Page 1

Ecotherm announces tie-up with Jeremias p06

Focus: FCUs – Seeing

growth in the horizon? p30 News – Neovia bags Trane Energy Efficiency Leader Award p08 Case-in point: Being in control p60 Qatar to invest in solar energy plant p10 I Bitzer buys Lumikko’s transport cooling division p12 I AHR Expo survey results released p14 Spotlight: Installation matters p68

Event round-up: C3, Riyadh p34 PLUS: Marketplace, ASHRAE Update


du-ing things the

GREEN WAY A closer look at du’s energy management initiatives




Clean air made simple. For further information, contact us at or visit us at


Vol. 8 No. 1 | January 2013



Meeting of green minds


Event round-up: All roads lead to the Kingdom

Cover Story:

du-ing things the green way

04 from the editor

DC and CERtainty



06 The region 12 At large 16 Marketplace



Leif Flojgaard, President, Danfoss Commercial Compressors, speaks to Climate Control Middle East about his company’s contribution in reducing CO2 emissions and how the commitment to the cause starts from within.


Standard Chartered Building Achieving LEED Gold for the core and shell and LEED Platinum for the fit out, the new Standard Chartered Building in Dubai incorporates various sustainability features to improve its energy efficiency and water efficiency.

Seeing growth in the horizon With an observable increase in construction projects and continued development in district cooling, industry players predict a parallel growth for the FCU market in the region.


Applied DOAS – a tropical climate retrospect


Being in control

System integrator, Technovator International of Singapore chose Distech Controls as the primary supplier of building management systems for its Junction Square shopping centre project in Yangon, Myanmar. A case study of the project.


Endeavour finds a safe and comfortable abode After surviving 123 million space travel miles, the retired Endeavour is now on display at the California Science Center’s Samuel Oschin Pavilion, whose HVAC design protects it from earthly elements and catastrophes.


Installation matters Dr Iyad Al-Attar asks pertinent questions like why users insist on filtration plans and long filter lifetime, when they are not willing to pay preventive maintenance measures the attention they deserve?

January 2013


from the

editor Publisher Dominic De Sousa

DC and CERtainty

Managing Director & Associate Publisher Frédéric Paillé | Editorial Director & Associate Publisher B Surendar | COO Nadeem Hood |


Contributing Editors Pratibha Umashankar Anoop K Menon

ne thing became clear while trying to book a hotel room to attend the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in November and December in Doha – there was an acute shortage of hotel rooms in the peninsula. Days later, Pradeep Saxena, who heads the TransGulf operations in Qatar, brought up the topic during an interview – that Qatar needed to ramp up its hospitality infrastructure. With the 2022 FIFA World Cup about a decade away, Qatar, at long last, is surely in the cusp of a spurt in construction growth, and this can only mean one thing for the HVAC industry – a looming opportunity for those with a frontier spirit. The Qatar visit was interesting, because it opened up an opportunity to meet Dr Axel Michaelowa, who advises several government bodies on CDM. The interview with him was to explore how district cooling and other cooling approaches could benefit from the momentum generated by climate change mitigation activity and the resultant tangible benefits in the form of Carbon Emission Reductions (CERs) for those seeking to monetise their sustainability efforts. Michaelowa spoke of opportunities for district cooling, owing to the fact that the critical mass needed to make the attainment a financially feasible proposition was there with district cooling projects. This has to be exciting news for the district cooling industry in many ways. (Do read the interview with Michaelowa in the CHILL supplement that comes to you with this issue.) In the coming months, we hope to further explore the world of CERs. Broadly speaking, the UN Convention in Doha was of interest also because HFCs formed one of the issues for discussion. Specifically, delegates met to discuss proposals to institute a global phase-down of the production and consumption of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol and to increase the mitigation goals of countries, considering that whatever has been done is clearly not enough. As Natasha Hurley, the Global Environment Campaigner with London-based Environmental Investigation Agency, put it before the Doha meeting, “There is a unique opportunity to kick-start a process that will prevent emissions of 2.2 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent (Gt CO2e) by 2020 and almost 100 Gt CO2e by 2050.” Do look forward to more on this subject in the next issue. Climate change is for real, and is knocking on our shores. As Sven Harmeling, Team Leader at International Climate Policy, Germanwatch said in November, the rising sea levels pose potential threats to low-lying coastal zones in the region. The onus is, thus, on the industry to take the issue by the cudgels and to translate all the talk at conferences into realisable action.

Business Development Consultant Stephanie McGuinness Design Genesis Salao | Ulysses Galgo | Webmaster Troy Maagma | Database/ Subscriptions Manager Purwanti Srirejeki Advertising Enquiries Frédéric Paillé: +971 50 7147204 Stephanie McGuinness: +971 50 6679359 USA and Canada Kanika Saxena Director (North America) 25 Kingsbridge Garden Cir Suite 919 Mississauga, ON, Canada L5R 4B1 Tel/fax: +1 905 890 5031 Euro Zone and UK Sicking Industrial Marketing Wilhelm Sicking 45130 Essen - Emmastrasse 44 Tel: +49 (0)201-779861 Fax: +49 (0)201-781741 Andreas Sicking 59872 Freienohl - Kurt-Schumacher-Str. 16 Tel: +49 (0)2903-3385-70 Fax: +49 (0)2903-3385-82 • China Sean Xiao Hui China Business Media Group Room 403, Block 17, Wuyimingzhu, No 6 Jinshan Road, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350008, China Tel: +86 591 8386 3000

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Ecotherm announces tie-up

with Jeremias p06

NEWS – Neovia bags Trane Energy Efficiency Qatar to invest Leader Award p08 transport cooling in solar energy plant p10 division p12 AHR I Bitzer buys Lumikko’s I

Event round-up: C3 Expo survey results released p14 , Riyadh p34 PLUS:



Focus: FCUs – Seeing growth in the horizon?

p30 Case-in-point: Being Spotlight: Installatio in control p60 n matters p68

Marketplace, ASHRA E Update


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Climate Control Middle East January 2013

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happenings the region

Ecotherm announces tie-up with Jeremias The two entities dub it a valuable partnership with technical know-how transfer


n November 30, Ecotherm sealed a strategic alliance with Jeremias, a Wassertrüdingenbased manufacturer of chimneys and exhaust systems. Announcing this, Ecotherm informed that, as of now, the cooperation between the two entities at individual turnkey solar, hot water and steam systems has intensified, especially in the Middle East, with the aim of jointly offering solutions made of stainless steel. “Jeremias has already delivered stainless steel

chimneys for some Ecotherm projects. Now, we integrate Jeremias as fixed part of the Ecotherm Academy for the training of our employees,” said Herbert Bremstaller, CEO and founder of

Ecotherm, commenting on the partnership. Wolfgang Geiser, CFO of Jeremias, added: “Our companies have many similarities. So we want to interconnect our design

software with the one from Ecotherm. This will improve designing plants in future. Moreover, additional common communication activities are planned. The cooperation has been fixed after the mounting of a Jeremias chimney in the Ecotherm headquarters in Hartkirchen. The stainless steel chimney is part of a steam system, which is used for the test plant.”

Schneider anticipates regional growth Estimates worldwide data centre market is worth USD 105 billion


chneider Electric has announced registering stable growth of four per cent over the last quarter, as well as nine per cent in the first nine months of 2012 for the rest of the world reporting region, that includes the Middle East. A particularly strong momentum was registered by the infrastructure, buildings, power, and IT business units, the announcement revealed. The company stated that the worldwide data centre market has witnessed a growth of 22% in 2012, to USD 105 billion from USD 86 billion in 2011, with


the Middle East being the fastest growing sector in this category. The company also reported robust global growth in sales for the first three quarters of 2012, recording a rise of 14.9% for infrastructure and 18% for IT business. The announcements were made at a press briefing held on the opening day of the two-day Schneider Electric’s Middle East Data center Solutions Conference, titled ‘Power to the Cloud’. The session was reportedly headlined by senior management executives from Schneider

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

Electric, including Mike Hughes, Senior VP, EMEA, IT Business; Goktug Gur, Country President, UAE and Oman; PaulFrancois Cattier, Global Vice President, Data centers, IT Business; and Christian Bertrand, Vice President, MEA, IT Business. Addressing the press conference, Gur said: “Schneider Electric offers a comprehensive portfolio of products and solutions. Our strong reach within the region and resilient relations with our partners and customers have helped us capture a fair share of the market in this critical

geography across our business units.” Schneider Electric executives pointed out that the evolving trend of data centre-focused IT strategies necessitate the synchronisation of IT and facilities management to produce optimal results. The experts also indicated that virtualisation and cloud computing promise a transformation in services automation and provisioning through driving greater efficiencies within the data centre.

happenings the region

Palm Utilities welcomes first batch of Emiratis

Neovia bags Trane Energy Efficiency Leader Award


rane, on November 26, presented the Energy Efficiency Leader Award to Neovia Logistics (formerly Caterpillar Logistics) in recognition of Neovia’s Daimler Building’s commitment to energy efficiency and sustainability. The award ceremony, attended by leaders from Trane and Neovia Logistics, took place at Trane’s office at Business Bay in Dubai. Manlio Valdes, President of Trane and Thermo King in the Europe, Middle East, India and Africa region for Ingersoll Rand, presented the award to Mohammed Khalid, Managing Director, Neovia Logistics. Announcing this, Trane revealed that completed in November 2012, the upgrades implemented at the three-storey 3,000 m2 structure at the Jebel Ali Free Zone are expected to reduce the overall HVAC system energy costs by around 23%. In addition, they are also projected to increase energy and operational efficiency and sustainability while improving the comfort and productivity of tenants and staff in the building’s office. According to Trane, some of the changes implemented at the Daimler Building included replacing existing chillers, fresh air-handling units and pumps with new high-efficiency solutions, and adding a centralised exhaust system, heat wheels, heat pipes, and a Trane chiller plant manager to ensure that systems ran at optimum energy and operational efficiency. “We consistently implement innovative methods to create optimal processes, and we are committed to creating a sustainable, energy efficient and productive environment for all our facilities,” said Khalid. “We are pleased that the selected solutions meet our fiscal and environmental objectives while providing a comfortable working environment for our tenants and their employees.”

Responds to government initiatives – “Absher” and “2013: Year of Emiratisation”

Upgrades implemented at company’s building expected to reduce HVAC energy costs


n support of the directives of H.H. Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the UAE, to increase the participation of UAE nationals in the job market, and in line with the pronouncement of H.H. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, UAE Vice President and Prime Minister, and Ruler of Dubai, to designate 2013 as the year of Emiratisation, Palm Utilities, a Dubai World company, has announced that it has recently received the first batch of Emiratis who have joined the company as part of its Emiratisation programme. The company further revealed that it is actively supporting the “Absher” initiative launched by His Highness the President of the UAE, aiming to employ 20,000 nationals within the next five years and facilitate the greater participation of the national labour force in driving forward the UAE’s socioeconomic development plan. In this context, Marwan Al Naqi, CEO of Palm Utilities, said: “I am pleased to welcome the first batch of UAE nationals in our company. We are committed to supporting the Emiratisation policy pursued by the Government to reflect the vision and directives of the wise leadership, and to help enhance the quality of life of citizens and secure a stable career in the future. Emiratisation is on top of our priorities as it serves as a pillar for our success and the company’s long-term sustainability.” He added that his company had a well-defined plan to fill vital posts, and had designed a special training programme to equip local graduates with technical, administrative and practical skills, based on an integrated teaching methodology that combined theoretical and practical training in order to enhance the technical, creative and personal skills of university degree holders in the field of electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering, as well as high school graduates. 8

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

Manlio Valdes presents the Trane Energy Efficiency Leader Award to Mohammed Khalid.

happenings the region

Qatar to invest in solar energy plant World’s top exporter of LNG indicates shift towards renewable energy


ccording to a news report by Reuters, OPEC member Qatar will ask firms to tender for a 1,800 megawatt (MW) solar energy plant in 2014 costing between USD 10 to 20 billion, as the world’s highest per capita greenhouse gas emitter seeks to increase its renewable energy production. This comes against the backdrop of the UN-led summit held among almost 200 nations from November

26 to December 7. Qatar, the world’s top exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG), has been wary of a global shift to renewable energy, fearing it will hit demand for oil and gas from OPEC producers, the report pointed out. Giving credence to the above view, Fahad Bin Mohammed al-Attiya, Chairman of the Qatari organisers of climate talks in Doha, reportedly said, “We need to diversify our energy mix.”

The news report pointed out that Qatar has so far disappointed environmentalists by failing to set clear targets for reducing its greenhouse gas emissions at the UN talks, arguing that its LNG exports help other nations turn from more polluting coal. As per the news report, Qatar said that the power generated by solar energy would mainly power its desalination plants, which are currently gas-fuelled. The plant construction was expected to be completed by 2018, the report added and elaborated that once the plant is up and running, the share of renewables in Qatar’s

electricity generation energy mix will rise to 16% from zero at present. The Reuters’ story said that Attiya did not provide an exact figure on how much CO2 the solar plant would displace, but hinted that it would be significant. Attiya reportedly highlighted that Qatar’s current power generation was 7,000 MW and consumption around 5,000 MW, with an annual growth rate of more than 10%, although that was expected to slow. “There’s a projection that growth will drop to five to six per cent,” he is believed to have said.


ASHRAE Orynx conducts seminar Presentations focus on energy conservation


SHRAE Qatar Oryx Chapter conducted a seminar at Qatar University on November 24, with 'Energy Conservation – Vapour Absorption Chiller and New Development in Waste Water Treatment and its Reuse' as the topic. The event, sponsored by M/s Bijans Group, comprised four presentations by H A B Navas and Sujit Vargis from Thermax. The presentations were divided into four segments: Energy Conservation Absorption Chiller – Integrating Energy and Environment Sustainable Solutions for Business Improvement; Emerging Technologies in Waste Water Treatment; Energy Efficient Steam Generation, Distribution/Utilisation and Protection of RO and Cooling Water Systems; and Thermax in Sewage Treatment Plants.


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

happenings at large

ABB wins solar power orders for photovoltaic plants Will generate clean energy to power around 36,000 homes and displace nearly 130,000 tonnes of CO² emissions a year


BB, has won orders worth around USD 225 million to supply two turnkey photovoltaic (PV) power plants that will be built in the northern province of Limpopo in South Africa. The orders were awarded by two special purpose entities, Core Energy and Erika Energy, whose primary stakeholders include Sun Edison, a global solar energy services provider. Announcing this, ABB elaborated that the two plants, located at the Witkop and Soutpan Solar Parks, will be close to the city of Polokwane, the capital of Limpopo province, and will have a generating capacity of 33 megawatts (MW) and 31 MW respectively, and will be among the first utility-scale PV power plants to be built in phase 1 of the South African government’s long-term renewable energy programme. ABB will also supply a range of products and technologies, including inverters, protection equipment, switchgear, drytype transformers, controllers and the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Together, the plants will generate 130 gigawatt hours of electricity per year – enough clean energy to power around 36,000 South African homes and displace around 130,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions a year. The projects are scheduled to be completed in 2013. “Our vast experience in supplying high-efficiency PV power plants, combined with our local capabilities and presence will enable us to deliver best-in-class solutions and support the country’s vision to integrate renewable energies,” said Brice Koch, head of ABB’s Power Systems division.


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

Bitzer buys Lumikko’s transport cooling division Positions itself as a system supplier for the cooling chain in the transport industry


efrigerant compressor manufacturer, Bitzer has announced taking over the truck-and trailer-cooling division of Finland-based specialist in cooling systems in the transport industry, Lumikko Oy, from private ownership with retroactive effect from December 1, 2012. It has been agreed not to disclose the purchase price, the announcement added. According to Bitzer, its objective is to become technology leader in the truck-and trailer-cooling market. It gave specific details of the takeover: As part of the transaction, it is buying all of the shares in the transport cooling division and keeping all 20 of Lumikko’s employees. Kari Saikkonen, son of one of Lumikko’s founders, will become Managing Director of the new Lumikko Technologies Oy. Open and semi-hermetic transport compressors will come from Bitzer, controllers from the Danish Bitzer subsidiary Lodam, and the cooling units, customer service and maintenance from Lumikko. Helmut Meyer, Director of Sales at Bitzer’s Transport Division, explained: “Combining our abilities will position us firmly as a system supplier. Intelligent solutions from a single source will reduce life-cycle costs while increasing energy efficiency and reliability. We want to gain ground with every large-scale supplier of trailers and truck bodies around the world.” Michael Bauer, Chief Sales and Marketing Officer at Bitzer elaborated: “By taking over this division, we are creating the conditions from which to become a system supplier in truck and trailer cooling. Both companies know each other from joint projects that go back as far as the 1980s.” Saikkonen added: “Integrating into a globally active company opens up enormous sales potential to us.”

Chillventa Rossija to focus on energy efficiency and ecology

The Russia-wide exhibition and congress expected to attract key players in refrigeration and air conditioning


hillventa Rossija 2013, the international trade fair for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps for commercial, industrial and building applications, to be held in the Moscow Crocus Expo International Exhibition Center from 5 to 7 February 2013, will focus on energy efficiency and environmental protection, when the industry’s key players and refrigeration and air conditioning experts meet to exchange views on the Russian market and the latest trends.

Announcing this, the event organiser, NürnbergMesse, said that the exhibition and the accompanying Chillventa Rossija Congressing, will tackle two current trends that mark the Russian market for refrigeration – air conditioning and heat pump equipment. This development is also driven by government regulations on energy saving and environmental compatibility, it added. The organiser believes that because refrigeration applications account for

20% of nationwide energy consumption, energyoptimised equipment contributes to an enormous energy-saving potential. The most important applications reportedly include those ensuring a continuous cooling chain for the manufacture, storage, transport and sale of perishable goods. Refrigeration and air conditioning, thus, also contribute to guaranteeing the country’s food security, NürnbergMesse stressed. The industry ensures the production of clean energy

with the pioneering heat pump technology, and will be foregrounded at the pavilions, it added. Claiming that the event will provide a platform for international and Russian industry leaders, Frank Venjakob, Director, International Exhibitions at NürnbergMesse, said, Chillventa Rossija is the ideal gathering for them to cultivate existing business relationships, make new contacts in the Russian market and share their professional know-how.

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happenings at large

AHR Expo survey Eurammon results released founding member HVACR manufacturers predict an improving economy


ccording to a recent AHR Expo survey sent to more than 1,000 HVACR manufacturers worldwide, 70% of the respondents expect the economy to be better in 2013 than in 2012. In fact, 15% of these manufacturers expect a “much better year” while 28% of respondents expect the economy to remain the same. Just three per cent expect it to be worse than 2012. The International Exposition Company, which produces and manages the AHR Expo, elaborated that in keeping with this optimistic outlook, 86% of the HVACR manufacturers believe sales will increase next year with 35% of these respondents expecting sales increases of more than 10%. Thirty-two per cent forecast sales increases between five per cent and 10%, and 19% expect increases of less than five per cent. Also, 11% believe sales will remain the same. Most respondents (41%) reportedly said that the residential sector would account for the strongest demand for new products, followed by institutional (30%), industrial (19%), light commercial (seven per cent) and heavy commercial (three per cent). The industry categories likely to show the strongest growth were renovation/upgrade (42%), new construction (34%) and replacement (24%). More than two thirds of the respondents (67%) reportedly predicted that the greatest demand for new products would come from domestic markets and 33% from international markets. Of these respondents, 52% apparently said the greatest demand for new products would come from the healthcare segment, 45% from industrial plants, 43% educational marketplace and 42% government/civil. To meet this demand, 75% of AHR Expo exhibitors are said to have responded that they would be introducing new products or services at the 2013 Show in Dallas, to be held from January 28 to 30. “It is good to see that manufacturers continue to be optimistic about the HVACR sector of the economy,” said Clay Stevens, President of International Exposition Company. “These survey results seem to suggest a strong show in Dallas.”

BACnet and OPC UA will join hands at ISH 2013

Will promote application of European building automation and safety engineering standard


he OPC Foundation, Belimo, ICONAG and WSW Solutions have announced that they will present BACnet at the ISH 2013, to be held from March 12 to 16 in Frankfurt.


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

Lindborg passes away

HVACR community mourns his loss


nders Lindborg, founding member of Eurammon and an internationally acclaimed expert in the field of natural refrigerants, passed away on September 25, 2012, at the age of 75, in Viken, Sweden. Sharing this information with the HVACR fraternity in a communiqué dated November 22, 2012, Dr Karin Jahn, Managing Director of Eurammon, lauded the major contribution Lindborg made in facilitating the use of ammonia as a natural refrigerant and in spreading its applications. She added that, for 16 years, Lindborg held seminars for the Swedish Association of Refrigeration, speaking on the safe use of ammonia. Lindborg also supported national and international groups and associations, including the International Institute of Refrigeration. He published numerous articles in trade journals and gave lectures all over the world, the communiqué said, and highlighted that in 1995, Lindborg was conferred the AJA Ottesen commemorative medal in gold, one of the most prestigious awards in the field of refrigeration. Lidborg started his career in 1962 as a graduate engineer at STAL Refrigeration AB, moving 10 years later to join Frigoscandia, the Swedish refrigeration logistics company. Working for AGA from 1978, he expanded his field of activities to refrigeration systems for air gas production. In 1995, he was said to have founded the company, Ammonia Partnership AB, with a focus on refrigeration consulting and training.

Newly inducted into the BACnet Interest Group Europe (BIG EU), they will reportedly present the progress of the BACnet protocol in a joint exhibition booth at A61 in Hall 10,3. The BIG EU promotes the application of the worldwide BACnet communication protocol ISO 16484-5 in European building automation and safety engineering, the announcement explained. Claiming that the stand motto, “BACnet – the Global Standard” demonstrated its international prevalence, the announcement highlighted that the standard was open to all solutions between building management and fieldbus devices. With certified products in the foreground showing interoperability between devices of different manufacturers, there would be lectures at the booth giving information about BACnet and a mapping between BACnet and OPC UA, being a special feature.

W22 motors chosen for wastewater treatment plant


EG Electric Motors, UK, has announced that its WEG W22 high-efficiency motors are providing energy saving operation on 100 pumps and blowers – some up to 160kW – in a major new wastewater treatment plant commissioned by Canal de Isabel II, a Spanish public water company. The wastewater (sewage treatment) plant is a new project designed and implemented by project engineers Grupo Sacyr y

Vallehermoso, using motors supplied by WEG Spain, the announcement added. The company said that the EUR 21.5-million (USD 28.3 million) project to build the new EDAR Arroyo Quiñones sewage treatment facility began in November 2009 and is now nearing completion The plant reportedly has a capacity of 45,705.60 m3/day, and serves 172,500 inhabitants in San Sebastian de los Reyes, a municipality in the community of Madrid.

“We are obviously delighted that our high-efficiency motors have been chosen for such a prestigious project,” said Javier de la Morena from WEG Spain. “The W22 motors have been supplied as part of OEM packages involving both

pumps and blowers. They are reportedly used as standard fitment because of their ability not only to deliver high levels of energy saving, but also reliability in what is a critical continuous process environment.”

Photo courtesy

WEG supplies for project in Spain

Canal de Isabel II

January 2013



This section contains regional and international products information

E+E Elektronik

Humidity and temperature sensor


+E Elektronik has launched EE160 sensor, which it claims is designed for HVAC applications and is a cost-effective, highly accurate and reliable solution for measuring relative air humidity and temperature. The manufacturer lists the following product features and advantages: n The EE160 employs the new humidity/ temperature E+E sensor element HCT01 with long term stability and resistance against pollutants. n In combination with a long calibration experience, the EE160 provides a measurement accuracy of ±2.5%RH and is available for wall or duct-mounted with current, voltage or Modbus RTU output. n The enclosure minimises installation costs and provides protection against contamination and condensation. n A configurator makes it possible to freely select the scaling of the

temperature output and configure the Modbus parameters. n The configurator software, which is free of charge, allows additionally for an on-site adjustment of humidity and temperature.

GrayWolf Sensing Solutions

n The precision of E+E’s sensor technology is combined with the latest manufacturing technologies creates a product with a good price/ performance ratio.

RH-AS2 humidity and temperature probe


rayWolf, dealing in IAQ solutions has announced the launch of a new humidity and temperature probe – a hand-held AdvancedSense HVAC/ OH/FM/IAQ meter. According to GrayWolf, the RH-AS2 probe is capable of measuring: n Relative humidity n Dewpoint n Absolute humidity n Specific humidity n Wetbulb temperature n Drybulb temperature The manufacturer lists other product features and advantages: n The small diameter (14 mm, 0.6 inch Ø, 40mm, 1.6 inch L) probe may be directly connected to the AdvancedSense via the lower left seven-pin socket. It


may alternatively be connected to an ACCRH-HDLA (100mm, 4 inch L) handle with 1m cable for hand-held use and easy insertion into ducts. n When connected to an AdvancedSense meter that is outfitted with the optional BP-101 barometric pressure sensor, relevant moisture readings are auto-compensated for pressure changes due to altitude, meteorology, etc. n The AdvancedSense, with a colour touchscreen, also enables powerful features such as audio, photo and text note attachment to data-logged files, on-board video help. n Humidity range is 0 to 100%RH (non-

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

condensing) with accuracy of +/-2%RH. n It may be used in conjunction with other probes for parameters including differential pressure, air velocity, volume flow, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, VOCs, formaldehyde, surface temperature and many others.


GLAC-CD range


aying that customers can save with the new air-cooled chillers in the GLAC-CD range, GEA has announced launching the new chillers to replace the GLAC 01521204-BD models. GEA claims that the range of model sizes makes them effective for small and medium-sized HVAC systems, and for facilities with small water-system contents and refrigeration ratings between 40 and 350 kW. The manufacturer lists the following product features and benefits: n The chillers are available over the entire output spectrum in three models: a standard version, an SL version with sound insulation down to 11 dB(A), and the HE high-efficiency model in Eurovent Class A. n The standard models in the range operate with air-intake temperatures up to 46ºC and can reduce the temperature of the cooling medium to -10ºC. n The chillers operate in one or two refrigerant cycles with the refrigerant R410A and with economical scroll compressors in a tandem configuration. n The micro-channel heat exchangers (MCHX) from the GLAC 4131-8321CD2 range – already proven effective in the higher output class – are used as condensers. n The performance of the heat exchangers is superior to that of classical Cu-Al heat exchangers, owing to their enhanced heat transfer and larger heat-exchange surfaces, and to their refrigerant filling volume, which has been reduced by 40%. n The heat exchangers are also substantially lighter: the heat transfer capacity of a 30-kg MCHX heat exchanger is equivalent to that of a Cu-Al exchanger that weighs from 105 to 120 kilogrammes. n The MCHX models, in addition, offer greater resistance to

galvanic corrosion, and the pressure drop for the air flow is less than for Cu-Al heat exchangers. n GEA has increased the output as well as the energy efficiency of the standard and the sound-insulated models. n It is possible to match the units to individual customer requirements, including equipping the systems with invertercontrolled fans. n Two new model sizes in the 2-scroll line (with one refrigerant cycle) now enable an overlap in cooling duty with the 4-scroll line (with two refrigerant cycles), which offers benefits in investment costs. The 4-scroll line offers customer a choice of a plate heat exchanger or a shell-andtube heat exchanger, with an option of protecting not only the buffer tank against frost, but also the internal hydraulic components that contain water.

GEA Multi-DENCO precision climate-control units


nnouncing that the GEA Multi-DENCO range of precision climate-control units will replace the old Denco T and E ranges, GEA has given the following launch details in a news release: the range will be launched in winter 2012/2013 with the Version A, which operates with an air-cooled condenser. Version C will be water-cooled, and Version X will be equipped with a split direct evaporator. All three versions can be retrofitted with an additional coldwater heat exchanger to provide the CombiCool version, the company said, and added that the water-cooled Version W can be expanded to a Version F by adding a free-cooling function. The versions will be introduced to the market, one after the other, beginning in 2013. The manufacturer lists the following product features and advantages: n The new units will be available in various model sizes, with 5 kW up to a maximum of 130 kW cooling duty and offer constant temperature and relative humidity. n The units operate with the refrigerant R410A and, under typical conditions, operate with a sensible heat ratio (SHR)

of 1, implying that they can cool the air without at the same time dehumidifying it. n In the recirculating-air mode of operation, the units control air conditions at a stable level of ± 1 K and ± five per cent relative humidity. n The possibilities of employing the units extend from computer centres and machine rooms with intensive production of exhaust heat, to measuring laboratories and art museums. n The enhanced energy efficiency in units is achieved first by an optimised configuration of heat exchangers and fans as primary components – for which the circulated air must overcome less air resistance in the unit. Second, the heat exchanger has greater dimensions. The resulting large air volume is likewise responsible for the stability achieved in temperature control. n The units are equipped with EC fans that feature very low power consumption. n Since they operate especially energy-efficiently under partial load, they are ideally suited as standby redundant systems. n They come in five different cooling systems.

January 2013


marketplace Tuned to Your Cooling Needs

This section contains regional and international products information

Flamco BV

Flamcovent Clean Vessel


lamco BV, based in the Netherlands, claims to have recently designed and manufactured the largest microbubble air and dirt separator that they have ever produced. The giant Flamcovent, the manufacturer says, has a DN 1400 connection and stands some five metres tall. The company lists the following product features and benefits: n Using the Flamco-patented Pall Ring technology to remove air bubbles as small as 10-20 μm (as tested at the University of Antwerp) and dirt particles, the vessel also incorporates the unique Flamco Dual Zone Flow Diversion technology, which ensures that the pressure drop is minimal. n Using the three proven technologies for air and dirt removal, coalescence, flow speed reduction and pressure reduction, the Flamcovent series boasts of a high level of efficiency. n The same technology is used across the product range and sizes, be it for domestic installations or huge district cooling plants.

Carel Data centre solutions



SAMSON valves and controllers let you sit back and relax. Our reliable instruments ensure that your local or district cooling plants run efficiently. They are convenient to operate and provide a wide range of functions. We support you in selection and sizing, and provide extensive customer service. The right instruments for a perfectly tuned system

SAMSON Controls FZE PO Box 262793, PBU YC01 (near R/A 08) Jebel Ali Free Zone, Dubai Phone: +971 4 8834933 · Fax: +971 4 8834944 E-mail: · SAMSON GROUP ·


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

aying that Carel offers high efficiency solutions through optimised and integrated control systems capable of bringing significant energy savings and, consequently, reducing the environmental impact of data centres, Carel has launched solutions ranging from high-tech controllers and inverters to energy-saving cooling systems. Carel highlights that concentrated loads with high power density (up to 20 kW per rack) are driving the development of new types of units installed near the heat source. These systems have low inertia, because, very often, their load varies continuously and such variations are usually quite fast. This is why it is important to have a variable speed compressor, it says. The company lists the following solution features and advantages: n The power+ inverter by Carel can be used to control new CRAC units with direct expansion systems that modulate cooling capacity to manage supply of air temperature. n The device helps create redundancy. n Designing units for 75% load with very high efficiency allows reserve cooling capacity in the event of problems on one of the units. n The inverter can be used to control part free cooling, modulating cooling capacity to make up the remaining capacity required – something which is becoming more and more important as new solutions are developed, including integration of Direct and Indirect Evaporative Cooling, to create a mix of different cooling solutions for both energy-saving and service continuity. n The company guarantees communication between controllers, thanks to constant research into specific technologies.

interview DANFOSS

Change begins at


Leif Flojgaard, President, Danfoss Commercial Compressors, speaks to Climate Control Middle East about his company’s contribution in reducing CO2 emissions and how the commitment to the cause starts from within.

D Danfoss Commercial Compressors Headquarters and factory in France

January 2013

Danfoss has a CO2 emissions reduction target of 25% by 2025. What is the baseline? The group tries to reduce the climate impact of its own activities. Danfoss has a climate strategy, called “3×25”, which states that the group will reduce its CO₂ emissions from energy consumption, transportation of finished goods and business travel by 25%, and increase the share of CO₂-neutral energy by 25% before 2025, compared to emissions in 2007. This corresponds to a reduction of 1.5% of the CO₂ emissions annually. We focus on reducing our CO₂ emissions from energyconsuming processes and systems. In 2011, the company started a project with the objective of reducing the total energy consumption of the 15 largest factories by 20 to 25%. The first step is to incorporate energy-saving measures at




others. We were among the first providers, with our partner Secop, to offer R290 compressors for refrigeration.

Aerial view of Danfoss Commercial Compressors Headquarters and factory in France

selected factories in Denmark, Mexico and the United States (Arkadelphia). The second step is to review the factories in France, China and Loves Park in the United States to find energy savings. An example of how we plan to achieve these results is the recent transfer of the scroll assembly line in Anse, France, to our site in Reyrieux, France. By consolidating the French scroll and reciprocating compressor factories at one single site in France, we also improve the operational and financial results of the company. The improvements will be found in the extensively optimised logistics flow. What role do you see for the compressors segment of the business in helping achieve reduction in emissions? According to the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR), 80% of the greenhouse gases (GHG) in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry is released indirectly through the energy consumption of refrigeration and air conditioning systems. We are developing compressors using more environment-friendly refrigerants, like R32 and R290. We continue to develop 20

more efficient fixed-speed systems that reduce the primary energy input. We are offering the inverter scroll compressors, which consume energy as per the actual demand, and have better seasonal efficiency. Our S-series, dedicated to large commercial air conditioning, is the first compressor range totally compliant with the RoHS directive (Reduction of Hazardous Substances). In the air conditioning industry, R32 is generally considered one of the most relevant choices to replace R22. R32’s ozone-depleting potential (ODP) is zero and its Global Warming Potential (GWP) is about one-third that of R22 and that of R410A. Are you promoting the use of natural refrigerants for a more diverse range of applications besides commercial refrigeration? Ammonia is the refrigerant with the longest presence in the industry. It has been in use for more than 100 years, thanks to its excellent properties. However, due to its hazardous nature, care must be taken in handling it, and it should only be done by a specially educated service force. The recent years’ focus on

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

lowering refrigerants’ GWP, combined with increasing energy efficiency, has triggered research and pilot projects on commercial use of ammonia in combination with CO₂. We expect development within these smaller applications. But, of course, the technology has to be competitive. CO₂ has been in our scope for 15 years, starting with the automotive interest in the 1990s. To make a long story short, the actual situation in the EU is that a large majority of supermarket systems are built for CO₂, either in cascade with R290 or HFCs or as pure CO₂ systems. Systems are constantly developing and efficiencies continue to increase. Hydrocarbons, like R290 and R1270, are excellent refrigerants with high energy efficiencies. The flammability of hydrocarbons is, of course, a concern for larger installations. Proper installment, according to the European EN378 standard, is necessary, as well as the maintenance of the systems. I can share with you that we have the first European full-fledged, accredited ATEX laboratory for tests of systems driven by natural refrigerants, like R290, among

What is the profile of the use of scrolls for air conditioning? The use of scrolls is dominating the air conditioning markets globally and in the Middle East. The improvements pursued in the scroll technology for air conditioning are focused on increasing the efficiency of the fixedspeed systems, lowering primary energy consumption, improving human comfort with inverter scrolls, using more environment-friendly refrigerants and improving acoustic performance to respect the environment in residential areas. Will we be seeing a more intense drive in this direction in the Middle East? In the Middle East, we observe a refrigerant transition from R22 to R410A. To meet the needs of the region, Danfoss has a complete range of scroll compressors for R410A from 3 to 40HP in single configuration, which can be arranged in tandem and trio up to 120HP in a single circuit. In the case of multiple circuits, the capacity can be much higher. Danfoss has developed a patented system for higher compressor efficiency in manifold configurations. Is Danfoss considering any low-GWP, low-ODP synthetic alternatives that will raise the bar further in terms of energy efficiency? Danfoss is investing in the development of compressors and controls capable of operating with R32. R32 has a better system efficiency and needs a smaller refrigerant charge compared with the current alternatives. However, it’s mildly flammable and the compressor discharge

temperature is higher. Consequently, the application of R32 necessitates changes in the current scroll compressors as well as in the lubricant oil and refrigeration systems. An R32 compressor using liquid injection overcomes the temperature limitation and greatly enlarges the operating map, so that it can operate efficiently even in extreme conditions. From the system perspective, there is an additional injection valve to inject liquid into the compressor to reduce the discharge gas temperature. The injected mass flow rate can be easily controlled by the injection valve. As a result, the liquid injection is a simple, economic, reliable and efficient option for R32 compressors. We have also developed a full programme of controls for R32. At a Danfoss technical seminar three years ago in Dubai, the audience seemed more interested in reliability than energy efficiency. Indeed, representatives from supermarkets who attended the seminar wanted compressor manufacturers to address the issue of how supermarkets were losing over a 100 compressors a year owing to reliability issues, as well as faulty installation, maintenance and after-sales service practices. What steps have you taken to make Danfoss compressors more reliable and appealing? It is a well-known fact in the industry that refrigeration applications are more challenging in the field from a reliability point of view. All major compressor as well as system manufacturers experience this issue. At the technical seminar to which you are referring, it was the general industry of compressors and system manufactures that were questioned. Danfoss compressors are qualified as per very strict reliability standards. We are constantly improving our products on this aspect via an increasingly robust design. Furthermore, Danfoss has decided to roll out the ISO TS Quality standard in all our factories globally. This standard is from the automotive business, and is, as such, the best system to ensure a high level of quality for each product. To ensure good training, Danfoss conducts training seminars and offers the Danfoss e-learning programme. We also have qualified field service engineers to provide technical support to our customers, especially in the phase where new systems and units are qualified. Danfoss Commercial Compressors is driving the technological change in the

COâ‚‚ has been in our scope for 15 years, starting with the automotive interest in the 1990s. To make a long story short, the actual situation in the EU is that a large majority of supermarket systems are built for COâ‚‚

market from fixed-speed compressors to the more energy-efficient solutions in inverter scroll compressors with prequalified drives. We are able to do so, of course, thanks to the products and the technical support that we offer in the design phase of the systems. It is the remit of Danfoss to partner with the OEMs to deliver high-quality products and services to ensure the best performance and reliability.

Improved air quality by means of pre-insulated aluminium ducts Our Easy Duct System has been designed on the basis of specific technical & economic necessities to permit the construction of air distribution systems that guarantee the highest standards of safety and conformity to international regulations.


Guaranteed thermal insulation Reduced losses due to leakage Maximum quality of the air Lightweight ducts applied to projects that carry weight Easy to construct, quick to install

Corporate Office: P.O. Box 2328 | Tel. no.: +971 4 286 2100 | Fax no.: +971 4 285 8001 MFG Unit: P.O. Box 116145 | Tel. no.: +971 4 880 2033 | Fax no.: +971 4 880 3619 Email: | Web:

January 2013



Standard Chartered BUILDING


territory Achieving LEED Gold for the core and shell and LEED Platinum for the fit out, the new Standard Chartered Building in Dubai incorporates various sustainability features to improve its energy and water efficiency. Climate Control Middle East toured the site at Downtown Burj Khalifa to take a firsthand look.


Climate Control Middle East January 2013


Building efficiency and sustainability is increasingly becoming a priority for owners, developers, contractors and end-users in the UAE, with the intensified effort from the government and the private sector to push regulation and information in this direction. Several initiatives are being spearheaded by various parties involved, with the aim of working together towards UAE’s vision of a 'Green Economy for Sustainable Development'. A number of case studies reveal that the drive for the greening of the built environment lies in retrofitting existing buildings to make them more efficient and tenant- and environment-friendly. Despite this, one cannot disregard the importance of designing new buildings to comply with green building regulations, and the collective effort of each party involved, to make sure that the structure is constructed in adherence to government and regulatory specifications.

Sustainability features

We toured the new Standard Chartered Building in Dubai with Saeed Alabbar, Director at Alabbar Energy and Sustainability Group and Andrew Philips, Project Manager at Brookfield Multiplex, and found out the sustainability features of the new building. While showing us around an office floor, with work stations and meeting rooms already in place, Alabbar and Philips spoke about

The office is equipped with daylight sensors that would adjust the intensity of indoor lighting systems according to the daylight received by the room – the more daylight received, the lesser the artificial lighting the different building features. They pointed out that the glass used for the office windows were high performance and energy efficient. Set with efficient glazing with high thermal resistance and low solar heat gain coefficient, they facilitate 90% of the office space receiving daylight, owing to a good visual light transmittance of the windows, the duo explained. They pointed out that the office was equipped with daylight sensors that would adjust the intensity of indoor lighting systems according to the daylight received by the room – the more daylight received, the lesser the artificial lighting. The space, they added, also had occupancy sensors that would switch off the lights when areas were unoccupied. Next, they highlighted the water system installed at the building. Saying that the water consumption was projected to be 48% below the US baseline, Alabbar and Philips said that the building was installed with low-flow washbasin taps and low volume dual-flush

toilets. Good quality water from taps would be reused for flushing and that there was a grey water recycling system in place to reprocess waste water within the building, they added. The building would use a solar water heating system, they explained. When we asked them if there was any building management system (BMS) in place, Alabbar and Philips said that the BMS was being tested at the moment, and that once running, would control everything in the building, including submetering of energy and water consumption on each floor, and monitoring of building consumption and functions. They emphasised that effective metering and controls would facilitate energy-efficient building operation. We, then, decided to take a look at the building’s ductwork. At the outset, Alabbar and Philips informed us that completing the building’s ductwork had required a rigorous process to make sure that there were no leakages. They also mentioned that prior to actual use, the ducts were sealed and capped. Once running, they explained, there would be several functions that would need to be checked regularly, including installation, air flow, and the amount of fresh air being circulated. Fresh air would be pre-cooled before being introduced to the building to lessen energy consumption, they claimed.

Effective metering and controls would facilitate energyefficient building operation January 2013

Speaking about the building’s air filtration system, they revealed that the filters were in the air handling units, and that though the equipment was running during construction, used filters would be changed prior to actual use of the building. They also stressed that filters would regularly be cleaned and maintained. In line with the building’s Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), evidently, the adhesives, sealants and paints used in the building had less chemicals and low VOCs. As an end note, Alabbar and Philips stressed that since a lot of planning had gone into every process and aspect of the building, they didn’t expect any serious problems to crop up during the testing phase. Apparently, the project followed the same standards as those in Australia and in the UK, and a training regimen was in place for occupants to make them aware of the procedures and the proper use of the building, once it was handed over.

In conclusion

Increased awareness and compliance to sustainable and environment-friendly practices in the UAE’s construction sector have been observed in the last two to three years in the pursuit of building efficiency and sustainability. Today, businesses and endusers alike are looking for sustainable buildings, and developers and suppliers have responded to the demand by providing solutions to the improvement of IAQ, water quality, energy use and occupant comfort. As more and more contractors embrace and advocate green building systems, and with the consistent rise of awareness and understanding within the industry of what green building really is, it is expected that sustainability will sooner than later become the norm rather than the exception.





Meeting OF

MINDS The first Emirates Green Building Council Congress, attended by government representatives and thought leaders from all over the world to talk about the region’s sustainability and relate them to the global green building movement, initiated an industry dialogue and multiple stakeholder engagement. We bring you Part I of the report.


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

The first Emirates Green Building Council (EGBC) Annual Congress, held on November 27 and 28, themed 'Innovations in Sustainability', called for an intensified collaboration among the government, the industry, and academic institutions, to promote sustainable development and strategies to foster energy efficiency and encourage sustainable built environments. The congress, attended by over 100 delegates from around the world, was inaugurated by H.E. Saeed Mohammed Al Tayer, Vice Chairman of Dubai Supreme Council of Energy. In his address, he highlighted that the UAE aimed to become a world leader and a centre for export and re-export of green products and technologies, and for maintaining a sustainable environment to support long-term economic growth. He added that these efforts of the country were in line with the vision of H.H. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE, and Ruler of Dubai, entitled 'Green Economy for Sustainable Development'. “Adopting power and water conservation measures is essential for a sustainable future, and the Green Building initiative is a key measure for Dubai,� he said, urging the participants to promote a conservation culture to be applied in all processes to support




Keeping Dubai a cool place to live and work



A panel discussion on comparison of wordwide certification systems for sustainable building

Saeed Alabbar, Vice Chairman, EGBC, was the moderator of the event

sustainability as a long-term objective. Adnan Sharafi, Chairman of the EGBC, welcomed the delegates, emphasising that the UAE’s leadership placed foremost importance to promoting sustainable development. “By implementing legislative measures and adhering to energy efficiency best

of the conference, Sharafi said that the first EGBC Congress underlined the need for greater collaboration between governmental departments, industry leaders, academic institutions and the public, to strengthen sustainable growth. “Through the Congress, EGBC is further fostering public and private sector

practices, we can potentially achieve 70% energy reductions across its built environment,” he said. Talking about the essence

collaboration to help achieve the goals of the UAE’s ‘green vision’,” he highlighted. “The Congress served as a platform to discuss the overall strategy and efforts by various organisations in promoting a sustainable built environment,” he added. The opening session of the Congress included keynote presentations by

Show and tell Participants of the first panel discussion at the Congress shared their views on the history, operation and objectives of different certification systems. They also presented a few case studies in which these systems were applied. Here are a few of the insights presented during the discussion...


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

Peter Templeton, President, US Green Building Certification Institute

“There are more similarities than differences among the programmes that we represent, and that’s important for us – the fact that we are all trying to move forward with a common mission of advancing green building in all communities for all, and that is going to take us putting together our minds on how we can create the tools and resources that are going to achieve that outcome.”

Adopting power and water conservation measures is essential for a sustainable future, and the Green Building initiative is a key measure for Dubai

Adnan Sharafi, Chairman, EGBC

H.E. Hussain Nasser Lootah, Director-General of Dubai Municipality; Eng Mohammed Badri, Acting DirectorGeneral of the Emirates Authority for Standardisation and Metrology (ESMA); H.E. Mohamed Al Khadar, Executive Director of the Development Review and Estidama of Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council; and Jane

Henley, CEO of the World Green Building Council. In his presentation, Lootah highlighted Dubai Municipality’s efforts to achieve the aimed 30% reduction in energy consumption by planning the city of Dubai accordingly. The Dubai Municipality’s efforts, he said, were concentrated on urban planning, water

treatment, environment and waste management, thermal insulation, energy preservation and green building. “The master plan is very important to highlight or to indicate the right places to distribute all the activities, especially the industrial [areas].” He

further emphasised that if one was to tackle the issue of sustainability of the cities, it was very important that one should not only concentrate on the buildings but also on every element of the city. Badri in his presentation spoke about the core functions of ESMA. Stressing that ESMA was the sole authority for quality, metrology and standards in the UAE, he said that the body’s main function was to provide safety to the people and protect the consumers and economy by issuing and implementing standards in collaboration with the local governments. He further explained that in line with this function, ESMA was looking to implement a product-labeling system that would be recognised internationally, and making the UAE products acceptable internationally. “Of course, to do that, we need to be with leading organisations,” he said, adding that ESMA was

Edwin Young, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council

“Estidama is basically a rating system that starts with various numbers. We have four pillars, we have five pearls, we have seven categories, and we have three rating systems that are all intertwined with each other – we have a villa rating system, we have a building rating system, but more importantly, we have a community rating system because sustainability does not stop at the building, we walk at the front door. We have one thing that other rating systems don’t have, and that’s mandate.”

Anand M, Senior Counselor, India Green Building Council

“The biggest challenge for India as you could see, though not as big as for Canada or Americas, is the five distinctive climatic zones. What is applicable for the northern part of the country, I could not take for the southern part of the country, and that’s the biggest challenge the design and construction industry faces. In addition, lifestyle is changing very fast in the last decade… the building industry, the design and construction industry, and the ways with which we operate also need to be contemporary.” January 2013




H.E. Saeed Al Tayer, Dubai Supreme Council of Energy H.E. Eng Hussain Nasser Lootah, Director General, Dubai Municipality

affiliated to ISO, IBC, CODEX and GSO, among others. He also affirmed that products certified by ESMA were internationally recognised, and that currently, there were 66 countries that accepted its standards and certificates. Furthermore, he also spoke about ESMA’s contribution to the “green economy”. In the light of this, he said


that ESMA’s efforts were concentrated in creating a star-rating system to be used in evaluating the energy efficiency of equipment, including air conditioning and refrigeration units. “What we are trying to do [is], every two years we come up with a cancellation of one star, that means, in 2014, two stars will become one star, and we will

Eng Mohammed Badri, Acting Director General, Emirates Authority for Standardisation and Metrology (ESMA)

recalculate and reinforce this one in the whole [of] UAE,” he added, speaking about ESMA’s future plans for the project. “Future is a continuation of the past,” pointed out Al Khadar, quoting the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, opening his presentation with an overview of the concept of

sustainability. Al Khadar began his talk by highlighting the late Sheikh Zayed’s vision of sustainability for the UAE, saying that Sheikh Zayed had envisaged achieving this by balancing future demands and existing resources. “Most of the private sector, they have three pillars: environment, economic, and social. We believe, in the UPC

Matthew Plumbridge, Abu Dhabi Department of Municipal Affairs

“What is CH2? It’s a building that is modelled on natural systems… Essentially it is a metaphor for a tree – it has roots, it has living bronchi, it has a leaf structure, it has an epidermis and a dermis, stem and bark… we did not only use nature, we also used the engineering of termites, because essentially a termite can create a structure in India that is thermally comfortable despite the intensity of the temperatures outside.”

Mohammed Asfour, Chairman, Jordan Green Building Council

“Jordan, as you know, is a small country of about six million people, and a country that faces old challenges, and does not have oil resources as the region has. From my perspective, this was a privilege because when we did not have oil, we had to invest in our people. This is why about 1.3% of our population is either architects or engineers. So, when we developed our experience in the field of green buildings, our focus was always these people – to try to build their capacity and export their services outside Jordan.”

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

H.E. Mohammed Al Khadar, Executive Director, Estidama

It’s not a choice now. It’s not an option for projects to be done without applying sustainability to its components (Urban Planning Council), that a house stays on four pillars, that’s why we [added] culture to those pillars,” he said. With the addition of culture as one of the pillars, he further emphasised that the UPC sought to preserve the country’s heritage and values. He explained that in 2010, the Government of Abu Dhabi, through UPC, made the Estidama mandatory for every single building, in line with Abu Dhabi’s 2030 Plan. He said that he believed the mandatory nature or Estidama would help the public comprehend the benefits of sustainability in various projects. “We have succeeded since 2010, when the General Council has issued a mandate to the UPC to apply Estidama by force; it’s not a choice

now. It’s not an option for projects to be done without applying sustainability to there components,” he elucidated. He also touched upon Estidama’s new developmental concept, called Complete Sustainable Communities (CSC), whose control encompasses all the components of sustainability, from infrastructure to the end-user. Henley, in the final keynote presentation, spoke about the World Green Building Council, saying that it was an over-arching body of over 90 green building councils around the world. As businesses had begun to realise the economic benefits of green building, the green building movement had taken off in the last five

Jane Henley, CEO, World Green Building Council

years, Henley explained. Though development in this direction had been observed, she stressed that the movement still remained to be spearheaded by the country’s leaders, and that challenges remained to make sustainability in the built environment mainstream, and to make the public realise the benefits of sustainability. Henley pointed out that WGBC had formed regional networks to drive this global effort through informationsharing and capacitybuilding. In addition, WGBC sought to work closely with government and made sure that the connection between industry, the academe and the government was strong. Apart from this, WGBC also organised celebrations, award ceremonies and campaigns, and publishes researches and reports to further promote awareness of the green building movement, Henley revealed. In her talk, Henley also presented a report that showed that today, more than

WGBC has formed regional networks to drive the global effort through information-sharing and capacitybuilding 60% of the companies in the UAE classified their activities as being green, as compared to a much smaller percentage four years ago. She added that this shift highlighted the increasing trend in the companies in the UAE embracing much more integrated sustainability models. Though not a complete representation of the market, January 2013

Henley explained that the report revealed that the leadership companies were now mostly promoting green buildings, and that was where their capacity, education, and focus lay in the future. In conclusion, she pointed out that according to the report, despite all other efforts, the most important driver of the movement towards this direction was government regulation. What followed was a panel discussion moderated by Jeff Willis, Vice Chairman, EGBC about lifelong comparison of worldwide certification systems for sustainable building. Peter Templeton, US Green Building Certification Institute; Edwin Young, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council; Anand M, India Green Building Council; Matthew Plumbridge, Abu Dhabi Department of Municipal Affairs; and Mohammed Asfour from the Jordan Green Building Council participated in the discussion. (For highlights, see Box 1: Show and tell.) After the panel discussion, the winner of a research paper competition, spearheaded by the EGBC and the British University in Dubai, had the opportunity to present his work. Charles Blaschke, the winner, presented his paper entitled 'Reducing UAE energy consumption by energy performance contracting'. The competition was open to all EGBC members and university students who could present a technical paper under the theme 'Green Innovations in Built Environment'. Part II of the report will feature the sessions on high-performance buildings and the case studies for green buildings. In addition, we will also bring you the highlights of the other panel discussions that took place during the event.





growth horizon in the

With an observable increase in construction projects and continued development in district cooling, industry players predict a parallel growth for the FCU market in the region. What indicators of growth do they see? What are their plans? Jerome Sanchez finds out‌


Climate Control Middle East January 2013


The general opinion among industry players is that the FCU market would continue to grow with the increase in construction projects and that there would be a proportional expansion of chillers and district cooling applications. They unequivocally stated that they could see a bright future for district cooling as they could observe growth in the region, particularly in the UAE, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. As Pramodh Idicheria, General Manager,

Leminar, put it: “The FCU sector will grow as Qatar and Saudi Arabia are planning to install many more district cooling plants.” He also predicted that, in line with the development, there would be a growth of 30% to 50% in the FCU sector. Jones Wu, Regional Manager, Middle East Region, Overseas Sales, Gree, directly pegged the future of FCUs in the GCC to the progress of chillers and district cooling, when he said, “The potential for FCUs depends on the chillers and district cooling applications.” He added that the fast pace of development in the construction sector in the GCC states would result in an increase in the number of high-rise buildings, which would employ chillers or district cooling for air conditioning. “Accordingly, the FCUs business will expand with the booming of chillers

The FCU sector will grow as Qatar and Saudi Arabia are planning to install many more district cooling plants and district cooling,” he emphasised. Durgesh Verma, Divisional Manager, NIA Limited, supported Wu in his observation that construction in the region would continue to expand in the coming years. Verma highlighted that the HVAC industry in the GCC region has performed better during the crisis years, compared to more developed markets around the world. He pointed out that even during the crisis years of 2008 through 2011, the region had an annual growth in expenditure of 12%. With the defiant stance the region adopted during the downturn years, the UAE, in particular, is expected to remain

We cannot overlook the fact that VRV-based systems are gaining popularity and might start eating into potential district cooling business, even chiller-based business January 2013

strong, with its commercial construction market slated to have an annual growth of eight per cent from 2011 to 2015. “Some market intelligence reports claim that the HVAC demand for the UAE market is USD 1.2 million, and 30% demand can be attributed to district cooling systems,” Verma said. The industry insiders emphatically predicted a growth in district cooling and its positive impact on the FCU market. Wu attributed the present development to the intensified effort of an increasing number of industry players to promote the idea of district cooling chiller plant. “The market is booming because more and more players in the air conditioning industry work very aggressively to promote the idea of district cooling chiller plant,” Wu said. In addition, he also recognised that more and more clients, particularly from the government sector, are starting to accept district cooling application as a highefficiency centralised air conditioning solution, though the initial cost might be slightly high. Verna drove home the point that confidence in the market was trickling back, and that would result in a boost in sales of FCUs for district cooling applications. He spoke about a case-in point indicating positive signs of growth in the HVAC industry, including district cooling, in the near future. “In October this year, Dubai-based Emirates District Cooling (Emicool), a joint venture between Dubai Investments and Union Properties, signed an AED 793 million (USD 216 million) Islamic loan, guaranteed by both parents, which is a clear sign of the way the financial institutions are looking at the market dynamics,” he said. Furthermore, the revival of projects put on hold during the recession years was one




shall not be congruent to the general growth of the HVAC business.” Despite this, the players agreed that the economy and the industry were heading towards growth, and that optimism and positivity were notable in almost every facet of the market.

Due to the downturn customers were beginning to look for alternative solutions and technologies, and even suppliers of the key drivers for growth of the district cooling FCU market, said to Aalok Jain, Sales Manager, Gulf Air Conditioning Manufacturing Industries (GAMI). “During the present year [2012], there has been a growth in district


cooling FCU market in the UAE, while KSA is catching up,” he said. He, however, qualified that though ventures were being restarted and while growth was being observed, GAMI, at the time of the interview, was not involved in any new projects coming up with district cooling FCUs. Despite the steady growth observed in the district cooling sector, and the proportional expansion of the FCU market, there are other factors that may affect its trajectory in the long run. “We cannot overlook the fact that VRV-based systems are gaining popularity and might start eating into potential district cooling business, even chiller-based business, specially properties with horizontal spread,” warned Verma. “As a result, the growth of the FCU business

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

THE LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE DOWNTURN Though generally considered negative, the industry players recounted some advantages the economic downturn brought to their companies. They regarded the crisis as a turning point for market awareness and prioritisation. According to them, the crisis made the market increasingly concerned about the consumption and efficiency of air conditioners. Due to the downturn, they added, customers were beginning to look for alternative solutions and technologies, and even suppliers. The recession opened a window of opportunity for companies to introduce their products and offer the customers higher value for their money, through more competitive pricing and energy-saving features. Though complete recovery might take a longer time, the industry players feel that the bottom of the economic crisis has been reached. It appears that the positive attention from the market has offered the industry players

the much needed assurance to expand in the areas where they already have presence in and venture into new locations in future. “We still have to expand our wings in the region, as we initially marketed our products in the UAE to get a feel of the market,” affirmed Jain. He said that the reception by the customers to their products had given them the confidence that they could market their products in the region, and that they had the quality and specifications to supersede the more established competitors, both technically and commercially. CONCLUSION Industry players were bold in saying that they saw growth on the horizon for the FCU market in the region, thanks to the revival of construction projects and the increased attention and acceptance given to and the confidence placed in district cooling applications. They also agreed that they were riding high on the perceived positive direction of the economy at present, and were feeling optimistic that lessons learnt from the downturn would propel their companies to greater heights. They said they believed that the window of opportunity was wide open for their companies, and that they were determined to capitalise on it today and in the years to come.


– your partner within energy metering

District cooling is a better solution for the environment and district cooling combined with individual BTU metering and exact billing is even better. At Kamstrup we work to develop solutions that make a difference, for the energy supplier, the consumer and the environment. It has been proven that accurate and visible energy metering reduces energy consumption, merely as a psychological effect. People are already aware that energy is an expensive resource, and if they are made aware of their consumption habits, they will automatically seek to adjust to a more energy savvy behavior. European experience states that almost 30% energy savings can be achieved when using individual BTU metering for cooling energy if compared to bulk metering where cooling charge is included into the rent. There is a clear difference in the consumption pattern of energy and water in measured and non-measured apartments. As 1°C in indoor temperature represents 5% of the energy bill a tenant can actually save 10% by increasing the indoor temperature from 20°C to just 22°C. This very concrete economic benefit of individual metering is followed by the important educational aspect that people get used to have a critical eye on their consumption as energy prices are in a steep rise. Kamstrup can provide all needed metering HW and SW to establish BTU metering into new and also existing buildings as retrofit metering.

There is always a better solution – Kamstrup metering solutions

Kamstrup Middle East FZC P.O. Box 500 468, Dubai United Arab Emirates Tel: +971 4 453 7337

event round-up


KINGDOM The Climate Control Conference (C3), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

With the present spike in Saudi Arabia’s energy demand, the country is keenly looking for viable alternatives to generate power, including atomic and renewable energy options. With 70% of all the energy consumed in the built-environment in the country attributed to air conditioning, the focus to find solutions related to the industry is heightened.


eturning to Riyadh for the second time in two years, this edition of The Climate Control Conference (C3) not only focused on technical issues but also on broader policy issues. Presently, with the continuous growth and expansion of the economy of Saudi Arabia, which tenaciously weathered the economic downturn, energy security is fast becoming a key


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

concern that calls for urgent attention. In this light, C3 looked at subjects such as district cooling and combined heat and power (CHP) in the context of alleviating the Kingdom’s energy security situation. In addition, other crucial topics were also covered during the event, including those relating to VRF systems. Here, we bring to you in pictures the conference that was...

Regional MEET of the MEP Industry Through panel discussions and technical presentations, the industry players shared their insights and perspectives on the industry’s most crucial issues.

Nasser Al-Qahtani, Vice Governor, Electricity and Cogeneration Regulatory Authority (ECRA)

George Berbari, CEO, DC PRO Engineering

Ghaleb Abusaa, CEO, The Three Factors Company (en3 Solutions)

Mahmoud Sameeh Khaled, VRF Product Manager, Samsung Electronics

January 2013


event round-up

Making their points heard

A chance to meEt and greEt

While the speakers delivered insightful presentations, the delegates actively participated at the event, sharing their thoughts on the issues covered.

C3 also presented the participants a chance to greet old friends and meet new ones, as they socialise and network during the event.

Albert Haykal, Trane

Frank-Detlef Karolius, Technical Sales and Product Specialist, Samson Controls FZE


Climate Control Middle East January 2013






Pradeep Saxena, TransGulf ElectroMechanical

PerSpectives n Eng Nasser Al-Qahtani, ECRA, on the Kingdom's energy policies

n George Berbari, DC PRO Engineering, on the challenges DC is facing in Saudi Arabia n Ghaleb Abusaa, en3 Solutions, on ways to increase energy efficiency


CARBON CREDITS From an environmental point of view, could you please elaborate on the relationship between carbon credits and HVACR? There is a strong potential link between carbon credits and HVACR. Be they split air conditioners for residential or large district cooling plants for industrial sites (MW scale) all would benefit from carbon credits. Under clean development mechanism (CDM), all will be principally eligible for carbon credits. If you replace old inefficient units, there are benefits to be had. There is a methodology under CDM for this. The industry seems to be galloping


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to execute projects. It seems to be scrambling to get things done somehow. Because they are rushing, they don’t seem to be maximising profit benefits. If they adopt efficient systems, they can lock carbon credits for 10 years. Sellers of equipment should make this a marketing argument, because there is not only profit but also a UN certification. Considering it costs between USD 50,000 and USD 100,000 just for a feasibility study to ascertain if a project can earn CERs, we are talking of projects of a certain mimimum scale, aren’t we,

that will aspire to take the carbon credits route? Large-scale developments here give a critical mass. In some part of the world, we are talking of 50-100 units; here, we are talking of 5,000 units. If you bring that many efficient units you have carbon credits. Considering the fact that bank financing still is an issue for district cooling, would banks be willing to use the potential for CERs as collateral to release funds? CDM is not a magic wand that will give you 100% bank financing. But it can give securitisation. Unfortunately,

in the current period, the price of carbon credits has fallen. In 2007-2008, it was EUR 15 and during the financial crisis, it was nine euros. It stabilised to EUR 12 in 2011, but in the past month, it has fallen to one euro. In the medium term, though, it is clear the problem will not go away and eventually prices of carbon credits will have to go up, because climate change is a huge issue. So companies should be courageous to invest and position themselves when prices go up. Zamil is quite interested in CDM and is interested in getting district cooling in

from a

Germany-headquartered Perspectives Climate Change concerns itself with establishing calculation methodology for carbon credits. The company’s Senior Founding Partner, Dr Axel Michaelowa was at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP 18) in Doha, Qatar, in late November and early December. B Surendar caught up with him for a chat on CERs (Certified Emission Reductions) and district cooling…

DC perspective Dr Axel Michaelowa

Hadeed in the CDM loop. If the Zamil project takes off, then it is a lighthouse project. In the Middle East, people are hesitant to be pioneers. What is the reason for the price of CERs to drop to one euro? There is a lack of will in the international community and for governments to agree

on legally binding commitments on greenhouse gas emissions. The Kyoto Protocol was binding from 2008 to 2012. The question is, “After this, what.” There is uncertainty, and this has caused the price to drop. The EU says it wants to continue with the process, but countries like Japan and New Zealand don’t want to continue. So the market is in the doldrums. But the need for climate change mitigation is increasing by the day. People will realise it is not some fluffy thing that only industrial countries have an interest in. If the policy-makers are serious, we can see new agreements by 2015 and new commitment

from 2020 onwards. In Copenhagen, we saw failure in the sense that the conference had no outcome. Considering that the trend seems to be smaller, modular chilled water plants in an overall district cooling scheme in a large development, which means projects are being executed in installments, is it feasible to consider applying for CERs? There is a ‘Programme of Activities’ (PoA) feature under CDM. This allows for any projects of same size to be considered. So in the case of modular plants, they can be put all under this one document, PoA. But if we are talking of district cooling extension projects, coordination is needed to make sure the data collected

has a degree of credibility. Lack of operational data will not help. CDM requires transparency. But it has benefits. It is a motivation or incentive to get efficiency. As Perspectives Climate Change, what initiatives are you undertaking in the region? We are quite active in the region. Hopefully, after Doha, people will realise that carbon credits is not some stupid idea from the North. In Europe, people think that the Middle East region is backward in carbon credits, but that is not the case. Masdar, in Abu Dhabi, is a beacon, but not without challenges. Masdar has been scaled down and deadlines extended, but it still remains a beacon.

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Qatar is a compelling presence for the HVAC industry in the region, says Pradeep Saxena, who heads TransGulf ElectroMechanical operations in the peninsula. With building services MEP and infrastructure-side MEP activities expected to enter a period of surge in growth, he foresees an exciting time ahead for those willing to set up camp and rough it out in what he characterises as a frontier with its own set of challenges. B Surendar in conversation with Saxena.

BEACON How encouraging is the business environment in Qatar from an MEP perspective? The volume of business potential is huge at any moment in time. It’s been continually so in the past one year. We are tendering close to QR 4-5 bn in MEP building services. So if you choose to extrapolate on today’s terms in Qatar, we can say that the size of the market is QR 20-25 bn. The spread of this could grow in two years. Also, the figures I have stated so far do not include infrastructure. We are now getting some infrastructure tenders for MEP. So overall, we are looking at building services MEP and infrastructure-side MEP. This is to me the size of the market. I don’t think we are missing any tenders as a


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The number of players is so far too many, so the margins are very low. Everybody feels, though, that now is the time to set up shop to make money two years hence

company. This is just 2012. In 2013, 2014, we can see more. We have to remember that there still is not much in terms of hospitality-oriented buildings. Currently, 80% of the work is government-related construction. All tenders we are tendering are governmentrelated, only 20% is private. At the same time, there is talk of a certain slowness that has descended upon Qatar, as if the country were reassessing the situation. Do you see challenges emerging out of this? The challenge lies in the maturing of the business. The conversion cycle of potential to actual is still longer when compared to Dubai. It takes six months for a tender to

result into going into job. Obviously, the lesser the cycle, the more will be the business. I think the whole market is waiting for visible signs. I am optimistic it will take off. I feel 2013-2014 could see a better model of decision making. They might just improve the process, so there is bound to be a lot of work for a lot of people related to supplies and sub contracting. I see the change happening from the Middle of 2013 onwards. I am referring to the conversion cycle for businesses, for everybody to feel that “Yes, I have my order book full is one year to two years.” The other side of it is that the market is very, very

competitive. There is work but not enough awards. The number of players is far too many, so the margins are very low. Everybody feels, though, that now is the time to set up shop to make money two years hence. People are saying, “Fine, today is low, but two years from now, we will see the results.” A warning is out, though, of the negative side of inflation, which happens when materials become scarce, when demand overtakes supply. Qatar is dependent on goods from outside. The ingredients for ready mix – gravel,

on skilled or semi-skilled labour, and visas are a big issue. As of now, there is no free flow of visas, and is dependent on nationality. So it is not a case of getting the best labourers. We are facing that as a construction industry – to get skilled labour remains a challenge. In my view, the cost-to-skill ratio is only in the case of India. If I try to get people from Malaysia, the cost is higher. I could get very good people from Turkey, but can I get a contract for the cost of workers from there? Also, the workforce should be able to speak the language. When you have these restrictions,

Pradeep Saxena

for instance – are not available in Qatar, so you are constrained. Other industries are all import driven.

a lot of contractors and sub-contractors feel the constraint. If I had the freedom to get what I wanted, I would take the risk, because there is the market for that. A third constraint has to do

with the process of setting up business; it is still complicated. They are liberating the process, but the price you pay for sponsorship in Dubai could be as low as AED 30,000, but here it is expensive. The fee is so

OF HOPE Do you see the possibility of any factories or the setting up of any dedicated gateways to ensure a constant flow of goods? Dubai has its free zones. Qatar is deep into the Arabian Gulf and is not a transit point, like Dubai. Here, anyone who comes in has to manufacture for the population, and there is no substantial population. From that perspective, I don’t see anybody setting up shop in the engineering sector. It is nowhere near the levels it should be for that kind of growth. As for other sectors, you have petrochemicals and steel industries in Qatar, which is wonderful. In Qatar, you have to depend

high that it has to be fed out of the margins. The contrast here (to Dubai) is that you need to find the right sponsor. I need contacts to conduct business, and the sponsor has to help. We need an enabling climate

Winter 2013 CHILL


interview to help people grow. Here, the market does not depend only on merit but also on connections. A capitalist economy depends on who you have working for you. What about receivables? Do you see that as a challenge? Receivables were a dominant topic two years ago; today, they are not so strong an issue. Some government projects delayed payments. There is no situation, though, that the contractors won’t get paid. The ratio of government projects to private projects is very high, so there is plenty of business involving government projects – and they will be paid in 120 days, which is good. The top level of receivables is all right, so you only have to adjust the cashflow. But not everybody practises paying money in the same style as they receive money. In other words, downstream receivables constitute an issue, but that is an issue related to the culture of the individual company. Overall, gas prices went down, and so the budget was affected, and government funding and payments got 2012 budgeting at a certain gas price level for certain projects. So payments got delayed. It could be a shortterm effect of less money, but as I said, I haven’t heard of payments not being realised. But as regards downstream, it remains 50-50. TransGulf is still a relatively new player in the Qatar market. How are you doing? TransGulf has gradually built a standing from a non-entity to being a Dubai company to one now where every job comes to us as a good MEP contractor. We have a reputation as one of the most reliable companies to work with. Enquiries are coming to us – they have gone up from QR 400 mn to QR 4 bn. We are now treated on par


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We are running a business for profit margins. That is the culture. There is no compromise on quality, but everybody is motivated that margin is the driving force. And for this they have to be rewarded with incentives. They can be motivated to save only if they are the beneficiaries of money with ETA and Voltas, the two of the biggest in the business; today, we are on the same level as them. Our vision is to make our company one of the most reliable to contractors, with no compromise on quality. We have done very good work on the Ministry of Interior project. As of now, we have only three contracts, but the Ministry of Interior and QTel projects are very prestigious. We are currently doing QR 450 mn worth of MEP business, and we are expecting this year’s turnover to be QR 125-130 mn from QR 50 mn.

In 2013, we are expecting a turnover of QR 225 mn, based on existing orders. If the strike rate on tendering is high, we are expecting to have more business, in which case the turnover could be even more. In terms of margins, we picked QTel and Ministry of Interior at very low margins. The reason we are successful is we shifted the model of doing business while in the middle of a situation of low margins in the market. When you take a job, you must have a way to improve margins. So the model we adopted was to book a job, and to control expenses and costs at the inception. The longer you work on a project, the more is the erosion of margins. We have not allowed cost over-runs. We established a system that has tight financial control and very strong follow up from management, so chances of budget over-runs are limited. We are running a business for profit margins. That is the culture. There is no compromise on quality, but everybody is motivated that margin is the driving force. And for this they have to be rewarded with incentives. They can be motivated to save only if they are the beneficiaries of money. So what we had to do was to revamp the HR practices – KPIs, performance management system, clear goals, encouragement and mentoring. So our success is owing to very modern HR practices and also to very good inter-relationship between us and clients. We keep getting things done through good relations instead of contractual issues and arguments. If a problem is not getting solved, we escalate it to upper management. We are a technically strong, client-oriented

company. Anybody you ask will say, “TransGulf is technically strong.” We believe in re-designing any given HVAC job, and in giving suggestions and feedback to consultants that so and so aspect can be done better. We look at the design, see how we can optimise it, increase operational efficiency and, in the process, build a reputation. Our manpower has very high level of expertise in HVAC and electrical aspects. Where is district cooling heading in Qatar? We are seeing a scaleddown approach to district cooling in Qatar. You see that happening in Education City, Internal Security Forces and Marafeq projects, where plants are in the range, 30,000 TR – 50,000 TR. So, there is awareness now that district cooling can be done in a different way. The scale of plants done earlier is simply no longer there. They have become wiser and moved away from oversizing and the resultant idle capacity situation. Marafeq, for instance, has defined the load profile properly. The Education City tender indicates that it is coming up in a modular fashion. The most recent tender will be the third CHW plant. Only in the last 2-3 months have we seen a resurgence of district cooling activity. For the past two years, there was nothing by way of tendering, so I believe district cooling is waking up in Qatar. Also, we are seeing a trend where the developer is himself getting involved with the district cooling scheme. We are seeing that Education City has its own FM company, as is the case with the Msheireib project. These are exciting developments.



Eng. Mohamed Saleh Badri Acting Director General Emirates Authority for Standardization & Metrology (ESMA)


VAR FAIR is a two-day conference that will focus the spotlight on the variable refrigerants flow (VRF) industry in the Middle East. The focus of the conference will be to better understand the

Theregulations technology & business of and variable refrigerant flow systems in place in the region also the environmental policies that govern the approval

of VRF systems. The conference will be a meeting place for regulators, affiliated government and

quasi-government agencies, manufacturers, suppliers, developers, building owners, consultants TALK | EXHIBIT | NETWORK and contractors.

Edwin Young Program Manager Estidama, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council

VAR FAIR is a two-day conference that will focus the spotlight on the variable refrigerants flow (VRF; also known by the brand names, VRV and TVR) industry in the Middle East. The focus of the conference will be to better understand the regulations in place in the region and also the environmental policies that govern the approval of VRF systems. The conference will be a meeting place for regulators, affiliated government and quasi-government agencies, manufacturers, suppliers, developers, building owners, consultants and contractors.

Eng. Zainab Al Rasheed Specialist HVAC Engineer Ministry of Electricity & Water Kuwait

24 - 25 February 2013 | Abu Dhabi, UAE

KEY TOPICS n Regulations n The environmental policies that govern the approval of VRF systems by different manufacturers n Co-efficient of Performance (COP) of VRF systems in high-ambient conditions n Cost per tonne, lifecycle costs n Diversity and feasibility of deploying in high-rises (G+55, for instance)

n O&M issues and the availability of adequate specialised technical personnel n Reliability n Ease of installation n Measuring and billing n The ability to achieve critical mass in residential, commercial and mixed-use projects for Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs) to become a factor under CDM

Dr. Esam Elsarrag Director QSAS | Gulf Organisation for Research & Development


Log on to George Kenich Head of Infrastructure & MEP ALDAR Properties PJSC

WHY ATTEND? n Learn first-hand about regulations & environment policies of governments in the Middle East, innovations in VRF systems, energy efficiency, best practices in installation, training, O&M, sales support strategies, project references in the Middle East, case studies, feasibility of attaining CERs (under CDM) through VRFs.

WHO WILL ATTEND? n CEOs n CFOs n Ministry officials n Municipality Directors n Procurement directors and managers

Managing Director & Associate Publisher

T: +971 (4) 375 6833 M: +971 (50) 714 7204 F: +971 (4) 434 1906 E:

George Berbari CEO, DC PRO Engineering

INDUSTRY TYPE n Engineering Directors n Head of Infrastructure n Head of MEP Services n Asset Managers/ Directors n Technical Directors


n Opportunity to collaborate and par tner with VRF manufacturers in arriving at solutions as per the specific requirements of projects. n Opportunity to see live demonstrations of VRF systems and better understand their specific features.

In North America, contact: Kanika Saxena Our representative in North America

T: +1 (905) 890 5031 E:

n Regulators from across the Middle East n Government agencies from across the Middle East n Quasi-Government bodies from across the Middle East

n Master Developers n Developers n Building Owners n Consultants n Contractors n Banks and other financial institutions

Ghaleb Abusaa CEO The Three Factors Company (en3 Solutions)



B Surendar

Mehwish Hilal

Editorial Director & Associate Publisher

Events & Marketing Manager

T: +971 (4) 375 6831 M: +971 (50) 509 2457 F: +971 (4) 434 1906 E:


T: +971 (4) 375 6840 M: +971 (55) 478 5011 F: +971 (4) 434 1906 E: MEDIA PARTNER





audi Arabia’s current and historical statistics indicate very high growth rates. With the growth in population and improvement in the standards of living, per capita consumption is increasing at an average growth rate of three per cent per annum from 2007. This growth in consumption is attributed to a seemingly lack of commitment to save energy among the people of the country. Regarding Saudi Arabia’s energy consumption patterns, 52% of the country’s overall energy consumption is by residential units, and 72% of residential consumption is attributable to air conditioning. In 20 years, Saudi Arabia’s peak electricity demand is projected to be 120 GW. The growth in demand for electricity is mainly driven by the increase in the country’s GDP and the rise in investment from the government and the private sector. On the flip-side, inefficiency is also a factor contributing to the increase.


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A Inefficiency is driven by low tariffs and high subsidies. As an offshoot to the increase in per capita consumption, CO2 emissions are also notably high in Saudi Arabia. In 2008, Saudi Arabia’s emissions were approximately 1.5kg of CO2/ USD, standing more than Europe and the US. Considering the present situation, Saudi Arabia has introduced policies to address

The government of Saudi Arabia is working towards regulation enforcement and active implementation of conservation programmes

Eng Nasser Al-Qahtani

the current issues concerning the country’s growing energy demand and increasing CO2 emissions. Privatisation is seen by Saudi Arabia as a key policy to increase competition in the market. In addition, privatisation will encourage efficiency, because when private businesses get involved, they will carry their way of doing business and processes, and they will try

to compete with the whole process. In line with the policy related to privatisation, ECRA has approved the Electricity Industry Restructuring Plan (EIRP) which moves towards a competitive wholesale electricity market in Saudi Arabia. It will be implemented in three phases, from 2010 through 2018.

Eng Nasser Al-Qahtani, Vice Governor of the Electricity and Cogeneration Regulatory Authority (ECRA), in Saudi Arabia speaks about the country’s current energy policies and their impact on the Kingdom’s future…

DMAP AHEAD Other policies of the country involve regulations on electricity and compliance with Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) requirements, enhancing generation efficiency through retiring old plants or converting them from single-cycle to combinedcycle plants, and generation diversification through nuclear and renewable energy sources. Integration with other countries and regions is also an essential part of Saudi Arabia’s current policies. Integration and interconnection with other countries will present an opportunity to work together and approach industry problems in a regional perspective, instead of only concentrating in one’s own country. Current policies also revolve around replacement of old air conditioning units, improvement in energy measures of new buildings, and load management through direct load control, interruptible

tariffs and curtailable load management. These present policies are projected to result in a decrease in CO2 emissions, diversification of resources, improvement in equipment efficiency, reduction in subsidies and an increase in private sector participation. The government of Saudi Arabia is working towards regulation enforcement and active implementation of conservation programmes. More stringent enforcement of regulation will ensure that all parties involved are moving towards the targeted direction. In addition, Saudi Arabia’s government is also looking to make insulation mandatory for all buildings in the coming year, and to promote the use of high efficient air conditioning equipment through issuing new standards for air conditioners in the coming months. n This article is based on the author's presentation at The Climate Control Conference 3 (C ) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on the 20th and the 21st of November, 2012.

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is facing headwinds in the Kingdom More Government support is needed for district cooling to gain traction in Saudi Arabia, especially considering its myriad positive attributes over other cooling approaches, says George Berbari, the CEO of DC PRO Engineering.


here is an obvious parallel between a metro rail project and a district cooling project. A metro rail project aims to reduce traffic jams and CO2 emissions from cars, and to promote a more efficient and competitive means of moving people. A district cooling project intends to reduce the number of air conditioning units in the country and CO2 emissions from power plants, and to encourage a more efficient and more competitive air conditioning method. Both projects are must-have elements of a green infrastructure for most modern cities, as these become integral parts of the cities’ development. While there are notable similarities between the two projects, including the need for infrastructure and


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city-wide planning, there also exist some salient differences. A metro rail project requires a USD 10 billion start-up capital cost for major city coverage, while a

Instead of encouragement, the progress of district cooling in Saudi Arabia is being confronted by headwinds of discouragement and lack of initiative

district cooling project only needs USD 500 million of initial capital. In addition, a district cooling project represents an immediate capital cost savings in power plants and distribution, whereas a metro rail project necessitates a substantial amount of time to realise investments. Over a period of 20 years, when calculated per USD 1 million investment, using the metro, instead of buses, will bring about a reduction in CO2 emissions of 12,000 tonnes. Utilising district cooling, instead of traditional air conditioning systems, on the other hand, will result in 18,750 tonnes of CO2 reduction. The decrease is even more notable when trigeneration is incorporated. Even with the benefits of district cooling and trigeneration projects, which

are bigger and easier to realise than those of metro rail projects, there is a huge gap in projected investment between metro rail projects and district cooling projects in the next seven years. In the next seven years, several metro rail projects, worth more than USD 50 billion, are being planned in the GCC, while only USD 4 billion worth of projects are being planned for district cooling. To which, then, can we attribute this seemingly slow progress of district cooling in Saudi Arabia? First, despite the notably low district cooling penetration rate in the residential sector, there is still an absence of plans or incentives to encourage district cooling or trigeneration in Saudi Arabia. Instead of encouragement,

It is also notable that that there is a lack of community connectivity that brings about the difficulty of using medium temperature geothermal energy for district cooling. On a larger scale, there is the need for a national plan and for a high-level of coordination between the Saudi Electric Company, National Water Company, ARAMCO, the Ministry of Finance, and major cities and municipalities that the implementation of district cooling and tri-generation requires. n This article is based on the author's presentation at The Climate Control Conference 3 (C ) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on the 20th and the 21st of November, 2012.

Photo courtesy

George Berbari

the progress of district cooling in Saudi Arabia is being confronted by headwinds of discouragement and lack of initiative. While the residential sector represents almost 60% of Saudi Arabia’s air conditioning capacity, it has the least district cooling and tri-generation penetration rate at 0.4%. It is also observed that window air conditioning systems are still heavily utilised in Saudi Arabia and very few district cooling projects target the residential sector. Another challenge to the expansion in penetration of district cooling and trigeneration in the residential sector is the absence of regulation that allows for planning of sites for plant rooms and for distribution piping routes.

The Holy Sites Metro light rail in the western Saudi City of Makkah

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perspective Acknowledging the fact that eradicating the usage of room air conditioners (RACs) and mini-splits among private houses is impossible at the present, Ghaleb Abusaa, the CEO of en 3 Solutions (The Three Factors Company), outlines some possible solutions to make energy consumption in private houses as efficient as if they were connected to district cooling systems.


sing the case study of Al Woroud City project in Taif, Saudi Arabia, it is possible to demonstrate how it is feasible to make room and mini split air conditioning systems as efficient as district cooling systems. Al Woroud City is a 9,000,000-square-metre project expected to house a population of 160,000, and is divided into two parts – the central area and the surrounding areas. The central area will house multistorey buildings, while the


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The UNFCC-CDM is issued from the Kyoto Protocol and all Arab countries have signed for it. Participant countries have the necessary infrastructure and the designated national authority in place to particularly align themselves to it

surrounding areas will be where private homes and villas will be built. Operating under the premise that private houses will not have the same efficiency features as the buildings of the central area – like shading, double glazing and green technologies – the calculated heat load for the surrounding areas is 200,000 TR compared to only 150,000 TR for the central area. Moreover, the expected predominant use of room air conditioners and mini split systems in private houses and villas further contribute to a 50,000 TR difference in

calculated heat load. Another factor for the greater calculated heat load for the surrounding areas is the fact that room air conditioners (RACs) and mini split systems are usually not tailored for the size of rooms they need to cool, which results in over supply of electricity. One cannot discount the fact that RACs and mini split systems will also be used at the central area, but the use of district cooling with thermal

energy storage (TES), and district cooling with TES and combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) will be more feasible in this part of the project, which will result in an increase in energy efficiency in the area. Now, given the fact that one cannot force private home owners to abandon the use of RACs and mini split systems in favour of district cooling, as it is both practically and financially unfeasible, a two-fold solution is proposed to make energy consumption in villas and private houses as efficient as if they were connected to district cooling systems. One solution is the use of solar and renewable energy. With the use of solar panels, home owners can generate electricity, then, sell the same to power producers, and only buy electricity that they actually need in

Ghaleb Abusaa

their homes. For example, if one consumes 25 kW in a particular villa or flat, and he is going to produce half of it from the solar energy and give it to the grid, it means that he is reducing his power consumption by 50%. Since the proposed solution is only attainable with policies and regulations in place, there already exist entities around the world that work towards the promotion of the same, guided by the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change – Clean Development Mechanism (UNFCC-CDM). The UNFCC-CDM is issued from the Kyoto Protocol and all Arab countries have signed for it. Participant countries have the necessary infrastructure and the designated national authority in place to particularly align themselves to it. The government, through the aid from the UN, encourages the people to produce their own solar electricity and sell the same to power generation companies. Another solution proposed is the use of compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) and LED lights, instead of incandescent lights. The use of CFLs and LEDs can bring down the total electricity load for lighting to 124 and 100, respectively, from 185 with incandescent lighting. In summary, with the use of energy efficient systems and best design, the estimated grand total of electrical load can be brought down to 374 MW from 685 MW, representing approximately 50% savings in power consumption. n This article is based on the author's presentation at The Climate Control Conference 3 (C ) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on the 20th and the 21st of November, 2012.

Winter 2013 CHILL



du-ing things the



du has been rolling out energy management initiatives at its mobile sites, technical areas and headquarters building, to name three categories of facilities. B Surendar in conversation with Abdulhadi Alalyak, Vice President – Asset Management and Corporate Administration, du

What HVAC-related initiatives has Du adopted to save on power consumption? At du, we take a holistic view as a responsible company to help the people and the country. We try to practice a high level of energy management. We categorise our efforts into three areas: Reduction in energy usage, waste reduction, awareness. We try to have efficient use of energy and explore ways to have clean energy. In terms of awareness, we encourage buy-in from the people. If you don’t have the buy-in from the people, whatever tools you put into practice will not have an impact. Could you elaborate on the reduction in energy usage? Do you have a common template across all du facilities to ensure all of them are singing in harmony? In different areas, we have different initiatives. For instance, in the mobile sites, we are trying to find alternative ways of energy, such as solar, which we believe is a cleaner and safer alternative. In some areas, we are deploying solar, and in some other areas, we are deploying hybrid (using 50

batteries as back-up) by using battery along with power from the mains. In our buildings, we are using office automation; in our technical sites, we are using remote monitoring and controls systems. We deploy a range of components. We use motion sensors in the buildings. If the office is unoccupied, the air conditioning will run at a set temperature. The set temperature depends on the area. For technical areas, it is 24ºC-25ºC, and for offices, it is 25ºC-26ºC. Earlier, we set the temperature at 20ºC in technical areas. Now, in collaboration with manufacturers, we have raised it to 24ºC-25ºC. In existing buildings, there is so much we can do. Curtain wall insulation is good in offices. For instance, we have air curtains across the whole floor, but it is up to the awareness levels of the people, with the support of the FM people. What temperature do you set in your data centres, telecom homes (shelters) and mobile sites (repeaters)? We have facilities from the

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

internal. Generally speaking, our mindset is to extend the successful Fujairah initiative to other parts of the UAE.

Abdulhadi Alalyak

Saudi border to the Oman border. In all, we have 3,000 locations, and on mountains and remote islands. The temperature depends on heat dissipation and return air. We set it at around 20ºC-22ºC and 50% RH in data centres. The 20ºC-22ºC is owing to high heat dissipation. Have you structured your efforts to earn green building certifications? The du shop in the Fujairah City Centre mall is LEED Platinum rated. It is the first retail shop to have LEED Platinum in the Middle East. Of course, LEED depends on so many factors, external and

Have you established a target to green all the du facilities? As of yet, we have not set a target, but are trying to do so. We are taking this forward on a buildingby-building basis. The headquarters building is the biggest facility, so it is worth the effort, in terms of priority and order of action. If we reduce power consumption by even a small margin, we will have a significant impact. What retrofitting measures have you identified? In technical sites, we have invested in remote monitoring and control. Even seemingly small initiatives like these will go a long way in helping us achieve our goals. Secondly, our technical teams that visit these sites regularly, had to rely on a manual, key-and-lock access. Today, they have digital access, so they don’t have to come to the du office to collect the keys and, then, go to the technical sites. That way, we can reduce the

The du facility at the Fujairah City Centre

burning of vehicle fuel. Less fuel obviously means less carbon emissions. What is du’s policy on the recycling of refrigerants? We don’t have our own FM company; we outsource that activity. But as part of our standards, we insist on recycling refrigerants, bulbs, plastics. Proper disposal is a mandatory requirement for our service-providers. Have you any plans on the anvil to offer building performance services to commercial, residential and mixed-use facilities in the UAE? Something along the lines of the Emirates Energy January 2013

Star programmes, initiated by Pacific Controls and Etisalat? We fully support the concept of building performance initiatives. Any initiatives to improve the environment and to reduce carbon emissions will be welcomed by du. If any chances arise, we will be more than happy to collaborate and support. As of now, we are focusing on travelling and how to reduce carbon emissions through travelling less. For this, we have collaboration on the telepresence feature. Internally, we have standards for our vehicles for fleet management, be they small, mid-sized or heavy duty vehicles. n


perspective DOAS


DOAS - a Tropical Climate

retrospect ABSTRACT

Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS) has been established as an excellent choice for treating outdoor air. It removes the entire latent load being brought in by the outside air at the source and processes the same to a very low dew point, thereby enabling it to take care of the rest of the internal latent load. This paper is in continuation of the earlier paper presented at ACRECONF last year (DOAS: Green Options) and presents a study of different configurations and their energy and power consumptions for various geographical locations. The DOAS, due to its unique design, throws unparalleled opportunities to handle varying climatic conditions using an intelligent method.

BACKGROUND – GREEN BUILDINGS A green building is an environmentally


sustainable building, designed, constructed and operated to minimise the total environmental impacts. The main strategy to achieve a green building status includes • Reduced energy consumption • Better Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) • Water conservation • Recycling waste. A well-designed green building creates healthier environment and comfort for people to live and work in, using improved Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), natural daylight and thermal comfort and also saves money from an energy usage perspective. CO2 emissions and depleting natural resources have a major impact on the environment. Issues like global warming and rising energy costs call for energy-efficient designs with conservation as a high priority. Environmental sustainability is “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own demands”.

Climate Control Middle East January 2013


LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is a 'Green Building Rating System' which attempts to certify and push the advancement of a global implementation of green buildings and development standards. LEED addresses six major areas: • Sustainable sites • Water efficiency • Energy and atmosphere • Materials and resources

Figure 1: Phoenix, USA

• IEQ • Innovation and design process Each category contains a specific number of credits. A project capable of earning minimum 26 points becomes LEED certified and the rating can be scaled up to Silver (32), Gold (40), and Platinum (47). Under LEED, extra points can be gained by increasing the Fresh Air Quantity by at least 30% above the minimum rates required by ASHRAE standard 62.1-2007 as determined by EQ-requisite1. LEED plays a very significant role by acting as a catalysing agent in accelerating the entire Green Building movement programme.


Geographical weather profiling is an understanding and study of various measurable parameters which govern the natural climatic conditioning of the various geographical regions. Profiling plays a major role in assisting and applying HVAC concepts and designs with a weather profile backdrop. With this viewpoint, the globe can be divided into three main regions

Figure 2: Vienna, Austria

Figure 3: Mumbai

• America • Europe • Asia From the figures 1, 2 and 3, it is apparent that the HVAC designs are built around considering: America region as cooling-centric, Europe region as heating centric and Asia region as moisturecentric for a good and viable HVAC design.


IEQ is the total indoor experience. It covers the environmental aspects in the design, analysis and operation of an energy-efficient healthy and comfortable building. It includes architecture, HVAC design, thermal comfort, IAQ, lighting, acoustics and control system.

IAQ refers to the air quality within the conditioned space. It especially relates to the health and comfort of the building occupants. IAQ is affected by microbial contaminants (mould, bacteria), gases (carbon monoxide, radon, VOCs), particulates or any other ingredient that can induce adverse health conditions, starting with Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and eventually building up to Building Related Illnesses (BRI). Indoor air is, therefore, causing concern as a health hazard and can be improved by using ventilation to dilute contaminants, filtration and pollutants source control. Various studies conducted worldwide clearly reflect the

economic impact of IAQ on health and productivity. Results show that reducing SBS symptoms by 20% to 25% can result in reducing Asthma by eight per cent to 25%, other respiratory illness by 23% to 76%, and the savings due to these reductions are phenomenal. Similarly, in a litigating scenario, poor IAQ can result in the organisation paying millions of dollars to its employees. Furthermore, a building that is marked by a lawsuit for poor IAQ can be difficult to lease. The benefits of increased ventilation have been clearly established and absorbed by the HVAC industry at large. The health of occupants is of great concern, and more and more systems are being designed with the right amount of outside air. The outside air, however, while solving this problem, poses a great challenge for the HVAC system. The saviour of IAQ brings along with it the quandary of high latent load, cornering the HVAC equipment and resulting in high RH inside. Let us examine the load profile of outside air in a tropical country like India. Shown below is the load profile (Figure 4) of the outside air for the city of Mumbai. The curve defines

the load of outside air in terms of the sensible and latent load in tonnes for the entire year. Clearly, one can see that latent load of the city is quite high and is around 78% of the cumulative fresh air load. Similarly, if one studies the profile of the cumulative loads (ie cooling and dehumidification only) for major cities of India, one can see that latent load component of the fresh air is quite high (ranging from 60% to 85%) (Figure 5). With outside air bringing in high amount of latent energy, RH management becomes difficult. The HVAC fraternity first sounded the wakeup call for IAQ and RH control when bacteria spread by a hotel air conditioning system killed 34 people and led to more than 200 people falling sick at the American Region Convention, Philadelphia, USA, around 20 years ago. Lack of RH control leads to growth of mould and mildew, which in turn, leads to various healthrelated issues. Mould releases tiny spores to reproduce. These spores then waft through the indoor air and start developing in damp areas. They can cause several

Figure 4: Ventilation Load index Mumbai (for 1000cfm)

January 2013


perspective DOAS

CITY LOAD PER YEAR Ton - hours /SCFM Name Sensible Latent Total Ahmedabad 8.78 16.61 25.39 Amritsar 5.58 13.29 18.87 Bhopal 6.13 10.38 16.51 Chennai 8.6 30.14 38.74 Dibrugarh 3.48 19.55 23.03 Delhi 6.94 14.22 21.16 Guwahati 4.72 23.18 27.9 Hyderabad 7.01 14.58 21.59 Indore 5.74 9.25 14.99 Jaipur 7.49 11.62 19.11 Kolkata 6.85 27.62 34.47 Lucknow 6.42 17.36 23.78 Mangalore 6.64 26.6 33.24 Mumbai 7.38 25.26 32.64 Patna 6.78 20.48 27.26 Pune 4.64 14.84 19.48 Trivandrum 7.68 17.12 24.8 Vizag 7.78 30.72 38.5 Figure 5: Ventilation Load index chart for various cities (per cfm)

problems like rashes, asthma, running nose and respiratory problems including serious diseases like hypersensitivity pneumonites. Latent Loads: If RH control is deemed critical and important, let us examine the latent load profiles in a building.

sensible and latent loads don’t peak at the same time. Hence, in moderate weather, the sensible loads are reduced, but the latent loads remain high. With ventilation bringing in the most of internal latent load, one needs to study the ability of conventional cooling system to control RH during moderate weather conditions. A thermostat-driven cooling coil will experience great difficulty in managing the RH in low sensible load periods, ie, off-peak periods of the day or in monsoon weather in most of India. The problem is that in moderate weather, the outside temperature drops, but the moisture level remains high. And with the ambient temperature dropping, the sensible loads drop. Hence, the return air temperature is quickly achieved, thereby triggering the thermostat to switch off the compressor in the constant volume DX cooling system, allowing them to operate only for

On studying the hourly data of outside air, one can see that RH control definitely is a problem in the moderate weather, which is almost 2,500 hours in a year for a city like Atlanta in the US.

Figure 7

sensible loads. Such systems do have better RH control, as compared to constant volume DX cooling systems, but are highly energy intensive (involving sub-cooling and, then, reheating) and are increasingly getting banned in many countries.

Control Strategies: Traditionally, one would immediately talk about a system with low ADP [ie, having low chilled water temperature, high row deep (eight row or deeper) and reheat with active energy]. Such systems do help, but are highly inefficient and drain a lot of energy. Figure 8 illustrates the fact that one has to first sub-cool

Figure 8: Baseline system with Reheat

Figure 6: Latent Load Characteristic

Comparing the sources of the latent load, it is clear that the largest contribution to latent component is the outside air. The chart (Figure 6) clearly shows that almost 50% to 70% of internal latent load comes from ventilation. RH Control Challenge: Why is it so difficult to manage RH? The answer lies in the fact that


short periods. As a result, the moment the compressor turns off, the coil stops dehumidifying and moisture remaining on its surface re-evaporates back into the supply air. (Figure 7). Even in an immaculately designed central plant system, where one does design for very low ADP and reheat, one faces difficulty in controlling RH during low

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

With moderate weather prevailing for a considerable period of the monsoon season in India, and throughout the year in many coastal cities, this problem needs some immediate attention. Considering the grain levels in the following data at the outside temperature of 75ºF (ie moderate weather), one can see considerable number of hours where the grain level is more than 65gr/ lb (moisture level generally maintained inside).

and, then, add active reheat wasting energy twice.


R Mark Nunnely and several other authors have explained in various papers the advantages of the “Divide and Conquer (DAQ)” approach which separates the fresh air unit from the parallel terminal unit. Thus the Parallel unit, be it FCU/Chilled Beam/ AHU, has to only cater to the building envelop and

• Enthalpy wheel • Cooling coil • Active dehumidification wheel • Passive dehumidification wheel • Sensible wheel • Evaporative cooling pads Some of the preferred DOAS options with combination of above components have been evaluated below.


Various technologies are available in the market today and each one of them carries a few advantages unique to them. No technology is the panacea and each one of them proves superior in a particular application for a particular

Figure 9: DOAS Approach

Figure 10: DOAS flow diagram

internal sensible load, as both can be handled and managed independently. This design provides a very simple and economical approach to the building air conditioning design.

THE DOAS APPROACH As explained above, in the DAQ approach, the importance shifts to configuration and type of fresh air unit, often referred

to as DOAS Dedicated Outdoor Air System. Depending on different geographical reasons and several other considerations, various DOAS have been configured, designed and developed. The authors have been continuously studying and developing different configurations for a DOAS by using one or more of the following:

January 2013


perspective DOAS internal and external load profile. We will now introduce you to these technologies. However, it is outside the purview of this paper to analyse each technology in detail from an application point of view. To judge the right application one would need a detailed analysis, including simulation techniques to compare them with each other and conventional HVAC systems from first cost and operating cost perspective. However, we have provided the performance parameters of all the options on the peak DB with MCWB and peak WB with MCDB conditions for India. Delhi summer and Mumbai monsoon have been chosen as the outside conditions for the same. Various DOAS technologies evaluated in the paper are: • OPTION I: Baseline system with dehumidification coil only (CC) • OPTION II: Rotary passive desiccant air-to-air heat exchanger coupled with dehumidification coil. (EW+CC) • OPTION III: Rotary passive desiccant air-to-air heat exchanger coupled with dehumidification coil and sensible air to air heat exchanger. (EW+CC+SW) • OPTION IV: Active desiccant dehumidification wheel

From the overall advantage on the ability to manage energy, IAQ and RH, the combination of cooling coil with passive desiccant heat exchanger and passive desiccant dehumidification wheel emerges as a winner (with condenser heat reactivation) coupled with DX Cooling coil. (CC+ADESW) • OPTION V: Rotary passive desiccant air-to-air heat exchanger coupled with dehumidification coil and passive desiccant dehumidification wheel. (EW+CC+PDHC)


performance of all the above five options for Delhi summer and Mumbai monsoon, it becomes apparent that baseline cooling coil coupled with energy wheel has a clear advantage. In addition to the Energy wheel, if one were to add a passive desiccant dehumidification wheel, then the need for deep dehumidification by cooling coil is transferred to passive desiccant wheel, thereby lowering the IKW/TR of the cooling unit. Hence, from the overall advantage on the ability to manage energy, IAQ and RH, the combination of cooling coil with passive desiccant heat exchanger and passive desiccant dehumidification wheel emerges as a winner. This reduces the energy consumed from baseline system by a whopping 55%. On the same lines, the combination of cooling coil with passive desiccant heat exchanger and sensible heat exchanger provides the same advantages with higher energy consumption of approx. 20% than the former. The combination of cooling coil with passive desiccant heat exchanger is another winner with energy reduction from baseline cooling. Parallel sensible cooling options: When using the DOAS approach, the internal cooling devices work only as sensible cooling devices. The options available for internal cooling/ heating are: i) Unitary equipment ii) Terminal AHU/FCU iii) VAV system iv) Chilled beams. Applying DOAS to a typical chilled beam design: To successfully apply DOAS to an active chilled beam system, the internal latent loads need to be accurately calculated. Also, the indoor humidity levels have to be precisely controlled to ensure that no


Climate Control Middle East January 2013

condensation occurs on active chilled beams. Case study: Let us assume a building in New Delhi with 10,000 square feet area, 100 occupants and tight construction. In addition, let us assume that the chilled beam is also with chilled water at 15ºC (59ºF). Also, let us assume that the room humidity is maintained at 58ºF dew point (72grs/lb) to avoid any condensation on chilled beams. Internal latent load is assumed as 80,000 BTUH. A standard AHU at 55ºF dew point is considered to supply primary air. The primary air flow required in this case can be calculated as 80,000 BTUH = 0.68 x cfm x (72-69) = 14,500cfm. In this case, the entire concept of chilled beam gets defeated as the quantity of primary air is almost seven times of fresh air required as per ASHRAE recommendations. The system energy efficiency advantage is lost as the size of AHU, fan, noise level is considerably high. Instead, if we supply primary air at 7ºC dew point (46grs), the air flow required is calculated below: 80,000 = 0.68 x cfm x (72-46) = 4,525 cfm The primary air flow is just 30% of the traditional system. Therefore, the designers considering the use of chilled beam systems in tropical regions should design the primary air systems supplying air at dew points well below the traditional AHU system.


First Annual Middle East Conference on Indoor Environmental Quality

Health | Occupant Comfort | Productivity | HVAC 14-15 April 2013, Dubai, UAE




Frédéric Paillé

B Surendar

Mehwish Hilal

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perspective DOAS The system should ideally - Total hours for 24 x 7 have a dehumidification mode analysis are 8760 hours and for unoccupied hours and should for 8 hours analysis in 3432 provide a very high level of total hours (considering working energy recovery. hours as 8am-6pm) Option V of the paper has - The enthalpy wheel and all the capabilities for an sensible wheel efficiency ideal chilled beam system for have been considered as application in tropical climates. 75%.

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����"� ��"� ����"� �" ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ����"� �� �"� ����"� ����"� ����"� ���"� �� �"� ��"� ����"� �"� ���"� �"� ��"� 52=:2 �"�

���� �� ��� �� ��� ���� ���� ��� � � ��� ���� ���� �� � � ���� ���� ���� �� ���� ���� �� ���� �� ���� � �� � �� 5>:?: �



�)#��2"���*�� ���/%�#����#�"0.��#��"�����"%�$���%"�������� %-"���#��" ��-"��9 �C�88��4����5�88�94� ��$ ��������� �)#��2"���*�� ���/%�#����#�"0.��#��"�����"%�$���%"�������� %-"���#��" ���� ��"� �� ��"� �"�� 0�%������ ��C�88��4����5�88�94� ���� ��"� �� ��$ ��������� ��"� �"�� �"� � ����

0�%������ Table 1: Schedule of DOAS with Cooling Coil. (8.00 AM to 6.00 PM working hours) Option I ��?(�� ��?(��


From the explanation above, option III and V of DOAS are the clear winners. Further studies have now been done to understand how these systems perform, particularly in moisturecentric tropical regions. For this study, the following exercises have been done for New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Abu Dhabi conditions. • Evaluating system performance on 24 x 7 hours basis • Evaluating system performance on normal working hours basis. The following assumptions have been made while evaluating the above options: - Air flow is considered as 1,700 CMH (1000 CFM) - Outlet condition of DOAS considered as 6.57 gm/Kg (46 grs/lb)


- Passive dehumidification wheel has been designed to supply 2g/kgs (14 grs/lb) and 7-degree temperature rise. - The return air condition has been considered as 75ºF/50% RH.


• 8am to 6pm working hours You will now be looking at bin data tables for option I, III and V applied to the four tropical cities (Table 1, 2 and 3). A tabulated cooling coil energy comparison is then done (Table 4). It is then done followed by depiction on the graph (Graph 1). We have provided detailed tables for 8am to 6pm only. • 24 x 7 hours For 24 x 7 data analysis, we have only shown tabulated cooling coil energy comparison. (Table 5) It is then done followed by depiction on the graph (Graph 2).

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

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��� "� ���� ���"� �� ���"� ��� ��� "� ���� ���"� ��� ���"� �� ���"� ��� ���"� ��� ���"� � ���"� ��� ���"� �� ���"� ��� ���"� � ���"� � � "� ��� ���"� �� ����"� ���� ���"� � �"� � � "� ��� �"� � ����"� ���� �"� � �"� � �"� � �"� � @214 ???4 �"� � �"� � �� �(����'� �� �(����'� @214 ???4 ;���"���< ;B��< �� �(����'� �� �(����'� �"� � ;���"���< ;B��< ��"� �� ���"� ��� �"� � ����"� � �� ��"� �� ����" ���� ���"� ��� ���"� ���� ����"� � �� ���"� �� ����" ���� ���"� ��� ���"� ���� � �"� ��� ���"� �� ��"� ��� ���"� ��� ���"� ��� � �"� ��� ���"� �� ��"� ��� ���"� �� ���"� ��� �"� � ���"� �� �"� � ���"� �� �"� � %,���� %))�����#��"� �"� � 4144> 45426 �"� � %,���� %))�����#��"� �"� � 4144> 45426

0�%���& ��$ ��������� �C�88��4����5�88�94� Table 2: Schedule of DOAS with Enthalpy Wheel, Cooling Coil and Sensible Wheel (8.00 AM to 6.00 PM working 0�%���& hours) Option III ��?6�� ��?6��

� �� �!$�'� � � � �� �!$�'� ��� � � ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� �� ��� �� �� � �� � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �!$�'� ��� � �� �!$�'� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� �� ��� �� �� � �� � �� �� �� �� �� ��

#����� ����(�� ��� #��8(% #����� ����(�� &� #�;7+< ��"� ��" ��� #��8(% &� #�;7+< ��"� � "� ��"� ��" � ��"� ��"� � "� � "� ��" � ��"� ��" � "� ��" ��"� ��"� ��" ��"� ��"� ��"� ��"� � "� � "� ��"� ��"� � "� � "� ��"� ��"� ��"� ��" � "� �"� ��"� ��"� �"� ��" �"� ��"� ��"� ��" ��" �"� ��"� ��"� �"� ��" �"� ��"� ���" � " �"� ��" ���" � " #����� ���!$%�� ��� #��8(% #����� ���!$%�� &� #�;7+< ��"� ��� &� #�;7+< ��"� ��"� � "� ��"� � "� ��"� ��"� ��"� ��" ��"� ��" ��"� ��"� ��"� �� ��"� �� ��"� ��"� � ��"� � ��"� ��"� ��"�

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Table 3: Schedule of DOAS with Enthalpy Wheel, Cooling Coil and Passive Desiccant Wheel (8.00 AM to 6.00 PM ��?7��working hours) Option V ��?7��


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compared to a conventional cooling system varies from 55% to 61% between the four tropical cities chosen for study. The difference in energy savings is 8% to 10% between Option III and Option V. It is very important to note that in case of Option III, the cooling coil has to be dehumidified to 46.5ºF as compared to Option V, where it is only dehumidifying it to 53.5ºF , as in Option V there is passive desiccant dehumidification wheel, which further ensures dehumidification without any active regeneration, and thus reduces the load on cooling coil. Option V is a very unique design, as it offers maximum energy saving using both passive recovery and dehumidification devices.


Looking at DOAS with a tropical perspective, it can � ##�?#11(+,=�#1+(@ ��� ���� �� �� ����� �17:�+,� �17:�+,� �17:�+,� �17:�+,�>9.� be concluded that that DOAS �6%+1, �227,=/5/,% >9.�?�35� >9.� ��A##A���?�,%.7(64��.//(8�#11(+,=�#1+(� >9.�?�/(.+@ ?�)3��.7)+@ � � � � ����� )7+@ ����� ?#./,,7+@ ����� B��/,0+)(/��.//(@ options having the capability � ##�?#11(+,=�#1+(@ ���� �� �� ����� ��A##A���#�?�,%.7(64��.//(8�#11(+,=� ��� � � ��� ����� ����� ��� � of supply air at low dew point #1+(�B��700+C/��/0+--7,%��.//(@ ��A##A���?�,%.7(64��.//(8�#11(+,=�#1+(� � ����� ����� ����� � � � and with minimal energy B��/,0+)(/��.//(@ �1$��7C+,=��6%+1,�D���C0��6%+1,�D�� ��"� ��"�� ��" � ��"�� usage are the best options. ��A##A���#�?�,%.7(64��.//(8�#11(+,=� � � ��� ����� ����� ��� � #1+(�B��700+C/��/0+--7,%��.//(@ �1$��7C+,=��6%+1,�D���C0��6%+1,�D�� ��"�� � "�� � "�� ��"�� The authors are also of �1$��7C+,=��6%+1,�D���C0��6%+1,�D�� ��"� ��"�� ��" � ��"�� the opinion that Option V is �1$��7C+,=��6%+1,�D���C0��6%+1,�D�� ��"�� � "�� � "�� ��"�� best suited for application with low SHR (<0.85) (ie Table 5 �!�0#�94� high latent loads). In other ����(&�#�"�������)&����(&"�"�,�����(�����!$%������������C��%!����%� words, this option is perfectly �!�0#�94� +���52���@���!�" suited for areas having high occupancy like hotels, malls, BPOs, IT offices, hospitals etc. While applying the chilled beam design in tropical region, it will be almost necessary to have a low dew point primary air supplying DOAS, to ensure that there is no condensation on chilled beam. With the green building movement strongly acquiring its foothold globally, it will be very important and critical �!,��%���*!�+��#���%����������". % ��� ��� �� � �� � �� � �� �� � ��� � � �� � ���� �!,��%���*!�+��#���%����������". % ��� ��� �� � �� � �� � �� �� � ��� � � �� � ���� Graph 2 �� � �������� � ��� � � ������� ����� �������������� ������ �������� � �������� � ��� �� ������� ����� for designers to come up with '�� ���@� ������������ ����� ���������#� '�� ���@� ������������ ����� ���������#� ���� ����������� ��������5B�:8=���� ���� ���� ����������� ��������5B�:8=���� ���� ��� �� � � � ��� � the ������ � ����� ��� �� � � � ��� � ������ � Bin ����� � #��� � #��� Observation from system higher by 65% to 70% innovative solutions. ��?5�� between data analysis: the four tropical The authors further feel ��?5�� Option V is the clear winner cities chosen for the study. that today, the requirement in terms of having minimal Option III also follows is for an intelligent, single energy usage for delivering clearly with substantial saving responsibility, unitised DOAS low dew point dry air. The on energy usage and ensures to effectively provide the energy saved as compared delivery of low dew point best green, fresh air system to a conventional cooling dry air. The energy saved as solution. n �6%+1,

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References: 1. DOAS: Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems Green Options: Deepak Pahwa & Milind Mate 2. Dehumidification and Cooling Loads from Ventilation Air: Lewis Harriman, Plager D, Kosar D 3. Current Trends of Desiccant Technology Uses in Commercial HVAC: Deepak Pahwa & Manoj Bhatia 4. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC & R) Engineering: Charles E, Gulledge 5. 30% Surplus OA: Does it Use More Energy?: Stanley A Mumma 6. Dehumidification Equipment Advances: Lewis G Harriman III and James Judge 7. Designing Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems: Stanley A Mumma 8. Designing for Absolute moisture Control: R Mark Nunnelly and J Patrick 9. ABC’s of DOAS: Wayne Morris 10. RX for Sick Buildings: John S Manuel 11. Initial Evaluation of Displacement Ventilation and Dedicated Outdoor Air System for US Commercial Buildings: Steven J Emmerich and Tim Mc Dowell 12. White Paper on Sustainability: Robert Cassidy 13. Overview of Integrating Dedicated Outdoor Air System with Parallel Terminal Systems: Stanley A Mumma 14. A Classroom Solution Using Active Chilled Beams: William Rafferty







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January 2013

About the Authors: Deepak Pahwa is the Managing Director of Bry-Air (Asia) Pvt Ltd, and Fellow ASHRAE. He serves on TC-3.5, TC-5.5 and TC-5.7. Rahul Aeron is the National Sales Manager of Desiccant Rotors International Pvt ltd.


case-in point BMS



System integrator, Technovator International of Singapore chose Distech Controls as the primary supplier of building management systems for its Junction Square shopping centre project in Yangon, Myanmar, which the company claims, helped save costs and optimise energy efficiency. Integrated BMS proved reliable during installation. We bring you the case study.


Climate Control Middle East January 2013


Being a destination for shopping and entertainment, a new shopping complex has multiple requirements. Apart from this, occupied by a wide range of retailer outlets, the Junction Square shopping centre in Yangon had a few specific requirements for its building automation system. The system needed to offer enough flexibility to support possible reconfiguration of interior spaces. In addition to shops and changing types of tenants, the system had to also deliver energy efficiency, while still offering retail staff and clients a comfortable indoor environment.

The HVAC system incorporat ed over 1,000 hardwired control points, using 50 Lonworks ECP Series programmable controllers Methods employed

System integrator Technovator International of Singapore, tasked with fulfilling the aim, chose Distech Controls as the primary supplier of building management systems (BMS) primarily due to the company’s range of quality products. In order to meet all its requirements, Technovator installed the ECNetAX Web-based platform,

Data centre solutions n Four-storey shopping centre in Yangon, Myanmar n 300,000 square feet of retail space built on nine acres n Tenants include retail shops, banks, a health and wellness centre, and three mini theatres n Over 1,000 control points n 50 Lonworks ECP Series programmable controllers used n Construction project opened in March 2012 integrating HVAC and lighting control, utility monitoring, and multiple environmental sensors. The HVAC system incorporated over 1,000 hard-wired control points, using 50 Lonworks ECP Series programmable controllers. The programmable controllers’ flexibility also allowed

Technovator to cost-effectively address the need for interior lighting control. Various sensors were also integrated with the system, including for temperature, humidity, smoke, static pressure, and water level, helping to further optimise the system’s overall efficiency.

THE BACKGROUND Despite its extensive experience in shopping centre projects and facility management, Shwe Taung Group, perhaps faced its biggest challenge with the construction of Junction Square shopping centre in Myanmar. From a management and operations perspective, the system needed to be easy to use for the local operation and maintenance teams and would need to be able to monitor utility usage, as well as generate monthly utility bills for individual tenants.


The aim of the project was to integrate a user-friendly interface, while saving costs and optimising energy efficiency. January 2013


case-in point BMS

The mechanical system included a number of chillers, integrated using the Modbus RTU RS-485 protocol. In addition, the system incorporated over 30 AHUs and 20 FCUs. As well, several hundred power meters were integrated via Modbus TCP. The multi-protocol capabilities of EC-NetAX allowed seamless integration of the Lonworks control products with the Modbus devices, while maintaining a unified management and graphical user interface. The reliability of the installed products may have received its most significant trial during the testing and commissioning phase of the project. With only intermittent power available, installers were able to complete configuration of the system uninterrupted, due to Distech Controls’ EC-NetAX’s ability to configure controllers both online and offline. The controllers’ rugged hardware, including a power-on reset (PoR) generator, ensured that the devices started operating in their last known state following a power outage. The installed system’s distributed architecture also ensured there was no single point of failure, greatly reducing the risk of any downtime.

Various sensors were also integrated with the system, including for temperature, humidity, smoke, static pressure, and water level, helping to further optimise the system’s overall efficiency Using Distech Controls’ EC-gfxProgram graphical programming interface, site engineers were able to programme the desired sequences of operation. ECgfxProgram’s duplication features allowed site engineers to complete and validate device configuration in two weeks. The system was optimised for energy efficiency using occupancybased scheduling, as well as start/stop zone control, to prevent equipment overrun.

Benefit highlights n Flexible design for future system changes according to occupant needs and tenant changes n Seamless interoperability with different subsystems and protocols n Ability to minimise energy usage and operational costs without compromising comfort or safety of building occupants n Remote access for monitoring, controlling, and maintenance n User-friendly, intuitive monitoring capabilities


Through a user-friendly interface, and after only two days of training, onsite operators were able to locally or remotely monitor and control the system. In addition to offering significant advantages during installation and commissioning, the system continued to provide important benefits to facility managers, tenants and visitors following the opening of the complex in March 2012.

Other positive outcomes

The BMS was designed to support changes with regards to space and tenant requirements, using the concept of “room units” or individual store units. Using this approach, each Junction Square tenant was assigned a specific number of units, each optimised for HVAC, lighting, and comfort. As such, the system will offer the needed 62

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

flexibility to adjust to any future changes with regards to tenants, stores, or layouts. Two levels of access are available to the maintenance and facility teams (management and operator) within the ECNetAX Supervisor graphical user interface, ensuring the system’s integrity is always maintained. Power meters installed in each shop allow Shwe Taung Group to log and collect energy consumption data via EC-NetAX, to accurately generate monthly utility bills for individual tenants. The integrated building management system supports the modern shopping facility’s goals of energy efficiency and operational cost savings, while maintaining tenant satisfaction at a high level. Finally, the user-friendly and intuitive BMS allows for increased productivity of the maintenance and facility teams. n

case-in point

ENDEAV finds a safe and comfortable abode After surviving 123 million space travel miles, the retired Endeavour is now on display at the California Science Center’s Samuel Oschin Pavilion, whose HVAC design protects it from earthly elements and catastrophes. We bring you the case study on how this was achieved.

I 64


The space shuttle Endeavour is a survivor. The newly retired spacecraft successfully navigated 123 million miles of outer space elements during 25 missions and even survived a tricky piggyback flight from Northern California atop a modified 747 aircraft to Los Angeles’ LAX airport. Its twomph ground transport victory

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

lap last October through south Los Angeles’ streets to its new museum home at the California Science Center’s Samuel Oschin Pavilion required dozens of precarious zigzags around tight corners, trees, telephone poles and other obstacles. Thanks to the engineer, architect and HVAC contractor’s efforts to

protect the Endeavour during a possible catastrophic earthquake, and everyday with temperature/humidity control, the space shuttle is now safely housed in its new abode.

THE BACKGROUND The space shuttle’s protection from earthly elements for the long haul of museum exhibiting now rests on

OUR the designs of two ARUP, Los Angeles, principals – structural engineer Atila Zekioglu, SE, and mechanical engineer, Erin McConahey, PE, LEED AP, BD+C. Also integral to the Pavilion’s design was architect Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects LLP, Los Angeles; and California Science Center’s Deputy Director for Operations, Tony Budrovich.


• To keep the Endeavour and the place in which it was to be housed safe from any potential catastrophic earthquake as it was seen as a long-term risk to the space shuttle. • To keep the Endeavour, as well as an expected millionplus visitors annually, in a comfortably controlled environment.

Methods employed

– seismic design and sustainable initiatives The vaulted 17,000square-foot metal building manufactured by Kansas Citybased Butler Manufacturing and erected by T Viole Construction Co, Tarzana, California, was designed to surpass California’s seismic building codes, according to peer reviews. Likewise, ARUP avoided MEP elements above the shuttle, except for the necessary six runs of overhead HVAC ductwork. Consequently, McConahey specified lightweight fabric air dispersion duct manufactured by DuctSox Corp, Peosta, Iowa. The ducts and their independent cable suspension systems would more likely swing to dissipate energy under the violent shaking of a seismic event, compared

Textile duct was typically specified for its aesthetics, air dispersion, 80% lighter weight, energy efficiency, and labour installation cost advantages versus metal duct January 2013

to typical spiral metal duct and its anchoring system. Moreover, should the overhead ductwork become dislodged, the textile ductwork would be less damaging to the Endeavour’s fuselage than potentially damaging falling metal ductwork, according to McConahey. While, textile duct was typically specified for its aesthetics, air dispersion, 80% lighter weight, energy efficiency, and labour installation cost advantages versus metal duct, McConahey’s seismic precautions chalked up yet another benefit, at least in earthquake-prone California. Other seismic precautions included Endeavour’s four seismic isolators provided by Earthquake Protection Systems Inc, Vallejo, California. Zekioglu believed that the seismic isolators


case-in point

Project highlights n Mechanical engineer, Erin McConahey, principal, ARUP, Los Angeles, specified DuctSox’s new SkeleCore FTS fabric duct system for the shuttle Endeavour’s new home, the Samuel Oschin Pavilion at the Los Angeles-based California Science Center that opened last November 1. n The six 112-foot-long runs of SkeleCore, a lightweight metal framework that mechanical contractor Limbach Inc, Garden Grove, California, was able to wrench tightly to pull the fabric taut and unwrinkled, runs parallel to the metal building museum’s structural beams. n In the event of a catastrophic earthquake and an unlikely dislodging of the fabric duct from its cable suspension system, the fabric duct would be less likely than heavy metal duct to damage the Endeavour’s fuselage, according to McConahey.

significantly reduce the earthquake forces imparted to the orbiter and allow the shuttle to float while the ground below it moved.

Temperature control and aesthetics The combination of the USmade fabric duct and the two custom air handling units 66

provided by Energy Labs, San Diego, California, and DMG Corp, Whittier, California, was enlisted to keep the Endeavour, as well as an expected million-plus visitors annually, in a comfortably controlled environment. McConahey worked with Toro-Aire, a Dominguez Hills, California-based

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

manufacturer’s representative for air management products, to ensure the duct’s specified 2-1/2-inch-diameter orifices would provide air throws as long as 70-feet to ground level. Each of the six 112-foot-long duct runs rise up the vaulted ceiling at a 27-degree angle in parallel to the Pavilion’s steel support arches. At the apex, a 54-degree elbow reroutes each run down toward the opposite side to an end cap. The one disadvantage of textile duct – mainly its tendency to unappealingly sag or wrinkle during idle air handler periods – will not be a problem at the Pavilion, because it is one of the nation’s first uses of DuctSox's SkeleCore FTS (Fabric Tensioning System), a patentpending lightweight metal framework system. It is the HVAC industry’s first textile cylindrical air duct that allows the installing contractor to field-tighten the framework with a wrench and draw the fabric taut and wrinkle-free. Thus, it displays an inflated appearance even during idle air handler periods and

The two Energy Labs 10,000-cfm, 43-tonne air handlers deliver conditioned air to a 40-foot-high, 100-foot-long, 72 x 32-foot rectangular metal plenum that supplies each of the 22-inch diameter textile runs

Center facilities, because Southern California RH rarely falls below 30%. In the event of low RH, the BAS signals an alarm so that portable humidifiers can be temporarily added to the space. Setpoint Systems Corp, Irvine, California, interfaced and programmed the Pavilion’s HVAC operation with the campus-wide BAS operation.


The Pavilion is a temporary home until the Shuttle is moved into California Science Center’s new Samuel Oschin Air and Space Center – an expansion that is scheduled for completion in 2017. In the meantime, the Pavilion will serve as a comfortable exhibit space for the Endeavour due to the design care that engineers, architects and contractors built into it. n

coil is mainly for outdoor air heating and the dehumidification feature on the air conditioning coil keeps the exhibit area within a comfortable relative humidity (RH) range. The campus-wide Delta Controls, Surrey, BC, building automation system (BAS) monitors the exhibit. Active humidification is not provided in any of the other California Science

Just ask Castel eliminates the typical “popping” sound as it fills with air during equipment start-up. “It looks nicer than spiral metal ductwork,” said Monika Iannone, project engineer for the Pavilion’s mechanical contractor, Limbach Inc, Garden Grove, California. The factory-engineered white textile duct arrived via United Parcel Service and installation required three Limbach installers, an 80-foot scissors lift and only three work days, according to Iannone. The two Energy Labs 10,000cfm, 43-tonne air handlers deliver conditioned air to a 40-foot-high, 100-foot-long, 72 x 32-foot rectangular metal plenum that supplies each of the 22-inch-diameter textile runs. The two units’ shared riser offers a redundancy advantage as well as an energy-efficiency opportunity of running one unit during unoccupied periods. American Air Balance Inc, Anaheim, California, tested the air distribution system and calibrated plenum dampers supplying the textile ducts. The air handlers have cooling and heating coils supplied by the campus’ chilled water and hot water central plants. The hot water






logo Blu PANTONE 300U 100 CYAN 40 MAGENTA

January 2013





Pointing out our lopsided view of air filtration and, thereby, our double standards, Dr Iyad Al-Attar asks pertinent questions like why users insist on filtration plans and long filter lifetime, when they are not willing to pay preventative maintenance measures the attention they deserve?

I In a recent trip to Canada, I visited the Capilano Canyon, which is famous for its suspension bridge and the abundance of Douglas-fir trees. These evergreen trees range in size from medium

to extremely tall, and their height could reach 120 meters¹. Through the walks of rainforests near the Capilano River, I noticed a sign that said “Breathe In” (as shown in Figure 1). After I read the sign, I started to wonder: If a giant tree releases enough oxygen for a family of four, does every family of four plant a tree? I left the canyon feeling great and privileged to be able to expose my lungs to the rainforest oxygen.

Figure 1: Capilano Canyon “Breathe In” sign in North Vancouver, BC Canada

We cannot limit our role to simply conducting conferences on emission reduction while we pay lip service to responsible environmental behaviour. 68

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

However, several questions started to buzz around my head: When would our role as humans go far and beyond the false expectation to be always on the demanding side? Is our young generation ready and willing in our region to plant a tree for every family of four? We cannot limit our role to simply conducting conferences on emission reduction while we pay lip service to responsible environmental behaviour.

The need for clean air

The increasing need for clean air in residential and industrial applications has highlighted the importance of the role of air filters in providing improved air quality. Therefore, the performance of air filters installed in air handling units and in the intake of gas turbines are of paramount importance to ensure that professional and leakage-free installation is conducted. As far as the air filtration manufacturing is concerned, designers and consultants spend extensive time to discuss and set forth rules and regulations for manufacturers to abide by and finally deliver the required filter quality that meets the standards. However, the responsibility appears to end where it is actually just supposed to begin. Handling, installation and disposal are equally crucial as they have performance and environmental implications.

Filter handling

The filtration medium constitutes a major part of air filters, and, therefore, filters have to be handled in a careful and specific manner to ensure that they arrive safe and sound to the site. Further, they have also to be removed carefully from the box, unpacked,

Figure 2: Inappropriate filter handling

Figure 3: Damage sustained by filterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pleated panel due to mishandling handled and installed properly without damaging the filtration medium and the cartridge itself. Figure 2 shows an example of inappropriate filter handling as the hands of the installer touch the pleated panels, exposing them to damage and, consequently, possible leakage. Furthermore, Figure 3 shows another common mishandling of an air filter where the pleated panel is damaged and filter can no longer be used.

Appropriate installation Appropriate installation is equally important, and that is why technicians are needed to install filters in the proper

orientation, as shown in Figure 4. If we assume that the pressure drop of a given pocket filter is 160 Pa in the appropriate installation, and in fact in the orientation that the filter was tested, then the pressure drop of the same filter with 90 degrees rotation will definitely be greater than 160 Pa. If we consider an air handling unit or gas turbine air intake, the increase in pressure drop just due to change of the installation orientation leads to losses in surface area. This waste of filter surface area is a result of air with dust suspension that does not have access to the entire filter media. In addition

January 2013

to the avoidable surface losses and increased energy usage, the filterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lifetime will be shortened. Water accumulation poses another critical challenge to air filters in the air handling units. Inappropriate installation of pocket filter adds insult to injury as it leads to permeability and surface area losses, as shown in Figure 5. Water droplets also affect the permeability of the filter and promote the growth of microorganisms. Therefore, it is recommended that frequent visual inspections are conducted. Conducting a textbook installation sets the stage for a performance close to that stated in the associated test report. Leakage paves the way for dust to settle on the coil and eventually on the duct and diffusers, as shown in Figure 6. Considering the high-rise buildings, towers and skyscrapers, entertaining duct cleaning activities in such complex HVAC systems is a rather tedious job and could be avoided if preventative air filtration measures and practices are undertaken from day one. Horizontal pocket (inappropriate installation)

Vertical pockets (appropriate installation)

Figure 4: Appropriate installation versus an inappropriate one of pocket filter in air handling units


spotlight The waste of filter surface area is a result of air with dust suspension that does not have access to the entire filter media.

Figure 6: Samples of dust settlement on the duct wall near the air vent in a commercial building

Duty versus desire â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a few uncomfortable questions

Figure 5: An instance of water accumulation reaching a pocket filter due to inappropriate filter installation in air handling units

Leakage paves the way for dust to settle on the coil and eventually on the duct and diffusers. 70

Climate Control Middle East January 2013

Why is there a rigorous focus on a flawless air filtration manufacturing process, while filters are installed improperly? Why is so much emphasis placed on enhancing filter performance, while we allow filters to leak during operations? Why do users insist on filtration plans and long filter lifetime, when they are not willing to pay preventative maintenance measures due attention? Why the stress on new testing standards and detailed test reports when the willingness to follow them is almost nonexistent? Why do our efforts not match our ambitions and why does our progress not complement our demands of air filtration technologies? I think a good start to answer these questions is by persuading every 50 families of four to plant a tree. n

References: [1] Capilano_Suspension_Bridge. IMPORTANT NOTE: Unless otherwise referenced, the images used in this article are copyright of the author.

Dr Iyad Al-Attar is an Air Filtration Consultant. He can be contacted at:

CCME January 2013  
CCME January 2013  

January 2013 issue of Climate Control Middle East