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Country Focus China p24 News Zamil and HMI ink deal p6 Leminar holds seminar on fire ducting and acoustics p9 Mittel acquires Pipeguard p12


DEWA wins ‘Sustainability award’ p8


p20 Particle straining p51 Perspectives Revisiting flammable refrigerants p40 Pumping it up! p34

PLUS: D-Code, Comings & Goings, Marketplace

APRIL 2012

Phase-out or phase-down? That is the question...

We bring you exclusive coverage of Round 1 of Refrigerants Review in Dubai on March 20 and 21 PUBLICATION LICENSED BY IMPZ


A . P S. 1 2 0 3 _ K-VA R I S P E E D -I Q _ b a s i c . E N //



The sustained success of BITZER’s intelligent compressors began with the OCTAGON VARISPEED series. Its integrated, suction gas-cooled frequency inverter cuts energy costs signifi cantly while delivering dependable and effi cient operation. Other advantages of this tried-and-tested BITZER compressor series include the maintenance-free design of the frequency inverter and the simplicity and speed with which the compressors can be put into service. Learn more about our products at


Vol. 7 No. 4 | April 2012



Phase-out or phase-down? That is the question... 04 from the editor

Towards green coronation

‘Fads’ versus tradItion

Marian Pengyan Han discusses key aspects of fabric air dispersion system design and application.

happenings 06 The region 10 At large 16 Marketplace


20 Product focus

In control

How is the regional controls’ market looking in view of initiatives by entities like Estidama, ESMA, QSAS and Dubai Municipality?

22 d-code

From volume to value: China’s HVAC market shifts focus on quality Over the past few years, China has been leading the way in the amount of exports to the Gulf countries...

In control

authored a whitepaper to explore the implications of increased and widespread use of flammable refrigerants in HVAC equipment and appliances.

LED by sustainability Led lighting is increasingly seen as a cost-effective and sustainable solution by building owners and the retail and hospitality sectors.


34 perspectiveS

Foolproof closure system for airtight ductwork Having a leak-free system is possible and the four-bolt flange connection system provides these benefits after a quality installation, John Guthrie explains.


From volume to value: China’s HVAC market shifts focus on quality

Waiting to exhale... In Part 13 of the series on air filtration, Dr Iyad Al-Attar dispels misconceptions regarding particle straining.

Pumping it up!

Heat pumps with natural refrigerants represent energy-efficient technology with future prospects, says Eurammon, the European initiative for natural refrigerants.

Revisiting flammable refrigerants – stem that leak Thomas Blewitt and Abhay Miglani have

26 cover story

Phase-out or phase-down? That is the question... We bring you exclusive coverage of Refrigerants Review Round 1, which was held at Atlantis The Palm Hotel in Dubai on March 20 and 21. The event was organised by Climate Control Middle East.

April 2012


from the



Publisher Dominic De Sousa Managing Director & Associate Publisher Frédéric Paillé |

Towards green coronation

Editorial Director & Associate Publisher B Surendar | COO Nadeem Hood | Assistant Editor Valeria Camerino |

he fledgling green building movement in Dubai got a shot in the arm when the Dubai Supreme Energy Council recently announced that green buildings will be mandatory in the private and public sectors from 2014 onwards, in the case of new construction. All private sector developers will be required to comply with Dubai Green building codes from 2014. The next step, of course, is to include existing buildings in the purview, and as and when that happens, Dubai would begin taking firm steps towards green coronation. Existing buildings lavishly dot the landscape, and a vast majority among them leak energy, the bulk of which is consumed by the running of HVAC systems. Shortcomings in design and installation of HVAC equipment, and also the selection, have proved to be the bane of energy-conservation efforts. Broadly, the lack of a commissioning culture has impacted the energy performance of buildings. Even in recently constructed buildings, scant attention has been paid to integrating all the features, so that they may “sing” in harmony. Oftentimes, though a BMS is in place, it is made redundant by the fact that it has not even been connected to orchestrate a building’s performance. That aside, maintenance schedules have been the subject of a cavalier approach, and it is no secret that maintenance – be it the cleaning of filters or the plugging of leaks in the ducting system – brings energy bills down. Apart from the conventional measures of saving energy, existing building owners ought to pay attention to incorporating other features, be they directly related to HVAC, such as VFDs, or indirectly related, such as LED lighting or heat-reflecting paint. Yes, there is cost associated with adopting these features, but as many in the industry have been saying ad nauseam, the long-term savings justify the expenses. Any reluctance by building owners, despite the obvious benefits, can be overcome by authority insistence, and that is where bringing existing buildings under the green purview will work wonders and slash the kilowatts that buildings consume. We have discussed some of the above points in this issue of the magazine. That said, the issue has been dominated by the topic of refrigerants, coming as it does in the heels of Refrigerants Review, an event that hearteningly enough, drew governments, implementation bodies, manufacturers and end-users to deliberate on ozone action and climate change. And what a riveting discussion it was! I hope you enjoy the coverage.

Contributing Editors Pratibha Umashankar Anoop K Menon Business Development Consultant Stephanie McGuinness Design Genesis Salao | Ulysses Galgo | Webmaster Troy Maagma | Database/ Subscriptions Manager Purwanti Srirejeki Advertising Enquiries Frédéric Paillé: +971 50 7147204 Stephanie McGuinness: +971 50 6679359 USA and Canada Kanika Saxena Director (North America) 25 Kingsbridge Garden Cir Suite 919 Mississauga, ON, Canada L5R 4B1 Tel/fax: +1 905 890 5031 Euro Zone and UK Sicking Industrial Marketing Wilhelm Sicking 45130 Essen - Emmastrasse 44 Tel: +49 (0)201-779861 Fax: +49 (0)201-781741 Andreas Sicking 59872 Freienohl - Kurt-Schumacher-Str. 16 Tel: +49 (0)2903-3385-70 Fax: +49 (0)2903-3385-82 • China Sean Xiao Hui China Business Media Group Room 403, Block 17, Wuyimingzhu, No 6 Jinshan Road, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350008, China Tel: +86 591 8386 3000

B Surendar

Published by

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copy of the magazine every month, before the issue goes for print! As a bonus, the digital version includes such features as a keyword search, annotation, highlight, note-making and hot links. For more details, please access Phase-out or Phase-down? that is the qu digital estion... Country Focus Chin a p24

News Zamil and HMI ink deal p6 Leminar holds seminar ducting and acoustics on fire Mittel acquires Pipeguard p9 p12

DEWA wins ‘Sustainability award’ p8


HVAC controls



gs & Goings, Marke

Climate Control Middle East April 2012


APRIL 2012

We bring you exclusiv e coverage of Climate Refrigerants Review Control Middle East’s Round 1, which was held in Dubai on March 20 at Atlantis The Palm Hotel and 21




p20 Particle straining p47 Perspectives Revisiting flammable refrigerants p40 Pumping it up! p34

PLUS: D-Code, Comin

Head Office PO Box 13700 Dubai, UAE Tel: +971 4 375 68 30 Fax: +971 4 43 419 06 Web: Printed by: Excel Printing Press, Sharjah, UAE © Copyright 2012 CPI. All rights reserved. While the publishers have made every effort to ensure the accuracy of all information in this magazine, they will not be held responsible for any errors therein.

IDEA’S 103rd Annual Conference & Trade Show

District Energy/CHP

“Cooler, Cleaner Cities” Date Change Announced – New Dates are:

June 29 – July 2, 2012 Hyatt Regency Chicago • Chicago, Illinois

The International District Energy Association is pleased to invite colleagues and participants in the clean energy industry to Chicago for our 103rd Annual Conference & Trade Show. Conference Highlights: • Special Pre-Conference Workshop and Release of the U.S. Community Energy Development Guide IDEA is working with Michael King, author and editor of the UK publication Community Energy: Planning, Development and Delivery Guide and several Sponsors to produce and disseminate a document for the U.S. market. The Guide is intended to inform planners, developers and economic development officials on the energy project development process. The conference will feature panel discussions & presentations focusing on a broad range of topics: • Insights from Leading International Cities • District Energy Infrastructure: Essential for Energy-Efficient Communities • Energy, Water & Environmental Outlook

Our Host… Thermal Chicago – owner and operator of one of the world’s largest downtown district cooling systems – 100,000 tons capacity with five interconnected plants using innovative ice thermal storage. Technical Tours to be scheduled.

For conference info, please visit

• Microgrids – Urban Strategies for More Reliable Power and Optimal Thermal Energy • Combined Heat & Power Integration • Innovations in Water Use Efficiency and Conservation • Flexible Fuel Solutions • Special Segment on Electricity • Chicago Architecture River Cruise on Saturday Plus, specialized industry forums on district cooling; operations; business development and marketing; government relations and thermal distribution networks.

Annual Trade Show Exhibition – A limited number of exhibit spaces may still be available. For more information, please contact Tanya Kozel at

happenings the region

EFS hosts O&M training programme Region’s facilities managers attend two-day IFMA sessions


he UAE-based EFS Facilities Services hosted the region’s first Facility Management Professional Credential Program conducted by the International Facility Management Association, Dubai. The FMP course in Operations and Maintenance was held on March 14 and 15, 2012 at the EFS Training and Development Centre in Dubai. More than 15 senior facility managers attended the event. According to EFS, the Operations and

Maintenance programme is one of four courses required for completion of the FMP Credential Program, and IFMA’s FMP version is an assessment-based certificate programme, the successful completion of which demonstrates a proven understanding of the foundation of facility management. It is aligned with global best-practices — certifying that it teaches and tests the knowledge demanded by today’s FM industry, EFS claimed.

“Since its founding more than 30 years ago, IFMA has been advancing the profession by identifying essential knowledge and skill sets for facility managers, regardless of where in the world they are performing their duties,” said IFMA President and CEO Tony Keane. “The recently revised FMP designation is based on a comprehensive global job task analysis study, and is a great example of a credential with international appeal. IFMA is pleased to bring this comprehensive programme to Dubai and the Middle East, one of the most vibrant, important and growing regions of the world.” Tariq Chauhan, Group Managing Director, EFS Facilities Services added: “As facilities management becomes an integral part of real estate development, we know this is the right time to launch IFMA training courses that are tailored to meet the demands of the Middle East FM industry. These courses will help facility managers achieve technical excellence and deliver the best possible service to our clients. The FMP Credential Program will support the future growth and development of the FM industry in the region.”

Zamil and HMI ink deal The two entities partner to produce centrifugal chillers in Saudi Arabia


amil Air Conditioners, a manufacturer and services provider of air conditioning systems in the Middle East, has signed a strategic supply, manufacturing and distribution agreement for centrifugal compressors and chillers with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), Japan.


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

ENPARK holds Green Brunch Regional solar projects will spur investment, education and employment in the sector, say experts


ccording to a news release, the first Green Brunch of 2012 themed ‘Accelerating the Progress of Solar Energy in the Middle East’ was held at ENPARK’s new headquarters at the Nucleotide Lab Complex, in Dubai Biotechnology Park, and drew a crosssection of industry stakeholders. During the event, experts reportedly concurred that the recent announcement by the Government of Dubai on establishing the 1,000 MW Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum Solar Park project

constituted a watershed that would stimulate every component of the solar supply chain in Dubai. In this context, Saeed Ghubash, Director of ENPARK, said: “Through today’s Green Brunch, ENPARK expresses full support to Dubai’s Integrated Strategy of Energy 2030 and its objective of reducing Dubai’s carbon dioxide emissions by 30% by 2030. Diversification of energy sources is one of the crucial aims of the strategy, and solar energy is one of the first resources that must be tapped. The

Saeed Ghubash, Director of ENPARK; Nimer Abu Ali, Executive Manager at Ernst & Young; Fatima Al Shamsi, Senior Manager of New Business Development, DEWA; Dr Lana El Chaar, Senior Marketing Development Manager at GE Energy and Prabissh Thomas, Managing Director, PTL Solar, during ENPARK’s Green Brunch series.

1,000 MW Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park Project exemplifies the stringent steps Dubai is taking towards its objective.” Elaborating on the project, Fatima Al Shamsi, Senior Manager, New Business Development, DEWA, said: “The first phase of the project will consist of a 10 MW photovoltaic array, scheduled to go live in 2013. DEWA and the Supreme Council of Energy are committed to achieving the Government of Dubai’s energy vision. We will work towards meeting the needs of the emirate’s present and future generations in line with this philosophy.” Prabissh Thomas, Managing Director, PTL Solar, added that the implementation of the project would create a demand for unique knowledge base and skill sets, and that his company had established the PTL Solar Academy, claimed to be Dubai’s first renewable energy training institute, in collaboration with US-based institute, Solar Energy International (SEI), and the British University in Dubai (BUiD). The Green Brunch was the fifth in a series of educational seminars that ENPARK periodically organises to discuss energy and sustainability industry trends. The sessions typically feature presentations and open debates to help raise awareness of new energy and environment-related technologies, as well as solutions available in the regional market.

Riyadh to hold annual DC event Implications of expanding industrial district cooling plants to be point of discussion


he third Annual District Cooling Saudi Arabia Summit will be held at The Four Season, Riyadh, on April 18 and 19. Orgaanised by IQPC, the event will feature speakers from the Royal Commission for Jubail, Saudi Iron and Steel Company, Hadeed, Jabal Omar Development Company and the National Water Company. According to IQPC, the Kingdom’s

rapidly expanding industrial sectors have increased the demand for coand tri-generation district cooling solutions, and the impact of these industrial-scale district cooling plants on the consumption of energy and water and operational costs will be examined at the forum. The exhibition area will feature the latest innovative solutions for resolving common challenges in

intermodal bridge design, construction and maintenance. The committed sponsors include Carrier, Hydrometer, Kamstrup, King and Spalding, Landis+Gyr, SIPOS, Veolia Water, Belven, Trane, Femco, Rental Solutions and Services, Al-Othman Industrial Marketing Company, AVK Saudi Valves Manufacturing Company, Canusa-CPS, Saudi Pipes Systems Company and Arabian Air conditioning Company. More information on the forum and registration details can be obtained at

April 2012


happenings the region

DEWA wins ‘Sustainability Award’

Was recognised for its initiatives in renewable energy, sustainability and energy management at Globe 2012 in Vancouver


ubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) has bagged the Sustainability Award at Globe 2012 in Vancouver, Canada, organised by the Globe Foundation. Announcing this, DEWA added that it received the award for its role in promoting sustainable living through electricity and water conservation and its efforts to strengthen and achieve the Government of Dubai’s strategy: to promote sustainable development and Dubai’s status as a global hub for finance, trade and tourism. Formed in 1993, the Globe Foundation is a Vancouver-based, non-profit organisation dedicated to promoting sustainable development in the business sector. Speaking about DEWA’s participation in the event, HE Saeed Mohammed Al Tayer, MD and CEO of DEWA, said: “According to the vision and the Green Economy For Sustainable Development initiative of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, we have participated in launching the first

international event to promote the national initiative for building a green economy in the UAE. We received a special invitation to participate for the first time in the Globe 2012 Conference and Exhibition, which started 20 years ago and took place from March 14 to 16 in Vancouver, Canada, at a Dubai-dedicated pavilion, to showcase its pioneering initiatives and distinguished achievements as a role model for future cities.” Waleed Salman, EVP-Strategy and Business Development at DEWA, who

led DEWA’s delegation to the exhibition, added: “Through its participation, DEWA has presented its most important initiatives in the fields of renewable energy, sustainability and energy management. We showcased the project of Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park, a pioneering project adopted by the Dubai Supreme Council of Energy and managed and operated by DEWA. The plant is expected to generate 1,000 MW. We also outlined our applied procedures for reducing energy demand and managing it efficiently.” The biennial Vancouver-based Globe Conference and Fair is reportedly a global platform dedicated to heads of government, decision makers, and leaders of clean and green technologies from the USA, the European Union, China, South Korea and Japan, and attracts delegations from more than 70 countries. The main issues the event covers are corporate sustainability, energy future, finance, investment, climate change, carbon management, green buildings and infrastructure.

comings Philips appoints &goings president and CEO Roy Jakobs appointed to oversee Middle East and Turkey operations


oyal Philips Electronics has appointed Roy Jakobs as its new President and Chief Executive Officer, effective from the first quarter of 2012, to lead the company in the Middle East and Turkey (ME&T) areas. According to Philips, Jakobs first joined the company in 2010, based in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, as Lighting’s Chief Marketing Officer, a role in which he held responsibility for global marketing of lighting solutions, with the role focusing especially on LED Lighting and capturing


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

the opportunities of the lighting industry transformation. Prior to Philips, Jakobs has worked across several different industries, such as oil, media and publishing in various executive roles globally. “With Philips’ expertise and innovations, we want to support the governments and private sectors in tackling the different regional challenges,” Jakobs said. “When it comes to healthcare, we want to make sure that we help improve patient outcomes while lowering the burden on the healthcare system.”

Leminar seminar brings fire ducting and acoustics into the spotlight

Leminar’s partner, Galloway Group, presents its acoustic and fire-rated ducting solutions

Galloway’s silencer range includes 55 different rectangular silencer configurations (A1 to A55), Melinex equivalent (A1M to A55M), which means that it can offer 110 data sheets for rectangular silencers. The cylindrical silencer range comprises eight different data sheets. The company also supplies five types of crosstalk silencers specifically designed for non-ducted applications. As part of Galloway Group, which has been the certified licensee for Fenland Fire Systems since 1999, it has been able to produce fire-rated silencers. The company also offers four types of standard acoustic louvres, designed to accommodate all potential applications, as well as complimentary non-acoustic louvres. Galloway’s panel range consists of five different types of design ̶ type 1 being lowest performance and type 5 being the highest. Hall claimed that all panel types 1 to 5 can be incorporated into three construction systems, primarily aimed at different applications. Later on, Cameron Robertson, Technical Director — Galloway Group UK, elaborated on Galloway Fenland firerated duct systems, which are tested to BS 476 : Part 24, ISO 6944-1 and ISO 6944-2 standards and fire-rated for stability, integrity and insulation. He explained that the main applications for this type of ductwork system, which is used to prevent fire from spreading, are escape routes covering stairways, lobbies and corridors, non domestic kitchens, enclosed car parks, smoke extract systems and basements.


n March 14, Leminar hosted a technical seminar at Abu Dhabi Intercontinental Hotel on fire ducting and acoustics. During the event, representatives from UK-based Galloway Group, a Leminar’s partner, delivered presentations on “Galloway Fenland Fire Duct System — a passive fire protection for HVAC systems” and “Galloway Acoustics — A comprehensive HVAC noise control solution.” Gary Hall, Director — Galloway Group UK, provided an insight into Galloway’s acoustic products, which are available for Leminar to manufacture and sell in the UAE, Oman, Qatar and Bahrain. As he explained, the Galloway core acoustic product range is generally split into three basic industry sectors: architectural, building services and industrial. Hall pointed out that Galloway silencers are tested to BS4718 and ISO 7235 standards in an independent laboratory. Furthermore, its products gained UKAS accreditation, which he described as “a second level of credibility”. This is achieved by the laboratory test facility being externally assessed for accuracy. To ensure that it complies with the above standards, a sample product must be tested numerous times and the standard deviation between all the results have to be so small that the only inaccuracies that remain are those that are allowed within the test standard itself. Given that no commercial laboratory in the UK had the facility to complete both sets of tests, the company partnered with Salford University, near Manchester, and built one. April 2012


happenings at large

Chillventa to have Cleanroom Village

Will provide information platform for cleanroom technology, comprehensive overview of design, implementation, certification and maintenance


he highlight of Chillventa 2012, to be held from October 9 to 11, will be a Cleanroom Village. Announcing this, the event organisers said that the special feature in Hall 1 will offer designers, plant assemblers and operators of clean and ultra-clean rooms, an internationally orientated exhibition forum for information on air conditioning and

ventilation. The exhibitors in the Cleanroom Village will reportedly showcase innovative technologies and concepts for the design, construction and operation of cleanrooms in industry and research. The announcement said that clean and ultra-clean rooms are essential to ensure smooth operation in many production processes in industry, food manufacture, medical

Embraco to participate in technical event

Will present latest refrigeration technology at the 21st International Compressor Engineering Conference in Purdue


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

research or nanotechnology laboratories, and must meet high standards. As international forum for cleanroom professionals, the Cleanroom Village at Chillventa will concentrate on the expertise of manufacturers and service providers. The Village will offer the latest technologies and a broad range of services for certification, training and qualification and cover the


entire gamut of cleanroom technology. “Cleanroom technology is an ideal enhancement for Chillventa, as shown by the successful premiere of the Cleanroom Village at Chillventa 2010,” explained Gabriele Hannwacker, Exhibition Director at NürnbergMesse. “The Cleanroom Village creates synergies that benefit both exhibitors and visitors.”

efrigeration products in the coming years will be increasingly smaller, portable, energy efficient and tailored to each need – a scenario, both challenging and exciting for professionals working with innovation. Embraco, manufacturer of hermetic compressors for refrigeration, revealed this in a communiqué, and added that this would be the main thrust of the presentation to be made by Márcio Todescat, Vice President of the company’s Research and Development division, at the International Compressor Engineering Conference in Purdue, United States. According to Embraco, the conference, which will be held on July 17 is regarded as one of the world’s most renowned technical events for compressors and refrigeration.

GEA bags Dutch Refrigeration Prize Claims that ‘Energy Enhancer’ is a combination of refrigerating plant and downstream heat pump with energy-saving potential


EA Refrigeration Technologies has announced that GEA Refrigeration Netherlands NV, a member company of the group, has won the Dutch Refrigeration Prize last month in the field of Refrigeration Technology and Air Treatment (NVKL). The Dutch Association of Companies has been awarding the prize since 1989 in the form of the “Koeltrofee” pyramid, in recognition of innovations in the area of refrigeration and HVAC, the announcement added. The new prize-winning product, called the ‘Energy Enhancer’, it is a combination of a refrigerating plant and a downstream heat pump, and uses ammonia to raise the temperature of the heat exhausted from refrigeration compressors (originally emitted at approx. 35°C) to a level of around 80°C, which can then be effectively used. This, GEA claimed, enables efficient use of the heat in, for example, milk treatment (for pasteurisation), French fries production (for blanching) and meat processing (for machine cleaning). The product is also used at leisure centres, where the ice-skating rink needs to be cooled and the swimming pool needs to be heated.

approximately 120 kW in the form of gas input to produce 100 kW of useful heat, whereas the Energy Enhancer requires only 20 kW of electrical power to deliver the same thermal output. This enables not only significant reduction in operating costs but also drastic

reduction in CO2 emissions. The principle of the Energy Enhancer can be applied to new facilities as well as existing plants, the manufacturer claimed, and added that ammonia, which is used in the heat pump is a natural refrigerant and does not deplete the ozone layer.

The complete ventilation solution. As the market leader in fans and ventilation systems we have been at the forefront of the industry worldwide for more than 40 years. We’re renowned for our expertise, commitment to innovation and outstanding quality. Our wide range of solutions include:

According to GEA, the Energy Enhancer raises exhausted heat – which is often dissipated into the environment without being used in conventional refrigeration units – to a higher temperature, where it becomes useful energy. This eliminates the need to produce heat by gas-fired hotwater heaters or steam generators, thus resulting in energy savings. GEA pointed out that a gas boiler requires

• SMOKE fANS AND SMOKE DESigN SErvicE • cAr PArK vENtiLAtiON SyStEMS • EcOSMArt - UNiQUE ENErgy SAviNg vENtiLAtiON EQUiPMENt • cONStANt PrESSUrE - trUE ON-DEMAND vENtiLAtiON SyStEMS • AxiAL fANS • MULti rOOM vENtiLAtiON • rESiDENtiAL fANS For more information please contact Nuaire at the following: e m +97150 3491404 t +9714 312 4982 w Nuaire PO Box 24459, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Locations in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain and across the Middle East.

64752012_NUAIRE_CCME_EXPORT_AD.indd 1

20/03/2012 16:45

April 2012


happenings at large

Mittel acquires Pipeguard

Pipeguard provides monitoring solutions to Mittel’s district energy systems


wedish energy technology company, Mittel Group, which specialises in building and maintaining systems for district energy, has announced acquiring Pipeguard, its long-term partner in the monitoring of district energy networks. Mittel described the acquisition as strategic, since advanced solutions for monitoring of district energy systems and providing early detection of leaks is an integral part of maintenance, and supplements its other business areas. According to the announcement, Pipeguard, also known as PG Monitoring System, supplies a range of products for the measurement of moisture and leakage in the distribution of heat and cooling, and Pipeguard’s alarm systems are used to automatically monitor preinsulated pipes, providing a current status report on the condition of the network. This, said Mittel, enables maintenance and surveillance staff to check water levels and temperatures in hundreds of network chambers from the comfort of their offices or vehicles without actually having to go underground. “Pipeguard is a perfect match for

comings &goings


ahmoud Widyan has joined SPX Cooling Technologies as General Manager Middle East and Africa for Evaporative Cooling, effective March 4, 2012. He replaces John Fish, who was appointed Managing Director Middle-East & Africa at CST International in February 2012. Based in Dubai, Mahmoud will lead the Middle East team. Before joining SPX, he was Managing Director at Dunham-Bush Middle East & North Africa. He has an extensive background in engineering, business


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

Mittel,” said Karl-Gunnar Appelblad, CEO, Mittel. “With Pipeguard we can offer our customers and partners in Sweden and the rest of the world a total concept for quality assurance of insulated pipes for heating and cooling. Our clients will be the eventual winners. Good maintenance, including early

management, marketing, and business development. In his new role, Mahmoud will be responsible for customer relations, representative management, business development and commercial execution in the Middle East and Africa regions. He can be contacted at mahmoud. or on +971 56 6816700.


ew Deng Wai, General Manager at Dunham-Bush Middle East relocated from Malaysia, where the company is headquartered, to DunhamBush Dubai office. He can be contacted at or on +971 50 459 9789.

detection of leaks, is crucial to optimise the quality of the networks and to maximise their life lengths.” The announcement revealed that with its previous ownership of 10%, Mittel now owns 65% of the shares in Pipeguard. The remaining 35% is owned by Pipeguard’s staff.


fter almost 7 years serving as General Manager of SPX Cooling Technologies Middle East, John Fish joined CST Industries on February 27, 2012 as Managing Director-Middle East and Africa. John has been in the Middle East for 20 years and holds a degree in Marine Engineering from Riversdale College, Liverpool, UK. He started his Middle East career in 1993 with York International (now JCI) as Regional Sales Manager for the Refrigeration Group, went back to Europe in 1999 and returned to Dubai in 2002 to work for Damac Group before joining SPX in 2005. John can be contacted at jfish@ or on +971 50 659 6691.

Wolf declares record sales

Claims over 1,500,000 heat generators produced in its Mainburg facility


olf, the Germanbased HVACR and solar equipment manufacturer, has announced bigger market share gains with the sale of its 1.5 millionth heat generator rolling off the assembly line at the company’s headquarters in Mainburg at the end of 2011. This figure includes oil and gasfired boilers, heating and condensing appliances, and heat pumps, which were produced in Mainburg between 1981 and 2011. More than two thirds of the 1.5 million appliances were sold on the German market,

and Wolf exported over 350,000 heat generators to other countries, the company claimed. It further claimed that an annual comparison revealed substantial increases: around 6,000 appliances left the Mainburg plant in 1984-1985, while the corresponding figure in financial year 2011 was more than 80,000 heat generators. “We are naturally delighted with the enormous demand for our products, and as the saying goes, 1.5 million customers throughout the world cannot be wrong,” said Karl-Heinz Knoll, Head of the Marketing Division of Wolf.

“Our innovation and quality offensive, and the resulting test victories and worldwide references have contributed a great deal to our current image and the high standing of the Wolf brand all over the world.” Bernhard Steppe, Chairman of the Board of Management of Wolf, added: “We have by no means reached the end of the line with 1.5 million appliances. On the contrary, we are looking to the future with great confidence. The market potential is enormous, and in our capacity as a system supplier, we can always offer the right highquality solutions in the areas

of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and solar.” Steppe pointed out that a large proportion of the 18 million heat generators in Germany and the around one million air conditioning units now in operation are in need of replacement. “We must urgently increase the speed of replacement and create corresponding incentives in this respect,” he said. “The best and most energy-efficient appliances and technologies will not help us attain the environmental and climate targets if old systems still waste a great deal of the utilised energy.”

Hamon - Field erected cooling towers, Dubai Office


Oryx holds lecture session


ccording to the February issue of the ASHRAE Qatar Oryx Chapter Newsletter, the Chapter held a lecture series on February 18 at the College of North Atlantic, Qatar. The lecture focused on Daikin VRV Solutions and Green Building Design. Presentations were delivered by Koji Kanaoka, Senior Manager; Michel Farah, Business Development Manager; Firas Kneifati, VRV Product Responsible and Elissa Ghanem, Manager, Area Consulting Sales. The event was sponsored By Daikin McQuay Middle East.

More than 625,000 TR of installed capacity

HAMON, leading company in field erected cooling systems, with over 100 years experience in Wet Cooling, strengthens its presence in the region. Our team in Dubai, particularly specialized in district cooling & seawater cooling, will offer you the experience of a worldwide group and their proximity for all your cooling tower projects. Do not hesitate to contact them at:

HAMON Cooling Tower Company (FZCO) Dubai Airport Free Zone Authority - PO Box: 293647 Tel +971 4 609 16 7sFax +971 4 609 16 76 s

April 2012


happenings at large

KEO and Libya hold reconstruction workshop Company joins hands with Libya’s Ministry of Planning to focus on future strategies


EO International Consultants, a MENA-based project management, planning, design and engineering firm, was invited by the Libyan Ministry of Planning to jointly sponsor and organise a twoday event, titled ‘Building a New Free Libya’, focused on the country’s immediate and long-term planning and reconstruction strategies and priorities. Revealing this in an announcement, KEO added that the event was held as a series of workshops from March 19 to 20 in Tripoli. The topics included a focus on Programme management services, Urban and master planning, Infrastructure master planning, Wastewater planning and Contract administration. Reportedly, a delegation of the top KEO executives from its technical divisions led the workshop seminars on Day Two of the event, during which, the experts presented management and procurement approaches that have been adopted successfully in various GCC countries with an in-depth analysis of lessons learnt on mega projects as case studies. In its presentation, it compared key development challenges that Libya will face to those experienced in the growth of GCC countries over the last decade, it claimed. According to the announcement, the Prime Minister of Libya, Dr Abdul Rahiem El Keib, attended the morning session of the event and gave an introductory speech to welcome over 250 guests that included ministers, government 14

officials as well as heads of agencies, undersecretaries and senior leaders involved in the reconstruction of Libya. The Minister of Planning, Dr Issa Al Twaijer opened the workshop with a presentation on Libya’s history in development planning and the challenges faced. Dr Al Twaijer also unveiled the Ministry of Planning’s roadmap on how future developments will be managed. The announcement pointed out that this was the first

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

event of its kind since the liberation of Libya, where the attention was entirely devoted to the government’s initiation of transparent methods to restart planning and construction projects in Libya. Commenting on this, Donna Sultan, CEO of KEO, said: “We are honoured to have been invited into such a forum by the Ministry of Planning in Libya, at such an important time in Libya’s history.

We took very seriously what we felt was our mission in the workshop, to add meaningfully to the dialogue of what Libya will eventually decide as the most appropriate strategies for managing future project delivery cycles. In preparing for the workshop in Tripoli, we had to draw deeply into KEO’s extensive MENA and GCC experience in delivery of projects in the past 50 years.”

advertorial KIMMCO launches industry-first Self-Seal Glasswool Insulation Board Kuwait Insulating Material Manufacturing Co., (KIMMCO) Insulation, a market leading insulation solution provider in the Middle East (GCC, Levant), Africa, India, Far East and other Asian countries, has recently introduced an industry-first Self-Seal Glasswool Board for HVAC duct insulation. ased on customer need to do away with flammable glue on construction sites, and meet LEED, QSAS and Estidama requirements, KIMMCO has introduced Self-Seal, an industry-first glasswool insulation board for HVAC duct insulation that is cleaner, faster and more cost-effective than competing products. KIMMCO Glasswool and Rockwool solutions provide four key benefits: n Enhanced comfort through thermal and acoustic insulation n Excellent fire protection n Lower energy consumption n Environmentally friendly KIMMCO products respond to customers’ demand for sustainable and energy-efficient solutions, in view of the increasing awareness of the importance of LEED, QSAS and Estidama requirements; specifically to improve energy efficiency, as well as customer/societal/government requirements for cleaner and safer construction sites (i.e. to eliminate the use of fire-prone materials like flammable glue). R&D and innovation: n Since its inception in 1977, KIMMCO has established its reputation as a marketing-leading insulation solution provider with a strong record of innovation. n KIMMCO is a licensee of Saint Gobain ISOVER, the world leader in fibreglass insulation. n KIMMCO offers customers the service of a Technical Excellence Centre, to help customise insulation solutions to application requirements. n KIMMCO has developed many products, such as KCL, an acoustic liner that is strong, clean and offers zero-fibre migration.

n KIMMCO introduced Aluglass, an industry-first facing material boasting high mechanical strength, durability and zero water vapour permeability, that eliminates the need for additional weather protection. n Now with Self-Seal capabilities, KIMMCO offers an industry-first, ‘all dry’ glasswool insulation solution for HVAC ducting applications. Self-Seal completely eliminates the use of liquid and flammable glue, improves greatly the ease and speed of installation and saves installation cost and time. Major projects: n Makkah Clock Tower, Makkah, Saudi Arabia n Avenues Mall, Kuwait n New Doha International Airport, Qatar Focus in 2012: n Continue to build on market leadership and history of supplying glasswool and rockwool insulation solutions to major clients and iconic structures in the region.

April 2012



This section contains regional and international products information


ComBAR thermal anchor


outing them to be cheaper and more energy-efficient, Schoeck, manufacturer and distributor of construction components, has introduced ComBAR thermal anchor sandwich walls in the Middle East. The manufacturer claims that the prefabricated walls are made of glass fibres and a Vinyl Ester resin and facilitate quick building progress and good thermal insulation to improve structural safety, and are an alternative to the stainless steel girders. It also points out that reinforced steel has a lambda value (thermal conductivity) of 60 W/mK, stainless steel has 15 W/ mK, while ComBAR has 0.5 W/mK. It also claims that the use of prefabricated walls is on the increase even in high-rise structures. The manufacturer lists the following product features and advantages: n ComBAR can be used to build cellars and walls of freestanding single family houses, multi-storey construction and in industrial buildings. n Better thermal insulation U-values of the exterior walls result in a better energy balance of the building. n The connection of the outer shell to the bearing shell of prefabricated walls, with integrated thermal insulation can be realised virtually without thermal bridges. n The tensile strength of ComBAR is more than twice as high as that of steel. n It is more cost-effective compared to the stainless steel lattice solution. Emphasising that the product was ideal for the region, Managing Director of Schoeck Middle East Dipl-Ing, Christoph Spitz, said, “Thermal insulation is a key consideration in any building in the UAE and the Middle East, and we believe, with the ComBAR thermal anchor we have developed another product that is not only perfect for our region due to value and quality but also more viable in this economic climate, as well.”

In comparison to carbon and stainless reinforcing steel, there is almost no heat transfer with the Schoeck ComBAR thermal anchor through the precast sandwich wall. This means that sandwich walls are optimally insulated. Photo: Schoeck ME FZE

According to Schoeck, the ComBAR thermal anchor was developed in close cooperation with partners, such as the Technical University of Kaiserslautern and the TU Hannover, and the product is approved by the DIBt Berlin (Z-21.8-1894) for sandwich walls with internal insulation, and was supported by the DBU (German Federal Environmental Foundation). It added that the glass fibre reinforcement, ‘Schoeck ComBAR’, has also recently received the test seal from the Institute for Construction Biology in Rosenheim (IBR). This award is given to products and production processes that achieve a special level of environmental health and sustainability, the company claimed.


Masterflux direct current compressors


ecumseh Products Company, manufacturer of hermetic compressors, unveiled its new range of air conditioning and refrigeration products, including Masterflux – direct current (DC) compressors – at ACREX 2012, held at the Bangalore International Exhibition Centre in India. Announcing this, the company said that the compressor range was designed specifically for battery cooling applications within the region’s growing telecommunications market. It claimed that the product was the first of its kind manufactured in India. The manufacturer listed the following product features and advantages: n The DC range features high-efficiency Tecumseh THK reciprocating compressors, specially fitted with brushless (BLDC) motors and an additional controller for correcting DC power to three-phase power. n It has both fixed-speed and variable-speed capability. n It has multiple applications, including cooling solutions for the telecom industry, refrigeration systems for beverage and


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

marine segments and mobile refrigeration systems across urban and rural markets, and is also suited for solar-powered refrigeration systems. n It is well-suited for the T3 ambient temperature range of up to 55°C, often seen in India and the Middle East. n It is currently available at 48 V and provides 500 W of cooling capacity. n New models are under development for both 12 V and 24 V applications. Tecumesh claimed that it had already gained a foothold for the new Masterflux range in the Indian market by collaborating with some of the large telecom cooling equipment manufacturers in the country, and added that it had plans to expand the range to cater to smaller and larger applications in telecom and solar domains. Against this backdrop, Michael Noelke, Executive Vice President Global Sales, Marketing and Engineering, Tecumesh, commented that the launch of the compressors was indicative of the company’s commitment to provide high-end products to consumers in India and the Middle East.

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KG Top T2/TB2 series AHUs


aying that it allows optimum flexibility for planning work, easy handling for transport and assembly and efficiency for operators, Wolf has announced adding KG Top T2/TB2 series to its KG Top range of Air Handling Units. The manufacturer lists the following product features and advantages: n KG Top T2/TB2 AHU series fulfils the stringent TĂœV T2/TB2 standard in compliance with EN 1886. n Heat losses are minimised thanks to a thermally isolated unit frame with weatherproof plastic covering. n Special plastic edge insulation and a special door design ensure that thermal bridges on the unit are reduced to a minimum. n The frame is statically reinforced and all airducting surfaces are sendzimir-galvanised at a minimum (alternatively powder-coated). n All seals are closed-pore, exhibit zero moisture absorption and are resistant to disinfectants and ageing. n All surfaces in contact with the air flow are made of materials that emit no harmful substances, thus providing no breeding ground for microorganisms. n It is ideal for use in all high-humidity areas, such as saunas, swimming pools, production halls and in tropical regions. n The series is available with an airflow rate of up to 6,400 mÂł/h, a heating capacity of up to 90 kW and a cooling capacity of up to 65 kW. n It is individually configurable for every project as well as being compatible with the current KG Top series.

April 2012




This section contains regional and international products information

Fresh-Aire UV

The Mini UV Germicidal UV Light


aying that it inhibits mould growth and sterilises microbial pathogens and allergens for superior IAQ, Fresh-Aire UV, the US-based manufacturer of UV germicidal lights, has introduced the first ultra-violet mould disinfection light system designed specifically for mini-splits, PTACs and other ductless air conditioning units in residential and commercial applications. The manufacturer claims that Mini UV’s patent-pending miniaturised components, consisting of two pencil-thin, 9 (L) x 3/8 (D)-inch UV lamps and a 6 (W) x 1.5 (H) x 1 (D)-inch, 120 or 208-230-VAC power supply, fit inside all ductless air conditioning brands and even the tightest compact mini-split spaces. The manufacturer lists the following product features and advantages: n The Mini UV inhibits all mould and other biological growth on blower and evaporator coil surfaces and sterilises germs, viruses, allergens and other pathogens that can flourish in HVAC systems from condensation moisture and distribute throughout a building. n It saves energy and reduces maintenance costs, because surface areas free of biological growth promote optimum heat transfer and operate more efficiently. n It includes industrial-grade adhesive clips for quickly mounting the two lamps inside any ductless unit. n The power supply is small enough to fit inside most ductless system line set areas. n The prewired clips of the power lead and lamp cables snap easily into the power supply. n It is field-tested as 98% effective in reducing microbial growth. n The estimated 45-minute installation time for new and retrofit applications requires dropping the condensate pan to gain access to interior surface areas.

n It comes with a one-year warranty on all parts. n Annual lamp replacements can be installed within minutes. According to Fresh-Aire UV, the Mini UV is sold throughout North America and international wholesale HVAC distributors.


Halton Safe fire-damper control system


alton, which offers indoor environment products, services and solutions, has announced the launch of Halton Safe, a fire-damper control system. The manufacturer claims that the system can control the operation of up to 200 fire and smoke dampers and 200 smoke detectors, and can, therefore, improve the safety of a building, while still keeping the installation and cabling costs low. The manufacturer lists the following product features and benefits: n The central unit can be modularly extended with Halton Safe Link control units, to which the fire dampers and smoke detectors are connected in groups of one to four units. n Fire dampers and smoke detectors can be clustered into as many as 15 groups, enabling the system to respond to a fire alarm by closing only those fire dampers that are in


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

the fire compartment. n The system also allows automatic testing of fire and smoke dampers on a weekly basis at a time specified by the user. n It incorporates the requirement of testing fire dampers as required by many national regulations. n It creates a report on the tests carried out, indicating the functionality of each fire damper. n It comes with an easy-to-use 5.7-inch graphical touchscreen. Optionally, the system can be equipped with a remote connection that makes all of the functions available via a Web browser. n Commissioning instructions are given in the user guide for Halton Safe – operation and installation instructions’ manual, supplied with the product. n In addition, Halton supplies its customers with commissioning as a service.

product focus HVAC Controls

In Control

How is the regional controls’ market looking in view of initiatives by entities like Estidama, ESMA, QSAS and Dubai Municipality? As a result of the district cooling slowdown, are controls manufacturers looking elsewhere for growth? We found out. By Valeria Camerino


HVAC controls are broadly distributed into three categories – Chiller Plant Manager (CPM), Building Management System (BMS) and Standalone Airside controls (i.e. AHU controls, FCU controls, VAV controls). These are used in a wide range of applications, including hospitals, shopping malls, oil & gas and non-process buildings. As Harmandeep Singh, Trane Controls & Contracting Leader, UAE, Qatar, 20

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

Kuwait explains, overall HVAC system performance is heavily dependent upon operation of the HVAC controls, and, hence, tackling the operational issues is of prime importance. “Lack of skilled BMS operators, and the frequent changing of FM companies, limit the benefits that can be derived out of an HVAC system,” he points out, adding that “maintenance is less of an issue today, as control systems are more robust, and owners, contractors and FM companies tend to rely on the Original Equipment Manufacturers for their maintenance needs”. In terms of technical criteria, synchronisation between equipment and controls is fundamental to achieve overall HVAC system performance. “Controls should be highly reliable, scalable for future expansion, easy to program and operate. They should also

comply with UL or CE listing and, for communication purposes, they should be compatible with the industry standard open protocols ̶ for example BACnet, LonTalk & Modbus,” Singh says. The most common installation issues include interfacing between equipment and controls, with regard to type and availability of signals. Singh explains that, since HVAC controls installation is usually undertaken by local subcontractors, non-adherence to manufacturers’ recommendations, and quality of locally sourced materials are always a concern. “For this reason, Trane promotes the concept of factory-mounted controls on Trane equipment, where the installation of controls undergoes the same QA/ QC processes as applicable for Trane equipment in the factory,” he says. This, in his view, saves a significant

amount of time spent on installation, testing and commissioning on site, as well as ensures a single-source responsibility for the satisfactory operation of the HVAC system throughout its lifetime. Singh is confident that the market has entered a phase of strong growth. Part of this, he says, can be explained by the growth in HVAC equipment sales but much more is probably linked to the general acceptance of the fact that controls can bring benefits to installers — in the form of faster installation and commissioning — and end users through easier operation, access to meaningful information and energy savings. Furthermore, with the increasing influence of local regulatory authorities like Estidama, the standard for HVAC controls is being redefined, and high-quality, energy efficient and environmentally responsible products are becoming popular. “In this transition towards intelligent energy management systems, controls play the critical role of coordinating all the individual elements in a building to ensure that they operate in an optimised manner,” Singh

argues. He believes that the industry is moving away from a first-cost approach and towards value-based decisions. “Installers are increasingly focused on fast, hassle-free installation, testing and commissioning and operators expect user-friendly interfaces, reliable systems and resultant energy and labour savings,” he argues. Although Singh acknowledges that the slowdown of the district cooling sector has resulted in a shift in focus on energy monitoring and billing systems on the tenant side of the business, he emphasises that integration of power monitoring units and BTU meters into the central HVAC control system is rapidly gaining pace. Furthermore, installers are also seeing the benefits of factory — fitted controls. “In addition, as the HVAC installations and building stock of the region age, we are seeing more interest in major upgrades and replacements,” he points out. “And once again, controls are playing an important role in delivering operational savings.”

Installers are increasingly focused on fast, hassle-free installation, testing and commissioning and operators expect user-friendly interfaces, reliable systems and resultant energy and labour savings April 2012



A Climate Control Middle East campaign on demystifying the world of ducting

Foolproof closure system for

airtight ductwork

Lower cost, decreased pollution, and energy efficiency are all achieved by airtight ductwork. Having a leak-free system is possible and the four-bolt flange connection system provides these benefits after a quality installation, assuring the comfort level and indoor air quality of any facility, John Guthrie explains. It is estimated that

in the US, nearly 90% of new and existing air systems, in all commercial applications, suffer from varying degrees of leakage. It is also estimated that the average efficiency of these HVAC systems is less than 60%. If the equipment is not served well by its air distribution system, the unit is prevented from reaching the factory-specified efficiency rating that it’s designed to achieve. Some duct closure systems will leak after installation, requiring extra sealant to achieve air tightness. The four-bolt flange connection system stands out by attaining an airtight seal without requiring additional sealing. This system uses raw duct and applies a heavy-duty flange closure frame, which creates an airtight seal and an easy install for contractors. It consists of four components: n a connecting flange; n a reinforcing corner; n an integral sealant; n a cleat. Another advantage is the total weight of the sheet metal required for the 22

ductwork. Other closure systems require the use of a heavier gauge sheet metal, increasing the material and labour cost of the installed finished product. The difficulty with installation of some closure systems makes it troublesome to achieve the airtight seal required. The four-bolt flange connection system allows easy replication of the closure system with some basic training, thus eliminating wasted labour and leaky duct joints. Laboratory tests have shown that a joint made according to the manufacturer’s instructions has no leaks up to a service

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

pressure of ten inches of water gauge. Using the best closure system achieves overall better quality at lower costs. Without leaks, the unit will require less time to cool or heat a facility, which will use less energy and increase the life of the equipment. With less energy required to obtain the same comfort level, the overall environmental impact of the comfort system is improved. The secondary benefits of lowering pollution, increasing building comfort, and lowering peak demand on the electrical grid make having an airtight seal in

the HVAC ductwork a high priority. Properly sealed ducts also keep dust and other airborne particles, which can aggravate asthma and allergies, from building up in the air distribution system. By choosing the best duct closure system, facility managers and owners can achieve lower installation and operating costs while increasing the effectiveness of the comfort system of their facility. 

The writer is Regional Sales Manager, Carlisle HVAC. He can be contacted at john.guthrie@

'Fads' versus tradition

Marian Pengyan Han discusses key aspects of fabric air dispersion system design and application and demonstrates why fabric ducting has an edge over traditional ducting systems. fabric permeation at the design stage, it could lead to unstable installation with possible wobbling of ductwork at static pressure or velocities varying from duty design.

Fabric Air Dispersion Systems (FADS) with a host of new technologies and innovations has come a long way in the last 30 years. It has proved to be functionally superior to traditional ductwork, with regard to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and workplace productivity and has added a key element to interior design. The challenge in the sector, however, is to combine diverse elements like consistent fire retardant property, lifecycle, controllability of air dispersion, draft-free comfort and energy conservation.

Fire retardant property When textile material is substituted with steel ducts, the priority is to ensure that the material used demonstrates consistent fireretardant property. This can be achieved by the process of post treatment. This involves dipping polyester yarn or fabric into a fireretardant chemical solution, or laminating a fire-retardant chemical layer on the fabric. Another reliable as well as a superior method is the inherent fire-retardant method. This consists of blending fire-retardant additives with polyester chips, melting and extruding it as yarn and weaving it into a fabric. This results in

Innovations in fabric ducting system

Images courtesy: DurkeeSox Fabric Air Dispersion System Company Ltd

Carrefour Hypermarket at Fujairah Century Mall, UAE, is an example of the application of rectangular ducts with 100% permeation fabric for freezer area uniform dispersion of the fireretardant additive, integral to the polyester body. Good IAQ demands duct cleaning. The major advantage of using fabric in ducts is that they are washable. However, it needs to be noted that postcoated fabrics tend to lose their fire-retardant property through frequent wash cycles, whereas, the inherently fireretardant material continues to retain its property despite going through several wash cycles.

Fabric permeability

The fabric used in FADS can discharge air either through the orifices and/or by permeation through the fabric’s pores. The choice

of fabric and design of orifices play an important role in prevention of surface condensation, achieving the following: Design terminal velocities Directing cold supply air distribution to occupied levels Avoiding cooling high level spaces Refrigeration equipment in places like departmental stores consumes a huge amount of energy. Using special fabrics with engineered permeation levels has resulted in energy saving and prevents ice formation, and subsequent malfunctioning of equipment. It needs to be remembered that when due consideration is not given to choice of

Design and application innovations in FADS give users a wider choice. A few of the options are: Fabrics with anti-microbial treatment for areas demanding high-level of hygiene Anti-static features for electronic equipment Apart from generic shapes like circular, semi-circular and quarter circular ones, they also come in shapes like rectangular-shaped fabrics for lower ceiling heights and smooth tapered ones for long ducts When we take all the key aspects and advantages of Fabric Air Dispersion System into consideration, it is evident that it is suitable for most applications involving ducted air distribution. 

April 2012

The writer is Assistant Manager, Business Development, BESTPRO, Dubai. She can be contacted at: marian@bestprodubai. com.


country focus CHINa

From volume to value:

China’s HVAC market shifts focus on quality

Over the past few years, China has been leading the way in the amount of exports to the Gulf countries. However, negative perceptions towards Chinese products, prompted by safety and quality concerns, might threaten its privileged position… By Valeria Camerino


Quoting data released by China’s General Administration of Customs, China’s most popular English daily, China Daily, reported that, last February, the country posted its largest trade deficit in the past two decades, US$ 31 billion. While the nation’s imports skyrocketed to 40%, exports only grew at half the rate of imports, registering a 18.4% growth rate year-on-year. Although analysts attributed the gloomy scenario to “seasonal factors”, such as the Chinese lunar New Year, which fell in January this year, it comes as no surprise that global markets greeted the news with some degree of apprehension. On January 13, 2012, the China Household Electrical Appliances Association (CHEAA) held a media conference to review the development of the Chinese home appliance industry in 2011. Output, exports and sales numbers of China’s HVACR sector were released during the conference. According to CHEAA, the sales of refrigerators dropped by 18%, while the sales of air-conditioners decreased by 12% in 24 Chinese cities in 2011. The 24

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

growth rate of exports in the sector also declined year-on-year. The organisation’s growth predictions for 2012 are not looking rosy, either, as exports are expected to slow down due to decline of the US economy, the European debt crisis and stagnation in new markets. CHEAA expects that, throughout the year, Chinese HVACR manufacturers will be focusing on product upgrading to increase their competitiveness in overseas markets. China’s key market players include Gree, Midea, Chigo, Hisense, Haier, TCL, Galanz and Aux. According to Zakir Ahmed, Managing Director at NIA, the exclusive regional agent for Gree products, the latest HVAC technologies available on the Chinese market are inverter compressors for

the Residential Air Conditioners (RAC) segment and Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) systems and centrifugal chillers for Commercial Air Conditioning (CAC). Commenting on the allegations that, over the past few years, the country has been favouring economic development at the expense of environmental awareness, Ahmed says “China has the highest Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) standard for RAC and is pushing for VRF systems and centrifugal chillers for CAC applications.” The country is also investing heavily in photovoltaics, he adds. In Ahmed’s view, Chinese HVACR manufacturers are increasingly looking at India, South America and the Middle East as key markets to expand their business. “No doubt the Gulf is one of the key

markets after USA, Japan and Europe. Demand in the Gulf is steady, and the competition is limited to the top three [manufacturers] as others are unable to supply products with T3 specifications,” he says. Ahmed believes that the main reason behind the growing demand for Chinese products is that “the Japanese vacated space in window and split ACs due to low margins”. As a result, the Chinese took advantage of this gap in the market. However, Paul Saunders, Managing Director Fluorines EMEAI at Honeywell, holds a different opinion. “[It is] simply a matter of economics,” he argues. “As the use of energy-efficient and safe-to-use HFCs grow, Chinese economics can often be attractive. However, customers need to be sure they can get the service level they need and the product quality.” As he explains, his company has been involved in tracking down the source of counterfeit refrigerants in the UAE and Saudi Arabia. “On numerous occasions, the source of these counterfeit goods has been clearly Chinese origin,” he claims. “What is concerning is that often the product inside the cylinder is not even what is reported on the cylinder.

No doubt the Gulf is one of the key markets after USA, Japan and Europe. Demand in the Gulf is steady and the competition is limited to the top three [manufacturers] as others are unable to supply products with T3 specifications

Consequently, there are safety and performance issues that can arise from purchasing illegal or fake refrigerants.” Ahmed, on the other hand, believes that what needs to be questioned is not the quality of Chinese products but rather the lack of standards in the Gulf region. “Nearly all consumer products sold in the US and Europe are made in China,” he says. “Therefore, the issue is not Chinese quality – it’s the lack of standards in the Gulf. Local traders in the Gulf indulge in unfair competition by forcing manufacturers to cut the costs to

the bones.” He explains that his company has overcome this issue by dealing with wellestablished brands. “These companies will never compromise on quality to protect their long-term reputation.” In his view, Chinese HVACR manufacturers have lately shifted their strategy from volume sales to value sales. “They can accomplish this by serving big brands or by promoting their own brands. Alternatively, they will acquire the marketing rights from big brands like Lenovo did with IBM Thinkpad.” 

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12 x 18 cm halfApril page island 2012


Event Round-Up Refrigerants Review

Phase-out phase-down? That is the question... or

We bring you exclusive coverage of Round 1 of Refrigerants Review, which was held at Atlantis The Palm Hotel in Dubai on March 20 and 21. The event, organised by Climate Control Middle East, brought together high-profile refrigeration industry experts and policymakers, who exchanged their views on the phase-out of ozone-depleting and high global warming potential substances. By Valeria Camerino

I In the last few years, many conferences focusing on the topics of sustainability and energy efficiency have taken place across the region. However, the first round of Refrigerants Review was unique in many ways. First, because, as the title suggests, it


was the first time that a dedicated event on the issue of ozone-depleting and high global warming potential substances gathered a plethora of global refrigeration experts in Dubai. Secondly, because the debate showed that HFCs phase-out or, better said, phase-down, is a very complex issue, where there is no right or wrong answer. Furthermore, the event highlighted that, when examining the ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) of a particular refrigerant, it is fundamental

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

to take into account the overall energy efficiency of the system in which such a refrigerant is used. Hence, over the last few years, the concept of LCCP (Life Cycle Climate Performance) have gradually gained ground, as a more comprehensive assessment tool, representing the cradleto-grave environmental impact of using a given refrigerant in an application throughout its life cycle. The presentations also reflected on the fact that the use of refrigerants encompasses the whole global supply chain, and it’s not only limited to air

conditioning or heat pump applications, but, for example, it is also essential in food preservation, particularly in this part of the world, where high-ambient conditions represent a key challenge to the proper storage of easily deteriorating produces, such as fruits and vegetables. Indeed, as Dr Stephen O Andersen, Director of Research, Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development (IGSD) and Co-Chair, Montreal Protocol Technology & Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), pointed out

Many countries face high temperatures, but few other places on Earth are as challenging as the long, hot, and sometimes humid conditions of Africa, India and the Middle East

April 2012


event round-up in his keynote address on Day 1 of the conference, “many countries face high temperatures, but few other places on Earth are as challenging as the long, hot, and sometimes humid conditions of Africa, India and the Middle East”. In his view, some regions, like the Middle East, face a number of inherent challenges, such as a long, hot and humid cooling season, “brown-outs” and other electricity quality problems, high energy cost and low equipment durability. Dr Andersen described the 1987 Montreal Protocol, aimed at phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion, as a “last-minute treaty”, which saved twothirds of the ozone layer. “Without the ozone warning by Mario Molina and Sherry Rowland [in 1974], the emissions of ODS would be as big a force in climate change as carbon dioxide, and the Earth might already have been in a death spiral of abrupt climate change,” he added. He also argued that CO2 controls are not enough to reverse climate change. In his opinion, irreversible climate change can be delayed through the use of low-GWP substitutes, along with containment, recovery, reuse and destruction, which further reduce radiative forcing. “Containment to nearzero emissions mitigates refrigerant ozone depletion, climate forcing, toxicity, flammability, atmospheric fate and price,” Dr Andersen said. He emphasised that it’s now time to calculate all the aspects of the refrigerants manufacturing process and consider both short- and long-term effects. This is why it is


Emerging countries will show increasing interest in natural refrigerants fundamental to select a refrigerant with superior LCCP, he added. “Now is the time for new thinking,” Andersen said. “Take climate change seriously, eliminate the direct refrigerant concerns through near-zero emissions and carbon and chlorine offsets and, thereafter, concentrate on energy efficiency.” He suggested the use of hydrocarbons for household refrigerators/freezers, standalone retail refrigerators/ freezers, and small room air conditioners; hydrocarbons, CO2 and ammonia for supermarket refrigeration, and, until better options are available, HFC-32 for larger room air conditioners, HFC-1234yf for automobile air conditioning and other HFC-134a applications where natural refrigerants have inferior LCCP, and HCFC-123 for building air conditioning chillers. In his plenary address on Day 1, Didier Coulomb, Director of the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR), an independent intergovernmental science and technology based organisation, which promotes knowledge of refrigeration and associated technologies, emphasised the importance of refrigeration, as it covers a wide range of applications, including petrochemical refining, the steel industry,

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

the space industry, nuclear fusion, medicine, air conditioning, the food industry, the energy sector and the environment. He pointed out that developing and emerging countries are reporting an increasing need for refrigeration, owing to a global population increase, particularly in Africa and South Asia, for an estimated total of 9-10 billion people by 2050. This will lead to an increased demand for cold chains, particularly in urban areas. Improved living standards will also favour the use of air conditioning, which in turn, will have a significant impact on the environment. Coulomb argued that, when selecting a low-GWP refrigerant, it is important to take into account that no refrigerant is perfect, as they all present safety risks and drawbacks, such as flammability, toxicity, corrosion and pressure. Furthermore, very low GWP refrigerants are still not widely available on the market, although they

We need to change the mentality. We need a global standard. Why do manufacturers change the specifications to sell equipment in this region?

have been used in Europe in mobile air conditioning applications since the end of 2011 and in experimental studies on supermarkets, which have so far showed encouraging results. However, a number of safety concerns are slowing down the uptake of natural refrigerants such as ammonia, which is still recognised as the most efficient refrigerant, and propane. Current research, Coulomb explained, is focused on the development of ammonia-CO2 cascades. In his opinion, as the market for new refrigerants develops, prices of equipment will gradually decrease, although they will still be 10-20% higher than those of current equipment, but with lower running costs. In addition, there will be shortage of HCFCs due to the phase out already in force in developed countries, as well as shortage of HFCs produced by very-low-GWP HFC manufacturers. On the other hand, natural refrigerants will be very cheap, as the higher investment costs are offset by lower running costs. “Emerging countries will show increasing interest in natural refrigerants,” Coulomb said, pointing to the case of China. The conference also provided insights into regional thinking on ODP, GWP and TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) and an understanding of the region’s response to phaseout dates. Ghaleb Abusaa, CEO of The Three Factors Company (en3), who moderated the session, pointed out that, although HFCs have no impact on ozone depletion, they have higher TEWI than HCFCs as they require more

power. Yaqoub Al-Matouq, a Kuwait-based refrigeration expert, observed that, in 2007 parties to the Montreal Protocol accelerated HCFCs phase-out to support climate change mitigation efforts. As a result, the industry heavily invested in HFCs as the most reliable alternative to HCFCs. However, he pointed out, countries with high-ambient conditions, like the Middle East, face major challenges when trying to implement alternative refrigerants. These include safety (flammability, toxicity, and high pressure), efficiency (as efficiency drops due to high temperatures) and environmental concerns (some refrigerants have high GWP, are not recyclable, and can’t be easily disposed of). Therefore, he advocated further research into alternative refrigerants as well as further improvements in equipment design to reduce leakages. Furthermore, he called for unified standards for the whole GCC region to regulate the use of refrigerants in a more effective manner, along with the establishment of an industry advisory board to do research and help regional governments find specific solutions tailored to the climatic conditions of the Gulf countries. “We need to change the mentality,” he said. “We need a global standard. Why do manufacturers change the specifications to sell equipment in this region?” Mazen K Hussein, a chemicals expert from Lebanon, elaborated on Stage 1 of Lebanon’s HCFCs phase-out management plan (HPMP) for compliance with the 2013 & 2015 control targets of the Montreal Protocol. As he explained, the

HPMP comprises a combination of technology transfer investments, technical assistance to the industrial sectors, training programmes, policies and regulations, coordination and monitoring, and awareness, communication and management. Hussein claimed that, successful completion of Stage 1 will result in net sustainable reductions of minimum of 20.03 ODP tonnes in the national HCFCs consumption by 2015, as well as net CO2-equivalent emission reduction of about 0.66 million tonnes annually from 2015. The country will initially target the air conditioning and foam sectors, where mature and sound alternatives are available, focusing on enterprises with solid financial standing and market reputation as well as larger HCFCs consumption. Within the air conditioning sector, the plan aims at replacing HCFC-22 with R-410A, while it will facilitate the replacement of HCFC-141B with pentane in the foam industry. Hussein said that the second stage of the plan (2015-2022) will focus on the phase-out of the residual HCFCs consumption in the manufacturing sectors which could not be addressed in Stage 1, as well as reduce HCFCs consumption in the servicing sector. It will also include sustained monitoring and enforcement of the regulations issued during Stage 1. Narciso M Zacarias, Principal Engineer ̶ Air Pollution at Dubai Municipality, illustrated Dubai Strategic Plan 2015, which also addresses the issue of HCFCs phase-out. As he explained,

April 2012


event round-up as part of DM green building regulations and specifications, in all new buildings, refrigerants with zero ODP and less than 100 GWP must be used. Furthermore, the venting or direct discharging of any refrigerants during equipment maintenance is strictly prohibited. In addition, recovery, recycling and reclaim of refrigerants for hightemperature and mediumtemperature applications should be practised at all the times. This service, Zacarias said, is provided by companies like Environserve. Zacarias also pointed out that Dubai Municipality is fully committed to the tracking and monitoring of illegal refrigerants’ imports and exports to and from the country and across borders, and is planning to step up its efforts over the coming years. The first day of the conference also featured presentations by regional and international industry representatives, who shared their views on current HCFCs phase-out policies. The session was moderated by Rajendra Shende, Former Director of UNEP and Chairman, TERRE Policy Centre. Torben FunderKristensen, VP, Public and Industry Affairs, Danfoss A/S Denmark - Danfoss Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Controls, pointed out that TEWI, which includes both direct and indirect emissions, is the most important parameter to assess the actual environmental impact of a given refrigerant on global warming. Therefore, its reduction is fundamental to fight climate change. He acknowledged that the purchase cost of a product is important, although the life cycle cost (LCC)


is becoming even more important, as it is directly linked to LLCC. “We encourage investment in low ODP/ GWP refrigerants,” he said. However, he also stressed the fact that, in order to achieve longterm sustainability goals, it’s essential to take into account and balance all parameters, such as low GWP, comfort, service, safety, affordability and efficiency rather than optimising only one of them. Funder-Kristensen added that his company is currently focused on improving energy efficiency and further developing natural refrigerant solutions. Fadi Hachem, Head of District Cooling Division of DC PRO Engineering, addressed the current challenges faced by the district cooling industry as a result of HCFCs phase-out. He explained that the district cooling Industry in large scale projects utilises electric driven centrifugal chillers of 2,000-2,500 TR nominal capacity. To date, these chillers primarily use HFC refrigerant R134A and HCFC refrigerant R123.

The focus should be diverted towards containing [certain] refrigerants rather than phasing them out

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

(L-R) Rajendra Shende, Terre Policy; Stephen Andersen, IGSD

B Surendar, Climate Control Middle East

Stephen Andersen, IGSD

Didier Coulomb, IIR

Frédéric Paillé, Climate Control Middle East

Hachem claimed R-123 refrigerant is a low pressure refrigerant leading to lower leakage rates compared to R-134A, especially with the improved automated purge units. Due to its physical properties, R-123 has a better efficiency rate compared to R-134A when operating under similar conditions. This leads to lower overall energy consumption and an indirect reduction in carbon emissions associated with energy consumption of operating refrigeration equipment. Therefore, Hachem advocated containment of superior quality HCFCs rather than phase-out. “The focus should be diverted towards containing [certain] refrigerants rather than phasing them out,” he said. In his view, this could be achieved through a number of preventive measures, such as provision of proper storage facilities to minimise losses during machine charging and evacuation as required during servicing; provision of machines with the latest high efficiency purging systems; provision of leak detection equipment; training of operation and maintenance personnel in proper handling of refrigerants; enforcement of stringent servicing practices, including log keeping and auditing of the refrigerant annual top up and inventory on site. Martin Dieryckx, Member of the Executive Board — Daikin Europe and In-charge, Environment Research Centre — Daikin McQuay, warned that by 2050, an estimated 76% of all HFC emissions will come from developing countries. This is why they should be the primary focus of global R&D efforts.

He emphasised that the issue of climate change requires prompt action. “To avoid global temperature rise, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere must be stabilised at 550 ppm, 450 ppm or even lower (depending on various policy targets),” he said.“The sooner we introduce better alternatives for today’s HFCs, the lower the global warming impact will be.” He also added that, refrigerant choice varies depending on the application considered. “There is no one-sizefits-all solution,” Dieryckx pointed out. The company is developing R32 split air conditioners as, he claimed, “R32 is the most balanced” refrigerant due to a number of characteristics, such as zero ODP, superior energy efficiency, low global warming impact, low conversion cost, moderate flammability and sufficient supply capability. Dr Nacer Achaichia, Engineering Manager Refrigerants EMEA at Honeywell, discussed the F-Gas regulation review at a EU level, arguing that the key focus should be on emission reduction. He supported a market-based approach and dialogue with the European Commission, the Member States and other stakeholders. In his view, the introduction of a refrigerant consumption cap along with phase-down will drive innovation, as emissive applications will convert rapidly to LGWP solutions. The move will also promote recovery and recycling and recognise the value of HFCs with regard to energy efficiency, safety, environmental performance and total cost of ownership.

April 2012


event round-up Dr Anwar A Hassan, VP, ESG (KSA) and VP Technology at Johnson Controls, said: “Our job is to invest in all viable options and make them available to our clients in proven solid platforms. We do not bet on refrigerants based on short term interest.” He also pointed out that focusing only on GWP can result in the wrong choices for the environment. “By far, the indirect effect is much greater,” Dr Hassan claimed. “Depending on the type, service life, and efficiency of the equipment, the indirect effects can account for up to 95% of the CO2 equivalent emissions over the life of a unit.” Therefore, he said, it’s also important to focus on

the energy efficiency of the candidate refrigerants. Mike Thompson, Global Leader of Refrigerant Strategy — Ingersoll Rand, Trane Commercial Systems, argued that although fluorocarbons cause ODP, GWP or flammability concerns, according to the type selected, some natural refrigerants, on the other hand, pose toxicity, efficiency and cost challenges. As a result, companies should not be pressured into early phase out, but they should be flexible and keep business interests in mind, preserving the best options for as long as possible. Furthermore, strong emphasis should be placed on recycle, recovery and

Don’t miss the May issue for the second part of our post-event coverage, which will spotlight the presentations covering the entire gamut of refrigerants and also issues related to the reclaiming and the reusing of refrigerants.

Yaquob Almatouq, Kuwait


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

Narciso Zacarias, Dubai Municipality

Martin Dieryckx, Daikin (Europe)

Torben Funder-Kristensen, Danfoss (Denmark)

Dr Nacer Achaichia, Honeywell (Brussels)

Dr Anwar Hassan, Johnson Controls

Mike Thompson, Trane Commercial Systems

Cindy Newberg, US Environmental Protection Agency

John Thompson, Office of Environmental Policy, U.S. Department of State

Nina Burhenne, shecco

Fadi Hashem, DC Pro Engineering

April 2012



Pumping it up!

Heat pumps with natural refrigerants represent energy-efficient technology with future prospects, says Eurammon, the European initiative for natural refrigerants, and presents case studies to support its claim.


The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) expects that around 150% more energy will be needed by 2032 compared to today. The growing demand also means higher oil prices, and, therefore, higher costs for the users. The issue of heating costs, in particular, puts great pressure on companies. They need energy for water heating, for air conditioning in offices and workrooms or for manufacturing processes. Heat pumps constitute one possibility for efficient management of necessary heat energy. Energy can be saved, in particular, by those applications that are coupled to heat recovery from industrial processes. Waste heat generated in this way can be put to profitable use in the building – a potential that was scarcely used for a long time. “Heat pumps, operated with natural refrigerants such as ammonia (NH3), are also particularly environmentfriendly,” remarks Thomas Spänich, Member of the Board at Eurammon, the


European initiative for natural refrigerants. “In contrast to synthetic refrigerants, they have either no or only a negligible global warming potential. Heat pumps with natural refrigerants are already being used for cost- and energy-efficient operation. They can be planned and implemented individually, depending on the requirements of the

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

particular building and the customer’s specific needs. The market for heat pumps can, therefore, expect to see further strong growth in the near future.”

Energy-efficient district heating for Sarpsborg, Norway

GEA Refrigeration Germany developed a completely new 2 MW heat pump installation

for the energy provider Bio Varma Sarpsborg AS in Norway to heat water up to +82°C for the municipal district heating network. The heat pump uses two different waste heat sources to keep energy costs as low as possible. 1.5 MW of power comes from re-cooling +45°C warm cooling water from a refrigeration system serving the municipal waste

The system offers a convenient solution for extracting the waste heat at -5°C from the glycol as the secondary refrigerant from the refrigeration process, and raising this to the main heating demand at +60°C

incineration plant, with a further 3 MW supplied in the form of +38°C warm water from a biological sewage plant. Initially, the water is heated using the hot oil in the oil separator. But most of the work is performed by the condenser at a condensation temperature of +82°C maximum. The last few degrees then come from a superheater fed by +105°C hot gas on the jacket side. For the first time, this kind of system has been equipped with two large oil filters and an oil pump with an 18.5 kW motor capable of pumping about 900 l/ min. GEA has also provided a 1,200 kW high-voltage motor and a frequency converter for motor and oil pump. The centrepiece of the system consists in an R-series

high-pressure compressor. However, the high-pressure side of the system had to be rated for a pressure level of 52 bar on account of the high condensation temperatures. This resulted in the need for new components, pipes and mouldings to be procured, and in some cases, even specially designed. The system started operating in September 2010, and has been running perfectly ever since.

Combined cooling and heating in Fleischtrocknerei Churwalden (meat drying plant), Switzerland

Fleischtrocknerei Churwalden AG produces organic quality meat products. Environmentfriendly production is part of the corporate philosophy.




This also includes ecological efficiency of systems and premises. The refrigeration professionals from SSP Kälteplaner developed a sustainable heating and cooling system for the meat-processing centre in Landquart, Switzerland, using heat pumps and refrigerating machines that run on the natural refrigerants, ammonia and carbon dioxide. The central aspect of heat generation and refrigeration consists in making active use of the groundwater stream of the Alpine Rhine plain. Catchments and groundwater pumps take water from the groundwater stream and then return it in thermally changed state. The energy gained in this way – refrigerating or heat energy, as required – is

Connection and DN-sizes

Welded Steel:........................................DN 10 - DN 600 Stainless steel:..........................DN 10 - DN 250 Welded-female thread and

Balancing valves

Ball valves Long stem ball valves

Butterfly valves

Water metering

Due to the welded body construction the valve is light and easy to insulate

female thread-female thread

Spring-loaded PTFE ball seals are confirming complete tightness in the whole range of use

Stainless steel:..........................DN 10 - DN 50

Ball and stem are of stainless steel

Steel:........................................DN 15- DN 600

Blow-out safe construction of the stem is tightened with two o-rings, the upper can be changed

Stainless steel:..........................DN 15- DN 250

Long working life and maintenance free design

Steel:........................................DN 15 - DN 600

Available with welded, thread and flanged connections Tested in accordance with EN 488 ISO 9001 certificated

Steel:........................................DN 10 - DN 50 Welded-flange

Flange-flange Stainless steel:..........................DN 15 - DN 250 Fullbore models also available. Butterfly valves welded and flange Steel:.........................................DN 350 - DN 1200




For the first time, this kind of system has been equipped with two large oil filters and an oil pump with an 18.5 kW motor capable of pumping about 900 l/min brought to the required temperatures by refrigerating machines and heat pumps for a wide range of uses. The production and administration buildings need thermal energy at different temperatures. Heat energy of altogether around 950 kW is needed on two different temperature levels: at medium temperatures of about +60°C as process energy, among others, for climatic chambers, hot process water or container washing machines, and at lower temperatures of up to +40°C as heat energy for heating purposes, for dehumidification, for preheating hot process water and for defrosting the cold storage rooms. A refrigerating plant capacity of 1,200 kW is needed for maintaining temperatures around freezing point for workrooms, and also for temperatures of -8°C in chilled storage rooms and maturing plants, as well as temperatures of -25°C in the deep-freeze storage rooms. A two-stage ammonia heat pump is used for heating


purposes according to the different temperature levels, using groundwater at +12°C and +8°C. Each stage is fitted with two York/Sabroe reciprocating compressors, which are regulated in a stepless manner by frequency changers. Cassette-welded plate heat exchangers by Alfa Laval are used as evaporators and condensers. The ammonia charge in the heat pump amounts to approximately 300 kilogrammes. The production systems are rated for temperatures in the medium range of +60°C. The motor waste heat and compression heat from the compressed air and vacuum generation system is fed directly into the system, while the ammonia heat pump generates the necessary remaining energy. The ammonia heat pump also plays a supportive role at the lower temperature level of +40°C and generates the necessary remaining energy. The “warm” groundwater basin acts as heat source. Consistent use is made of any generated waste heat. Where possible, it is fed directly into the heat distribution system and distributed again immediately. This is used for cooling motors, including

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

those used, for example, for generating compressed air or in the central vacuum system. Waste heat on the lower level is dissipated into the “warm” groundwater basin. This includes condensation waste heat from the refrigeration and tool cooling at the packaging machines in the framework of the cooling water circuit. Two ammonia refrigerating machines are responsible for refrigeration and are cooled with groundwater. After cooling, the water is fed to the “warm” groundwater basin. When the need arises, the heat pump can bring the waste heat from the basin up to a higher

The central aspect of heat generation and refrigeration consists in making active use of the groundwater stream of the Alpine Rhine plain

temperature. Refrigerating energy of 0°C and -8°C is generated in each case by a refrigerating machine using NH3 as refrigerant and two industrial reciprocating compressors. One of the respective compressors in each case is equipped with a frequency changer. The energy is transported to the refrigeration sites using a water/glycol blend as secondary refrigerant. The recooling energy is taken from the “cold” groundwater basin. Exchanging the water from the heat pump to the refrigerating machine and vice versa achieves maximum efficiency ratios, while keeping the drive motors and refrigerant circuits as small as possible. Buffer storage facilities with a volume of 30,000, have been installed for both secondary refrigerant networks in order to optimise operations. The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide is used in the deep-freeze storage rooms. The refrigerant is evaporated directly with electronic expansion valves in the room chillers, before passing to the reciprocating compressor, where it is liquefied to subcritical state in a cascade condenser. The waste heat from the

systems is dissipated to the glycol network at a temperature of -8°C where the heat can be put indirectly to further use. In summer, needed cooling energy is taken from the “cold” groundwater basin and used directly for room cooling in ventilation systems, cooling ceilings or in server rooms. Apart from the pump conveying energy, no primary energy is used for air conditioning refrigeration.

Heat pump supplies chocolate factory with hot water free of cost

In 2010, refrigeration professionals, Star Refrigeration, won an order from Nestlé to develop a heat pump solution for a chocolate factory in the

British branch in order to bring about significant reductions in the energy costs for refrigeration and heating applications. It replaced existing R22 packaged chillers and a central coal-operated steam generation unit, which supplied all terminal devices and systems using and dissipating hot steam during their work processes. The new concept entailed taking waste heat from the cooling circuit and boosting it to provide process water heating up to the required temperature. Star Refrigeration’s “Neatpump” heat pump was to provide water up to a temperature of +60°C which was to be fed as preliminary heat also to processes needing higher temperatures. Given the food

manufacturer’s commitment to keeping its carbon emissions as small as possible, environmentfriendly heat pump technology had to be used here. But apart from the fact that heat pumps were still mainly operated with HFCs, for the most part any system using natural refrigerants uses reciprocating compressors or screw compressors, which cause high maintenance costs or worked constantly at their limit. In cooperation with Vilter Manufacturing, USA, and Cool Partners, DK, Star Refrigeration developed a high-pressure heat pump solution that works both with ammonia as an environment-friendly, highly energy-efficient refrigerant and also with

screw compressors to a temperature of +90°C. The system offers a convenient solution for extracting the waste heat at -5°C from the glycol as the secondary refrigerant from the refrigeration process, and raising this to the main heating demand at +60°C. A new gas-fired boiler is used to increase the +60°C water temperature for a number of smaller heating demands on site. The heat and refrigeration load profiles of the existing systems ascertained in advance showed that the heat pump compressors had to generate about 1.25 MW of high temperatures to satisfy the total demand for hot water. The new solution was, therefore, chosen with 914 kW refrigeration capacity and

April 2012


perspective Annex

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide is known in refrigeration technology as R 744 and has a long history extending back to the mid-19th century. It is a colourless gas that liquefies under pressure, with a slightly acidic odour and taste. Carbon dioxide has no ozone depletion potential (ODP = 0) and negligible direct global warming potential (GWP = 1) when used as a refrigerant in closed cycles. It is non-flammable, chemically inert and heavier than air. Carbon dioxide has a narcotic and asphyxiating effect only in high concentrations. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in abundance.

heating application (COPhc) is a moderate 6.25. The additional energy required to raise the condensing temperature from design summer ambient conditions with air cooled condenser to a temperature suitable for +60°C hot water production was only 108 kW. This resulted in an incremental COPhc (energy to create +60°C water minus energy to reject cooling load heat at design conditions) of 11.57. Using the waste heat from the refrigeration applications

Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potential of Refrigerants Ammonia (NH3) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Hydrocarbons (propane C3H8, propene C3H6, isobutane C4H10) Water (H2O) Chlorofluoro-hydrocarbons (CFCs) Partially halogenated chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) Per-fluorocarbons (PFCs) Partially halogenated fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFCs)

Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)

The ozone layer is damaged by the catalytic action of chlorine, fluorine and bromine in compounds, which reduce ozone to oxygen and thus destroy the ozone layer. The Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of a compound is shown as chlorine equivalent (ODP of a chlorine molecule = 1).

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

The greenhouse effect arises from the capacity of materials in the atmosphere to reflect the heat emitted by the Earth back onto the Earth. The direct Global Warming Potential (GWP) of a compound is shown as a CO2 equivalent (GWP of a CO2 molecule = 1). 346 kW absorbed power rating from the waste heat. The COP in the framework of combined refrigeration/


Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

0 0 0

0 1 <3

0 1 0.02–0.06

0 4680–10720 76–12100

0 0

5820–12010 122–14310

has paid off for Nestlé: Since starting operations in May 2010, the system uses and heats around 54,000 litres of municipal water per day, thus saving around £30,000 in gas costs each year. Since the end of 2010, the site has also been using a further 250 kW in waste heat for its self-contained cooling circuits. The heat provided by the system also doubled by the middle of last year. In this way, the company saves an estimated approx. £143,000 in heating costs while reducing its carbon emissions by 119,100 kilogrammes. Moreover, the costs for electrical operation of the plant are reduced by around £120,000 per annum, despite combined refrigeration and heat generation.

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

Heat pumps with natural refrigerants on the advance

Heating and energy consumption are topics of interest not just for the industry: Home owners are also on the lookout for suitable technologies for keeping overheads as low as possible and saving energy. “Hot water heat pumps using CO2 as refrigerant, are particularly interesting,” says Spänich. “They can make full use of the characteristics of the supercritical refrigerant process. Optimum adjustment to the heating up process permits excellent performance ratios with very high water output temperatures of up to +90°C in some cases,” the member of the Eurammon Board continues. “In Germany, this solution has hitherto seen only isolated use. By contrast, in Japan the Japanese Government subsidises purchases of CO2 heat pumps so that around two million units were sold throughout the country already by the end of 2009. This number should reach 10 million by 2020.” n

The waste heat from the systems is dissipated to the glycol network at a temperature of -8°C where the heat can be put indirectly to further use

Using the waste heat from the refrigeration applications has paid off for Nestlé: Since starting operations in May 2010, the system uses and heats around 54,000 litres of municipal water per day, thus saving around £30,000 in gas costs each year Annex

Ammonia (NH3)

Ammonia has been successfully used as a refrigerant in industrial refrigeration plants for over 100 years. It is a colourless gas, liquefies under pressure, and has a pungent odour. In coolant technology, ammonia is known as R 717 (R = Refrigerant) and is synthetically produced for use in refrigeration. Ammonia has no ozone depletion potential (ODP = 0) and no direct global warming potential (GWP = 0). Thanks to its high energy efficiency, its contribution to the indirect global warming potential is also low. Ammonia is flammable. However, its ignition energy is 50 times higher than that of natural gas and ammonia will not burn without a supporting flame. Due to the high affinity of ammonia for atmospheric humidity, it is rated as “hardly flammable”. Ammonia is toxic, but has a characteristic, sharp smell, which gives a warning below concentrations of 3 mg/m³ ammonia in air possible. This means that ammonia is evident at levels far below those which endanger health (>1,750 mg/m³). Furthermore, ammonia is lighter than air, and therefore, rises quickly.

References static_files_project/media/ downloads/publications/ WOO_2011.pdf







For further information on the event, contact MEHWISH HILAL: or +97143756840


Revisiting flammable refrigerants â&#x20AC;&#x201C; stem that leak

Thomas Blewitt and Abhay Miglani have authored a whitepaper to explore the implications of increased and widespread use of flammable refrigerants in HVAC equipment and appliances, with the principle focus on the use of hydrocarbons as refrigerants. The writers hope that the paper will initiate a dialogue among stakeholders to mitigate the hazards flammable refrigerants pose. Part I of the paper delineates the theme and discusses safety issues. to revisit the potential use of substances that have good environmental and thermodynamic properties as refrigerants, but which are also, unfortunately, flammable.


Since the 1989 Montreal Protocol and its successor agreements have come into being, the world of refrigerants has been marked by change. In its search for more environmentally friendly refrigerants, technology has moved from chlorofluorocarbons to a host of alternative substances. Many of these substances serve as interim measures, until the phase-out of ozone-depleting and globalwarming refrigerants meet the targets set by the US Clean Air Act. The journey towards compliance has caused the HVAC equipment and appliance industries


An increased use of flammable refrigerants in the US?

It may be surprising to learn that the first commercial refrigerant was a flammable refrigerant. In 1850, an ethyl ether vapour compression system for ice making was developed. From that humble beginning of freezing a simple pail of water, a robust vapour compression refrigeration industry was developed.1 Today, ice-making alone is a nearly one billion-dollar industry in the US. Along the way, scientists, engineers and probably more than a few tinkerers2 have experimented with numerous potential refrigerants. Ammonia (R717) was an early choice for breweries and continues to be a popular

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

refrigerant in industrial applications, including food processing, pharmaceutical and, even today, breweries.3 Noxious, but non-flammable sulphur dioxide (R764) became popular for small refrigerating systems, and was in widespread use in the US into the 1940s.4 Methyl

It is much more difficult to anticipate the abuse of equipment in use, and to design appropriate safety features to mitigate that risk

chloride (R40) experienced brief popularity, but its flammability and potential toxicity ultimately made it unsuitable as a refrigerant. Propane (R290) was touted as a replacement for ammonia refrigerant in the 1920s.5 Isobutane (R600a) was first used as a refrigerant for small systems in the 1920s, but as with other flammable refrigerants (except ammonia), it quickly fell out of use when chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants were introduced for commercial use in 1931.6 CFCs had a 60-year run as the refrigerants of choice, until they were identified in the late 1970s as ozonedepleting substances. The phase-out of CFC refrigerants began a little over 10 years later. A mature safety system had evolved over the decades, as various industries settled upon refrigerants which were generally nontoxic and non-flammable, which provided consistent performance, and which

were relatively inexpensive.7 Household refrigerators used the CFC R12. Larger commercial refrigerators used another CFC, R502, while air conditioners used R11 (CFC) and R22 (HCFC). Manufacturers ensured that their equipment was appropriately designed and constructed using wellestablished criteria and standards, chose the correct refrigerant for the application, and then sold the equipment for installation and use in accordance with equally wellestablished standards and codes. However, beginning with the phase-out of CFCs, the choice of refrigerant has increasingly become a complicating factor in equipment design, construction, installation and use. In the US, the

widespread use of pure hydrocarbon refrigerants, flammable hydrocarbon refrigerant blends, or halohydrocarbon blends with flammable hydrocarbons has further complicated matters.

Challenges posed by flammable refrigerants

Vapour compression refrigeration in appliances is a closed system that circulates a volume of refrigerant and lubricant under pressure. This system typically operates under variable environmental conditions, and often must be capable of adjustment to meet the end-use application. From a traditional electrical equipment safety perspective, (electric shock, fire and casualty hazards), appliance designers have sought to reliably contain the

In the US, the widespread use of pure hydrocarbon refrigerants, flammable hydrocarbon refrigerant blends, or halohydrocarbon blends with flammable hydrocarbons has further complicated matters April 2012

refrigerant. To accomplish this, they have used tubing, vessels and other components with sufficient mechanical strength to handle the developed pressures under expected normal and abnormal operating conditions. Because the typical HVAC and appliance refrigerant gas (excluding ammonia) was non-toxic in the volumes used and non-flammable, the potential for gas leakage or explosion was not considered to be a safety concern, except under fire conditions. In such cases, the refrigerant system was required to have a means for the controlled venting of refrigerant, before pressure build-up could cause an explosion hazard. Aside from locations where large quantities of refrigerant might be


White Paper: Revisiting Flammable Refrigerants

perspective Figure 1 — Stakeholder Interest Areas



Flammable Refrigerants


2L Refrigerant

(Retailer, Independent – NATE…, Vendors, Owner…)

(ACS, Bulk Suppliers, Local Suppliers…) ASHRAE 34

Regulations DOT Other?

Regulations EPA SNAP Other?

Appliances (AHAM, AHRI, NAMA, NAFEM…)



(Retailers, Distributors – MAFSI…, Designers – FCSI… , Shippers…)

(home, office, convenience / grocery stores, restaurants, cold storage, schools, institutional…)

Disposal (transfer, landfill, recycler…)

Regulations EPA State / Local

Product Safety Standards UL 250 (60335-2-24) UL 471 UL 984 (60335-2-34) UL 484 (60335-2-40) UL 541 UL 474 (60335-2-40) UL 1995 (60335-2-40) UL 921 UL 1258 UL 399 other

Fire Service (Fire Departments, NFPA, ICC, Fire Marshals…)

Mechanical Officials

Codes NFPA 70 NFPA 58 ASHRAE 15 NFPA 90A/90B IMC, UMC, IFC, NFPA 1 other? Regulations OSHA State / Local CPSC (future?)

Figure 1: Stakeholder Interest Areas Table 1 — Phase-out of HCFC’s in US

found (for example, where the hydrocarbon gas depends upon the properties systems are often assembled 18 Scheduled Phase-out of HCFCs largeUS commercial/industrial travels after leaking from of the blended gases, and on-site, they are more often facilities), system. If theImplementation gas and air ofwhether they separate subject to leaks.13 Indeed, Year there has been % Reduction the Consumption HCFC Phase-out Per Cleaninto Air Act leakage is regarded as a limited concern for theand safety mixture is within the upper individual component gases Production# given for field-assembled of refrigerant-containing and lower flammability limits (fractionate).12 10 Smallofquantities of HCFC 22, except equipment. The Clean Air Act appliances of (UFL and LFL respectively) 2010 in all manner 75.0% No production or importing HCFC 142b and use in equipmentflammable manufactured before 2010. for the particularforrefrigerant, refrigerant now requires refrigerant leaks occupancies.8 This would include locations where a the mixture is flammable in discharged into an open to be repaired for systems 2015 90.0% No production or importing of any HCFCs, except for use number of appliances are the presence of an ignition area may disperse at a containing over 50 pounds in equipment manufactured before 2020. stored or used (for example, source. Hot surfaces11 and rate that ensures that the of refrigerant if the leakage 2020 99.5% 9 No production of HCFC 142b and electrical arcs, such as those or importing warehouses, retail locations)’ LFL is not achieved orHCFC is 22. is determined to be 35% or or how the appliances are present at the contacts of achieved for a very brief time greater in a 12-month period 2030 100.0% No production or importing of any HCFCs. transported, serviced or electrical switching contacts period. However, for larger for commercial refrigeration, # disposed of. prior However, a (switches, temperature and quantities of refrigerant, or in and 15% for comfort cooling Using cap asifbaseline flammable refrigerant were to humidity controls, etc.), situations in which the leaked and other appliances.14 Therefore, the use of a be used in these appliances, it are the principal potential refrigerant is contained in a flammable refrigerant in such cannot be assumed that safety ignition sources in HVAC and smaller volume space, or in equipment would require is adequately assured. appliances. which the leaked refrigerant page 6 improved containment Hydrocarbon refrigerants The same concerns hold accumulates (for example, features over those found in (HCs) present a risk of fire true for other flammable heavier-than-air refrigerant), non-flammable refrigerant and explosion hazard if there refrigerants, as well as for it is more likely that the LFL is a refrigerant leak. The refrigerant blends containing can be reached and sustained. systems. It would also require mechanical ventilation and vapour within the closed flammable refrigerant Supermarket refrigerated other mitigation procedures refrigeration system is not components. The presence cases and building air flammable until oxygen is of a flammable gas and conditioning systems typically at the installation site to avoid the presence of a present at the location of the air mixture from a leaking have larger quantities of flammable gas and air leak, or in the location(s) refrigerant blend additionally refrigerant. Because these


Climate Control Middle East April 2012

mixture at potential ignition sources, either on the equipment or in the installation environment. Smaller equipment, such as household refrigerators can also leak. Improved containment over non-flammable refrigerant systems is also appropriate, but mechanical ventilation or other means to disperse the refrigerant may not be practical for such appliances. Equipment designers must then look to avoid placing potential ignition sources in locations (for example, a storage compartment, hollow in a wall, etc.) that could yield a flammable gas and air mixture in the event of a leak. The designer, of course, can often do little about other possible ignition sources in the installed environment. All equipment is serviced and, ultimately, disposed of. These activities also are potential situations for leakage. The equipment design must minimise the risk of fire or explosion during servicing, and service personnel must have sufficient

knowledge to safely do their job. Upon disposal, the refrigerant should be recovered, though relatively small propane or isobutane refrigerant charges could conceivably be released to the air in a controlled manner.15 Parties involved in the disposal of HVAC equipment and appliances should also have sufficient knowledge to perform their job safely, and should be able to identify equipment with a flammable refrigerant charge. For their part, equipment designers must anticipate the need to evacuate the refrigerant from equipment upon disposal and to

facilitate identification of locations on the equipment intended for this purpose. Most appliances, room HVAC equipment and split systems are factory charged, and subsequently transported with the charge present, and may be transported multiple additional times throughout the productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s useful life. Vehicle transport can jar or vibrate the parts containing refrigerant, increasing the risk of leakage. Designers must account for these concerns in the equipment design, as well as the equipment packaging. If an individual appliance has a

The Clean Air Act now requires refrigerant leaks to be repaired for systems containing over 50 pounds of refrigerant if the leakage is determined to be 35% or greater in a 12-month period for commercial refrigeration, and 15% for comfort cooling and other appliances April 2012


perspective small refrigerant charge, but there are many such appliances at a given location (eg, a warehouse or tractortrailer), the aggregate amount of flammable refrigerant may be relatively large. Though it is unlikely under normal circumstance that all of the appliances might simultaneously leak, a warehouse fire or transportation accident could lead to the leakage of large volumes of flammable refrigerant. While the risk conditions noted above can often be anticipated in the design process, it is much more difficult to anticipate the abuse of equipment in use, and to design appropriate safety features to mitigate that risk. For example, vending machines are checked for the risk of

overturning in cases where the equipment is rocked back and forth to dislodge a vended product. But what type of rocking test would adequately assess the risk involving a vending machine with flammable refrigerant? It can also be a challenge to ensure that an installation site doesn’t pose an unacceptable risk. For example, how can local building authorities anticipate and address the potential risk posed by having multiple appliances containing flammable refrigerant in a single-family residence or in a children’s play area or classroom? These and similar such concerns involve a number of potential stakeholders who individually and collectively have a key role in ensuring the safety of HVAC equipment and

, Yo u r t r u s t e d pa r t n e r f o r Yo u r engineering, energY and environment solutions

appliances containing flammable refrigerants. As the publisher of equipment safety standards for HVAC equipment and appliances, Underwriters Laboratories Inc (UL) has identified stakeholder interests that it believes to be relevant to the total safety system, in which safety standards are an essential element. These areas of interest are depicted in Figure 1. Stakeholder identification is just a first step in undertaking a unified and coordinated review of the potential impact of the wider use of flammable refrigerants in HVAC equipment and appliances. Gaps in codes and standards for installation and use, including the applicable equipment safety standards, need to be identified and addressed. Education and training for installers, service personnel, storage and retail facilities operators, fire fighters and inspection professionals will also be important. The remaining parts of this paper will explore the most important factors that are expected to result in flammable refrigerant HVAC equipment and appliances, the current state of safety standards, and some nearterm activities to address the gaps. n Thomas Blewitt is Director of Primary Designated Engineers, Underwriters Laboratories and can be contacted at: Thomas.V.Blewitt@

eng i n e e r i ng

e n e r g y

e n v i ro n m en t

Abhay Miglani, is Business Manager, India, Middle East & Africa, Underwriters Laboratories and can be contacted at: Abhay.miglani@

phone +971 4 445 7131, +971 4 447 4407 Fax +971 4 447 4410 p.o.Box 125787, Jumeirah Lakes towers tiffany tower, 30th Floor - Dubai, U.a.e.

the three Factor company


Climate Control Middle East April 2012




References: [1] [1] CFC’s: Time of Transition, ASHRAE, 1989, p 4. [2] Individuals experimenting with refrigerants outside of university and corporate laboratories are not just a thing of times past. Hawaii News Now (hawaiinewsnow. com) reported in a June 20, 2008 article by Howard Dashefsky that auto mechanic Richard Maruya of Kaneohe, HI developed the hydrocarbon refrigerants HCR 188 and HCR 188c in his garage using off-the-shelf materials. These refrigerants are currently out for public review for recognition under the EPA SNAP Program. [3] Ammonia Refrigeration Products and Services, “What is Ammonia Refrigeration,” by Renewable Energy institute,http:// [4] CFCs: Time of Transition, ASHRAE, 1989, p 9. [5] Ibid, p 11. [6] Ibid. [7] For example, R12 was so inexpensive that it was commonly used as an aerosol propellant in consumer products such as hairspray. [8] This observation is based on the appliance being used and installed as intended by the manufacturer and does not take into account environmental concerns or abuse (eg refrigerant “huffing”). [9] This observation doesn’t take into account the potential exposure to byproducts of combustion that may be present in a building fire. [10] From UL 250 Table SA5.1 Refrigerant lower flammability limit (LFL): 2.1% for propane (R290), 1.5% for n-butane (R600), 1.8% for isobutane (R600a). [11] From UL 250 Table SA5.1 Refrigerant ignition temperature: 470oC for propane, 365oC for n-butane and 460 oC for isobutane. [12] This is a simplification of what can be a complex circumstance. Other factors, including compressor motor lubricants, the nature of the leak and ambient environment, among others, can affect the risk that a flammable gas and air mixture is present. [13] Historically, “the average (commercial) refrigeration system loses its complete refrigerant charge three times in 10 years,” according to“The True Cost of Refrigeration Leaks,” Esslinger, S., “CFC’s in Transition,” ASHRAE, 1989, p 235.

21-22 May 2012 COMBINED CourseS fee:

air and liquid filtration

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USD 2,599

Industrial filtration training courses


he courses are of interest to engineers, scientists, managers and other technical personnel involved in air and gas filtration and solid-liquid separation in the process and related industries, including in building services engineering and swimming pool and spa applications. They will find the course informative, regardless of whether they design, purchase, research or use filtration and separation equipment. Plant engineers, technicians and operators will find the course materials directly applicable, and graduate students will value the expert introduction to the technologies.

MAY 21 – AIR AND GAS FILTRATION This training course reviews air and gas filtration processes, with emphasis on practical aspects, and presents theoretical information only when it is necessary to better understand the practical applications of filtration. It will draw upon the presenters’ in-depth knowledge of industrial applications and extensive R&D experience. Scope n Introduction to air filtration n Filtration processes n Principles and mechanisms n Air filtration testing

Course fee:

n Filter media and cartridge design n Regional Perspectives n Underlying filtration parameters n Appropriate filter selection

USD 1,599



his training course is a review of the processes involved in the separation of solids from liquids, which emphasises practical aspects and presents appropriate theoretical information. It covers applied technical aspects of solid-liquid separation, the selection of separators and filters, and commercial considerations when selling or buying solid-liquid separation equipment. The course is a review of the processes involved in the separation of solids from liquids. It will draw upon the presenters in depth knowledge of industrial applications and extensive R&D experience, and the emphasis will be on practical aspects with theoretical information presented only where needed to support understanding of the applications. Scope n Practical aspects of the basics of sedimentation and filtration n Measurement of applicable filtration data n Filter media n Membrane filters

Course fee:

n Centrifugal separators n Pressure and vacuum filters n Selection, analysis and simulation of SLS equipment

USD 1,599


Introduction Definition, background, objectives and importance.

9:55 - 10:40 Filtration processes Surface vs. Depth filtration. Fabric filters – shaker, reverse flow, pulse jet filters. Filtration Applications. 10:40 - 11:25 Filter performance characteristics Pressured drop, overall efficiency and life time. Pollutants: Types and size distributions. Significance of their characterization in filter selection. Principles of Aerosol Filtration. Principles and filtration mechanisms. Capture efficiency. Loading of filters. Typical filter efficiencies. Charged and uncharged filters. 11:25 - 12:10 Break and discussion period 12:10 - 13:00 Testing Filter Media for Gas Applications Pressure drop, permeability, arrestance and filter clogging. Challenge testing. Filter classes (primary, secondary, HEPA and ULPA). Filter efficiency testing. 13:00 - 14:00 Lunch 14:00 - 14:40 Filter design Fresh air filters, pre-filters, Fine filters and Absolute filters. Different filter designs and corresponding applications. 14:40 - 15:20 Non-woven Media – Production, Structure and Properties How non-woven media are made. Types of media (needlefelts, bonded, dry laid spun, wet laid fibrous). Filter constructions from non-woven media and their applications (for gas and liquid applications). Nanofibres. Surface treated media. 15:20 - 15:45 Break and discussion period 15:45 - 16:15 Hot Gas Filtration Filter media for hot gas filtration, including reactive media. Meat filters. Ceramic and mineral filters. Catalytic filters. 16:15 - 16:45 Regional Perspective Filter Performance in the Gulf States. Effect of sand storms. Clean air and IAQ. 16:45 - 17:15 Underlying Parameters Appropriate installation and disposal, proper maintenance and Appropriate filter selection. 17:15 - 17:30 Closing remarks.


Introduction The Solid/Liquid Separation process; overview of the course.

9:45 - 10:30

Principles of Sedimentation and Filtration Sedimentation and cake filtration fundamentals (including compressible cakes) – how cake filters work. Driving forces for solid-liquid separation equipment. Depth filtration fundamentals – how depth filters work. Importance of correct filter media selection.

10:30 - 11:15 Getting Filtration Data Obtaining necessary data to select and size solid-liquid separation equipment: laboratory tests (leaf tests, pilot scale tests, jar tests) and their relevance to process scale filters. 11:15 - 11:40 Break and discussion period 11:40 - 12:25 Media used in Liquid Filtration Woven fabrics, wirecloths and composites; properties and applications characteristics. 12:25 - 13:10 Membrane Filtration Membrane filters (microfilters, ultrafilters and nanofilters), types of media (e.g. polymeric, ceramic and metallic), media configurations (e.g. sheet, wound spirals, pleated cartridges) and their characteristics, and their operational properties. 13:10 - 14:00 Lunch 14:00 - 14:40 Pressure Filters Alternative designs of pressure filters (e.g. filter presses, tubular and leaf element filters, variable volume filters, belt presses), clarification filters (e.g. diatomaceous earth filters) effects of filter operating characteristics, applications. 14:40 - 15:20 Vacuum Filters Alternative designs of vacuum filters (e.g. drum and disc filters, belt filters, table filters, pan filters), precoat filters, effects of filter operating characteristics, applications. 15:20 - 15:45 Break and discussion period 15:45 - 16:30 Centrifugal Separators Sedimenting and filtering centrifuges – principles and alternative centrifuge designs (e.g. plough, peeler, pusher and decanter centrifuges). 16:30 - 17:15 How to Select Solid-Liquid Separation Equipment Generic equipment types, approaches to selection and simulation, use of computer software (methodology, selection charts, and data analysis) showing simple and advanced procedures. 17:15 - 17:30 Closing Remarks

Many topics are covered in further detail in the books: Solid/Liquid Separation: Principles of Industrial Filtration, R.J. Wakeman and E.S. Tarleton, xii + 339 pages, Elsevier Advanced Technology, Oxford, 2005 (ISBN 1 8561 74190) Solid/Liquid Separation: Scale-up of Industrial Equipment, ed. R.J. Wakeman and E.S. Tarleton, xvi + 454 pages, Elsevier Advanced Technology, Oxford, 2005 (ISBN 1 8561 74204) Solid/Liquid Separation: Equipment Selection and Process Design, E.S. Tarleton and R.J. Wakeman, xv + 448 pages, Elsevier Advanced Technology, Oxford, 2007 (ISBN 1 8561 74212) The Dictionary of Filtration and Separation, Steve Tarleton and Richard Wakeman, vi + 303 pages, Filtration Solutions, Exeter, 2008 (ISBN 978-0-9559346-0-5)

The trainers

Professor Richard Wakeman (richard@ is a consultant chemical engineer with many years experience of working with industry internationally. He obtained a PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Manchester Institute of Technology (UMIST), and later he held professorships at Loughborough (UK), Exeter (UK), Pardubice (Czech Republic) and Chung Yuan (Taiwan) Universities and has been the Golden Jubilee Visiting Fellow at Mumbai University (India). He is the Honorary Secretary of The Filtration Society, a Chartered Engineer and a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers and the Royal Academy of Engineering, and has been Chairman of The Filtration Society. He has been the Executive Editor of The Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers and is an Editor of Filtration. He has authored many books and over 400 technical articles. His work has been published widely and received recognition through several awards, including the Junior Moulton Medal (1978) and Moulton Medals (1991 and 1995) of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, The Suttle Award (1971) and the Gold Medal (1993, 2003 and 2005) of The Filtration Society, The Chemical Weekly Award of The Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers (2005), and the Arnold Green Medal of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (2008).

Dr Iyad Al Attar ( is an international consultant in air filtration, his PhD and Master degrees involved conducting research on advanced air filtration technologies with special emphasis on the physical and chemical characterization of atmospheric and synthetic dust and the air filter performance operating in sand storm climate conditions. Dr Al-Attar is a mechanical engineer, a graduate from the University of Toronto, Kuwait University and Loughborough University where he received his Doctorate in filtration. In 2008, the journal Filtration, which is the official journal of The Filtration Society and the American Filtration and Separations Society, appointed Dr Al-Attar as an international member of the Editorial Board from Kuwait. Dr Al-Attar is the author of air filtration series in Climate Control Middle East magazine.

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LED lighting is increasingly seen as a cost-effective and sustainable solution by building owners and the retail and hospitality sectors. Seen through the HVACR prism, it has a far-reaching positive impact on global warming.

Light-emitting diode, or LED lighting is a preferred choice of illumination in most new constructions compared to traditional incandescent bulbs. The obvious advantages LED lighting offers clearly tips the balance in its favour: It has a longer lifecycle, thus minimising the need for frequent replacements and putting pressure on landfills; it does not use mercury, a hazardous substance; it is energy-efficient and cost effective. To put it succinctly, it has a positive impact on energy bills and the environment. Viewed from the HVACR standpoint, this translates into a major step forward for the sector. LED lighting emits light without the attendant heat. In fact, experts claim that LED fixtures emit as much as 95% less heat than their traditional counterparts. This reduces the heat load in a building, thereby reducing the pressure on air cooling systems, which consequently, consume


fewer units of energy. This dramatically brings down the cost of running air conditioning systems. Apart from individual benefits to end users, building owners and real estate developers, it is also beneficial to the retail and the hospitality sectors. More significantly, it has a far-reaching ecological impact. A drastic reduction in carbon emission leads to corresponding reduction in carbon footprint of buildings, and, ultimately, global warming. Given the demonstrable environmental benefits, the hospitality industry, in particular, with its constant operational demands has a significant potential to make large energy savings by switching over to LED lighting. Currently, 42% of

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

energy usage comes from lighting, of which 70% is inefficient. Closer to home, reportedly, approximately 22% of the electricity used in the Middle East is spent on lighting, which is a higher rate compared to the rest of the world. Seen in this light,

Currently, 42% of energy usage comes from lighting, of which 70% is inefficient

Illuminesca, dedicated to LED, was an event aimed to raise awareness about new lighting solutions. The underlying purpose was to prove in real time through live demonstrations, why LED was a sustainable alternative in the long run. Organised by the Royal Philips Electronics, it was held on March 14 at the Dubai Festival Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Intercontinental Hotel, and attracted stakeholders like engineers, architects, designers and management of hotels, malls and supermarkets. The event reportedly showcased the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s latest retail and hospitality LED lighting innovations, which lay claim to reducing carbon emission, saving energy and lowering operational costs. n

spotlight This is the thirteenth in a multi-part series on air filtration

Waiting to


In Part 13 of the series on air filtration, Dr Iyad Al-Attar dispels misconceptions regarding particle straining and highlights the fact that the subject deserves greater attention.

I It is an irony of our times that we human beings have been increasingly contributing to air pollution, even as we keep coming up with ways of improving Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Though we may take pride in the belief that indoor air quality is a modernday concept, born of our concern for health and hygiene, and a necessary pre-requisite of any civilised society, history proves that such concerns were raised as early as around the mid-1200s. However, the subject has

not received the attention it deserves. It is a fact that we might survive for two weeks without food and two days without water but only for two minutes without air. It is a precondition of life. A normal adult processes 10 to 25 m3 (12 to 30 kilogrammes) of air per day [1,2]. Along with it, a lot of impurities also get processed through our respiratory system. Particles suspended in the air we breathe follow a flow path that goes through a sequence of airways as it travels from the trachea to the alveolar surfaces. The airways are lined with millions of cilia (micro-hairs) beating with a wavelike motion to propel mucus, microbes and dust, so that they are eventually coughed up. Once particles are inhaled, their retention duration in the lung varies, depending

on their physicochemical properties, their location within the lungs, and the type of clearance mechanism involved. The health effects of inhaled particles depend on their chemical composition and particle size, as well as

Air properties, composition and the physics of its movement are fundamental to the behaviour of suspended particles April 2012

their deposition location. Particle deposition in the human respiratory system takes place in varying geometry, with flow that changes both in time and cycles in direction [1,3].

The finer points of air mechanics

An ideal start to understanding the engineering behind air filtration is simply to study air. Air properties, composition and the physics of its movement are fundamental to the behaviour of suspended particles. The key element in the analysis is examining the flow of air surrounding a particle, which requires a fluid mechanics approach, as it involves studying how particles may move in relation to air [1]. It is also important to take a closer look at the


spotlight 1% 21%

Nitrogen Oxygen Other Gases and Impurities





P df

Figure 1: Gases: (Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, water vapour, ammonia, nitrogenoxides, hydrogen sulphide) Impurities: (Pollen, volcanic ash, dust, sea salt, mould, bacteria spores) composition of air as shown in Figure 1. As is evident in the figure, air is a gas mixture which consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, and nearly one per cent of argon, neon, helium, krypton, hydrogen, xenon, traces of other gases and

atmospheric impurities [4,5].

Sieving through misconceptions

There are a few misconceptions that need to be addressed and dispelled regarding air filtration. They can

Strainer (Filter)

Tea leaves (Particles)

Figure 2: Tea leaves strained due to their particle size

Open pore

Figure 3: Illustration of particle removal in fibrous filter by different filtration mechanisms


Climate Control Middle East April 2012


Figure 4: An example of particle bounce after colliding with the fibre surface be summed up under the following rubrics: n Particle straining n Particle bounce n Particle shape Particle straining: Particle straining is concerned with the general perception that filtration is a simple process of straining (sieving). Straining (which has been discussed at length in earlier parts) occurs when a particle in the feed is larger than the pore or constriction (space) through which it is attempting to pass [6]. When we think about the process of filtration, our mind typically thinks of the process of straining tea leaves through a strainer as an immediate and empirical analogy, as shown in Figure 2. However, there is more to the mechanism of filtration than meets the eye. It involves complex processes, like inertial impaction, interception and diffusion play, which collectively impact the process of particle removal. Figure 3 illustrates a very good example of how the entire gamut of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;capture mechanicsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; operates simultaneously. It shows how particles smaller in size than that of the pores were captured around filter fibres, although from the standpoint of size, they could have passed through the highlighted larger pores.

This only goes to highlight the fact that the straining mechanism is not the dominant mechanism in in-depth filtration, and it is certainly not how the entire filtration process operates. Particle bounce: Technically, a particle is considered filtered when it is both separated and retained on or within the filtration media. This fundamental concept requires a detailed investigation, not only by addressing the capture mechanisms of particles but also by considering how particles collide with fibre surfaces and, therefore, are re-entrained into the airstream to lower the overall efficiency of the filter. One of the general assumptions is that a

Technically, a particle is considered filtered when it is both separated and retained on or within the filtration media

Particles bounce away from the fibre surface if the rebound energy exceeds the adhesion energy particle will remain captured after it comes in contact with a fibre surface. But in reality, particles can, in fact, bounce after colliding with the fibre surface. The possibility of this occurring depends on particle composition, shape, velocity and the type of impaction surface. Particles bounce away from the fibre surface, as illustrated in Figure 4, if the rebound energy exceeds the adhesion energy. Three salient factors can contribute to this effect [1]: 1. Harder materials comprising the particle and surface 2. Larger particle size 3. Higher particle velocities Particle shape: When we think of particles, we are quick to assume that all particles are spherical. In fact, particles are mainly nonspherical, as shown in Figure 5. The behaviour of the aerosol particle is highly influenced by its shape, size and density. These characteristics can determine the dominating filtration mechanism. Particle shape, for example, influences various processes, such as

Figure 5: Sample SEM images of the atmospheric dust in the GCC region the drag force in a resisting fluid, light scattering or electrical charging. The separation technique of air filters, therefore, requires an exact definition and assessment of particle sizes that is required to be filtered. Also, the removal of particles from a gas stream by the impaction mechanism is very sensitive to the drag force [7]. Solid particles have the most varied shapes, and coagulate to form aggregates. The irregular shape of particles results also from the crystalline nature of the primary material.

NA Fuchs [8] defined the particles from a shapestandpoint into three classes: n Isometric such as spherical particles n Particles with one of their dimensions being smaller than the other two, such as flakes and disks n Particles with one dimension larger than the other two dimensions, such as needles or fibres

Pollen grains

Pollen grains are not as simple as they appear to be. They are discharged by weeds, grasses and trees, and can cause hay fever

[9]. Once airborne, they immediately become a filtration concern, as they can be inhaled and can reach the sensitive nasal passages. Most pollen grains are hygroscopic and, therefore, vary in mass with humidity [10]. An inhaled count of 10 to 25 may make those who are prone to hay fever, experience the first symptoms [10]. Figure 6 shows a pollen grain deposited on the surface of a used filter media in the GCC region of the size of nearly 50 Îźm. On the other hand, Figure 7 shows a pollen grain found on a European Daisy, ranging

April 2012



Figure 6: A pollen grain deposited on the surface of a used filter media in the GCC region to face the truth and embrace responsibility to ensure that air filters and HVAC systems are ready and capable of removing harmful contaminants. Not only our innate humanity, but even plain common sense dictates this. It is time we accept the necessary moral and practical engagement needed to protect humans, whether they live in incubators, daycares, kindergartens, schools, homes or offices. All of us can contribute Figure 7: Daisy pollen grain at the source in size between 20 to 25 μm. These two images highlight the differences in particle size and shape as well as illustrating pollen deposition after being airborne, as also daisy pollen grain at the source. Realistically speaking, we don’t need a 500 Hp car to go to work. And by the same token, we don’t require a high-efficiency filter to remove pollen grains from the airstream, as this can easily be done by means of a pre-filter. Therefore, straining pollen grain on the surface of high- efficiency filter is simply a waste of both its surface and its depth.


Accepting responsibility

When a serious thought is given to various contaminants that either go through or bypass filters to reach our lungs, one apprehensively begins to wonder if filtration is the last remaining friend of our respiratory system. The question then is: Are we taking the lead in investigating source control measures to reduce dust particle emission? The corollary that logically follows is: What measures or even initiatives have been set forth to provide clean air to humanity? Undoubtedly, we need

Climate Control Middle East April 2012

The behaviour of the aerosol particle is highly influenced by its shape, size and density to a better environment, no matter what vocation we are engaged in. Since life depends upon air, we certainly cannot insouciantly breathe it without granting its quality the required attention and care, taking appropriate measures. n

References: [1] Hinds WC, 1998. “Aerosol Technology”, Wiley, New York. [2] Zhang, Yuanhui, 2005. “Indoor Air Quality Engineering” CRC Press LLC. [3] Parker, Steve, 2007. “The Human Body Book”, Dorling Kindersley Limited, New York. [4] NAFA, 2001. “Guide to Air Filtration”, Washington, DC: National Air Filtration Association. [5] Brimblecombe, P, 1996. “Air, Composition and Chemistry”, Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series 6, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press. [6] Tarleton ES and Wakeman RJ, 2008. “Dictionary of Filtration and Separation”, Filtration Solutions, Exeter. [7] Murphy CH, 1984. “Handbook of Particle Sampling and Analysis Methods”, Verlag Chemie International, Inc. [8] NA Fuchs, 1964. “The Mechanics of Aerosol, Pergamon”, New York. [9] Jacobson AR and Morris SC, 1997. “The Primary Pollutant, Viable Particulates, Their Occurrences, Sources and Effects in Air Pollution”, 3rd edition, Academic Press, New York. [10] ASHRAE, 2001. ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc. IMPORTANT NOTE: Unless otherwise referenced, the images used in this article are copyright of the author.

The writer is Regional Director, Middle East, and International Consultant, EMW Filtertechnik, Germany. He can be contacted at iyad.

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CCME - April 2012  

The April 2012 Issue of Climate Control Middle East

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