CCME June 2014

Page 1


Empower inks deal with TECOM Investments p6

Qatar Cool bags 4th DC project p8

Halton opens new office in Dubai p10

PERSPECTIVE: Insulating against moisture risk p72

REPORTS: 2nd Annual Me Vrf and Ieq Conferences p22

HOT TOPIC: Mimicking nature to combat MERS p76

CASE-IN POINT: Modular data centre cooling system p80

PLUS: Marketplace, ASHRAE Update

JUNE 2014


The chilliest Chill in a while... FEATURING:

Exclusive interview with Tabreed CEO Jasim Thabet

introspect Does the dc industry need to re-think its strategies to win over sceptics?



Vol. 9 No. 6 | JUNE 2014 04 from the editor

Alluring opportunities at the cusp


contents 37

06 The region 12 At large 16 Marketplace


22 Predicting the future

The 2nd Annual Middle East Variable Refrigerant Flow Conference, held on March 31 and April 1, at Yas Island, Abu Dhabi, offered a unique opportunity for stakeholders to meet and discuss key issues regarding VRF technology. We bring you the second and final part of our comprehensive coverage of the event.

PERSPECTIVE 66 Cold facts

Variable speed drives reduce energy consumption and increase system efficiency in refrigeration applications, says Abdelhak Dhab, and backs it with empirical evidence.

72 Insulating against moisture risk Demonstrating how water vapour diffusion can greatly reduce the effectiveness of a material, Dr Laurentiu Pestritu underscores the importance of selecting the right kind of insulation in the interest of installation longevity and energy savings.

76 Mimicking nature to combat MERS

The MERS virus – short for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome – has surfaced in the region. SR Khanna throws light on the symptoms and claims that hydroxyl-releasing technology can minimise the viral infection risk by improving IEQ.

CASE-IN POINT 80 Airing an innovative idea

A modular data centre cooling system, developed by British cooling specialist, Airedale International is set to deliver pan-African mobile telecommunications company, Vodacom Pty Ltd, significant energy savings by exploiting free-cooling opportunities, an added challenge in the southern African climate. We bring you the case study.





FEATURING 40 Exclusive interview with Jasim Thabet, CEO, Tabreed 52 District Cooling in Oman, George Berbari, CEO, DC PRO Engineering 54 BPHE technology – the right decision 56 One-on-one with Dan Coday, Tower Tech Inc 60 Dan Mizesko, Al Shirawi US Chiller Services, on proactive chiller maintenance

62 The case of disappearing water

INTERVIEW 64 Focus on worker thermal comfort

Port-A-Cool in May opened a warehouse in Dubai’s Jebel Ali Free Zone with an avowed focus emphasis on providing cooling solutions to ensure good thermal comfort and safety for of workers in the region during the hot summer months. Climate Control Middle East in conversation with Ben Wulf, the President and CEO of the company and with Bob Mangiaforte, the Director of International Sales…


12-13 May 2014 | Hall 5 & Al Multaqua Ballroom, Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre (Dubai World Trade Centre), UAE

June 2014


from the



Publisher Dominic De Sousa

Alluring opportunities at the cusp

Managing Director & Associate Publisher Frédéric Paillé | Editorial Director & Associate Publisher B Surendar | CEO Nadeem Hood |

ise in population, rapid urbanisation, increase in per capita income and changing consumption habits in the GCC have powerful implications for the cold chain industry. The impact of the four factors has never been more acutely felt than now. The population in the GCC will likely touch 53 million by 2020; it currently stands at over 40 million. And according to the World Urbanisation Prospects report, issued by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, in the second half of last year, an estimated 45 million people in the GCC will be living in dense urban clusters by 2020. According to the report, that works out to a mind-boggling 85% of the total estimated population in the GCC. The GCC has seen strong GDP growth. The GDP is likely to touch USD 1.8 trillion by next year, from USD 1.1 trillion at the beginning of the decade. And the per capita income is likely to touch USD 38,000 by 2015. Urbanisation and growth in per capita income alone are strong drivers for an increase in consumption of food in the region. These two factors mean entire sections of the population with an inclination for ready-to-eat chilled and frozen food. These changes in consumer habits represent an opportunity for the cold chain industry to contribute to the need for food that is protected from temperature abuse. In the months and years to come, manufacturers of refrigerating equipment and specialised refrigeration consultants and contractors are going to be busier than ever. While there are tremendous opportunities for meteoric financial growth, there is no ignoring the fact that there is an equal opportunity for working hard to get things right. For long, the region has been characterised by bad practices in refrigeration infrastructure design and construction and equally deplorable installation and after-sales efforts. The result has been inefficient and unreliable cold storage facilities and other features. Regulation is making its presence felt, especially in the UAE, as is enforcement, although there is no hiding the fact that the strength in numbers of enforcement officers is still below the desired level. While regulation and enforcement are key elements that can contribute to better cold chain infrastructure, perhaps the most powerful ally is a strong culture of food safety among food establishments and the cold chain industry. A percolating culture will lead to self-discipline and the vision to balance commercial considerations with responsibility towards society to build better cold storage facilities, with an emphasis on energy efficiency (important for sustaining the business as much as for safeguarding the environment) and reliability. The cold chain industry in the GCC stands at the cusp of an opportunity for getting things right at the very foundation level of the new paradigm of rising populations, urbanisation, increase in per capita income and changing habits. Its credibility and success depend on how it responds to the possibilities.

Contributing Editors Pratibha Umashankar Anoop K Menon Senior Business Development Consultant Stephanie McGuinness Design Genesis Salao | Webmaster Troy Maagma | Database/ Subscriptions Manager Purwanti Srirejeki Advertising Enquiries Frédéric Paillé: +971 50 7147204 Stephanie McGuinness: +971 50 5034087 USA and Canada Kanika Saxena Director (North America) 25 Kingsbridge Garden Cir Suite 919 Mississauga, ON, Canada L5R 4B1 Tel/fax: +1 905 890 5031 Euro Zone and UK Sicking Industrial Marketing Wilhelm Sicking 45130 Essen - Emmastrasse 44 Tel: +49 (0)201-779861 Fax: +49 (0)201-781741 Andreas Sicking 59872 Freienohl - Kurt-Schumacher-Str. 16 Tel: +49 (0)2903-3385-70

B Surendar Editor @BSurendar_HVACR

Get the next issue of Climate Control Middle East early! Did you know that Climate Control Middle East is also available electronically? Get a digitised copy of the magazine every month, before the issue goes for print! As a bonus, the digital version includes such features as a keyword search, annotation, highlight, note-making and hot links. For more details, please access


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Empower inks deal TECOM Investmen with ts p6



HOT TOPIC: Insulati ng bags CASE-IN POINT: Mimickin g 4th DC project p8 Halton opens new against moisture Modular data office in Dubai p10 nature to combat risk p72 centre cooling MERS p76 REPORT S: 2nd Annual system p80 ME VRF and IEQ Conferen ces p22 PLUS: Marketpla Qatar Cool

ce, ASHRAE Update

JUNE 2014


The chilliest Chill in a while... FEATURING:

Exclusive interview with Tabreed CEO Jasim Thabet

Printed by: Excel Printing Press, Sharjah, UAE







Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Head Office PO Box 13700 Dubai, UAE Tel: +971 4 375 68 30 Fax: +971 4 43 419 06 Web:

© Copyright 2014 CPI. All rights reserved. While the publishers have made every effort to ensure the accuracy of all information in this magazine, they will not be held responsible for any errors therein.

happenings the region

Empower inks deal with TECOM Investments

Will provide 120,000 TR District Cooling services to d3 project

expected to begin in the fourth quarter of this year, with a capacity of 10,000 TR. The project will boost Empower’s portfolio by 12%. Located close to Downtown Dubai and Business Bay, d3 is expected to be the creative hub in the Emirate’s flourishing design scene, with spaces for art, fashion and luxury outlets.


mpower is set to provide 120,000 Refrigeration Tonnes (TR) District Cooling services for TECOM Investments’ Dubai Design District (d3) project. Announcing this in an official communiqué, Empower revealed that the total value of the project is estimated at AED 750 million, and will be financed through Empower’s revenues. Empower gave further details of the project: d3’s

District Cooling network will be implemented in several phases. The first phase is

Highlighting that this was one of the largest and most important projects ever

EmiratesGBC signs agreement with Dubai Central Laboratory

Will help promote technical inputs for green material testing

• Provide technical suggestions and recommendations relating to the testing specifications • Participate in EmiratesGBC networking events and workshops • Cooperate in developing future tours of the facility for the Council’s members • Communicate new regulations by Dubai Municipality relating to green buildings.


mirates Green Building Council (EmiratesGBC) has signed a Service Level Agreement (SLA) with the Dubai Central Laboratory (DCL), the integrated facility of Dubai Municipality that undertakes all testing and analyses of green materials and products. Announcing this, EmiratesGBC said that the SLA was signed by Saeed Al Abbar, Chairman of EmiratesGBC, and Salem Bin Mesmar, Asst Director General for Environment, Health & Safety Control Sector of Dubai Municipality. Giving details, EmiratesGBC informed that


On its part, EmiratesGBC will reportedly extend technical as per the agreement, DCL will: inputs for the testing and certification of green materials • Perform the required tests and products, support DCL’s and certification of the annual conference and products and materials of EmiratesGBC members as per efforts on quality assurance for sustainable construction international standards

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

undertaken by Empower, and that the deal reflected the strategic relationship it had with Tecom Investments, Ahmad Bin Shafar, CEO, Empower, said: “Two plants, which will be following the latest standards in the District Cooling industry, will be built to supply the requested load. The plants will include Thermal Storage and will use TSE to be aligned with the company’s strategy of sustainability and saving natural resources.” Dr Amina Al Rustamani, Group CEO of Tecom Investments, added: “As the world’s largest District Cooling services provider, Empower is a key factor in the development of this project, as it has a proven record of providing cost-efficient and environmentally sustainable District Cooling services.”

materials, share information and promote DCL’s recognised testing and certification facility with the Council members. On the occasion of signing the agreement, Hawa Abdulla Bastaki, Director of DCL, said that DCL and EmiratesGBC shared a common vision and mission and that it was confident of the tie-up succeeding. Al Abbar added: “We can achieve far greater efficiencies in constructing green buildings as well as in retrofitting existing structures by adhering to the highest standards in quality of materials used. This in turn will help fulfil the green vision for the nation outlined by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, UAE Vice President and Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai.”

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happenings the region

Qatar Cool bags 4th DC project

Plant, with 40,000 TR cooling, to be completed by 2016

to deliver 40,000 tonnes of cooling, cutting down energy consumption by approximately 50% compared to conventional cooling, and thereby leading to a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, Tabreed informed.

In this context, Jasim Husain Thabet, Tabreed’s Chief Executive Officer, said: “Qatar is a significant market for Tabreed, as we look to continue to strengthen our regional footprint. For several years now, our affiliate, Qatar Cool, has been leading the way in Qatar's District Cooling market, and has cemented its position as the main supplier of energy-efficient, economical and environmentally friendlier cooling solutions.” Qatar Cool, founded in 2003 as a joint venture between Qatar’s United Development Company and Tabreed, along with other Qatari investors, currently, reportedly operates three plants in Qatar, including what is touted to be the world’s largest District Cooling plant on The Pearl, with a capacity to deliver 130,000 tonnes of cooling to all the developments on the Island.

experienced across the GCC region, specifically in projects involving District Cooling plants. Present at the seminar were Navin Valrani, CEO of Leminar, Pramodh Idicheria, General Manager of Leminar, and from Frese, Nathan Cooke, Global Sales & Marketing Director, Mathew Dunk, General Sales Manager and Jens Johansen, OEM Project Manager, Leminar informed. “With the dramatic uptake in demand for PICV technology, designers and

installers are faced with an ever-increasing choice of PICVs. As a manufacturer with over 25 years’ experience in the application of dynamic balancing technology", Dunk said, "Frese can offer extensive support and advice to customers helping them to make an informed decision about the most appropriate solution for their project requirements.”


ational Central Cooling Company PJSC (Tabreed), the Abu Dhabi-based District Cooling utility infrastructure company, has announced signing by its Qatari affiliate, Qatar Cool, of a contract for the construction of a fourth District Cooling plant in Qatar. Upon completion in 2016, the plant will provide cooling to residential and commercial towers in West Bay in Doha, the announcement added. The plant is designed

Leminar conducts seminar on Frese valves

Focus on design of energy efficient systems and PICVs


eminar Air Conditioning Company, in association with Frese, Denmark, organised technical seminars on “Hydraulic Systems and the Application of Pressure Independent Control Valves” in Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Doha on May 5, 6, and 7 respectively. Announcing this, Leminar said that over 800 participants attended the seminars, which addressed the challenges currently being faced by both designers and installers, with


particular focus on the design of energy efficient systems and the different types and benefits of pressure independent control valves (PICVs). The discussions reportedly highlighted the importance of handling PICVs in their execution of 100% control valve authority and the benefits of automatic flow control and also stress the importance in the use of control valves, which, Leminar claimed, serves as a key solution to the issue of low delta T syndrome

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

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happenings the region

Halton opens new office in Dubai

Has expansion plans to keep pace with regional growth


alton Middle East, specialising in indoor climate products, solutions and services, has announced opening a new office in Dubai to provide technical services and support to a wide range of customers across the Middle East and North Africa. The opening ceremony of the new office, attended by over 100 customers and partners, was held on May 13,


the announcement added. Azzam Hunjul, Head of Halton Operations in the Middle East, and Mika Halttunen, the Chairman of the Board of Halton Group Ltd, gave the welcome address, and Ilkka-Pekka Similä, the Finnish Ambassador to the UAE congratulated Halton for its latest milestone, and commended the good relations between the UAE and Finland. The newly opened office is

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

currently staffed by about 20 professionals to strengthen its operations in the region, and is poised to expand, keeping pace with the region’s growth, Halton informed. It cited the example of the 2020 World Expo, to be held in Dubai, which is expected to further increase investments in infrastructure and tourism. Reflecting this, Halttunen

said: “Dubai is an important business hub in the region, which is experiencing strong growth. Our new office in the Jebel Ali district enables us to continue the strengthening of our customer service in this dynamic area.” Halton, whose major projects reportedly include Burj Khalifa, also has an office in Saudi Arabia.

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happenings at large

Mostra Convegno Expocomfort claims garnering positive feedback

MCE SAUDI to be held from May 4-6, 2015


ostra Convegno Expocomfort (MCE) 2014 staged from March 18-21 at Fiera Milano witnessed 2,000 exhibitors, of whom 43% were from abroad, representing 59 countries, with innovative solutions in diverse industry sectors, including residential and commercial installations, air conditioning, and renewable energy, Reed Exhibitions Italia informed in a post-event communiqué. Giving details, Reed Exhibitions said that there was a three per cent rise in international visitor figures compared to 2012, and a gross attendance of 36,311 people who attended the show from 146 countries. There was reportedly a rise in the number of attendees from China, Turkey, Israel,

South Korea, and from Africa, especially Algeria. There was an increase in the number of participants from strategic markets, such as the United States, Argentina and Eastern Europe, especially from Poland, apart from 119,676 trade visitors from Italy, the organisers added. “Smart Plants & Smart City”, was the common thread running through all initiatives, including scientific programmes, at MCE 2014, they highlighted. “The positive response received by MCE 2014 was buoyed by a general air of optimism pervading the fourday exhibition, indicating insufficient confidence in the domestic market, but a robust recovery in the foreign markets,” said Massimiliano

Distech Controls ranks 79 in 2014 edition of Branham300

Claims to be amongst top Canadian ICT companies


istech Controls, dealing in energy management solutions, has announced that it has ranked 79th in the 2014 edition of the Branham300, a listing of the Top 250 Canadian Information and Communications Technology (ICT) companies. The Branham300 is


produced annually by the Branham Group, and highlights the top Canadian and Multinational ICT companies operating in Canada, the announcement added. The company claimed that it was appearing on the list for the fifth time since its debut in the 2010 edition, and has consistently moved

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Pierini, Business Unit Director, Reed Exhibitions Italia. “MCE 2014 will be remembered as an international benchmark event showcasing the most innovative solutions bringing together the entire manufacturing and distribution arms in air conditioning, refrigeration, heating, tools, hardware, sanitary technology,

water treatment, domotics and renewable energies sectors,” he claimed. Two new initiatives will be organised by MCE that for the first time will be launching MCE SAUDI from May 4-6, 2015 in Riyadh and MCE ASIA, from September 2-4, 2015 in Singapore, Reed Exhibitions informed.

up in the rankings. The company has also ranked for the first time in Branham300’s list of the Top 25 Canadian ICT Hardware and Infrastructure Companies, coming in at number 24, it revealed. “Distech Controls is honoured to once again figure amongst the top ICT companies in Canada,” said Etienne Veilleux, President

and CEO of Distech Controls. “This is a great example of the way in which our building automation and energy management solutions add value to IT infrastructure. Distech Controls provides a truly intelligent, scalable building management platform to grow with and complement ICT investments.”


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happenings at large

Ziehl-Abegg bags award at China Refrigeration Expo

ZAplus fan system adjudged most innovative fan of 2014


iehl-Abegg, the Germany-based company dealing in ventilation and drive systems, has announced that its product, ZAplus fan system, was recognised as the most innovative fan of 2014 by the China Refrigeration Organisation. The award was given as part of the China

Refrigeration Expo, an Asian trade fair for HVACR systems, the announcement added. Giving details, ZiehlAbegg informed that 1,100 companies from more than 30 countries exhibited at the Expo, with many of them competing for awards. The ZAplus fan system won the award in the heating and

Photo courtesy ZIEHL-ABEGG / Steffen Sinn

Jason Liu with the certificate for the “Most Innovative Product of the Year”

EU looks to prioritise district heating potential European Commission to hold review on energy efficiency measures


ccording to news from Danish Board of District Heating (DBDH), a leading official at the European Commission’s Director General for Energy has revealed that the Commission is looking to increase emphasis on the potential of district heating as a way to further boost the bloc’s energy efficiency. The Commission will hold a review of energy efficiency measures this summer and will prioritise heating measures as a way of transforming Europe’s energy performance, Samuel Furfari, an adviser to the European Commission’s Director General who spoke to Euractiv on the subject, reportedly informed. Furfari told Euractiv, “We need to focus much more on heating, where there is a lot


of low-hanging fruit – much more than in electricity.” Furfari reportedly observed that the Commission had done more work on electricity than efficiency in the heating sector, because of the difficulties in transposing a one-size-fits-all solution to countries with such different climates as Finland and Italy.

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Against this backdrop, Furfari added, “But there’s the potential to save much more energy in the field of heating [by using] district heating in combination with structural funds and biomass.” According to DBDH news, a “Heat Roadmap Europe” drawn up last year argued that a strategy meshing

ventilation equipment category. The fan system, claimed Ziehl-Abegg, integrates the fan, motor and control into a single, compact unit made from high-strength composite material, optimising the air flow. “We were the only fan manufacturer to receive an award,” said CEO Peter Fenkl. Jason Liu, Managing Director of Ziehl-Abegg, China, added, “The China Refrigeration Organisation honoured us with the Innovation Award because the ZAplus complete system is very cleverly designed.”

buildings’ efficiency with clustered heat demand and district heating networks could save around EUR 100bn a year more than a strategy focused on buildings alone. “The ideal prescription is probably a combination of demand reduction measures in buildings, further development of district heating and cooling networks in cities and heat pumps, where demand is less dense,” Paul Voss, Director of Euroheat and Power, told EurActiv. “A concerted effort to tackle the question of heating and cooling at EU level would be a big step forward.” Source: COSPP

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Berner International Corporation

Berner EZN and KZN air curtain series


laiming that they protect doors up to 10 feet wide from flying insects and energy losses, Berner has announced introducing longer one-piece air curtains – E-Zone (EZN) for HVAC applications and K-Zone (KZN) for foodservice. The manufacturer lists the following product features and benefits: n The single-length air curtains come in seven-, eight-, nine- and 10-foot long and in nine widths ranging from threeto 10-foot models, adding to its ANSI/NSF 37-certified EZN and KZN series. This eliminates the inconvenience and

mismatches of combining smaller sizes to create longer air curtains. n The additional lengths now make the EZN and KZN series the most competitively priced, unheated, single-speed models in the foodservice, dock-and-door and HVACR industries. n The series is suitable for walk-in coolers, passthru windows, concession windows, patio openings, service/customer entry doors and other doorways that need environmental control in the foodservice, dock-and-door, and HVACR markets. n Multiple air directional vanes constructed of strong heavy-gauge aluminum

, Yo u r t r u s t e d pa r t n e r f o r Yo u r engineering, energY and environment solutions

assure proper deflection and airflow to the outdoor threshold. n A universal mounting system offers simple installation with flexible choices using a wall mounting plate for horizontal or vertical mounting, or integrated threaded inserts for vertical rod suspension. n They come with five-year parts warranty, optional corrosion-resistant stainless

steel construction for food processing, coastal or other corrosive environments. n Each new length model uses the same E-Zone/K-Zone 8-1/2-inch (w) x 8-inch (d) cabinet design, the industry’s smallest profile. n The same cabinet appearance can be used in variety of doorway widths to promote a uniform style throughout a facility.

WEG W22 series IE5 standard permanent-magnet synchronous motors


EG, a supplier of drive technology, has announced introducing its new IE5 permanent-magnet motor in the W22 series, which it claims surpasses its W22 Super Premium IE4 three-phase induction motors.

eng i n e e r i ng

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phone +971 4 445 7131, +971 4 447 4407 Fax +971 4 447 4410 p.o.Box 125787, Jumeirah Lakes towers tiffany tower, 30th Floor - Dubai, U.a.e.

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Climate Control Middle East June 2014




The manufacturer lists the following product features and benefits: n W22 series is AC synchronous motor driven by CFW11 frequency inverters, with specific software for open-loop speed control of permanent-magnet motors, designed to maximise the torque per ampere. n It is able to deliver constant torque over the entire operating range. n With losses roughly 20% lower than super premium models, it is among the first ultra premium motors that fulfils the present criteria for the potential IE5 energy efficiency class. n With its compact size, it achieves lower noise and vibration emissions as well as low maintenance and operating costs.


InSinkErator Under Sink Chiller

Clearly competent in water treatment.


Claiming that it is the world’s most compact-sized model that will fit under any sink, the manufacturer lists the following product features and benefits: n InSinkErator's ‘Under Sink Chiller’ can easily be supplied with a dedicated cold water tap or can be installed alongside the company’s HC1100 Steaming Hot Water Tap to get hot and chilled filtered water at the touch of a lever. n The new model comes with a built-in thermostat control between 5°C and 13°C. n It is also offered with a high capacity of 14-30 litres cold water supply, a compressor operations system and a WRAS-approved installation kit for easy fitting. n It also comes with a free two-year exclusive replacement warranty. n It can be used with any cold water filter tap. n InSinkErator range of products is exclusively distributed in the UAE by Al-Futtaim Electronics.

© Bodensee-Wasserversorgung

nSinkErator, a business unit of Emerson Electric, launched its “Under Sink Chiller” model at WETEX 2014, held from April 14 to 16, at the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre.

Presenting ‘The Water Specialist’ – Proline Promag 400 An innovative and customized flow measuring technology that gives you cost savings, energy efficiency and plant safety in sustainable water management. • Industry optimized flowmeters with drinking water approvals for maximum operational safety • Device configuration in the field using cutting-edge web server technology • Heartbeat verification for reliable fulfillment of traceability requirements in accordance with ISO 9001 • Automatic device backup ensures secure data storage and high plant availability Endress+Hauser Instruments International AG Middle East Support Center 7WB, Office 2100 Dubai Airport Free Zone P.O. Box 293828 Dubai, UAE Phone +971 4 253 51 00

June 2014




This section contains regional and international products information

Panasonic Corporation

F-VXK90M air-volume humidifying air purifier


laiming that the nanoepowered model is tailormade for the Middle East consumers, Panasonic Corporation has announced launching F-VXK90M – air-volume humidifying air purifier. Speaking at the launch, Hiroo Ikeda, GM, Eco Solutions Division, Panasonic Marketing Middle East & Africa, highlighted that there has been an increased prevalence of asthma in the MENA region over the past several decades, and added, that air purifiers could be beneficial to both asthma and to non-asthmatic patients. Panasonic listed the following product features and benefits: n The Panasonic patented nanoe technology embedded within F-VXK90M emits long-life micro particles wrapped in water molecules, which can penetrate into fabrics and corners to decompose viruses and allergens. n Panasonic’s HEPA filters quipped with Super Alleru Buster, Green Tea

Catechin & Anti Bacteria Enzyme enhance purifying function inhibiting 17 kinds of virus, bacteria and allergen up to 99%. n The humidifying filter within the air purifiers does not get jammed easily, retaining a large amount of moisture and enabling easy vaporisation. n It also helps keep skin hydrated, as it has humidifying capacity of 830ml/hour. n It has a large opening to the 4.2L water tank making it easy to clean even at the bottom. n The “Mega Catcher” facilitates powerful suction of dusts within 30cm above the floor. n The eco-navigator’s intelligent sensors reduce energy consumption and operate automatically before pollutants spread inside the room, by highlighting the condition of the air. n VXK90M comes with an inbuilt washable pre-filter to protect against sandstorms and an additional filter.

E+E Elektronik

EE893 CO 2 Sensor Module Digital CO2 Sensor Module for OEM Applications


aying that it is maintenance-free, highly accurate and

E CO2 module EE893 designed OEM launching applications compact,isE+E Elektronik hasfor announced EE893 Sensor Module designed for OEM applications. CO 2 demanding environments. A multiple point CO2 and temadjustmentThe procedure to excellent CO2 measuremanufacturer leads lists the following product features and benefits: curacy over• the entiremodule temperature is The sensor allows highly working accurate andrange; long-termthis stable measurements in demanding OEM applications. CO 2 or process control and outdoor applications.

• Thanks to its very small size and low power consumption, it can be used in both sensors and battery-operated dual wavelength NDIR COhard-wired 2 sensing procedure compendevices, such as wireless transmitters, hand-helds and data tomatically forloggers. ageing effects. EE893 is highly insensitive on and offers outstanding stability. • The dual wavelengthlong NDIR term measuring principle is maintenancefree and highly insensitive to environmental influences. small dimensions andareelectrical • Aging effects automaticallyconnection compensated. via contact adjustment ensures • The point COchoice 2 and temperature pads, EE893 is multiple the optimal for OEM devices such excellent accuracy over the entire temperature working range. ess transmitters, or data loggers. The mea• The COhand-helds 2 measurements with a measuring range of up to 10,000 ppm are the digital E2 interface. ata, with a range ofavailable up to on10000ppm, is available on the l interface. • The measurement interval can be set individually according to the requirements of the application.


nal kit facilitates easy configuration and adjustment of the probe. The measurement interval can be rding to the application requirements; by this the average current consumption can be reduced to less A for battery-operated devices. 18 Climate Control Middle East June 2014


For more updates on ASHRAE, visit the News section of our website,


ASHRAE continues work on Legionellosis Standard Fourth public review draft of Standard 188P slated for summer


ighlighting that nearly 40 years after Legionnaires’ Disease first gained public attention, it remains common throughout the world, with recent outbreaks in Australia, Canada and the United States, ASHRAE has announced working on what would be the first set of standardised requirements specific to the building industry for management of the risks associated with amplified growth of and exposure to Legionella. In this context, Tom Watson, Chair of the Standard 188P committee, said that he was optimistic that a fourth public review draft, which has been substantially rewritten from previous versions, will be approved and made available during the summer. He highlighted changes that may be part of the upcoming public review draft, which include: • Removal of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) terminology; some of the principles of the HACCP process may be included in the new draft • Environmental Legionella testing considerations • Revision of the standard to align with recently approved changes to the standard’s title, purpose and scope, chiefly around systematic management of risks associated with potential exposure to Legionella “The new version of the standard will provide the building community with reasonable and practical methods to control exposure to the bacterium that could cause harm,” Watson said. “Effective design, maintenance and operational procedures that avoid amplification and dissemination of Legionella are necessary throughout the life of a building to reduce the risk of the disease.”


Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Comments invited for ASHRAE Guideline on HVAC equipment for rail passenger vehicles Proposed Guideline 23P poses unique challenges


ighlighting that the proposed Guideline 23P, Guideline for the Design and Application of HVAC Equipment for Rail Passenger Vehicles, establishes recommended design and application guidelines to provide an acceptable level of performance and safety for HVAC equipment used on rail passenger vehicles, ASHRAE has announced that it is open for public comment until June 30. One could read the proposed standard or submit comments at, ASHRAE added. According to ASHRAE, challenges unique to rail vehicles versus buildings include: • Designing equipment to be significantly more mechanically robust to withstand the dynamic shock and vibration environment • Maintaining comfort with rapidly changing passenger loads and quickly changing environmental conditions (tunnels, stations, etc.) • Maintaining reliable operation in dirty environments • Ability to continue operation when exposed to extreme transient thermal conditions in tunnels and when positioned adjacent to other heat generating equipment • High tolerance for rapid supply voltage fluctuation and frequent power interruptions/restarts • Tight packaging of high capacity equipment in limited spaces. • Sizing capacity to accommodate rapid cool down/heat up when vehicles are parked without power for extended periods. “Recognising that the basic principles of HVAC design do not change significantly for different applications, we attempted to focus recommendations to address the items that are unique to rail vehicle HVAC design,” Ken Hesser, Committee Chair, said. “It is hoped that the recommendations made will result in a common base for new design efforts and foster constructive debate and ongoing research to validate or refine the information provided.”

comings &goings Matthew Dunk joins Frese Will focus on Middle East and India


rese A/S has announced the appointment of Matthew Dunk as General Sales Manager for the Middle East and India. Dunk, who joined Frese on May 1, comes with knowledge

of the company and its product range, having worked at the UK subsidiary for almost 10 years, the announcement added. According to Frese, prior to joining the company, Dunk reportedly held the position of Export Sales Manager for Hattersley with responsibility for sales in the Middle East and Africa. “The outlook for construction projects in the Middle East and India is very encouraging and we can expect some exciting opportunities to establish Frese as the market leader for pressure

independent control valves in both territories”, Dunk said in the context of assuming his new responsibilities. Global Sales and Marketing Director, Nathan Cooke, said: “The addition of Matthew to the Frese global sales team will help to strengthen our position in key territories. Matthew brings with him a wealth of HVAC experience and his in-depth involvement with customers at Frese Limited will prove invaluable in his new position and we look forward to welcoming him to the team.”

Emicool announces restructure Adib Moubadder new CEO

Klaus Wolfgang Wittek appointed A-HEAT Group COO Mandated to optimise manufacturing techniques and facilities


he Vienna-based A-HEAT Group, a holding company for Güntner, has announced the appointment of Klaus Wolfgang Wittek as COO. Announcing this, Güntner said that since 2008, Wittek managed Güntner Indonesia as President Director, and since December 2012, had occupied the post of Managing Director of Güntner-Tata Kft. In October 2013, he was appointed COO of the A-HEAT Group. In his capacity as COO, Wittek takes over the global strategic responsibility for the areas of production, materials management, quality and industrial engineering, the announcement added. His key objective, said Güntner, is to create added value for customers by using global resources, optimising manufacturing techniques and expanding the current and future manufacturing facilities in Europe, Asia, Northern and Southern America.


mirates District Cooling (Emicool) has announced in an official communiqué that its Board of Directors has promoted Adib Moubadder as Chief Executive Officer (CEO), effective as of April 2. Moubadder has proved to be an outstanding leader and partner, focusing on Emicool’s new strategies for profitable and sustainable growth through the company’s strength in District Cooling services, the communiqué said. Welcoming him, the Board reportedly expressed confidence that his vision and personal drive would translate into further success in leading Emicool as its CEO. Emicool also informed that as a part of its restructuring process, Sanela Habbab was promoted to the position of Chief Operating Officer (COO), while Technical Director Fabian Jayasuriya would act as Emicool’s Technical Advisor. Nasser Mohammad Bin Jarsh, former Head of Tenant Relation of Dubai Investment Park, was appointed the Chief Services Officer (CSO) and in charge of overseeing the operating disciplines of the company held by Director Support Services. Anand Sundaresh, who was previously a Finance Director, has been promoted as Chief Financial Officer (CFO). Commenting on the restructuring, Moubadder, the newly appointed CEO of Emicool said: “Our opportunities have never been greater, and I am grateful to the Board and our employees for the privilege to lead Emicool to new era of growth and success.”

June 2014




Climate Control Middle East June 2014

The 2nd Annual Middle East

Variable Refrigerant Flow Conference 31 March - 1 April 2014 | Yas Island Rotana, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Predicting the future

The 2nd Annual Middle East Variable Refrigerant Flow Conference, produced by CPI Industry, publishers of Climate Control Middle East magazine, held on March 31 and April 1, at Yas Island, Abu Dhabi, offered a unique opportunity for stakeholders to meet and discuss key issues regarding VRF technology. We bring you the second and final part of our comprehensive coverage of the event.


iscussions on the second day of the 2nd Annual Middle East VRF Conference touched upon practical, on-the-ground issues surrounding VRF technology, including installation challenges, the perceived lack of market awareness of and exposure to the technology, the observed deficiency in manpower training and the seemingly incomplete and disparate reporting of operational data. While the event saw the intense desire of the industry and its stakeholders to promote and encourage further development of VRF technology, participants were almost unanimous in their view that much was needed to be done for the technology to gain greater traction. The day’s first panel discussion, comprising participants from the ranks of the consultants, including George Berbari, CEO of DC Pro Engineering; Raef Hammoudeh, Head of Mechanical Engineering, KEO Consultants; Richard Smith, Technical Director, WS Atkins and Partners Overseas; and the day’s moderator Kandasamy Anbalagan, Managing Partner, Proleed

There is an observed lack of benchmark from which one can judge the performance of the system Engineering Consultants, witnessed discourses that zeroed in on the challenges in terms of first cost, training, installation and O&M and the potential of the VRF technology, particularly in terms of refrigerant use and its suitability in high-rise facilities (for highlights, see “Consultants-speak”). Providing an avenue for manufacturers to address regulatory and conformity organisations, another panel discussion involved representatives from major entities, including Johnson Controls, Samsung, Trane, Daikin, AHI Carrier and Hisense. A common thread that ran through the discussion was the manufacturers’ inclination towards the establishment of June 2014

an energy efficiency rating scheme that would look at temperature distribution throughout a year, as opposed to a single design temperature. In light of the VRF systems’ reportedly proven efficiency in part-load conditions, the manufacturers agreed that such an evaluation would bring out the best benefits in using the system (for highlights, see “Looking at the bigger picture”). To cap off this year’s edition, representatives from key sectors in the industry were given an opportunity to address issues (or air grievances) that, in their opinion, need an urgent resolution, specifically the observed deficiency in training among designers, installers and maintenance personnel. One crucial point that emerged from the discussion was the need for a brand-neutral training programme, which, the participants said, would be made possible by a unified method of publishing performance data and the adoption of a single procedure of testing VRF units (for highlights, see “A call for unity”). We bring you the highlights of Day 2 of the 2nd Annual Middle East VRF Conference.




The consultants applied their collective wisdom to discuss industry challenges in terms of first cost, training, installation and O&M, and the potential of VRF technology, particularly in terms of refrigerant use and its suitability in high-rise facilities. Here are the excerpts... What are the challenges in getting VRF systems specified? George Berbari, DC Pro Engineering: VRF has made inroads into the villas market, driven by its ultralow noise performance and energy efficiency. It also consumes less space on the roof, allowing us to dedicate more space to more diverse use. It also provides for a significant reduction in the number of compressors and of maintenance activities on the roof. The challenge lies in the system’s having a centralised piping network and in the observed lack of qualified technicians who know how to deal with these particularities. We don’t know how these factors affect the system’s performance, because its performance, until now, cannot be measured in the field. The second challenge is to employ the best practices in installing these pipes in order to avoid leakages. We still have not addressed the issue of refrigerant leakage. Another challenge is dealing with fresh air. Since the dawn of the VRF technology, I have been challenging [the industry] to meter and establish the system’s performance. We know that the EU has launched initiatives that aim to reduce the amount of refrigerant used per tonne of refrigeration, which will be implemented by 2017. In light of this, the major manufacturers will deem to use the same VRF technology, but the system will be running


George Berbari, DC Pro Engineering

on chilled water, instead of a refrigerant. With this, for the first time, we will be able to measure the performance and the real benefits of the VRF technology. These units are also available in watercooled systems. I am now commissioning a building in Sharjah where we have 800 units, water-cooled, with a common cooling tower. This can be done for large buildings and villas where you have a cooling tower or a geothermal system. For air-cooled systems, you have 1.3 or 1.4 kw/tonne, while on water-cooled systems, you can get 0.8 or 0.85 kw/tonne.

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Raef Hammoudeh, KEO Consultants

I see a lot of “copy-paste” in the Middle East. As designers, we have to promote innovation and we have to explore all options, rather than always operating within the confines of our comfort zone. It is very important to predict the future. Raef Hammoudeh, KEO Consultants: Even if the VRF technology has been in existence for more than 30 years, the use of the technology in the Middle East is still in its infancy. One major challenge is the lack of experience in using the system. Stemming from this, there is a perception that these systems are much more expensive and

Richard Smith, WS Atkins

difficult to specify, install and administer. There is also an observed lack of benchmark from which one can judge the performance of the system, to be able to specify the system and to understand what one is looking for in the system. I have looked at it for a villa project in Abu Dhabi, and the findings were amazing. In terms of chemical cost and lifecycle cost, the VRF systems are, if not at par with DX systems, slightly cheaper. Although the chemical cost for the unit, like-for-like, is more expensive, when we looked at the associated works, it was definitely easier to install. It involved less builders’ work and

The 2nd Annual Middle East

Variable Refrigerant Flow Conference 31 March - 1 April 2014 | Yas Island Rotana, Abu Dhabi, UAE

it was more energy efficient. In the long run, the system proved to be cheaper. People are now accepting the technology, and we have been able to specify it for a number of projects. We were able to source fan-coil units and fresh air-handling units to address the issue of fresh air supply in VRF systems. Richard Smith, WS Atkins: What we are seeing now is a transition in the market. We are seeing quite a lot of legislation across the region to improve efficiencies, and quite rightly so. We are also seeing an increase in the number of what we call “horizontal” projects. We have quite a number of “vertical” projects in the downtown, but we are seeing more projects that have lower density, horizontal and concentrating on low- to medium-rise buildings, with great spaces between them. In Atkins, we have been increasingly interested in VRF systems because we see this technology being applied in these projects. I’d love to see a really neat fresh air unit that we can be 100% confident in over the heat recovery built in. I have done a project for the British Government where we designed self-cleansing heat recovery units for kitchens and things like that. Another opportunity lies in developing water-cooled units that we can connect to community-level cooling towers. Maybe, a de-superheater to generate hot water for residential applications could also be something that is worth looking at.

In terms of specifying, do you think that the contractors have the expertise or training? Raef Hammoudeh: VRF system, in the context of energy, is better than the systems being used day in and day out in the

This will open the market more to the VRF technology.

How do we measure the real benefits of VRF systems? George Berbari: Because the major industry players have not established a benchmark, anybody can now enter and compete with them. That is going to bite them. I see some manufacturers selling VRF systems that are slightly more expensive than DX, but they are not known brands. There is no set of standards that control verification and quality. The lack of verification and the lack of standards will bite the leaders. They should care about introducing this. It is in the interest of the leaders to raise the stake. I have not seen any interest in research and standardisation. I have also observed a failure on the part of ASHRAE to regulate this industry, as none of the present standards address this industry.

Are you comfortable with the performance data being published in product brochures? majority of the villas. Majority of the housing market in the UAE is villa-based, small residential units. In most cases, they use split units, and in some cases they use very bad split units. The VRF system is definitely an improvement. If we can gain the confidence of the developers and the owners, and if we bank on the manufacturing industry to work closely, honestly and objectively with contractors to perfect both the installation and the commissioning, that will be an additional advantage. The consultants, the manufacturers and the contractors should work together. The contractors need to be trained to provide satisfactory installation and commissioning in order for the

customers to enjoy the full advantages of the system.

What influences the decision to go with VRF systems? Richard Smith: In our experience, if the developer is paying the electric bill at the end of the day, he will be more interested in the VRF technology. If he will, however, pass on that cost to the tenants of the building, then he tends to look at the first cost to make the decision. Another major influencer is legislation. We are seeing quite a lot of legislation being introduced in the Middle East environment, and this is driving up COPs and energy efficiency ratios.

June 2014

Richard Smith: We consultants do rely on manufacturers to clearly define the performance of their equipment under a range of different circumstances. And this has always been difficult in the world of DX. As an industry, we are very frustrated that we don’t get really good post-occupancy data on the performance of systems in buildings. We design things with the best intention in the world, but often we don’t close that feedback loop. We know that regulations (GSAS, Dubai Green Building Regulations, Estidama) are requiring the energy consumption data to be shared. This is a good way forward.


The 2nd Annual Middle East

Variable Refrigerant Flow Conference 31 March - 1 April 2014 | Yas Island Rotana, Abu Dhabi, UAE


Looking at the bigger picture The manufacturers propose the establishment of an energy efficiency rating scheme that would look at temperature distribution throughout a year, as opposed to a single design temperature. Highlights...

Mohammed Khaja, Trane: From my view, I say let us set one temperature as a design criteria or testing criteria, then move on from there. Individual countries can ascertain its respective minimum rating (star), but at least we have the same base. Michael King, Hisense: VRF systems cannot be a full replacement for packaged units and chillers, but it sure offers good options for end-users. When we are talking about this, I say we bring all manufacturers, consultants and endusers to talk about the system together and clearly specify [the requirements] so that we can unify all the standards and certification process. Issam Samara, Samsung Gulf Electronics: Till date, we don’t have a clear criterion on COP for VRF systems from authorities. We have to receive a certain criteria that can help us differentiate amongst various suppliers. Some suppliers comply with the minimum COP requirement, while others aim for the best. So we need a certain guideline in this regard.

Is there not enough information divulged to the authorities and to the public?

L-R: Viraj Vartak, Moan Abraham, Utpal Joshi, Mohammed Khaja, Issam Samara, Michael King

What do manufacturers expect from government bodies?

Viraj Vartak, AHI Carrier: Instead of going for a one-point efficiency evaluation, we need to look at the temperatures throughout the year, similar to IEER (AHRI) or SEER (Europe). Forty-six degrees Celsius is not happening every time. Utpal Joshi, Daikin Middle East: The question now is, do we follow American or European standards? Why don’t we have something of our own? This has to be agreed upon. We have to agree on [how to give the weightage of temperature occurrence in our region], so that we can achieve the best efficiency and [design] the best 26

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

product that will perform throughout [the year]. This ushers in the question of unification of standards. Definitely there are some challenges, but good that they are listening. Moan Abraham, Johnson Controls: I think there should be a lot of interaction and partnership in terms of developing the regulations. I believe that that process has started, particularly in certain countries, and I think that ESMA is also looking at what others are doing in terms of this process. My request is to have a proper process in place that would provide for a regular follow-up on how to implement the regulations. We should also come to a consensus on how to implement them.

Utpal Joshi: Look at the case of Estidama. What it has done is they gathered the data and analysed it, then created a villa product database, which included products that have authenticated data. In terms of the evolution of the technology, when we talk about change in VRF, it does not mean change in data. Moan Abraham: We need to educate the market, as they need to be more aware. The market always finds its comfort zone in the traditional systems. VRF has a wider range of application; that is why you see that the technology is evolving at a faster pace. In my view, VRF is the future of the air conditioning business. Mohammed Khaja: As a manufacturer, we face a lot of challenges in terms of certification. Today, AHRI has a certification scheme (1230), and I do not know if this will be a benchmark. We need to streamline, in a way, so that we have a good understanding among manufacturers, end-users and consultants.

The 2nd Annual Middle East

Variable Refrigerant Flow Conference 31 March - 1 April 2014 | Yas Island Rotana, Abu Dhabi, UAE


A call for unity One crucial point that emerged from the discussion was the need for a brand-neutral training programme, which, the participants said, would be made possible by a unified method of publishing performance data and the adoption of a single procedure of testing VRF units. Any comments on the perceived lack of market awareness? Utpal Joshi: We have taken the initiative to spread the word. We regularly conduct seminars, product awareness training and software training at all levels, so that we can be sure the designs being produced are relevant to today’s market.

and guidelines on installation, design, maintenance and troubleshooting. We also have a simulation software available on our website. Irfan Syed, Johnson Controls: We offer training sessions that are free from any brand orientation. We train in a way that contractors can deal with any type of system. I think, as advocates of the VRF technology, we should promote brand-neutral training.

Prasath S, AHI Carrier: We also conduct webminars and make available on our website the parameters


Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Firas Kneifati, industry expert: Here in the Middle East, brandneutral training will

still face headwinds, because each manufacturer publishes performance data of its system in completely different formats. So, even comparing the capacity at basic design conditions will be a challenge. The first step is unifying the way the manufacturers publish performance data and adopting a single method of testing the units. A unified selection software, I think, is in order. Richard Smith, on behalf of consultants, contractors and endusers: I think it is confusing that we have different certification standards. Maybe you should all come together and develop a training module for contractors and

consultants. You should invite to the training fora the people that write the software we use. There is an opportunity to customise [the software] for this region, and that will help us. Mohammed Samara, Samsung Gulf Electronics: More than giving training, we work closely with the consultants while doing the design, and at the completion of the design, we ask them to share the same with us so we may have a final look.

eventreport Day 2 also saw presentations from representatives from ASHRAE Falcon Chapter, Fujitsu General and AHI Carrier. We bring you the excerpts...

Rami Al Khalil, President, ASHRAE Falcon Chapter “With the introduction of the VRF technology in the 1980s, ASHRAE formed a special technical committee – Committee 8.7. The major role of the committee is to review design performance and applications of VRF systems, to provide articles and information [about the system] in ASHRAE handbooks and to be involved in creating standards [in relation to the VRF systems]. Inside the committee, there is a task group, composed of professionals from the manufacturers and the designers. If ASHRAE wants, for instance, to produce or amend a standard, Committee 8.7 will be involved and will create a task group. Once the task group has completed the work, they will give it to ASHRAE, which will then evaluate it and, eventually, approve it. Another responsibility of the committee is to raise funds to fund various projects, related to research and promotion within ASHRAE. “The committee is currently preparing a special chapter about the VRF technology. Until now, there is no special chapter about VRF systems, so the committee has decided to draft one.”


Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Asit Kumar Dutta, Genral Manager (Technical), Fujitsu General Asia

Syed Jafar Imam, Senior Regional Manager RLC, Middle East and Africa, AHI Carrier

“The size of the pipe for VRF systems is smaller compared to the ones in rooftop units and chillers. In light of this, the ceiling height needed for installation is significantly lesser than for rooftop units and chillers. Ultimately, if VRF is used in building design, then it is possible to reduce the height of the building, reducing, in effect, the building cost. “The VRF system also has a modular design. I don’t agree that VRF systems could not be used in high-rise buildings. Thanks to its modularity, the VRF system can be used in high-rise buildings. For instance, we are designing one building in China with our VRF system, and the technology provides us with utmost flexibility.”

“When you say ‘smart air conditioning’, what does it do? It works with variable speed allinverter control, it provides energy saving in part-load condition, design flexibility, retrofit suitability, quick installation and easy maintenance, and it is environmentally friendly. ‘Smart controls’, on the other hand, call for individualised or centralised building management systems, energy-saving functions and controllability via the web. Here, we are generally talking about VRF systems. “But why VRF? Sometimes we are too cynical about being a high-ambient temperature country. Yes, we are a highambient temperature country, and our units have to work in high ambient temperatures, but we also have to see the pattern. Usually, the consultants design at 46 degrees Celsius, which means the machine has to give 100% at the said temperature. But according to studies, the system needs to run only on part-load capacity for most of the year. The beauty of the VRF system is its part-load efficiency….”

The 2nd Annual Middle East

Variable Refrigerant Flow Conference 31 March - 1 April 2014 | Yas Island Rotana, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Kandasamy Anbalagan, Proleed Engineering Consultants; Dr Ali Al Alawi, Petroleum Development, Oman; Richard Smith, W S Atkins & Partners Overseas, UAE; George Varkey, Sabi Electromechanical Works, Dubai; Firas Kneifati, VRF Industry Expert; Utpal Joshi, Daikin Middle East, UAE; Abdul Rafey Abdul Rahim, Juma Al Majid Electrical & Mechanical Works Company; Prasath S, AHI Carrier; Mohammed Samara, Samsung Gulf Electronics; Irfan Syed, Johnson Controls, Middle East; Michael King, Hisense International

June 2014



HRH Prince Dr Faisal Mohamed Saud Abdul Aziz and HE Eng Essa Al Maidoor, Director-General, Dubai Health Authority officially inaugurating the event. They are flanked by Frédéric Paillé (L) and B Surendar (R) of CPI Industry


Climate Control Middle East June 2014

The guests of honour interacting with the exhibitors

THE 2 NDANNUAL MIDDLE EAST INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CONFERENCE 12-13 May 2014 | Hall 5 & Al Multaqua Ballroom, Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre (Dubai World Trade Centre), UAE

'Nearly 2,000,000 people die every year because of exposure to indoor air pollution' The 2nd Annual Indoor Environmental Quality Conference, produced by CPI Industry, publishers of Climate Control Middle East, held on the 12th and the 13th of May at the Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre (Dubai World Trade Centre), represented a robust attempt at understanding the constantly revolving challenges in attaining a healthy indoor environmental quality, from the prism of heating, ventilation and air conditioning. We bring you the highlights of the event, in pictures... *Watch out for Part 1 of our exclusive and comprehensive report on the event in the July issue of Climate Control Middle East.*

The VIP guests at the event June 2014



Salah Nezar, Qatar Project Management

HRH Prince Dr Faisal Mohamed Saud Abdul Aziz

Dr Ahmad Al-Shatti, Ministry of Health, Kuwait

Raed Mohamed Al Marzouqi, Dubai Municipality

Simon Miller, Abu Dhabi Quality and Conformity Council

Paul Schwarz, Middle East Acoustic Engineering Society

Chris Rajamani, Al HotyStanger Laboratories

Dr Iyad Al Attar, filtration expert

M Rajkumar, BestPro

Syed Taqi Hussain, independent monitoring equipment calibration expert

Salah Nezar chaired the two-day conference. In the picture, he moderates a panel discussion with Al-Shatti; Eng Abdullah Rafia, Dubai Municipality and Dr Yousuf Noman, Qatar Green Building Council


Climate Control Middle East June 2014

THE 2 NDANNUAL MIDDLE EAST INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CONFERENCE 12-13 May 2014 | Hall 5 & Al Multaqua Ballroom, Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre (Dubai World Trade Centre), UAE

Ghaleb Abusaa, en3 Solutions and Kandasamy Anbalagan, Proleed, make a point.

Colours that care The CapaCare paint range keeps you and your family safe Our range of CapaCare paints use only the healthiest and most family-friendly technology available, turning your decorating dreams into a reality. CapaCare comes in a vast range of colours, is completely odourless, durable, safe to breathe and eco-friendly also, making it ideal for any interior space.

The Paint Company That Cares

June 2014


eventreport THE 2 NDANNUAL MIDDLE EAST INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CONFERENCE 12-13 May 2014 | Hall 5 & Al Multaqua Ballroom, Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre (Dubai World Trade Centre), UAE


Climate Control Middle East June 2014




WAY FORWARD The roadmap ahead of DC in the region INTERVIEW



dan mizesko, managing partner, U.S. Chiller Services

June 2014



One direction There are no two ways about it – the industry needs to adopt a decisive and open-minded approach to win over building owners still reluctant to connect to District Cooling.


By B Surendar he GCC’s dalliance with District Cooling is nearly two decades old. In this time, the behemoth has been eulogised and flayed with almost equal vigour, with the postLehman skew adding to the murkiness. It is easy to get emotional about District Cooling, but in any discussion on the subject, it is essential to consider technology and finance, as applied in the region, as two separate aspects; without the dichotomy, we would be headed towards a skewed interpretation. From a technology point of view, District Cooling has a lot going for it, with the diversity it affords a powerful factor in its favour. In fact, it won’t be inaccurate to say that a good diversity can save 30-40% of energy consumption when compared to a standalone scheme. The savings in energy leads to a well-spring of benefits, among them being a reduction in costs for multiple stakeholders, be it the building owners or the utilities that are hard-pressed to invest in more power generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure. An equally beneficial outcome is the contribution to mitigation efforts related to climate change, with a reduction in direct and indirect emissions. In short, the benefits are economic,


CHILL Summer 2014

environmental and social in nature. The financial aspect is a different story altogether, and therein is the conundrum. Looking back, putting things in perspective The 1970s saw the growth of large single-client centralised cooling plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Those plants were a collective precursor to

the emergence of District Cooling in the GCC, with the emirate of Abu Dhabi taking the lead. Today, the GCC is home to 4.2 million tonnes of refrigeration (TR) served by means of serpentine chilled water networks. In terms of total square footage under District Cooling, countries like the UAE and Qatar have more capacity in place than North America. The UAE is home

to approximately 2.8 million TR of District Cooling, with Dubai, in particular, claiming a penetration of 20% of the total cooling market in the emirate. To bolster the situation further, in a major development, Empower earlier in the year announced the acquisition of Palm District Cooling and Palm Utilities, with its CEO announcing that by virtue of the deal, Empower had risen to become the largest District Cooling provider in the world with a capacity of one million TR. In neighbouring Abu Dhabi, Tabreed is edging towards the same mark. They along with Emicool and Emaar District Cooling constitute the bulk of the UAE market, which is robustly trying to shake off the gloom of the downturn. In some quarters, Dubai winning the EXPO 2020 is being seen as a major

boost to business confidence and as capable of forcefully thrusting the green shoots of economic recovery through the soil. Perhaps buoyed by the anticipation of a nascent upturn, Empower has already announced expansion plans, with a 120,000 TR plant for TECOM Investments’ D3 project, among them; further, there is a likelihood of a 150,000 TR plant in Al Jadaf area of Dubai. Qatar is also on a growth trajectory – FIFA World Cup 2022-propelled or otherwise – with Qatar Cool announcing a fourth plant, which will serve Doha’s West Bay area with a total capacity of 40,000 TR. This is in addition to efforts underway in Lusail City and in the Heart of Doha project. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there is an on-going major strategic Government

push to reduce domestic consumption of energy. Currently, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, consumes an estimated three million barrels of oil a day of the estimated 10 million barrels produced a day. (Climate Control Middle East is unable to verify the exact production and consumption figures, but data culled from different sources do indicate they are close to the production and consumption figures, mentioned above.) The estimated domestic consumption, according to reports, is going up by eight per cent a year, and if allowed to continue, could firmly place the Kingdom on the route to becoming a net importer of oil by 2030, according to a report in UK’s The Guardian newspaper. Of the estimated domestic consumption, a substantial volume is for generating power. And like elsewhere, approximately 70% of the power supplied to individual buildings goes towards running the electro-mechanical HVAC equipment. The connection is obvious – there is a definite role for a cooling technology that is able to reliably do the job in an energy-efficient manner. The District Cooling industry has put its hand up, believing it has a role to play, along with combined heat and power (CHP) and tri-generation. That said, District Cooling has a market share of only three per cent in the Kingdom and is still facing headwinds. It must, however, be said that such is the enormity of the size of the country that there are individual District Cooling projects planned that are abnormally large in size. Overall, the redeeming aspect, though, is the determination of the District Cooling players to make inroads into the market. Of all the cooling approaches, the District Cooling industry

is relatively more organised when it comes to collective introspection efforts and the collection of operational data as a source of benchmarking for continuous improvement; it is another matter altogether that commercial considerations often impede the sharing of the data, and this is one area that the players ought to work towards establishing a closeknit unit. The sharing of operational data is a minor issue, though, when viewed against a broad context. In all the years of District Cooling in the GCC, generally speaking, owners of buildings have shown a reluctance to connect to a centralised plant regimen, with the high costs acting as a key factor; they have shown a preference to install a standalone chilled-water system, saying that the initial costs involved in acquiring dedicated chillers and other equipment can be recovered in a few years’ time, considering it is far cheaper to cool their buildings that way than to pay a District Cooling provider. Another issue is the penalties levied on building owners in the initial years over low Delta T. Again, ‘initial’ is a relative term, because it could stretch to even close to five years, if not more. Many building owners have cried foul over the penalties, saying that the inefficiencies are the result of being served by means of temporary air-cooled chillers, which are reportedly unable to match the efficiencies of their water-cooled counterparts. To date, District Cooling providers have not been able to effectively solve the conundrum of costs. It is true that the cost of laying reticulation networks alone is extraordinarily high, and overall, District Cooling providers are up against a capital-intense scenario. As

commercial bodies, they say they have an obligation to recoup costs through District Cooling connection charges and chilled water tariffs, but, as mentioned earlier, the argument does not hold water with many building owners. They have their respective bottom-lines to consider and feel the standalone route (captive central cooling plant) is more cost-effective. Regulation-wise, steps are being taken that support District Cooling in the region. The Dubai Supreme Council of Energy, for instance, has eight programmes to manage energy demand, including regulations and specifications for green construction, retrofitting of existing buildings, District Cooling, wastewater reuse, regulations to raise the standards and efficiency of devices and lighting and working with private companies to retrofit 30,000 buildings in Dubai. It is up to the District Cooling industry to rise to the occasion and take care of pending issues. So far, the industry has used the virtues of savings on footprint – carbon and real estate – and reliability in an attempt to bolster its case, but for most building owners, seared by the economic downturn or otherwise, these are not factors in the overall scheme of things. To say that District Cooling is at a crossroads in the region is akin to glossing over the issues related to costs. The need of the hour is a robust and open-minded discussion to evaluate the ground realities related to costs, with due consideration given to the voices of a wider section of building owners. From there alone will emerge top-quality solutions that will point to the general direction that the purveyors of District Cooling ought to consider taking and to the balancing of multilateral interests.

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‘We see there’s a push from the government towards DC’ In the wake of what is seen as a nascent economic upturn in the region, Tabreed, one of the leading District Cooling providers, has registered positive gains in the first quarter. In this context, Jasim Husain Thabet, CEO, Tabreed, speaks to B Surendar about the sector and the best practices being evolved by the company in its endeavour to create new benchmarks.

What are the attributes and underlying reasons that have helped National Central Cooling Company PJSC (Tabreed), achieve the recently announced profit (AED 272.4 million)? As you know, we are not only a regional utility company, but we are also a publicly traded company. So, we have the obligation to go to the market every quarter and give our results. And we have just released our Q1 financial results – a strong bottom line result. Our net income has increased by 22% compared to the same period last year. And the key drivers include the fact that we have connected 16,000 tonnes (TR) in this quarter alone. And also, we have proved efficiencies and reduced finance costs. You say increased efficiencies. Just to understand, in what sense? Could you give us some specifics? When I say that, I mean


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organisational efficiencies, and not technical, not practical [efficiencies]. As a company, we are always striving to operate in a more cost-effective manner. And that’s always the focus for us – to not only grow the business but also to try to manage our costs. And when you talk about 16,000 tonnes of refrigeration of new connections in Q1, that efficiency is also going to underpin how you perform overall, yes? Yes. So the 16,000 tonnes is additional connections, and not really related to efficiencies. So, if you are trying to focus on plant efficiencies, yes, that’s a key driver for our company, and we focus a lot on power efficiencies. We have some Alpha plants that operate at 0.85 kw/TR Also, as an organisation and as one of the leading District Cooling companies, we are engaged in further improving that and not accepting the status quo. So, we are taking several initiatives on the technology front. Last year, we signed a Research & Development agreement with MIST (Masdar Institute of Science and Technology) where we have identified one cooling plant, and we have some leading professors – ex-MIT – participating in Masdar and looking at ways to improve efficiency, developing our growth to make sure at what speed the compressor should run and at what speed the cooling tower should run to get that 100% improved efficiency. That’s on one front. We have also signed an MOU early in the year with IRENA. It is at very early stages. We are exploring ways we can reuse the waste heat from the power plants to provide cooling, either to some of the industrial areas, or use it

efficiency. There are other things we are working on, and we will announce them soon.

We are exploring ways we can reuse the waste heat from the power plants to provide cooling, either to some of the industrial areas, or using it to cool the intake again, to improve the efficiency of the power plant to cool the intake again, to improve the efficiency of the power plant. All these really contribute to improving

Going back to efficiency in District Cooling, what is the industry benchmark? Is it efficiency against standard load? Chillers? What is the true measure of efficiency? We are one of the biggest District Cooling companies in the world, and looking at benchmarks, many people take benchmarks from us when it comes to efficiencies for complete systems – not benchmarks for standalone chillers, but the entire, overall plant. And we continuously aspire to exceed the bar. Like I said, we have some plants, which are at 0.82 kW/TR, 0.83 kW/TR, and we take it on ourselves to beat our best plant year on year. So it’s an internal KPI or benchmark. And we are also looking at other ways to improve efficiencies with some technology providers.

And you are in collaboration with Masdar? Masdar is more our enduser. We are looking more at some short-term technology providers. And it’s not only the efficiencies – there’s the power element. There’s also the water element, and we need to look at the bigger picture of District Cooling. So, Tabreed has been using Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) from the early days, since 2006 in Dubai. And now again, we are re-engaging… in Dubai. We are installing another TSE unit for one of our cooling plants. In Fujairah, we are working to install a TSE unit for cooling plants for the military. And, as an organisation, I’m in discussions with Abu Dhabi entities to make sure that we can tap into the TSE available in Abu Dhabi. So, it’s not only the power efficiency, but also the TSE. Do you feel the market as far as the District

Skyscrapers in Abu Dhabi, UAE

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TSE – a viable option? Jasim Husain Thabet shares his thoughts on TSE, a hot issue in the DC sector

What has been your overall experience with TSE? Are all your plants connected to receive TSE as of now? Or do you still use potable water in some cases, where you find it a challenge? We have a mix. We have some plants connected to TSE, and a majority of our plants are connected to potable water. We have some plants connected to sea water. We use it as makeup water – sea water intake. But wherever there is a possibility to hook up to a header or a network nearby TSE, we take that opportunity. And I’ve been in discussions with ADSSC (Abu Dhabi Sewerage Services Company), and other entities to tap into their TSE network in Abu Dhabi, and in Dubai, the Dubai Municipality. And yes, there may be some challenges with volumes. But if you have proper planning, proper makeup time and have efficient pumps, they can be overcome. Also, in Fujairah we are in discussions with


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Tanqia, the first private sewage company in the UAE, and exploring with them to take on their TSE and using it for makeup for District Cooling plants. How long do you think it is sustainable to use potable water, since water is the most precious commodity in the desert? And as an Emirati, you view it as most valuable. Also, desalinated water comes at a great cost from the carbon emissions point of view and also because of the salinity issue. Is it, at this point of time, lack of availability of adequate TSE or are the networks still not completely ready? Or is it the capital cost involved? It’s a complex issue, isn’t it? Yes, it’s a complex issue. And it really depends upon in which region you are and what you are. So, Dubai is a bit different than Abu Dhabi. In some areas in Dubai, they have the infrastructure, but they don’t have the volumes. In Abu Dhabi, we have

tremendous amount of volumes, but we lack the infrastructure. We require about half or one kilometre of the extension network. And yes, the government plays a big role in this. They have to mandate, and facilitate between the different organisations. How raw sewage is collected and how it goes to the TSE plant and how it is distributed back to the TSE into the islands. All this needs to be done in a comprehensive manner. You spoke about, as an Emirati, water being very precious. Absolutely. Water is very precious in the UAE, and cooling is also precious in the UAE. I mean, almost 70% of the UAE power requirement goes to cooling. And when we compare District Cooling to conventional cooling, we all know that the benefits of that is up to 40% more efficient. And if we have governments who are heavily subsidising power, the governments are saving significant amounts … multi-billion Dirhams in subsidies. So, the savings in power subsidies is greater than, I would say, the use of the water subsidies. One more thing, people get obsessed with water. I mean, if you look at the UAE, in Abu Dhabi, Tabreed consumes less than .2% of the water requirements. The majority of water is going to farming and irrigation. So, you have to put things in perspective. And cooling is not a luxury. Cooling is a necessity. It is a vital, infrastructural requirement for the government.

Have we thought about publishing a best practices guide on District Cooling in Tabreed? Well, not yet. But I think it’s a good point, and I think we should think of that Cooling industry in the GCC is concerned, has come of age? I ask this in the context of what we saw in 2005 and 2006, when there was a lot of frenzied activity, and people were talking big numbers like 15 million TR by 2015 in the GCC. We didn’t quite see that because of the global economic downturn. But do you see a more mature, wiser industry? I believe District Cooling is a much stronger sector. Developers are starting to re-appreciate the benefits of District Cooling. Do we still see numbers of one million tonnes in two years? Yes, we see those numbers. In terms of how the market perceives District Cooling, it perceives it as not only a more efficient way of cooling, but also as a corporate responsibility. Companies want to have the most reliable and costeffective way of cooling. That’s always been there. But now the trend is, developers and big organisations want to be able to participate in, as an organisation or as an entity, in the UAE or in the GCC, by contributing to reducing carbon footprint. We see mature



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interview organisations do that. However, District Cooling all over the GCC is different. Kuwait is different than Abu Dhabi, or Saudi is different than Qatar. We can’t really generalise. But is there an overall perception that District Cooling is the way forward? Yes, District Cooling is the way forward. I can speak about one example. Now in Abu Dhabi, all the government entities who require new facilities, new buildings – project management is being carried out under Estidama and Musanada. And these entities have sent out instrucions that for your new facility, you have to connect to District Cooling as a cooling option. We see that there is a push from the government towards District Cooling. Do you see better engineering and management practices in the industry compared to prior to the downturn? What is Tabreed doing to be prepared for the economic upturn? Have you, in this time, gone through a period of introspection? Looked at

Beachside villas in Dubai, UAE


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We have some cooling plants with Refrigerant R123. But this represents only five per cent of our whole capacity historical data, looked at the way plants are being constructed and the way chillers have been deployed? Absolutely. As a regional District Cooling company, we have built over 66 plants across the region, and there are a lot of lessons learnt and best practices we have developed. And there is a responsibility, as one of the biggest District Cooling companies, to ensure that the sector grows in a healthy way. So, as a company, and also as a leader in District Cooling, we have an obligation, when we see a certain developer or a certain project evaluating District Cooling. If it is not making

economic sense for the enduser and the developer, where we don’t have the right density in place and the cost is tremendous, we don't recommend District Cooling. It’s not only about having strong contracts back to back, it’s also about having the moral obligation to support District Cooling and to apply it wherever it makes sense. So, do you tell the developer, "maybe DC is not the best option for you"? Yes, absolutely. We have an obligation. In the end, these cooling assets will be there for 25-30 years. And we have to make sure that the developer that is going to use these assets, makes sense for him in the long run. So, you would probably suggest that you are far better off having your own water-cooled chiller as an internal system? Yes, if we don’t have the economy of scale for it, then we will suggest that. It’s not only about making the bucks, right? Also, other than that, like I said, we have built over 66 plants. And in the past, we were building relatively at a higher cost. Now, we are re-thinking how we can

phase out, and how we can tackle the developments and how we deploy CAPEX, and how as a company, we are able to build the most cost-effective Dirham per RT plant, because, in the end, any savings that we can provide in terms of building a more cost-effective project can be transferred to the government organisations we provide cooling to. You obviously have a lot of expertise built over the years. As part of the leadership, have you ever thought of coming up with your own best practices and sharing the findings? Yes, we have our own Tabreed standards in terms of District Cooling. And I think, that’s one of the strengths of Tabreed. And we have been passing on our best practices to our sister companies. Have we thought about publishing a best practices guide on District Cooling in Tabreed? Well, not yet. But I think it’s a good point, and I think we should think of that. You have a footprint in the region. But does Tabreed have any expansion plans beyond the region, into the Middle East, the Far East or into the Subcontinent? Also, in light of Empower’s acquisition of Palm Utilities and Palm District Cooling, are you also looking to consolidate, to acquire and be a larger entity, as opposed to growing organically? We are not a local company based in one emirate. We are a regional company – a publicly traded company. And we have over 20,000 shareholders, and we grow, not for the sake of growing, but in a healthy and gradual manner. We provide cooling to critical constructions in the UAE, and across the region. We provide cooling to the entire UAE Armed Forces. You can imagine the entire

Armed Forces relying on one company to provide their cooling. That says something. And on a regional front, we have a good footprint in Saudi Arabia. I never dreamt five or 10 years [ago] that Tabreed would be providing cooling in the Holy City of Makkah. And we have the right partners in Qatar. And in Oman it’s relatively small, but growing very healthy and gradually. It’s about gradual,

small, healthy steps for a utility company. We are not a real estate company. It is not a one-time EPC contract where you make one-off gains and walk away. We are out there. And in terms of going outside the GCC, I think the market is very healthy here. So, at this point of time, our focus is on the GCC. We see tremendous opportunity in the region. And as an organisation, we

continue to evaluate other opportunities. And if the right opportunity arises in the Far East, we will explore it. Absolutely. And as for consolidation, I see it as a very positive development. We see Empower acquiring Palm District Cooling as a positive thing. I mean, the governments and the country – it shows their belief in District Cooling.

Talking about us, as an organisation, we always look at organic and inorganic opportunities for growth. Maybe I can break up our growth in three chunks. We have three pies. To put things in perspective, our first pie is connecting existing assets that we have. If we have a plant on the Corniche in Abu Dhabi and another not too far away, we look at connecting

LOWEST $ kW/Ton™

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interview We provide cooling to a mall? project in Oman, and we are exploring providing cooling to two other malls. Hopefully, we will be able to close in the next six months. Oman is interesting because they have limitations on building heights. You don’t get those high-rise 100 storeys like Dubai or Abu Dhabi. So it makes much more sense when you have those big malls.

The skyline in Doha, Qatar

the two existing plants. It’s already available, and it gives us higher yield and we are sweating the assets. It creates better cooling for the customers. The second opportunity we look at is building new plants. We continue developing. We are in the final stages now of building several plants. And the third pie is the inorganic growth. We continuously look at acquiring opportunities in utility companies and cooling plants. We are in very close stages of acquiring some assets in the region. And once we close them, we will announce them. Tabreed has largely been providing cooling to commercial entities. Do you, at some point in time, see a change in your customer profile? Do you plan to diversify? As an organisation, what really distinguishes Tabreed from other cooling companies is that our cooling is with big entities like the RTA, the Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi, the Marina


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Mall…. But at the same time, we continue to evaluate and explore the possibility of looking at providing cooling to end-users – individuals. Is that something that fits in well with your overall revenue strategy? Yes. And it’s another market that we haven’t tapped into, yet. So, we are looking at that. And it’s a good opportunity to diversify. We see that other companies are doing it, and we continue to look at the market, and see how things go from there. But our strength remains with the big organisations. We see a lot of industrial developments happening in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Do you feel that it’s an opportunity for you to step in and offer District Cooling for industrial purposes? I think there is a lot of potential and opportunity in the GCC for industrial growing. And we are exploring opportunities, such as food processing, intake for power plants, etc. We are also exploring geo-

We are trying to bring best practices in the District Cooling sector for over the last threefour years thermal cooling. And Saudi Arabia is a huge market. And we provide cooling to Saudi ARAMCO. I mean, there is no bigger customer than Saudi ARAMCO. It’s one of the biggest companies in the world. And we are exploring with them to provide additional cooling to other facilities … to build additional plants. We are looking at expanding the plants. Do you see some movement in Oman also, in terms of industrial cooling? Not really. Oman is really more of shopping malls.

Do you see some sort of push in the direction of thermal energy storage from the government – that they mandate its use? And as a District Cooling pioneer, have you been pushing in that direction, as well? Whenever we have the opportunity to install thermal storage, be it water or ice storage, we take that opportunity, because we can run the plant more efficiently. During low periods, you can run the plant at a slightly higher load, and you charge your thermal storage, while the efficiency of the plant is maintained. And once the thermal storage is topped up, you either switch off one train or two trains of chillers, or completely – you can stop the whole plant – and run it in summer. And in winter, you can run it out of thermal storage. Internally, in Tabreed, do you do that? Internally, yes, if we have the plot available and depending on the size of the plant, we go ahead with thermal storage. We have plants which don’t have thermal storage, and we are thinking of upgrading them and installing ice [thermal] storage. In fact, we are doing it in one of our plants on Abu Dhabi Island. You believe that thermal energy storage can also

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be used to increase the cooling load, as opposed to operating at partial load – maybe more close to full load. But in Tabreed do you have any spare or excess capacity, as such? We have excess capacity. So there are benefits of thermal storage, if you look at it from the UAE or the Government of Dubai perspective. You are able to shift that peak. So the two O’clock peak, maybe you can shift that a little bit and reduce your peak. This provides tremendous savings in Umm Al Nar and Jebel Ali power plants. So, you require less installed power capacity giga watts. That’s the prime advantage of thermal storage. And there are some secondary benefits for the cooling provider. That is, maybe at some point, you can run the cooling plant more efficiently during winter, and sometimes you are able to manage if you have different profiles of different customers. With thermal storage you can manage that – integrate through your plant. You said that you do have some excess capacity. What percentage is it of your overall capacity? We have 855,000 tonnes group capacity across the GCC. And in the UAE, it is over 658,000 TR. So, the majority of our tonnage is in the UAE. If you are talking about our installed capacity, our connected capacity, pretty much we are off 99%. So, whatever we have installed, we have connected. There is little excess capacity when we compare installed and connected capacity. However, there is excess inventory when you compare peak to connected. And that I cannot say. Okay, so, peak to installed you have excess? You build a plant of 100,000 tonnes and you connect


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Interconnecting different plants into one scheme is one of the opportunities that we continue to explore to improve the efficiency of the plants 99,000 tonnes. So your utilisation is 99%, right? But how much is actually peaking? That’s your real utilisation, right? And you can sell the excess capacity to other customers and to other providers. And that’s where, perhaps, as you said, thermal energy storage can help? Yes, it could help. For example, maybe you have 20,000 tonnes of plant and 5,000 tonnes thermal storage. During the day, you need to provide 22,000 tonnes. But you can’t because the plant is only 20,000 tonnes. So, in the day time, you are running thermal storage a little bit. And during the night, the load requires only 10,000, as there’s no one in the offices, and there’s no need to cool. So, instead of running the plant at full load, you run the plant slightly lower. And you top up and re-charge the thermal storage. That’s where the diversity comes in, right? That’s where the business is. Have you ever thought of linking plants? Absolutely. Interconnecting different plants into one scheme is one of the

opportunities that we continue to explore to improve the efficiency of the plants. We have several plants interconnected in some specific projects. And we continue to explore interconnecting other plants, especially when it comes to acquiring. So, if I’m acquiring a plant, I take into account the fact that I have two other plants nearby. I connect them all together. And in the summer, instead of running three plants, I run one plant. And instead of three teams, I have one team. I do remote monitoring. You might require some additional piping and you might require some minor modifications. Is hydronic balancing a big issue? Hydronic balancing is an issue. We have three plants currently in Qatar – Pearl Qatar and we have two plants in West Bay. These, two plants are interconnected. We made sure through proper fluid dynamics and hydraulic modelling that we are able to, at any time during the year, shift the load and have one plant, as much as possible take on the entire network. Yes, these are best practices. There are concerns about customers regarding initial inefficiencies in a District Cooling plant. And you have cases where customers have to pay for those inefficiencies. Or it could be a case of using temporary chillers that run on air cooling systems. So, till things settle down you have a lot of staggered development. How do you make sure that customers are not at the receiving end of situations that still need some time to settle down? We reiterate that our customers are big organisations. These are not

small individuals or small apartments. That is the first thing. And the only way District Cooling is going to grow, and the only way I’m going to grow is if the customer is provided with a more cost-effective District Cooling and more reliable District Cooling. So we work very closely with our customers to make sure we provide support, make sure that the load is correct. And the biggest question I ask when I go to any meeting is: Are you sure you want X tonnage? Are you sure about the date? Because, if you are sure about the date, if you are sure about the tonnage, then somebody – Tabreed or somebody else – is going to go and put the infrastructure in the ground. You have to be very comfortable and serious about your commitment. In terms of interruptions during the commissioning period, the utility company has to take full responsibility. It has to provide support to the developer or the client, if the client needs support on sizing, etc. And as far as the client is concerned, if he needs certain tonnage at a certain date, yes. Period. That is the whole point of outsourcing your services. Why should a client be at a disadvantage? The biggest issue maybe is the timing of the developments. The developers need to have proper planning in place to make sure that the requirements are correct. If he needs X tonnage, he needs to make sure he needs X tonnage, and by those dates when he needs the tonnage. And we provide support on that. We engage with the developers and say, do you really need this tonnage? Do you need it in six months? You haven’t broken ground, yet. Why do you need it in six months? So, we try to engage as much as possible. We try to be proactive and we support them.

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Consultants say that they try as far as possible not to design beyond what is needed and design as per the capacity. But at the same time, they are also looking for some clarity. What more should they be expecting out of Tabreed, a District Cooling provider, to bridge the gap that exists? What do you want them to do to serve you better? Consultants need to understand that they need to design properly and have proper cooling requirements in place. Our rule of thumb, from what we have seen is that consultants are overdesigning… almost double of the cooling requirements. And it is not only in District Cooling, it’s all over Abu Dhabi in any building. It is adding cost to the clients. And sometimes you have consultants thinking about redundancies and what-if scenarios. As a major District Cooling provider, do you give directives to the consultants? Tabreed, as a cooling company, does not go to a building and say: Building X, you need Y tonnage. It’s the other way round. So, the building goes out with the EPC contract, they have their consultants. The owner’s engineers come up with their cooling requirements. They say they need 200 tonnes. And we say, are you sure about your cooling load? They say, yes, we have consultants from Germany or from UK – very solid consultants. But we as a cooling company, we have 800,000 tonnes. We have over 130 contracts. So, we have the biggest database. We know what a 20-storey building is peaking at. We advise our clients, because, in the end, it’s going to backfire on the cooling provider, when after two years, the


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Pearl Qatar

owner recognises that he is paying a capacity charge or tariff, and he is only using half of his requirements. Again, the ultimate responsibility lies with the EPC and with the owner. Could you share with us how many of your plants still have HCFCs and what your long-term policy is, as far as aligning yourself to regional goals are concerned, and adhering to what the Montreal Protocol is saying – be it about ozone-depleting potential or globalwarming potential? You do have, R123 in several of your plant rooms. Are you going to phase them out? Have you made concrete plans already? As an organisation, we are following all the obligatory protocols where we operate, and we strive to be not only a leading District Cooling company, but we also want to be a safe and environment-friendly cooling company. And yes, we have some cooling plants with R123. But this represents only five per cent of our whole capacity. And we have significant and proper integrity inspections being

We know what a 20-storey building is peaking at. We advise our clients, because, in the end, it’s going to backfire on the cooling provider carried out. We have proper detection systems in place. Also, we have our own internal KPIs for keeping track of any discharges of those harmful gases. And as an organisation, we will evaluate when the right time to upgrade those chillers is and when it is the right time to phase them out. In cooling towers, Legionella is a major issue this is giving sleepless nights to consultants and cooling tower suppliers. How does Tabreed look at it from an overall CSR point of view? We take it very seriously.

Again, this is one of our Workplace Health and Safety obligations and requirements as a cooling company. And we have strict and solid inspections. We carry out quality requirement inspections. And we follow the authority requirements, be it the Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi or the Dubai regulations. As the oldest District Cooling company in the GCC, could you share with us operations and maintenance strategies that you have adopted? We have over 800,000 tonnes. We have more data than some of the manufacturers have when it comes to operational hours. And we carry out different maintenance regimes, be it breakdown maintenance, be it corrective maintenance, be it preventive maintenance or condition-based maintenance. We are trying to bring best practices in the District Cooling sector for over the last three-four years. So, to give an example, in the past, you have your chiller and the manufacturer says, you have 40,000 hours. And then you strip down the chiller and do complete overhauling... put

some nice bearings and put a stamp that it is zero time and overhaul for another 40,000. Times have changed. We are not doing plant maintenance like that. We have over 450 operations & maintenance staff in-house in Tabreed. As an organisation, we carry out condition-based maintenance. We take vibration analysis, we take oil monitoring, we do thermography. We measure

the health of the equipment and anticipate things before they fail. We don’t wait for an outage to happen. We plan the outage before. So, we are measuring the oil. We see if the metaparticles are increasing. We have liability teams in the organisation. They measure how many drums of oil we have now. Is it increasing? Am I going to make it this summer? So

I operate throughout the summer, and when the winter comes, I have excess capacity, I plan a plant shutdown. By that time, for six months I am monitoring it – the oil level or the vibration level. And at that time I have already ordered my bearings, my shafts, my couplings and everything. So, when it’s time for planned maintenance, everything is ready. So, we

open the place, and in two to three days it’s done. So, maintenance strategy has changed. It’s not about 40,000 hours or waiting for the equipment to fail or trusting blindly the manufacturer. We have all this history in the organisation, and you build the data and you build the personnel and feel more comfortable.


Huayi Compressor Barcelona, S.L is the new subsidiary in Spain of Huayi Compressor Co. Ltd, the world leading group in compressor manufacturing for household and commercial applications. Cubigel Compressors® is the brand for the light commercial refrigeration offering: › The most complete range of compressors and condensing units › Environmental and sustainable refrigeration for commercial appliances › European manufacturing › Innovation and quality

Huayi Compressor Barcelona, S.L. Antoni Forrellad, 2 · 08192 · Sant Quirze del Vallès · BCN · Spain.

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District Cooling in Oman – creating a roadmap George Berbari, a veteran in the field, believes that the District Cooling sector in Oman has a positive outlook, thanks to slow but sure steps the country is taking towards achieving greater energy efficiency and sufficiency.


he Oman District cooling industry has evolved in recent years to be able to achieve an actual estimated penetration rate in the total air conditioning sector of 70,000 TR out of two million TR or 3.5%. One of the first District Cooling schemes in Oman was The Wave project in the Seeb, area next to the Muscat Airport, where 20,000 TR of the total capacity, and 7,500 TR of Phase One installed capacity was completed. The Tilal Development in Muscat (12,500 TR with 10,000 TR installed in Phase One); New Muscat Airport


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(two plants x 18,000 TR); New Salalah Airport (15,000 TR); Knowledge Oasis Muscat (around 5,000 TR); Military Technical Colleges (two plants around 12,500 TR each); and the new conference centre (40,000 TR with Phase One with 20,000 TR) are a few of the schemes with District Cooling or large central plants. Oman is challenged by its burgeoning population (2.59 million people in 2008 to 3.31 million in 2012) and an increase in power demand (3,392 MW in 2008 to 4,837 MW in 2012). However, on the other hand, Oman is a major oil and natural

The obvious answer is trigeneration, as it saves between 30% and 50% primary energy, mainly in the form of natural gas, as well as countrywide capital cost

gas producer. It produces 918,000 barrels of oil per day, consumes 123,000 and exports the balance. It also produces 26.5 billion m3 per year of natural gas, consumes 17.5 and exports around 9 m3. Oman imports around two billion m3 per year of natural gas. It has recently signed with Iran to import 10 billion m3 per year through a 260 kilometre pipeline that will cost around USD one billion, that will be paid for by Oman. The 10 billion m3 per year can produce around 8,000 MW of peak power, and the excess natural gas will be liquefied and exported. Therefore, the outlook for energy sufficiency and, in particular, availability of natural gas is positive in Oman. The question then arises: Shall we use it in a combined cycle or trigeneration? The obvious answer is tri-generation, as it saves between 30% and 50% primary energy, mainly in the form of natural gas, as well as countrywide capital cost. It needs to be noted that the two enabling components of tri-generation are District Cooling and the availability of natural gas. The main challenges of extending District Cooling coverage to a healthy 40% of the nation’s HVAC market are: 1. Oman has developed low- to-medium-rise growth that is considered low- to-medium density in District Cooling, which results in smaller connected loads and makes network more extensive, but still saves on electrical cables to the building, where steel pipes are cheaper than copper wires. 2. Subsidised residential electric slab rates vary from 10 Baisa for below 3,000 Kwh/month to 15 Baisa for 3,000 and 5,000

Kwh/month, and so on, up to 30 Baisa for over 10,000 Kwh/month. But District Cooling is treated as a commercial entity and pays a flat rate of 20 Baisa per Kwh. 3. There are not many large developments that will enable medium-sized District Cooling schemes to develop. 4. There is a lack of regulation or a master plan to convert old or existing buildings from aircooled or traditional air conditioned systems into efficient District Cooling schemes. Despite these challenges, there is a window of hope,

like the new Innovation Park in Oman that is being developed by the Oman Research Council that will feature the most efficient tri-generation system in the world. It is slated to use exhaust heat recovery to power the region’s first triple-effect absorption chillers and use jacket heat recovery to power a singleeffect absorption chiller in a series with ultra-efficient electric water-cooled centrifugal chillers. All this will be optimised by using stratified chilled water thermal storage. It has to be noted that the building that the plant is serving has implemented one of the most efficient HVAC systems with a double heat recovery fresh air

handling unit with ultraefficient thermal wheels (80 to 90% efficiency) and use of variable speed EC motor fan coil units with low static thermal diffusers. Also, it has implemented external nonair conditioned corridors that provide shading to the building, thus reducing air conditioned areas. Moreover, the 5.6 MW tri-generation plant will be synchronised with 1 MW photovoltaic plant that provides intermittent power and, hence, when coupled with tri-generation and thermal storage, the perfect marriage is created to address and resolve several critical issues important to Oman, and to every single government on Earth. These

include primary energy optimisation, introducing renewables to cover the assigned national target and energy efficiency by addressing the energy source as well as the type of HVAC system.

The writer is CEO, DC PRO Engineering, Dubai. He can be contacted at:

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PERSPECTIVE plant uses state-of-the-art equipment and machinery which reduce energy consumption as well as conserve the environment.


To find modular and reliable solution, which would be cost-efficient as well as energy-saving.

Method employed – sustainable initiatives

BPHE technology – the right DCsion Located in the Jubail industrial city of Saudi Arabia, the Hadeed District Cooling Plant has replaced all chillers and DX units that had served individual buildings in the area, with technology. Cost-efficient and energy-saving, the system provides cooling through an extensive chilled water reticulation piping network located in and around Hadeed, says SWEP, which provided the technology. We bring you the case study. Introduction

The Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger (BPHE) technology consists of corrugated plates combined to create complex channels through which a hot medium and a cold medium can be distributed. The media come into close proximity inside the BPHE without mixing on either side of the corrugated plate, and energy is transferred from one to the other as they flow side-by-side.*

The background

BPHE technology has been replacing traditional technologies during the past decades in various applications. SWEP claims that today, close to 3.5 million SWEP BPHEs are installed worldwide, every year. With the B649, it makes the technology available for all district


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energy applications in which it already has more than one million installations worldwide, says SWEP. The system at the Hadeed plant is among the first of its kind to be built for the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) affiliate, and the BPHEs are most likely the first to be used at a District Cooling plant in the Middle East, the company informs.

Case study

Since the start-up of the Hadeed District Cooling plant in 2011, Zamil Industrial Investment Company (Zamil Industrial) has been in charge of its cooling network. The ambitious project, commissioned by SABIC, will help Hadeed become the leading producer of steel products in the region. With a cooling capacity of 40,000 tonnes of refrigeration, the

Expected to significantly reduce power consumption, while simultaneously lowering the emission of greenhouse gas, the plant might well completely change the view on the use of BPHEs in the region

Already at the start of the project, Zamil Industrial decided to try BPHEs from SWEP. The first 12 units were delivered in 2010. They were serial/parallel connected, as the capacity of the BPHE technology at the time was limited. “We were very happy with the performance and advantages of the first installations, so we opted for BPHEs again for the extension,” says Alessandro Belloni, Operations Manager at Zamil Industrial. SWEP was able to deliver, says Shwan H Lamei, Segment Manager for District Energy. “This time around, we could offer the truly ground-breaking B649, he says. "In one step, we tripled the capacity reach of the BPHE technology, making it a superior alternative for all HVAC applications,” he says. The two new stand-alone units were delivered in 2013. The modular solution enabled an N+1 design, bringing about redundancy at a lower cost. N+1 redundancy for a conventional system usually involves another set of ETS (Energy Transfer Station) equipment of similar capacity. N+1 was simply one more module rather than an additional separate ETS system, making it a much more affordable proposition. In addition, the compartmentalised nature of a modular system significantly reduced the risk of losing control of the load.

CIP for easy cleaning

Initially, Zamil Industrial had some concerns about cleaning, but those were soon sorted out. With the Cleaning in Place (CIP) method, the heat exchangers, with their closed loop systems, could easily be maintained with a minimum of manpower and down time. Already an established method, CIP allowed the interior surfaces to be cleaned by a chemical fluid that circulates in the system. The chemicals and the strong water swirls dissolve deposits on the surfaces without the equipment having to be disassembled. Most of SWEP’s BPHEs installed annually are used in water systems, making them highly reliable.


With the BPHE technology, it was possible to cost efficiently use smaller modules, and thereby reduce the total installed capacity and at the same time offer required redundancy.

Other positive outcomes

Less maintenance, more reliable performance “The unit provides the same capacities as those of older technologies, but is much more compact, which saves money on space and transportation,” says Lamei. “Also, as it doesn’t have any gaskets, so the wear and tear of parts is minimal. This brings the same superior lifecycle cost that we have

previously offered for our smaller units. ” The solution also ensures a stable thermal performance as the plate package is fixed.

Looking ahead

The capacity of the Hadeed plant will gradually be extended during the coming years. “We are completely satisfied with the BPHE technology, and we are planning on using BPHEs for future extensions as well,” says Belloni at Zamil. Expected to significantly reduce power consumption, while simultaneously lowering the emission of greenhouse gas, the plant might well completely change the view on the use of BPHEs in this area.

What the customer says … “The weight and footprint is less than half of the corresponding heat exchanger. It was exceptionally easy to transport and install and easy to fit into ETS rooms with serious height and footprint limitations.” – Alessandro Belloni, Operations Manager, Zamil Industrial. * Source: http://www.swep. net/en/Pages/default.aspx

Steel Construction Engineering Co. L.L.C. since 1977

Our services includes the following:

• Design and Build district cooling plant • Design and Build modular district cooling plant • Design and Build modular ETS rooms • Design and Build underground chilled water pipeline CCS, GRP, HDPE • Design and Build thermal storage tanks • Design and Build vertical storage tanks (fixed and floating roof tanks)

• Design and Build Pressure vessels • Process piping (oil and gas) • Major repairs for fixed and floating roof tanks • Tanks industrial cleaning (internal and external) • Refurbishment of turbines and boilers • General civil construction works




P.O. Box: 3922 P.O. Box: 111023 Tel: 02-6346334 Tel: 04-2833553 Fax: 02-6321131 Fax: 04-2833554 E-mail: |


P.O. Box: 47902 Tel: 02-5501011 Fax: 02-5501012

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‘There’s great need for cooling tower augmentation in the GCC countries’ Backed by his experience in Tower Tech, which pioneered the concept of the world’s first mobilised rental cooling tower, Daniel B Coday makes a case for them in this interview with B Surendar, especially in the GCC region. What kind of market is ideal for the nature of your business?

Whether the application is District Cooling, hospital, university, resort, data centre, refinery, gas processing, petrochemical, fertiliser, power plant, steel or whatever it might be, there are five reasons why rental cooling towers are typically used to fulfill a business need: A. Load replacement following the failure of an existing tower: Failures can occur due to wind,

fire, seismic activity, fill media collapse, wood rot, pipe rupture, mechanical support corrosion, etc. Solution: Rental cooling towers can be dispatched, set in place, piped up and electrical connections made within days to replace the entire load. This allows the process to quickly get back up and running instead of waiting months for a rebuild or new tower delivery. B. Augmentation of an existing tower: Cooling towers begin to decline

Cooling towers begin to decline in thermal performance after the first three to six months of operation

in thermal performance after the first three to six months of operation. It is not uncommon for a 10-year-old cooling tower to perform 15-20% less than design thermal capacity while the plant’s thermal load demands have increased during that same time. This causes chiller surge for air conditioning applications and reduced plant output for industrial process and power applications, especially during the critical summer months. Solution: A common solution in North America is to bring in rental cooling towers sufficient for 15-20% of the original design capacity. Reducing the water loading on the existing tower allows the tower to operate more efficiently while the rental unit takes on that 15-20% load ensuring full performance during peak demand. The 15-20% hot water flow is taken to the rental units from a bypass or hot tap in the manifold, and then gravity fed back into the cold water basin of the existing tower. C. Avoidance of maintenance outages: Sometimes maintenance requires the cooling tower to be fully or partially shut down, but at the same time, the process requires full capacity. Not shutting down for maintenance could lead to a much larger failure, while shutting down for maintenance can cause notable disruption. Solution: Rental cooling towers can be employed to take on partial or full process load, so that preventative maintenance can occur at any time. D. Compensating for lack of cap-ex funding: Many times, additional cooling is required to optimise


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business operations, but capital funding is not available for a new project. The need for additional cooling without having access to capital funding can be a short-term need to bridge some time, or it can be a long-term need, where there is no defined date for when the capital funding will be available. Solution: Rental cooling towers can quickly and easily be employed to provide the additional cooling required to optimise business operations. Since the equipment is being rented, the funding can come from an existing operational budget without needing to wait through an exhaustive capital funding approval process. Rental cooling towers not only solve operational issues, but they are also commonly “selffunding” since the additional cooling they provide can create substantially more incremental revenue than the cost of the rental. E. Meeting short-term cold water requirements: Delays in delivery of new cooling towers when the rest of the plant is ready to operate, short-term testing of boilers and other equipment, and short-term events, such as EXPO 2020 and 2022 FIFA can create a serious, but temporary demand. Solution: Rental cooling towers can quickly and easily be set in place to satisfy any short-term cold water requirement. Apart from the above five, reduction of thermal pollution is a sixth reason, and typically applies to very large industrial process and power applications. Many large processes use oncethrough cooling using water from lakes, rivers or oceans to cool their process before

returning warm water to the lake, river or ocean. The resulting algae blooms pose a grave threat to the natural ecosystem and aquatic life. Environmental agencies are imposing ever stricter regulations on discharge temperatures. A temporary cooling tower helps ensure the process is able to run at capacity year-round by cooling the process water before it flows back into the lake, river or ocean. We rent temporary cooling towers for all six of these reasons each year in North America. However, augmentation of an existing cooling tower is the most common. With an everincreasing number of towers reaching 10 years of age in corrosive environments, frequent cleanings due to excessive sand, and use of treated sewage effluent (TSE) in a region that continues to experience high growth, we believe there is a great need for cooling tower augmentation in the GCC countries.

financial investment into a fleet of rental cooling towers in North America without first having purchase orders in hand?

Tower Tech’s earliest design was a trailer-mounted unit (2m x 14m). In the first year, the company built a handful of units, all on speculation. The idea of ‘temporary cooling towers available

In view of the fact that no one had considered the concept of rental cooling towers before the 1980’s, could you elaborate why Tower Tech chose to go ahead with making a

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PERSPECTIVE you initiate to make rental cooling towers a legitimate option for large applications, as are being seen in the GCC region?

for immediate delivery’ was novel, but we knew the cost of not having cold water was exponentially higher than the cost of putting in temporary units. By the end of that first summer, every unit had been rented. It didn’t take long for the industry to discover that plant downtime or slowdowns caused by cooling tower failures and performance shortfalls could be avoided. By 1993, dozens of industrial plants across North America had learnt to rely on cold water from Tower Tech’s fleet of mobile units in emergencies, and when loads were too great for existing permanent cooling towers. A new industry had been born. North America now has more than one million TR of temporary cooling towers, all of which experience heavy utilisation, with many deployed on a year-round or multi-year basis.

How does the rental cooling tower design 58

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A temporary cooling tower helps ensure the process is able to run at capacity year-round by cooling the process water before it flows back into the lake, river or ocean differ from that of a conventional set-up? By the early 1990s Tower Tech had recognised that its trailer-mounted temporary cooling towers based on a conventional factory-assembled design were no longer suitable for installations larger than 2,000 TR, because the antiquated design required large areas of valuable

plant real estate, performed poorly when placed in close proximity to one another, and their low stature prevented the cooled water from gravity-flowing into existing cold water basins. In 1995, Tower Tech launched a new generation of temporary cooling towers that solved the shortcomings of the old trailer-mounted units. Since then, Tower Tech has made hundreds of improvements to the design of its temporary cooling towers. Each unit – the company refers to each of its 1,000 TR units as a module – can be set on a job site in less than an hour. Simplified piping and electrical connections ensure the module can go into service speedily. With more than 400 modules in service, the Tower Tech cooling tower design is the dominant force in the North American temporary cooling tower market.

What design modifications did

We made the rental cooling towers modular so that any number of our 1,000 TR modules can be connected together to accommodate any heat load requirement. Then we designed the towers to take air from the bottom instead of the sides, so they do not require air clearance between the modules to minimise real estate space required. Next, we created elevated basins to provide positive pressure from the basin of the rental modules to the existing basin or directly back to the process. These modifications have allowed us to be involved in many large projects, including successfully connecting 80 modules for a single project.

Could you elaborate on your plans for rental cooling towers in the GCC region?

We are evaluating whether to launch a fleet of rental cooling towers on a direct basis or in partnership with a GCC company. The GCC region has very few rental cooling towers and no fleet to care for large applications. So, getting a fleet on the ground in the GCC region is a priority for us. It reminds us of the opportunity we saw in North America in the 1980s, yet on a much larger scale, and now we have experience that can help.

Daniel B Coday is Sales Manager, Offshore FRP Towers & North US Region, Tower Tech, Inc, He can be contacted at

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LICENCE TO CHILL Proactive chiller maintenance = dependability and efficiency Pointing out that today’s chillers may be technically more advanced, but less robust, Dan Mizesko, Al Shirawi US Chiller Services, gives thumb rules for their upkeep.


oday’s centrifugal chillers offer some of the highest efficiencies ever. However, today's chillers are more prone to failure and inefficient operation versus design due to poor start up, commissioning and ongoing maintenance. They may be more advanced, but the older generation chillers could operate short of gas, fouled tubes, etc., while continuing to deliver chilled water. That’s not the case with present-day chillers, with their super-enhanced tubes, new refrigerants, less robust bearings and internal components. The need for diligent start up and ongoing maintenance is critical on these new chillers. In light of this, five key areas that should be routinely addressed are: 1. Tubes 2. Controls, which need regular inspection and calibration 3. Refrigerant charge optimisation 4. Regular oil changes and yearly oil analysis 5. Condenser and chilled water flows The importance of keeping proper logs should also be a major maintenance task. The need for logging chillers at least daily and having


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these logs available for the service engineer to review cannot be overstated. If there are no operating problems evident to the onsite staff, it does not mean one is not developing. By taking regular readings the service engineer can watch for trends and catch problems before they result in equipment damage or unexpected downtime. Most importantly, daily logging helps the service engineer to spot inefficiencies that can waste substantial power and water. The service engineer must have daily logs to assist in the proper operation and service of the chiller.


Here in the Gulf, with the weather and water conditions being as harsh as they are, as well as many differing opinions prevalent on “proper” CoC for the towers and condenser water loop, chiller tube fouling and failure is a major concern, not only from an energy standpoint but also from a reliability aspect. With today’s enhanced tubes, the consequence of ignoring their special needs can be dramatic, including catastrophic tube failure. Special attention needs to be given to their maintenance in order to extend their normal service

Many people in this industry mistakenly think that all sensors are field calibrated. However, this is not the case life. Things to remember in this regard are: 1. Water treatment: Be sure it is adequate, and be sure you are operating at the correct CoC or you will scale up. 2. Maintain constant flow; do not allow long periods of stagnation. Periodically circulate water through offline chillers. 3. Brush the tubes properly; use the correct tube brush. 4. Perform eddy current testing annually in this region. 5. Utilise corrosion coupons. 6. Examine spool pieces regularly. 7. Monitor your water treatment programme and understand where you want your water quality to be. As a rule of thumb, don’t

wait for the usual signs of higher-than-normal condenser pressures, together with the inability to reach full refrigeration load, indicating fouled tubes. Utilise design approach readings for this. If the reading is higher than design, the condenser tubes may be fouled or water flow rates may be incorrect. Keeping the condenser tubes clean is essential in maintaining peak performance. The recommended yearly tube inspections by the OEM’s are not going to be enough to keep your tubes in peak condition. Tubes should be inspected as soon as any sign of trouble occurs.

Microprocessor chiller-based control systems

Often overlooked, but critical to precise operation, is the microprocessor control system. A controls test, therefore, should be performed annually at minimum, or whenever a problem is suspected. All sensors should be checked and calibrated annually, if the sensor has the ability to be calibrated. Many people in this industry mistakenly think that all sensors are field calibrated. However, this is not the case. Some sensors will need to be replaced. Pressure transducers will need to be tested and calibrated as well. Cleaning and examining the control contacts is another aspect of regular control service. We also recommend IR-Thermal scans of the chiller panels and chiller insulation.

Refrigerant charge

Proper refrigerant charge in the chiller is essential for optimal performance and energy efficiency. In our experience in the region, for whatever reason, we have found chillers commissioned

without the correct refrigerant charge, and found operating chillers which have been in service for years to be short of charge as well. Insufficient refrigerant charge will result in the top rows of the cooler tube bundle not being submerged in liquid refrigerant. This will cause the chiller to not be able to meet load conditions, and also in some OEM chillers, the inability to reclaim oil charge and skim oil off the top of the refrigerant. In addition, in this situation (low charge) the “lift� on the compressor increases, resulting in higher-than-normal power consumption. Most OEMS recommend that in undercharged chillers, refrigerant be added. However, we recommend that the charge be removed, weighed and any shortfall be added. With this you are at factor charge baseline, and if energy efficiency is of any concern to you, this is the way it should be done. After the factory charge has been 100% established, the refrigerant charge can be trimmed to obtain optimal chiller performance. If it becomes necessary to adjust the refrigerant charge, the procedure is to operate the chiller at design load and, then add or remove refrigerant slowly, until the difference between the leaving chilledwater temperature and the cooler refrigerant temperature reaches design conditions or becomes a minimum. Do not overcharge.

ballpark, it is really not the best way to set flows considering efficiencies. Pressure drop can be off many hundreds of GPM, which will affect your KW per tonne. We suggest that some sort of accurate flow device be used when setting chiller flows. It will improve

your chillers efficiencies. Chiller maintenance includes many other areas and aspects. I have touched on a few of them here. I hope to bring you many more insightful topics on the service and maintenance of large tonnage chillers every month.

Note: Starting from the next issue, Dan Mizesko will be writing a column every month, mainly focusing on large tonnage chillers, as well as technical and current issues in the industry in the region.

Oil, lubrication system

We recommend that the oil is analysed annually or more often, dictated by the results. We do not recommend that the oil charge is changed annually; rather the analysis should dictate this. The analysis may also alert you to other problems in the system that can be addressed during planned maintenance rather than emergency downtime. We do recommend an oil filter change annually and/or when the chiller is opened for repairs. The lubrication system should be checked every week and pressures and oil levels logged daily.

Chilled water and condenser water flows

Condenser flows and chilled water flows need to be set during commissioning. However, in the industry, this is usually done by a chiller technician, who will use the pressure drop across the heat exchanger with the installed gauges. Although this will get him in the

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MENA – The case of disappearing water and increased energy demand In this piece based on the research paper by Alice Cowman, titled “Increased Energy Demand”, that Clean Energy Business Council launched during WFES & IWS 2014 in Abu Dhabi, the writer highlights the implications of the growing gap between water supply and demand.


n the wake of the International Water Summit held in Abu Dhabi in January, MENA’s water woes have been sharply highlighted. Studies carried out by the Abu Dhabi Environmental Agency contained frightening statistics as to why we should all be worried about the falling groundwater levels in the UAE. It might be less than obvious why the Clean Energy Business Council (CEBC) has launched a research paper on water. The answer lies in looking at the extraordinary amount of energy used to create alternatives to natural water supply in the MENA region. In fact, the IEA estimates that six of the biggest users of desalination in MENA – Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE – use approximately 10% of their energy demand for desalination purposes. In light of this, huge potential for energy savings and


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renewable energy alternatives for generating water supply has propelled CEBC to look at this topic in greater detail. It appears that clean energy may actually be driven by a desperate need for water generation in the region.

The threat of water supply and demand gap in the region

The water supply and demand gap is a growing problem in the region. The World Bank estimates that the gap will reach 200 km3 in 2040 in an average climate change scenario. This is 50 times the amount of renewable sources of water available in the GCC countries as a whole every year. Basic economics tells us that an increasing supply and demand gap can only mean increasing water prices. CEBC warns that this means profit impacts for the private sector when the

The answer lies in looking at the extraordinary amount of energy used to create alternatives to natural water supply in the MENA region true cost of supply is passed through to them. Of the water supply options, wastewater reuse is far more economical than desalination, mainly due to its lower energy requirements. In addition, in the wastewater process, they are starting to produce

interesting by-products, such as plastics and fertiliser. However, in spite of the high cost of desalination, the urgent need to bridge the water gap in MENA means that the region will account for more than 54% of the world’s growth in desalination capacity, according to Navigant Research Group.

How will increased demand for energy to produce water change the industry landscape?

Within MENA, authorities traditionally met their power and water demands by co-locating natural gas power plants with desalination plants. They used the waste heat from power generation to boil and distill the seawater, saving on energy costs. An analysis of these plants now shows that power generated by them is only required during the summer, when all the air conditioning units are switched on and demand peaks. As a result, the energy savings from co-location are only enjoyed during the summer months. For the rest of the year, the plants are run purely for desalination purposes, resulting in substantial fuel inefficiencies. On CEBC’s analysis, power and water generation will increasingly be separated in years to come to increase flexibility for utilities and maximise fuel efficiency. MENA will also come to embrace renewable sources of energy for desalination purposes in a greater way, not least because of the uncertainty surrounding natural gas prices in the region. This will make not just environmental sense, but economic sense in the near future. Cost estimates for all forms of renewables are surprisingly close to the equivalent fossil fuel desalination cost, with solar

the pinch from increased prices or are individuals simply exempt from tariffs? Why is the value of this precious resource not adequately appreciated or costed?

What does rising costs mean for the private sector?

District Cooling and the water-energy nexus

CEBC has calculated that for an industry, such as cement, an increase in the cost of water could push the companies looked at into the red, with increased costs of up to USD 15 million a year in some sectors. The conclusion can only be that it is not just the public sector that may lose a night’s sleep over water, the private sector will also have to sit up and take notice of water management issues sooner rather than later.

References: World Bank – MENA Development Report – Renewable Energy Desalination – An emerging solution to close the Water Gap in the Middle East and North Africa 2012 (World Bank 2012).

The writer is Program Director, Clean Energy Business Council. She can be contacted at: alice@ cleanenergybusiness

No one technology or idea will save water on the supply and demand side. However, there are other potential win-win scenarios in the energy –water nexus. District Cooling, which involves pumping cold water around buildings in a district, has been lauded as the most energy- efficient way to lower temperatures in the hot summers of the Middle East. So, where is the win-win situation and the link to CEBC’s research? Firstly, wastewater can be used for District Cooling purposes as evidenced by Saudi Arabia’s Treated Sewage Effluent Initiative. Additionally, when the need for cooling is peaking, so too is solar energy. Waste solar heat can thus be used to chill water required for cooling circulation – low- carbon energy providing a low-carbon cooling solution.

CSP and geothermal sources leading the competition for base load desalination purposes. Better use of water by all within the MENA region is required. Eighty per cent of water in the MENA region is used for agriculture. Yet, it only contributes two per cent to GDP. Ironically, the cost of repairing damage to our groundwater resources could cost us that two per cent of GDP earned by agriculture. Reducing

demand from agriculture and other sectors is key to keeping the bill for bridging the water gap down. The World Bank estimates that up to USD 300 billion can be saved by reducing demand. CEBC has noted that higher water tariffs in Dubai do not necessarily impact a person’s decision to drink more water. Why is this? Is everyone actually charged for the water they consume? Maybe an employer pays so that individuals don’t feel

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thermal comfort

Focus on worker thermal comfort Port-A-Cool in May opened a warehouse in Dubai’s Jebel Ali Free Zone with an avowed focus emphasis on providing cooling solutions to ensure good thermal comfort and safety for of workers in the region during the hot summer months. According to the company, the storage and distribution facility, a result of completing an agreement with UPS Worldwide, is a major step towards regional growth, especially considering that its US base in Texas is 60-75 days away from the GCC market, which means long transit times. Climate Control Middle East in conversation with Ben Wulf, the President and CEO of the company and with Bob Mangiaforte, the Director of International Sales… What do you hope to achieve through the opening of the warehouse in Jebel Ali Free Zone in the UAE?

Ben Wulf: The warehouse brings our evaporative cooling products and services closer to the consumer. We have made a major commitment to the region with the logistical and support mechanisms in place. We are aligning ourselves to the growth that is taking place. Port-A-Cool

Ben Wulf

is a US-made product, so we are able to offer quality, reliability and the best of customer service. Customers place a lot of value on good service.

Could you tell us of your expansion plans in the region, especially Qatar and the UAE, in the contexts of the FIFA World Cup in 2022 and Expo 2020?

Bob Mangiaforte: We have been in the region for 10 years and are fortunate enough to have a strong network of distributors, who make sure our brand gets good visibility. Obviously, in the case of some of the big projects in Qatar and the UAE, there is a real need for cooling during the construction phase and also once the structures are ready. There is a big role there in managing heat stress. Of course, once the schedule of the World Cup matches are decided – whether they will be played in the heat of the summer or not – the comfort of the

Bob Mangiaforte

Obviously, in the case of some of the big projects in Qatar and the UAE, there is a real need for cooling during the construction phase and also once the structures are ready 64

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

running for five years now, so they are very pleased with the results.

players and the fans comes into focus. We at Port-ACool are familiar with stadia cooling, having done the same for NFL matches in the United States. Obviously, the quality of the matches will be diminished, if played in high-temperature conditions. As I said earlier, the other component is the construction of the stadia, once they have

figured out whether the matches will be played in the summer or the winter. We have done cooling of the fans’ sections at Hamad Stadium in Qatar. Ben Wulf: We have also provided 60-70 of our units to cool the fans zone at Khalifa International Stadium in Qatar. The units have been

Here in the UAE, the Emirates Authority for Metrology and Standardisation (ESMA) is ramping up its energy rating programme, which will see more stringent energy-efficiency requirements. In that context, how do your systems measure up in terms of energy efficiency?

Bob Mangiaforte: There is no question of the energy efficiency attributes of evaporative cooling. Traditional air conditioning is going to be 20%-40% more costly than evaporative cooling. Our systems don’t

use compressors and Freon gas. A lot of air conditioning companies do not want to see evaporative cooling, because that’s not where they make a lot of money.

What is the customer profile of Port-A-Cool in the region?

Ben Wulf: We have a wide reach in terms of the market for our products; the diversity includes the commercial and industrial sectors and also the consumer sector. In the commercial sector, we serve the aviation, hospitality, oil & gas and petrochemical industries. We like to say that you can use Port-ACool where traditional air conditioning is costprohibitive or inaccessible. We continue to see strong and sustainable growth.


Cairo, Egypt Tel: (202) 25161610 25163737 Fax: (202) 27549849 E-mail: Web:


Tel: 0971 4 297 8500 Fax: 0971 4 2652 192 E-mail: Burj Khalifa, Downtown Dubai, UAE

Empower, Business Bay, Dubai UAE

Winner of Best Consulting Firm District Cooling in the Climate Control Awards 2011


• Jeddah, KSA • Toronto, Canada


Allied has grown into one of the leading Engineering and Project Management firms in the Middle East, boasting offices in 3 major Countries in the Middle East (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Kingdome of Saudi Arabia). Allied offers full range of Engineering and Project Management services provided by nearly 140 dedicated professionals distributed among Egyptian, UAE and KSA locations. The company is a multidisciplinary consulting firm and has a track record and specialization in Buildings, Industrial Works and District Cooling and Power Generation Plants.

June 2014




COLD FACTS Variable speed drives reduce energy consumption and increase system efficiency in refrigeration applications, says Abdelhak Dhab, and backs it with empirical evidence. Abstract

This article will discuss the advantage of using frequency converter technology in refrigeration applications to control compressors. As shown through theory and case study, speed control of refrigeration components provides maximum flexibility, control and energy efficiency. Most MAKING refrigeration MODERN LIVING POSSIBLE systems spend most of their operating hours at reduced capacity. Screw compressors back off slide valves, reciprocating solenoid valve capacity control and other compressor types use on/off. Unfortunately, these control methods do not provide the maximum attainable reduction in brake horsepower as the refrigerant capacity is reduced.

not only benefit from the speed reduction but also any reduction in torque with speed. Two types of motor loads exist: Constant torque and variable torque. Positive displacement compressors such as screw, reciprocating and rotary vane are constant torque devices. That is, the twisting force required to turn the shaft is constant, regardless of speed. Therefore, the shaft power is determined by operating conditions (pressures) and method of capacity control, which both effect torque. In general, a reduction in 50% speed would provide a proportional 50% reduction in shaft power. (See Figure 1).

Using frequency converters to control cold storage capacity provide improved control and efficiency, whether for compressors, or pumps Variable speed drives reducefans energy

to control cold storage capacity provide improved control and efficiency, whether for compressors, fans or pumps. There are several incentives for using speed control on screw compressors. They are: • Drive control will reduce the power penalty associated with slide valve, poppet valve or throttling capacity control. On compressors with no capacity control, speed control will eliminate other poor control strategies. • Drive control will reduce wear and tear associated with slide valve action. • Drive control allows a precise suction pressure to be maintained. With slide valve, a broad dead band is often maintained to avoid excessive wear. • Drive speed control provides compressor size reduction with the same system capacity demand.

Drive operation of screw compressor

Almost every rotary screw compressor uses a slide valve for unloading. The slide valve moves along the length of the rotors, reducing the compression length within the rotors. An internal view of a screw compressor is shown in Figure 2. Although this control method is infinitely adjustable and provides reasonable suction pressure control, there can be a substantial power penalty associated with slide valve control. As the compressor unloads, there is no proportional reduction in power. A typical screw compressor part load curve is shown in Figure 3. In general, part-load performance degrades with deeper suction or higher discharge pressure. Also, economised compressors typically lose economiser operation at approximately

consumption and increase system efficiency General drive in refrigeration applications control Frequency by Abdelhak Dhabi converter control

Using frequency converters

In standard system design,

Unfortunately, these control methods

Norminal Torque Rating 100% Constant Torque Curve Synchronous Speed Speed (RPM)

Figure 1: Torque speed curves (Constant Torque)

June 2014


This article discuss advantage to will operate at the a fixed speed. speed converter is determined for usingThis frequency techthe frequency of powerto nology inby refrigeration applications supplied by the utility and control compressors. motor design (number of As shown through theory and case poles). study, speed control of refrigeration The shaft load on the components provides maximum motor is determined byflexibility, control and energy efficiency. the product of shaft speed Most refrigeration systems and torque. With spend a fixed most of their operating hours at speed, motor power is reduced capacity. determined by the torque of the load. With a change Screw compressors back off slide in speed, motor load will valves, reciprocating solenoid valve capacity control and other compressor types use on/off. 66 Climate Control Middle East


Abstract electric motors are intended

Positive displacement compressors


Drive control will reduce the




80% 100% Capacity

Inlet casing

Slide VFD Ideal

Male rotor


100% Hydraulic thrust balancer assembly




Hydraulic unloader cylinder



rotor Unloader piston


80% 100% Capacity Hydraulic unloader cylinder

mpressor internal view

Scre Econ


Slide valve Discharge plate

Figure 4: Im








80% 100% Capacity

Screw Compressor Part Loa Econmized @ -20ºF/75ºF

Hydraulic thrust Motor balancer casing Spindle assembly




Figure 4: Improved screw compres 0%


Inlet casing




Figure 3: Typical screw compressor part load

Discharge port

Female rotor





80% Male rotor

Slide 0% Ideal






0% view a screw compressor is shown Screwof Compressor Part Load Power Figure 3: Typical screw compressor part load 0% 20% Econmized @ -20ºF/75ºF in figure 2. Motor casing


60% Ideal


rs, reducing the compression use a slide valve for unloading. The 20% within the rotors.slide An internal valve moves along the length of 0% a screw compressor is shown the rotors, reducing the compression 0% 20% 40% 2. length within the rotors. An internal

20% 0%

Unloader piston





Figure 2: Compressor internal view


100% 100% h this control method is this control method is Although or y adjustable and providesadjustable and provides 80% 80% infinitely ble suction pressure control, 60% 60% reasonable suction pressure control, ofbe a substantial n power there can be a substantial power 40% 40% penalty associated with slide on associated with slide Slide 20% drive drive Figure 5: Compressor 5: Compressor 20% valve control. Figure 5:Ideal Compressor drive Figure ntrol. l Power

60% 0% 0%

Screw Compressor Part Load Power Econmized @ -20ºF/75ºF

Screw Compressor Part Load Power Econmized @ -20ºF/75ºF



Slide VFD Ideal

0% As the compressor unloads, there Note the substantial in 100%Figure 6 sh 60% 80% 0% 20% improvement 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% ompressor unloads, there Note the substantial improvement in 40%Figure 6 shows the compr Capacity is not a proportional reduction compressor performance throughout with a mas Capacity in 0%

proportional reduction in compressor performance throughout with a master drive conne typical screw compressor the entire of loads. compres-part load parallel wit Figure power. 3: TypicalAscrew compressor part load Figurerange 4: Improved screwAcompressor A typical screw compressor the entire range of loads. A compresparallel with several fixed part load curve is shown in figure 3. sor drive is shown in figure 5. compresso d curve is shown in figure 3. sor drive is shown in figure 5. compressors.

his position, the compressor r 0% s non economized. Most screw compressors can operate 0%




80% 100%

down to 50% speed, as Capacity rated by the ew compressors can operate Below speed,part theload slide Figure factory. 4: Improved screw50% compressor valve by must be used for further 50% speed, as rated the capa city reduction. The improved Below 50% speed, the slide part-load powerfactory. curveBelow is shown in 75% for slidefurther position. Below 50% speed, ust be used Screw Compressor Partslide Load Power this position, the compressor the valve must be figure 4. reduction. The improved


100% 80% 60% 40% Slide Ideal

20% 0%





80% 100% Capacity

@ -20ºF/75ºF operation isEconmized non-economised. used for further capacity Most screw compressors reduction. The improved 100%is shown in power curve can operate down to 50% part-load power curve is speed,80% as rated by the shown in Figure 4. Power


Screw Compressor Part Load Power Econmized @ -20ºF/75ºF



Screw Compressor Part Load Power In general, part-load performance Econmized @ -20ºF/75ºF al, part-load performance degrades with deeper suction or 100% higher or discharge pressure. Also, s with deeper suction 80% economized compressors typically ischarge pressure. Also, economizer operation at ized compressors typically 60% lose approximately 75% slide position. nomizer operation at Slide 40% Below this position, the compressor VFD mately 75% slide position. 20% operates non economized. Ideal


Figure 6: Drives installed for compressor packs for a su


June 2014



oads. A compresfigure 5.

parallel with several fixed speed compressors.



Example 1 Calculation cost saving with drives:

lligent These COP an handle 3.6 p control 3.4 k. The requency 3.2 suction 3.0 ually ariable The concept is based on intelligent


On/off operation COP = 1,878 – Q0 = 10 kW Q0 10 kW W = _______ = _______ = 5,324 kW COP 1,878

Example 1 τ saving Calculation cost = W x __ = 5,324 kW x 0.5 h = 2,662 kWh withEdrives:

VLT® frequency These 2.8 converters. Variable speed control COP frequency converter types can handle ON/OFF Control 3.6 the open-loop and closeSuction loop control pressure control tasks in the2.6 compressorSuperheat pack. The control 3.4 main function of intelligent frequency Hot gas by-pass 3.2 3.6 converters is to maintain the suction 3.4 3.0 2.4 pressure constant by continually 3.2 15% 0% 5% 20% adapting the speed of thefor variable Figure 6: Drives installed compressor packs10% for a supermarket 2.8 Variable speed control 3.0 compressor. speed Reduction of cooling capacity refrigeration plant ON/OFF Control



On/off operation


= 1,878 – Q = 10 kW nCOPContinuous e control operation Q0 10 kW W = _______ = _______ = 5,324 kW e size and COP COP = 2,441 1,878 – Q 0 = 5 kW % τ __ E = W x = 5,324 kW x 0.5 h = 2,662 kWh ent Example 1 me or bet2 ty Q0 5 kW _______ _______ for compressor packs for a supermarket refrigeration plant. Calculation W = operation = 2,049 kW e6: Drives installed cost=saving n Continuous The benefit by using cascade control Figure 7: Capacity control COP 2,441 COP = 2,441 – Q = 5 kW compressors is to reduce the size and andle the COP with drives: cost and to keep the same or betQ0 5 kW 3.6 ol W =E _______ = 2,049 kW x 1 h = 2,662 kWh ter capacity. =COPW x= τ_______ = 2,049 kW ntrol 2,441 d increasE = W x τ = 2,049 kW x 1 h = 2,662 kWh use 3.4drives to control speed increase n On/off operation form- To es the COP(coefficient of performuency COP = 1,878 – Qis: nnSaving is: 0 = 10 kW uces the ance)3.2of the system and reduces the Saving ( 2,662 – 2,049) kWh = 0,613 kWh energy consumption. The comparison tion is shown in figure 7. mparison ( 2,662 Q0 – 2,049) 10 kWkWh = 0,613 kWh 2.8

Suction pressure control Superheat control Hot gas by-pass













Reduction of cooling capacity

15% 10% 20% Reduction of cooling capacity

Figure 7: Capacity control

Variable speed control ON/OFF Control Suction pressure control Superheat control Hot gas by-pass

_______ 0,613 kWh/ Wn =Reduction: = _______ = 5,324 kW 2,662 kWh * 100 % ≈ 23% COP 1,878 Reduction: 0,613 Innfigure 8, the calculation shows sig- kWh/ τ __ saving usingkW the drive. Enificant = W2,662 xenergy =kWh 5,324 x * 1000.5%h≈= 2,662 23%kWh 2




Variable speed control ON/OFF Control Suction pressure control Superheat control Hot gas by-pass


ntrol e and r bet-




15% 10% 20% Reduction of cooling capacity


Figure 7: Capacity control

Figure 7: Capacity control

creasmthe arison




Continuous operation In figure 8, the calculation shows sigCOP = 2,441 – Q = 5 kW 0 nificant energy saving using the drive. Q0 5 kW W = _______ = _______ = 2,049 kW COP 2,441 E = W x τ = 2,049 kW x 1 h = 2,662 kWh

The benefit of COP = 1.878 using cascade n Saving is: ( 2,662 – 2,049) kWhcontrol = 0,613 kWh COP = 2.441 compressors is n Reduction: 0,613 kWh/ to reduce the 2,662 kWh * 100 % ≈ 23% size and the cost and to keep In figure 8, the calculation shows sig- the nificant energy saving using sametheordrive. better R290capacity R290

Condensing 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30


Cold room

τ/2 Evaporation


Log(p) Time

Figure 8: Simple COP in PH Diagram Comparison Figure 8: Simple COP in PG Diagram Comparison



COP = 1.878

Climate Control Middle East June 2014 | VLT® Frequency Converters in Industrial Refrigeration | 2009.04.13 Cold Storage | 3 |

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perspective Note the substantial improvement in compressor performance throughout the entire range of loads. A compressor drive is shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the compressor pack with a master drive connected in parallel with several fixed speed compressors. The concept is based on intelligent VLT frequency converters. These frequency converter types can handle


the open-loop and close loop control tasks in the compressor pack. The main function of intelligent frequency converters is to maintain the suction pressure constant by continually adapting the speed of the variable speed compressor. The benefit of using cascade control compressors is to reduce the size and the cost and to keep the same or better capacity.

To use drives to control speed increases the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system and reduces the energy consumption. The comparison is shown in Figure 7. In Figure 8, the calculation shows significant energy saving using the drive.

the power consumed is approximately 60%. Our experience with a customer in Canada with a screw compressor is that we obtained the following results: Compressor motor data: 315 kW, 560 A @ 380V, cos ȹ = 0.91

Screw compressors used in refrigeration plants come in two types: a) With slide valve for capacity modulation b) Without any capacity 100% control regime

Slide valve @ 68% = 438 A = 260 kW

95% 438/490 Although the slide valve


control gives reasonable 80%control, suction pressure there is a certain energy consumption associated with the slide valve60% control. From the power consumption chart (Figure 10) we can see that the 40% of slide valve method control do not follow the capacity control. In the case of 60% capacity, the slide 20% valve control consumes approximately 80% of the power. Whereas, with drive control, at 60%0% capacity,

Figure 9: The induced draft evaporator fans supplied with M/s.Coil Company are fitted with VLT® 2800 for controlling the air circulation

Figure 9: The induced draft evaporator fans supplied with M/s.Coil Company are fitted with VLT® 2800 for controlling the air circulation


Slide valve @ 80% = 450 A = 267 kW Slide valve @ 100% = 490 A = 291 kW (*based on actual measurements) Assuming average annual capacity is 80% of the installed capacity, 20 hours working per day and 365 days operation, the comparison of slide valve versus drive control is given below: With slide valve: 267 kW x 365 x 20 = 19,49,100 units

With drive control: Energy consumption is 15% 20% 30% 40% 50% lower = 16,56,735 units Savings: 2,92,365 units Cost savings (@ Rs 5 per unit) = Rs 14,61,825

15% Savings

Figure 10: Actual power consumption measurements with slide

100% 95% 438/490 80%

Average installed cost a 315 kW VFD = Rs 14,00,000 Payback period = 1 year 




Example 2 Cost saving comparison 20% between drive operation and slide valve control on screw 0% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 10% compressors

Slide VFD Ideal


90% 100% Capacity

Screw compressors used in refrigeration plants come in two types: a) with slideEast valve for capacity Climate Control Middle June 2014 modulation

The writer is Global Business Development Manager, Refrigeration Business, Danfoss VLT Drives.

Compressor motor data: 315 kW, 560 A @ 380V, cos φ = 0.91 Slide valve @ 68% = 438 A = 260 kW Slide valve @ 80% = 450 A = 267 kW

Figure 10: Actual measurements with slidewith valve andvalve VFD and VFD Figure 10:power Actualconsumption power consumption measurements slide





inSULATING AGAINST MOISTURE RISK Demonstrating how water vapour diffusion can greatly reduce the effectiveness of a material, Dr Laurentiu Pestritu underscores the importance of selecting the right kind of insulation in the interest of installation longevity and energy savings.


nergy saving is becoming increasingly important in cold applications. Whilst so far lowtemperature insulation has mainly served to prevent condensation, in future, minimising energy losses over the entire service life of a system will have to become a primary objective of all low-temperature insulation. In light of this, insulation materials must be protected against moisture penetration.

Factors to be considered while selecting insulation material In building physics, the key characteristic for assessing insulation materials is the thermal conductivity. It describes the ability of a material to conduct heat. The thermal conductivity indicates the amount of heat which is conducted through a layer of a material which is 1 m² in area and 1 m in thickness in one second when the difference in temperature between the two surfaces is 1K. The lower the thermal conductivity value, the


better the insulating ability of a material and the less energy is lost. The unit of thermal conductivity is Watt per metre and per Kelvin [W/(m · K)]; the symbol is the lower case Greek letter lambda (λ). However, the insulation effect of a material can be greatly reduced by moisture. When selecting and determining the thickness for lowtemperature insulation, it is necessary to bear in mind that over the service life energy losses can increase dramatically as a result of moisture penetration. With every vol.-% of moisture content the thermal conductivity increases and the insulation effect deteriorates. The results are not only higher energy losses but also a drop in the surface temperature. If this falls below the dew-point temperature, condensation occurs. Only if the thermal conductivity of the insulation material does not increase significantly as a result of moisture penetration, is it possible to guarantee that the surface temperature will remain above the dew-

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

How much moisture is able to penetrate the insulation as a result of vapour diffusion depends on the water vapour diffusion resistance of the insulation material point even after many years of operation. A reliable insulation system must, therefore, also be protected against undue moisture penetration. How much moisture is able to penetrate the insulation as a result of vapour diffusion depends on the water vapour diffusion resistance (µ-factor) of the

insulation material. The µ-factor indicates by what factor a material’s resistance to water vapour is greater than that of a static layer of air of the same thickness and temperature. µ is a dimensionless parameter. The lower the µ-factor of an insulation material, the greater the rise in moisture content – and, thus, energy losses – over the years. It is essential to bear this in mind when selecting insulation material.

Only externally tested values provide certainty

The thermal conductivity λ and the water-vapour diffusion resistance µ are of key importance. If no quality assurance according to regulations is available for various insulation materials, the client’s express approval is required before these insulation materials may be used. Without external testing, the user is faced with the risk of the actual product values deviating from those published. This can have extremely unpleasant consequences as far as the reliability and functioning of the insulated installation are concerned and may lead to complaints. Therefore, responsible manufacturers of insulation materials ensure compliance with the key technical values of quality testing. Only when the λ-value and µ-factor of an insulation material are subject to systematic external testing is it possible to compare the product’s properties which determine the quality.

Risk factor condensation

The consequences of water vapour diffusion usually remain invisible initially – until they become apparent as condensation and lead

Reliability due to “sealed” cells

As even small amounts of moisture are enough to cause corrosion, no matter how good a water vapour barrier is, it cannot replace effective corrosion protection. A high diffusion resistance reduces the risk of corrosion but does not, of course, mean that effective corrosion protection can be dispensed with. The advantages of a material with a high diffusion resistance lie in the fact that the amount of moisture which might condense on the cold side is greatly restricted. Thus, it is not possible for larger amounts of water to accumulate and cause damage anywhere in the system. Apart from this, it is ensured that even over a longer period of time hardly any moisture penetrates the insulation material, allowing it to maintain its insulation properties. In the case of closed-cell, foamed insulation materials with a high diffusion resistance and flexibility, the risks of moisture penetration are far lower than for other materials (eg, open cell materials). In closed cell insulation materials, the diffusion resistance is not applied in a thin layer (which as such is susceptible to damage), but built up continually – cell by cell – throughout the entire thickness of the foam. This

is achieved in the production process by “sealing” the individual cell walls against water vapour diffusion.

Long-term prevention of energy losses

Nowadays, Glaser’s two-zone model is used to assess the risk of moisture penetrating an insulation construction as a result of condensation. The main problem of the twozone model is determining the “condensation temperature” ϑc at which the partial pressure curve coming from the outside

Responsible manufacturers of insulation materials ensure compliance with the key technical values of quality testing

Figure 1: High energy efficiency over the entire service life Ambient temperature: max. 24°C, relative humidity: max. 60%, line temperature: 2°C, pipe outer diameter: 88.9 mm, insulation thickness: 10 mm sheet

merges with the saturated vapour pressure curve and separates the “dry zone” from the “wet zone”. Some of the moisture already condenses in the inner zone of the insulation material, whilst the rest advances to the cold surface of the installation. For our purposes this means: the lower the µ-factor of an insulation material, the greater the rise in the moisture content, ie, the “wet” zone becomes larger. As a result, the insulation properties deteriorate over the years and the energy losses rise. The appropriate equations/calculation formulae can be taken from the German VDI directive 2055, sheet 1 [1; 2]. In general, they require iterations which rule out manual calculation. These formulae are reflected in European standards. Over the entire service life, the rise in energy losses is all the more serious, the higher the thermal conductivity and the lower the water vapour diffusion resistance. The energy loss from the installations which are insulated with a material with a thermal conductivity of λ24°C ≤ 0.034 W/ (m·K) and a water vapour

Heat flow (W/m)

to building damage and the disruption of operational processes. The formation of condensation can be prevented by dimensioning the insulation to ensure that its surface temperature is at least equal to the dew-point temperature of the ambient air. The thermal conductivity is the value that is taken as a starting point for determining the insulation thicknesses needed to prevent condensation.

Time (years)

Energy losses depending on λ-value and µ-factor

June 2014




diffusion resistance of µ ≥ 7,900 may rise slightly in the course of the service life. However, after 10 years, it is still much lower than the initial energy loss (“dry” initial value) of an insulation material with a higher λ-value and lower µ-factor. The simultaneous improvement of the λ-value and µ-factor has con¬siderable effects on the long-term behaviour of the insulation system.


In low-temperature insulations there is a danger of moisture penetrating the insulation material. If the risk of moisture penetration is not eliminated, water and/or ice can form at spots in the insulation sys¬tem where the temperature lies below the dew point. As a consequence of moisture penetration, the thermal conductivity and, thus, also the energy losses from the installations rise. Only low-temperature insulation materials with a low (initial) thermal conductivity and high resistance to water vapour diffusion are protected against undue moisture penetration in the long term and protect the installations against energy losses throughout their service life. The results described above clearly show how great the influence of even slight deviations in the technical values can be on the energy losses. Therefore, only insulation materials whose values can be guaranteed should be used. The product properties which are relevant to the function must be subject to continuous internal and external monitoring and, thus, reliably ensured. The alarmingly high costs arising from moist insulation and corrosion damage every year reveal just how important it


Over the entire service life, the rise in energy losses is all the more serious, the higher the thermal conductivity and the lower the water vapour diffusion resistance

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

is that an insulation system functions properly in the long term. Energy aspects are also becoming increasingly important in air conditioning and refrigeration technology. Therefore, it makes sense to plan low-temperature insulation in such a way that it not only fulfils the minimum requirement of condensation control, but also enables optimal energy savings to be achieved. References: 1 VDI 2055, Part 1, Draft, 2007-02 Thermal insulation of heated and refrigerated operational installations in the industry and the building services – Calculation rules 2 Dipl. Ing. Michaela Störkmann: Langzeitverhalten von elastomeren Dämmstoffen in der Kältetechnik Physikalische Grundlagen der Feuchtigkeitsaufnahme durch Dampfdiffusion (Long-term behaviour of elastomeric insulation materials in refrigeration technology - Fundamental

physics of moisture absorption through vapour diffusion); Isoliertechnik 2-2006 Aerofoam® XLPE is composed by cross-linked closed cell polyethylene foam, alupet foil and adhesive backing. The polyethylene foam has a density of 30 Kg/m3 ± 3 Kg/m3 and has an in built water vapor barrier. The thermal conductivity value measured for 24° C is 0.034 W/m · K and the water vapor diffusion resistance factor is 7,917.

The writer is Insulation Product Manager, Hira Industries, Dubai. He can be contacted at:

      

Jordan Kuwait Italy Malaysia Tunisia France United Kingdom (UK)


hydroxyl-releasing technology

Mimicking nature to combat MERS

(MERS-CoV) that was first described in September 2012. Since that time, it has continued to fester in the Middle Eastern countries. The disease causes acute respiratory illness manifested as coughing, fever and pneumonia. The virus is highly infectious and is transmitted through the air and from contact between people and from contaminated surfaces. Epidemiologists have not confirmed the source of the virus but speculate that it may reside in several types of animals that transfer the disease to humans. Camels and bats have been tested and found to harbour the MERS virus. Other animals may also be involved. The disease is of particular concern, because there is

The jump in cases is of particular concern because Saudi Arabia will host pilgrims f he world in July during the Muslim month of Ramadan, as well as in early October millions of worshippers perform the annual Haj. The MERS virus – short for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome – has

MERSsurfaced is a viral illness caused bysymptoms a variant of the coronavirus called “M in therespiratory region. S R Khanna throws light on the and claims that hydroxyl-releasing technology can minimise thethat viral was first described in Septe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” (MERS-CoV) infection risk by improving IEQ.

tions and is transmitted through the air and from c surfaces. Epidemiologists have not confirmed th y reside in several types of animals that transfer t been tested and found to harbor the MERS virus.


fficials in the Saudi Arabian Health Ministry recently reported a rise in the rate of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) infections and deaths. Fourteen confirmed new cases of MERS were reported, predominantly in the capital Riyadh and the coastal city of Jeddah and in Mecca. Five confirmed MERS deaths have brought the death toll to 313*. A rise in MERS has also been reported throughout the Middle East and other countries frequented by Middle Eastern travellers, including the UAE, Oman, Qatar, Jordan, Kuwait, Italy, Malaysia, Tunisia, France, and UK. The jump in cases is of particular concern, because Saudi Arabia will host pilgrims from around the world in July during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as in early October when millions of worshippers perform the annual Haj.

The technology sanitises an area by generating effective levels of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals and manifest Since that time is has continued to fester in Middle Eastern countries nature’s highest during the spring and summer. The disease causes–severe acute respirato powerful manifested as coughing, fever and pneumonia. atmospheric sanitising oxidant

MERS _OnTheRiseInTheMiddleEast_HGIArtricle_20140501.docx What is MERS? MERS is a viral respiratory illness caused by a variant of the coronavirus, called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus


Climate Control Middle East June 2014

Copyright© 2014, HGI Industries, Inc. and no vaccine or treatment the fatality rate is 49%. A spokesman for the World Health Organisation in Geneva recently said that it was tracking the incidence


COMING THIS JULY Distributed exclusively in

For EDITORIAL-related queries:


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perspective of MERS worldwide and is “concerned” about the rising MERS numbers in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Middle East. The risk of infection is reportedly highest in densely populated cities, public areas and transportation centres/vehicles where the airborne virus can become concentrated.

New technology to minimise viral infection risk

Hydroxyl-releasing technology based on natural photochemistry driven by the sun’s ultraviolet energy is known to kill 99.99% of bacteria, viruses, mould and other pathogens in the air and on surfaces safely in areas as small as an office or as large as several million cubic feet**. The technology sanitises an area by generating effective levels of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals – Nature’s powerful atmospheric sanitising

hydroxyl-releasing technology

oxidant. Atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (hydroxyls) are continuously produced by the action of the sun’s radiated energy on water vapour in our atmosphere. There are, on an average, two million hydroxyls in each cubic centimetre of ambient outdoor air during daylight hours1. They keep air safe to breathe by decomposing natural and man-made pollutants and killing microorganisms. They sanitise air and surfaces by a natural process called lysing, where the hydroxyls react chemically with the lipids and proteins in the cell membranes of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens and disrupt their structure. The interior contents of the cells leak and the organism is destroyed. The mechanism for killing microorganisms is not biological, so the bacteria or viruses cannot develop any form of immunity. Measured kill rates across a broad range of microorganisms is consistently over 99%.

Airborne hydroxyls are efficient sanitising agents, as they react with a broader range of chemicals and are over one million times faster than ozone, bleach or other sanitising agents. They react so fast that they are consumed within a few seconds, so they never accumulate. Indoor environments are rapidly depleted of natural hydroxyls and build up unhealthy levels of chemicals, bacteria and viruses. In this regard, hydroxyl-releasing technology eliminates this build-up and restores Nature’s safe balance indoors. Ultraviolet (UV) lights have been used for years to sanitise surfaces. However, most UV lights have insufficient power to generate hydroxyls. They are only able to sanitise surfaces within a few inches of their source when there is sufficient exposure time. They are ineffective in sanitising air that circulates

past their source. Hydroxylreleasing technology, on the other hand, involves UV optics that are completely different: They release intense UV radiation using different wavelengths optimised for generating hydroxyls concentrations which match levels found in Nature. By mimicking the natural process, hydroxylreleasing technology achieves indoors, what Nature achieves outdoors. * Statistical data are provided by the writer and is applicable as on May 5, when the article was received. ** US-based HGI Industries has developed a series of Odorox® Systems using Hydroxyl-releasing technology. The company confirms that the systems are tested by Intertek and have received the ETL safety mark. It further confirms that it has complied with all required US safety testing and has the necessary approvals to market the product and that it has also conducted independent third-party toxicology safety studies to prove there are no health risks. Disclaimer: The opinion regarding the efficacy of the technology to combat MERS is that of the writer and not necessarily endorsed by CCME/CPI Industries. Reference: 1: DE Heard, Professor at the University of Leeds, UK. Analytical Techniques for Atmospheric Measurement, Blackwell Publishing, 2006.

The writer is from Odorox InAir ME. He can be contacted at: srkhanna@emirates.


Climate Control Middle East June 2014

case-in point


Airing an innovative idea

A modular data centre cooling system, developed by British cooling specialist, Airedale International is set to deliver pan-African mobile telecommunications company, Vodacom Pty Ltd, significant energy savings by exploiting free-cooling opportunities, an added challenge in the southern African climate. We bring you the case study. The Background

Vodacom Pty Ltd is a pan-African mobile telecommunications company, with the largest number of subscribers of cellular networks in South Africa. The business provides GSM services to more than 50 million customers in Southern 80

Africa, Tanzania, Lesotho, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Case study Aim:

To meet the increase in demand for its data centre applications, Vodacom

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

required a solution that would allow it to quickly roll out additional facilities – 12-16 weeks from manufacture to installation and commissioning – without the time, high cost and logistical barriers associated with new builds, or the constraints of retrofitting facilities in

existing buildings. Vodacom was also keen to maximise energy savings by integrating the most advanced air conditioning equipment technologies and exploiting free cooling opportunities – an added challenge in tropical and subtropical Africa. Cooling resilience and system uptime were critical factors which provided further complexity as the modular units needed to deliver business continuity despite being sited under widely divergent environmental conditions, ranging from the intense heat of sub-Saharan Africa, cooler coastal locations, such as Cape Town, the hot and humid climate of Durban and the extremes of heat and cold of high altitude locations like Johannesburg. In addition, the threat of coastal corrosion, prevalent grass fires and dusty winds provided added design challenges, both structurally and in terms of cooling performance.

If cooling demands cannot be met by free cooling alone, the first stage of DX cooling starts Methods employed with sustainable initiatives: Airedale came up with an innovative hybrid data centre cooling plant. Each modular data centre consists of either a single 64m²

case-in point

MODULAR DATA CENTRE COOLING SYSTEM module equipped with 2 x 40, 65, 75 or 92kW free cooling SmartCool downflow PAC units, or two 128m² modules containing 3 x 95kW SmartCool units deployed in an N+1 configuration. The smaller module houses a secure, fully dual redundant energy centre accessed via its own entrance. Larger, separate fully dual redundant energy centre modules with power output capacities of 1,600 and 3,200 Amps per phase can also be attached to the data/GSM network modules allowing up to 1000m² of “white” space to be constructed as required. The SmartCool units have dual DX air-cooled refrigeration circuits providing four stages of cooling, superior part-load efficiency and N+1 redundancy. To capitalise on free cooling opportunities, the SmartCool units have been supplemented by an indirect air free cooling circuit connected to a roofmounted hybrid condenser and dry cooler system. Inverter-driven run/standby pumps have been positioned in weatherproof housing with individual isolation valves and isolators on fans and pumps and a differential pressure sensor for each pump, thereby delivering the precise capacity match. Under low temperature ambient conditions the pumps and fans run in isolation. As the ambient temperature increases, the three-way valve opens more fully, the pump speed increases, followed by the outdoor fan. If cooling demands cannot be met by free cooling alone, the first stage of DX cooling starts. The compressors then stage sequentially to meet the demand. To maximise the relatively limited free cooling opportunities that exist in the African climate, the units have been designed with a supply air temperature of 25°C. The solution was developed 82

Under low temperature ambient conditions the pumps and fans run in isolation

conditioning (PAC) units • Installed 1 or 2 x 60-95kW condensers/dry coolers • Three-stage indirect free cooling control achieved by adjusting fan speed, pump speed and control valve, supplemented by DX cooling where necessary • Optimised head pressure control: the condensing pressure set point modulates to maintain high energyefficient system operating point depending upon ambient temperature and

deployed at any location and minimises drain on capital expenditure • Annualised EER of 5.63 achieved through 99% of the year in free cooling or partial free cooling • Redundancy and reliability provided by run/standby pumps; free cooling system independent from DX cooling system with two independent DX circuits and microprocessor battery back-up • Backward curved

in conjunction with Airedale’s technical team in the UK and manufactured locally by Johannesburg-based, Airedale International South Africa, with installation and commissioning achieved within just 15 working days.

Results and other positive outcomes:

In order to achieve free cooling in the heat of Southern Africa, air temperatures were elevated to 25°C and 38°C for supply and return respectively. Raising the supply temperature by 1°C from a more standard return air temperature of 24°C, brings annual energy savings of 110% using an air cooled system alone and 138% from a free cooling system. By running the cooling at the lower return air temperature of 24°C, the units will deliver 22kW less cooling duty, increasing capital costs and floor space requirements. A comprehensive BMS provides remote visibility of systems, SMS alerts and full trending and reporting.

Solutions and benefits in a nutshell

Solutions: • Installed 2 or 3 x 40-95kW SmartCool dual circuit air-cooled precision air

Climate Control Middle East June 2014

What Vodacom had to say... “Airedale delivered with speed and urgency, and the quality of their cuttingedge air conditioning plant designs will make a major contribution to Vodacom’s strategy. “The energy efficiency of the modular data facilities fully complements Vodacom programme to reduce the Group’s overall carbon footprint.” – Fred R Weber, Senior Specialist, Vodacom Technical Facilities Division

room load • Constant pressure control • For comfort, and to prevent the ingress of unfiltered fresh air, a return air plenum air port above each air conditioning unit supplies one air change per hour (ACH) of filtered fresh air

Benefits: • Modular system housing equipment and controls to meet varying cooling needs that can be rapidly

electronically commutated (EC) fans modulate to maintain constant floor void pressure and deliver up to 50% energy savings at part-load compared with AC equivalent units • Energy saving three-stage free cooling capacity control maximises the benefits of EC fans and inverterdriven pumps; maintains free cooling by preventing sudden increases in water circuit temperatures on compressor start-up