally set up workplace will do a better and a quicker job, and will enjoy the results of a project done well, to his and the customer’s satisfaction. In this regard, adequate preparation before getting started with the job is a necessary prerequisite, and will prove to be costeffective, as time and material saved are two important factors, not to mention the durability of the unit.

SETTING UP A WORKPLACE Unfortunately, setting up a professional workplace on the building site is not yet

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a matter of normal practice that all installers follow. In this regard, a folding table or a formwork panel laid across two trestles can be used for the purpose as a quick arrangement. This kind of setup provides a more comfortable working condition for the fabrication of the insulation material into the right shapes. Also, this way, the insulation material stays clean. Since the dust on the tubes and sheets increases the risk of faulty adhesion, care needs to be exercised, as dust is the worst enemy of good contact or pressuresensitive adhesion. The following are the important factors that need

attention when equipping a workplace before getting the job started: n Good lighting n Sharp knives n Suitable brushes (and/or rollers) n Appropriate contact adhesive n Cleaner (thinner) n Paper or cloth for drying brushes In addition, if pieces are to be cut from insulation sheet material, the workplace should have a surface area of at least one square metre. One essential preparatory task is to stir the contact adhesive thoroughly. The heavy components (solids)

from these adhesive systems, which settle at the bottom of the tin, must be mixed well with the lighter components (activating the adhesive) before work begins. If bubbles form as a result of stirring, then an evacuation period should be allowed for the air bubbles to rise to the surface and be emitted.


Before pieces of sheet material are mounted or elastomeric tubes are sleeved over, the surfaces of pipes must be cleaned carefully with a cloth. This is an important step, particularly when self-adhesive sheets or rolls are to be installed. A suitable cleaner should be used to remove grease and persistent dirt. Only then should the seam be glued. It is essential to clean the surfaces thoroughly when insulating vessels and air ducts on which there is often a film of grease. During the cleaning process, any incompatibility between the adhesive system and the paint or corrosion protection coatings on the components can be recognised. The cleaner and the adhesive are harmonised with each other and contain the same

solvents. Any incompatibility that might arise during the cleaning process – that is, if stripping effects occur – should be seen as a warning sign.


At the points where the insulation ends, preparatory work should be particularly thorough. For example, a tap usually forms the end of the insulation at the end of a valve stem. Here, selfadhesive Aerofoam NBR tape should be applied to the cleaned metal surface with

Figure 3: Over-bevelling in areas in which the tap no longer butts against the main pipe insulation

Figure 2: Over-bevelling of the inclined tap – the upper part of the insulation is not thick enough great pressure, but should not be stretched. The adhesion can always be improved by applying a thin coat of glue, which should have been dried hard before the selfadhesive tape is applied. The tape will form an elastomeric substrate, an excellent basis for adhesive bonds.


Figure 1: Applying self-adhesive Aerofoam NBR tape to create a perfect substrate

In order to ensure that taps butt against the insulation of the main pipe optimally, the pieces must be bevelled, especially in the case of 90°, 60° and 45° branches. This also applies to the typical valve tap for insulating valve stems. If the material is bevelled at

March 2012

If pieces are to be cut from insulation sheet material, the workplace should have a surface area of at least one square metre the wrong angle or poorly cut, faulty adhesion often occurs here. As a result, the insulation thickness calculated to prevent condensation may not be achieved at these critical points. The insulation material is often bevelled after the shaped piece has been cut out. It is essential to ensure, in this case, that it is only carried out where the tap will actually butt against the main pipe insulation later. Experience shows that pieces are often over-bevelled here. If bevelling is carried out



Figure 4: The ideal procedure – continuous bevelling with gentle transitions while cutting out the piece

Figure 7: Metal reinforcement on a valve

whilst the parts for the shaped piece are being cut out, then the best result is achieved. A gentle transition from the bevelled to the unbevelled section can be achieved this way.

n The length (approx. ¾ of the circumference) of the flange

can be achieved. However, a sheet of metal is even more suitable as reinforcement. The dimensions of the piece are determined by: n The height (flange to flange)

If the metal reinforcement is bent slightly, it can easily be wedged onto the flange and then attached with

reinforcement is that the longitudinal seam of the cap (which should be located on the side wherever possible) can now be closed under pressure, working from the inside out. This procedure eliminates any risk of the seam gaping open inwards. In the case of smaller valves, it is sufficient to reinforce using a PVC foil jacket.


From the procedure shown above, it is evident that stress needs to be laid on appropriate working conditions and the preparatory work for the professional installation of closed cell insulation materials. The reliability of the insulation can be safeguarded by investing a little time and material on the process. These measures will not only help the longterm functionality of the low-temperature insulation work, but will also reduce potential problems. n

References Figure 5: Unevenly shaped valve insulation without reinforced substrate Figure 8: Secure adhesion due to the metal reinforcement


A cavity is formed under the cap, when insulating valves, strainers and other installations. This can be reduced by packing with remnants of insulation material. At the same time, this gives shape to the cap and increases its stability. The benefit lies less in the additional insulation effect, rather than in the fact that a strictly geometrical shape


Figure 6: Mounting the metal reinforcement

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

mounting tape. In order to protect the surface against corrosion, the self-adhesive insulation tape should be applied to the flange before the metal reinforcement is mounted. This prevents any negative impact due to the reaction of different metals with different electrical potentials. The advantage of a stable

Helms, Hubert und Weber, Michael (1999): Richtige Verarbeitung von Elastomeren Dämmstoffen. (The correct installation of elastomeric insulation materials). In: Isoliertechnik 3/1999, p. 18-27. Weber, Michael (2004): Die Dämmung von Kältepumpen. (Insulating refrigeration pumps) In: Isoliertechnik 6/2004, p. 6-14. The writer is Product Manager Insulation - Middle East, India and Africa, at Hira Industries. He can be contacted at

spotlight This is the twelfth in a multi-part series on air filtration



The underlying aspects influencing the filtration techniques and choices In Part 12 of the series on air filtration, Dr. Iyad Al-Attar discusses the function of each filtration stage and the filter design required and also addresses underlying reasons that would make filter performance deviate from the laboratory test reports.

H Historically, air filtration has been a fascinating and vital engineering practice to many residential and industrial applications. Today, there is hardly any human, industrial, or scientific activity of any sort or scale that filtration is not an integrated part of its wellsprings. It is therefore, difficult to subsume it under any single engineering process.

Throughout the development of air filters, media and filter cartridge designers and manufacturers have competed to produce the best efficiency at the lowest air resistance. The rise of the pressure drop has always turned consultants away from choosing higher efficiencies for a specific application. Therefore, the market availability of aerodynamic and efficient filters will definitely be a game-changer in the field of air filtration.

Filter performance deviation

The available literature on air filtration field strongly demonstrates its complexity

and simultaneous dynamic variation with several parameters. These parameters include face velocity, aerosol characteristics, filter medium properties, filter design, ambient conditions and dust types and their operating and loading conditions. Throughout the filtration research history, various assumptions were made in the literature in order to simplify the evaluation process of air filters. However, this evaluation can be viewed merely as a performance indication rather than exact filter performance. Furthermore, there are some parameters that are timedependent such as mass loading, dust cake thickness,

March 2012

fibre shape, filter porosity, which leads to variation to the filter medium geometry due to particle deposition. All these factors, in addition to climate conditions and geographic location, participate in the air filter performance deviation from laboratory test reports.

Mechanical capture mechanisms

Mechanical capture mechanisms as referred by R.C. Brown (1993) are “the mechanisms that come into effect without the influence of attractive forces between the airborne particles and the filter fibre� [1]. As discussed in an earlier article of this series, these mechanisms are




Washable Material filter

Corrugated or Pocket filter

Minipleat cartridge or Pocket filter

Minipleat cartridge or Panel Pleated filter

Figure 1: Examples of filtration stages and products that may be used for each application A= Surface area H = Filter medium thickness O = Particle

Filter (1)

Filter (2)

1 Face Velocity, Vf

straining, impaction ( I), interception ( R) and diffusion ( D) mechanisms. In gas filtration, it is common to assume that each mechanism acts independently of the rest. When evaluating the overall efficiency of a filter, the mechanisms considered are diffusion, interception and inertial impaction since they are the most important [2]. Several studies [2,3,4] approached the problem of assessing the overall efficiency when more than one collection mechanism is dominant. The total single fibre efficiency ( ) then becomes the sum of the single fibre efficiencies of each individual mechanism to yield: = D+ R+ I . The practice of simple addition of the individual filtration mechanisms is based on the assumption that only one mechanism is dominant, while the contributions of the other mechanisms are not significant. However, when absolute filters are assessed, the impaction mechanism effect is usually omitted as diffusion and interception are the two dominant mechanisms around the Most Penetrating Particle Size range (MPPS). The total single fibre efficiency ( ) then becomes: = D+ I . It is important to realise that, while each capture mechanism effects are usually addressed separately, this by no means suggests they also act independently even if only one is dominant and, in fact, all mechanisms operate simultaneously [1]. In the case of impaction and interception and interception and diffusion mechanisms, some researchers have suggested that these mechanisms compete for the same particle and proposed a “combined effect” term to be added to the total single fibre efficiency equation.

(A1<A2) (V1 >V2)

Pleat Density

(t1 < t2)

Pleat Height

Figure 2: Illustration of flat and pleated media concepts

Filtration stages

Clearly, filtration cannot be conducted by the solo performance of a single filtration stage. Therefore, it is absolutely imperative to select appropriately the filtration stages and choose the filters which would do the anticipated job. Filtration stages progress from Fresh to Pre and finally to Fine and Absolute. Higher surface area is required to achieve the required efficiency. There are several combinations of selection and the schematic in Figure 1 shows some examples but by no means covers all the available options in the market. There are two important aspects to highlight here: Improving particle residence time

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

inside the filter medium and therefore increasing the effect of diffusional capture mechanism. This can be done by extending the filter surface area either by adding additional media pockets or by pleating the flat filter medium as shown in Figure 2 for Filters (1) and (2) respectively. In the same figure, the surface area (A) is extended to show A² > A1, which would lead to lower face velocity, that is V² < V1 and consequently the particle residence time inside the filter medium is higher, that is t2 > t1.

Filter Lifetime

Ideally, the entire lifetime of a depth filter goes progressively through

the stage of stationary depth to non-stationary stage until particle surface deposition begins and dust cake formation occurs. The scanning electron microscopic images in Figure 3 illustrate the progression discussed. To increase the probability of particles to deposit within the depth of filter medium, the particle size relative to the filter media pore size must be considered. However, we have to keep in mind several aspects: 1. One filter of F-grade [5] or Absolute class [6] cannot be used to deal with the entire particle size distribution of the atmospheric dust. By doing so, large particles will be strained on the surface of

It is important to realise that while each capture mechanism effects are usually addressed separately, this by no means suggestS they also act independently even if only one is dominant and in fact, all mechanisms operate simultaneously the high efficiency medium simply due to its particle size being larger the pore size. This will not allow the filter to act as a depth filter and surface deposition will take place. In other words, the depth filter would act as a surface filter. This is a not a good practice and defeats the intended operating objectives of utilising the entire filter depth. Therefore, Fresh and Prefilters are required to precede Fine and Absolute filters to allow each stage to deal with the appropriate particle size range relative to







Figure 3: Progression of dust deposition on a fine pleated filter from stationary filtration to dust cake formation. media pore size distribution. 2. Fresh air filters encounter the entire particle size distribution of atmospheric air, and therefore, particles might be collected by straining, impaction and interception. Pre-filters come after the fresh air stage and their main

target is to avoid having the filter to strain its surface with particles. As far as the Fine and Absolute stages are concerned, it is not acceptable to strain particles at these two stages. In addition, the particle concentration reaching

March 2012

these stages, specifically the Absolute filters, are expected to be very low.

The atmospheric aerosol The atmospheric aerosol consists of particle emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources,



Ideally, the entire lifetime of a depth filter goes progressively through the stage of stationary depth to nonstationary stage until particle surface deposition begins and dust cake formation occurs

which refer to those emitted by human activities [2]. Examples of natural sources are: sand storms, volcanoes, forest, and sea spray. The dynamic mixture of solid and liquid particles emitted from sources contributes to the variation of the atmospheric air. Therefore, it is difficult to generalise the physical and chemical characterisation of the atmospheric air as it may vary depending on the geographic location and human activities


surrounding it. The particle size distribution of the atmospheric air challenging the fresh air filters varies in terms of contaminant number and concentration. Therefore, it is not at all surprising that the laboratory test results cannot be fully representative of the filtration of regional atmospheric dust. It is also fair to highlight that, for example, the elevated dust concentrations in Arabian Peninsula during sand storms are so extreme that they may not be attainable in testing an industrial scale filter in a laboratory setting. To facilitate a real time filter performance assessment for the regional ambient conditions considering aerosol characteristics, climate and operating conditions, it is suggested that a mobile air filtration testing facility is designed, constructed and used. This facility will enable real time testing using actual atmospheric aerosol without having to accelerate testing in a laboratory setting. The mobility of the testing facility will help examine the effect of aerosol characteristics for different locations, which is important in our Gulf region, due to the widely varying dust types and atmospheric loadings conditions (owing to frequent periods of high winds). It could also be a useful tool to measure filter performance in industrial areas and assess dust concentration and dust types and other contaminants. A research mobile unit of such capabilities would greatly help in better understanding the filter performance and in making appropriate and suitable air filtration

Climate Control Middle East March 2012

selection for each application.

Zooming out

Dust removal seems to immediately hover in our minds whenever the topic of air filtration is addressed, as if it is the only harmful contaminant existing in the atmosphere. Minor or no emphases are placed on other contaminants such as radon, soot, carbonaceous particles, and gashouses contaminants among many other contaminants that exist in the atmospheric air. Quite simply, we ought to zoom out to gain a wider perspective of the contaminants surrounding us that would require both thorough characterisation and in-depth analysis to make educated filtration decisions in choosing the required filtration solutions. n

Dust removal seems to immediately hover in our minds whenever the topic of air filtration is addressed, as if it is the only harmful contaminant existing in the atmosphere

References: [1] Brown R.C. 1993. “Air filtration: an integrated approach to the theory and application of fibrous filters”, Pergamum Press, Oxford. [2] Hinds W.C., 1998. “Aerosol Technology”, Wiley, New York. [3] Lee K.W., and Liu B.Y.H., 1982. “Experimental study of filtration by fibrous filters”, Aerosol Sci. Technol.,1(1), 35-46. [4] Ramarao B.V., Tien C. and Mohan S., 1994. “Calculation of single fiber efficiencies for interception and impaction with superposed Brownian motion”, J. Aerosol Sci., 25(2), 295-313. [5] EN 779:1993, Particulate air filters for general ventilation; requirements, testing, marking [6] DIN 1822-1, 1998. “High efficiency air filters (HEPA and ULPA)” Part 1: Classification, performance testing, marking.

The writer is Regional Director, Middle East, and International Consultant, EMW Filtertechnik, Germany. He can be contacted at iyad.

This time around, we are talking water!







The Climate Control Conference (C3) Doha aims to foster discussion on the following questions and more in April 2012: 1. Out of the current and future expected water consumption of the country, what is the percentage needed by district cooling?


• Interact with top level decision makers. Attendees will include heads of local authorities, chairpersons, CEOs, CFOs and more from the region’s leading players

2. Is it worth the exercise?

• Meet qualified HVAC experts face-to-face at roundtable meetings

3. If yes, would the possible savings, using latest technologies and available options, also be worth the exercise?

• Brand and promote your products

4. If yes, C Doha will examine the latest technoogies and options offered by the poineers in the water industry by giving them the chance to showcase their technologies in the form of presentations and open discussions with the audience.

• Network & establish new contacts with leaders in HVAC industry and take advantage of high profile deal-making opportunities


• Learn about the latest developments in HVAC industry in a five-star venue


C3 Doha is a two-day-long conference, which will see technical presentations, panel discussions and cluster discussions. Day 2 will spotlight challenges and recent advancements in cooling towers. The Conference will generate a series of recommendations that will be extensively published in Climate Control Middle East and in other media platforms.




For further information on the event, contact Mehwish Hilal: Events & Marketing Manager

T: +971 (4) 375 6840 E:


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Special feature: Dubai Municipality's Green Building Code p44 Product Focus Air Purifiers p41 Country focus India p48 Abu Dhabi unveils LubiT bags News DSI reports strong fiscal 2011 p6 new utility bill p12

award p18


Chillventa reports encouraging response p20


PLUS: Event round-up, Comings & Goings, Marketplace

Getting into the groove p58 Filtration stages p75

MARCH 2012

CCME - March 2012  

The March 2012 issue of Climate Control Middle East

CCME - March 2012  

The March 2012 issue of Climate Control Middle East