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THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I FEBRUARY 20, 2020


THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I FEBRUARY 20, 2020 Auction February 20, 2020 10:00 am CT Hindman Chicago, 1338 West Lake St., Chicago, IL 60607 Previews February 6, 2020 12:00 - 5:00 pm ET February 7, 2020 9:00 am - 12:00 pm ET Hindman Atlanta, 668 Miami Circle NE, Atlanta, GA, 30324 (Atlanta preview is highlights only) February 13-14, 2020 12:00 - 5:00 pm ET Cowan's Cincinnati, 6270 Este Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45232 February 19, 2020 12:00 - 5:00 pm CT February 20, 2020 9:00 am - 12:00 pm CT Hindman Chicago, 1338 West Lake St., Chicago, IL 60607 Bid In person, by phone, absentee or live online Buyer’s Premium 25% Purchased items will be available for pickup in Chicago on February 20, 2020 ONLY. All other in-person pickups must be made in Cincinnati.

Cover: Lot 31 Back Cover: Lot 114 Front Inside Cover: Lot 1 Back Inside Cover: Lot 220

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Detail: Lot 14


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WELCOME TO HINDMAN A PERSONAL MESSAGE FROM WES COWAN In 2019 Cowan’s Auctions joined forces with Leslie Hindman Auctioneers in Chicago, forming Hindman Auctions, now the leading middle market auction house in the country. We operate more salesrooms in the United States than any other auction house and conduct over 100 auctions annually in categories such as fine jewelry, fine art, arms and armor, American history, Native American art and jewelry, modern design, books and manuscripts, furniture, decorative arts, couture, Asian works of art, Western art and sculpture, and numismatics, as well as various special focus subjects. Sales in our first year totaled nearly $70 million across all of our categories. When I announced the sale of my company in January 2019, I promised all of you that the Cowan’s you had grown to know and trust wasn’t going anywhere, and I hope you found that to be true. While 2020 will bring more exciting growth, the personalized service that you have come to expect from Cowan’s will not change.

C. Wesley Cowan Founder, Vice Chair and Principal Auctioneer

I’m happy to report that the terrific Cowan’s team will remain intact. Danica Farnand, Katie Horstman, Jack Lewis, Bill Lewis, and all the specialists and hardworking office staff you have come to trust will still be available on the other end of the phone. In 2020 we will be taking steps to more fully integrate Hindman Auctions into one entity. Most of this will happen behind the scenes to create a seamless consignment and bidding experience across all Hindman locations. You will begin to see the name Hindman more and Cowan’s less, but it’s still us, your trusted advisors. You can continue to visit us at cowans.com, but later this year, we will transition all sales to hindmanauctions.com. As a consignor, you can expect even more avenues to showcase your property to an ever-expanding pool of bidders. Our offices in Cincinnati, Chicago, Atlanta, Cleveland, Denver, Milwaukee, Naples, San Diego, Scottsdale, St. Louis, Palm Beach, and Washington, DC, will offer additional auction categories to maximize the value of your consignments. As a bidder, you’ll find dozens of new and exciting auctions. While we have been cross-promoting auctions for some time now, in 2020 you’ll see the bidding process begin to streamline as all Hindman auctions eventually migrate to a single home. While I’m proud of the auction house we’ve built at Cowan’s, I’m even prouder of the company we’re building today. Hindman Auctions will provide you with the same great service that has been Cowan’s hallmark since we conducted our first auctions through the mail from a makeshift office in my garage. Thank you for your loyalty and understanding as we set this exciting new course. Onward and Upward. -Wes Cowan

FEBRUARY 20, 2020

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SPECIALISTS & OFFICE STAFF Vice Chair and Principal Auctioneer C. Wesley Cowan info@cowans.com

Fine Jewelry and Timepieces Emma Creech jewelry@cowans.com

Catalog Design Jennifer Castle jenny@cowans.com

President Paul M. Brunner paul@cowans.com

Historic Firearms and Early Militaria Jack Lewis firearms@cowans.com

Warehouse and Distribution Nathan Hornback nathan@cowans.com

American Indian Art Danica M. Farnand indianart@cowans.com

Joe Moran joe@cowans.com

Michael Rogers mikey@cowans.com

Bill Lewis bill@cowans.com

Shipping Dave Shear shipping@cowans.com

Erin Rust erin@cowans.com Madison Light madison@cowans.com American History Katie Horstman historic@cowans.com Emily Jansen Payne emily@cowans.com Kaylan Gunn kaylan@cowans.com Katie Benedict katieb@cowans.com Danielle Linn danielle@cowans.com Books and Manuscripts Patricia Tench pat@cowans.com Fine and Decorative Art Sam Cowan sam@cowans.com Kirstie Craven kcraven@cowans.com Jennifer Howe jenniferhowe@cowans.com Leah Vogelpohl leah@cowans.com Pauline Archambault pauline@cowans.com Nick Grote nick@cowans.com Tessa Woodrey tessa@cowans.com

Andrew Clinard andrew@cowans.com

Craig Cooper

Emery Maury

Dave Peters

R. Brandon Roseberry brandon@cowans.com

Cleveland Office Carrie Pinney carrie@cowans.com

Controller Dawnie Komotios dawnie@cowans.com

Lauren Casale lauren@cowans.com

Registration Nicole Joy nicole@cowans.com Emma Fulmer emmafulmer@cowans.com Amy Francis info@cowans.com Contracts Rachel Dallman rachel@cowans.com Advisor, Museums and Private Collections Jutta Lafley jutta.lafley@cowans.com Marketing, Public Relations and Advertising Eric Duncan eric@cowans.com Photography David Jackson djackson@cowans.com Ashton Beneke ashton@cowans.com Jessica Crihfield jessica@cowans.com Stephanie Cuyumbamba Kong Jennifer Hamilton

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THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

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SPECIALISTS FOR THIS AUCTION

Danielle Linn danielle@cowans.com

Katie Horstman historic@cowans.com

Katie Benedict katieb@cowans.com

Contributors: Bradley Schlesinger Allen Cebula Andrew Clinard Victoria Dailey

Kaylan Gunn kaylan@cowans.com

Emily Jansen Payne emily@cowans.com

SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

FEBRUARY 20, 2020

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THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

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TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED AMERICA: THE ROAD WEST I have been collecting things since I was six years old — stamps, baseball cards, political buttons, posters, books, Californiana. While visiting an antique show in 1996 in pursuit of California material, I stopped at the stand of a dealer who specialized in memorabilia from the Old West. While he did not have anything from California that day, he did have an unusual photograph from Tonopah, Nevada. It depicted a group of African Americans outside a saloon (Lot 137). It was a very appealing image, and as I bought it, an idea struck me. I could build a collection on blacks in the west, an area that intrigued me. I asked the dealer to offer me related material whenever he had it. His reply stuck with me: “Forget about it. Images of African Americans are as rare as hen’s teeth.” He was right to say that images of African Americans before the advent of the affordable camera are exceedingly rare. However, with hard work, good luck and a few dollars, over the last twenty years, I have assembled a collection of over 1200 items — photographs, pamphlets, books, postcards, posters and pinback buttons, one which sheds new light on American history. The great migration that saw six million Blacks leave the South between 1916 and 1970 has been well chronicled. However, there was a less well-known migration to the American west that precedes that history, and in large part, that has been my focus — the pioneer immigrants who moved west after the Civil War and before World War Two. They moved to every state and territory west of the Missouri River, to big cities like San Francisco and Denver and also to smaller towns like Helena, Montana and Beaver City, Nebraska. These western pioneers are represented in the collection by some seven hundred objects. Their story is one of achievement, participation and the pursuit of the American dream. They range from ordinary citizens to civic leaders and include everything in between — architect, artist, attorney, aviator, banker, barber, bartender, bellboy, boxer, businessman, cowboy, federal marshal, fireman, hunter, jockey, journalist, musician, photographer, poet, preacher, soldier, surveyor, tourist and writer. Though the collection would have been sufficiently interesting had I not pursued items from after World War Two, I decided that some post-war subjects were too important to pass up, most notably those that relate to civil rights and the Black Panthers. I also selectively collected objects from outside the west when they added context. The western story is better understood within a context that includes great leaders such as Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, William Wells Brown, and W. E. B Du Bois, each of whom inspired those who went west. Popular prints with their images hung in many African American homes; their books and articles were widely read; and news of their doings was widely reported in black newspapers and journals. Selected eastern notables in government, military, entertainment, education and other realms also made it into the collection, and in so doing, added richness of the narrative. As these items migrate from my collection, I hope that a new generation of scholars will work to flesh out new understandings of both places and peoples. Steve Turner

Foreword by Tukufu Zuberi For a number of years now, I’ve been collecting military recruiting posters that includes those issued by the United States government designed to appeal and or denigrate African Americans. I’ve come to understand their powerful propaganda appeal but also their rarity; posters were not meant to last, and not many survived. As I perused the offerings in this catalog, I couldn’t help but be struck by the fact that much of this material — photographs, pamphlets, posters, ticket stubs, programs and pinback buttons were also never meant to last. And yet, here are these things, an astonishing range of ephemeral history related to the African American experience, and particularly the American West. When I became involved in PBS’ History Detectives, I quickly realized how material culture and ephemeral objects contribute to a deeper understanding of history. For Americans of African descent this material is especially important: the narratives we tell about who we were becomes our history – not just the history of the dominant society. Many of the things here were produced for African Americans, and often by African Americans. As someone who grew up in Oakland, California, I found the focus on the West of personal interest. The move westward after the Civil War not only resulted in a population shift, but also witnessed the rise of African Americans as citizens in the face of rising Jim Crow. Former slaves and Freedmen moved West and redefined the American Dream by daring to transcend racial stereotypes and barriers. Some settled in the farming and frontier communities of Texas and the Plains, others in California and the Northwest and formed communities of like-minded African Americans. They were everyday workers, wealthy businessmen and women, athletes, and entertainers. The offerings in this catalog are testimony to the success and, of course, failure of these pioneers to make America great. The Turner Collection also inspires a welcome discussion on the legacy of enslavement and the Jim Crow era. This material helps us understand the historical struggle and is important, primary evidence of African Americans’ contributions to society and what it means to be free in America. While American popular culture from the 19th and 20th centuries is replete with racist depictions of Africans and African Americans, there are relatively few examples of this imagery in the Turner Collection, and those that are serve as an important reminder of our past. The material in this catalog represents both tragedy and triumph, and is illustrative of the incredibly rich lode of historical evidence that remains to be appreciated by institutions, scholars and private collectors. Tukufu Zuberi, Ph.D. The Lasry Family Professor of Race Relations Professor of Sociology and Africana Studies Lead Curator, Africa Galleries, Penn Museum University of Pennsylvania

Opposite: Detail Lot 154 FEBRUARY 20, 2020

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1 HARRIET TUBMAN CABINET CARD BY H.S. SQUYER, AUBURN, NEW YORK Cabinet card of Harriet Tubman. Horatio Seymour Squyer (1848-1905): Auburn, New York, 1892. Embossed imprint on recto. Inscription on verso, “Harriet Tubman / Slavery Heroine.” Harriet Tubman (ca 1822-1913) was born into slavery as Araminta Ross on a plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland. She escaped slavery in 1849, fleeing to Philadelphia and becoming a leading abolitionist and member of the Underground Railroad. She went on to lead at least thirteen expeditions to rescue over seventy enslaved people, notably having “never lost a passenger,” earning her many nicknames, among them “Moses,” “Old Chariot,” and “The General.” Tubman saw the victory of the Union during the Civil War as essential for the abolition of slavery. She worked tirelessly as a nurse, scout, spy, and led an assault on plantations in the Combahee River Raid rescuing more than 750 slaves in the process.

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THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

After the war, she chose to live outside of the public spotlight in upstate New York. Tubman had purchased property from abolitionist senator William H. Seward in 1859 and retired there after Appomattox and remained there for the rest of her life. It also seems that she was not fond of being photographed. In spite of her fame, there are but six known studio portraits of her. This image is especially notable: it is the largest and most detailed depiction of her intense gaze. It is nearly twice the size of the cartes de visite. The other known cabinet card is a full-length portrait, this one, focusing on Tubman’s face, gives a rare look at her features. The scar on her forehead, received when a raging slave owner threw a heavy metal weight, is visible on her brow. Stoic and robust, this portrait shows Harriet, the veteran general, the American hero. The only other known copy of this photograph is housed in the collections of Cayuga Museum of History and Art in Auburn, New York - Tubman’s hometown and where the photograph was originally taken in the studio of Horatio Seymour Squyer. $10,000 - $15,000

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2 UNPUBLISHED CDV OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS BY BENJAMIN F. SMITH, 1864 CDV portrait of Frederick Douglass. B.F. Smith & Son: Portland, Maine, n.d., ca 1864. Photographer’s 91 Middle Street imprint on verso. In this previously unpublished image of Douglass, he is featured sitting next to a table and wearing a long black coat. Light pencil identification on verso. This photograph was likely captured in January or February of 1864 during the same sitting as another known Benjamin F. Smith photograph cataloged in Picturing Frederick Douglass as Plate 21 and curated by Cornell University, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections. $3,000 - $5,000

3 FREDERICK DOUGLASS CDV BY SAMUEL M. FASSETT, 1878 CDV portrait of Frederick Douglass. Samuel M. Fassett: Washington DC, n.d., ca 1878. Photographer’s 925 Penna Ave. imprint on verso. Douglass is pictured with heavily graying/white hair, wearing a dark jacket and waistcoat and what appears to be a watch chain. Pencil identification on recto: “Fred Douglas [sic].” Catalogued in Picturing Frederick Douglas as Cat. #95. The only other known example of this carte is catalogued by the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University. A previously unknown carte appearing to be from the same sitting was recently offered in Swann Auction Galleries’s March 28, 2019 Printed & Manuscript African Americana Auction as Lot 236. $2,000 - $3,000

4 FREDERICK DOUGLASS WALKING STICK, 1888 Ebonized wood walking cane with gold-filled cap and brass ferrule presented to Frederick Douglass. Cap engraved: “Hon. F. Douglass / From D.L.I. / Charleston S.C. / Mar. 6th / 1888.” Repousse design of three wild strawberries with distinctive leaves and five-petaled flower against a hammered background. Stamped to collar “R.F.S. & Co.,” hallmark of Robert Fitz Simmons of Attleboro, Massachusetts. Length: 34.5 in. Cap diam.: 3.5 in. Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) was the most famous African American abolitionist and orator of the 19th century. During the last decade of his life, he traveled frequently to give speeches all across the country. In early 1888, Douglass embarked on a speaking tour of South Carolina and Georgia, a journey not without peril. In early March 1888, Douglass arrived in Charleston, South Carolina where he delivered versions of his “Self-Made Men” and “European Travels” addresses at Mount Zion church, founded in 1883 and considered a “daughter church” of Mother Emanuel AME, the oldest African Methodist Episcopal church in the southern United States. He was honored afterward by an African American militia unit calling themselves the Douglass Light Infantry. According to a contemporaneous newspaper account, the infantry members serenaded him at their armory. They also presented him with this walking stick, decorated on the collar with strawberries, symbolizing righteousness and spiritual merit in Christian art. $3,000 - $5,000

Detail SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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5 FREDERICK DOUGLASS AUTOBIOGRAPHY MY BONDAGE, MY FREEDOM, 1855 DOUGLASS, Frederick (ca 1818-1895). My Bondage, My Freedom. Part I. - Life as a Slave. Part II. - Life as a Freeman. New York: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1855. 12mo (140 x 196 mm). Tissue guarded frontispiece with facsimile signature and 2 engraved plates. (Small bookseller label to interior front board). Contemporary brown cloth with blindstamped boards and gilt spine titles (Some wear to extremities, spine shaken and slightly cocked, scuffs). FIRST EDITION, LATER PRINTING. “Fifteenth Thousand” printed at top of title page. Important second autobiography and slave narrative of one of the most significant Americans of the 19th century. Sabin 20714. $600 - $800

6 WILLIAM W. BROWN SLAVE NARRATIVE, 1849 BROWN, William W. (ca 1814-1884). Narrative of William W. Brown, A Fugitive Slave. Boston: Bela Marsh, 1849. 12mo (119 x 186 mm). Tissue-guarded frontispiece and three engravings. (Spotting, repaired corner on frontispiece). Original embossed brown cloth (wear to corners and edges, slightly cocked spine). “Complete Edition, Tenth Thousand,” attributed as fourth edition. Slave narrative of prominent abolitionist and prolific author William Wells Brown. His later novel Clotel (1853) is considered the first novel written by an African American and he also became the first published African American playwright (1856). Scarce, OCLC locates 5 copies. $100 - $200

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THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

7 EXPLORATION OF POST-WAR SOUTHERN RACE RELATIONS, MY SOUTHERN HOME BY WILLIAM WELLS BROWN BROWN, William Wells (ca 1814-1884). My Southern Home: Or, The South and Its People. Boston: A.G. Brown & Co., 1880. 12mo (137 x 297 mm). Frontispiece with illustrations throughout. (Pages evenly toned, occasional brown spotting). Brown pebbled cloth with blindstamped boards and gilt spine titles (Spine and front board sunned, wear to extremities, binding slightly cocked) Presumed FIRST EDITION. Autobiographical exploration of relationships between southern blacks and whites before and after the Civil War. Published by A.G. Brown, the family publishing house run by William’s second wife, Annie G. Brown. Scarce. $800 - $1,200

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8 SCARCE SLAVE NARRATIVE OF J. VANCE LEWIS, 1910 FIRST EDITION LEWIS, J. Vance (ca 1853-1925). Out of the Ditch: A True Story of an Ex-Slave. Houston: Rein & Sons, 1910. 8vo (145 x 213 mm). Frontispiece and plates throughout. Original pictorial cloth (Very light edge wear, spine titles slightly rubbed, else near fine). FIRST EDITION. Slave narrative of Joseph Lewis Vance who was freed through emancipation. After attending Leland University in New Orleans, Vance became a teacher in rural county east Texas in order to bolster his finances. He then attended Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) before finishing his education in Ann Arbor, Michigan, graduating in 1894 and being admitted to the Supreme Court of Michigan the same year. In 1897, he was admitted to the US Supreme Court - one of 18 lawyers accepted, he was the only African American. He practiced law in Chicago and New Orleans before returning to Texas, where he was admitted to the Texas Bar in 1904 and established a thriving practice in Houston. Notably, he became the first black lawyer to successfully defend a black client accused of murder in front of a Harris County jury. His law office at 419 1/2 Milam held the offices of other African American professionals including nine other attorneys who served Houston’s African American population of about 30,000 in 1915. Quite scarce, OCLC locates 9 copies. $800 - $1,200

9 ABOLITIONIST NARRATIVE THE BRANDED HAND BY JONATHAN WALKER, 1850 WALKER, Jonathan (1799-1878). [The Branded Hand] Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker, at Pensacola Florida, for Aiding Slaves to Escape from Bondage. Boston: Anti-Slavery Office, 1850. 12mo (121 x 189 mm). Illustrated title page and three full-page engravings, lacking frontispiece. (Occasional brown spotting on pages). Original brown cloth with blind and gilt title (very good with lightly bumped corners, slightly cocked spine). Preceded by editions in 1845, 1846 and 1848, presumed fourth edition. Jonathan Walker was imprisoned for eleven months for having aided in the escape of seven slaves from Pensacola. As punishment, his hand was publicly branded “SS” for “slave stealer,” illustrated on the title page. Upon his release, Walker became an ardent abolitionist and lectured on slavery in addition to publishing this narrative which inspired John Greenleaf Whittier’s poem The Branded Hand. Uncommon. $100 - $200

SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

FEBRUARY 20, 2020

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10 THADDEUS HYATT, ABOLITIONIST, FRIEND OF JOHN BROWN, CDV, CA 1861 Studio portrait of Thaddeus Hyatt. Brady National Portrait Gallery, Neg., E. Anthony, Pub.: New York, ca 1861. Born in Rahway, New Jersey, Hyatt (1816-1901) became a successful New York manufacturer before the age of 40 with his invention of a translucent paving glass. During the 1850s, Hyatt became a committed abolitionist and he traveled to Kansas in 1856 as President of the National Kansas Committee, one of many groups that raised money for anti-slavery immigrants moving into the territory. His committee raised more than $100,000 for the Free-State settlers, and Hyatt was credited with providing a large group of unemployed individuals with the provisions and tools needed to found the town of Hyattville, giving them useful employment and preventing them from resorting to degrading activities. It was through his relief work in Kansas that Hyatt became acquainted with John Brown. Following the raid on Harper’s Ferry and the execution of Brown on December 2, 1859, Hyatt organized a relief fund for Brown’s widow. In 1860, he again led a national campaign to aid Kansas settlers whose farms were nearly destroyed as a result of a two-year drought. Hyatt wrote several circulars in an attempt to arouse people in the Eastern United States to take an interest in the Kansas setters, and he inspired President James Buchanan to contribute $100 to the relief fund. This photograph was probably made in January 1857, when Hyatt and the National Kansas Committee met for the first and only time in New York City. (Information obtained from the Kansas Historical Society Website, January 2, 2020.) $150 - $250

11 BOUDOIR CARD OF OWEN BROWN, JOHN BROWN’S SON, CA 1887 Boudoir card showing Owen Brown, John Brown’s son, in front of his cabin. Lamson: Pasadena, California, n.d., ca 1887. Image of a small, what appears to be one-room cabin. Owen Brown (1824-1889), with a full white beard and mustache, stands in front holding a walking stick. Three white children, possibly his nephews, are visible in the doorway and sitting on the stoop. An African American man leans upon the cabin’s only window sill, holding a hat in his hand. A younger white man wearing a bowler hat stands to the far right of the image. Of all the images of Owen Brown in front of his Southern California cabin, this is the only known example to include an African American. Owen Brown was the third son of abolitionist John Brown, who was also devoted to the cause. Owen had moved west to Kansas in 1854 in an effort to ensure that the state would be free when it entered the Union. He would notably participate in the raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859. When he believed his father to be dead, he escaped with four others. He spent the Civil War in hiding as he had a $25,000 bounty on his head, though he remained an active conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading fugitive slaves across Ohio. In the early 1880s, he moved west and arrived in Pasadena, California, building a cabin in El Prieto Canyon near Altadena with his brother Jason and his family. Brown would be an active temperance advocate in Pasadena but would die in 1889. Over 2,000 people came to his funeral, nearly equal the entire population of Pasadena at the time, where a band leading the procession played “John Brown’s Body.” Owen was laid to rest near the cabin on what was called Brown Mountain, named for his father. $400 - $600

12 J.O. SIMMONS, PLANTATION SUPPLIES TRADE CARD, CA 1850-1870 J.O. Simmons, General Dealer in Plantation Supplies, printed trade/business card, ca 1850-1870. Extremely crisp and bright, very fine. Trade card for plantation supplies delivered along the Mississippi River. $50 - $100

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THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

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13 CALIFORNIA IMPRINT OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN’S EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION BROADSIDE, 1864 President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. [San Francisco]: F.L. Butler, 1864. Lithograph broadside on paper. 20.5 x 26.25 (519 x 665 mm). Imprints “Executed according to Act of Congress, the year 1864 by F.S. Butler in the Clerks Office of the District Court of the Northern District of California” to lower edge; “Executed and published by F.L. Butler, 1864. Aged 14 years” to lower left; and “Printed by L. Nagel” to lower right. This San Francisco impression of President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was printed by L. Nagel and published by F.S. Butler, declared as being “aged 14 years” in 1864. The broadside, according to Eberstadt, was “executed by a fourteen-year-old boy. Benjamin F. Butler, who was a California pioneer of 1849 and established the first lithographing plant on the West Coast, may have been the boy’s father.” F.S. Butler, however, may have been Frederick Stewart Butler (1849-1918) whose father, Miner Frederick Butler (1826-1871) was the original architect of the California State Capitol. Frederick, listed as a 21-year-old clerk in the 1870 census would have been the correct age in 1864. Very scarce, OCLC locates only 3 copies. Ex California State Library $10,000 - $15,000 Detail SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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14 LINCOLN AND SOJOURNER TRUTH RELATED PINBACKS, CA 1910-1913 Lot of 2 Lincoln-related pinbacks. Lincoln Benefit Society, ca 1910. Verso back paper: “Manufactured by / St. Louis Button Co / St. Louis, Mo. / Pat. Aug. 8 ‘99” Diam. 1 in. (25 mm). Pictures Abraham Lincoln standing over a seated Sojourner Truth. The Lincoln Benefit Society was a fraternal and insurance organization for African Americans in Wilson, North Carolina led by prominent citizen and postmaster, Samuel Vick. Emancipation Proclamation, 1863-1913, ca 1913. Verso back paper: “The Whitehead & Hoag Co. / Buttons / Badges / Novelties / and Signs / Newark,N.J.” Diam. 0.8 in. (21 mm) Text surrounds profile bust of Lincoln. Commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. $400 - $500

15 FIRST BLACK SENATOR MATHEW BRADY CDV, HIRAM REVELS, CA 1865 WITH CDV, RADICAL MEMBERS OF THE SO. CA. LEGISLATURE, 1868 Lot of 2 CDVs, including portrait of Hiram Revels. CDV showing profile portrait of Hiram Revels seated in a studio setting. Mathew Brady: New York, New York and Washington, DC, ca 1868. Radical Members of the So. Ca. Legislature. J.G. Gibbes: Columbia, South Carolina, 1868. A composite image featuring portraits of the members, including both white and black subjects, identified in print on mount verso.

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Hiram Rhodes Revels (1827-1901) was born a free person of color in North Carolina before his ordination by the AME church in 1845. He was a preacher until the Civil War began and served as an army chaplain for an African American regiment. Revels settled in Mississippi in 1866 and got involved in state politics, eventually becoming the first African American United States Senator in 1870. He was known as a gifted orator and a political moderate who favored equal rights for African Americans and amnesty for the former Confederates. The known photographs of Senator Revels, such as the ones in the Brady-Handy Collection at the Library of Congress, were photographed by Mathew Brady in Washington DC during his term as senator. The photograph in this collection was also taken by Brady but on a different date. $2,000 - $4,000

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16 “WHY I OBJECT TO FREEING THE NEGRO” ALS, AUSTIN, TEXAS, 1866 ALS, 3 pp., 197 x 245 mm, Austin, Texas, August 4, 1866, Dawson to his brother William Dawson. A fascinating letter from a white Texas homesteader to his brother in Pennsylvania. The content, while unsavory, provides a captivating insight into the racial politics of early Reconstruction Texas. Dawson writes about his own prospects, but most of the letter concerns African American Texans. Dawson opens his letter writing about the property and house he has bought near Austin and gives his perspective on the state, “Texas now looks flourishing - good crops, good grass, everywhere plenty of water, fat stock, plenty of vegetables, peaches, watermelons, corn, etc. and a very flattering prospect for better. Still many are dissatisfied and wish to sell and leave some on account of the free negro society, others on account of the Govt.” He continues on regarding black Texans in detail, his biases and negative stereotypes evident, “The Freedmen are doing as well as could be expected, many complain that they do not work, a few brag on them, and others resolve

to have nothing more to do with them but this I think is only talk. I think myself that the greatest danger is in their not being able to bear prosperity and that this year’s cotton crop will demoralize many of them. Some of the old steady ones will save their money and do well but the majority will indulge in idle and vicious propensities.” Austin was a hotbed of unrest in the early days of Texas Reconstruction. Federal troops occupied the state in late May 1865 in an attempt to ensure loyal government and to protect the newly granted rights to freed blacks. Many white Texans, as Dawson here, focused on the permanent disruption of labor and believed that it would destroy the entire economy. Dawson writes explicitly about his opposition to ending slavery, “But perhaps I never told you why I myself object to freeing the negro. It is this. I am getting old and have no boys + on that account expect to have to hire. While the negroes were slaves when I could hire them from their masters they would work well because they could be compelled. Now they are harder to get and not many of them worth much when you get them and as long as they are here among us no white labor will come in + when a negro was a slave he kept in a negro’s place. Now many are anxious to show their freedom by insolence [illegible] shoving themselves on an equality.” $200 - $400

17 CABINET CARDS ILLUSTRATIONS OF NEGRO LIFE IN WASHINGTON BY MRS. ROBINSON COLBURN Lot of 6 albumen cabinet cards from the series Illustrations of Negro Life in Washington reproducing drawings by Mrs. Rollinson (Helen) Colburn (18441912). Each with the series title, individual caption, and “copyright 1887.” Colburn was the daughter of artist Rembrandt Lockwood and married treasury clerk Rollinson Colburn. Published a series of eight cabinet cards reproducing her sketches of African Americans in Washington, DC. $500 - $700

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18 HEDGEHOG’S GRAND COMBINATION ANTI-BLACK AND ANTI-15TH AMENDMENT LETTERPRESS BROADSIDE, 1870 Hedgehog’s Grand Combination of the Powers of Darkness, Will Exhibit at Jake Key’s Roost, Thursday Evening, May 5th, 1870. [Philadelphia?]: No publisher, 1870. Letterpress broadside. 6.5 x 10 in. Small tear along upper edge, otherwise very good. An anti-Fifteenth Amendment parody broadside in the style of early minstrelsy handbills. Printed in various fonts it lists the program with racist songs and “the whole to conclude with Hedgehog’s celebrated feat of swallowing a Live Negro!” The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified on February 3, 1870, which prohibited the denial of a citizen’s right to vote based upon “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The amendment was greeted with celebrations among African American and abolitionist communities with one of the largest held in Philadelphia on May 5, 1870, billed as the “Grand Celebration in Honor of the Ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment.” This anti-black broadside was likely printed as an attack on the official celebration. $200 - $300

19 MATHEW BRADY CDV OF SLAVE DEALER, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA CDV showing a group of Union soldiers standing with a horse and buggy at the site of a former slave pen, with sign reading, “Price, Birch & Co. / Dealers in Slaves.” Mathew Brady: Washington DC, n.d., ca 1862. With Brady’s National Photographic Portrait Galleries imprint on verso. James H. Birch and Charles M. Price operated the largest slave pen in Alexandria, Virginia beginning in 1858. The building’s orientation within the city, midway between the urban center and farmland to the west, allowed for the efficient containment and transport of men, women, and children before and after slave auctions. However, following the invasion and capture of Alexandria by the Union Army in May 1861, the facility was converted to a military prison. $2,000 - $3,000

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20 AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIER AND MEDAL OF HONOR WINNER CHRISTIAN A. FLEETWOOD CDV WITH THREE ADDITIONAL CDVS OF CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS Lot of 4. CDV full-standing studio portrait of African American soldier Christian Abraham Fleetwood. Richard Walzl: Baltimore, Maryland, n.d., ca 1865. Fleetwood, of the 4th US Colored Infantry, dressed in uniform, with sword in hand, wearing two medals on his coat, including the Medal of Honor. Period ink identification on verso. Born free in Baltimore, Fleetwood (1840-1914) enlisted at the age of 23 as a sergeant with Co. G of the 4th US Colored Infantry in September 1863 and was quickly promoted to sergeant major. In the fall of 1864, during the Battle of Chaffin’s Farm on the outskirts of the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, Fleetwood saved the colors from falling into Confederate hands, and was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in April 1865. He was one of only 18 African Americans who fought during the Civil War to receive this medal.

Autographed CDV of Captain John W. Dillenback. Jas. L. Warner: New York, n.d., ca 1865. Enlisted as a private and served with Co. G, 10th New York Heavy Artillery, then Co. F, 4th US Colored Infantry, rising in the ranks from captain to brevet lieutenant colonel between 1863 and 1865. He served with the US Army until March 31, 1899. CDV of S Walter Reynolds, possibly autographed on verso. Whitehurst Gallery and W. Snell: Washington, DC, n.d., ca 1865. Reynolds enlisted as a 2nd lieutenant and served with Co. F and Co. H, 4th US Colored Troops, raising in the ranks to 1st lieutenant then brevet captain between 1864 and 1865; mustered out May 4, 1866. CDV of Warren H. Hurd. O.J. Smith: Newbern, North Carolina, n.d., ca 1865. Enlisted as a private and served with Co. A, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, and was promoted to corporal, then commissioned as a captain with Co. A, 23rd US Colored Infantry. POW at White Oak Swamp, Virginia, June 30, 1862; mustered out November 30, 1865. $8,000 - $10,000

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21 CDVS PVT. JAKE STANDERFORD AND 1ST LIEUT. GEORGE W. ACKLES, 108TH REGIMENT USCT Lot of 2, featuring soldiers from the 108th USCT. CDV full-length portrait of African American soldier. Gayford & Speidel: Rock Island, Illinois, n.d., ca 1865. Imprint on verso. Identified on verso by ink inscription as “Jake Staniford / Prvt. Co. F. 108 USCT.” Accompanied by CDV full-length portrait of Union officer identified below image as “Geo. W. Ackles, 1st Lieut.” P.B. Jones: Davenport, Iowa, n.d., ca 1863. Imprint on verso. Organized at Louisville, Kentucky on June 20, 1864, the 108th United States Colored Infantry regiment consisted predominantly of formerly enslaved men from Kentucky as well as some free men. After garrison and guard duty at various points in Kentucky, the regiment arrived at Rock Island POW camp in Illinois. Here the 108th served guard duty over Confederate prisoners from January - May 1865 during which time these photographs were likely taken. Records indicate that a Jacob Standerford (inscribed on the CDV as “Staniford”) enlisted on 6/27/1864 with Co. F of the 108th USCT. Though he is identified on the CDV as a private, HDS indicates Standerford attained the rank of corporal. Gayford & Speidel Photographers were active in Rock Island in the 1860s, and are known to have photographed dozens of soldiers from the USCT. A group of 30 related Gayford & Speidel images of officers, non-commissioned officers, and enlisted men from the 108th Co. F are in the collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University. Standerford’s image is not among them. George W. Ackles enlisted on 9/20/1864 at Louisville as a 1st lieutenant and was commissioned into Co. G of the 108th Infantry. He served with USCT through 2/28/1865 at which time he was discharged for promotion. $2,500 - $4,500

22 JAMES P. BALL CDVS OF UNION OFFICERS Lot of 2 CDV portraits of Union officers taken by African American photographer James P. Ball (1825-1904). CDV half-portrait of an unidentified Union field-grade officer, possibly a major. Ball & Thomas: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., ca 1860. He is pictured with a full beard and wearing his double-breasted uniform coat. 120 W. 4th St. imprint and 3 cent stamp on verso. CDV full portrait of an unidentified Union junior officer. J.P. Ball: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., 1862-1868. With white hair and full beard, the officer stands with his hand resting on a column plinth wearing his long single-breasted uniform coat. Embossed 30 W. 4th St. imprint on recto below image. James Presley Ball is one of the most renowned African American photographers at one point owning the largest photographic gallery west of the Appalachians. When visiting White Sulphur Springs, Virginia in 1845 he met John B. Bailey, an African American daguerreotypist from Boston where he acquired the passion and skill of photography. He opened a studio in Cincinnati later that year, and though it was unsuccessful, he continued his art with studios in Pittsburgh and Richmond and traveled as an itinerant daguerreotypist. In 1849, he reopened a studio in Cincinnati. He hired his younger brother Thomas Ball to work as an operator, and in 1852 hired his future brother-in-law Alexander Thomas to work with him. By 1857, their gallery was one of the grandest in the United States attracting notables including Frederick Douglass. He was chosen in 1887

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as the official photographer of a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation held in Minneapolis-St.Paul. In 1888, he moved to Helena, Montana with his son where he operated a studio for several years before moving again in 1892 to Seattle. $200 - $300

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23 SUTLER’S PETS, 41ST ILLINOIS CDV, CA 1864 CDV featuring a young African American male holding a puppy while sitting in a chair with a chicken perched on the top rail, ca 1864. Ink inscription on recto: “Sutlers Pets / 41st Illinois.” Blue border on recto and verso. The role of sutler was often filled by a civilian businessman who typically identified himself with a particular regiment, providing goods and camp fare, including items that were not readily available to the soldiers, and accompanying the regiment from camp to camp. His wares could range from writing materials to ID disks, and from clothing items to desirable foodstuffs the army did not provide. The sutler of the 41st Illinois Volunteer Infantry was Joel C. Benton, who likely commissioned this image to advertise some of his fare, including fresh food in the form of a chicken, and companionship in the form of a puppy. The African American subject pictured was likely a runaway slave and helper to Benton, and was perhaps viewed by Benton as a “pet” himself. $2,000 - $3,000

24 FIRST FULL-LENGTH BIOGRAPHY BY AFRICAN AMERICAN, LIFE OF MARTIN DELANY ROLLIN, Frank A. (Frances Anne Rollin Whipper, ca 1845-1901). Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany, SubAssistant Commissioner Bureau Relief of Refugees, Freedmen, and of Abandoned Lands and Late Major 104th Colored Troops. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1868. 8vo (134 x 197 mm). Publisher’s green cloth with gilt shield and title to spine (minor scuffing to boards and spine, lightly bumped lower corner, near fine). FIRST EDITION. Martin Robison Delany (18121885) was one of the first black men admitted to Harvard Medical School and led a distinguished medical career in addition to his journalistic pursuits and interest in foreign colonization for African Americans. During the Civil War, he served as a surgeon in the famed 54th Massachusetts Volunteers and also aided in recruitment efforts. In February 1865, he became the first black man to receive a regular army commission when promoted to major in the 104th US Colored Troops. Frances Anne Rollin Whipper was a free woman of color who was educated at the The Quaker School for Colored Youth in Philadelphia. When she was illegally refused first class passage on a ferry in 1865, she sued the captain and was aided by Delany, then working in the Freedmen’s Bureau. Delany, impressed by Frances, asked her to write his biography. When published in 1868, it was the first full-length biography written by an African-American. Very scarce. $500 - $1,000

25 BLACK MILITARY HISTORY THE BLACK PHALANX FIRST EDITION WILSON, Joseph T. (1837-1890). The Black Phalanx; A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States in the Wars of 1775-1812, 1861-’65. Springfield, Massachusetts: Winter & Co.; Hartford: American Publishing Company, 1888 (copyright 1887). 8vo (152 x 228 mm). Publisher’s maroon cloth with blindstamp and gilt illustrations. (Previous ownership to front free endpaper dated “March 10th, 1888.” Toned spine with some rubbing to caps. A fine copy). FIRST EDITION. Wilson served in the Civil War, originally enlisting as a private with the 2nd Louisiana Native Guard later reorganized as the 74th United States Colored Troops. After being discharged for illness, he later reenlisted in Co. C of the famed Massachusetts 54th Infantry composed of African American enlisted men. He was wounded in action at the Battle of Olustee (Florida) and honorably discharged in May 1864. He played a major role in the post-war politics of Virginia as a radical and prominent voice within the Republican party. He wrote extensively as the editor of the True Southerner Unionist newspaper in Norfolk, Virginia and elsewhere, often using the pseudonym “Eskiam.” Additionally, he earned the position of aide-de-camp to the commander in chief in the Grand Army of the Republic and was commissioned by its members to write The Black Phalanx. American Publishing Company publicized it widely and it was met with popular and critical acclaim. $200 - $300

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26 BUFFALO SOLDIER C.E. TAYLOR ALS, FORT D.A. RUSSELL, CHEYENNE, WYOMING, 1871 ALS, 2pp, 124 x 198 mm, Fort D.A. Russell, Cheyenne, Wyoming, August 30, 1871, C.E. Taylor of Troop F, 9th US Cavalry to a Miss Harrold. A touching letter from C.E. Taylor, an African American Buffalo Soldier serving in Company F of the famed 9th US Cavalry. It is unclear who the recipient of the letter is as Taylor opens, “I know you will be surprised to hear from a stranger.” His letter is occupied with concern over how his letter will be received but emphasizes his isolation, “please don’t think that I am writing to you for the purpose of hurting your feeling, for I am not, I am writing because I have no one to write to.” Taylor was stationed at Fort D.A. Russell (now Francis E. Warren AFB) outside Cheyenne, Wyoming, which was home to Buffalo Soldier regiments for much of the late 19th century. $200 - $400

27 QUARTER PLATE TINTYPE OF BUFFALO SOLDIER HOLDING A CIGAR, CA 1874 Quarter plate tintype full-length studio portrait of an unidentified Buffalo Soldier. Photographer and locale unknown, n.d., ca 1874. The young soldier wears an 1874 fatigue blouse, worn by the Buffalo Soldiers during the Late Indian Wars, the buttons enhanced with gold by a skilled hand. One hand rests upon the back of a chair and the other holds a smoldering cigar. $1,000 - $1,500

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28 SIXTH PLATE TINTYPE OF SEATED BUFFALO SOLDIER MARKSMAN, CA 1886 Sixth plate tintype studio portrait of an unidentified Buffalo Soldier. Unknown photographer and locale, n.d., ca 1886. The soldier looks at the camera with an intense gaze and is seated in his uniform with marksman’s pins visible on his collar. He holds a piece of paper in his hand that appears to have bullet holes - perhaps a target used as evidence of his sharpshooting. His uniform indicates that he was a sergeant during the Late Indian Wars. $1,500 - $2,500

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29 24TH INFANTRY BUFFALO SOLDIERS MUSTER ROLL, 1875 Partly printed Muster Roll of Company H of the 24th Infantry Regiment from December 31, 1874 to February 28, 1875 while stationed at Fort Brown, Texas. 811 x 520 mm. Completed and signed on February 28, 1875 by the Captain of the Company, John C. Gilmore (1837-1901) a Civil War veteran who earned the Medal of Honor at the Battle of Salem Heights on May 3, 1863. He commanded the company of 26 enlisted men recorded as “been doing ordinary garrison and escort duty at Fort Brown, Texas during the months of January and February 1875,” also noting that “Four (4) Privates of the Company were absent on detached service as escort to Major J.W. Nicholls.” Includes a complete list of the company with the notes filled out quite fully. Most enlisted at Fort Quitman, Texas and Baltimore, Maryland. A rare primary document recording the service of the Buffalo Soldiers during the late Indian Wars. $1,200 - $1,800

30 24TH REGIMENT INFANTRYMAN BUFFALO SOLDIER CDV, CA 1886 CDV half-portrait of unidentified Buffalo Soldier with the 24th Infantry. Mosser & Snell: Cantonment, Indian Territory, n.d., ca 1886. Imprint on verso: “Mosser & Snell, / Traveling / Photographic Art Gallery, / Cantonment, Ind. Terr. / Pictures copied and enlarged to any size.” The mustachioed soldier wears his military-issued jacket with a high, white collar. Cantonment was used as a base of operations from 1879 to 1882 for the US government to police the Southern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, as members of the Northern Cheyenne had escaped from the reservation in 1878 in an attempt to return home. Part of the 24th Infantry of Buffalo Soldiers were stationed there beginning in the autumn of 1888. $600 - $800

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31 JOHN C.H. GRABILL CABINET CARD OF BUFFALO SOLDIER WEARING BUFFALO COAT, CA 1886 Cabinet card of a Buffalo Soldier wearing a buffalo coat. J.C.H. Grabill: Sturgis, Dakota Territory, n.d., ca 1886. In negative imprint: “J.C.H. Grabill, Photographer.” Imprints on recto and verso. A full-length portrait of a soldier, probably in the 25th Infantry which was stationed at Fort Meade near Sturgis from 1880 to 1887. He holds his kepi hat in one hand and most notably wears an iconic buffalo coat, his uniform visible beneath. Photographed by John C.H. Grabill (18491903) who was well known for his photographs of American Indians and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre. This photo should also enter his elite canon as it is the only known photograph of a Buffalo Soldier wearing a long buffalo coat. It is not included in the Library of Congress’s Grabill archive of 193 images and does not appear in any other institutional collection. $8,000 - $10,000

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32 BUFFALO SOLDIER JAMES D. COWAN, 25TH INFANTRY, COMPANY D, CABINET CARD BY O.S. GOFF, CA 1888 Cabinet card of Buffalo Soldier James D. Cowan, 25th Infantry, Company D. O.S. Goff: Fort Custer, Montana, n.d., ca 1888. Imprint on verso. Photographer Orland Scott Goff (1843-1912). Inscription on verso identifies the subject, “James D. Cowan / Company D. 25 Infantry / Fort Custer, Montana / in the Year 1888 / October 28th / 21 years.” The young soldier stands with one hand on his hip wearing his uniform including his fivebutton jacket and hat. Two companies of the 25th Infantry were stationed at Fort Custer starting in May 1888 and other images of Buffalo Soldiers by O.S. Goff are extant. $1,000 - $1,500

4 of 9

33 BUFFALO SOLDIERS 25TH INFANTRY REGIMENT SILVER GELATIN PHOTOGRAPHS, CA 1892 Lot of 9 silver gelatin photographs of the 25th Infantry. Images approx. 6.5 x 4.25 in. mounted on 8 x 6 in. cards. Contemporary pencil inscriptions identify the companies and subjects. Images include Dress Parade of the infantry; two images of Company B, one in full dress and the other prepared for heavy marching orders; a group portrait of Company D; two images of Company G, one in full dress and the one ready for heavy marching orders; Company H prepared for heavy marching orders; and

two single portraits of white officers on horseback identified as Lieutenant Moss and Major McKibbin. Chambers McKibbin (1841-1913) was promoted to major and transferred to the 25th on April 25, 1892, making it likely that these images were captured during the 25th’s time in Montana, probably at Fort Missoula in the early 1890s. It would be at Fort Missoula that Lieutenant Moss would lead men from Company B in the newly created Bicycle Corps in 1896. They tested the combat viability of bicycles as an alternative to horses, going so far as to complete a 1,900-mile ride to St. Louis in the summer of 1897. $3,000 - $4,000

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34 BUFFALO SOLDIERS HISTORY OF THE 25TH INFANTRY, 1927 NANKIVELL, John, ed. History of the 25th Infantry 1869-1926. Denver: Twenty-fifth Infantry, United States Army; Smith-Brooks Printing Company, 1927. 4to (197 x 273 mm). Illustrated profusely featuring group portraits of several companies. (Dampstain affecting upper edge of pages in later pages). Original blue cloth with gilt titles and shield (staining and spots of rubbed cloth on cover). FIRST EDITION. Nankivell identified as Captain of the regiment on title page. Limited edition. Remarkably scarce, OCLC locates no other copies. $400 - $600

35 THE COLORED CADET AT WEST POINT, FIRST EDITION FLIPPER, Henry Ossian (1856-1940). The Colored Cadet at West Point: Autobiography of Henry Ossian Flipper, U.S.A, First Graduate of Color from the U.S. Military Academy. New York: Homer Lee & Co., 1878. 8vo (135 x 190 mm). Tissue-guarded engraved frontispiece and additional portrait of Flipper in uniform with facsimile signature. Publisher’s burgundy cloth (several colors known, no priority given) with gilt blindstamped titles and illustration (near fine copy). FIRST EDITION. Born into slavery, Henry Ossian Flipper was the fifth black cadet to attend the United States Military Academy. But due to the rejection and discrimination by their white peers, the others dropped out. Flipper was able to persevere and became the first person of color to graduate from West Point. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant assigned to the 10th Cavalry Regiment, becoming the first black officer to command regular troops in the US Army. OCLC lists one copy. Scarce. $1,200 - $1,800

36 LIEUT. JOHN ALEXANDER CABINET CARD Cabinet card vignette half-portrait of John Alexander. Kennedy: Wilberforce, Ohio, n.d., ca 1894? Imprint on recto. Inscription on verso: “Lt. Jno. H. Alexander / 9th Cav. - the second / negro graduate from West Pt. / Class ‘87 / Died Feb. ‘94.” Alexander is pictured in his full military uniform with draped aiguillettes. John Hanks Alexander (1864-1894) was the second African American graduate of West Point preceded only by Henry Ossian Flipper. He was also the first African American officer of the United States armed forces to hold a regular command position. After attending Oberlin College, he entered West Point in 1883 and graduated, despite heavy racial abuse, in the class of 1887. Upon graduation, he was assigned to the 9th Cavalry Regiment Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Robinson, Nebraska as a second lieutenant. While stationed at Fort Duchesne, Utah in 1889, he temporarily led the 9th’s B Troop, becoming the first black officer to hold a command position in the US Army. In February 1894, he began teaching military science and tactics at the all-black Wilberforce University in Ohio, though he died tragically young of a ruptured aorta just a month later on March 26. The Wilberforce imprint suggests that this image may have been taken near the end of his life during his brief professorship. The image is reproduced in A New Negro for a New Century, but original copies are very scarce and seldom seen. There are only two known photographs of Alexander. $2,000 - $4,000

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37 JOHN TAYLOR AND SOUTHERN UTES AT LOS PINOS AGENCY, BOUDOIR CARD, 1882 Boudoir card group portrait identified as Southern Utes at Los Pinos Agency. E.A. Widler [sic]: Durango, Colorado, n.d., 1882. Handwritten captions in the lower margins identify, “Ye Dude, Red Jacket, Iaujoh, Ignacio ‘A.I.’, Igler, Severo, ‘Jim Harding’.” Upper margin reads, “Ind. Police, Johnson, ‘Nigg Joh[n?].” Edwin A. Wilder was active in Rico, Colorado from 1881 until 1882 and in Durango between 1884 and 1889. “John,” the African American man standing in between the two doorways, is believed to be Buffalo soldier John Taylor. Born into slavery in Paris, Kentucky, Taylor (1841-1935) escaped as a young man and enlisted in a black regiment of the Union Army,

38 10TH CAVALRY INDIAN SCOUTS BOUDOIR CARD, CA 1885 Boudoir card outdoor group portrait of African American and American Indian scouts. Photographer unknown: [Arizona], n.d., ca 1885. Contemporary handwritten ink inscription below image: “Indian Scouts of Arizona in the Field, Commanded by Lt. Clark US Army 10th Cavalry.” Five African Americans stand interspersed with eight American Indians, all posing with their firearms. Two more African American scouts stand behind the main group holding up their pistols, one of them aiming towards the camera. Another African American stands at the rear playing a bugle.

possibly the 10th U.S. Cavalry. He was discharged in February of 1866 but reenlisted the following year and traveled west, serving in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado. Along the way, he learned Spanish and the languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Apache, and Ute peoples and often worked as a translator. Taylor found he preferred the company of the Indians he encountered over that of the white settlers, many of whom were unaccustomed to the presence of African Americans on the frontier. He purportedly had twelve wives during his lifetime, and, partially by consequence, helped establish Ignacio, Colorado, by selling to the Southern Utes a homestead he inherited from a deceased stepson; this land was later merged with additional holdings to form the town. This appears to be the earliest known image of Taylor. $2,000 - $3,000

The US Army employed Apache scouts as well as the 10th Cavalry to pursue Geronimo, the leader of Apache resistance. The 10th was deployed in 1885 to pursue the Apaches in Arizona territory, as they had in 1879-1880. This image is noteworthy as it is the only known example to show Apache scouts side-by-side African American Buffalo Soldiers. The inscription says they were commanded by Lt. Clark, a reference to Powhatan Henry Clarke, a 2nd lieutenant and commander of Troop K who was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions on May 3rd, 1886 when he rescued a wounded soldier under fire. $3,500 - $5,500

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39 10TH CAVALRY AT FORT THOMAS BOUDOIR CARDS, CA 1888 Lot of 3 Boudoir cards of the 10th Cavalry while stationed at Fort Thomas, Arizona. Andrew Miller: Fort Thomas, Arizona, n.d., ca 1888. Captions in negative. Troop K, 10th Cavalry at volley-firing. Fort Thomas, Ariz. Troop K is pictured seated in a line with their rifles at the ready. An African American officer stands in the foreground holding binoculars. Troop K of the 10th Cavalry produced two of the three Congressional Medal of Honor winners that served in the 10th Cavalry during the Indian Wars. The recipients were

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THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

Powhatan H. Clarke and William McBryar, the latter of whom was African American. We are not aware of any other image that shows Buffalo Soldiers training with their weapons in such a realistic manner - members of the unit are practicing volley-firing, a military tactic of firing in unison that was designed to shock and rout the opposing troops. Also includes image captioned Cactus Cañon, near Fort Thomas, Ariz. featuring a well-composed shot of the canyon with several of the namesake cacti. As well as an aerial image of Fort Thomas where the various buildings are visible with the surrounding desert and distant mountains. $3,000 - $5,000

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40 THOMAS H. ALLSUP 10TH CAVALRY BUFFALO SOLDIERS ARCHIVE Lot of 11 documents from the archive of Thomas H. Allsup of the 10th Cavalry. (5) Discharge Papers; (1) Muster Roll; (1) Promotion Paper; (2) Marksman Certificates; (1) Marriage Certificate; (1) Regular Army and Navy Union Certificate. The exceptional archive of Buffalo Soldier Thomas Henry Allsup I (18471920) documenting his military service with the 10th Cavalry during the entirety of the Late Indian Wars. Born in Talbot County, Maryland in 1847, it is a distinct possibility that Allsup was born into slavery. In the 1910 census, both his parent’s birthplaces were listed as “Africa,” suggesting their likely enslavement in antebellum Maryland. Regardless of his status before and during the Civil War, Allsup must have wanted to forge a new path and joined the nascent 10th Cavalry, enlisting on November 25, 1867 in Baltimore, Maryland. He would serve in excellent standing for thirty years, presumed to have retired in 1897. The documents in the archive chart his pioneering path across the American West. Included in the archive is an 1872 Muster Roll of Troop A of the 10th Cavalry for April to June 1872 at Fort Sill, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) paid and signed on July 10, 1872. It notes that the “Troop performed the usual garrison duty and furnished mounted details for detached service and also fatigue parties for the Post, during the time for which musters,” that their discipline is “excellent” and their instruction and military appearance are “good.” Allsup is listed as Corporal, one of four, among the 33 men in the troop. In the earliest of his five discharge papers, issued at the expiration of his five-year terms of service, on November 25, 1872, his character is listed as “very good.” On August 1, 1877, Allsup was promoted to First Sergeant, a rank he would hold for the remainder of his career. In 1877, he was stationed at Fort Concho, Texas with the second of his Discharge papers issued there, noting his character as “excellent” and that he was “a reliable and intelligent soldier.” It was in this same year that he played a significant role in the Buffalo Soldier Tragedy of 1877 (also known as the Staked Plains Horror), an ill-fated sortie of 10th Cavalry troops led by Nicholas Merrit Nolan in July 1877 in an attempt to catch Comanche warriors on behalf of a group of buffalo hunters who had been raided. The expedition occurred during a severe drought and the group may have been deliberately misled resulting in the “Thirsting Time” with most of the men going five days without water, resorting to drinking the blood of their dying horses. Four soldiers and one civilian died during the ordeal. During the calamity, Nolan demoted an officer, First Sergeant William Umbles who would then separate from the main group. Umbles would claim later during his trial that he was searching for water as ordered, while Nolan believed that he had deserted. During all of this, Allsup was in charge of the Bull Creek supply camp and was on duty when Umbles arrived and claimed that Nolan and the other men were dead. Allsup was skeptical and instead headed to Doubles Lake with a wagon of water and other supplies, reuniting with Nolan and the main group of men. There is no doubt that Allsup brought much-needed relief for his fatigued and dehydrated comrades and helped to prevent further deaths. Allsup would go on to testify in the October trial of Umbles. Allsup continued to serve the 10th Cavalry with distinction with his further discharge papers reporting his character as “excellent.” He is known to have served at Fort Davis, Texas; San Carlos, Arizona territory; Fort Bayard, New Mexico territory; and his final post at Fort Assinniboine, Dakota Territory in what is now north-central Montana. In an August 1, 1988 LA Times article “The Proud Legacy of a Buffalo Soldier,” his grandson Thomas H. Allsup III recalls that “Black Jack Pershing was his commanding officer for his last two years. My grandfather had 17 children. He talked to Geronimo.” While it cannot be confirmed that Allsup conversed with Geronimo, it is not without possibility. And it is certainly true that John J. “Black Jack” Pershing commanded the 10th Cavalry at Fort Assinniboine in 1896 when Allsup was stationed there in his last years of service. Other documents in the archive provide further testament to his excellence as a soldier including two marksman’s certificates - one issued in 1889 in Arizona and the second in 1894 in the Department of Dakota. He was also admitted into the noted veterans’ organization the Regular Army and Navy Union, with his 1892 certificate included here. A lovely personal document included in the archive is the marriage certificate for Allsup and his wife Saddie (Sadie) Johnson. The document acknowledges their marriage on May 23, 1891. It is likely, however, that the two were common-law married prior to this as his 1882 discharge

papers note, “3rd Enlistment. Married. Excellent, a first-class commissioned officer” and census records indicate that at least two of their many children were born prior to 1891. Thomas and Sadie would retire in Havre, Montana, the small town near Fort Assinniboine where they would live in a house they owned until at least 1920. Allsup would pass away in San Bernardino, California on March 16, 1922, possibly relocating to be near his children, at least three of whom relocated to Southern California. $5,000 - $7,000

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41 CHARLES YOUNG CABINET CARD, CA 1889 Cabinet card vignette portrait of Charles Young. Pach Brothers: New York, n.d., ca 1889. Imprint on recto. Charles Young was the third African American graduate from West Point and he sat for this photograph wearing his cadet’s uniform in 1889, the year of his graduation and it was included in a West Point yearbook of the same year. In addition to another stand-alone photographic portrait of Young in this collection, there are eight other known photographic portraits of him during his military career. This is the earliest known image, however, of the man who would go on to become the highest-ranking African American officer in the US military at the time of his death. An extremely excellent example.

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In 1889, Charles Young graduated from the United States Military Academy, despite heavy racial abuse from his classmates and teachers. He was only the third African American to do so, after Henry Ossian Flipper and John Hanks Alexander. There would not be another black graduate until Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. in 1936. Young was commissioned as a second lieutenant and served for 28 years, primarily with the Buffalo Soldiers in both the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments. He eventually attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, the first African American to do so. Immediately prior to World War I, Young was removed from service reported due to health reasons, however, it was almost certainly to prevent Young from commanding white officers. $3,000 - $5,000

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42 BUFFALO SOLDIER CHARLES YOUNG MILITARY MORALE OF NATIONS AND RACES, FIRST EDITION YOUNG, Charles (1864-1922). Military Morale of Nations and Races. Kansas City, Missouri: Franklin Hudson Publishing Co., 1912. 8vo (154 x 223 mm). Original green cloth, recased with new endpapers. Provenance: Ex libris Infantry Journal Library. (Internal library markings with stamp on title page and 6-7 text pages). FIRST EDITION. OCLC locates 22 copies, seldom seen. $1,200 - $1,800

43 WILLIAM SANDERS SCARBOROUGH UNPUBLISHED TYPESCRIPT ON AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR, WILBERFORCE UNIVERSITY, 1898 SCARBOROUGH, William Sanders (1852-1926). The Negro in the Spanish-American War. Wilberforce, Ohio: unpublished, 1898. Folio (201 x 250 mm), unbound typed manuscript, 11 pp. (Even toning, else fine). [With:] TLS, 1 p., 216 x 278 mm, Wilberforce University, Vice President’s Office, November 14, 1898. From William Sanders Scarborough to Mr. Shaw. With an ANS postscript, 1 p., 199 x 132 mm. Born into slavery in Macon, Georgia, William Sanders Scarborough managed to surreptitiously gain an education. Upon gaining his freedom after the Civil War, he attended high school and went on to graduate from Oberlin College in 1875, returning to complete a master’s degree. In 1877, he became the first African American professional Classics scholar when he became a professor at Wilberforce University in Ohio. He led a distinguished career becoming the vice president and appointed president by 1908. This interesting manuscript is a brief, approximately 4000-word exploration of the African Americans who served in the Spanish-American War, including their participation in the storied Battle of San Juan Hill. Corrections in pen are throughout, unclear if made by Scarborough or another. An accompanying typed letter signed by Scarborough indicates that the article was intended for publication in Mr. Shaw’s “Review,” but there is no indication that it ever saw print. A fascinating manuscript on Buffalo Soldiers by one of the most prominent black scholars of the day. $2,000 - $4,000

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44 FAMOUS BLACK REGIMENT, THE 10TH UNITED STATES CAVALRY: HEROES OF THE SANTIAGO CAMPAIGN SOUVENIR PHOTOGRAPHIC BOOKLET, SIGNED AND INSCRIBED BY WILLIAM S. SCARBOROUGH Souvenir Containing Life-Like Engravings of the Officers and Men of that Famous Black Regiment the 10th United States Cavalry, Heroes of the Santiago Campaign. Portraits of the Three Colored Graduates of the West Point Military Academy. Huntsville, Alabama: H.V. Cashin & Co., 1899. Oblong 8vo (228 x 147 mm). Profusely illustrated with reproductions of photographs and paintings. Original wrappers (Pristine, very fine); with contemporary envelope. FIRST EDITION. The 10th Cavalry and the rest of the Buffalo Soldiers played a large part in the Spanish-American War, in particular, the Battle of San Juan Hill. The 9th and 10th Cavalries with the 24th Infantry fought alongside the 1st Volunteer Cavalry (the Rough Riders) led by Theodore Roosevelt. It is widely recognized as the most integrated battle force of the 19th century. This booklet includes images of the various companies and portraits of various officers including West Point graduates Henry Ossian Flipper, John H. Alexander, and Charles Young. Very scarce, no other copies located. SIGNED and INSCRIBED to cover by African American historian and classicist William Sanders Scarborough, “To Dr. Shaw with compliments of W.S. Scarborough, Wilberforce Cl.” $800 - $1,200

45 BUFFALO SOLDIER AND BLACK MILITARY HISTORY UNDER FIRE WITH THE TENTH U.S. CAVALRY BY HERSCHEL CASHIN,1902 CASHIN, Herschel V. et al. Under Fire with the Tenth U.S. Cavalry. Chicago: American Publishing House, 1902. 8vo (143 x 205 mm). Plates, portraits of units and individual officers. (Evenly toned pages, as typical). Publisher’s drab cloth illustrated and silver gilt (minor wear to extremities, slight crack to hinge). SECOND EDITION, first published in 1899. Focuses on the 10th Cavalry but includes a comprehensive history of black troops from the Revolutionary War through the Spanish-American War, with chapters on the Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th and 10th Cavalry and 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments. $100 - $200

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46 BUFFALO SOLDIERS REFERENCE BOOKS Lot of 18 reference books concerning Buffalo Soldiers and African Americans in the military. Includes reprints of rare books and contemporary scholarly works. Topics cover the Civil War, late Indian wars, Charles Young, and more. Most in like new condition. For complete list of titles, please visit cowans.com. $50 - $100 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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47 U.S.S. BENNINGTON EXPLOSION PRINTED POSTCARDS, SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, 1905 Lot of 2 printed postcards with scenes relating to the boiler explosion of the U.S.S. Bennington in San Diego, California on July 21, 1905. The Bennington, a Yorktown-class naval gunboat, cruised along the Pacific coast of North and South America following the Philippine-American War (1899-1902). On the morning of July 21, 1905, excessive steam pressure accumulated in a faulty boiler, resulting in a fatal explosion. Sixty-six men were killed, marking the explosion as one of the Navy’s worst peacetime disasters, and nearly all of the 46 survivors suffered severe burns from the steam. Bennington Disaster (No.2). Special View Company: Los Angeles, California, 1905. With three inset, captioned images, among which are “U.S.S. Bennington,” showing the vessel still afloat with a lifeboat visible in the water; “The Survivor of The Maine and Bennington,” showing John Henry Turpin (1876-1962), an African American Chief Petty Officer in the U.S. Navy who remarkably lived through two catastrophic naval explosions, both the Maine (1898) and the Bennington (1905); and “The Last Rites,” showing the burial ceremony for the deceased. Postally unused. U.S.S. Bennington. Special View Company: Los Angeles, California, 1905. Addressed on verso to Miss Agnes Fludner of Hollister, California with a 1 cent revenue stamp affixed to upper right corner. Postcard bears a photograph of the partially submerged Bennington in the aftermath of the explosion, as well as an inscribed message briefly describing the obsequies for the sailors who were killed in the blast: “Dear Agnes, Just a month today since Explosion took place. The Officers and crew of the Italian Cruiser held service at cemetery on Point Loma today and decorated the graves.” $100 - $200

48 24TH INFANTRY AND 10TH CAVALRY DURING MEXICAN BORDER WAR REAL PHOTO POSTCARDS, CA 1910 Lot of 3 real photo postcards featuring Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry and 24th Infantry Regiments, during the Mexican Border War. Postcard featuring the 10th Cavalry Regiment on horseback in El Paso, Texas, n.d., ca 1910. One mounted soldier is depicted holding the Company A guidon out in front of him. Postcard featuring the 24th Infantry Regiment Band posed with their instruments at Pine Camp, n.d., ca 1910.Titled in the negative: “The Famous / 24 Inft. Band / Pine Camp.” Ink inscription on verso: “Property of / Ethel B. Switzer / 224 Trinity Pl.” Hills Photo Shop: Ft. Bliss, Texas, 1919. Postcard depicts the arrival of the 24th Infantry Regiment on a busy street in El Paso, Texas. A bakery and laundry building are clearly visible in the background of the image, along with a tractor and several onlookers positioned along the sidewalk. Titled and inscribed in the negative: “24 Inft / Returning from Mexico / June 16 - 1919 / Hills Photo Shop / 1012.” $400 - $600

49 10TH CAVALRY POWS IN MEXICAN BORDER WAR REAL PHOTO POSTCARDS, 1916 Lot of 3 real photo postcards showing 10th Cavalry Regiment Buffalo Soldiers who were captured at the Battle of Carrizal in Chihuahua in 1916. W.H. Horne Co: El Paso, Texas, n.d., ca 1916. Postcard depicts a group of mostly African American Soldiers posed in two rows, each holding a small bundle of flowers. Titled and signed in the negative: “W.H. Horne Co / El Paso. Tex. / 10th Cavalrymen who were captured at the / Battle of Carrizal. Released by Mexico.” W.H. Horne Co: El Paso, Texas, n.d., ca 1916. Postcard depicts a group of mostly African American soldiers posed in two rows in what appear to be barracks or rows of cells. Captioned in the negative: “SOLDADOS DEL 10 REG DE CAB. NORTEAMERICANO / HECHOS PRICIONEROS EN EL COMBATE DEL CARRIZAL / POR TROPAS CONST. DE MEXICO EL 21 DE JUNIO. DE 1916.” Caption identifies the twelve subjects as members of the 10th Cavalry Regiment captured at the Battle of Carrizal. Postcard depicting African American soldiers riding in a Red Cross truck while two white men look on and interact with them from outside. N.d., ca 1910s. $300 - $500

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3 of 7

50 PHOTOGRAPHS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN SAILORS LOST IN WORLD WAR I, INCLUDING THREE LOST ABOARD THE USS CYCLOPS Lot of 7 photographs of African American sailors who died during World War I. Each captioned in negative with each sailor’s name, rank, and cause of death. All but the photograph of William M.T. Beckley are posed studio portraits and all but one (Henry McCorkle) wearing their uniforms. Three of the photographs depict men who were aboard the USS Cyclops, a Proteus-class collier that was being utilized to transport troops and coal to fuel other ships. In February 1918, the Cyclops picked up 11,000 tons of manganese in Rio de Janeiro, a new cargo for the ship. After making an unscheduled stop in Barbados, she departed for Baltimore on March 4. The Cyclops, however, was never seen again and no wreckage has ever been found. All 306 crew and passengers were declared officially lost by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 1, 1918. The loss of the Cyclops still stands as the largest loss of life in US Naval history not directly involved in combat. As the disappearance occurred in the infamous Bermuda Triangle under baffling circumstances, several sensational theories have spawned regarding her fate. The official statement of the US Navy states, “the disappearance of this ship has been one of the most baffling mysteries in the annals of the Navy, all attempts to locate her having proved unsuccessful.” The three men whose photos

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are included here who served aboard the Cyclops include Mess Attendant 3rd Class Andrew Theodore Askin, Mess Attendant Survian Austin Williams, and Mess Attendant 3rd Class Lewis H. Hardwick. Notably, Hardwick’s son was Herbert Lewis “Cocoa Kid” Hardwick a boxer who won the World Colored Championships in both the welterweight and the middleweight divisions. Somewhat curiously, each man is listed as lost on June 14, 1918, two weeks after they were declared lost. William Garfield Marshall, Wardroom Officers Steward was lost when the USACT Ticonderoga was torpedoed. She was a steamship serving as cargo transport when she left New York in a convoy bound for Europe. She developed engine trouble and fell behind the convoy, however, and became a target for German submarine U-152. The battle was lopsided, with the U-boat taking out the Ticonderoga’s guns over several hours, managing to wound almost every man on board. The Ticonderoga was sunk and of the 237 seamen who embarked, only 24 survived. Other sailors include Mess Attendant 3rd Class Henry McCorkle who was serving aboard the USS Von Steuben when he died from a knife wound. Ship’s Cook 2nd Class Herman Stallings accidentally drowned while swimming in France on May 19, 1918. Mess Attendant 1st Class William Marion Thomas Beckley fell overboard and drowned on July 25, 1918 while serving aboard the USS Ozark. Interestingly, he is wearing his sailor whites and hat on the deck of a ship, presumably the Ozark. $1,000 - $1,500

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51 SCOTT’S OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO IN THE WORLD WAR, 1919 FIRST EDITION SCOTT, Emmett J. (1873-1957) Scott’s Official History of the American Negro in the World War. [Chicago: Homewood Press], 1919. 8vo (176 x 232 mm). Prefaces by Theodore Roosevelt, General John J. Pershing, and Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Eight full-page photographic plates proceed the title page. Profusely illustrated with maps. Pebbled black cloth with gilt titles and blind stamped devices. FIRST EDITION. Scott was a well-regarded journalist and newspaper editor whose career spanned many varied interests. He advised Booker T. Washington on the development of the Tuskegee Institute and traveled as part of an envoy to Liberia. At the start of World War I, he was appointed Special Assistant for Negro Affairs reporting to the Secretary of War, making him the highest-ranking African American in the administration. After the war, he published this Official History, a well-regarded account with invaluable images of the men and women who served during the war. Porter, Part III, p. 127. $100 - $200

52 BLACK WINGS, NOVEL PROMOTING AVIATION TO AFRICAN AMERICANS POWELL, Lieut. William J. (1897-1942). Black Wings. Los Angeles: Ivan Deach, Jr., 1934. 8vo (158 x 234 mm). Frontispiece and b&w illustrations throughout. (Pages evenly toned.) Original black cloth with gilt titles and illustration. (Minor discoloration and tiny chips to edges). FIRST EDITION. Stated “Autograph first edition” but not signed. A thinly fictionalized autobiography by WWI veteran and aviation pioneer Lieut. William J. Powell. Dedicated to his friend Bessie Coleman, the first black aviatrix. $300 - $500

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53 DORIE MILLER PHOTOGRAPHS AND PINBACK, CA 1941-1942 Lot of 5 items related to Doris “Dorie” Miller (1919-1943). Includes four press photographs and 1 commemorative pinback. Miller was a Messman Third Class in the United States Navy serving aboard the West Virginia on December 7, 1941, when it was struck by nine torpedoes during the attack on Pearl Harbor. He helped move the ship’s injured captain Mervyn Bennion and then proceeded to man a Browning .50 caliber anti-aircraft machine gun, despite being untrained on the weapon. Once out of ammunition, Miller helped move injured sailors, commended in the Action Report as “unquestionably saving the lives of people who might otherwise have been lost.” Dorie was recognized as one of the “first US heroes of World War II” and was commended in a letter signed by Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox and following campaigning from the All-Southern Negro Youth Conference and the National Negro Congress, President Roosevelt approved the Navy Cross for Miller, which was awarded to him personally by Admiral Nimitz. Miller became the first African American to ever receive the award, the third-highest honor in the US Navy at the time. Miller went on a 1942 war bond tour and was featured on a 1943 Navy recruitment poster. He would go missing in action, presumed killed, during the Battle of Makin on November 20, 1943. The Hero of Pearl Harbor, Dorie Miller pinback, caption surrounding a photographic portrait of Dorie Miller flanked by an illustration of him manning the machine gun and divebombing plane. 1.25 in. (31 mm) Whitehead & Hoag Co.: Newark, New Jersey, n.d., ca 1942. Four press photographs by E.F. Joseph: Oakland, California. Imprinted and dated on versos. A February 21, 1942 image shoes a Navy dance with

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sailors dancing, Miller can be seen in the background. December 9, 1942 image of a USO function showing a seated African American woman, possibly Miller’s mother, talking to a uniformed white woman sitting at low table. Several white men sit in chairs on either side. December 16, 1942 image of a Navy banquet with a large group of African Americans seated around a table. Miller, seated at the head in uniform. March 9, 1943 image shows the tall Miller in uniform, wearing his Navy Cross with several other African American serviceman standing to either side. $500 - $700

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54 BUFFALO SOLDIERS 9TH CAVALRY, HISTORICAL AND PICTORIAL REVIEW, 1941 Historical and Pictorial Review Second Cavalry Division, United States Army, Camp Funston - Fort Riley, Kansas, 1941. Baton Rouge: Army and Navy Publishing Company, 1941. 4to (235 x 310 mm). Profusely illustrated. Original blue cloth with blindstamps (bumped corners and some soiling). FIRST EDITION. In the style of a yearbook, profusely illustrated and includes history of the regiment. Property and blank autograph pages left blank. Scarce. OCLC finds seven copies. $200 - $400

55 BUFFALO SOLDIERS 10TH CAVALRY, RARE HISTORICAL AND PICTORIAL REVIEW, 1941 Historical and Pictorial Review Tenth Cavalry of the United States Army, Camp Funston - Fort Riley, Kansas, 1941. Baton Rouge: Army and Navy Publishing Company, 1941. 4to (233 x 310 mm). Original blue cloth with patriotic blindstamps (very fine with only extremely minor corner bumps). FIRST EDITION. In the style of a yearbook, profusely illustrated and includes history of the regiment. Property, autograph, and snapshot pages left blank. Extremely scarce. OCLC finds only three copies. $1,000 - $2,000

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56 WWII BUFFALO SOLDIER SGT. THORNTON J. OWENS LETTER ARCHIVE, 92ND DIVISION, FORT HUACHUCA,1943 Lot of 17 letters, 1 telegram, 2 certificates, and 5 snapshot photographs. All letters are written from Sergeant Thornton J. Owens (1909-1987) of the 792nd Ordnance Light Maintenance Company of the 92nd Infantry Division to his girlfriend Miss Ruth L.D. Miller in Brooklyn, New York between April 27 and August 18, 1943. The first letter was written when Owen was stationed at Fort McClellan, Alabama and the rest from Fort Huachuca, Arizona. The site was established in 1877 and was the base for the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry from 1913 to 1933. During World War II, it was home to the segregated African American 92nd Infantry Division which inherited the name “Buffalo Soldiers” and used a buffalo as their insignia. Owens worked in the 792nd Ordnance Light Maintenance Company. He enlisted on March 24, 1942, and completed a 12-week course at the Hampton Institute in Virginia earning the highest level of achievement in “General Automotive Mechanics,” his completion certificate is included in the archive. An undated certificate also indicates that he completed a course in “Basic School for Enlisted Cadre Men,” signed by General Edward Almond (1892-1979). Almond was put in command of the 92nd from its formation in October 1942 to August 1945. Owens mentions in his June 7, 1943 letter, “The last time we were out on the desert my men and I work on General Almond inspection team. Our job was to inspect every touch of every vehicle in the 92nd division and in the third army that are here, and believe me, baby, that is some job.” In a particularly interesting letter on June 29, Owens relates his thoughts about being black in the army and his opportunities for advancement, “A soldier sure has a hard way to go especially a colored one. The white soldier has the good time. Most colored soldiers have a tough time. I have been appointed head of the General’s inspection team at Fort McClellan and here, I thought I would be good for an advancement but I guess they forgot about me. Almost every vehicle in the Division has to pass through my inspection team even tractors and derricks and now it looks like Aeroplanes.” Happily, Owens did eventually see a promotion, writing to Ruth on August 2, “I will have more time to write you now that I am a T/3 and don’t you think it is about time you stop putting T/4 on my letters. Well, girlie I have advanced one more notch. It sure is a hard struggle but that shows where the good comes in.” In the same letter he makes mention of a newspaper article, “Our Company had a nice write up in Chicago Defender if I can I will send paper to you.” The article, “An Ordnance Company Has Good Record” was published in the Chicago Defender on July 31, 1943, and a reworked version in the Baltimore Afro-American. The training of the unit is detailed and Owens is mentioned by name noting that he was “designated to do special work on motors.” The heartfelt missives frequently and floridly expound Owens’s love and devotion to Miss Miller, he closes letters with sincere sentiments such as, “You make a fellow feel so good I can almost feel the magic of those loving arms” (undated letter, ca late April/early May 1943) and his final letter in

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the collection, “If they make you join the WAVES - MARINES or WACC I am coming and get you I will follow you to the end of the earth if necessary you can’t get away from me and you know it. Oceans of Love, Jackie.” Based on Waterbury, Connecticut city directories, Owens appears to have returned and stayed in his hometown for the remainder of his life. A spouse named Louise is listed from the 1962 directory until his death in 1987, but not in the 1948, 1952, or 1954 directories. While the “L.” in Ruth’s name could possibly stand for Louise, it is unclear if the arduous correspondents ever married. Also included are charming snapshots that “Jackie” has sent to Ruth. They include four small snapshots of Owens at home in Connecticut, two in his bathing suit are inscribed to the versos, “Taken in January ready to go through ice, to Ruthie from Jackie” and “this is to match the picture you gave me in bathing suit. Me standing on ice out at the lake. The good old days.” Also included is a snapshot of two men in their army uniforms inscribed to the verso, “Waterbury boys Art Dunhon + forgot the other fellow.” $1,200 - $1,800

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57 AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIER IN VIETNAM PHOTO ARCHIVE, LOT OF 132 Large photographic archive which includes 132 Vietnam-era snapshots, most measuring approximately 3.5 x 3.5 in., all but 13 in color. Photographs depict the personal life and military service of an unidentified African American soldier with the last name “Williams.” Majority of the photographs are undated, however, dated photographs place the collection roughly between 1968-1972. Other identifying markers in the photographs indicate that the soldier was likely part of the United States Air Force, 93rd Security Police Squadron, which provided security and air base defense during the Vietnam War. Notable in the 60+ photographs from the soldier’s time in Vietnam are images from an unidentified US base depicting soldiers in the barracks, a mess hall, and fraternization among soldiers; additional photographs show a heavily armed Williams manning a bunker, posed with a South Vietnamese soldier in an urban setting, and staring strikingly at the camera wearing machine gun ammunition and a hand grenade. A series of 13 images were taken at “Le Van Loc,” a popular Vietnamese night club located on the Tan Son Nhut Air Base, near Saigon, indicating Williams may have been stationed at or near that base. Personal photographs show individuals of varying ages, presumably family members, who appear alone or in groups, and at times are photographed with Williams. $500 - $700

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AFRICAN AMERICANS IN EARLY PHOTOGRAPHY While thousands of Americans eagerly sat for daguerreotype portraits after the introduction of photography to the United States in 1839, the practice was not available to most African Americans. Despite the relatively low cost, few African Americans could afford a sitting, and not many photographers were willing to offer one. For the enslaved, both cost and lack of opportunity restricted their access to the new medium, a conspicuous reflection of America’s racial bias: early photographs of black people are scarce. As Weston Naef, founding curator of photography at the J. Paul Getty Museum notes in his introduction to Hidden Witness: African American Images from the Dawn of Photography to the Civil War by Jackie Napoleon Wilson, “such pictures are very rare to begin with - there were few African American photographers and very few black people had the money, time, or freedom for a portrait sitting - and those pictures that do exist are not well documented as to maker, place, subject, or date.” African Americans, emerging from enslavement, began to more fully participate in the development of the nation, with many moving west. Their lives and achievements began to be recorded in photographs. Deborah Willis and Barbara Krauthamer capture the importance of these images in Envisioning Emancipation: “They constitute an archive of black people’s seen and unseen lives, their spoken and unspoken experiences. These images testify to black Americans’ survival and resiliency in the wake of slavery and the face of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century segregation and violence. They offer powerful evidence of how black women, men, and children saw themselves and each other: as dignified, beautiful, creative, intellectual, energetic, diligent, steadfast, powerful, and free.” The history of black people in the west is now becoming more fully understood through images such as those offered here. The images amassed in this collection powerfully express the pioneering lives of these trailblazers, and are all the more remarkable given their scarcity.

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58 SIXTH PLATE DAGUERREOTYPE OF ELEGANT AFRICAN AMERICAN LADY Sixth plate daguerreotype of an African American woman. Photographer and locale unknown, n.d., ca 1857-1860. A fine image of an elegant lady in mourning wear. She wears a black taffeta dress with ruched sleeves, a pleated bodice, and a white collar. She wears delicate black lace gloves and a silk cap. Housed in Littlefield, Parsons & Company “Raising the Brood” thermoplastic case (Berg 2-63) with fancy nonpareil mat and preserver. Case enhanced with delicate gilding to flower elements. Littlefield, Parsons & Co. paper label behind image. Back of plate marked in pencil, “2 Cards / 382 / Court St.,” likely an address for delivery of later developed cards of the same image. Professionally resealed with new glass in March 2019, noted on conservator’s tape. $2,000 - $3,000

59 AUGUSTUS WASHINGTON SIXTH PLATE DAGUERREOTYPE OF YOUNG WOMAN Sixth plate daguerreotype of a young woman. Augustus Washington (ca 1820/1821-1875): Hartford, Connecticut, n.d., ca 1850. The young woman wears a lovely black dress, as suggested by Washington to his subjects, and holds a decoratively bound book in her lap. Her ring, brooch, and cheeks have been expertly tinted. Housed with original seal and glass with leather case and mat with the name and address of Washington’s Hartford gallery. Augustus Washington was an African American abolitionist, colonizationist, and despite a short career, esteemed daguerreotypist. Born in New York City, he was well educated and was heavily influenced by anti-slavery publications and abolitionists. He became skilled in the Daguerrean arts as a way to help fund his further education while at Dartmouth in Hanover, Vermont. He went on to open the first photographic studio in Hartford, Connecticut in 1847 and was hailed for his artistic excellence, capturing the likenesses of Hartford’s elite. He is perhaps best remembered for his two portraits of abolitionist John Brown.

The plight of African Americans, however, was his primary concern. Slavery, of course, troubled him, but he also found consternation in the North as whites were being given more rights, and blacks fewer, in newly rewritten state constitutions. He did not think that abolition was the correct path, and instead preferred a separate home for blacks as “it would be better for our manhood and intellect to be freemen by ourselves than political slaves with our oppressors.” In March 1854 he announced in the Hartford Daily Courant that he would be closing his Hartford studio, and he sailed to Monrovia, Liberia later that year. He brought along his photography equipment and supplies and would take beautiful portraits of Liberian notables including first president Joseph Jenkins Roberts, merchant Urias McGill, and others. Whether it was due to lack of supplies or interest, Washington abandoned photography after a year or two in Liberia. He turned his interests to education, teaching Latin and Greek to Monrovian youth, and farming, successfully growing rice, cassava, and sugar cane. $1,000 - $1,500

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60 GLENALVIN GOODRIDGE SIXTH PLATE DAGUERREOTYPE PORTRAIT Sixth plate daguerreotype of a seated man. Glenalvin J. Goodridge: York, Pennsylvania, n.d., ca 1850. An unidentified older, white gentleman is seated with his elbow resting on two books stacked on a table. In original pressed paper case with geometric designs and “G.J. Goodridge” imprint embossed on the velvet pad. Reglassed but with original preserver and mat with Goodridge’s imprint. Taken during the nascent career of the eldest Goodridge brother, Glenalvin while still in York, Pennsylvania. Wallace L, William O., and Glenalvin J. - collectively known as the Goodridge Brothers - were some of the first African American photographers and were also highly successful. Renowned for their artistic ability and technological prowess and adaptability, their studio in East Saginaw, Michigan was open from 1866 until 1922. Their father, born a slave, had gained his freedom and had become a successful businessman in York, Pennsylvania. At five stories, his office building was the tallest structure in York. Glenalvin, the oldest of the brothers began operating a photography studio here in the late 1840s. It was here that this remarkably focused image was captured. The family were stationmasters in the Underground Railroad with hiding places in both their office building and their home. When the Civil War came close to home with the Battle of Gettysburg, just thirty miles southwest of York, the Goodridges feared retribution and fled north. The three Goodridge brothers settled in the booming lumber area of East Saginaw in 1863, and re-founded their studio. Glenalvin died in 1866, passing the business along to Wallace and William. They would operate the studio, experimenting and continually adopting new technologies. They took portraits but also expanded their business to produce stereoviews and scenic imagery. They came to be internationally recognized with their photos included in the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris and the 1893 Columbian Exposition. $1,200 - $1,800

61 CDV MOUNTED TINTYPE MOSES CHANDLER BY GOODRIDGE, CA 1870 Tintype CDV full-length of an African American gentleman identified as Moses Chandler. Goodridge Brothers: East Saginaw, Michigan, n.d., ca 1870. Encased in card mat with Goodridge Brothers imprint to the verso. Pencil inscription on verso identifies the subject. Mr. Chandler, identified as the son of a preacher, stands with his hand resting on the back of a chair while wearing a long jacket. His cheeks and tie have been very lightly tinted by an expert hand. Captured in the early decades of the Goodridge brothers’ long career in East Saginaw. $600 - $800

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62 CDV TINTYPES OF IDENTIFIED AFRICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN FROM RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, WILLIE THOMPSON AND JOSEPHINE POINS, 1868-1869 Lot of 2 CDV tintype studio portraits of identified African American children. CDV tintype full-length studio portrait of a young boy. Ennis & Lumpkin: Richmond Virginia, n.d., [1868]. Contemporary ink inscription to card recto: “Willie Thompson / Richmond Va. May 1, 1868.” Young Willie stands in a charming white suit with a kepi-style hat on a nearby table which he rests his elbow on. His face and hands have been lightly tinted alongside the green patterned tablecloth. A 6-year-old African American boy by the name of William Thomas is listed in the 1870 federal census of Richmond, and is likely the subject. His father Joseph is listed a laborer and his mother Arretta as a housekeeper. They lived in the Marshall Township area of Richmond and Willie was the fourth of five children. If this is the same person, Willie is about 4 years old in the image. Imprint on card mount verso. CDV tintype full-length studio portrait of a young girl. C. Campbell: Richmond, Virginia, [1869]. Contemporary ink inscription to card recto: “Josephine Poins. Shaw House / Jun. 18, ‘69. Richmond, Va.” Josephine wears a sweet checkered dress with black ribbon at the lace collar. Scalloped edge white pantaloons emerge from beneath her skirt and her lovely black boots are visible. Her hair is parted down the center with curls framing her young face. Imprint to card mount verso. $400 - $600

63 TINTYPES OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1865-1880 Lot of 9 tintype studio portraits of African American subjects, including a charming gem tintype portrait of a mother and child. During the 19th century, African American women were often included in portraits of white children in their roles as caretakers. In stark contrast, this image likely depicts an African American mother and her own child in a family scene, as opposed to one of employment. This particular mother and child evoke another that was in the Jackie Napoleon Wilson collection. Other images include a CDV full-length portrait of a gentleman wearing a top hat and a prodigious knit scarf; CDV portrait of a gentleman seated in thoughtful repose; CDV portrait of a seated woman with a white shawl around her shoulders; CDV full-length portrait of a young man wearing a hat and waistcoat with a hand-tinted watch chain; CDV full-length portrait of a young girl wearing a plaid dress which has been hand-tinted pink; sixth plate portrait of a seated man with a cane, likely indicating his blindness; sixth plate portrait of a woman with lacy cuffs and collar; and sixth plate portrait of a handsome couple seated next to one another and grasping hands. $800 - $1,200

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64 JAMES P. BALL CDV OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMAN, CA 1860 CDV full-length portrait of an African American woman. James P. Ball: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., 1858-1860. A lovely young woman stands in a checkered dress, one hand resting on a decorative pole screen and the other holding an elegant feathered hat. She gazes directly at the camera with a Mona Lisa-esque smile, her hair tied into a dignified chignon. James Presley Ball (1825-1904) is one of the most renowned African American photographers at one point owning the largest photographic gallery west of the Appalachians. When visiting White Sulphur Springs, Virginia in 1845 he met John B. Bailey, an African American daguerreotypist from Boston where he acquired the passion and skill of photography. He opened a studio in Cincinnati later that year, and though it was unsuccessful, he continued his art with studios in Pittsburgh and Richmond and traveled as an itinerant daguerreotypist. In 1849, he reopened a studio in Cincinnati. He hired his younger brother Thomas Ball to work as an operator, and in 1852 hired his future brother-in-law Alexander Thomas to work with him. By 1857, their gallery was one of the grandest in the United States attracting notables including Frederick Douglass. He was chosen in 1887 as the official photographer of a celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation held in Minneapolis-St.Paul. In 1888, he moved to Helena, Montana with his son where he operated a studio for several years before moving again in 1892 to Seattle. $300 - $500

65 TRIO OF CDVS BY JAMES P. BALL Lot of 3 CDVs by James P. Ball. Ball & Thomas: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., ca 1858-1860. CDV studio half-portrait of a white man seated at a table. 120 West Fourth Street imprint on verso. J.P. Ball: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., ca 1862-1868. CDV full-length studio portrait of two children, likely siblings. The young boy wears a jacket with a scalloped edge and holds a hat. The young girl wears a pleated plaid dress, necklace, earrings, and hairband. Both rest their arms on a small table with a flowered tablecloth. 30 West 4th Street imprint on verso. J.P. Ball & Son: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., ca 1870-1871. CDV studio half-portrait of a white man leaning upon a rustic fence. $300 - $400

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66 CDV ALBUM OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, INCL. PORTRAITS BY J.P. BALL, CA 1870 Leather album, 4.75 x 6 in., containing 20 photographic images, including 16 CDVs and 4 tintypes, some of which are paper-mounted. Portraits show African American men and women of various ages, either standing or seated in interior spaces, ca 1870. Two photographs credited to renowned African American photographer J.P. Ball, the first featuring a commanding gentleman who stands beside a table with his hand resting on a book and the second presenting woman with stooped shoulders leaning against an upholstered chair. Other images of note include a portrait of a young man with a walking stick tucked under his arm, posed before a wooded studio backdrop, taken by Upton, Oberlin, Ohio; two identical photographs of the same seated gentleman wearing a prominent pocket watch, with backmark of Dunham, Oberlin, Ohio; and a full-length portrait by E.L. Graves, Albion, Michigan of a young lady identified on verso as Eunice Mills Wetherbee. Other identified photographers include William T. Crouch, Belleville, Illinois; Fischer, St. Louis, Missouri; A.J. Fox, St. Louis, Missouri; R. Goebel, St. Charles, Missouri; LaTour, Chicago, Illinois; LeClear’s, Jackson, Michigan; J.F. Ryder, Cleveland, Ohio; and H.A. Seymour, Jackson, Michigan. $2,000 - $3,000

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67 SCARCE J.P. BALL MONTANA CABINET CARD Cabinet card half-portrait of African American gentleman. J.P. Ball & Son: Helena, Montana, n.d., ca 1895. Imprint on recto. Inscription on verso identifies the subject: “Jas.H. Durand / Helena / Montana.” Portrait by the celebrated African American daguerreotypist, the gentleman wears a pinstripe waistcoat and jacket with a patterned tie. Ball’s Montana photographs are quite scarce and this image is believed to be unique. $400 - $600

68 A.S. THOMAS CDV SELF-PORTRAIT AND PORTRAIT OF HIS WIFE, CA 1880, LOT OF 2 Pair of CDVs by Alexander S. Thomas. CDV bust self-portrait. A.S. Thomas: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d. ca 1880. 166 West Fifth Street imprint on verso. CDV vignetted bust portrait of Thomas’s wife, Elizabeth J. (Ball) Thomas. A.S. Thomas: Cincinnati, Ohio, n.d., ca 1880. 116 West Fifth Street imprint on verso. Alexander S. Thomas (d.1910) was the brother-in-law and business partner of renowned African American photographer, James Presley Ball. Born in Louisiana, Thomas lived in New Orleans before his October 1850 marriage to his future partner’s sister, Elizabeth J. Ball and his relocation to the city of Cincinnati. The partnership between Ball and Thomas produced unique photographs of some of the era’s most important figures. After the dissolution of their partnership, Thomas partnered with Ball’s younger brother, Thomas C. Ball, operating a studio with him until the younger Ball’s death in 1875. $300 - $500

69 EDMONIA LEWIS CDV, CA 1870 CDV of Edmonia Lewis seated at a table. Augustus Marshall: Boston, Massachusetts, n.d., ca 1870. Augustus Marshall imprint on verso. Previously unknown, this rare CDV of Lewis is one of few known images of the artist taken by Marshall. Most other images of Lewis were believed to be taken by Chicago photographer Henry Rocher between 1868 and 1870, with the exception of one later photograph taken in Rome sometime between 1872 and 1878. Numerous pencil inscriptions on verso. Edmonia Lewis (1844-1907) was a uniquely successful sculptor of both African American and Native American ancestry. She attended Oberlin College from 1859 until 1863, though she never officially graduated due to accusations that she poisoned white students and stole art supplies. After leaving Oberlin, Lewis moved to Boston and studied under Edward Brackett, a noted portrait sculptor in the area under whose tutelage she began crafting sculptures of her own: most prominently, portraits of famous abolitionists including William Lloyd Garrison and the martyred John Brown. She then traveled through Europe, finally settling in Rome in 1865 along with many other American sculptors and artists. What set her apart was her insistence upon finishing all of her own work, and her willingness to explore themes inspired by her own heritage and ethnicity. One of her most poignant works, Hagar, brings new life to the Old Testament castoff, depicting courage and strength in the face of the Egyptian matriarch. Though newspaper accounts confirm Lewis’s presence at the San Francisco Art Association for an exhibition of her work in 1872, little is known about her life in the latter years of the decade, and beyond. $3,000 - $5,000 44

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70 J.A. PALMER WILDE WOMAN OF AIKEN CABINET CARD, 1882 The Wilde Woman of Aiken cabinet card from the series Aiken and Vicinity. J.A. Palmer (1825-1896): Aiken, South Carolina, 1882. Printed imprint label affixed on verso: “Aiken and Vicinity. / Photographed by J.A. Palmer, Aiken, S.C.” Neither numbered nor titled in manuscript, as was typical of Palmer. The only other example of this image, now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum, New York, has the title written, “The Wilde Woman of Aiken.” In 1882, Oscar Wilde visited the United States on an 11-month lecture tour and drew criticism from American audiences for his promotion of the Aesthetic Movement and the assertion that anything could be beautiful. The Aiken, South Carolina-based photographer J.A. Palmer apparently composed this satirical photograph in response, with things he found to be inherently distasteful: an African American woman, highly patterned fabrics, and an Edgefield face jug holding a large sunflower, an emblem of the Anglo-American Aesthetic Movement and Wilde in particular who was known to wear one on his lapel. The horseshoe resting on the woman’s lap is also likely a reference to Wilde, suggesting his “lucky” Irish origin. The series also included a similar image as a stereoview, titled An Aesthetic Darkey, which mirrors the composition and title of the woodcut The Aesthetic Monkey by William Holbrook Beard and featured on the January 28, 1882 issue of Harper’s Weekly. Beard’s image clearly intends to lampoon Wilde with the simian wearing Wilde’s iconic dandy wardrobe with a wide collar, foppish tie, and velvet suit. Both Beard and Palmer’s

images show the subject with their hands folded gazing adoringly upon a sunflower with an open book, horseshoe, and a calla lily, another Aesthetic movement emblem. Palmer’s image replaces the monkey with a boy and the nondescript face with an Edgefield face vessel. Palmer’s inclusion of a face jug is in some ways unsurprising as Aiken was on the eastern edge of the historic Edgefield District, about 20 miles away from Edgefield itself, and it was here that the art form was born. First created by slaves in the 1850s and later freed African Americans, the wheel-thrown stoneware vessels employ alkaline glazes and feature highly expressive features applied in white kaolin clay, often left unglazed. While their full history is still shrouded in mystery, many historians believe that the jugs were used in African religious and spiritual rituals. Palmer was clearly aware of the jugs, but like other contemporary whites, he likely associated these vessels as stylized, mocking portraits of their creators. He was almost certainly ignorant of their probable ritualistic purpose or inherent artistic value. Indeed, it is unclear that Palmer who was best known as a photographer for his images of African Americans, often sympathetic in their portrayal, hoped to achieve or what he perceived the market for these images would be. Regardless of his intent, this image remains the earliest visual representation of an Edgefield face vessel. For further in-depth analysis of this image, please see Victoria Dailey. “The Wilde Woman and the Sunflower Apostle,” in The Book Collector, Winter 2019, pp. 627-646 and forthcoming online in the Los Angeles Review of Books. $6,000 - $8,000

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71 GARDNER CDV OF AFRICAN AMERICAN CANE CARVER, CA 1860 Studio portrait of an aged African American man, possibly a cane carver. Alexander Gardner: Washington DC, ca 1860. The subject is shown seated, looking off into the distance, resting his arm on a secretary bookshelf, holding his hand against his cheek. Several walking sticks lean against the secretary bookshelf. $1,500 - $2,500

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72 QUIMBY CDV OF MAN WITH PROSTHETIC LEG AND CRUTCHES, CA 1860 View of an aged, disheveled African American man seated in a studio, holding crutches in his hands, with a prosthetic right leg visible in the lower left portion of the portrait. Quimby & C.: Charleston, South Carolina, n.d., ca 1860. $800 - $1,200

73 CDV OF JEAN JACQUES DESIRÉ, 1862 CDV portrait of Jean Jacques Desiré. Photographer unknown: [Baltimore, Maryland], n.d., ca 1862. Desiré is pictured standing next to a chair with his hand resting on the top rail. Ink inscription on verso: “Jean Jacques Desiré was born Jany. 1st 1779 in Hayti [sic] - he came to the United States when 13 years old, and has been a barber in Baltimore since 1800. He shaved my father the day he was married, and after powdered my grandfather’s hair (Henry Schroeder), and arranged his cue - He has been married twice, and has had 19 children, the youngest of whom is now 5 years old - Picture taken July 10th 1862. / H.S.T.” The inscription captures much of what is known about Desiré. When he emigrated to the United States, he was likely aboard one of fifty-three refugee ships that carried white slave owners, slaves, and free people of color to Baltimore in July 1793 as they fled the chaos of the Haitian revolution. Desiré started working as a barber in Baltimore in 1800 and continued in that profession for the rest of his life. “H.S.T.” likely refers to Henry Schroeder Taylor (1824-1886), a well-connected Baltimore merchant who served as City Collector, President of the Baltimore Fire Insurance Company, Vice President of the Maryland Club, and in other important political capacities including as General of Governor Carroll’s staff. Lot accompanied by typewritten label identifying Henry Schroeder Taylor as the writer of the verso inscription. $1,500 - $2,500 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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74 TWO EXCEPTIONAL CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1865 Lot of 2 CDVs. Portrait of African American man with cap seated in simple studio setting. Photographer unknown: n.d., ca 1865. Portrait of four young authoritative African American men posed together in a studio. Photographer unknown: n.d., ca 1865. One of the standing subjects wears a tall top hat and rests his hand on the shoulder of one of the seated gents who smokes a cigar. $400 - $600

75 PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE CDVS FROM GETTYSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, CA 1870 Lot of 2 CDVs. Tyson Brothers: Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, ca 1870. The first carte features a full-standing portrait of a corpulent black man wearing a top hat. The accompanying image provides an outside view capturing nine black subjects, including men, women, and a young child, seated in or standing near a mule-drawn wagon, which is parked before a small farmhouse. Each subject looks directly at the camera. $400 - $600

76 OLD LOG CABIN, FORT PAYNE, ALABAMA BOUDOIR CARD, CA 1890 Boudoir card featuring an African American woman with three children standing outside of a log cabin in Fort Payne, Alabama. O.W. Chase: Fort Payne, n.d., ca 1890. Labeled “29” in the negative to lower left, with imprint on verso listing “O.W. Chase” as photographer of the “Views / of / Fort Payne, Ala.” series. The woman featured wears a white apron and stands in the doorway of the cabin next to an empty wooden box labeled “A.R. Buckles” standing upright on the ground along with other scattered items including barrels and an axe. $100 - $200

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77 19 CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1864-1870 Lot of 19 CDV studio portraits of African American subjects, ca 1864-1870. Includes 10 portraits of men, 6 of women, 2 of children, and a single CDV of Abraham Lincoln. Imprints from various photographers in Philadelphia, Washington DC, New Haven, Cleveland, Brooklyn, and Charleston. Taken from an album, four images include inscriptions that are made either to or from a Theodosia Lyons, possibly the compiler of the album. A vignette portrait of a lovely young woman by J.F. Ryder of Cleveland is inscribed to the verso, “Mr. + Mrs. Henry Jakes / from ‘Dosia’,” presumably a portrait of Theodosia. A 22-year-old “mulatto” woman named Theodosia Lyons is listed in the 1870 census of Cleveland Ward 04, and is the likely subject. Two images of the same handsome young man, both taken by M.P. & A.I. Rice in Washington DC, are included, one inscribed to Theodosia to the verso. He signed his name after “Truly Yours” on the recto, though it was unfortunately cut off at some point. $500 - $700

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78 CDVS OF AFRICANS IN NEW WORLD COUNTRIES, CA 18701895 Lot of 4 CDVs. Standing view of a girl from Martinique. Hartmann: Saint Pierre, n.d., ca 1870. Outdoor view of an African Peruvian on burro. Nadar: Lima, n.d., ca 1870. Studio portrait of young African American man. Edward Fraas & Co.: [Bridgetown, Barbados], n.d., ca 1880. Studio portrait of black nanny and child. Juan Pia: Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1895. $200 - $300

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79 AFRICAN AMERICAN NANNY WITH BABY CDV, CA 1869 CDV portrait featuring an African American woman, likely a nanny, helping to position a young girl having her photograph taken. C.R. Rees: Richmond, Virginia, n.d., ca 1869. Photographer’s imprint on verso. The child is posed on a set made to look like a natural rock formation, with ivy placed around her, while the woman is pictured wearing a patterned shirt and hat, leaning forward with one arm extended behind the child’s back, likely to keep her propped up for the portrait. Ivy leaves are tinted green. $800 - $1,200 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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80 A.J. FISHER CABINET CARD OF BLACK BUTLER HOLDING WHITE BABY, CA 1885 Cabinet card of a black man holding a white infant. A.J. Fisher: Towanda, Pennsylvania, n.d., ca 1885. Recto and verso imprints. A black man wearing a white shirt holds a white infant in a long dress. Among the images of African American caretakers of white children, the vast majority depict women. Images of black male caretakers are exceedingly scarce. $800 - $1,000

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81 CABINET CARD OF ALFRED JACKSON, FORMER SLAVE TO PRESIDENT JACKSON, CA 1888 Cabinet card of Alfred Jackson (ca 1812-1901), President Andrew Jackson’s former slave. A.J. Thuss: Nashville, Tennessee, n.d., ca 1888. Recto imprint below image. Written inscription on verso reads, “Andrew Jackson’s servant who showed us the Hermitage in Aug. 1897. 92 or 94 years old. Sarah Fiske.” Alfred was born into slavery at Jackson’s plantation the Hermitage but continued to live there as a tenant farmer even after Emancipation. In 1889 when the estate turned into a museum, he began giving tours. Upon his death in 1901, he was buried near the tomb of the President and Mrs. Jackson. Alfred’s log cabin still stands at the Hermitage today. $300 - $500

82 CABINET CARD OF BLACK AND WHITE FRIENDS WITH CIGARS, CA 1890 Cabinet card of two young men with cigars. M’Killip Bros: Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, n.d., ca 1890. Imprint on recto. A black man sits with legs crossed in a wicker chair with his arm draped over the back. He wears pinstripe pants, a tweed waistcoat, a dark jacket, and a bowler hat. His white friend stands next to him with his hand resting on his shoulder. Both chew on cigars in the corners of their mouths. The jaunty lads present a charming picture of interracial friendship in late 19th century America. $200 - $300

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83 CDV OF BLACK GRADUATE “PALMAM HABEAT, QUI MERUIT,” CA 1868 J.A. Foster: Adrian, Michigan, n.d., ca 1868. CDV portrait of a standing African American man in a dark suit, possibly a graduate of the University of Michigan. He wears a mortarboard and carries what appears to be a pipe and a walking stick. Pipe smoking was a common graduation tradition at a number of American universities, as was carrying a walking stick. “Palmam habeat, qui meruit” printed below image, with twocent revenue stamp on verso and studio imprint of J.A. Foster, Adrian, Michigan. Beginning in 1862, seniors at the University of Michigan selected graduation mottoes unique to their classes. “Palmam habeat qui meruit” (“Let whoever earns the palm, have it”) was the motto for the class of 1868. Cane carrying also grew wildly popular at the University during this time, with a student journalist writing in part, “The cane fever is upon us. The movement originated with the senior class, who, with the laudable desire of carrying away some token of their college days to show to their admiring friends and descendants, produced a fine lot of good sized hickory canes” (1876). $100 - $200

84 CDV OF “PROF JIM” OF TRINITY COLLEGE, HARTFORD, CA 1875 CDV portrait of James “Professor Jim” Williams. Wilson: Hartford, Connecticut, n.d., ca 1875. Photographer’s 258 Main St. imprint on verso. Williams is pictured wearing a long black coat, a plaid waistcoat, and a cravat, standing with his arm resting on a large studio prop beside him. What appears to be a kind of stand is also visible behind Williams’s feet. Pencil inscription on recto: “’Prof Jim,’ of Trinity College, / Hartford.” James Williams (1790-1878) was a longtime custodian at Trinity College, fondly known as “Professor Jim.” Born into slavery to Revolutionary War Colonel John F. Robert, he was witness to Robert’s friendship with Aaron Burr, and it was to Robert’s estate that Burr fled to after his duel with Alexander Hamilton, an account not recorded elsewhere but mentioned in Charles Hayden Proctor's contemporary biography of Williams (Lot 85). At 20, Williams escaped and served in the American Navy and commercial vessels during the War of 1812. After several years at sea, he settled in Connecticut and became a household servant to Bishop Brownell, founder of Trinity College. He would serve in various capacities at the College, rising to Chief Janitor. His biographer and a descendant of Colonel Robert, C.H. Proctor, noted, Williams “was affectionately remembered as an uneducated but intelligent Negro janitor who became a college institution, ‘a prominent personage at Class-Day celebrations’, and a speaker to graduating seniors.” A lounge was named in his honor in March 1999. $1,500 - $2,500

85 “PROFESSOR JIM” BIOGRAPHY PROCTOR, C.H. The Life of James Williams, Better Known as Professor Jim, For Half A Century Janitor of Trinity College. Hartford: Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1873. 16mo (4.75 x 6.5 in.). Tissue-guarded frontispiece portrait. original wrappers (small chip to lower right, minor wear to spine with small tape repair, else very fine). FIRST EDITION. Scarce in wrappers. Sabin 65946. $300 - $500

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86 CANDY SAM ALBUMEN PRINT ON ALBUM PAGE, YALE UNIVERSITY, 1865 George Kendall Warren: New Haven, Connecticut, 1865. Albumen photograph, 5.25 x 7.25 in., mounted to 8.75 x 11.5 in., of an African American man seated in an interior space holding a basket and displaying the contents of an open box. He wears a dark suit, hat, and a small hoop earring in his left ear. Theodore Ferris, also known as "Candy Sam," was a blind seller of confectionery on the campus of Yale University during the second half of the nineteenth century. His basket typically housed apples, while he kept an assortment of candies in the flat box. The presence of African American staff at elite eastern universities in the 19th century is well documented. In photographic history, however, no such presence was better documented than that of Candy Sam. His likeness was included in select class albums over a span of nearly thirty years. George Kendall Warren (American, ca 1824-1884) had worked primarily as a photographer of celebrity portraits prior to the Civil War but transitioned exclusively to university photography at the war's onset. He opened a studio in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1863 and captured portraits of students, faculty, and staff, as well as campus architecture and scenery for Brown, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, Rutgers, Williams, and Yale. $2,000 - $3,000

87 YALE JANITOR ALBUMEN PRINT ON ALBUM PAGE, YALE UNIVERSITY, CA 1868 George Kendall Warren: New Haven, Connecticut n.d., ca 1868. Oval albumen photograph, 5.5 x 7.75 in., mounted on to 10 x 12.75 in., of an African American man seated in an interior space and posed with a flat broom, a large basket, and a set of keys. He wears a cardigan sweater and a brimless straw hat. Credited to “Warren Phot.” at lower left. Library of Congress holdings identify the subject as “Smith, The Sweep,” one of several janitors and chimney sweeps employed by Yale during the second half of the nineteenth century. $2,000 - $3,000

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88 WILLIAM NOTMAN CABINET CARDS OF YALE BLACK MEN Lot of 3 cabinet cards of African American men. William Notman (18261891): [New Haven?], n.d., ca 1876. Recto imprint: “William Notman Montreal, Toronto & Halifax”; Verso imprint: “W. Notman / Photographer to Her Majesty / Montreal / Branches at / Toronto and Halifax.” Photographs include a beautifully composed shot of six black men. Three men in suits stand at the back, two sit in chairs tilted towards the center, with the sixth man seated on the floor wearing a knit cardigan sweater, his elbow resting on the knees of one of the seated men. Lot also includes

a vignette portrait of an elderly man in a suit and a full-length portrait of a fruit merchant wearing knee-length boots next to his vendor’s basket. The subjects are attributed as men associated with Yale University taken in New Haven, Connecticut. William Notman was a Scottish-Canadian photographer with an international reputation. He was based in Montreal but had several studio locations and maintained seasonal branches at both Harvard and Yale to capitalize off of the student populations. While Notman was a prolific photographer, examples with people of color are exceedingly scarce. The apparently unique images do not appear in the McCord Collection. $1,500 - $2,500

89 CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN OBERLIN STUDENTS, CA 1875 Lot of 2 CDVs of African American men, likely students at Oberlin College, both taken by H.M. Platt: Oberlin, Ohio, n.d. ca 1875. Both men appear seated and clad in suits and bow ties. Inscription below portrait of mustachioed gentleman identifies him as “H. Shorter.” According to the Minority Student Records in the Oberlin College archives, Hezekiah Shorter, a native of Lawrence, Kansas, was enrolled in the Preparatory Department from 1874 until 1878. Platt’s studio imprint on verso of both cartes. $100 - $200

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90 OBERLIN COLLEGE CDVS, CA 1868, LOT OF 2 Lot of 2 CDVs showing exterior views of the Second Ladies Hall at Oberlin College, ca 1868. CDV displaying the Italianate architecture of Oberlin’s Second Ladies Hall, erected 1861-1863. A.C. Platt: Oberlin, Ohio, n.d., ca 1868. Four figures are visible on the enclosed rooftop balcony, with additional figures, presumably student residents occupying the landscaped foreground. Beginning in the fall of 1865, the Second Ladies Hall was regularly open for student accommodations. The first floor included spaces for an assembly room, a reading room, a dining room, parlors, and stewards’ quarters, while the second and third floors housed dormitory rooms for around 100 women. Studio imprint of A.C. Platt, Oberlin, Ohio on mount below image. CDV with frontal presentation of the Second Ladies Hall facade, with figures visible on the steps at entrance. Platt & Hawley: Oberlin, Ohio, n.d., ca 1868. In 1881, a twostory addition was constructed for use as a gymnasium before the hall was razed by a fire in January 1886. Backmark of Platt & Hawley, in active partnership in Oberlin, Ohio 1867-1871, with inked inscription reading, “Ladies Boarding Hall Oberlin O.” Oberlin College was the first college in the United States to admit black students beginning in 1835, two years after its founding. It quickly gained a reputation as a center for abolitionist activities and was a key stop along the Underground Railroad. The school’s involvement in the 1858 Oberlin-Wellington rescue of a fugitive slave and subsequent trial of two students under the Fugitive Slave Act garnered national attention. $150 - $300

91 J.D. HEYWOOD CDVS OF FREEDMEN’S SCHOOL AND OFFICE AND QUARTERS OF CAPT. H. JAMES, CA 1868 Lot of 2 CDVs taken by John D. Heywood of New Bern, North Carolina, active ca 1860-1870. Includes a view a several young, African American students standing before a log building with a sign reading “Freedmen’s School” above the door. An African American man wearing a hat stands to the left of the group, with a white woman, likely a teacher, at the opposite side. Known as James’ Plantation School, this freedmen’s school was possibly among those established by Horace James on the Yankee or Avon Hall plantations in Pitt County, 1866. Verso stamp credits “J.D. Heywood’s Photograph Rooms. . . New Berne, NC,” n.d., ca 1868. After the Civil War, Freedmen’s Schools were established for African Americans who had been legally deprived of education in slave states. This image dates from the earliest phase of Freedmen’s Schools and is believed to be the earliest image of a school in North Carolina. Also with a CDV showing the exterior of a two-story residence with wooden siding, enclosed by a white picket fence. Verso inscription identifies the building as the “Office & Quarters of Capt. H. James A.Q.M., Sup’t Freedmen, New Berne, NC,” with Heywood’s stamp below, n.d., ca 1868. Horace James (1818-1875) served as a minister, Union Army chaplain, and advocate for fugitive African Americans during the Civil War. A native of Medford, Massachusetts, he graduated from Yale University in 1840 and was ordained as a Congregational minister. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, James, who was known to deliver powerful antislavery sermons, enlisted as a chaplain with the 25th Massachusetts Infantry and accompanied his regiment to Fortress Monroe, Virginia. During his time there, James was tasked by General Benjamin F. Butler (1818-1893) with the supervision of the enslaved men, women, and children who had fled north to Union lines. By consequence of his work in this capacity, James also led assistance efforts for fugitive slaves on Roanoke Island and in New Bern in 1862. James established evening schools for escaped slaves in New Bern, where they received religious instruction as well as donations of food and clothing. In November of 1862, Major General John G. Foster (1823-1874) named him Superintendent of Negro Affairs, affording him greater authority over the livelihood of black refugees in North Carolina, including census taking, allocating rations, housing individuals and families, and educating freedmen through both traditional and vocational means. In 1864, James was discharged as regimental chaplain and commissioned as captain and assistant quartermaster. Though he retained his position as superintendent, the role evolved and, with the formation of the Freedmen’s Bureau, James served in various leadership capacities in the new federal agency. He left the Bureau in 1865, however, to take on an enterprise with Brigadier General Eliphalet Whittlesey (1821-1904) and Winthrop Tappan, wherein they leased two Pitt County plantations, Avon and Yankee Hall, and hired freedmen as

laborers. Though he established schools and churches on site, conditions soured in 1866 when a laborer was killed at one of the plantations. James was tried as an accomplice in the shooting and for exploitation of the freedmen in Verso Detail an alleged profitmaking venture. Though he was acquitted, James turned his attentions to international travel before his death in Massachusetts in 1875. $2,000 - $4,000

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92 CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN LINCOLN INSTITUTE STUDENTS, CA 1880 Lot of 4 CDV portraits of Lincoln Institute students. S. Winans: Jefferson City, Missouri, n.d., ca 1880. Imprint on verso. Each captioned below image”Student of Lincoln Institute.” Half-portraits of well-dressed young men, each wearing a long jacket, waistcoat, and cravat. Three of the gentlemen are posing with an elbow leaning on a table with a tasseled drape. During the Civil War, the 62nd Colored Infantry regiment, with large numbers of recruits from Missouri, set up educational programs for its soldiers and raised over $6,000 to set up a black university. In 1866, Lincoln Institute was founded and headed by white abolitionist officer Richard Foster. The college still exists today in Jefferson City under the name Lincoln University. $600 - $800

93 CLASS OF ‘87 UNIVERSITY OF PACIFIC, SAN JOSE, CAL. JAN 20, 1884 BOUDOIR CARD J.B. Johnson: San Jose, California, 1884. Boudoir card presenting a formal group portrait of sixteen welldressed young men and women, captured in an outdoor setting. Verso inscription identifies subjects as members of the “Class of ‘87 / University of Pacific / San Jose / Cal. / Jan. 20, 1884.” A young, African American student is visible standing, fourth from left. Founded by Methodist ministers in 1851, the University of the Pacific was California’s first chartered institution of higher learning. $200 - $400

Verso Detail

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94 OVERSIZE PHOTOGRAPHS OF BISHOP COLLEGE, TEXAS, CA 1900 Lot of 2 card-mounted photographs of students at Bishop College, a Baptist college for African Americans in Marshall, Texas. Mose E. Hughes: Marshall, Texas, n.d., ca 1900. Photograph shows a view of Bishop’s campus, with a multi-story brick building at right, with a second building at right partially obscured by trees. A large group of African American students, predominantly women, populate the scene, with a handful of men in dark suits closer to the building in the background. Captioned in ink, “Bishop Hall and Mansion,” with studio imprint of Hughes at lower right. Bishop Hall, presumably the building at left, was a women’s dormitory. The structure in the background, featuring a two-story columned portico set on brick piers, was once a plantation mansion called Wyalucing. It was sold to the American Baptist Home Mission Society in 1881 and variably served as the President’s home, an administrative building, and the college conservatory. Mose E. Hughes: Marshall, Texas, n.d. ca 1900. African American students, both men and women, of various ages are captured here, posed on campus with a low fence visible in the background. Several benches dot the composition, some with stacks of books on top.”Students” inscribed in ink below photograph, and stamped “Hughes, Photo.” at lower left. In its nascence, Bishop operated both a grammar school and high school in addition to the college. Industrial skills such as carpentry and woodworking were also taught, though its primary college-level programs were in the fields of religion and education. Bishop College was established in 1881 by the American Baptist Home Mission Society as a coeducational school for African Americans. It was named for Nathan Bishop (1808-1880), a white attorney and philanthropist

95 HUGO WEITZ COLE SCHOOL CHILDREN, OAKLAND, 1910 Silver gelatin photograph of students at Cole School showing an integrated classroom with black and white children together. Hugo Weitz: Fruitvale, California, [1910]. Inscription on verso reads “Carl Bersch 1911.” 7.5 x 4.5 in. A charming group school portrait of children in front of a large American flag marked “1910” and held up by a sash that reads “Cole School.” A young boy seated in the front row holds a pennant also emblazoned with the school name, “Cole.” Remarkably, despite the image being captured fourteen years after Plessy v. Ferguson and during the height of the Jim Crow era, two black students are included in the otherwise white class. In the back row, a black boy wearing a sailor-style suit laughs and appears to be joking with his white classmate. On the far end of the second row, a black girl has been given the task of holding the flag of California. The room must have been jovial as many of the children, including our young flag bearer, are laughing or barely suppressing a smile. Hugo Weitz was a partner in Weitz & Dijeau and other listed studios in San Francisco between 1885 and 1898. He apparently moved his operations to the Fruitvale neighborhood of Oakland in the early 20th century. Several other school group photographs by Weitz are known, with many from the first half of the 1910s held in the Oakland Museum of California. No other known examples depict an integrated classroom. $300 - $400

who supported the establishment of the school. With Bishop’s support, the Society purchased land in Marshall from both white and black property holders to establish and expand the college campus. By 1910, Bishop College consisted of seven brick buildings, including student housing, classrooms, and administrative spaces. After the school relocated to Dallas in 1961, its Marshall campus was sold and all of the buildings were demolished. $400 - $600

96 AFRICAN AMERICAN GIRL WITH SCHOOL BOOKS AND FLAG, REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1918 Real photo postcard, n.d., ca 1918, featuring a young African American girl wearing a striped dress, dark hat, and tall, lace-up boots. She stands before an American flag backdrop and displays three books in her hand, with one cover titled, “The Hill Readers / Book Two.” Compiled by Daniel Harvey Hill (1859-1924), the Hill Readers schoolbook series was published by Ginn & Company in the early twentieth century. $200 - $300

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GRAFTON TYLER BROWN: CAPTURING THE WEST LOTS 97-100 Born in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1841, Grafton Tyler Brown (1841-1918) moved west in 1858, first to Sacramento and later to San Francisco, where he became California’s first African American city view artist and lithographer. As a prolific and talented topographic artist and lithographer, Brown created images that showcased the natural beauty and essential character of the developing frontier. From 1861 to 1864, he worked as a commercial lithographer for Charles C. Kuchel, and following Kuchel’s death, bought the firm, renaming it G.T. Brown & Company. Brown is best known for his fifteen bird’s-eye views and two illustrated history books, but he also printed for a broad range of businesses and mining companies. In 1878, he sold the business to his partner, William T. Galloway, who continued the firm under his own name. Brown moved to Victoria, British Columbia in 1882 and soon joined the Canadian Government’s Amos Boman Geological Survey for which he made sketches of the scenery along the Fraser River east of the Cascade Mountains. He also opened a studio in Victoria and began to produce paintings of the local landscape. Ever the wanderer, Brown moved to Portland, Oregon in 1886 where he maintained a studio until 1889, and where he was listed as an artist in the Portland city directories and in the directory of the Portland Art Guild.

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97 GRAFTON TYLER BROWN MITCHELL’S POINT, LOOKING DOWN THE COLUMBIA, 1887 Mitchell’s Point, Looking Down The Columbia River 1887 Oil on canvas 18 x 30 inches Signed and inscribed at lower left: “G T Brown 87” Signed and inscribed on verso in graphite: “G T Brown Mitchell’s Point Looking Down Columbia…” Mitchell Point is located on the Oregon side of the Columbia River in Hood River County, a little west of the present town of Hood River. The view is looking west, downriver, with the Washington side of the Columbia showing as the hill on the right side of the painting. The grade along the left appears to be the railroad bed for the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company’s tracks. An especially noteworthy painting for its depictions of American Indians, probably depicting a group of Wisham Indians, a band of Indians now associated both with the Warm Springs in Oregon and Yakama in Washington. The Wishram were located along the Columbia on both sides of the Celilo Falls, just east of the present-day city of The Dalles, Oregon. Another band that frequented that region was the Klickitat, now mostly associated with the Yakama. The woman on the right holds strips of salmon, while a traditional canoe is beached nearby. $30,000 - $50,000

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98 GRAFTON TYLER BROWN PRINTER SAMPLES, CA 1870-1876 Lot of 8. Printed stock certificates, commission scrip, sheet music, and more, all printed by Grafton Tyler Brown. The Great Sub-Marine Blast: Removal of Blossom Rock by the Explosion of 23 Tons of Gunpowder, under the superintendence of A. W. Von Schmidt, C.E. San Francisco: San Francisco News Letter, [1870]. 266 x 349 mm. Lithograph on paper. “Illustrated Supplement to the ‘S.F. News Letter’.” Imprint “G.T. Brown & Co. Lith. 540 Clay St.” A vignette illustrating the engineered explosion of Blossom Rock on April 23, 1870. A large sandstone boulder just below the surface of the water, it was located between Alcatraz and Yerba Buena Islands and was considerably perilous to any kind of craft. Minor brown spotting to edges, small tear to left edge. Very scarce. Mr. J. H. Milburn’s Musical Bouquet. San Francisco: M. Gray, 1872. 4to (273 x 351 mm), sheet music, 5 p. “The Roman Fall” Some toning to edges, mark underline, hinge partly split. With albumen photograph of “Max Bachert Artist” by Bradley & Rulofson. “Lith. G.T. Brown & Co. S.F.” Peoples Ice Company Stock Certificate. San Francisco, 1875. 233 x 106 mm. Lithograph on paper. Imprint “Lith. G.T. Brown & Co. S.F.” With riverscape vignette. Completed in manuscript on August 6, 1875 to A.G. Bell for fifty shares. Signatures canceled with eight-point star punches. Osgood & Stetson Invoice Letterhead. San Francisco, 1875. 216 x 178 mm. Lithograph on paper. Imprint “Lith. G.T. Brown & Co. S.F.” Letterhead in variety of fonts for Osgood & Stetson “Importers & Dealers in Stoves,

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Ranges & Metals, Tin Plate, Sheet Iron, Wire, Tools & Machines.” Completed in manuscript on September 6, 1875 to Mr. N.S. Trowbridge with order detailed below the letterhead. Commission Scrip: W. Wilson 961 Broadway, Oakland Cal. Will Pay Five Dollars to Bearer. Oakland: William Wilson, ca 1876. 155 x 80 mm. Lithograph on paper. Imprint “G.T. Brown & Co. S.F.” With detailed vignette of a ship, a sailor, and the personification of justice. Verso details the terms of service for the scrip advertising the issuer, “William Wilson, Practical Clock, Watch and Chronometer Maker.” Great Eastern Consolidated Quicksilver Mining Company Stock Certificate. San Francisco, 1876. 233 x 109 mm. Lithograph on paper. Imprint “G.T. Brown & Co. S.F.” Vignettes of miners at work and quails. Completed in manuscript on January 12, 1876 to J.G. Riley Trustee for 1000 shares. Pioneer Woolen Factory Invoice. San Francisco, 1876. 212 x 113 mm. Lithograph on paper. Imprint “Lith. G.T. Brown & Co. S.F.” With vignette of a waterside factory. Completed in manuscript on April 24, 1876 to Mr. H.S. Beck. Defiance Mining Company Stock Certificate. San Francisco, 1876. 235 x 103 mm. Lithograph on paper. Imprint “G.T. Brown & Co. S.F.” Stock certificate with decorative border, patriotic eagle vignette, and dog with a safe. Completed in manuscript on September 26, 1876 to O. Dodge for 25 shares. $2,000 - $3,000

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99 GRAFTON TYLER BROWN PRINTED MASONIC APPOINTMENT, 1871 Grand Lodge F.S.A.M. of the State of Nevada Masonic Appointment. San Francisco: G.T. Brown, 1871. 377 x 452 mm. Lithograph on vellum. Imprint, “Designed by W.M. Metcalf” and “G.T. Brown & Co. Lith. San Francisco.” A Masonic appointment for Thomas James Hodgkinson to the Carson Lodge No. 1 (Grand Lodge No. 152). Printed on vellum, the appointment features beautifully detailed masonic-related vignettes. Signed by the Grand Mason Horatio S. Mason and Grand Secretary Samuel Chubbuck. $1,200 - $1,800

100 INFORMATION CONCERNING THE TERMINUS OF THE RAILROAD SYSTEM OF THE PACIFIC COAST WITH TWO GRAFTON TYLER BROWN MAPS Information Concerning The Terminus Of The Railroad System Of The Pacific Coast. Oakland: Daily Transcript Book and Job Printing Office, 1871. 8vo (145 x 218 mm). Two fold-out lithographed maps printed by African American Grafton Tyler Brown (parallel gentle vertical folds, some creasing to upper edge, pages evenly toned. Maps very fine.) Original wrappers (residue to rear wrapper, toning to wrappers); custom quarter leather and burgundy cloth case with gilt titles and folio. Printed at the height of Brown’s career as a lithographer before he became well known as a painter. Very scarce, maps held independently at Cornell University Library; pamphlet held at San Francisco Public Library. Maps: E.C. Sessions’ Map of Oakland and Brooklyn. G.T. Brown & Co. Lith, S.F. With inset showing Bay of San Francisco with Yerba Buena Island labeled as Goat Island. 537 x 307 mm. Map of California. Showing the Rail Road System 1871. Published by the “Oakland Daily Transcript” John Scott, Proprietor. F.C. Hafenrichter, Del. G.T. Brown & Co. Lith. S.F. 365 x 439 mm. $1,200 - $1,800

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101 BLACK PIONEER JAMES P. BECKWOURTH BIOGRAPHY, FIRST EDITION BONNER, T.D. The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, Mountaineer, Scout, and Pioneer, and Chief of the Crow Nation of Indians. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1856. 12mo (136 x 200 mm). Frontispiece with 12 additional wood-engraved plates. (Internally clean). Original brown cloth with blindstamped boards and gilt spine titles (very good with mild rubbing to front board, mild edge wear and corner bumps, spine very slightly shaken). FIRST EDITION. James “Jim” Beckwourth (1798-1866) was born into slavery and freed by his white father and master. After apprenticing as a blacksmith, he became an early pioneer working as a fur trader and trapper, living with the Crow Nation for many years. He is considered the discoverer of Beckwourth Pass between present-day Reno, Nevada and Portola, California, and improved Beckwourth Trail which was followed by thousands of settlers to California in the Gold Rush years. Although some of the text is considered to be exaggerated, this biography which Beckwourth narrated to Bonner is a valuable account of the African American pioneer’s life as well as life among the Crow. $100 - $200

102 ONLY KNOWN SLAVE NARRATIVE PUBLISHED INDEPENDENTLY IN CALIFORNIA, LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF JAMES WILLIAMS WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF FRONTIER WEST, MORMONS, AND CHINESE WILLIAMS, James (1825-?) Life and Adventures of James Williams, A Fugitive Slave, With a Full Description of the Underground Railroad. San Francisco: Women’s Union Print, 1873. 8vo (6 x 9 in.). Original purple wrappers (wear to covers sunned and soiled with some chipping to upper corner and spine, upper half of title page lacking with repair). FIRST EDITION. A remarkable biography of James Williams, the only known full-length slave narrative published independently in California. The work details his early life and escape from slavery, reuniting with his fugitive mother in Pennsylvania. At the age of 16, he began working the Underground Railroad. His devotion to freeing his fellow man is evident as he includes the stories of several other escaped slaves in this book. The work also follows his move to California, trips to Mexico and British Columbia, the transcontinental railroad, his work with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Spiritualism, the Gold Rush, the Modoc War and more. An interesting chapter “About Bigamy” briefly and sympathetically mentions Brigham Young and the burgeoning Mormon community in Salt Lake City. He also expresses progressive opinions upon both the Chinese and Irish populations in California, remarking, “Drive them out? Ah, my learned friends, are you not aware that California is a free country? It is part of the United States of America, and America throws open her doors for all nations.” An invaluable document of life in the western frontier. Very scarce. $2,000 - $4,000

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103 FIRST EDITION THE CONQUEST, OSCAR MICHEAUX AUTOBIOGRAPHY [MICHEAUX, Oscar (1884-1951)]. The Conquest: The Story of a Negro Pioneer. Lincoln, Nebraska: Woodruff Press, 1913. 8vo (133 x 297 mm). Frontispiece + 15 plates (with plate at p. 241 placed at p. 224; plate for p. 251 placed at p. 240). (Gatherings shaken somewhat but overall a very good copy). Original blue cloth with printed white titles (Light bumping to corners, only minor losses to white titles (as is typical), some cloth wrinkling to rear board (binding flaw)). FIRST EDITION. Autobiography and first book of homesteader and groundbreaking filmmaker Micheaux. Scarce $300 - $500

104 FIRST EDITION THE HOMESTEADER BY OSCAR MICHEAUX MICHEAUX, Oscar (1884-1951). The Homesteader. Sioux City, Iowa: Western Book Supply Company, 1917. 8vo (134 x 292 mm). Tissue guarded frontispiece and additional plates. (Small dampstain affecting lower right corner) Maroon cloth with gilt titles and frame (near fine, mild corner bumps). FIRST EDITION. The third novel of Micheaux tells the semi-autobiographical story of Jean Baptiste, a black pioneer, and his complicated relationships with women, critically exploring early 20th-century race relations. The novel gained the attention of Lincoln Motion Picture Company, however, when negotiations fell through, Micheaux founded the Micheaux Film & Book Company of Sioux City in Chicago and produced and directed the film of the same name himself. Now lost, the 1919 silent film is considered the first feature-length movie by a black director and was the film debut of pioneering actress Evelyn Preer (1896-1932). Uncommon. $150 - $300

105 SAM HOUSTON BIOGRAPHY BY HIS FORMER SLAVE, JEFF HAMILTON HAMILTON, Jeff, and Lenoir HUNT. “My Master”: The Inside Story of Sam Houston and His Times, By His Former Slave, Jeff Hamilton. Dallas: Manfred Van Nort & Co., 1940. Large 8vo (159 x 232 mm). Frontispiece and plates throughout. (Pages evenly toned. Gift inscription to front flyleaf ). Red cloth with silver titles, no dust jacket (lightly bumped corners, wear to hinges and spine, binding slightly cocked). FIRST TRADE EDITION. $100 - $200

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106 ROSE JACKSON AND HER SON, TRIO OF CDVS, CA 1868 Lot of 3 CDVs. Two studio portraits of Rose Jackson. D.H. Hendee: Portland, Oregon, ca 1868. Portraits include bust and full standing views, each with subject identified on verso as well as various ink and pencil notations. Studio portrait of Rose Jackson’s son Charles, identified on verso. Photographer unknown: likely Portland, Oregon, ca 1868. Rose Jackson served as a slave to Dr. William Allen of Missouri, who decided to travel west to Oregon City with his family in 1849. When the family departed for Oregon, they planned to leave Rose behind because they were concerned about the territory’s exclusion laws that barred African Americans from entering. Rose convinced the Allen family to take her along, and in order to avoid detection on the two thousand mile journey, she was hidden in a box to circumvent Oregon’s exclusion laws. Dr. Allen freed Rose upon her arrival and died shortly soon after. Though she had her freedom, Rose helped the family survive on her income as a laundress during their first winter in Oregon. $1,500 - $2,500

107 SANTA CRUZ CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1866-1875 Lot of 4 CDV portraits of African American male subjects, credited to Santa Cruz, California photographers ca 1866-1875. In 1870, the census listed 53 African Americans living in Santa Cruz county. CDV showing three young men. E.P. Butler: Santa Cruz, California, n.d. ca 1867. Presumably brothers, they stand together in an interior space. The older two wear white shirts, jackets, and tailored pants, while the youngest sports a matching ensemble of a shirt and baggy, gathered pants with intricate embroidery. Credited on verso to Edward P. Butler, active throughout California in the second half of the nineteenth century, including a stint in Santa Cruz, ca 1867-1877. The youth pictured here could very well be the children of Robert C. Francis or George A. Chester, who became the first African American children to attend school in Santa Cruz when they enrolled in 1869. The 1870 census lists Robert and Mary Francis as the parents of Charles, Joseph, and George, ages 18, 10, and 8 respectively. George and Mary Chester had three children as well- Andrew Martha, and Georgiana, ages 12, 10, and 8, respectively. Second Butler CDV presents a portrait of a distinguished man with facial hair. E.P. Butler: Santa Cruz, California, n.d. ca 1873. Verso bears a different Santa Cruz imprint, suggesting a later date. After working in California, Butler moved on to Nevada, where he operated two studios, the first with G. Waterhouse, Nevada City, 1883 and the second as an independent venture in Reno, 1886. CDV of a seated man facing left, with a goatee and pocket watch chain. John E.D. Baldwin, Photographic Gallery: Santa Cruz, California, n.d., ca 1875. Backmark of John E.D. Baldwin, active in California 1874-1888.

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Baldwin operated his first studio out of Santa Cruz through 1880, before relocating first to Stockton, then to Sacramento. Vignetted CDV portrait of a goateed man wearing a small pin on his vest. Burnett’s Art Gallery: Santa Cruz, California, n.d., ca 1866. Verso credit to Burnett’s Art Gallery, active in Santa Cruz beginning in 1862. $1,500 - $2,500

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108 SAN FRANCISCO CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1864-1895 Lot of 11 CDVs of African American men and women by photographers active in San Francisco, California, ca 1864-1895. Collection features a portrait of a nanny with three well-dressed white children, including a baby held on the nanny’s lap, credited on verso to William Shaw. Among other notable images are studio portraits of a mustachioed man standing with a top hat in his hand by the Cosmopolitan Art & Photographic Company; a woman with prominent jewelry and a striped tie at her neck, credited on verso to Bayley J. Winter; and young lady in a plaid dress standing beside a fringed chair, with backmark of Jacob Shew, the “Pioneer Photographer.” Other identified photographers and studios include Chalmers & Wolfe, C.L. Cramer, Foss & Halsey, G.D. 3 of 11 Morse, New York Gallery, Silva’s Photographic Rooms, and George R. White. Between 1860 and 1880, San Francisco’s population grew from 57,000 to 234,000 residents. During this same time period, the African American population in the city barely increased, growing from 1,200 to just 1,600. The relatively small number of African Americans makes it all the more remarkable that there are twelve cartes de visite of African American San Franciscans from that period in this collection, eleven of which are offered here. $400 - $600

109 CDVS OF NAPA, CALIFORNIA AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILY, CA 1865-1888 Lot of 18 CDVs and minettes of an African American family in Napa, California. Eleven credited to Mark Hopkins Strong (1862-1945) with Strong studio imprint. Four credited to James G. Brayton (b. 1822) with verso imprints. Includes both studio and informal outdoor portraits of children, women, men, and families. During the 1860s, Napa Valley had a small but vibrant African American community. They hosted a celebration for the ratification of the 15th Amendment in 1870, and 37 men registered to vote within a few days. According to Sharon McGriffPayne, a local historian, census data and property records place the African American population at around 200 to 300 from 1860 to 1890. Most of these individuals lived in the rural part of the county and farmed profitable crops like wheat. $800 - $1,200

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110 TRIO OF CDVS FROM CASTROVILLE, CALIFORNIA OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1875 Lot of 3 CDVs of African Americans taken by Burnett & Ercanbrack., Jr. at the Castroville, California branch of the Pajaro Art Gallery, n.d., ca 1875. Features a studio portrait of a well-dressed couple, showing a seated man wearing a checked vest and pocket watch chain with a woman in a bustled dress standing at his side, with her hands resting on his shoulder. Also with two images of young women, including a close-format portrait of a girl wearing a black ribbon choker and dress with a large bow at the bodice, along with a standing view of a young lady wearing a white dress with fringed trim. All three credited on verso to Burnett & Ercanbrack, Jr., Castroville, California. In 1875, Castroville, California had 900 residents, of whom only a very small minority were African American. Salinas, the seat of Monterey County which was less than 10 miles away, had a settlement called “Confederate Corners” because of the number of Southerners that moved there after the Civil War ended. The proximity of these two populations and the likely antagonism that existed makes these photographs all the more remarkable. $500 - $700

111 LOS ANGELES AND PASADENA PHOTOGRAPHS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1890-1900 Lot of 4, includes 3 cabinet cards and 1 CDV from Los Angeles and Pasadena, California. Cabinet card portrait of a young African American woman. Sunbeam Art Gallery: Los Angeles, California, n.d., ca 1890. Imprint on recto. Subject wears a plaid blouse and a long skirt with a brooch pinned on her high collar. Cabinet card full-length portrait of young African American gentleman. E.F. Kohler: Pasadena, California, n.d., ca 1895. Imprint on recto. The dignified young man stands with one foot forward and his hand resting on a table. He stands before a backdrop suggesting a refined interior. Cabinet card vignette portrait of a young African American man. Tresslar: [Los Angeles, California], n.d., ca 1900. Imprint on recto. A mustachioed gentleman wears a three-piece suit with a light necktie. CDV portrait of an African American lady. Sunbeam Art Gallery: Los Angeles, California, n.d., ca 1900. Imprint on recto. Mounted as a cabinet photograph. The elegant lady wears a large, flowered hat and a tasseled bow at her neck. $400 - $600

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112 SAN DIEGO CABINET CARDS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH GAR DELEGATE Cabinet card of Grand Army of the Republic Delegate. Charles Klindt: San Diego, California, n.d., ca 1893. 657 Fifth Street imprint on recto. The Union veteran stands with his hand resting upon a chair. He wears a kepi with the insignia of the GAR with a fringed ribbon and GAR badges pinned to his jacket. [With:] Cabinet card portrait vignette of African American couple. Excelsior Studio [William Lawrence]: San Diego, California, n.d., ca 1885. Imprint on recto. Both handsomely dressed in black. Attributed from an album as an infantryman and his wife. $600 - $800

113 J. LINCOLN DERRICK, SAN FRANCISCO NEWSPAPER PUBLISHER, DIAMOND CDV CDV portrait of John Lincoln Derrick, mounted in embossed diamond-shaped card. Cramer: San Francisco, California, n.d., ca 1895. Imprint on recto: “Cramer, 402 Kearney St., S.F.” Derrick is pictured in Detail an elegant suit and waistcoat with a striped necktie, watch fob, and a floral boutonniere. Signed on verso, “Very Truly Yours / J. Lincoln Derrick.” John Lincoln Derrick (b. 1864) was the publisher and editor of The Western Outlook, a San Francisco-based African American newspaper that he established in 1894 and maintained until 1928 when it ceased publication. The paper informed its African American readership of current, local, and national events and also included profiles of notable residents. $300 - $500

114 H.H. BLAKESLY DAILY EXAMINER NEWSPAPER BOY CDV, CALIFORNIA CA 1890 CDV showing a young, African American boy clad in a dark jacket with buttons and a broad, white collar, along with a cap marked for the “Daily Examiner.” H.H. Blakesly: St. Helena, California, n.d., ca 1890. Credited on mount below image to H.H. Blakesly’s Elite Studio, St. Helena, California. Blakesly partnered with E.R. Healy to operate the Elite Studio ca 1890-1893 before relocating to Placerville, where he managed the A.K. Varney studio beginning in 1899. In the 19th century, newspapers primarily employed hawkers to sell papers, as opposed to home delivery. These newsies were often young boys. One such paper was the Examiner, founded in 1863 as the Democratic Press, a pro-slavery periodical in vehement opposition to President Abraham Lincoln. Following Lincoln’s assassination in 1865, the paper’s offices were destroyed by a mob. The paper was subsequently rebranded as the Daily Examiner, and publication resumed later in June. At the time of this photo, it was owned by William Randolph Hearst who received ownership of the paper as a gift from his father in 1880. St. Helena, located sixty miles north of San Francisco in the Napa Valley, had a population of 1,704 in 1890, of whom the vast majority were white. $1,500 - $2,500

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115 SIGNED AND INSCRIBED PRESENTATION COPY THE NEGRO TRAILBLAZERS OF CALIFORNIA BEASLEY, Delilah L. (1867-1934). The Negro Trail-Blazers of California: A Compilation of Records from the California Archives in the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley; and from the Diaries, Old Papers and Conversations of Old Pioneers in the State of California. It is a True Record of Facts, as They Pertain to the History of the Pioneer and Present Day Negroes of California. Los Angeles: [Times Mirror Printing and Binding House], 1919. 8vo (168 x 240 mm). Frontispiece and additional plates. Foreword by Charlotta A. Bass (misspelled as Charlotte). (One gathering slightly detached, else fine). Dark yellow cloth with printed titles and illustration. (Slight soiling.) Provenance: Joseph M. Gleason (1869-1942), Californian

Catholic priest, educator, historian, and collector of books and photographs. With bookplate designed by James Webb (fl. 1920s-1930s) to interior board. FIRST EDITION. A seminal work in the history of African Americans in California with extensive and invaluable primary research. Beasley was a civil rights activist and an accomplished journalist primarily for the Oakland Tribune, becoming the first African American woman to be regularly published in a major metropolitan newspaper. SIGNED and INSCRIBED to front flyleaf, “Mr. Beardsley / Berkeley, Calif. / Please accept this book as a / token of appreciation for all your / thoughtfullness of me in my / struggle and kindly advice. / God Bless You / Delilah L. Beasley / Author and publisher / July 25, 1922 / Oakland Calif / P.O. Bx 326.” Ex-libris Joseph M. Gleason (1869-1942) $1,200 - $1,800

116 AFRICAN AMERICANS IN CALIFORNIA, REFERENCE BOOKS Lot of 19 reference books concerning African Americans in California. Includes reprints of rare books and contemporary scholarly works. Topics cover Gold Rush, Allensworth, Nat “Deadwood Dick” Love, and more. Most in like new condition. For complete list of titles, please visit cowans.com. $50 - $100

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117 TWO COLORADO CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1880 Lot of 2 CDVs of African Americans taken by Colorado photographers, ca 1880. CDV full-length standing portrait of a young man. J.F. Peterson: Leadville, Colorado, n.d., ca 1880. Silver was discovered in Leadville, Colorado in 1877, and by 1880 it was a boomtown of 15,000 people. The silver in the area was ingrained in the bedrock and required underground, hard rock mining. This image is especially notable because the subject is wearing mining clothes and has a vast array of gear on his belt and holds a Sharps sporting rifle. Verso credit to John F. Peterson at his Main Street Studio, which he operated from 1880 until his move to Denver in 1883. CDV portrait of a seated young man with close-cropped hair. Clark: Colorado Springs, Colorado, n.d., ca 1880. Credited on mount below image. $400 - $600

118 FOUR KANSAS CDVS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1865-1880 Lot of 4 CDVs of African American subjects taken in frontier Kansas. CDV full-length portrait of a young boy. Parker & Tomlinson: Fort Scott, Kansas, n.d., ca 1865. Imprint on verso. A young boy stands next to a column wearing a jacket just slightly too small and a black cap. CDV portrait of a seated man. J.H. & T.M. Concannon: Fort Scott, Kansas, n.d., ca 1868. Imprint on verso. Subject stares disarmingly at the camera wearing a light-colored suit. One elbow resets on a tasseled table next to him and he holds his lapel with his other hand. CDV full-length portrait of man identified as Moses Smith. J.B. Shane: Lawrence, Kansas, n.d., ca 1870. Imprint on verso. A gentleman leans against a short column with his legs crossed and his arm behind his back. His top button is done and his hat rests on faux rocks beside him. CDV studio portrait of a young girl. Downing’s Gallery: Topeka, Kansas, n.d., ca 1880. Imprint on verso. Subject sits on an upholstered sofa wearing a lovely corduroy dress with lace trim, delicate curls framing her face. $800 - $1,200

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119 KANSAS CABINET CARDS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1885-1900 Lot of 6 cabinet cards of African American subjects in Kansas. Cabinet card portrait of three children. Palmer: Dunlap, Kansas, n.d., ca 1900. Imprint on recto. A girl and two boys are smartly dressed and pictured in an outdoor setting. The two boys are identified with handwritten captions, “Eugene” and “Gero.” The children were residents of Dunlap, Kansas, a notable black town that was at its peak when this image was taken. Dunlap was not initially a black town when it was founded in 1869 by Joseph Dunlap, but was transformed when Benjamin “Pap” Singleton brought hundreds of freedmen from the South to homestead in the spring of 1878. The town prospered until the Great Depression when most residents left to look for better opportunities. Cabinet card full-length portrait of a young girl. Mrs. M.A. Childress: Howard, Kansas, n.d., ca 1885. Imprint on verso. A young girl stands wearing a plaid dress with a ruched bodice and lace collar. A very early example of work by a female photographer working in the frontier.

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Cabinet card full-length portrait of a gentleman. McInturff: Hutchinson, Kansas, n.d., ca 1890. Imprints on recto. Inscription on verso: “Sam Haneness / Half Brother / Mr. Henry Johnson / My Brother / Died July 1926.” Cabinet card full-length portrait of a woman. J.S. Saurman: Leavenworth, Kansas, n.d., ca 1890. Imprint on recto. The subject stands before a painted drop cloth and rests her hand on a faux rock. Cabinet card portrait of a musician with guitar. G.W. Cross: Atchison, Kansas, n.d., ca 1895. Imprint on recto. A guitarist sits with his instrument wearing a dark suit with a plaid waistcoat and a striped bowtie. A table to his right is draped with a cloth with four photos and his straw boater hat. Cabinet card portrait of Mary Brent. J.B. Shane: Lawrence, Kansas, n.d., ca 1895. Imprint on recto. Inscription on verso identifies the subject: “Mary Brent / She + her husband Alec / lived + worked for / the Fredericks at the / Frederick farm.” $1,500 - $2,000

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120 CABINET CARD OF A NEBRASKA AFRICAN AMERICAN PREACHER, CA 1885 Cabinet card half-portrait of African American preacher. Bee Hive Photograph Studio: Omaha, Nebraska, n.d., ca 1885. 213 N. 16th St. imprint on verso. A bearded man, likely a preacher, wears a long cadetcollared coat and rests his elbow on the back of a chair. Inscription below the image reads, “Yours for God and the Race.” There were four African American churches in Omaha in 1885, and two more were founded in 1886. The preacher pictured here most likely belonged to one of those churches, but we are unable to establish a link. Believed by historian Adam Fletcher, creator of the website North Omaha History, to be the earliest image of an African American minister in Omaha. $600 - $800

121 COLORADO AND NEBRASKA CABINET CARDS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1885-1895 Lot of 6 cabinet cards from Colorado and Nebraska of African American subjects. Several taken in remote pioneer locales including Beaver Creek and Fort Robinson, Nebraska. Cabinet card full-length portrait of African American preacher. McBride: Fort Robinson, Nebraska, n.d., ca 1885. Imprint on recto. Buffalo Soldiers were stationed at Fort Robinson in 1885 and the fort later became the headquarters for the 9th Cavalry from 1887 to 1898. These soldiers were, by and large, the only African Americans in the region. This man, dressed in civilian clothing, appears to be a preacher. He stands with one hand behind his back, the other raised with a finger pointing heavenward. A book, probably a Bible, lays open on a small table before him. Cabinet card full-length portrait of a gentleman with hat and umbrella. Eaton: Omaha, Nebraska, n.d., ca 1885. Imprints on recto and verso. The mustachioed gentleman stands with a hand behind his back and holds an umbrella and hat in the other. Cabinet card vignette portrait of a couple. Walter H. Foreman: Denver, Colorado, n.d., ca 1886. Imprint on recto. Scalloped silver-gilt edge. The male subject sits with his female companion standing by his side, her arm resting on his shoulder. Cabinet card portrait of a family. A.E. Rinehart: Denver, Colorado, n.d., ca 1890. Imprints on recto and verso. Subjects identified on verso in pencil inscription: “Mr + Mrs Randolph + dauger [sic] Tillie.” Pencil inscription on verso with excerpt from Time Exposure by W.H. Jackson regarding photographer Rinehart’s career. A lovely family photo in a rustic setting. Young Tillie wears a white dress standing next to her seated mother wearing a dark dress with beaded cuffs and collar. Mr. Randolph stands behind them with his arm resting upon the fence. Cabinet card outdoor portrait of children and a donkey. Galbreaith, Harvey & Lyles: Manitou, Colorado, n.d., ca 1890. Imprint on verso. Inscription on verso: “Agnes.” Horizontal image of a young black girl (Agnes?) wearing a prim pleated dress with a lace collar and hat holding the reigns of a donkey. A young white boy sits side-saddle on the donkey which appears to have its mane decorated with flower garlands. A plank boardwalk and crossed-railing fence visible in the background. Cabinet card full-length portrait of mother and daughter. Davis: Beaver City, Nebraska, n.d., ca 1895. Imprint on recto. A woman and her daughter stand side by side holding hands, the woman holds an upright book. $1,000 - $1,500

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122 NEBRASKA PIONEER ROBERT ANDERSON SLAVE NARRATIVE ANDERSON, Robert (1843-1930). From Slavery to Affluence: Memoirs of Robert Anderson, Ex-Slave. Hemingford, Nebraska: The Hemingford Ledger, 1927. 8vo (5.25 x 7.75 in.). Frontispiece portrait and plates. (Pages bright and clean). Original wrappers with yapp edges (creasing, minor stains, and ownership signature to covers, else fine). FIRST EDITION. In 1864, Anderson heard that a Union recruiting officer was nearby the Kentucky plantation where he was enslaved. He decided to escape and recounts, “I went to my old master and talked it over with him. At first he was angry, then he told me I would have to decide for myself what I wanted to do, and that if I wanted to go, for me to go. He seemed to sense the fact that the slavery of the past was over, and that a new era was opening up for all. We had quite a talk, and parted friends.” He would serve in the 125th Colored Infantry (under the name Robert Ball) during the Civil War and would be heavily involved in the GAR throughout his life. He moved west to homestead in Nebraska, becoming the largest African American landowner in the state by 1910. Quite scarce, OCLC locates 8 copies. $400 - $600

123 CHRISTMAS DOLLS FROM GRANDMA, LADY JANE GRAY, CHILDREN AND NURSE OVERSIZE CABINET CARD, CA 1893 Charles E. Emery: Colorado Springs, Colorado, n.d., ca 1893. Oversize cabinet card showing a young girl perched on a chair with four dolls. Caption written in the negative reads, “Christmas Dolls From Grandma / Lady Jane Gray, Children and Nurse.” Inscriptions on verso indicated that the girl is Mabel Emery, the daughter of the photographer. Emery (Swedish, 1859-1932) was active in Colorado Springs beginning in 1893. In addition to the three white dolls, a larger, black cloth doll, presumably the “Nurse” from the caption, is pictured wearing a hat, fringed cloak, and white apron, with one of the smaller dolls resting on her lap. $400 - $600

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124 TEXAS CABINET CARDS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS, CA 1890-1900 Lot of 3 cabinet cards taken in Texas. Cabinet card full-length portrait of a lady. Josephus S. Blagg (b.1870): Bastrop, Texas, n.d., ca 1900. Imprint on recto. A woman wears a full-length white skirt, a pleated blouse, and holds a folding fan. Her hand with delicate rings and a bracelet rests upon a wicker chair.

Cabinet card full-length portrait of a lady. Tyler Portrait Co.: Tyler, Texas, n.d., ca 1890. Imprint on recto. A woman wears a dress with a fitted bodice and large lace collar and cuffs. Her hair is an updo with decorative clips and she holds an umbrella. Cabinet card vignette portrait of a young man wearing glasses. Studio Angelo: Palestine, Texas., n.d., ca 1900. Imprints on recto and verso. The young man’s portrait in decorative printed frame with olive leaves and a moth. $400 - $500

125 STEREOVIEW OF FREEDMAN’S CABIN, MUSKOGEE, INDIAN TERRITORY, 1881 Stereoview of Freeman’s cabin, ca 1881. Attributed to Muskogee, Indian Territory, possibly photographer John Brasel known to produce stereoviews in Muskogee. Contemporary inscription on verso reads, “Freedman’s Cabbin [sic] / Muskoke [sic], Creek Nation / Indian Territory / 1881.” Image depicts a small log cabin with a shake roof and a second outbuilding. Two young African American boys are visible near a stacked split rail fence with possibly their mother holding an infant standing behind them. $600 - $800

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126 PHOTOGRAPHS! WYNNEWOOD, INDIAN TERRITORY, PHOTOGRAPHER’S TRADE CARD WITH TIPPED IN PHOTO, CA 1890 Trade card produced for “Martin Bros., Cottage Gallery, Wynnewood, I.T.,” approx. 3.5 x 7 in., soliciting new business with the boldly printed heading “Photographs!” and a poem on verso titled “Poetic Truth.” Card also features a tipped in photograph, approx. 1.875 x 3.25 in., of a neatly attired African American woman sitting casually alongside a young charge who is seated in a small conveyance with a cat cradled in her arm. Now located in south central Oklahoma, the city of Wynnewood was originally part of the Chickasaw Nation of Indian Territory when it was established in 1887. $400 - $600

127 THE HOME-SEEKER’S GUIDE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN HOMESTEADERS IN INDIAN TERRITORY Patterson, A.E. and M.W. Guy, compilers. The Home-Seeker’s Guide: Published Under the Direction of the Commercial Industrial Association of Muskogee, Indian Territory. Muskogee, Indian Territory: Republican Print, 1907. 8vo (6.75 x 9.5 in.). Black and white illustrations. Original wrappers. (Chip to lower right and minor chipping to spine, else fine). FIRST EDITION. Remarkably scarce, OCLC locates one copy. After the Civil War had concluded, Americans had a renewed vigor for western expansion. Congress had opened portions of Indian Territory in the late 19th century to non-Native settlers. Ohioan Charles N. Haskell, who would go on to be Oklahoma’s first governor, moved to Muskogee in 1901 and spearheaded an effort to grow the town. With only 4,000 inhabitants in 1901, it had grown to 25,000 by 1910. It was in this time of incredible expansion and economic growth that this fascinating pamphlet was written specifically for African Americans to settle in Muskogee. Compiled by Milton W. Guy and Adam E. Patterson (18761949), a prominent supporter of Woodrow Wilson and the Democratic party in the early 20th century. Earning a law degree and entering the bar, he moved to Muskogee in 1904 and became a prominent lawyer and real estate broker. The introduction succinctly states its aim, “The object of the publication of this pamphlet is to furnish to the colored people throughout the states and especially homeseekers valuable statistical and general information of the brilliant opportunities that have in this Territory to acquire comfortable homes, accumulate wealth and to expand mentally, under circumstances calculated to make them good, self-reliant and desirable citizens...To the man who really wants a start in life and is willing to work, work and sacrifice, no other state offers such inducements as the Indian Territory.” The guide publicizes the many black-owned businesses, churches, civic organizations, and prominent citizens, illustrated with photographs. Patterson was a black Democrat who was disillusioned with the Republican Party at the start of the 20th century who believed that they were not the sole protectors of civil rights for African Americans.

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He supported Wilson in the 1912 election and Wilson nominated him to be the Register of the US Treasury on July 24, 1913. He was faced with vehement, racist opposition by two prominent southern senators, however, and Wilson withdrew the nomination. Upon the start of World War I, Patterson was appointed Division Judge Advocate for the 92nd Division, part of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), becoming the first African American to enter the Judge Advocate General’s Department. His promotion to major made him one of the highest-ranking African Americans in the army. $2,000 - $4,000

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128 BOLEY, OKLAHOMA EPHEMERA, 19061917 Lot of 5 assorted items from Boley, Oklahoma in the early 20th century. Established in 1903 as a predominantly African American community, it was a thriving town and was home to over 4,000 citizens in 1911. Booker T. Washington called it “the most enterprising and in many ways the most interesting of the Negro towns in the United States.” Oklahoma Association of Negro Teachers: January 1, 2, 3, 1914: Boley. [Boley, Oklahoma]: no publisher, 1914. 12mo (112 x 141 mm). Original wrappers. (Even toning, some small stains.) Small pamphlet with a schedule of events for a conference of African American teachers from all over Oklahoma, held in Boley. Senior Class of Boley High School. 1917 Register: The Year Book. Boley: Boley New Job Print, 1917. 8vo (204 x 281 mm). Portraits of teachers, administrators, students, and various organizations including the Philomathean Literary Society and sports teams. Interspersed with poems, comics, and more. Original wrappers with yapped edges (Minor wear to edges, else fine).

129 FIRST TEXAS BLACK OWNED BANK PROVIDENT BANK & TRUST CO. FORT WORTH, TEXAS REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1910 Real photo postcard of the Provident Bank & Trust Company of Fort Worth, Texas, n.d., ca 1910. Stamped caption in red. Shows three African American tellers, two men and one woman, assisting two patrons, one black and one white. A sixth man, also African American, sits at a desk to the left wearing a suit and bowtie. The verso is inscribed, “This is a bird eye view of some of the businesses owned and operated by the Colored man in the South Loredo.” Stamped and addressed to a Mrs. P.F. Fisher of Anadarko, Oklahoma. The Provident Bank and Trust was founded in 1907 by R.C. Houston, Jr., a well-known African American businessman in the Ft. Worth area. At the time of its founding, it was the first African American bank in Texas and the fourth African American bank in the entire south. The bank failed in January 1912, and the Fort Worth Star-Telegram speculates in a May 11, 1912 article that its failure may have been due to sabotage from a rival bank. It was a bank primarily for African Americans, but the articles notes that at least one white man was known to do business there, further evidenced in this image. $1,500 - $2,000

Three snapshots. One of a young girl wearing a high-collared white dress with lace ruffles and a large, elegant hat. Verso inscription reads, “Vernia, age 12, Boley, Okla, Dec 27 1906.” Two photos of the same young man identified on the verso, “age 19, Mar 31, 1912, Wesley Jennings.” He wears a tweed jacket, an embroidered necktie, and a white fedora. In one picture he looks serious, but in the second the photographer captures half a smile. $500 - $1,000

130 COTTON WORKERS REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CLARKSVILLE, TEXAS, CA 1910 Real photo postcard showing a large group of predominantly African American cotton workers in Clarksville, Texas, n.d., ca 1910. Two white men are seated atop a row of vertically stacked cotton bales at left, with several African American men, many holding tools, standing in the middle distance. In the foreground, one worker totes a large bale of cotton in a wheelbarrow. Captioned along top edge, “Compress Crew Hanling [sic] Long Staple, / Clarksville, Tex.” Members of compression crews, or compressmen, were responsible for packing bales of cotton at the proper weight. Unevenly packed bales resulted in efficiency and quality problems during processing. “Long Staple” refers here to the longer length of cotton fibers, which yield a softer, more luxurious finished fabric. $600 - $800

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131 RARE BLACK BARBERSHOP REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, J J COTTA SHOP, OKLA., CA 1910 Real photo postcard offering an interior view of a barbershop in Oklahoma, n.d., ca 1910. Two men stand behind a counter at left, with a row of barbers in white jackets shaving clients at their stations in the background. At right, a man receives a shoeshine. Ink inscription along bottom edge reads, “JJ Cotta Shop / Okla.” $2,000 - $4,000

133 ADAMS SPRINGS, CALIFORNIA OVERSIZE PHOTOGRAPH, CA 1895 Sylar & Akers: Kelseyville, California, n.d., ca 1895. Card-mounted photograph, 10 x 8 in., showing a large group of men, women, and children posed before the porch of a large, two-story structure, possibly the Adams Springs Hotel in Lake County, California. Several men in the foreground bear walking sticks and are pictured with luggage, while two African American musicians under the tree at right hold a banjo and a guitar. $400 - $600

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132 RAILROAD EATING HOUSE, TUCSON, ARIZONA BOUDOIR CARD, CA 1898 Boudoir card, n.d., ca 1898, showing four men standing on a wooden porch. Double doors open behind them, revealing dining tables and chairs. The younger white man and mustachioed African American man at left wear street clothes, while the two African American men at right, likely staff, wear white jackets and aprons, with the man at far right resting his hand on a guitar. Inscriptions below each figure identify the men, left to right: “Nettinger, Chauncy, Meed, Efferson.” Additional inscription on verso reads, “Rail R. Eaten [sic] House / Tucson / Arizona.” $300 - $500

134 C.C. PIERCE OLD QUARTER OF TOWN, LOS ANGELES UNMOUNTED BOUDOIR CARD, CA 1888 Unmounted boudoir photograph showing African American men on a street corner. [Charles C. Pierce (1861-1946)]: [Los Angeles], [1888]. Pencil inscription on verso: “Old Quarter of Town.” This 1888 photograph shows a group of seven African American men standing outside of the Magnolia Saloon in “Sonoratown” at the corner of New High and Marchessault Street, one of the oldest sections in Los Angeles. The city was experiencing rapid expansion and urbanization at this time, growing from 11,000 people in 1880 to 50,000 by 1890. During the same period, the African American population grew from just 100 to 1,250. A July 25, 1888 article in the Los Angeles Herald covered the opening of the Magnolia Saloon reporting, “this establishment is spick, span and new. Mr. Ellis Powell, lately of Pennsylvania, has fitted it up in sumptuous style.” Charles C. Pierce was a pioneer photographer who was one of the many who came to Los Angeles during the period, arriving in 1886 from Chicago. He documented Southern California landscapes and the early development of Los Angeles. $800 - $1,200 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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135 MT. ZION BAPTIST CHURCH, “WHITE TEMPLE,” BAKERSFIELD CALIFORNIA PHOTOGRAPH, CA 1900 Mt. Zion Baptist Church “White Temple” Bakersfield, Cal. Goodpasture: Bakersfield, California, n.d., ca 1900. Titled in negative. Image 9.75 x 7.75 in. mounted to card. A large group of African American parishioners stand in front of Mt. Zion Baptist Church. The building itself, referred to as the “White Temple,” is constructed of large white bricks on a brick foundation. A large arched window stands at the end of the nave with an attached square tower and mission style roof. A November 15, 2016 article in the Bakersfield Californian covered Mt. Zion Baptist’s Church celebration of its 130th anniversary meaning the church was founded in 1886, likely one of the first black churches in the area. $200 - $300

136 FIESTA PARADE, LOS ANGELES, CA 1900 Oversize photograph of men on horseback during La Fiesta de las Flores parade. Photographer unknown: [Los Angeles, California], n.d., ca 19011910. Inscription on verso “Los Angeles Fiesta Parade.” Image 7.5 x 5 in. Four men are pictured on horseback in the foreground, three of them African American and the fourth white, all of them wearing cowboy hats. Three of the horses are wearing flower wreaths and some of the riders wearing sashes. In the background, a flower-laden parade float can be seen with several African American women holding American flags. The image was taken during La Fiesta de las Flores, a revival of La Fiesta de Los Angeles parade first held in April 1894 celebrating Los Angeles and Southern California’s cultural heritage. It was suspended during the Spanish-American War and reinstituted under the new name in 1901, being held continually thereafter until the 1940s. The event was unusual for its era as it explicitly celebrated and advertised multiculturalism, with advertisements in 1896 touting, “Spanish caballeros, Mexican vaqueros, Indians, and Chinese, a pageant, a carnival of ‘30,000 maskers.’” While mention of black Angelenos is not included, this image is evidence that their community was also enthusiastic participants in the festivities. $200 - $400

137 THE PULLMAN SALOON, TONOPAH, NEVADA OVERSIZE PHOTOGRAPH, CA 1905 Oversize photograph of the Pullman Saloon. Herbert T. Shaw: Tonopah, Nevada, n.d., ca 1905. Stamped imprint on recto below image. Image: 8.5 x 6.5 in. (216 x 168 mm), mounted to 12 x 10 in. card. A group portrait of African Americans with 18 men, one woman, two young girls, and two dogs. Several of the gentlemen are smoking cigars and appear to be enjoying themselves. One man seated in the front row holds a puppy and a young girl with ribbons in her hair stands to his side with her hand on his knee. Charmingly, a darkcoated spaniel is seated on a chair in front of the group. The Pullman Saloon was the hub of African American social life in Tonopah, Nevada, a town established in 1900 following the discovery of silver and gold in the area. The group pictured here likely included a large number of the boomtown’s black residents. One of the sitters is wearing a Pullman porter uniform (seated, third from left), and given the name of the saloon, it is likely that a number of the other gentlemen pictured were Pullman porters as well. One of the proprietors of the saloon, Mr. Hall, was noted by the Tonopah Bonanza on August 24, 1907, to be the left-fielder of the Tonopah Pullman baseball team, an all-black team which likely included some of the men pictured here. We are not aware of any other photograph from the period that shows African Americans posing in front of a blackowned saloon in the American West. $2,000 - $3,000 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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138 BOUDOIR CARD OF CHAIN GANG AT SWANNANOA CUT, NORTH CAROLINA, CA 1885 T.H. Lindsey: Asheville, North Carolina, n.d., ca 1885. Boudoir card presenting a group of convict laborers, many of whom are African American men, standing to one side of a set of train tracks. The men wear striped prison uniforms, and some hold shovels, buckets, and other tools, while more shovels are partially submerged in the ground at right. Two men, possibly overseers or other prison officials, are visible in the background further down the tracks. Captioned, “613. Convicts in Line at

139 BOUDOIR CARD OF EIGHT OUTLAWS, FORT SMITH, ARKANSAS, CA 1886 Striking boudoir card featuring eight outlaws standing in front of a building, likely the original courthouse used by “Hanging Judge” Isaac C. Parker at Fort Smith, Arkansas, seat of the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas. Verso blue ink inscription reads “2nd from left: Robinson Kemp / 6th from left: Meredith Crow / Taken while in custody at Fort Smith, Ark.” Though there are discrepancies in the historical record, some sources indicate that eight men who received death sentences from Judge Parker - including Robinson Kemp and Meredith Crow - were scheduled to be hanged at Fort Smith on April 23, 1886. This photograph may be an

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Swannanoa Cut,” with mount reading in part, “Lindsey’s Views of Western N.C. / Round Knob and Vicinity.” Verso printed with information concerning the Blue Ridge Mountains and other views along the Western North Carolina Railroad. Beginning in the Reconstruction era, working on a chain gang became the standard sentence in North Carolina for any able-bodied man serving a prison term of less than ten years. The state’s use of chain gangs coincided with a rapid expansion of its infrastructure, including the repair and construction of railways and highways. $800 - $1,200

image of Kemp and Crow in custody with the other outlaws who were set to share their fate. An article from the Pittston, Pennsylvania Evening Gazette reported that “The death sentences of five of the eight Indian territory murderers, to have been hanged here [Fort Smith, Ark.] on Friday next have been commuted to imprisonment for life....Those commuted are Meredith Crow, who killed a desperado named Cubb Cartney; Robinson Kemp, charged with killing Henry Rich, postmaster at Fort Washita, and He-Wah-Nuckee, Luce Hammond and one Wiley, three half-civilized Cherokees, who murdered a peddler named Owens for a plug of tobacco.” Two men were decidedly not as fortunate. James Wasson and Joseph Jackson both were hanged on April 23 as scheduled. Joseph Jackson was described in records as a “Negro” who murdered his wife in the Choctaw Nation, and may be one of the two men on the right side of this image. $800 - $1,200 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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140 SCARCE ILLUSTRATED INVITATION TO AN 1895 MONTANA HANGING Invitation to an execution illustrated with two gelatin silver photograph vignettes of Bill Gay and William Biggerstaff (written with one ‘f’ on card), images attributed to J.P. Ball. Both men were condemned to be hung on Friday, December 20, 1895, at the Lewis and Clark County Jail. Signed by Sheriff J. Henry Jurgens. Addressed to “Mr. George Watt Editor,” caption reads, “You are invited to witness the execution of William Gay and William Biggerstaf on Friday, December 20, 1895, at 10 o’clock A.M., at the Lewis and Clarke County Jail.” Card: 6 x 3.5 in. (151 x 88 mm) with black ruled border. Images: 1.75 x 1.75 in. (43 x 43 mm). William “Bill” Gay (1844-1896) was one of the few of the horde of other gold seekers who entered the Black Hills and actually struck it rich not far from Deadwood. A mining town grew up around his claim that became known as Gayville. Gay built a fine home there, filled it with furnishings from the East, and persuaded a dance hall girl from the Bella Union in Deadwood to move in with him. Not long afterward, Gay killed a rival suitor in a jealous rage. Sentenced to 10 years of hard labor, he was paroled after three years. Broke, he drifted to Helena, Montana, living a hard-scrabble existence working odd jobs. His luck finally turned again when he discovered a seam of coal near Castle, Montana. His claim was jumped, however, by Castle newspaper editor John Benson, and Gay retaliated by burning the newspaper office. A posse attempted to arrest Gay and an accomplice and a Deputy Sheriff was killed. While it is unclear if Gay was the trigger man, he was convicted, and sentenced to be hung in Helena on December 20, 1895. William Biggerstaff (1854-1896) was a former slave originally from Lexington, Kentucky. According to reports of the era, he went to “the home of a woman of ill repute and found her alone with a jealous rival. A fight ensued in which the rival was killed with a revolver while in a struggle with Biggerstaff.” Though Biggerstaff would claim self-defense, he too was sentenced to hang, originally scheduled to share the gallows with Gay. Contemporary newspaper reports relate that the two men were even

held in adjoining cells. This invitation is for the convicted men’s original execution date, but just two days before they were to be hanged, both received stays of execution, though neither indefinitely. Biggerstaff would meet his fate on April 6, 1896 in the Helena courtyard and Gay would swing on June 9, 1896. These images were likely taken by J.P. Ball who was operating his gallery in Helena, Montana with his son at the time. Ball was involved in a movement advocating for the clemency of Biggerstaff and he would take photographs of both men’s executions in 1896. It is extremely likely that he provided these images as well. Western lawmen frequently sent invitations announcing executions during the 19th and early 20th centuries, however, an invitation that has the attributes of this one is certainly unique. The inclusion of tipped-in photographs of the people to be hanged is uncommon. That the images were likely taken by an African American photographer makes it even more uncommon, and that it features men of different races makes it unprecedented. $3,000 - $5,000

141 JUSTICE CABINET CARD OF TEXAS CRIMINALS, 1896 Cabinet card titled Justice with vignette portraits of a witness, convicted criminals, and description of the crime. Holland: Brenham, Texas, 1896. Imprint on recto. A portrait in a circle captioned, “Ellis Prosper, State’s Witness” is superimposed over jail bars and three gallows and above the title “Justice” with a sword. Below are three vignetted portraits of the accused, captioned “Joe Goodson,” “John Rutherford,” and “Brady Rutherford.” A description is printed in-negative, “The villains who on the 29th day of Jan. 1896 murdered & robbed Mr. Thomas Dwyer Sr. The conviction was brought about by the straight forward evidence of Ellis Prosper. Convicted of murder of the first degree and sentenced to be hanged Mch. 31st. Executed: May 20th, 1896 at Brenham, Washington Co., Texas.” This cabinet card recounts the robbery and murder of Thomas Dwyer, Sr., a wealthy white merchant, and the subsequent trial and execution of three African American men with the assistance of the “straight forward evidence of Ellis Prosper.” What it neglects to mention is that Prosper, also African American, was an accessory to the crime. He turned state’s witness and his testimony was described in the Houston Post on April 1, 1896 as having “carried conviction stronger than the eloquence of learned counsel could possibly have done.“ It was unusual that he was allowed to testify, as people of color were generally barred from doing so during this period. Prosper avoided the hangman’s noose, but pleaded guilty in September 1896 and was sentenced to life in prison. $1,500 - $2,500

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142 US MARSHAL BASS REEVES CABINET CARD, CA 1902 Cabinet card full-length studio portrait of Bass Reeves. E.L. Goff: Perry, Kansas, n.d., ca 1902. Imprint on verso. The legendary lawman stands, holding a quirt, his star badge and holstered gun visible, butt out as was his signature style. His necktie and star have been lightly hand-tinted in red. Born into slavery in Arkansas, Reeves (1838-1910) was moved to Texas by his owner. When the Civil War broke out, his master joined the Confederacy and brought Bass along with him. It is unclear how Reeves escaped, but he almost certainly fled to Indian Territory where he lived as a fugitive among the American Indian populations learning several skills and languages in the process. After the war, he farmed back in Arkansas until 1875 when he was recruited as a US Deputy. He had likely scouted for the US Marshals during his farming years and became very valuable to the Marshals for his superior tracking, marksman, and language skills in addition to his knowledge of the land. He is reported to have brought in over 3,000 outlaws and was never wounded. There are only three other images of him known, two of which are group shots. This image appears to be unique. $6,000 - $8,000

143 MUGSHOTS OF BERT BELL, LANSING, KANSAS CONVICT, 1919 Lot of 2 real photo postcards bearing the mugshots of convicted murderer Bert Bell, Lansing, Kansas, n.d., ca 1919. Profile and front views of Bell in a bowtie and patterned jacket appear on both cards, with a description and reward information printed on verso. While serving a life sentence for first-degree murder, Bell escaped from prison and was subsequently pursued by J.K. Codding, the warden of Kansas State Penitentiary in Lansing, Kansas. One card offers a $50 reward, while the second shows an increase to $100.The $50 reward card erroneously records the date of escape as January 25th, 1919 and bears an inked revision reflecting the correct date of December 28, 1919. $200 - $300

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144 FOLSOM PRISON MUGSHOT AND OTHERS Lot of 3 mugshots of African American inmates incarcerated at California prisons, including Folsom State Prison, ca 1917, ca 1920, and ca 1978. Partially printed mugshot card of Henry Love, approx. 5 x 3 in., Marysville, California, n.d., ca 1917. Photograph showing front view of Love mounted on recto, with information concerning his physical characteristics, residence, occupation, and descent listed on verso. Love was sentenced to serve 90 days at the Yuba County Jail for vagrancy. Partially printed mugshot card of Romeo Brown, 5.675 x 6 in., San Francisco, California, n.d., ca 1920. Photograph showing profile and front views of Brown mounted on recto, with measurements, physical description, and residency recorded above and below. Verso with sentencing information at Folsom State Prison, as well as an inventory of identifying “Marks, Scars and Moles,” including a tattoo of a “large, indistinct design of shield and anchor” on his left forearm. Snapshot of Charles Lee Walker, 3.375 x 5 in., Richmond, California, n.d., ca 1978. Photograph shows Walker’s mugshot at the upper portion, with booking information below. $300 - $500

145 BLACK COWBOY BILL PICKETT, REAL PHOTO POSTCARDS, CA 1905 Lot of 2 real photo postcards featuring cowboy Bill Pickett (1870-1932). Photographer unknown: [Oklahoma?], n.d., ca 1905. The first features a vignette profile shot of Pickett on horseback wearing a campaign hat next to the stamped caption “101Ranch”. The second shows Pickett on horseback wearing white wooly chaps. A white cowboy smoking a cigarette, also on horseback, rides beside him, with a bluff visible behind them both. Bill Pickett was a cowboy and rodeo performer who invented the technique known as “bulldogging,” in which he was able to wrestle a steer to the ground by biting a cow on the lip and falling backward. He established the Pickett Brothers Bronco Busters and Rough Riders Association with his four brothers and toured his successful show around Texas, Arizona, Wyoming, and Oklahoma. In 1905, he joined the 101 Ranch Wild West Show performing under the name “The Dusky Demon” alongside Will Rogers, Tom Mix, and Buffalo Bill. He even made forays into film, appearing in The Crimson Skull and starring in The Bull-Dogger, which was filmed in the black community of Boley, Oklahoma in 1921. Sadly, only fragments survive. $200 - $300

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146 BILL PICKETT RODEO SNAPSHOTS DEMONSTRATING BULLDOGGING, CA 1910 Lot of 2 snapshots of cowboy and Wild West show performer Bill Pickett (18701932). Photographer unknown: [Phoenix, Arizona], n.d., ca 1905. First image shows Bill approaching a tall fence with the heads of spectators visible. Captioned by ink inscription, “This was taken in Arizona / a colored man going to throw / a steer, by his teeth.” The second image shows Bill lying on the ground next to a steer, their heads together, having just performed the technique of bulldogging. Hand-written caption reads, “Here is the colored man throwing / the steer with his teeth in Arizona.” Both images are mounted to scrapbook pages family snapshots to the versos. The second image is reproduced in Bill Pickett, Bulldogger by Colonel Bailey C. Hanes. (1977). $600 - $800

147 FIRST EDITION NAT “DEADWOOD DICK” LOVE AUTOBIOGRAPHY LOVE, Nat (1854-1921). The Life and Adventures of Nat Love Better Known in the Cattle Country as “Deadwood Dick.” Los Angeles, privately printed, 1907. 8vo (158 x 233 mm). Frontispiece with illustrations and plates. (Pages evenly toned, else fine.) Tan cloth with printed black titles and illustration. (Very light wear to extremities, small stain to cover). FIRST EDITION. Autobiography of African American cowboy, rodeo performer, and Pullman porter Nat “Deadwood Dick” Love. $100 - $200

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148 BLACK BOY IN COWBOY COSTUME REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, LA GRANDE, OREGON, 1912 Real photo postcard of a young African American boy dressed as a cowboy, 1912. Addressed to Pendleton, Oregon with a La Grande, Oregon postmark. The lad wears a cowboy hat, a bandana around his neck, and pants with decorative fringe down the leg. In one hand he holds a small toy revolver and a lasso in the other. $300 - $500

149 RARE PHOTO OF AFRICAN AMERICAN TOURISTS AT BALANCED ROCK NEAR MANITOU, COLORADO, CA 1900 Silver gelatin photograph, 4.625 x 7.625 in., mounted to 6 x 9 in., featuring a group of African American tourists posed in front of Balanced Rock in Colorado Springs. Paul Goerke & Son: Manitou, Colorado, n.d., ca 1900. Image number inscribed in the negative: “7466.” Imprint on verso advertising prices for duplicates. The pictured tourists, including three women, one man, and one child, are all posed atop burros arranged in rows before the large rock formation. Now one of the most famous formations in Colorado Springs’s Garden of the Gods, Balanced Rock was once owned by the opportunistic Goerke family, including Paul Goerke and his son, Curt Goerke. It is believed that Curt began taking photographs of tourists standing next to the rock when he was a teenager in the 1890s, leading his father to purchase the photogenic formation and the nearby Mushroom Park by the turn of the century. The father-son duo allowed people to tour their scenic property but reserved rights to photograph Balanced Rock, providing burros as props and selling the images as souvenirs. Images of African American tourists are exceptionally scarce, especially during the nascent Jim Crow era of segregation and restriction. $800 - $1,200

150 TY STOKES SALINAS, CALIFORNIA RODEO REAL PHOTO POSTCARDS, 1920 Lot of 3 real photo postcards featuring black cowboy Thomas “Ty” Stokes (1888-1929). Estey: Salinas, California, July 1920. Stokes is pictured riding on horseback, seated on the back of a donkey “Stokes” visible on his shirt, and standing next to a horse he is about to mount, surrounded by other cowboys. All captioned in negative. Ty Stokes was born in Kentucky to former slaves and headed west to ride the cattle trails in the late 19th century. He joined several rodeos and expositions and became well known for being an excellent trick roper and bronco rider. He could keep 6 ropes spinning simultaneously and performing the dangerous “suicide ride” with fellow black cowboy Jesse Stahl, in which the two would sit back to back on a bucking bronco. $300 - $500

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151 SNAPSHOT FROM EUREKA VILLA, NEGRO COUNTRY CLUB NEAR LOS ANGELES, 1924 Inscribed snapshot, 3 x 5 in., showing an outdoor scene from Val Verde, California, 1924. Three African American women and one man pose before an automobile, with a wind turbine in the background. Inscription on verso identifies subjects as “Walter B. Williams,” “Mrs. Raymond Turner,” “Mrs. Alfred Bryant,” and “Mrs. Walter B. Williams.” Additional text notes that the photograph was taken “in the Canyon a few miles from Eureka Villa / The Negro Country Club.” Eureka Villa was established in 1924 as a resort community for African Americans in the Santa Clarita Valley. The effort was led and largely financed by Sidney P. Dones (1888-1947), an actor and real estate developer. Eureka Villa featured tennis courts, baseball fields, hiking trails, restaurants, stables, shops, an Olympic-sized swimming pool, a bathhouse, and a golf course, all of which enticed buyers from across the country to purchase lots and build vacation homes. Known later as “The Black Palm Springs,” the community also hosted notable African American celebrities including Hattie McDaniel, Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, and James Earl Jones, Sr. $200 - $400

152 GOLDEN WEST LODGE NO. 86 PHOTOGRAPH, TIJUANA, 1925 Silver gelatin photograph, 8.25 x 6.5 in., Tijuana, Mexico, 1925. Photograph shows a street scene in Mexico, with a large group of African American men, some holding musical instruments, in the foreground and typed caption below reading, “A Group of Members of ‘Golden West Lodge’ No. 86, / of I.B.P.O.E. of the world, Los Angeles, Calif. / setting up the first ‘Elks’ lodge in the Republic / of Mexico, at Tia Juana, Mexico, under the name of / ‘Hidalgo Lodge’ No. 597 / By A.W.H. / 7/26/25.” The Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World (IBPOEW) was an inclusive fraternal order modeled on the Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks, from which African Americans were barred until 1973. The IBPOEW was established in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1897 and currently has a membership of around 500,000 worldwide. $150 - $250

153 RARE LOS ANGELES OSTRICH FARM REAL PHOTO POSTCARD WITH AFRICAN AMERICAN TOURISTS, CA 1927 Real photo postcard, approx. 5.5 x 3.5 in., featuring three African American tourists, including an elegantly attired woman seated in a cart advertising the “Los Angeles Ostrich Farm / Opposite Lincoln Park.” Handwritten notations below the image identify two of the figures as “Lula” and “Pat” while the handwritten pencil notation on verso states “Taken Sunday / Mar 20 -27 / While out Riding.” In the early 1900s ostrich farms became part of an unusual, but incredibly popular, tourism trade in Southern California. Visitors could ride in ostrichdrawn carriages, observe feeding time, hold baby ostriches, and visit souvenir shops among other diversions. The Los Angeles Ostrich Farm became one of these wildly popular ostrich attractions when it opened in 1906, and was the last of its kind when it closed in 1953. While souvenir images of tourists in the ostrich-drawn carts are plentiful, images of African American tourists enjoying an ostrich farm excursion are scarce. $500 - $700

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154 BLACK TOURISM REAL PHOTO POSTCARDS Lot of 2, both featuring African American subjects posed on a simulated railcar rear platform. One real photo postcard shows a smartly attired couple in front of a sign “Sunset Limited / Los Angeles California / Leaving for Salt Lake City 1935” with handwritten pencil notation on verso “Mr. & Mrs. WJ Jackson / of La Calif / From Dallas / Tex”; second real photo postcard shows a man casually posed on the “Colorado Flyer” above the signs “Salt Lake Route” and “Leaving Denver” with handwritten pencil notation on verso “Henry Stockton / Denver / 1927.” $200 - $300

155 THREE TOURISTS IN TIJUANA, MEXICO, REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1942 Real photo postcard showing three African American tourists riding in a burro cart, Tijuana, Mexico, 1942. A smiling woman sits between two men, and all wear novelty sombreros. A painted backdrop stands behind them, featuring a palm tree and several cacti. “Aug 25, 1942 / Tijuana, Mex” inscribed on verso. $200 - $300

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156 CHAPLAIN ALLEN ALLENSWORTH CABINET CARD, 1889 Cabinet Card of Allen Allensworth. Elrod Brothers: Louisville, Kentucky, n.d., ca 1889. Imprint and handwritten inscription on verso, “Chaplain Allen Allensworth U.S.A. / Fort Bayard Jan. 15. 89 / N. M.” With printed pamphlet “Rev. Allen Allensworth. Subject of Lectures” and various reviews pasted to the verso. Full body portrait with Allensworth wearing his chaplain’s uniform. His elbow rests upon a faux tree stump and he stands before a painted river scene backdrop. Taken in the midst of his chaplaincy with the Buffalo Soldiers while stationed at Fort Bayard in the Territory of New Mexico. Most portraits of Allensworth depict him towards the end of his life, but this is the earliest known photograph of him, taken in 1889 just three years into his 20-year service as a chaplain. $5,000 - $7,000

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ALLEN ALLENSWORTH: FROM SLAVE TO PIONEER LOTS 156-159 Allen Allensworth (1842-1914) was a remarkable Union soldier, Baptist minister, politician, and California pioneer. Born into slavery in Louisville, Kentucky, he endured a difficult childhood, separated from his family and sold downriver to the Deep South. Despite this, he was motivated to educate himself and managed to do so. During the Civil War, he escaped and served as a civilian nurse with the 44th Illinois Volunteer Infantry and later enlisted with the US Navy. After the war, he dabbled in politics serving as the first and only black representative to the Republican National Conventions in 1880 and 1884. He also became a Baptist minister and was secured an appointment as a military chaplain to the Buffalo Soldiers with the 24th Infantry Regiment, only the second black chaplain in the military. He served for 20 years and attained the rank of lieutenant colonel, the first African American to do so. In 1908, after his retirement two years earlier, he founded Allensworth, California, for which he is best remembered. The race colony is the only town in the state to be founded, financed and governed entirely by African Americans. Although drought and tainted water eventually caused residents to relocate, the town is maintained as the Colonel Allensworth State Historic Park.

157 TWO ALsS BY ALLEN ALLENSWORTH TO REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE REGARDING ELECTION OF 1884 ALS, 1 p., 197 x 250 mm, Bowling Green, Kentucky, August 25, 1884, Allen Allensworth to Benjamin Franklin Jones (1824-1903). Minor brown spotting, expected creases. A finely penned letter from Allen Allensworth to New Jersey industrialist Benjamin Franklin Jones, the chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1884-1888. The letter is brief, with Allensworth offering his services as a speaker during the campaign of 1884. [With:] ALS, 1 p., 197 x 250 mm, Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 2, 1884, Allen Allensworth to Hon. Samuel Fessenden (1847-1908).

A letter in apparent response to the non-response of the first letter Allensworth sent to the Republican National Committee. Sent to delegate Samuel Fessenden, a lawyer, politician, and fellow Civil War veteran. Allensworth writes with passions inflamed, indignant that his offer to aid the campaign has been ignored, “I wrote your committee some time ago tendering my services as a speaker. My letter seems to have been treated with contempt. I think it is a mistake for your committee to ignore the services of a member of serviceable colored speakers from the South. They ought to be placed in such states as Ohio and Indiana.” Allensworth closes the letter noting that he “was a member of the Chicago Convention and voted the nomination of Mr. Blaine.” Allensworth was, in fact, the only black delegate from Kentucky, as he had been in the 1880 convention as well. $1,000 - $2,000

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158 ALLENSWORTH, CALIFORNIA RELATED POSTCARDS, PLUS Lot of 4. Ephemera relating to Allensworth, California. In the Showsheds, Sierra Nevada Mountains, Odgen Route, S.P.R.R. printed postcard after Edwin H. Mitchell, San Francisco. 138 x 88 mm. With ALS on verso, Allensworth, California, postmarked July 9, 1912. With Allensworth postmark and stamp. An Allensworth resident named Gene writes to a Mr. Ricks in Oakland describing a wonderful Fourth of July picnic, presumably held in Allensworth. Gene joyfully relates, “Had a swell time on the 4th. Private Picnic of 25 including the Chaperone. Plenty to eat!” Real photo postcard showing the town of Allensworth with snowcovered peaks visible in the distance. 139 x 86 mm. With ALS on verso, Allensworth, California, postmarked Jan. 19, 1912. With Allensworth postmark and stamp. The Sixth Tulare County Citrus Fair Dec. 4th to 13th Inclusive, 1913 Visalia, California printed postcard. 143 x 90 mm. With ALS on verso, postmarked dated December 3, 1913 from Three Rivers, California. Lists Allensworth as one of the districts that will exhibit at the Fair. Midge Williams. Photograph headshot. 220 x 257 mm. Williams (1915-1952) was an influential jazz vocalist of the 1930s and 1940s who was raised in Allensworth. Her grandfather and parents moved to Allensworth when it was founded in 1909 and became prominent citizens. Her mother ran the grocery store and helped found a chapter of the Girl Scouts. $500 - $1,000

159 SCARCE FIRST EDITION ALLEN ALLENSWORTH BIOGRAPHY ALEXANDER, Charles. Battles and Victories of Allen Allensworth. Boston: Sherman, French & Company, 1914. 8vo (140 x 203 mm). Tissue-guarded frontispiece. (Pages evenly toned.) Burgundy cloth with gilt titles and chain device. (Wear to extremities, toning and discoloration to binding.) FIRST EDITION. Though the title suggests a military history, this biography of Allen Allensworth details the full breadth of his remarkable life, suggesting his battles and victories were both literal and metaphoric. $800 - $1,200

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160 AFRICAN AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHY REFERENCE BOOKS Lot of 5 reference books related to African American photographers and subjects. For complete list of titles, please visit cowans.com. $50 - $100

161 WESTERN REFERENCE BOOKS Lot of 36 reference books concerning African Americans in the west. Includes reprints of rare books and contemporary scholarly works. Topics cover Bass Reeves, James P. Beckwourth, black pioneers, and more. Most in like new condition. For complete list of titles, please visit cowans.com. $50 - $100

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162 JIM CROW ERA MISSOURI NEGRO CITY AND COUNTY DIRECTORY Negro City and County Directory 1936: Springfield, Mo., Greene County, Joplin, Carthage, Jasper County. [Springfield?, Missouri]: [publisher not identified], 1936. 8vo (6 x 9 in.). Original wrappers (Light cover stain and minor wear to extremities, former ownership signature and other writing, some small tears to edges, else fine). A 1936 African American directory for the major cities in southwest Missouri including Springfield (Greene County), Joplin, and Carthage (both Jasper County). Includes demographics of African Americans in Missouri and a directory of both individual households and businesses. This edition was published the same year as the first Negro Motorist Green Book, and the directory serves some of the same purposes. The Joplin and Carthage Classified page declares, “This Service of a Negro Directory is a Service of a Demand, and a Just Demand, because Negroes are often times placed in embarrassing and uncouth position.” They do not list that these positions would also often be dangerous, but the black reader of 1936 would indeed be acutely aware and understand the deliberately coded language. Directories and guides such as these were invaluable resources for African Americans during the Jim Crow era and fascinating primary resources. Quite scarce. $800 - $1,200

163 SCARCE 1940 CALIFORNIA VOCATIONAL GUIDE FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS JONES, Henry L. The Negro’s Opportunity. Los Angeles: H. L. Jones and Company, 1940. 8vo (169 x 219 mm). Mimeographed text. Maroon cloth with gilt titles (lightly bumped corners, cracked interior rear hinge, else fine). FIRST EDITION. Scarce vocational guide for African Americans. $100 - $150

164 THE OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA NEGRO DIRECTORY, 1942-43 VINSTON Warren C. and Anita GRANT, compilers. The Official California Negro Directory and Classified Buyers’ Guide: A West Coast Directory, 1942-43 Edition. Los Angeles: The New Age Publishing Company, 1942. 4to (208 x 276 mm). Original wrappers (creasing and some staining to wrappers, staples showing corrosion, minor chipping). A fascinating primary resource evidencing the expansion of black business during World War II in Los Angeles. Cover features American flags in each corner with “Freedom of Speech,” “Freedom of Worship,” “Freedom of Press,” and “Freedom of Assemblage” printed beneath. These were an addition from the 1941 edition, which was also less than half the size (96 p.). Interesting inclusion of stiff insert from Local A26, the African American chapter of the International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Welders, and Helpers of America. Also includes a “Who’s Who” section that highlights notable figures including religious leader Clayton D. Russell, newspaper editor and civil rights activist Charlotta Bass, businessman Sidney P. Dones, actor Clarence Muse (considered the first African American to “star” in a film), president of Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company Norman O. Houston, and golfer Jimmy Devoe who would go on to be the first African American to gain PGA of America membership in 1962. Quite scarce, OCLC locates only one copy. $1,000 - $1,500 88

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165 RARE DALLAS, TEXAS NEGRO CITY DIRECTORY, 1947 GILBERT, Don, ed. Negro City Directory, 1947-1948. Dallas: Don Gilbert & T.W. Pratt; Dallas Negro Chamber of Commerce, 1947. Large 4to (203 x 273 mm). Original red cloth with black titles (a fine copy with only minor wear to corners and edges, very clean internally). Gilbert compiled and published the directory and was also the editor of Applause magazine. The Directory features an illustrated guide of the city and highlights Dallas’s first black police officers, postal carriers, and

others. A section of Dallas attorneys includes William J. Durham (18961970), a prominent leader in the civil rights movement who would try Sweatt v. Painter (1950) forcing the integration of the University of Texas School of Law. Illustrated throughout with advertisements of black-owned businesses as well as national brands including a decorative fore-edge advertisement for Bluebonnet Beer. The State Fair of Texas even advertises “Two Big Negro Achievement Days” and the white Texas League Dallas Rebels baseball team thank their “loyal Colored Fans who deserve the Best in Sports entertainment.” Very scarce, OCLC locates four copies. $800 - $1,000

166 1948 NEGRO WHO’S WHO IN CALIFORNIA WYNN, Commodore, ed. Negro Who’s Who in California. [Los Angeles]: Negro Who’s Who in California Publishing Co., 1948. Folio (229 x 291 mm). Original textured maroon cloth with gilt titles (Some edge wear and toning to boards). FIRST EDITION. Only edition, series does not appear to have continued. Includes nearly 500 prominent African American Californians, including pharmacist Byron Rumford (1908-1986) who would be elected to the California State Assembly a year after publication and serve for 18 years. Uncommon. $150 - $250

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167 LOS ANGELES 1953-1954 NEGRO BUSINESS DIRECTORY WITH PIONEERING BLACK BUSINESSWOMAN ANITA BOGAN HUNTER, Wally. Los Angeles Negro Business Directory. Los Angeles: 1953. 8vo (6 x 9.25 in.). Original wrappers (gift inscription to cover, pencil inscriptions on prelims, otherwise clean and with minor shelf wear and toning). Features Anita Bogan (1900-2007) on the cover, a pioneering African American woman. She is credited in the directory as having owned and operated LA’s only drive-in liquor store and operating a special transportation service for railroad employees, being the only licensed woman in the city. The biography alludes to her passion for floral art; her 2007 obituary in the Los Angeles Times recounts “for their events, African American celebrities all ‘went to the black florist, and she was pretty much it during that time, the ‘30s, ‘40s, ‘50s in L.A.,’ said Dee Dee Kennedy Brown, Bogan’s cousin. ‘She had pictures with Nat King Cole, Josephine Baker, Lena Horne, Johnny Mathis, you name it.’” Very scarce. $400 - $600

168 THE SUCCESS DIRECTORY, 1959 SAN FRANCISCO BLACK BUSINESS DIRECTORY The Committee for Community Solidarity. The Success Directory. San Francisco: Success Publishing Company, 1959. 8vo (5.5 x 8.5 in.) Illustrated. Original illustrated wrappers. (Very fine). Directory of African American businesses in San Francisco during the civil rights movement, with the stated goals: “to improve the economic status of the Negro community”; “to render more effective the political power and aspirations of the community” and “to strive for improvement in the morals and welfare of the community. To develop and foster moral leadership.” Scarce, OCLC locates 4 copies. $50 - $100

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169 PHOTOGRAPHS OF DAHOMEYANS AT THE CALIFORNIA MIDWINTER FAIR, 1894 Lot of 5 photographs of Dahomeyans from the California Mid-Winter Exposition 1894, taken by Isaiah West Taber (1830-1912). Each image has a caption printed alongside an 1894 copyright and Taber imprint in the negative. Mounted to contemporary cards. Dahomeyan Girls, Dahomeyan Village, Cal. Midwinter Exposition. / 8371. Image 5 x 7.75 in. A striking composition of four young women. Three are posed supine with the fourth standing and looking down upon the others. All are wearing wrapped skirts with caps. Dahomeyan Women, Dahomeyan Village, Cal. Midwinter Exposition. 8368. Image 7.5 x 5 in. Posed group portrait of women, each holding an axe, with one nursing a small child. Xavier Pene and his Dahomeyan Amazons, Cal. Midwinter Exposi., 8370. Image 7.75 x 5 in. Group portrait of Dahomeyan men with Xavier Pene, an explorer and organizer of the exhibit, pictured at center in a pith helmet. The men are pictured with drums, bells, and other instruments. Dahomeyan Prince and Princess, Dahomeyan Village, Cal. Midwinter Ex, 8392. Image 8 x 5 in. Posed group portrait. A seated figure at center wears an elaborate headdress and holds what appears to be a ritual object. A man standing at right wears a similar headpiece and appears to play a flute. Dahomeyans in their Village at the Cal. Midwinter Fair, 1894. Group photo of men in a militaristic pose holding weapons with women standing behind them, several with their arms raised. Buildings constructed of natural materials are visible behind them. The Dahomeyan Village was part of a series of exhibits showcasing nonWestern lifestyles as the 1894 California Midwinter International Exposition in San Francisco. The fair was inspired by the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago and it brought 2.5 million visitors to San Francisco over the course of six months. The Dahomeyan Village contained sixty-seven African men and women where fairgoers could observe the villagers dancing

170 SCARE SOUTHERN PINBACKS Lot of 3 scarce Southern pinbacks. The First Colored Georgia State Fair / R.R. Wright, Pres’t. / Macon, GA. / Nov. 12-19, 1906 / Tell ‘Em We Are Rising, 1906. Bastian Brothers imprint to paper back. Diam.: 1.25 in. (32 mm). In the January 1, 1908 issue of The Southern Workman, an article titled “Forty Years of Negro Progress” by R.R. Wright, Jr. reports on the fair that was organized by farmers “for the purpose of showing the progress of the race in the generation of freedom, and of instituting on a large scale some methods of bettering conditions among the Negro farmers, and working people generally, in Georgia.” The fair held in Central City Park in Macon featured a large Agricultural Building, a Women’s Building showcasing artistic and domestic achievements, and exhibits from several schools including Clark University of Atlanta and Ballard Normal School in Macon. The fair was even attended by Booker T. Washington.

and conducting ceremonies. It was roundly criticized most notably by Frederick Douglass who wrote, “As if to shame the Negro, the Dahomians [sic] are also here to exhibit the Negro as a repulsive savage.” $2,500 - $3,500

Yazoo Valley Souvenir, 1896. Includes multi-colored illustration of African Americans harvesting cotton in a field. Paper back on verso: “For another button and information about the Yazoo Valley / write to / E.P. SKENE, / Room 212, / Central Station / Chicago, Ill.” with Whitehead & Hoag imprint. With 1896 patent date on edge. Likely intended as a land promotion for homesteaders. South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition / Charleston, 19011902 surrounding an image of two black men holding a large slice of watermelon with a palm tree between them and the caption, “Down in Dixie.” Balto Badge & Nov. Co. imprint to paper back. Diam.: 1.25 in. (32 mm). The South Carolina and Inter-State West Indian Exposition was hosted as a way to encourage trade in new markets. It featured a Cotton Palace, Women’s Building, and Negro Department in its own building. $500 - $800

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171 BOOKER T. WASHINGTON CABINET CARD BY ELMER CHICKERING, BOSTON, CA 1890 Cabinet Card of Booker T. Washington. Elmer Chickering: Boston, Massachusetts, n.d., ca 1890. Silver-gilt imprint on recto and elaborate illustrated imprint on verso, “The Royal Studio / Elmer Chickering, Proprietor, 21 West St. / Boston” with illustrations of an award won at the 1890 Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association Exhibition. Extremely fine. Half-portrait of the famed educator and leader Washington. He is smartly dressed in a bowtie, waistcoat, and jacket and he looks past the camera. Elmer Chickering (1857-1915) was a well-known white Boston photographer who photographed politicians, athletes, and other public figures including another portrait of Washington (National Portrait Gallery, NPG.79.208) taken ca 1895 with the same recto imprint. No other copies of this distinguished portrait taken at the height of Washington’s career are known. $2,000 - $3,000

172 BOOKER T. WASHINGTON PRINTED POSTCARD, CA 1902 Frank G. Schumacher, Los Angeles, California, n.d., ca 1902. Real photo postcard featuring a commanding portrait of Booker T. Washington (18561915) seated in a chair. Schumacher opened his Los Angeles studio in 1882 and captured this image prior to its publication as the frontispiece in The New Negro (1903). “Schumacher / Los Angeles” written in the negative, along with “B 701.” “’Rotograph’ Series / Booker T. Washington” printed in lower margin below image, indicating publication by the Rotograph Company, New York, New York. $400 - $600 92

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173 BOOKER T. WASHINGTON MUSKOGEE NEGRO BUSINESS LEAGUE PINBACK, 1914 Booker T. Washington pinback. Diam: 1.25 in. (32 mm) Caption: “Muskogee negro Business League / August 19-20-21, 1914 / Our Leader” surrounding a portrait of Booker T. Washington. Washington had founded the National Negro Business League in 1900 in order to “promote the commercial and financial development of the Negro.” It grew rapidly and included 320 chapters by 1905 and over 600 by 1915. In 1914, the Fifteenth Annual Convention was held in Muskogee, Oklahoma, home to a large African American population. African Americans had been present in the region since the early 19th century and had a vibrant community by the 1890s. In the early 20th century, however, the community was subject to the segregation which was ushered in with Oklahoma’s statehood in 1907 and the Negro Business League was an essential part in the economic stability of the community. $600 - $800 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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174 M.W. GIBBS, FIRST US BLACK JUDGE AUTOBIOGRAPHY SHADOW AND LIGHT, 1902 GIBBS, M.W. (1823-1915). Shadow and Light: An Autobiography with Reminiscences of the Last and Present Centuries. Washington DC: Privately Printed, 1902. 8vo (143 x 201 mm). With an introduction by Booker T. Washington. Frontispiece portrait and illustrated throughout with photographic portraits. (Pages evenly toned). Publisher’s original blue ribbed cloth with gilt titles (very good, new endpapers, mild wear to edges, binding very slightly cocked). FIRST EDITION. Mifflin Wistar Gibbs was an important author, politician, lawyer, diplomat, and pioneer moving to California during the Gold Rush. He owned several businesses and published both the Alta California, billed as the “state’s only African-American newspaper,” and the Mirror of the Times. Opposing discriminatory laws passed by the California State Legislature in 1858, he led the migration of 600-800 African Americans from California to British Columbia, forming a large portion of the early frontier community. After the Civil War, Gibbs returned to the United States where he passed the bar examination in 1870 and became the first black judge elected in the United States in 1873. He continued to be involved in politics and in 1897 was appointed the American consul to Madagascar. He published this autobiography in 1902 in Washington DC, where he had purchased a property where his daughter Harriet Gibbs Marshall (1868-1941) ran the Washington Conservatory of Music, one of the most successful female-owned businesses at the time. Quite scarce, OCLC locates two copies. $800 - $1,200

175 TEXAS BIOGRAPHIES AND UPLIFT BOOK, HALL’S MORAL AND MENTAL CAPSULE HALL, Josie B. (b. 1869) Hall’s Moral and Mental Capsule for the Economic and Domestic Life of the Negro, as a Solution to the Race Problem. Dallas: Rev. R.S. Jenkins, 1905. 8vo (151 x 224 mm). Frontispiece and b&w illustrations throughout. (Even page toning, else fine). Original brown cloth with blindstamped illustration and gilt title (scuffs to front board and spine). FIRST EDITION. An anthology of “racial uplift,” includes moral directives, poems, and biographies of African American Texans including Ollie Louise Bryan (1871-1932), the first African American woman to practice dentistry in the American South. Very scarce, OCLC locates 9 copies. $500 - $700

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176 TEMPERANCE LECTURER ELIZA SUGGS AUTOBIOGRAPHY SHADOWS AND SUNSHINE, 1906 FIRST EDITION SUGGS, Eliza (1876-1908). Shadows and Sunshine. Omaha: Privately Published, 1906. 18mo (112 x 159 mm). Frontispiece and plates throughout. Original rust cloth with gilt titles (Some stains to boards, wear to extremities, binding slightly cocked, else very good). FIRST EDITION. Elizabeth “Eliza” Gertrude Suggs, born with Osteogenesis imperfecta (commonly called “brittle bone disease”) was not anticipated to live past childhood. Her father, a former slave, became a minister with the Free Methodist Church after Emancipation and moved the family west to Orleans, Nebraska. Despite her fragile health, she gained an education and went on to become a prominent temperance lecturer. Author’s first and only book. Uncommon. $800 - $1,200

177 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF BLACK WOMAN SUFFRAGIST EMMA J. RAY RAY, Emma J. (1859-1930) Twice Sold, Twice Ransomed: Autobiography of Mr. and Mrs. L.P. Ray. Chicago: Free Methodist Publishing House, 1926. 8vo (139 x 198 mm). Frontispiece with plates throughout. (Ephemera pasted to frontispiece verso and rear endpapers). Maroon cloth with gilt titles (scratch to front board, light wear to hinges and corners). FIRST EDITION. Slave narrative and autobiography of Emma Ray, an early leader in the temperance and women’s suffrage movements and a lifelong spiritual leader. Born into slavery in Missouri, she was sold as an infant with her mother. As an adult, she married L.P. Ray in Fredonia, Kansas before later moving farther west to Seattle, Washington. It was here in 1891 that she founded the Colored Women’s Temperance Union and was elected the organization’s first president. She was involved with revivalist churches and the suffragist movement in Seattle and Washington state until her death in 1930. $100 - $200

178 1912 LOWER MISSISSIPPI FLOOD REAL PHOTO POSTCARDS Lot of 3 real photo postcards showing the effects of the Mississippi Flood of 1912 and civilian efforts to contain the rising waters. A late snowfall coupled with heavy spring rain gave way to devastating flooding along the Lower Mississippi River that killed 200 people and caused $70 million in damage. F.A. Rosselle: Rosedale, Mississippi, 1912. Postcard shows several African American men in striped prison garb working to fortify the city against the rain-engorged river. In the foreground, a mustachioed white man watches closely as a laborer lifts a sandbag. Signed and titled in the negative: “Rosselle / 3-D. / Keeping Water Out Of Rosedale. 4-18-12.” F.A. Rosselle: Beulah, Mississippi, 1912. Postcard presents the living conditions of those displaced by the flood. A group of African Americans, four men and two women, sit on crates and trunks in front of a makeshift shelter. Signed and titled in the negative: “Photo / Rosselle / Refugees Near Beulah 5-16-12.” F.A. Rosselle: Rosedale, Mississippi, 1912. Five African American children figure prominently into the foreground of this image. They sit on the crown of a levee, with layers of sandbags stacked to their right. Adults are visible in the background, along with two horses, a chicken, a wagon, and several temporary tarp structures. $500 - $700

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179 TWO 1908 ISSUES OF THE FORUM, SAN JOSE AFRICAN AMERICAN NEWSPAPER The Forum. Vol. I, Nos. 13-14. June 6 & June 20, 1908. San Jose, California: Forum Publishing Co., 1908. 10 x 13.5 in. California Section State Library Duplicate mark, toning and some wear to front pages, some separation along creases, top edge uncut. Interior pages bright and clean. Two issues from the inaugural volume of The Forum, an African American newspaper published in San Jose, California at the beginning of the 20th century. Issues include exhortations to African American westward pioneers (“California, The Land of Sunshine and Golden Opportunities: Offers Many Inducements to the Industrious Colored Man or Woman”), extensive political coverage (“Will the Negro Voters Prove Loyal to the Republican Party?”), and many articles regarding African American masons, with a picture of the M. W. Grand Master of San Francisco, C. Henry Tinsley, on the cover. Very scarce, only three California libraries have any holdings. (Danky 2452). $800 - $1,000

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180 ONLY KNOWN COPY THE VOICE OF THE WEST: AN ILLUSTRATED NEGRO MAGAZINE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION, VOL. I, NO. 3, JUNE 1912 WITH THEODORE ROOSEVELT PRESIDENTIAL ENDORSEMENT The Voice of the West: An Illustrated Magazine of Western Civilization. Volume I, No. 3, June 12. Los Angeles, California. 8.75 x 11.25 in. [16] p. Tanning to front page, water stains affecting rear pages, some splitting at spine, minor creasing. Remarkably scarce, only known copy of this interesting western African American periodical. Not listed in Danky. Published by Reverend J. Gordon McPherson (1869-1936), a prominent evangelistic preacher of the American West. In the early 20th century, his sermons and revivals were covered frequently in the Los Angeles Herald, the Morning Press, and others. He was referred to as the “Black Billy Sunday” and “The Fighting Parson,” having served in the Spanish-American War. An article in the Riverside Daily Press in February 1917 writes, “Much interest has been aroused among the many admirers of the noted unmatched black preacher and philosopher, Re.v Dr. J. Gordon McPherson...He is termed the “Black Billy Sunday” in Pasadena, and the citizens have erected a monster gospel tabernacle.” This issue features Booker T. Washington on the cover touting him as “The World’s Greatest Negro.” Articles include an exhortation for African American pioneers, “Come West, Industrious Black Men: The Great Imperial Valley in Southwestern California is the Negro Farmer’s Eldorado, Says Parson Mack”; a profile of Reverend Mary E. Palmer of the Church of the Nazarene in Pasadena; and “The Colored Race and Genius: You Negroes Who are Forging to the Front” touching on painter Henry Ossawa Tanner, poets Paul Laurence Dunbar and Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, and W.E.B. Du Bois. The paper also includes an editorial endorsement of Theodore Roosevelt and his running mate, then California governor Hiram W. Johnson for president. There was a split in the Republican party between those who supported the incumbent William H. Taft and those who backed a return for Roosevelt. The power struggle at the convention resulted in the Republican nomination staying with Taft. It is unclear the exact day in June 1912 that the paper went to print, but it was before the news of the June 18-22 Chicago Republican National Convention was available.

The paper printed letters to McPherson and the Voice from Hiram Johnson, Joseph M. Dixon, and J.E. Miller, and Roosevelt himself date May 28, 1912, “My Dear Dr. McPherson, I must send you just a line of personal thanks for your telegram. … The victory in California was magnificent, and I want to take this opportunity of thanking you personally for the good work which you did to help bring about such a result. In every state the great bulk of our colored citizens have stood steadfastly for our cause and you are one of the men chiefly responsible for their doing so.” Roosevelt and Johnson would go on to accept the nomination of the Progressive Party on August 5. Their ticket, however, would effectively split the left vote between Taft and Roosevelt, handing Woodrow Wilson the presidency. $800 - $1,200

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181 BIOGRAPHY OF TEXAS STATESMAN NORRIS WRIGHT CUNEY HARE, Maud Cuney (1874-1936). Norris Wright Cuney: A Tribune of the Black People. New York: Crisis Publishing Company, 1913. 8vo (131 x 192 mm). Tissue guarded frontispiece with additional plates. (Gift inscription on front flyleaf ). Blue cloth with gilt titles (Fine condition with very minor wear to extremities). FIRST EDITION. Biography of Norris Wright Cuney (1846-1898) by his daughter, accomplished musician and author Maud Cuney Hare. Cuney is regarded as one of the most important black leaders in 19th century Texas. He chaired the Texas Republican Party and was a national committeeman, also elected as the grandmaster of the Grand Lodge of Texas. $50 - $100

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182 HISTORY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN LEGISLATORS IN TEXAS BREWER, J. Mason (1896-1975). Negro Legislators of Texas and Their Descendants: A History of the Negro in Texas Politics from Reconstruction to Disfranchisement. Dallas: Mathis Publishing, 1935. 8vo (140 x 197 mm). Plates. (Small minor stain and pages evenly toned, else a fine copy). Maroon coated cloth with gilt titles and original dust jacket (dust jacket very good with minor wear). FIRST EDITION. An examination of the lives of African American politicians of Texas, many of whom were born into slavery. Written by prominent folklorist and educator J. Mason Brewer, the first African American to be a member of the Texas Folklore Society and the Texas Institute of Letters. He was also one of the first African American lecturers at several universities, including the University of California. Legislators covered include Bird “B.B.” Davis (b. ca 1827), Matthew “Matt” Gaines (ca 1840-1900), Robert L. Smith (1861-1942) founder of the Farmer’s Improvement Society, Robert A. Kerr (1833-1913), Nathan H. Haller (1845-1817), and William H. Holland (ca 18491907) who had served in 16th USCT during the Civil War. Uncommon. $400 - $600

183 TEXAS AFRICAN AMERICAN MASONIC LODGE REPORT, 1918 McDONALD, M. and H.D. WINN, eds. Proceedings of the Forty-third Annual Communication of the M.W. Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons, Texas, Nineteen Hundred Eighteen. Nashville: Sunday School Union Print, 1918. 8vo (154 x 227 mm). Frontispiece with illustrations. Original blue cloth with gilt titles and illustration (very minor corner bumps, spine slightly cocked, else very good). FIRST EDITION. Scarce, no other copies located. $100 - $150

184 MARCUS GARVEY PROVISIONAL PRESIDENT OF AFRICA PINBACK, CA 1920 Marcus Garvey pinback button. Caption “Provisional President / of Africa / Hon. Marcus Garvey” surrounding photographic image of Garvey. Philadelphia Badge Company: Philadelphia, n.d., ca 1920. Imprint to edge. Diam.: 1.25 in. (32 mm). Jamaican Marcus Garvey was the founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) and the leading voice of radical black nationalism in the early 20th century. He advocated for the establishment of an “Empire of Africa” and was nominated as the “Provisional President of Africa” by UNIA in 1920. This scarce pinback button was likely produced contemporaneously to commemorate the event. $200 - $300

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185 LOS ANGELES GARVEYITE IN UNIFORM OVERSIZE ALBUMEN PHOTOGRAPH Oversize albumen photograph of a follower of Marcus Garvey in uniform. Old Mission Studio: Los Angeles, n.d., ca 1920. 5 x 7 in. oval. The subject stands at attention wearing a European style uniform holding an elaborate sword. Braided aiguillettes drape across his uniform above a decorative belt buckle. He holds a rolled-up magazine in one hand which rests on a table near his feathered hat. Members of the UNIA and the paramilitary group the African Legion also founded by Garvey, wore uniforms and marched in parades. In the documentary Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind, one former member, Virginia Collins, recounted their memories of wearing a uniform, “We wore this uniform everywhere...that was a physical statement...that we are Garveyites, and proud of it!” $600 - $800

186 MARCUS GARVEY FLAGSHIP YARMOUTH - OWNED AND MANNED BY COLORED MEN REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1920 D. Seeger: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, n.d., ca 1920. Real photo postcard showing the SS Yarmouth with an inset portrait of her captain, Joshua Cockburn, at upper right. Passengers and crewmen dot both the upper and lower decks, with several figures posed inside the lifeboats. Captioned and credited in the negative, reading in part, “Yarmouth Owned and Manned by Colored Men.” Initially constructed as a Canadian ferryboat in 1887, the Yarmouth was purchased later by the Black Star Line, a shipping line established by Jamaican-born black nationalist Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) and active 1919-1922. Prior to his maritime endeavors, Garvey notably founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica in 1914 and widely promulgated his “Back to Africa” movement throughout the United States. The Black Star Line was intended to facilitate this transportation of black emigrants back across the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the Yarmouth, Garvey purchased two other ships and hired an exclusively black crew, including Joshua Cockburn, a Bahamanian master mariner who had trained with Royal Navy. After three relatively successful voyages, the Yarmouth was involved in a collision while anchored in New York, and the Black Star Line was unable to fund the repairs, selling the ship at public auction in 1921. $400 - $600

187 “PORO” IN PICTURES BLACK COSMETOLOGY COLLEGE VIEWBOOK, 1926 TURNBO-MALONE, Annie M. Pope (1870-1957). “Poro” in Pictures: With a Short History of its Development. St. Louis: Poro College, 1926. Oblong 8vo (229 x 51 mm). Illustrated profusely. Original embossed pictorial stiff cardboard (a fine copy). FIRST EDITION. Annie Pope Turnbo-Malone was an enterprising businesswoman and philanthropist becoming one of the first black millionaires. At a young age, she developed her own concoctions and formulas designed for black hair. In 1900 she began to manufacture her “Wonderful Hair Grower.” In 1917, she began the construction of Poro College which expanded her manufacturing facilities but also contained the first American school of black cosmetology. The business employed over 175 people, including a commission agent named Sarah Breedlove, later known as Madam C.J. Walker, before she left to found her own rival manufacturing company. This booklet with illustrations of the elegant and well-appointed Poro College was printed at the height of her St. Louis business, one year before a contentious divorce which prompted a move to Chicago. Very scarce, OCLC locates only 7 copies. $400 - $600

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188 ONLY KNOWN COPY NEGRO HISTORY WEEK PROGRAM, PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA, CA 1942 Negro History Week: Feb. 8-15. [Palo Alto, California]: No publisher, [ca 1942]. 5.5 x 8.5 in., pamphlet, 2 p. Very good with repairs to two small tears. A pamphlet for the festivities celebrating Negro History Week in Palo Alto, California in 1942. Events include an exhibition of “Native arts and crafts of Liberia” with items lent by Dr. John Furbay at the Junior Museum, a lecture “The Story of the Scientific and Educational Progress of Our American Negro”, a poetry reading on Lincoln’s birthday, and a lecture on African art by Nathan van Patten (1887-1956, director of libraries at Stanford University). Negro History Week, the precursor to Black History Month, was founded in 1925 by Carter G. Woodson to coincide with the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. By the 1940s, Negro History Week was widely celebrated and had become a central part of African American culture. Early ephemera from these celebrations, however, remains extremely scarce. No other copies of this program are known. $300 - $500

189 ANTI-JIM CROW PAMPHLETS, 1941-1946 Jim Crow in National Defense. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Council, National Negro Congress, 1941. 16mo (5 x 6.8 in.). Original printed wrappers (even toning, very tiny corner bumps, and fold to rear cover, else fine). Uncommon. [With:] DRAPER, Harold (1914-1990). Jim Crow in Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Workers Party, 1946. 8vo (5.5 x 8.5 in). With illustrations by Elly. Original wrappers (Slight staining from staples, else very fine). FIRST EDITION. Pamphlet by noted California socialist activist and author Harold Draper, who would be a significant player in the Berkeley Free Speech Movement. Uncommon. $50 - $100

190 TO THE VOTERS OF HAMILTON COUNTY!, 1948 ELECTION DEMOCRATIC PARTY CAMPAIGN POSTER AIMED AT AFRICAN AMERICANS To the Voters of Hamilton County! Which Do you Want? Chattanooga, Tennessee: Allied Printing Trades Council, n.d. [probably 1954]. Poster. 9.5 x 12.5 in. (240 x 315 mm). A patronizing political poster aimed at African American voters in Hamilton County, Tennessee. A black family is pictured with what appears to be a 1948 Oldsmobile Futuramic convertible with the caption “Plenty with Democrats” contrasted with an elderly black man wearing shabby clothes next to a cart and the caption “Nothing with Republicans.” The poster is likely for the 1948 election - a Tuesday, November 2 that year - in which Truman sought reelection after ascending to the presidency upon FDR’s death in 1945. The phrase “Remember the Republicans in 1932” is likely intended to remind voters of the Great Depression and the unpopular Herbert Hoover with the image of the destitute man conjuring memories of Hoovervilles. The reference to 1932, when Roosevelt first took office, would reinforce the connection between Truman and the celebrated Roosevelt. $200 - $300

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191 ANTI-JIM CROW TREATISE OUR INHERITANCE BY ZACHARY WITHERS WITHERS, Zachary. Our Inheritance. Oakland: Tribune Publishing Co., 1909. 8vo (139 x 183 mm). Frontispiece portrait. (Some foxing to page edges). Sky blue cloth with printed white titles and illustration (Minor stains, extremely minor wear to extremities). FIRST EDITION. Withers, the son of slaves, worked as a Pullman porter. He published a work of poetry and edited the Pullman Porters’ Review. In this work and other writings, Withers advocates for equal rights and the end of Jim Crowism. Uncommon. $200 - $300

192 ANTI-DISCRIMINATION PAMPHLETS, CALIFORNIA, 19501953 Lot of 5 California anti-discrimination pamphlets. GREEN, Buddy and Steve MURDOCK. The Jerry Newson Story… Berkeley: East Bay Civil Rights Congress, 1950. 8vo (153 x 225 mm). Illustrated. Original illustrated wrappers. FIRST EDITION. Defense by two journalists of Jerry Newson who was arrested and sentenced to death row on trumped-up evidence for a double murder. Newson was eventually acquitted after three trials and several appeals to the Supreme Court of California, represented by civil rights attorney Robert Treuhaft. Includes a mimeographed letter from Rev. G. Linwood Fauntleroy sent during his candidacy for California State Senate. He writes “Jim Crow should be sitting in death row today -- not Jerry Newson.” Scarce. PORTER, Herb. Listen, America. Los Angeles: Equality House, 1951. 8vo (142 x 203 mm). With 2 full-page illustrations by 2 of 5 William Jennings. Long poem recounting the history of inequality faced by African Americans. Original wrappers. Uncommon. WELLS, Wesley Robert. Letters from the Death House. Los Angeles: Civil Rights Congress, 1953. Square 8vo (175 x 199 mm). Forward by John Howard Lawson. Original illustrated wrappers. In 1947, Wesley Robert Wells was unjustly sentenced to death for a minor offense and the Civil Rights Congress became heavily involved in his case. This is the second pamphlet regarding Wells and the extreme racial prejudice he faced published by the Congress. Wells, after continued support, would finally be released in 1974, saying, “The power of the people got me out, and I am deeply grateful.”

...We Charge Genocide! Los Angeles: Civil Rights Congress, ca 1951. 140 x 215 mm, single fold pamphlet. A publicity pamphlet for the book by William L. Patterson and the Civil Rights Congress arguing that the treatment of African Americans qualifies as genocide as defined by the United Nations. Signed: “Yours for a Genuine Brotherhood”: A Survey of Discrimination in the Health Field in Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Southern California Chapter of the National Council of Arts, Science and Professions, ca 1950. 8vo (139 x 201 mm). Original wrappers. With errata slip stapled to title page. FIRST EDITION. Scarce. $150 - $200

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193 MALCOLM X, NATION OF ISLAM AND CALIFORNIA BLACK MUSLIMS PRESS PHOTOGRAPHS, 1961-1965 Lot of 11 press photographs covering Malcolm X, Nation of Islam, and other California Black Muslims during the first half of the 1960s, especially focused on the events of April 27, 1962. Ten images approx. 8 x 11 in., with one panoramic image 11.75 x 7.5 in. The verso of each bears a Los Angeles or San Francisco Examiner reference library stamp with date and subject headings, most reading “Nation of Islam.” Includes an image of a typewritten testimony signed “Jeffers” with a police badge, dated March 22, 1961, to the verso. The document recounts information about black Muslims learned from an informant named “Catfish,” ending with the warning “They mean trouble, much trouble from what Catfish has heard and seen. They are mean Negros and brought here just to make trouble in court.” The document perpetuates the worst fear that police and many white political leaders held about the Nation of Islam and black Muslims and foreshadows the events of April 27, 1962. Six of the images, with UPI Telephoto captions in negative, concern the arrest and trial of 14 black Muslims who were arrested on April 27, 1962. On that evening, two white police officers approached two black men and a struggle ensued. The officers shot their way into Mosque No. 27, situated only a block away. In the process, black Muslim Ronald Stokes was fatally shot, fellow Muslim William Rogers was shot in the back and paralyzed, and five other Muslims were injured by gunfire. All of them were unarmed. The white press perpetuated the police story that the firefight was instigated by the mosque members and 14 men were arrested and put on trial. Included in this photographic archive are six images from April 28, 1862, the day after the shooting, to July 31, 1963, the day of the verdict. The earliest image caption grossly mischaracterizes the events as a “riot”, parroting the police accounts, “Police handcuff two members of the extremist Black Muslim sect after a total of 75 police officers managed to quell a riot... The officers were attacked by members of the sect.” An image dated May 2, 1962 shows the arrested men awaiting arraignment and are described as “fanatical anti-white sect.” The events occurred in an era of growing tensions in Los Angeles and within the Civil Rights Movement. An image dated April 29, 1963 shows African American anti-Muslim picketers outside the courthouse during the trial of the 14 men. A May 3, 1963 image depicts Muslim leader Malcolm X and three black Muslim women as they watch the trial. The caption quotes him, “’Los Angeles is more on trial than these men...they are not getting a fair trial. If they were, there would be no need for a trial. You usually don’t try men who were shot.’”

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Many biographers note that the events of April 27, 1962, and the subsequent trial caused a significant shift in Malcolm X’s ideological development and eventual break with Elijah Muhammad and split with the Nation of Islam. A second image of Malcolm X dated May 28, 1963 is included. He is seen reading an issue of Life magazine with an article titled, “Black Muslims Cry Grows Louder: ‘The white devil’s day is almost over.” Another newspaper, almost certainly an African American publication, is visible with the headline more sympathetic of those shot, “Seven Unarmed Negroes Shot in Cold Blood by Los Angeles Police.” The in negative caption does note that they were awaiting the verdict of “an all-white jury.” A final image from the events dated July 31, 1963, depicts the courtroom as the verdicts were being read. Again, the caption belies its bias referring to the defendants as “cult members.” Also includes four images from 1965 which document the continued antagonism between the police and the Nation of Islam. An image dated February 24, 1965, shows San Francisco’s Mohammad’s Mosque No. 26 with a clipping from the San Francisco Examiner article from the same day tipped to the verso. A March 5, 1965 image shows bullet holes fired by “persons unknown” at the house of Elijah Muhammad. And two August 18 images show police investigating “a gun battle with Negroes” and black Muslims being arrested in Los Angeles outside their mosque. The final photograph in the archive is a February 22, 1973 panoramic image of demonstrating students in San Francisco in a memorial march on the anniversary of the assassination of Malcolm X. Black students crowd the street and hold placards with Malcolm X’s images, memorial messages, and slogans to improve black education. A newspaper clipping with the same image is tipped to the verso. The image is marked where it was cropped in publication. $600 - $800

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194 BROWNSVILLE INCIDENT PINBACK AND REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1906 Lot of 2 items related to “The Brownsville Raid” or “The Brownsville Affair,” including a real photo postcard with the image of six men standing in a Brownsville, Texas, street and the caption “On the Right is the Cowan Residence Into Which Negro Raiders Fired Twenty Shots, Aug. 13th, 1906”; accompanied by a pinback button, 1.25 in., which features the center image of four black soldiers encircled by the words “Remember Brownsville” and the caption below “Discharged Without Honor.” In the midst of deteriorating race relations throughout the state, an August 12-13, 1906, incident sparked a racial conflict in Brownsville, Texas, that would resonate throughout the country and all the way to the White House. Around midnight on August 12, shots rang out in the streets of Brownsville killing one townsperson and injuring two others. Residents of the town immediately accused black soldiers of the 25th Infantry stationed nearby at Fort Brown of perpetrating the crimes and firing the shots. Despite evidence to the contrary, local law enforcement and the Army’s Inspector General placed the blame for the incident with the soldiers, ultimately resulting in President Theodore Roosevelt’s decision to dishonorably discharge 167 of the black troops. Though many supported Roosevelt, a large and vocal group of blacks and whites protested the injustice perpetrated against the soldiers. It was not until a 1972 pardon was issued by President Nixon that the soldiers were cleared of wrongdoing and granted posthumous honorable discharges. $500 - $700

195 SCARCE EVENTS OF THE TULSA DISASTER, FIRST EDITION, 1922 PARRISH, Mary E. Jones. Events of the Tulsa Disaster. [Tulsa, Oklahoma?], [1922?]. 8vo (150 x 220 mm). Folding panoramic frontis. and illustrated throughout. Lacking title page as issued. Original red cloth with gilt titles (minor shelf wear, rubbing and soiling to covers, else very good copy). FIRST EDITION. The first account of the Tulsa race massacre with eyewitness accounts compiled by Mary E. Jones Parrish, a young black teacher and journalist. A survivor of the riots herself, her work is one of the earliest books published by a female African American journalist. In the early 1920s, Tulsa was a booming oil town and was home to Greenwood District, a black neighborhood often called “Negro Wall Street.” On Memorial Day weekend 1921, a shoe shiner named Dick Rowland was arrested and events spiraled out of control, fueled by the sensationalist Tulsa Tribune. Mob violence spread from the courthouse and white rioters invaded Greenwood burning houses, schools, churches, businesses, and the District’s hospital. Eyewitnesses even reported attacks by air, with privately-owned aircraft carrying assailants throwing firebombs and firing rifles. The violence was only quelled when martial law was declared and the Oklahoma National Guard arrived. The human toll was difficult to discern, but the Red Cross estimated as many as 300 people died, the majority of them African American. As of December 2019, a mass grave believed to be linked with the massacre was discovered in Tulsa. The panoramic frontispiece graphically portrays the devastation. Not in Blockson Collection Catalog, Work, or Moorman Library Catalog. OCLC locates 16 copies. Quite scarce. $4,000 - $6,000

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196 DREAMLAND THEATRE TULSA, OKLAHOMA MIRROR RELATED TO TULSA RIOTS Dreamland Theater: The Only Colored Theatre in the City pocket mirror, n.d., ca 1920. 2.75 x 2 in. oval (70 x 50 mm). Caption, “Mrs. Loula T. Williams Prop., Tulsa, Okla.” Prior to the riots, the Dreamland Theater, believed to be the first movie theater in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was the center of the Greenwood neighborhood. The 750-seat theater was owned and operated by one of the wealthiest African American families in Tulsa, Loula and John Williams. Located in the heart of “Black Wall Street,” the theater showed live musicals and theatrical revues in addition to the silent films of the era. During the 1921 riot, the African American residents of Greenwood gathered in the Dreamland to plan a course of action during the chaos. As the riots progressed, however, the theater was destroyed by arson, along with 35 blocks of the district. As a symbol of the community’s resilience, the Dreamland was later rebuilt. $400 - $600

197 NEGRO CITY DIRECTORY, TULSA, OKLAHOMA, 1941 Tulsa, Oklahoma Negro City Directory, 1941. [Tulsa: Greenwood Chamber of Commerce,] 1941. 8vo (150 x 224 mm). Original wrappers (delicate condition with some fraying to cloth spine, corner loss, but complete with spine unbroken). FIRST EDITION. During the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, the Greenwood District, known as “Negro Wall Street” was leveled with an estimated $1.5 million in real estate in losses. Although it would be decades more until any kind of public reconciliation, the existence of this directory is evidence of the tenacity and rebuilding efforts of the African American community in Tulsa. Though it makes no explicit mention of the riots, the introduction lauds Greenwood District noting, “Perhaps nowhere else in America is there a single thoroughfare which registers such significance to local Negroes as North Greenwood Avenue in Tulsa. Today, after twenty-five years of steady growth and development, Greenwood is something more than an avenue -- it is an institution.” Complete directory with advertisements of black owned businesses throughout. Extremely scarce, no other copies located. $1,200 - $1,800

198 WATTS RIOTS PAMPHLETS, 1965-1966 Lot of 4 pamphlets regarding the Los Angeles Watts riots (August 1116,1965). TAYLOR, William C. “Watts” Upsurge: A Communist Appraisal. Los Angeles: Communist Party of Southern California, 1965. 139 x 215 mm. Original illustrated wrappers. FIRST EDITION. Scarce, OCLC locates only 8 copies. ROSSA, Della. Why Watts Exploded: How the Ghetto Fought Back. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Local, Socialist Workers Party, 1966. 138 x 213 mm. Original illustrated wrappers. FIRST EDITION. Eyewitness Reports! The Negro Revolt in Los Angeles: A Public Hearing. Los Angeles: Discussion Unlimited Inc., 1965. 140 x 216 mm. Single fold pamphlet. An advertisement and program for a public hearing on Friday, September 14, 1965, at Hollywood High School in Los Angeles. Includes civil rights attorney Herbert M. Porter, firefighter and civil rights leader Arnett L. Hartsfield, Jr., and Harold W. Jones, M.D. as speakers. Very scarce, OCLC locates only 2 copies. [California] Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots. Violence in the City -- An End or a Beginning?: A Report. [Los Angeles]: n.p., 1965. 157 x 229 mm. With color map showing the deaths and damage in the city. Original wrappers. Presumed FIRST EDITION. $100 - $200

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199 THE FLATLANDS POVERTY CONSCIOUS NEWSPAPER, FIRST THREE ISSUES, OAKLAND, 1966 The Flatlands. Oakland, California. March 12, 1966 Vol. 1, No. 1; March 26, 1966 Vol. 1, No. 2; April 9, 1966 Vol. 1, No. 3. Folio (295 x 432), newspaper, 8 pp. First three issues published. (Danky 2381). The very first issue of this class-conscious newspaper opens, “Welcome to Oakland, the allAmerican city; welcome to Oakland, the ‘city of pain.’” The paper focuses on education, housing, ending the war in Vietnam, police brutality, but pays particular attention to the issues facing the poor in Oakland, especially as it applies to race. Articles include “War on the Poor,” “Bulldozing the Poor,” and “Power for the Poor” alongside a regular column titled the “Poor Speak Out.” Uncommon. $300 - $500

200 BLACK POWER MONOGRAPH ON MAGIC AND RACE BY HARRY J. GARDENER, 1966 GARDENER, Harry J. (1890-1969). Black Power. Los Angeles: Harry J. Gardner, 1966. Folio (215 x 275 mm). Staple bound with textured paper covers. (Very fine). FIRST EDITION. Born Harry Lawrence Juhnke and variously known as Frater VIII° and Valiant Thor, Gardener published extensively on self-improvement, magic, the occult, and race. The title is an interesting one, encompassing both the metaphorical power of the political movement as well as perceived magical power. Billed as “an educational and inspirational Course of Study especially written for Budding Individuals everywhere.” $50 - $100

201 BLACK UNITED FRONT TAKING CARE OF BUSINESS POSTER, CA 1968 TCB: United Front, Taking Care of Business. [Los Angeles]: [Los Angeles Free Press], n.d., ca 1968. Graphic broadside. 15 x 19.8 in. (384 x 505 mm). A family is strikingly rendered in dynamic poses, wearing traditional west African clothes. The male figure stands holding a drawn bow while the female crouches holding a rifle with a child strapped to her back. An advertisement for “New Posters” in November 8, 1968 (Vol. 5 Issue 225, Part Two) issue of the Los Angeles Free Press appears to list the same broadside: “T.C.B. …. ‘Take care of business,’ graphic design; Black United Front.” Possibly a poster for the Black United Front, a black nationalist organization based in Halifax, Nova Scotia who were advised by socialist and pan-Africanist Stokely Carmichael in 1966. $800 - $1,200

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202 CHARLENE MITCHELL, FIRST BLACK WOMAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE, RECEPTION INVITATION, 1968 Reception [to] hear Charlene Mitchell. 110 x 140 mm, two-fold invitation pamphlet. An invitation to a reception on September 18, 1968, in Los Angeles. Charlene Mitchell (b. 1930) is an international socialist and civil rights activist. She became active in organizing by the age of 13 and had joined the Communist Party at 16. She was the very first woman to ever run for President, running on the Communist Party ticket with running mate Michael Zagarell in the Election of 1968. The invitation describes her as, “a black knowledgable woman of great pride and dignity.” Although she was listed on the ballot in only two states and received just 1,075 votes, her campaign and lifetime of activism were groundbreaking. $50 - $100

203 DICK GREGORY PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN POSTER, 1968 Write in for President Dick Gregory, Mark Lane/Vice President. N.p., 1968. 22 x 29 in. (561 x 737 mm). Campaign poster printed in blue with candid photo of Gregory while giving a speech. Dick Gregory (1932-2017) was a comedian, civil rights activist, and protest presidential candidate in the contentious 1968 election. Having lost the nomination of the Peace and Freedom Party to Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver, Gregory continued to run on the break-out Freedom and Peace Party, ultimately garnering over 47,000 votes. $200 - $400

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204 BLACK UNITY NEWSPAPER VOL. I, NO. 1, 1969 Black Unity. Berkeley, 1969. Vol. 1 No. 1. Large folio (297 x 443 mm), newspaper, 8 pp. First and only issue of the newspaper “published in the interests of AfricanAmericans.” Published by white radical Tom Sanders, it was closely affiliated with the Black Panthers and the radical magazine Black Politics, including some of the same writers (pseudonyms) Mek Nimr, Onii-Nejih, and others. Articles focus on Bobby Seale’s trial, the incarceration of Huey P. Newton, ending the war in Vietnam, and an article titled “White Racism and Black Genocide.” Not to be confused with a later publication of the same name published in Oceanside, California (Danky 1059), not listed in Danky. Very scarce, OCLC lists 5 copies. $100 - $200

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205 BLACK POLITICS: A JOURNAL OF LIBERATION BLACK LIBERATION MOVEMENT MAGAZINE, FIVE ISSUES, 1968-CA 1969 Black Politics: A Journal of Liberation. Berkeley. March 1968 Vol. 1., No. 3; “Special Issue - Huey P. Newton” April/May 1968 Vol. 1, Nos. 4 & 5; Summer 1968 Vol. 1, Nos. 6-8; September/October 1968 Vo. 1, Nos. 9-10; “George Prosser on Terrorism and Sabotage, Mek Nimr on Israel, Onij-Nejjih on Student Strikes” Vol. 2, Nos. 13-14. Folio (218 x 280 mm), staple bound mimeographed magazines. Lot of 5 issues of the important journal of black liberation theory. Published by Japanese-American Black Panther Richard Aoki (under the pseudonym Richard Assegai), white radical Tom Sanders, and Ed Turner, the journal was closely linked with the Black Panther Party and international socialism. Articles focus on Communism and global leftist politics, urban guerrilla warfare and weaponry, and the repression of the Panthers, especially Huey P. Newton, with many of the writers using assumed names. The weaponry articles by George Prosser (pseudonym, possibly Tom Sanders) prompted congressional committee investigation. (Danky 970). $400 - $600

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206 FLAGG BROTHERS CATALOG RISE ON! ONE GOOD THING LEADS TO ANOTHER..., CA 1970 Rise On! One Good Thing Leads to Another… Flagg Bros. Nashville: Flagg Bros, ca 1970. 8vo (140 x 228 mm). Color illustrated catalog for Flagg Brothers with unused order form. Original illustrated wrappers. Based out of Nashville, Tennessee, Flagg Brothers operated stores across the country. They defined the style of a generation of black men, especially with their contemporary shoes featuring stacked heels, platforms, and far-out designs. This catalog is an excellent example of Flagg Brothers' signature styles, striking graphic design, and aspirational advertising. $300 - $400

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207 FREE THE SAN QUENTIN 6 POSTER BY JANE NORLING, PEOPLES PRESS,1971 Norling, Jane (b. 1947). Free the San Quentin 6. San Francisco: [Peoples Press], 1971. Offset lithograph on paper. 12.75 x 18.4 in. (322 x 468 mm). Text reads “Johnny Larry Spain, Willie Tate, Hugo Pinell, David Johnson, Fleeta Drumgo, and Luis Talamantes - accused of the murder of 3 guards and 2 inmates on August 21, 1971 as a cover-up of the real incident in which prison guards murdered George Jackson and fired indiscriminately into the cell block. Support the 6. Bring the Real Criminals to Justice.” The San Quentin 6 were six men who were accused of attempting to escape San Quentin, which caused a riot to ensue leaving six people dead, including George Jackson, a co-founder of the Black Guerrilla Family. The details are complex and contradicted, and the 16-month trial was the longest in California history at the time. This poster presents the defense’s argument that prison and law enforcement had set up the incident for Jackson to be killed. Spain was convicted of two shooting deaths, Johnson was convicted of assaulting a guard, and Pinelli was found guilty of cutting the throats of two prison guards, though both lived. The other three were acquitted of all charges. This poster is an early example of artist Jane Norling’s work. Known for progressive political posters and murals, she arrived in San Francisco in 1970 and joined the print collective Peoples Press creating works focused on anti-Vietnam war, justice building, and anticolonialism efforts in the global south. Very scarce, known Spanish-language copies. $2,000 - $3,000

208 BLACK POWER! MAGAZINE, VOL. I, NO. 11, 1968 Black Power! San Francisco: House of Umoja (Unity). 1968 Vo. 1, No. 11. Folio (216 x 280 mm), staple bound mimeographed magazine, [22] p. A single issue of the black nationalist and civil rights magazine. Quite scarce, OCLC locates 4 copies. (Danky 974). $80 - $100

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209 BOBBY HUTTON MURDERED BY OAKLAND PIGS APRIL 12, 1968 MEMORIAL POSTER Bobby Hutton Murdered by Oakland Pigs. Oakland: Berkeley Graphic Arts, 1968. Offset lithograph on paper. 17.5 x 22.95 in. (445 x 583 mm). A poster for the march and memorial for Bobby Hutton, the first Black Panther recruit. When he was 17, he joined the ambush of Oakland Police organized by Eldridge Cleaver two days after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. After a violent shoot-out, Hutton surrendered and was subsequently stripped down and searched. When he stood up, the police opened fire on him, shooting him 12 times. Although police would later claim that he attempted to run away, Cleaver and others refuted this vehemently. His memorial rally, advertised on this poster, was attended by over 2,000 people in West Oakland on April 12, 1968. In addition to several Black Panther and Black Liberation leaders including Bobby Seale and James Forman, actor Marlon Brando spoke to the crowds. Scarce. $2,000 - $3,000

210 ICONIC HUEY P. NEWTON BLACK PANTHER POSTER, CA 1968 [Huey P. Newton] printed broadside. Emeryville, California: Black Panther Party for Self Defence, n.d., ca 1968. 23 x 35 in. (592 x 886 mm). In this iconic image attributed to Blair Stapp, composed by Eldridge Cleaver, Newton sits in a rattan peacock chair holding a rifle and spear surrounded by tribal hide shields, a zebra hide rug, and a pile of shotgun shells. The image uses the language of colonialist portraiture but subverts the paradigm with Newton. The Minister of Defense wears a black leather jacket and cocked beret and stares disarmingly directly at the camera and viewer, both commanding and imperious. Quotation in bottom margin at left reads, “’The racist dog policemen must withdraw immediately from our communities, cease their wanton murder and brutality and torture of black people, or face the wrath of the armed people.’ / Huey P. Newton, Minister of Defence.” Black Panther Party logo is featured in bottom margin at center. $2,000 - $4,000

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212 BLACK PANTHER PARTY EPHEMERA, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, 19691971 Lot of 15. Southern California Black Panther Party broadsides, handbills, newsletters, and other ephemera. The Black Panther Community Newsletter. Los Angeles: Black Panther Party, Southern California Chapter. August 11, 1969 No. 3. 217 x 358 mm, stapled mimeographed newsletter, 8 pp. With articles “Pigs Try Pigs,” “Watts Summer Festival 1969,” “The Name is Changed to Protect the Guilty,” and “Why We Must 108 THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

211 BLACK PANTHER PAMPHLETS, 1966-1970 BY CLEAVER, CARMICHAEL, AND NEWTON Lot of 7 Black Panther Party pamphlets from San Francisco and the Greater Bay Area. ADAMS, Ovid P. The Adventures of Black Eldridge: The Panther. San Francisco: Marcus Books, 1970. 4to (178 x 254 mm). Original illustrated wrappers. Comic book depicting incidents of violence against African Americans including a page of reproduced photographs. A semi-fictionalized Eldridge Cleaver as the hero. CARMICHAEL, Stokely (1941-1998). What We Want. [New York]: NY Review, 1966. 8vo (151 x 211 mm). Original wrappers. CLEAVER, Eldridge (1935-1998). On the Ideology of the Black Panther Party, Part I. [San Francisco]: [Black Panther Party, Ministry of Information], ca 1967. 8vo (178 x 257 mm) Staple-bound illustrated wrappers. CLEAVER, Eldridge. Revolution and Education. No publication information, ca 1968?. 8vo (139 x 215 mm). Original illustrated wrappers (minor toning, else very fine). NEWTON, Huey (1942-1989). Huey Newton Talks to the Movement About the Black Panther Party, Cultural Nationalism, SNCC, Liberals and White Revolutionaries. Boston: New England Free Press, [1968]. 8vo (140 x 211 mm). Original illustrated wrappers. Interview originally printed in The Movement (August 1968). NEWTON, Huey. Essays from the Minister of Defense Huey Newton. No publication information, 1968. 8vo (140 x 216 mm). Original wrappers. Very scarce, OCLC locates no other copies. Cleaver for President Committee. Why Peace & Freedom Should Nominate Eldridge Cleaver for President. San Francisco: Cleaver for President Committee, [1968]. 8vo (178 x 242 mm). Original wrappers (Very fine). Very scarce, OCLC locates 2 copies. $250 - $300

Have Community Control of Police.” Advertisement for “Liberation School” on last page. Very fine. (Danky 959) For Immediate Release: Murder of Sylvester Bell. Los Angeles: Black Panther Party, Southern California Chapter, August 16, 1969. 215 x 355 mm, 2 pp. Typed press release regarding the murder of Sylvester Bell by rival black nationalist group Organization Us. Petition for Continuation of Parole for Eldridge Cleaver in Opposition to the California State Court of Appeal’s Decision (September 27, 1968) to Revoke that BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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Parole. Los Angeles: Newton-Cleaver Defense Committee, ca 1969. Toning to top edge. John Huggins Free Hot Breakfast Program for Children. Los Angeles, ca 1970. 216 x 235 mm. Printed broadside. Alprentice Bunchy Carter Free Clinic and Black Panther Party Community Information Center. Printed handbill, ca 1970. 216 x 178 mm. Handbill advertising the free medical clinic sponsored by the Black Panther Party. Verso details the types of examinations and procedures available. Very fine. People’s Free Clinic: Dedicated in Memory of Alprentice ‘Bunchy’ Carter. Los Angeles, ca 1970. 216 x 355 mm. Broadside advertising the free clinic with illustration of small child receiving care. Essay “Is Violence Healthy?” printed to the verso. The Black Panther Community News Service. Los Angeles: Black Panther Party, Southern California Chapter. January 19, 1970 No.16. 281 x 447 mm, 6 pp. Portraits of Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter and John Jerome Huggins, founding members of the LA Black Panther chapter who were shot to death by members of rival black nationalist group Organization Us. (Danky 959) Huey P. Newton Rally. Los Angeles, 1970. 216 x 355 mm. Broadside advertising a rally at Trade Tech on February 14, 1970 in support of the incarcerated Huey P. Newton. Lists speakers including Masai Hewitt, Leo Branton, Jr., and Angela Davis. Toning to top edge with tear.

213 YOU CAN JAIL A REVOLUTIONARY, BUT YOU CAN’T JAIL THE REVOLUTION FRED HAMPTON POSTER BY EMORY DOUGLAS, CA 1969 Douglas, Emory (artist, b. 1943). You Can Jail a Revolutionary, but You Can’t Jail the Revolution. [Chicago]: Black Panther Party, n.d., ca 1969. Printed broadside, 17.5 x 23 in. (441 x 582 mm). Poster features a depiction of Fred Hampton giving an impassioned speech, with “I am a Revolutionary” printed beside him, situated in front of a larger-than-life portrait of his head. Quotation printed at top left reads, “’You Can Jail a Revolutionary, but You Can’t Jail the Revolution. You Can Run a Freedom Fighter Around the Country but You Can’t Run Freedom Fighting Around the Country. You Can Murder a Liberator, But You Can’t Murder Liberation.’” Text at bottom left reads, “Fred Hampton Deputy / Chairman Illinois Chapter / Black Panther Party / Born August 30, 1948 / Murdered by Fascist Pigs / Dec. 4, 1969.” Fred Hampton (1948-1969) was a prominent young Civil Rights activist in the 1960s. As a student at Proviso East High School in the Maywood suburb of Chicago, Hampton excelled in academic studies and athletic pursuits. Hampton decided to continue his education, first at the Developmental Institute at the YMCA Community College in Chicago, and later at a pre-law program at Triton Junior College in River Grove, Illinois. Hampton also joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, where he quickly became the West Suburban Branch Youth Council President, leading a lobbying campaign to improve academic services and recreational facilities for African American children in Maywood. Joining the Black Panther Party in 1968, Hampton quickly found success in leadership roles there as well, forming a “rainbow coalition” of diverse groups, and even publicly brokering a nonviolence pact between two of the most violent street gangs in Chicago. Hampton took charge of the BPP’s Chicago Chapter, organizing rallies, teaching political education classes, and promoting community surveillance of the police. Hampton’s efforts eventually led to him becoming the BPP chairman of the entire state of Illinois, thrusting him to leadership at the national level. Hampton met his untimely death when, in an early morning police raid of the Black Panther Party headquarters on December 4, 1969, he and fellow BPP activist Mark Clark were shot and killed by police officers. Over five thousand people attended his funeral, and many in the activist

The Black Panther Community News Service. Los Angeles: Black Panther Party, Southern California Chapter. March 11, 1970 No. 18. 298 x 448 mm, 12 pp. Cover story on Romaine “Chip” Fitzgerald’s trial and imprisonment. Back page details the Black Panther Party’s platform, “What We Want, What We Believe.” (Danky 959) Community News Bulletin. Los Angeles: Black Panther Party, Southern California Chapter. March 18, 1970 No. 19. 215 x 276 mm, 16 pp. With articles regarding political prisoners, police brutality, and anti-fascism. Advertisements for the “John Huggins Free Hot Breakfast Program for Children” and “Alprentice Bunchy Carter Free Clinic” on the last page. Not in Danky. People New Service. Los Angeles: Black Panther Party, Southern California Chapter. June 30, 1970 No. 28. 215 x 277 mm, 16 pp. Cover story “Justified?” discusses the killing of Jerry Lee Amie by police. Not in Danky, lists publications of the same name issued by the Milwaukee and Rockford, IL Black Panther Party chapters. People’s News Service. Los Angeles: Black Panther Party, Southern California Chapter. July 15, 1970 No. 29. 217 x 278 mm, 16 pp. Cover story “Legalized Genocide: George Duck Young...Another Vicitim.” Not in Danky. Sickle Cell Anemia: Black Genocide. [Los Angeles]: People’s Free Clinic, ca 1971. 179 x 217 mm, staple-bound pamphlet, 8 pp. With attached handbill for the People’s Free Clinic advertising “free Sickle Cell Anemia Tests.” Mild toning to handbill edge. Free Sickle Cell Anemia Tests. Los Angeles: People’s Free Medical Clinic, 1971. 216 x 354 mm. Broadside. Toning with chipping to right edge. $1,500 - $2,500

community saw Hampton’s death as unjust, and a group of nine plaintiffs won 1.85 million dollars in a civil lawsuit, which was paid out by the City of Chicago, Cook County, and the federal government. December 4th was commemorated as Fred Hampton Day by the Chicago City Council in 2004, as a way to remember and honor the fallen activist. $1,500 - $2,500

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214 BLACK PANTHER PINBACK COLLECTION, CA 1969-1970 Lot of 33 Black Panther Party related pinbacks, ca 1969-1970. With Panther Party logos, slogans including “All Power to the People,” iconic imagery of Panther leaders, and support for various causes including “Free Bobby,” “Free Fred Hampton Jr.,” and “Cleaver for President.” Smallest diam.: 1.25 in. (31 mm) Largest diam.: 2.24 in. (56 mm) $1,000 - $1,500

215 THE BLACK PANTHER MANIFESTO POSTER Douglas, Emory (artist; b. 1942). The Black Panther Manifesto: The Fascists Have Already Decided in Advance to Murder Chairman Bobby Seale in the Electric Chair. San Francisco: Black Panther Party Legal Defense Fund, n.d., ca 1970. 22.6 x 32.3 in. (574 x 821 mm) Pristine copy professionally mounted on coated linen, expected original folds flattened and barely visible. Douglas, the graphic designer who worked as the Minister of Culture created an arresting image of Bobby Seale strapped, barefoot in an electric chair. Seale had been arrested and sentenced to four years in prison as one of the original “Chicago Eight” charged with conspiracy and inciting a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. This large broadside was issued as a supplement to the Black Panther: Black Community News Service newspaper. $2,000 - $3,000

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216 BOBBY SEALE AND ELAINE BROWN, OAKLAND ELECTION POSTER, 1973 Find Out What You Can Do to Elect Bobby Seale Mayor of Oakland and Elaine Brown Councilwoman, in the April 17, 1973 Election. Oakland: Community Committee to Elect Bobby Seale and Elaine Brown to City Offices of Oakland., 1972. Printed poster. 8.5 x 14 in. (214 x 354 mm). A poster advertising an event for the 1973 campaigns for Bobby Seale and Elaine Brown with a photographic portrait of each candidate. Neither candidate was successful, but Brown did receive 30 percent of the vote, and Seale received the second-most votes and lost in a run-off with John Reading. $300 - $500

217 THE BLACK PANTHER NEWSPAPER ASSORTED ISSUES, 1969-1972, ANTI-VIETNAM, ANGELA DAVIS, ELDRIDGE CLEAVER HEADLINES Lot of 6 issues, incomplete run, 1969-1972. The Black Panther: Black Community News Service. San Francisco: Black Panther Party, Ministry of Information. Approx. 300 x 450 mm. Each issue 20 pp. September 10, 1969 Vol. III No. 22 with Basta Ya!: Los Siete de la Raza. Panther Issue No. 4 “Special Walkout Issue,” 8 pp; May 2, 1970 Vol. IV No. 22; February 20, 1971 Vol. VI No. 4; March 13, 1971 Vol. VI No. 7; June 10, 1972 Vol. VIII No. 12; Oakland. November 23, 1972 Vol. No. 6. Cover stories include anti-Vietnam, Angela Davis, and justice for Eldridge Cleaver. Expected horizontal folds, general minor wear, else fine. (Danky 957) $200 - $300

218 WANTED BY THE FBI: FAITH BEAUTY INTEGRITY, BLACK POWER POSTER, CA 1970 Wanted by the FBI: Faith Beauty Integrity. Reward: Love, Peace, Happiness. [San Francisco?], n.d. ca 1970. 17 x 22 in. (434 x 560 mm) With portraits of black liberation movement leaders H. Rap Brown (Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, b. 1943), Angela Davis, and Eldridge Cleaver. By 1970 all three were wanted by the FBI for alleged involvement in various crimes, with this poster lampooning the FBI’s involvement. An October 22, 1970 Jet article reproduces the poster and reports that a San Francisco probation officer named Nelson Phillips received a five-day suspension for refusing to remove it. Very scarce. $800 - $1,200

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219 ANGELA DAVIS PINBACKS, PAMPHLETS, AND FLYERS Lot of 17. 6 Pamphlets, 2 broadsides, and 9 pinbacks related to civil rights activist Angela Davis. Pinbacks, all ca 1970, with various slogans including “Free Angela Davis,” “Her Fight is My Fight,” “Fight for Our Sister” alongside imagery of Davis. Also includes: Angela’s Arraignment: Let’s All be there! Oakland: Angela Davis Defense Committee, 1971. 278 x 215 mm. Broadside. Christmas with Angela. Oakland: Angela Davis Defense Committee, 1970. 278 x 215 mm. Broadside. A Political Biography of Angela Davis. Los Angeles: National United Committee to Free Angela Davis, [1971?]. Illustrated pamphlet. Very fine. A Political Biography of Angela Davis. San Francisco: National United Committee to Free Angela Davis, [1972?]. 8vo (137 x 215 mm). Illustrated pamphlet. Original illustrated wrappers. Very fine.

Abt, John. On the Defense of Angela Davis, Speech Delivered at the Unitarian Church November 22, 1970,Los Angeles. Los Angeles: National United Committee to Free Angela Davis, 1970. 8vo (137 x 211 mm). Original wrappers. Pamphlet. Very fine. Scarce. FrameUp: The Opening Defense Statement Made by Angela Y. Davis, March 29, 1972. San Francisco: National United Committee to Free Angela Davis, 1972. 8vo (138 x 214 mm). Pamphlet. Original illustrated wrappers. Very fine. Freed by the People: The Closing Defense Statement Made in the Angela Davis Case. San Francisco: National United Committee to Free Angela Davis, 1972. 8vo (140 x 211 mm). Illustrated pamphlet. Original illustrated wrappers. Very fine. Peace, Friendship, Solidarity: Angela Davis in the GDR. Dresden, East Germany: Verlag Zeit im Bild, [1973?]. 8vo (139 x 199 mm). Illustrated pamphlet. Original illustrated wrappers. $700 - $1,000

220 RARE ANGELA DAVIS CUBAN SUPPORT POSTER BY ALFREDO ROSTGAARD Rostgaard, Alfredo (Cuban, 1943-2004). Angela Davis. [Havana, Cuba]: OSPAAAL, n.d., [1972?]. 13 x 21 in. (329 x 531 mm). A striking monochrome poster supporting Angela Davis designed by Cuban revolutionary artist Alfredo Rostgaard, the artistic director of the Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America (OSPAAAL) from 1965 to 1975. Davis is depicted handcuffed superimposed over her outstretched hands breaking her bonds. Very scarce. $300 - $500

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221 RARE GERMAN “FREE ANGELA DAVIS” POSTER FREIHEIT FUR UNSERE ANGELA DAVIS, 1971 Freiheit für unsere Angela Davis! [East Germany]: Demokratischer Frauenbund Deutschlands, 1971. 22.5 x 31.6 in. (572 x 803 mm). Angela is depicted holding her cuffed hands above her head in a pose of solidarity with the images of protestors against her imprisonment in the background. No other copies known of this very rare poster. German-language poster advocating for the freedom of Angela Davis. Published by the Democratic Women’s League of Germany, they add “unsere” (“our”) to the typical slogan “Freiheit für Angela Davis” (“Freedom for Angela Davis”), creating a sense of familiar camaraderie. The GDR was highly supportive of Davis and launched a campaign on her behalf. After her release, Davis would visit East Germany several times receiving an honorary degree from the University of Leipzig. $2,000 - $3,000

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JAPANESE TOMMY: TRAILBLAZING ENTERTAINER LOTS 222-225 Thomas Dilward (1840-1887), better known by his stage name “Japanese Tommy,” was an African American little person who performed in blackface minstrel shows in the mid-19th century. He and William Henry Lane were the only black men known to have performed with white minstrel companies before the Civil War. Dilward sang, danced, and played the violin, while also often performing female roles in drag. His stage name is possibly derived from the arrival of the first Japanese Embassy delegation which arrived in the United States in 1860, right when Dilward was known to have begun performing. A young man named Tateishi Onojirō (立石斧次郎, 1843-1917) was a translator with the entourage and was affectionately known by adoring American crowds as “Tommy.” His charming exploits were covered extensively by the press and it is possible that Dilward adopted “Japanese Tommy” as a stage name to capitalize on the press coverage while also concealing his own race. Tommy began his career with Christy’s Minstrels, likely as a response to General Tom Thumb performing in P.T. Barnum’s show, evidenced as Dilward was occasionally billed as “The African Tom Thumb.” He would go on to perform internationally, traveling in 1866 to Liverpool with Sam Hague’s Georgia Slave Troupe and to Europe and Australia with Charles Hick’s Georgia Minstrels. In an advertisement in the Lewiston Evening Journal (Maine) on September 14, 1871, Morris Brothers’ Minstrels tout, “Also first appearance of Japanese Tommy in America in five years, he having been engaged in Europe by the Morris Bros. at the enormous salary of $200 per week in gold. Japanese Tommy will appear at each performance in his Great Specialities.” Undoubtedly, Dilward was initially employed by white minstrel troupes as a “curiosity,” however, the fact that neither his race nor his height is mentioned in later advertisements such as these is proof that his reputation as an entertainer was enough to earn him a headlining spot, and a generous salary, to boot.

222 SIXTH PLATE AMBROTYPE OF JAPANESE TOMMY Sixth Plate Ambrotype of Thomas “Japanese Tommy” Dilward holding a cane. Photographer and locale unknown, n.d., ca 1859. In pressed paper case. No other copies located. Dilward wears an elegant suit and holds a slender cane as he stands next to a cloth-covered table with books. An image captured early in his career, Dilward is only 19 or 20 years old. $3,000 - $4,000

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223 RARE JAPANESE TOMMY’S SONGSTER PAMPHLET, CA 1860 Japanese Tommy’s Songster. Louisville: Bradley & Gilbert, [ca 1860?]. Folded pamphlet, 79 x 139 mm. Illustration of Japanese Tommy on title page. (Toning and light chipping to edges, minor separation at creases, toning to front). Top edge uncut. Presumed FIRST EDITION. A small folded pamphlet with the titles and lyrics of thirteen songs with brief details about their performers: “’Don’t Be

224 REMARKABLE CDV OF JAPANESE TOMMY IN DRAG, CA 1866 CDV of Thomas “Japanese Tommy” Dilward in drag. Fisher Brothers: Boston, Massachusetts, n.d., ca 1866. 193 Washington St. imprint on verso. Dilward is dressed fully in drag, wearing an extravagant dress with layers of lace ruffles and ribbon. The look is completed with white gloves, pearls, matching bonnet, and folding fan. A truly remarkable image of Dilward, known to have frequently performed female roles while in drag. $3,000 - $4,000

Angry With Me.’ (Sung with great applause by the great Bernardo.), ‘Roguish Little Beauty.’ (Sung by Charley Sutton.),” and “’Come Back to Erin.’ (Sung with unbounded applause by Japanese Tommy.” Only known copy, with only one (possibly later) edition printed by Tucker (Portland) at Brown University. The Brown copy lacks the portrait to the cover and only shares three songs in common. $1,200 - $1,800

225 CDV JAPANESE TOMMY WITH CANE, CA 1866 CDV of Thomas “Japanese Tommy” Dilward holding a cane standing next to an embroidered chair. Fisher Brothers: Boston, Massachusetts, n.d., ca 1866. 193 Washington St. imprint on verso. Dilward wears a dapper threepiece suit with a visible watch fob, a white flower boutonniere, and holds an elegant walking stick. Taken at the height of his career. $2,000 - $3,000

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226 TWO CDVS OF FISK JUBILEE SINGERS, CA 1870-1880 Lot of 2 CDV portraits of singing groups from Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee. CDV featuring the Fisk Jubilee Singers. American Missionary Association: Nashville, Tennessee, n.d., ca 1870s. Imprint on verso. As they appear from left to right, subjects pictured are believed to be Minnie Tate, Greene Evans, Isaac Dickerson, Jennie Jackson, Maggie Porter, Ella Sheppard, Thomas Rutling, Benjamin Holmes, and Eliza Walker. CDV featuring a likely later version of the Fisk Jubilee Singers. Hovey, Sarony, et al.: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, n.d., ca 1880. Advertising imprint on verso. Pencil inscription on verso along left edge: “Fiske University Singers?” Established three years after the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, Fisk University was the first American university purposed to provide a liberal arts education to African American students. Due to diminished funding the institution soon struggled financially, leading a group of nine students to form an a capella group in hopes of raising money. The vocalists, many of whom were former slaves, became known as the Fisk Jubilee Singers. Their performances (including most notably at the White House for Ulysses S. Grant and at Buckingham Palace for Queen Victoria) introduced audiences across the world to African American spirituals such as “Go Down Moses,” “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot,” and “Did the Lord Deliver Daniel,” with inspiring results. Mark Twain, who was a frequent audience member of the Jubilee Singers, wrote of the experience: “I was reared in the South, & my father owned slaves, & I do not know when anything has so moved me as did the plaintive melodies of the

227 RARE FRANK MATSURA CAROLINIAN JUBILEE SINGERS REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1910 “Carolinian Jubilee Singers.” Frank Sakae Matsura (松浦栄, 1873-1913): [Washington State], n.d., ca December 1912. Titled and signed “F.S.M.” in negative. Image depicts the troupe, consisting of seven African American singers dressed in heavy winter coats with suitcases at their feet posing beside a stagecoach. The Original Carolinian Jubilee Singers, noted as one of the oldest jubilee companies in existence by the Indianapolis Recorder in a March 11, 1911 article, traveled all over the country to perform. The singers staged concerts in Grangeville, Idaho on December 5, 1912, and in Roseburg, Oregon on January 1, 1913, which means they passed through Washington state at some point during December 1912. Though there is no mention of them in Washington newspapers during this time, it explains how they were photographed by Frank Matsura, a well known Japanese-American photographer who worked exclusively in Washington State from 1901-1913. Image does not appear in the extensive Frank S. Matsura Image Gallery at Washington State University. $1,200 - $1,800

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Jubilee Singers. It was the first time for twenty-five or thirty years that I had heard such songs, or heard them sung in the genuine old way—& it is a way, I think, that white people cannot imitate—& never can, for that matter, for one must have been a slave himself in order to feel what that life was & so convey the pathos of it in the music.” While the original group disbanded in 1878, a new version was created in 1879 including some original members. The Fisk Jubilee Singers continue to perform to this day, building on and promoting the legacy of the original singers who used their common heritage and talent to support their groundbreaking institution nearly 150 years ago. $200 - $300

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228 TINTYPES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSICIANS, CA 1865-1880 Lot of 3 tintype portraits of African American musicians. CDV tintype studio portrait of a fiddler. Photographer and locale unknown, n.d., ca 1865. The fiddler is seated wearing pinstripe pants and waistcoat with a dark jacket. He holds his fiddle and bow as if ready to play, while his hat rests upon his case. The tasseled stool and his cheeks have been lightly tinted. Mounted in card frame. Gem tintype studio half-portrait of a fiddler identified by inscription on recto as Albert Reed. Photographer and locale unknown, n.d., ca 1875. The musician wears a hat at a jaunty angle while holding his instrument, his cheeks are lightly tinted. Mounted in card frame. CDV tintype studio full-length portrait of a banjo player. Photographer and locale unknown, n.d., ca 1880. A stately bald gentleman wears a long buttoned jacket and holds his banjo by the headstock. His bowler hat rests on a small table on which he rests his hand. $1,000 - $1,500 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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229 CABINET CARD OF LARGE AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMAN, CA 1890 Cabinet card of a large African American woman. Howie: Detroit, Michigan, n.d., ca 1890. Imprint on recto. The unidentified woman sits wearing a velvet dress with lace trim and metallic embroidery. She wears a multitude of pearls and the photographer captures a charming smirk. Her ample bosom exposed, the cut is daring and more exposed than the typical Victorian fashions of the 1890s, possibly suggesting that the sitter was a madame, sex worker, or sideshow performer. $400 - $600

230 PRINCESS WEE WEE CABINET CARD, CA 1913 Cabinet card of Harriet Elizabeth Williams (nee Thompson), better known as Princess Wee Wee. [Frank Wendt]: [Boonton, New Jersey], n.d., ca 1913. Her royal highness wears an elegant dress with puffed lace sleeves and bows in her hair. She holds the hand of a handsome African American woman, possibly her mother, who wears glasses, a white blouse, and a long skirt. Inscription to the verso reads, “Princess Wee Wee / Age 21 years / W 9 lbs.” Princess Wee Wee, born in 1892 worked as a professional little person in various sideshows in the early 20th century, notably with the Dreamland Circus Sideshow at Coney Island and traveled with Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth. Later she would be a featured dancer with the Whitman Sisters known as the “royalty of Negro Vaudeville.” She was often billed as “the world’s smallest perfect woman,” she was a celebrity of national prominence even performing at the White House for President Coolidge in June 1926. $200 - $300

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231 SIDESHOW PERFORMER GEORGE BELL CABINET CARDS BY FRANK WENDT Lot of 3 cabinet cards of African American George Bell. Frank Wendt: Boonton, New Jersey, n.d., ca 1895. Bell who is of well above average height, and likely a sideshow performer, is shown in comparison to a person of typical height in three different poses, with two demonstrating his considerable reach. One card shows Bell wearing a long coat and top hat holding his arm out from his body over the head of his companion, with the caption “Geo Bell / Age 22 Hight [sic] 8 feet 2 Weight 350 size of Shoe 23 / Wendt, Photo Artist, Boonton, N.J.” A handwritten inscription to the card with Bell’s full reach reads, “George Bell / age 23 / Height 8 ft 2 ins. / Weight 375 lbs. / Reach 9 ft 2 ½ in. / size of shoe 22.” Frank Wendt was a photographer well known for his photographs of circus and sideshow performers, especially of “human oddities.” Images of George Bell are quite rare, and aside from the vital statistics noted on these images, not much is known about his life. $500 - $1,000

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BLIND TOM: THE GREAT MUSICAL PRODIGY OF THE AGE LOTS 232-237 The story of Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins (1849-1908) is one of beauty and tragedy intertwined. He is characterized by many today as an autistic savant and was presumed to be mentally deficient in his lifetime, described by many contemporaries as nothing more than a human parrot. Such discussions, however, often overshadow his artistic achievement. He demonstrated a preternatural skill in playing the piano, was able to memorize long passages of both music and speech, and possessed an uncanny ability to recreate almost any sound he heard. Belying his supposed “idiocy,” he wrote and published music and continuously toured throughout the United States, including the western frontier, as well as internationally most of his life. Born into slavery in Georgia, he was purchased as a young child with his parents by General James Neil Bethune (1803-1895). Blind at birth, Tom’s musical talent was recognized early and Bethune leased Tom to a Barnum-style spectacle producer at the tender age of 8. He performed as often as four times a day earning his master over $100,000 a year. In 1860, he visited Congress and played for President James Buchanan, possibly the first featured performance by an African American at the White House. He almost certainly earned more than any other pianist of the day, though it is the tragic reality that his earnings went to neither him nor his family. Despite the outcome of the Civil War, Tom by any practical measure never seems to have gained his own freedom. Declared non compos mentis, General Bethune applied for Tom’s guardianship and continued to exploit his labor. In 1875, Bethune transferred management of Tom to his son John. After John’s death, Tom was at the center of a fierce custody battle. In the proceedings, he is often written about as though he was property, rather than a person. Even in 1895, when Bethune was on his deathbed, the New York Times headline read, “The Owner of ‘Blind Tom’ Ill.” Musically, he is best remembered for composing The Battle of Manassas (1861 or 1862) which poignantly represents the complicated life of Blind Tom. The piece memorializes the First Battle of Bull Run (known by Confederates as the First Battle of Manassas), the first major battle of the Civil War and a decisive victory for the South. It was met with critical acclaim by white audiences and newspapers, and possibly used to raise money for the Confederate cause. Black voices are silent, with African American newspapers having distanced themselves from Tom, believing that white slaveowners used Tom to perpetuate stereotypes and line their own pockets. The piece itself, described as a tone poem, demonstrates Tom’s remarkable capability of capturing the atmosphere of a scene, recreating the sounds of the battlefield. Notably, it is one of the first examples of tone clusters, used to represent cannon fire. He performed The Battle of Manassas at almost every concert.

232 BLIND TOM CDV IN LONDON ON 1866 BRITISH TOUR CDV of Blind Tom. Adolphe Naudin: London, n.d., ca 1866. He stands with his eyes closed and his left hand at his side and gently touching a piano. His right hand rests on the back of an upholstered chair. Almost certainly taken during Tom’s 1866 British tour when Tom was just 16. During the trip, he played for several notables and performed at the Queen’s Consort Rooms in Hanover Square, London, the premier concert venue of the era. Very fine with only minute chipping to lower edge. Well fixed. Imprint on verso. No other copy located. $2,000 - $3,000

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232A BLIND TOM CDV WITH THE RAIN STORM SHEET MUSIC, CA 1868 CDV showing a young Tom seated while holding the sheet music for The Rain Storm. W.L. Germon: Philadelphia, n.d., ca 1868. The Rain Storm, Tom’s first musical composition, was reportedly written when he was only 5 years old. The sheet appears to be the 1865 publication. Music historian James Monroe Trotter (1842-1892) wrote in Music and Some Highly Musical People (1882), “Listen to his own Rain Storm and...you will look with wonder upon this musical musician, and marvel that the piano forte can imitate so closely the sounds made by the angry elements.” Notably, Trotter also averred that Blind Tom was “unquestionably and conspicuously the most wonderful musician the world has ever known.” Two small spots of discoloration, some toning to card edges. Imprint on recto and verso. Very scarce. $2,000 - $3,000 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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233 BLIND TOM CONCERT HANDBILL, PHILADELPHIA, 1868 Blind Tom Concerts at Odd Fellows’ Hall, Columbia, Thursday Evening, October 29th, ‘68. Philadelphia: Ledger Steam-Power, 1868. Folio (51 x 236 mm). Portrait of Tom to first page. (Creasing, minor brown spots, some pencil marks to last page, otherwise fine). Single fold letterpress program. Declares Tom as “The Great Musical Prodigy of the Age, The Most Marvellous Musical Genius Living” and goes on to detail his skills as a composer and a musician but also his more unusual talents of mimicry and his ability to “perform music correctly with his back to the piano.” His full repertoire is listed on the final page. Admission is listed as fifty cents, with reserved seats costing seventy-five. Handbills with similar designs but different locales and dates are located but scarce. No other Philadelphia copy is located. $600 - $800

234 BLIND TOM, THE MUSICAL WONDER CONCERT HANDBILL, CA 1874 Blind Tom, The Musical Wonder. Westport, [Connecticut]: Harry C. Woodworth, [ca 1874]. 232 x 93 mm, letterpress handbill. Some staining with minor ink smudges. A handbill from Blind Tom’s “first appearance in Westport.” The National Hall was built in Westport, Connecticut in 1873 which housed a large ballroom used by the town for concerts such as these. Now on the National Register of Historic Places. No other copies located. $400 - $600

235 BLIND TOM CABINET CARD, CHARLES EISENMANN CA 1885 Cabinet Card half-portrait of Blind Tom. Charles Eisenmann: New York, n.d., ca 1885. Imprints on recto and verso. Albumen photograph of Tom taken during his annual summer visits to New York. He is pictured characteristically with his eyes closed. $600 - $800

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236 CABINET CARD OF DENVER, COLORADO TOBACCO STOREFRONT WITH BLIND TOM ADVERTISEMENTS Cabinet Card of a Tobacco Storefront with Blind Tom concert posters on display. Photographer unknown: [Denver, Colorado], [1894]. Hand-written caption “John Lewis (l) in front of his tobacco store. Denver, Colorado, ca 1888 (?).” Two men, one identified as the store owner John Lewis, stand in front of a tobacco shop advertising “Cigarettes & Smoker’s Articles” and “Imported Cigars.” In the display window, three broadsides advertising a Blind Tom concert for Friday, July 13th at the Lyceum Theater are visible. In July 1894, Tom was in the midst of a tour of Colorado having played Salida on July 2 and Buena Vista on July 10. An announcement the day before the concert appears in the July 12 edition of the Rocky Mountain News, “Commencing to-morrow night the public will have a chance of seeing the original Blind Tom at the Lyceum theater. There have been many reports circulated throughout the country that Blind Tom is dead. This is not so. His entertainments are truly wonderful and furnish an evening of perfect entertainment.” He would continue on with stops in Boulder, Silver Plume, and Idaho Springs. $300 - $500

237 BLIND TOM, THE MUSICAL PRODIGY BROADSIDE, CA 1879 Blind Tom, The Musical Prodigy. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing, ca 1879. 319 x 418 mm, printed broadside. An illustrated portrait of a thoughtful Tom seated next to an ornate piano, resting his head on his hand with his elbow on the piano. Even toning else very fine. Very scarce. $3,000 - $5,000

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238 RARE WHAT MRS. FISHER KNOWS ABOUT OLD SOUTHERN COOKING, SECOND COOKBOOK PUBLISHED BY AFRICAN AMERICAN FISHER, Abby (b. 1832). What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Old Southern Cooking, Soups, Pickles, Preserves, Etc. San Francisco: Women’s Co-operative Printing Office, 1881. 8vo (139 x 201 mm). (two Library of Congress duplicate stamps to title page, recto and verso, else near fine). Original brick-red cloth with decoratively stamped and gilt title (lightly bumped corners, some cover soiling especially to top edge).

FIRST EDITION. The second cookbook ever written by an African American preceded only by the exceedingly scarce 1866 A Domestic Cook Book by Malinda Russell. A former slave, Abby Fisher and her husband moved to northern California after the Civil War and built a successful pickle and preserves business. A remarkably scarce and important cookbook. Bitting 158; Culinary America 29. $6,000 - $8,000

239 RARE GOOD THINGS TO EAT AS SUGGESTED BY RUFUS, FIRST COOKBOOK BY AFRICAN AMERICAN PROFESSIONAL CHEF ESTES, Rufus (1857-19??). Good Things to Eat As Suggested by Rufus: A Collection of Practical Recipes for Preparing Meats, Game, Fowl, Fish, Puddings, Pastries, Etc. Chicago: For the author, 1911. 8vo (158 x 235 mm). Lacking frontispiece. Original pebbled cloth with black printed titles (heavy wear to boards, separated from text, typical for this very scarce work). FIRST EDITION. Significant cookbook, the first written by an African American professional chef. Estes, born into slavery in Tennessee, went on to cook for Presidents Harrison and Cleveland, European royalty, and was a chief chef for Pullman Private Car Service. Rare. Culinary America, 786 $300 - $500

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240 VERY SCARCE FIRST BARTENDER’S BOOK BY AFRICAN AMERICAN THE IDEAL BARTENDER BULLOCK, Tom. (ca 1872-1964) The Ideal Bartender. [St. Louis: Buxton & Skinner,] 1917. Small 8vo (142 x 184 mm). Introduction by George Herbert Walker (18751953, grandfather and great-grandfather to Presidents Bush, both named in his honor). (Pages clean and bright). Original gilt pictorial red cloth (very fine, extremely minor wear, hinges perfect and binding tight). FIRST EDITION. The first bartender’s book ever published by an African American author. Tom Bullock, born in Louisville, Kentucky, worked at several clubs, notably the St. Louis Country Club. The book is introduced by an excerpt from a 1913 St. Louis Post Dispatch article regarding

Theodore Roosevelt’s reputation for sobriety and temperance. He claims to have only sipped part of one of Bullock’s mint juleps. The skeptical author responds, “Who was ever known to drink just a part of one of Tom’s? Tom, than whom there is no greater mixologist of any race, color or condition of servitude...To believe that a red-blooded man, and a true Colonel at that, ever stopped with just a part of one of those refreshments ...is to strain credulity too far...When the Colonel says that he consumed just a part of one he doubtless meant that he did not swallow the mint itself, munch the ice and devour the very cup.” Bullock’s julep recipes are shared, with both a “Kentucky Style” and an “Overall Julep - St. Louis Style” included. Published in 1917, The Ideal Bartender has become a treasured resource for preProhibition cocktails and ingredients. Very scarce with very few copies ever coming to the market. OCLC notes only 12 copies in libraries. $2,000 - $4,000

241 GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION RECIPES BY THE MASTER OF MIXERS, 1943 COCKTAIL BOOK BY JULIAN ANDERSON Anderson, Julian. Golden Jubilee Edition: Recipes by the Master of Mixers, as Served by Him at the Montana Club, Helena, Montana, for Fifty Continuous Years, June 1893 to June 1943. Helena: State Publishing Company, 1943. 12mo (4.5 x 7 in.). Frontispiece portrait and plate of the Montana Club. Original wrappers (barely perceptible toning to edge, else very fine). SIGNED by the author to the front cover. FIRST EDITION. Remarkably scarce, OCLC locates only one copy, housed in the Montana Historical Society. Julian “Master of Mixes” Anderson (ca 1859?-1961) was an institution of the exclusive all-white Montana Club in Helena. Anderson was reportedly born overseas in Germany during the Civil War. His family returned to the States after the war and they sojourned west to Denver. Anderson would set out on his own, settling in Helena around 1887. After working as a porter at several hotels, he became the bartender at the club in 1893. He even worked through Prohibition, which started earlier in Montana in 1918, keeping the keys to members’ personal drink stashes. During his career at the club, Anderson would serve notables including Theodore Roosevelt, Mark Twain, Prince Albert of Belgium, William Jennings Bryan, and the Copper Kings of Montana. This booklet of cocktail recipes, including his own martini recipe billed as the “Montana Club Cocktail,” was published on his 50 year anniversary. Ten years later, the “Master of Mixers” would be feted by hundreds of club members after a board of governors’ dinner on his 60th anniversary, retiring about the same time. $800 - $1,200

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242 BILL BAILEY CHAMPION FIDDLER, OF BENOIT, MISSISSIPPI REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1912 F.A. Rosselle: Rosedale, Mississippi, n.d., ca 1912. Real photo postcard presenting a foreshortened view of an African American man seated with his legs outstretched. He wears a hat, cardigan sweater and tall work boots. “Post No Bills Here” written in the negative over the sole of his left shoe, with caption below reading, “Bill Bailey / Champion Fiddler, of / Benoit, Miss.” $600 - $800

243 ST. JAMES AME CHURCH HELENA, MONTANA CONCERT-RECITAL BROADSIDE Concert-Recital at St. James A.M.E. Church, Friday Evening, July 20th, Frank A. Walton of Billings, Montana. Billings: Billings Gazette, n.d., [1923?]. Printed broadside or handbill. 6 x 12 in. (152 x 304 mm). An advertisement for a concert-recital by a young man named Frank A. Walton of Billings playing for the Church Fund of St. James African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in Helena. Founded in 1889, St. James AME was one of the earliest AME churches in the Pacific Northwest. At the turn of the 20th century, Helena was home to a thriving African-American population. As William Lang noted in his article “Tempest on Clore Street: Race & Politics in Helena, MT 1906,” Helena’s black community’s “social center was the St. James African Methodist Episcopal Church at Fifth and Hoback Streets.” $100 - $150

244 SAN FRANCISCO THEATRE RESEARCH: MINSTRELSY, 1939 FIRST EDITION LAWRENCE, Estavan, ed. (1903-1988). San Francisco Theatre Research. Vol. 13. “Minstrelsy” San Francisco: Work Projects Administration, 1939. 4to (213 x 270 mm). Illustrated with 19 historical photographs. Original wrappers (corners bent up slightly, some wear to spine edges, else very good).. FIRST EDITION. Quite scarce, OCLC locates just 10 copies. $100 - $200

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245 A BATTLE OF JAZZ! APEX NITE CLUB HANDBILL, LOS ANGELES, 1930 A Battle of Jazz! [Los Angeles]: no publisher, [1930]. Letterpress broadside, 5.5 x 8.5 in. Two spots of toning, minor smudge on “International.” “A Battle of Jazz! / Sunday, September 21st / Les Hite and His Emancipators / vs. / Mosby’s Dixieland Blue Blowers / Additional Entertainment / Mildred Washington’s / International Revue / Featuring Sam Farnum / The Man with the Fifty Thousand Dollar Voice / At The / Apex nite Club / 4015 So. Central Avenue.” Apex Nite Club was the first nightclub opened by jazz drummer and bandleader Curtis Mosby (1888-1957). Originally from Kansas City, Mosby toured in the 1920s with the Tennessee Ten and Mamie Smith. He opened Apex in 1928 hosting various jazz acts alongside his own band, the Blue Blowers. Located next to the Dunbar Hotel, one of the finest hotels serving African Americans, on Central Avenue which was the heart of the black community in segregated Los Angeles and often referred to as “the Brown Broadway.” The Apex would close in 1931, but Mosby would reopen the club in 1934 under the name “Club Alabam,” becoming the legendary epicenter of Los Angeles jazz. This handbill advertises a “battle of the bands” between Mosby’s Blue Blowers and Les Hite and His Emancipators. Hite (1903-1962) was another well-known LA bandleader who led Paul Howard’s band at the Apex’s rival nightclub, Sebastian’s Cotton Club. $1,500 - $2,500

246 CALIFORNIA BLACK CLUB SOUVENIR PHOTOS WITH RARE “CLUB ALABAM” Lot of 9 souvenir photographs with folders from African American jazz and entertainment clubs in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Oakland, California and one from Chicago, Illinois, ca 1941-1951. Six of the clubs were located on Central Avenue in Los Angeles, often called the “Brown Broadway.” Notably, this collection includes a folder from the legendary Club Alabam, owned and operated by bandleader Curtis Mosby. It hosted the cream of Los Angeles society in the late 1930s and 40s and was the epicenter of west coast jazz. Other locations included the Elks Ballroom, said to be the largest African-American owned building in Los Angeles which regularly featured jazz greats like Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway; the Downbeat, recalled by clarinetist Buddy Collette as “the hot spot on the Avenue” and reported to be a regular hangout of gangster Mickey Cohen; the Last Word; and Club Congo, which was at 4215 S. Central Avenue, the former location of Club Alabam. Mosby had lost control of the Alabam in early 1947, changing owners and its name to Club Congo in 1947. Also included are Billy Berg’s of Hollywood, the location of Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker’s west coast debut on December 10, 1945; “Slim” Jenkins’ Rose Room, a supper club in Oakland’s blues district; and the Creole Palace in San Diego, a popular cabaret known as the “Cotton Club of the West” which featured prominent artists including Count Basie and Billie Holiday. Several photographs feature servicemen, including the image of Warren L. Walton of the US Navy and James Dickens of the US Coast Guard pictured on New Years 1951 at the Creole Palace. The two are pictured smiling at a table with beers with handwritten captions, “’Square’ Country Boy” and “’Hep Cat’ City Slick” alongside an inscribed recollection of their evening out before returning to base.

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Also includes one souvenir card from the New Club DeLisa in Chicago, Illinois. Festooned with patriotic imagery, the card advertises their “Breakfast Dance Every Morning” and “4 Shows Nightly.” The black and tan club was owned and operated by the DeLisa brothers and was known as the Chicago Cotton Club, often billed as “Harlem in Chicago.” Founded in 1933, the “New” Club DeLisa reopened at a new location in 1941. $600 - $800

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247 BESSIE GANT’S COOKBOOKS, SECOND AND THIRD EDITIONS Gant, Bessie M. Bess’ Cook Book: 400 Original Recipes. Pittsburgh: Self-published, 1940. Large 8vo (180 x 254 mm). Frontis piece portrait. (red stain to title page, pages evenly toned, else fine.) Original spiral-bound with coated red and black paper boards (very light shelf wear). SECOND EDITION. not much is known about Bessie Gant. Exceedingly scarce, OCLC locates only 1 copy. [With:] GANT, Bessie M. Bess Gant’s Cook Book: Over 600 Original Recipes. Culver City: Murray & Gee, 1947. Large 8vo (180 x 255 mm). Portrait on cover (pages evenly toned, else fine.) original white plastic spiral-bound with orange paper boards designed by Al Wilson (very light shelf wear, light scuffs to board). THIRD EDITION, “revised and greatly enlarged.” The third edition was greatly expanded by the author adding over 200 additional recipes. Not much is known about Gant. She was a known caterer in Pittsburgh, though she

clearly moved west and began to cook for celebrities of the day. A new section in this edition features “Favorite Recipes of Famous Personalities,” with several movie stars including Katharine Hepburn (Prune Nut Cake), Lena Horne (Chicken Mousse with Avocados), Hattie McDaniel (Favorite Recipe for Green Beans, Butterscotch Pears, and Sweet Muffins), Walt Disney (Make Mine Music Salad and Mickey Mouse Dressing), Clarence Muse (Muse American Borscht), and Carmen Miranda’s own recipe for her “Favorite Brazilian Dessert.” Scarce, OCLC locates 14 copies. $300 - $400

248 LOS ANGELES BLACK ENTERTAINMENT BOOKLETS FEATURING DOROTHY DANDRIDGE, 1944-1945 The All Star All Colored Revue Sweet ‘N Hot. [Los Angeles]: Southern California Producing Company, [1944]. Folio (8.5 x 11 in.). Illustrated. Original illustrated wrappers (fine with only minor bumping of corners and slight scuff ). A two-act variety revue headlined by Dorothy Dandridge (1922-1965) in her nascent adult career. Held at the Mayan Theater in downtown Los Angeles, it ran for 11 weeks and was met with critical acclaim. An April 6, 1944 article advertises that the successful show would be traveling to New York and other cities remarking that “Under Leonard Reed’s magnificent direction the revue has been revised and made to click at a lightning pace. There are no rough edges left, and with the new talent, which has been added, it is now ready for the high time.” Other notable performers in the revue include Mabel Scott, blues singer and vaudeville performer Edith Wilson, dancer Leonard Reed, and dancer and choreographer Marie Bryant. Produced by Leon Hefflin and Curtis Mosby (of the Apex Nite Club and Club Alabam). [With:] ROBINSON, Abe, ed. Swingin’ Round Town: A Review of the Most Outstanding Stars and Attractive Events of 1945! Los Angeles: no publisher, 1945. Very minor toning and edge wear, else fine. A yearbook magazine with profiles on notable African Americans, especially on the west coast. The cover features bandleader Johnny Otis, boxer Joe Louis, baseball player Jackie Robinson, singer “King” Cole, film and radio star Lillian Randolph, blues singer Helen Humes, Club Alabam owner Curtis Mosby, and more. $300 - $400

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249 BLACK LESBIAN PIANIST AND ENTERTAINER GLADYS BENTLEY: BROWN BOMBER OF SOPHISTICATED SONGS REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, CA 1950 Gladys Bentley: America’s Greatest Sepia Piana [sic] Artist, Brown Bomber of Sophisticated Songs real photo postcard, n.d., ca 1950. Stamped in blue: “Harry Walker / Incorporated / Theatrical Agency / 6404 Hollywood Blvd.” on verso. Gladys is shown in her signature look wearing a white tuxedo and top hat while holding a walking stick. Signed in negative with captions along left and right margins. Gladys Bentley (1907-1960) was a pioneering black queer performer of the early 20th century. She rose to prominence in the 1920s during the Harlem Renaissance and was headlining Harlem’s Ubangi Club in the early 1930s. A lesbian cross-dresser, her signature outfit was a men’s tuxedo and top hat. She was an accomplished piano player and singer whose performances were often risque frequently singing openly about sexual relationships. Her raunchy act was often supported on stage with a chorus line of drag queens. With the repeal of Prohibition, the Harlem speakeasies declined and Gladys moved to Southern California where she used the catchphrases printed on this card. $100 - $200

250 “BO JANGLES” BLACK OWNED TRANSGENDER CLUB EPHEMERA, SAN FRANCISCO, EARLY 1970S Lot of 7 broadsides and handbills from black-owned transgender club Bojangles (alt. Bo Jangles). Located in “Polk Gulch” at Larkin and Ellis Street, the center of the LGBTQ+ community in San Francisco from the 1950s to the 1980s. It was on Polk Street where San Francisco’s first Pride parade was held in 1972. Bojangles is listed consistently in San Francisco’s queer publications including a directory and calendar in Kalendar Vo. 2 No. 3 March 1973. Bo Jangles. [San Francisco], [1971?]. Invitation handbill printed on yellow cardstock. 77 x 109 mm. Abel with “Black Magic.” Handbill. 215 x 140 mm. Party Time with Hell & High Water. Handbill. 216 x 114 mm. Advertises, “Come as you are: stag or drag.” Bo Jangles: Christian Black and Fiddler. [San Francisco], [1972?]. Broadside printed on orange paper. 215 x 279 mm. Bo Jangles: 709 Larkin Presents Black Magic. [San Francisco], early 1970s. Broadside on yellow paper. 215 x 278 mm. Try It (You’ll Like It): Larkin & Ellis Bojangles, Biggest Bar in Town. [San Francisco], [1972?]. 214 x 280 mm. Come Together Club at the Bojangles. [San Francisco], [1973?]. 214 x 278 mm $600 - $800

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251 1970 OKLAHOMA MISS BRONZEVILLE PAGEANT PROGRAM Oklahoma’s Miss Bronzeville Beauty and Talent Pageant, U.S.A. Presents The Best of Everything. Oklahoma City: Don’s Printing & Lithographics, 1970. Folio (8.5 x 10.75 in.). Staple bound with original paper boards (mild scuffs and spotting to covers, else very fine). Program for the 1970 Oklahoma Miss Bronzeville Beauty and Talent Pageant. Cover features Miss Bronzeville 1969, Eva Knight. The program boasts that the pageant was held in forty states in 1970, up from just ten in 1969, and lists the scholarship prizes which would be awarded to national and state winners, each named in honor of a prominent African American including Leon Sullivan, Sidney Portier, and Sammy Davis, Jr. Each contestant is listed with pictures in evening wear and swimwear and short biographies. Exceedingly scarce. $200 - $300

252 GENTLEMEN PREFER BRONZE WITH HOWARD MOREHEAD PHOTOGRAPHS, PLUS Bronze California. September 1963. Volume 1 Issue 1. 212 x 277 mm. First issue of magazine for African American Californians. With lighter articles paired with serious editorials including “Are Los Angeles Negroes of Political Age” and “Manifesto for the American Negro.” [With:] ROBERTSON, Stanley, ed. Gentlemen Prefer Bronze. Los Angeles: Sherbourne Press, 1964. Folio (213 x 275 mm.) Illustrated wrappers. Artistic nude photos of women of color by California photographer Howard Morehead (1934-2017) paired with literary quotes. Morehead spearheaded publication in direct response to racist remarks by a fellow photographer. He also founded the Miss Bronze California beauty pageant. As noted in the article “Birth of a Beauty Pageant” in Bronze California, “he also knew that if given a chance, a real chance...Negro beauties, properly showcased could hold their own in any company.” [With:] Bronze Beauties. Vol. 1 No. 2. Los Angeles, 1965. 214 x 277 mm. Men’s magazine for an African American audience. $200 - $400

253 AFRICAN AMERICAN SHORT WAVE RADIO DJ POSTCARDS, CA 1980 Lot of 52 QSL cards from African American ham radio operators and short wave radio djs, ca 1980. Includes cards from across the United States includes 17 from Texas, 5 from Louisiana, and a variety of other states including Puerto Rico. Most feature humorous illustrations, nicknames, and slogans. $600 - $800

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254 REFERENCE BOOKS Lot of 11 reference books concerning African American history and culture. Includes reprints of rare books and contemporary scholarly works. Topics cover Booker T. Washington, Frederick Douglass, black aviators, slavery, and more. Most in like new condition. For complete list of titles, please visit cowans.com. $50 - $100

255 THE BLACK CHAMPIONS OF THE PRIZE RING FROM MOLINEAUX TO JACKSON, 1890 FOX, Richard K. (1846-1922). The Black Champions of the Prize Ring: From Molineaux to Jackson. New York: Richard K. Fox, 1890. 8vo (144 x 214 mm). Frontispiece portrait of the author, with illustrated with engraved portraits of boxers. Staple-bound with original illustrated wrappers. Cover title Lives and Battles of Famous Black Pugilists, Illustrated. (Small dampstain to lower edge, two chips to cover, some creasing, tape repair to spine). “With the Editor’s Compliments, London Office” lightly stamped to cover.

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FIRST EDITION. Biographies and fight details of 19th-century black boxers including Tom Molineaux (1784-1818), Bill “The Black Terror” Richmond (1763-1829), Harris “The Black Pearl” Martin (1865-1903) the first black middleweight champion of the world, Peter Jackson (1861-1901) the first black heavyweight champion (Australia), and George Dixon (18701908) the first black bantamweight and featherweight champion. Written and published by Richard K. Fox, the white, Irish-born boxing promoter, publisher, and enthusiast. After working as a journalist in New York he saved enough money to purchase the Police Gazette in 1876 transforming it into a sportsman’s magazine particularly focused on boxing and helping to popularize the sport in America. Very scarce, OCLC locates just 4 copies, rare to see copies on the market. $1,200 - $1,800

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256 RUFE TURNER BOXING CABINET CARDS, 1905 2 Cabinet cards of boxer Rufus “Rufe” Turner. Sommer Studio: Philadelphia, [1905]. Both show Turner in dynamic, bare-knuckle boxing poses wearing his dark shorts, a white sash belt, and leather shoes. One inscribed to the recto “Rufe Turner of California” and dated “March 31, 05” on verso. Both with imprints on recto. Turner was a lightweight boxer from Stockton, California, brother to Charley “The Stockton Tornado” Turner who claimed colored middleweight champion in the 1890s. Rufe fought for the Lightweight Championship of the World during his career. In 1914, he moved to Manila, the Philippines as a boxing instructor and also took occasional bouts winning the Lightweight Championship of the Orient in 1917. These images were taken just four days after Turner’s second bout with Lightweight Champion of the World Joe Gans (1874-1910) in Philadelphia, a fight that resulted in No Decision after 6 rounds. $800 - $1,000

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JOE GANS: THE OLD MASTER LOTS 257-264 Joe Gans (born Joseph Gant, 1874-1910) is considered by many to be the greatest lightweight boxer ever to fight. Known as the “Old Master,” he was renowned for his scientific approach to the game. He would carefully analyze opponents, determine their weaknesses, and strike with precision. He was the first African American to hold a boxing title, becoming the Lightweight Champion in 1902, defending it successfully until 1908. Gans began boxing in 1891 in his hometown of Baltimore. He convincingly won the World Lightweight Title in 1902 from Frank Erne. Starting in 1903, Gans began to take fights in the welterweight class and won several fights against excellent boxers including Sam Langford, Barbados Joe Walcott, Jack Blackburn, and more. Indeed, by modern record-keeping standards, Gans would have been considered welterweight champion. Welterweight was not a marquee class in this period, however, and did not earn large purses. There were several pretenders to the title who claimed that Gans had “abandoned” the lightweight title by fighting in the welterweight division. By 1905, Gans was without a manager and dire straits financially. It was in this atmosphere that his most important title defense came with a blockbuster fight against Oscar “Battling” Nelson in the gold rush boomtown Goldfield, Nevada on September 3, 1906. The fight was organized by Tex Rickard as a way to provide an influx of cash for the town. He capitalized on the controversy that now existed in the Lightweight title, as Nelson was by now claiming the title. In 1904, Gans had successfully defended his title in 1904 against Jimmy Britt, but a brawl erupted after the bout and Britt would claim later that year that he won the title. Bolstered by Gans fighting in the welterweight class, Nelson then claimed the crown when he knocked out Britt in September 1905. Rickard saw a golden opportunity to “settle the debate” and profit on the results. Gans was desperate for any fights in 1906 and agreed to an unequal share of the purse as well as conditions set by Nelson. Notably, Nelson insisted on an unheard-of three weigh-ins before the fight. Making weight was a concern for Gans as he needed to shed several pounds from his forays into the welterweight class, a task that would tax his body. By requiring three weigh-ins, it meant that Gans would be unable to eat properly before the fight. The fight went an astonishing 42 rounds in the Nevada sun. Nelson was continuously warned for headbutting and hitting below the belt, with the fight often devolving into wrestling. Though the “Durable Dane” was living up to his nickname, the champions tired in the Nevada heat, and Gans was getting the best of Nelson knocking him down more than once, and helping him up each time. In the 42nd, Nelson landed an illegal hit below the belt sending Gans to the canvas. The referee immediately declared Gans the champion. He would take his winnings and open the Goldfield Hotel in Baltimore. The Goldfield fight proved to be the pinnacle of his career, as he would soon succumb to tuberculosis. While no clear diagnosis exists, many historians speculate that he already was infected at the time of his first fight with Nelson, possibly as early as 1904. Gans would continue to successfully defend his title the next two years with his last successful fight against Rudy Unholz on May 14, 1908. Later that year, when he was decidedly suffering from the effects of TB, he would lose the title in a rematch with Nelson in Colma, California on July 4 and again on September 9. He would die at just 35 on August 10, 1910. Today, a statue of Gans graces the lobby at Madison Square Garden and is rubbed by modern boxers for good luck.

257 HERE THEY ARE, WHO DO YOU LIKE? NELSON-GANS GOLDFIELD, NEVADA FIGHT PROMOTIONAL POSTCARD, 1906 Here They Are, Who Do You Like? [Nevada]: Reno Eng. Co., 1906. Printed postcard. 5.5 x 3.25 in. (139 x 82 mm). Features portraits of both Nelson and Gans publicizing their first fight in Goldfield, Nevada on September 3, 1906. Verso is addressed to Miss Kate Lonkey in Verdi, Nevada below an image of President McKinley. $400 - $600

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258 A LESSON IN GEOGRAPHY, NELSON-GANS GOLDFIELD, NEVADA FIGHT PROMOTIONAL POSTCARD, 1906 A Lesson in Geography. San Francisco: Ben Michaels, 1906. Printed postcard. 3.5 x 5.5 in. (88 x 140 mm) Stamped on verso with September 1906 Goldfield postmark, addressed to Miss Alura Thompson of Carson City, Nevada. Promotional postcard with a cartoon lampooning Tex Rickard and his grandstanding in support of Goldfield, Nevada. Titled “A Lesson in Geography” flanked by labeled portraits of the two boxers. A caricature of Rickard stands on a soapbox preaching to a gathered crowd pointing to a map of the United States with Goldfield the only city listed. The caption reads “Tex Rickard, ‘Boys whats the leading city in the U.S?’ Chorus ‘GOLDFIELD’!!!” $600 - $800

259 JOE GANS PHOTOGRAPH AT 1906 GOLDFIELD, NEVADA FIGHT BY PERCY DANA Photograph of Joe Gans by noted boxing photographer Percy Dana, undated, [1906]. 4.25 x 6.5 in. (107 x 165 mm). Imprint on verso: “Photo by Dana / 1487 Ellis St., S.F.” Gans is shown in profile, his handsome and surprisingly unmarred face for a boxer are discernible to the viewer. He wears a striped turtleneck sweater with a jaunty tied bow at the neck and a checked ivy cap. The sweater appears to be the same as the one worn by Gans in a widely published (including in the Official Program) photo of him talking with his impromptu manager “Shanghai” Larry Sullivan in Goldfield before the 1906 fight with Nelson, suggesting a near-contemporary date. No other copies known. $600 - $800

260 NELSON-GANS OFFICIAL PROGRAM, GOLDFIELD, NEVADA, 1906 Official Program Nelson-Gans: Goldfield, Nev. Sep. 3rd. ‘06. Goldfield, Nevada: [Goldfield Athletic Club], 1906. Large 8vo (206 x 275 mm), original wrappers with gilt lettering and yapped edges, [48] p. Features promotional photos of the boxers, their trainers, and the purse enticingly stacked in gold coins. Five months prior to the fight, San Francisco, the financial center of the west was hit by a severe earthquake that caused a devastating fire that destroyed banking records and caused the San Francisco Stock Exchange to close for over two months. As it was the principal market for the Goldfield Mining stocks, it caused a cascade effect closing banks across California and Nevada. It was in this dire state that Tex Rickard conceived of the blockbuster fight as a way to infuse cash into Goldfield. It is no surprise then, that well more than half of the program features advertisements of stockbrokers and banks alongside articles touting the surrounding mines. OCLC locates just one copy. Exceedingly scarce. $3,000 - $5,000 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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261 GANS-NELSON PHOTOGRAPH BY PERCY DANA Photograph of Gans-Nelson Fight, 1906. Percy Dana: Goldfield, Nevada, 1906. Typed caption “Gans-Nelson Contest, Goldfield, Nevada, Sept. 3. 06. Won by Gans on foul, 42nd round.” 8 x 6 in. (203 x 153 mm). Blind embossed imprint near center “Dana Studio San Francisco.” The photograph captures the pivotal moment in the fight when Nelson fouled Gans with an illegal low blow, sending him to the ground and ending the fight in Gans’s favor. $1,200 - $1,800

262 JOE GANS AT FAIRYLAND PARK, CA 1907 Joe Gans at Fairyland Park Arcadia, Cal. Arcadia, California: n.p, n.d., ca 1907. Printed broadside. 9 x 20 in. (228 x 506 mm) In 1907, Gans successfully defended his title against Jimmy Britt in San Francisco on September 9th. He was then scheduled to defend it again, this time against George Memsic (aka Jimmy Burns) in Los Angeles. In the intervening weeks, he would train in Arcadia, California founded by Elias Jackson “Lucky” Baldwin, a man who had made his fortunes during the gold mining rush of the 1850s. The Los Angeles Times reported on September 25, 1907 that Gans was training at Baldwin’s Ranch and noted that at least one of the fans watching the training and cheering for Gans was African American. Gans would face Mesmic on September 27 at the Naud Junction Arena in Los Angeles and would win by decision after 20 rounds. $800 - $1,200

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263 UNHOLZ VS. GANS, LIGHTWEIGHT, CHAMPIONSHIP CONTEST TICKET, SAN FRANCISCO, 1908 Unholz vs. Gans: Lightweight Championship Contest. Full unused press ticket. San Francisco: Occidental Athletic Club, May 14, 1908. 6.75 x 2.75 in. (171 x 70 mm). Color printed ticket. Printed signature of Jack J. Gleason, manager of the Occidental Athletic Club on verso. Gans faced Rudy “the Boer” Unholz (1881-1916) on May 14, 1908, in what would be the final successful Lightweight Title defense of his career and the last fight before his two successive losses to Battling Nelson and his early death. Despite his ill health and that he was much older, Gans handily won the bout in 12 rounds by TKO. $2,000 - $4,000

264 PERCY DANA GANS & UNHOLZ CONTEST, 1908 Gans & Unholz contest, S.F. May 14th 08. Won by Gans, 11 Rounds, K O. Percy Dana: San Francisco, 1908. Silver gelatin photograph. 7.75 x 5.4 in. (196 x 136 mm) Blind embossed imprint “Dana Studio San Francisco” to lower right. Original in-plate caption faded with typed caption superimposed. Depicts the boxers Gans and Unholz shaking hands. Unholz looks directly at the camera, while Gans, his face gaunt from his progressing illness rests his gaze on his opponent. Behind them, popular referee Jack Welsh and veteran announcer Billy Jordan. Several other men stand in the ring, including two African Americans, presumably in Gans’s camp, at both left and right. On the left, the man wears suspenders and looks directly at the camera. On the right, somewhat blurry, the man holds what appears to be Gans’s robe. $1,200 - $1,800 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

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JACK JOHNSON: THE FIGHT OF THE CENTURY IN JIM CROW AMERICA LOTS 265-278 The racist attitudes of early 20th century America are uncomfortably reflected in the remarkable career of boxing legend Jack Johnson. At the height of the Jim Crow era, Johnson became the first black heavyweight champion. He was larger-than-life, dominating the ring and living an extravagant lifestyle, especially fond of racing cars and bespoke suits. His relationships with white women flaunted the racist taboos of the day. He was a man who lived life exactly as he wanted, but to many white Americans, Johnson’s unapologetic lifestyle while being black, caused outrage and consternation. Born in Galveston, Texas to former slaves, Johnson would recall growing up in a poor neighborhood where the racial segregation rampant across America did not seem to extend. He said, “As I grew up, the white boys were my friends and my pals. I ate with them, played with them and slept at their homes. Their mothers gave me cookies, and I ate at their tables. No one ever taught me that white men were superior to me.” He worked odd jobs before making his debut on November 1, 1898. He defeated his first white opponent, Jim Scanlon, on May 1, 1900, and claimed the unofficial “Negro Heavyweight Championship” title by February 1903 when he defeated “Denver” Ed Martin. The reigning heavyweight champion from 1899 was Jim Jeffries, a boxer with tremendous strength and stamina but a man who refused to take fights with black boxers, most notably Jack Johnson. By 1903 the Los Angeles Times called on Jeffries, “Jack Johnson is now the logical opponent for Champion Jeffries… the color line gag does not go now. Johnson has met all comers in his class, has defeated each and every one. Now he stands ready to box for the world’s championship … When they meet the world will see a battle before which the gladiatorial combats of ancient Rome pale into childish insignificance. And meet they some day will. It is up to Jeffries to say when. Johnson confronted Jeffries in a San Francisco saloon in 1904, but Jeffries never relented, announcing his retirement in 1905 stating that there were “no more logical challengers,” a claim that felt hollow even to the racist commentators of the day. Instead of meeting Johnson in the ring, Jeffries would stage a “fight to the finish” on July 3, 1905, between Marvin Hart and former light heavyweight champion Jack Root for one of them to become the new heavyweight champion. Hart won but would go on to lose to Canadian Tommy Burns on February 23, 1906. Johnson would hound Burns for a fight for over two years, purchasing ringside seats to all of his title defenses and taunting the champion. In 1908, Australian Hugh “Huge Deal” McIntosh saw an opportunity and 134 THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

offered a substantial purse of $30,000 plus film rights to Burns to fight Johnson in Sydney. The deal was sweet enough and Burns agreed. On December 26, 1908, Johnson handily defeated Burns, finally snatching the crown on a Boxing Day to remember. Already a staple of the newspapers, Johnson now gained the animosity of white boxing fans who called for a “Great White Hope” to take the title away from him. Several contenders failed and many began to plead for Jeffries to come out of retirement, which he did on April 19, 1909, intent on defeating Johnson, his racial motivation explicit, saying, “I am going into this fight for the sole purpose of proving that a white man is better than a Negro.” Legendary promoter Tex Rickard, who had made his name organizing the Gans-Nelson bout, won the rights and offered a staggering $101,000 purse, the largest in boxing history, held in Reno, Nevada. The racial tensions represented by the fight were further fueled by the media, the New York Times wrote, “If the black man wins, thousands and thousands of his ignorant brothers will misinterpret his victory as justifying claims to much more than mere physical equality with their white neighbors.” And win Johnson did. In the bout billed “The Fight of the Century,” Jeffries failed to effectively challenge Johnson and conceded in the 15th round in order to avoid a knockout. In the wake of the fight, race riots erupted across the country in at least 50 cities with over 25 people killed. Hundreds more were injured. Johnson relished being the heavyweight champion and enjoyed the extravagant lifestyle his winnings allowed. On September 11, 1912, he opened a desegregated “black and tan” nightclub called Café de Champion in Chicago. This was perhaps the apotheosis of his career, as shortly afterward, his white wife Etta Duryea committed suicide. Within a month, Johnson was seen publicly with Lucille Cameron, an 18-year old white (alleged) sex worker from Milwaukee. On October 17, 1912, Johnson was arrested under the Mann Act for “kidnapping” Lucille, as alleged by Cameron’s mother. Since Lucille refused to cooperate, the case fell apart, though Chicago authorities used this as an excuse to shutter his Café de Champion. He was arrested again on November 17, 1912, with the same charges, though this time the prosecution had a compliant witness in former girlfriend Belle Schreiber. His trial began in May 1913 where he would be convicted by an all-white jury and sentenced to a year and a day in prison. Upon hearing the decision, Johnson skipped bail and fled to Montreal beginning a sevenyear period of exile. On April 15, 1915, while still a fugitive, Johnson lost his title to Jess Willard in Havana, Cuba. BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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265 JOHNSON-JEFFRIES PRE-FIGHT PROMOTIONAL “ECLIPSE” POSTCARDS, 1910 Pair of graphic pre-fight promotional postcards for the 1910 Jack JohnsonJim Jeffries fight. 3.5 x 5.5 in. (88 x 140 mm). Contrasting cards presenting both fighters and with thinly veiled racism. The pro-Johnson card reads, “Won’t it be a Dark Fourth of July if the Eclipse Looks Like This?” with a smiling Johnson in a dark circle superimposed over a circle with a partially visible Jeffries looking surprised. The Jeffries card is similar but with a smiling Jeffries in a light circle over an angry-looking Johnson, the caption only slightly changed, “Won’t it be a Light Fourth of July…” Both inscribed on the verso, Jeffries card stamped with West Salem, Illinois postmark. $600 - $1,000

266 JIM JEFFRIES - JACK JOHNSON / THE LIGHT AND THE DARK SIDE OF A NATIONAL QUESTION, JOHNSON-JEFFRIES FIGHT PROMOTIONAL POSTCARD, 1910 Jeffries-Johnson Pre-fight postcard. 3.5 x 5.5 in. (89 x 139 mm) Caption reads, “The Light and the Dark Side of a National Question” under full-length portraits of both boxers in fighting stances. Jeffries is noted as the “Retired Heavy Weight Champion of the World” and Johnson has the subtitle “Heavy Weight Champion of the World.” Verso is stamped with a July 9, 1910, Fort Wayne, Indiana postmark, indicative of the national appeal of the fight. $300 - $500

267 JACK JOHNSON VS. JIM JEFFRIES PENNANT, 1910 RENO, NEVADA Pennant from the 1910 Johnson-Jeffries fight. Length: 22.4 in. (570 mm) Red felt pennant printed with the date of the fight “July 4, 1910” and “Reno” in black lettering. With a printed fabric medallion appliqued. Medallion features an illustration of the two pugilists with the caption “Jack Johnson, Jim Jeffries / World’s Heavy Weight Championship / Purse $101,000 / Gleason & Rickard / Promoters.” Seldom seen, especially in such fine condition. $2,000 - $4,000

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268 JOHNSON-JEFFRIES 1910 FIGHT ADMISSION TICKET Ticket stub to 1910 Johnson-Jeffries fight in Reno, Nevada. 1.3 x 2.6 in. (33 x 67 mm). Black printing on light orange cardstock. Caption reads “Entrance to / Outer Gate / July 4th, 1910 / To Be Taken Up / At Gate / Not Good / Unless / Detached / by / Doorkeeper.” Verso printed with blue pattern. $200 - $400

270 THE GREAT JEFFRIES AND JOHNSON PRIZE FIGHT PRINTED POSTCARD, 1910 Jeffries-Johnson post-fight printed postcard. 5.5 x 3.5 in. (142 x 88 mm) Caption, “The Great Jeffries and Johnson Prize Fight.” Printed illustration of the fight. Johnson lunges with a long right punch as Jeffries holds a fist up in defense, the referee squats to the left with hands on both knees. Printed in red and black. $100 - $200

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269 PERCY DANA JEFFRIES - JOHNSON REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, 1910 Johnson-Jeffries real photo postcard. 3.5 x 5.5 in. (88 x 138 mm). Caption, “No. 7 Jeffries-Johnson. Dana Photo.” Show the pugilists mid-fight grappling with one another, Johnson’s back to the camera, the strain showing on Jeffries’s face. The massive crowd of hats is visible beyond the ropes. $300 - $400

271 JACK JOHNSON MINIATURE PHOTO BOOK ORIGINAL PICTURES TAKEN AT RINGSIDE, RENO, NEVADA, 1910 Original Pictures Taken at Ringside, Reno, Nev., July 4. Chicago: Dana Studios; Miniature Photo Co., 1910. Miniature flipbook, 1.5 x 2.5 in. (62 x 37 mm), staple-bound, 40 images. Reproduces images taken by Percy Dana of the “Fight of the Century” between Johnson and Jim Jeffries. Very scarce, no other copies located. $300 - $500 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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272 W.E. COWEN RENO NEV. JULY 4, 1910 (JEFFRIES-JOHNSON FIGHT), REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, 1910 Real photo postcard. 5.5 x 3.5 in. (138 x 87 mm). Photograph of a bustling street in Reno taken on the day of the fight by W.E. Cowen. A large banner on the side of a building reads “Jeffries-Johnson Fight.” Crowds fill the street with several cars visible, figures look out on the scene from open windows. In-plate caption reads, “Reno Nev. July 4- 1910, W.E.C.” $200 - $400

274 (BEET) IT FOR LAS VEGAS JULY 4TH ‘12, JOHNSON-FLYNN FIGHT PROMOTIONAL POSTCARD, 1912 Flynn-Johnson pre-fight real photo postcard. 5.4 x 3.4 in. (132 x 86 mm) Features pictures of the fighters on either side of a large beet, part of the caption “[Beet] / It / for Las Vegas / July 4th ‘12” Stamped with a June East Las Vegas postmark. Inscribed on June 12, 1912, from East Las Vegas, “You had better let that crowner rest for a few days and come down and take in the fight” addressed to Mr. John Welch in Terre Haute, Indiana. $300 - $500

273 JACK JOHNSON AND WIFE, LAS VEGAS, NEW MEXICO REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, 1912 Jack Johnson and Wife pre-fight Las Vegas, New Mexico real photo postcard. 5.5 x3.5 in. (138 x 88 mm) Caption, “Jack Johnson / and Wife / Las Vegas NM” and “CEdG / Photo.” A picture of Johnson seated at a table next to his wife Etta Terry Duryea Johnson, wearing a white dress and hat leaning back in a chair. Etta was a Brooklyn socialite who met Johnson at a car race in 1909. Their relationship was turbulent and Etta would commit suicide just two months after the Las Vegas fight. $800 - $1,200

275 FLYNN & JOHNSON, LAS VEGAS N.M. JULY 4 1912 REAL PHOTO POSTCARD, 1912 Johnson-Flynn pre-fight real photo postcard. 5.4 x 3.5 in. (137 x 88 mm) Caption in-plate, “Las Vegas, N.M. / July 4 1912 / C.E.d.C.” with both boxers identified by last name. Images of the boxers in fighting stances are superimposed over a scenic view of Las Vegas, New Mexico. Stamped with Albuquerque postmark. $300 - $500

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276 FLYNN-JOHNSON FIGHT JULY 4TH, 1912, LAS VEGAS, NEW MEXICO Johnson-Flynn pre-fight real photo postcard. 5.4 x 3.4 in. (136 x 86 mm). Caption reads, “From Las Vegas the Scene of the Flynn-Johnson Fight / July 4th 1912. / Santa Fe Offices Las Vegas N. M.” Imprint “Copyright 1912, Publ by the Photo Shop East Las Vegas, N.M.” Pictures of both boxers in fighting stances flank an image of the Santa Fe, New Mexico offices. Stamped and postmarked June 25, several days before the fight from East Las Vegas, New Mexico. $500 - $700

277 RARE JIM FLYNN VS. JACK JOHNSON LAS VEGAS, NEW MEXICO FULL UNUSED FIGHT TICKET, 1912 World’s Championship Las Vegas, New Mexico Jim Flynn vs Jack Johnson. Full unused ticket. Chicago: The Arous Ticket Co., 1912. 8.25 x 2.25 in. (208 x 57 mm). Printed on dark mauve cardstock with green patterning. Photographic portraits of both fighters. Numbered 4492. $1,200 - $1,800

278 JACK AND LUCILLE JOHNSON OVERSIZE WEDDING PHOTOGRAPH, 1912 Oversized photograph taken at the wedding of Jack Johnson and wife Lucille, December 4, 1912. 8.8 x 6. 75 in. (225 x 174 mm). A photograph taken at the wedding of Johnson and his second wife Lucille Cameron at Johnson’s mother’s Chicago home on December 4, 1912. Johnson wears a smart tweed suit and silk bow tie as he lifts a coupe in a toast. Lucille stands by his side grasping his hand in a coordinating suit and an elegant hat. Johnson’s mother, Tina “Tiny” Johnson is included in the photo alongside two unidentified white men. Johnson pursued relationships with white women at a time when segregation was the law of the land and the status quo of Jim Crow was often tragically enforced by lynch mobs. In fact, there were reports of a fundraiser being organized in Great Falls, Montana to send money to a “negro hunting organization” in Shreveport, Louisiana so that they may pursue and lynch Johnson because of his marriage to Lucille. $2,000 - $3,000

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279 JOE LOUIS PINBACKS WITH 1940 WENDELL WILLKIE CAMPAIGN BUTTON Lot of 2 Joe Louis pinbacks. Joe and I Want Willkie. 1940. Diam. 1.25 in. (32 mm). Joe Louis endorsement pinback for Republican Wendell Willkie’s 1940 presidential campaign. Louis, the reigning heavyweight champion stated, “I think Wendell L. Willkie will give us a square deal. So I am for Willkie because I think he will help my people, and I figure my people should be for him, too.” Joe Louis Good Luck Club. ca 1938. Diam. 1.125 in. (30 mm). Joe Louis in a boxing stance surrounded by a horseshoe and four-leaf clover. Issued at the height of his career. $300 - $400

280 GEORGE FOREMAN PRESS PHOTOGRAPHS, 1971-1974 Lot of 2. Press photos of George Foreman early in his professional career. George Foreman Lifting Playboy Bunnies. San Francisco, 1971. With press release affixed on verso. 204 x 253 mm. A young 22-year-old George strikes a heroic pose while Playboy Bunnies Nikki Johnson (left) and Wendy Abbott. Press release dated March 15, 1971, “From Baccari and Associates” in San Francisco affixed to the verso. Addressed to the boxing correspondent Jack Fiske at the San Francisco Chronicle. Release notes that Foreman, already “Olympic champ, undefeated in 26 professional fights, will take on Roosevelt Eddie in a 10-rounder April 3 at the new, plush Playboy Club-Hotel at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.” Foreman, however, would fight Jamaican Stamford at the Playboy Club, winning by KO in the second round. George Foreman Opens Training Camp. Pleasanton, August 1974. With press release printed below image. 188 x 260 mm. Foreman, holding the Heavyweight title, poses with his fist in the air. He wears a cap, a chambray jacket with floral detail and elaborate jewelry while surrounded by women identified on the press release as Treina Booker, Hope Smith, Vickki King, and Veronica Porche, Muhammad Ali’s future wife. Taken at his training camp in Pleasanton, California while he prepared for his fight with Muhammad Ali in Kinshasa, Zaire on October 29, 1974, promoted as the Rumble in the Jungle. Foreman had successfully defended his heavyweight title twice, once against Joe Frazier in the Sunshine Showdown and against Ken Norton. The Rumble would prove to be Foreman’s first professional loss as he went down to Ali. This press release states the fight would take place on September 24, indicating the picture was taken before Foreman received a cut above his eye while training, forcing the fight to be postponed by a month. Foreman would not be able to spar during his training, which he noted did not help his chances against the dominant Ali. $400 - $600

281 1939 MULTI-PLAYER SIGNED PACIFIC COAST TENNIS CHAMPIONSHIP PROGRAM INCL. JIMMIE MCDANIELS MITCHELL, Harold “Schoolboy”, ed. Challengers Tennis Club Welcomes You to the 18th Annual Pacific Coast Championships and to the Golden Gate International Exposition. Berkeley, California: Tilghman Press, 1939. Folio (191 x 256 mm). Original illustrated wrappers. A program for the 18th Annual Pacific Coast Tennis Championship which features the signatures of dozens of players and others involved in the tournament, many of them women. Many signed by their picture printed in the program and an extra page dedicated to autographs includes over 30 autographs. It includes the histories of several California African American tennis clubs. The most notable signature is Jimmie McDaniels, the undisputed black champion of tennis of the era. He had won 38 of the 43 ATA tournaments he played in between 1939 and 1941. On July 29, 1940, McDaniels would break the color barrier and play the number one ranked, white Don Budge at the Harlem Cosmopolitan Tennis Club. Budge, who was the first to win a Grand Slam in a single year in 1938 and who would reign as number one for five years, would win the match. The significance of the match, however, cannot be understated in an era when McDaniels was not allowed entry on the international stage. As the editorial in this program opines, “There is no Shangra-la for him like there is for his white brother who has lived on the same street with him; there is no junior Davis Cup team for which he can try.” $400 - $600

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282 PRAIRIE VIEW VS. WILBERFORCE FIRST ANNUAL FRUIT BOWL GAME PROGRAM, 1947 First Annual Fruit Bowl Game Official Program: Prairie View vs. Wilberforce. Berkeley: Tilghman Press, [1947]. Folio (234 x 303 mm). Illustrated. Original illustrated wrappers (Very fine). The official program of the first Fruit Bowl game played on December 14th, 1947 at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco between historically black colleges Wilberforce and Prairie View A&M. The program includes the schedule of events including two parades, a reception, and a banquet. It also includes advertisements of several black-owned businesses and photos of jazz musicians T-Bone Walker and Ivory Joe Hunter. Wilberforce would go on to win 26 to 0. The second Fruit Bowl saw the first-ever inter-racial bowl game played in the United States, featuring Southern University defeating San Francisco State. It would be the last time the Fruit Bowl was played by collegiate teams. Very scarce, OCLC locates only one copy. $100 - $300

284 NEGRO LEAGUE PINBACKS, KANSAS CITY MONARCHS AND NEW YORK BLACK YANKEES Lot of 2 pinback buttons for the Kansas City Monarchs and the New York Black Yankees, Negro League baseball teams, n.d., ca 1931-1948. Both buttons have a white background with a blue line drawing of a baseball with two crossed bats at the top with shading at the bottom and the team name superimposed at center. It is unclear the specific date of the buttons, but they were likely issued during the height of the Negro Leagues when the Monarchs played in the Negro American League and the Black Yankees in the Negro National League. The teams were home to some of the greatest players of the era including Jackie Robinson who played for the Monarchs in 1945 and Satchel Paige for the Black Yankees in 1941 and the Monarchs in 1935 and 1939-1947. Robinson famously broke the color line and became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball when he joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. Paige, who had played alongside Robinson on the Monarchs team of ‘45, would be able to enjoy the benefit of integration when he debuted with the Cleveland Indians in 1948, becoming the oldest man ever to debut in the MLB. $200 - $300

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283 JACKIE ROBINSON AND LARRY DOBY PINBACKS, 1947 Lot of 2 pinbacks featuring the first African American players in the National and American leagues in Major League Baseball, Jackie Robinson and Larry Doby. “Rookie of the Year / Jackie Robinson / 1947” surrounding black and white photograph of Robinson in his Brooklyn Dodgers uniform, 1947. Diam.: 1.75 in. (144 mm). Robinson famously broke baseball’s color line in 1947 when he started at first base for the Dodgers on April 15, 1947, and remarkably won Rookie of the Year, celebrated on this pinback. “Congratulations Larry Doby / Cleveland Indians” surrounding black and white photograph of Doby in his Cleveland uniform, n.d., ca 1947. Diam.: 1.25 in. (32 mm). Doby became the second black player to join the Major Leagues and the first to play in the American League, starting just three months after Robinson in July 1947 for the Cleveland Indians. Notably, he was the first player to go directly from the Negro Leagues to the Majors, as most players were integrated first through the minors. $500 - $700

285 NEGRO LEAGUE BASEBALL PROGRAM AND BOOKING LETTER, 1948-1949 The Muskogee Cardinals Baseball Club, Champions of the Southwest: Canadian Tour 1949. Winkler, Manitoba: Continental Booking Agency, 1949. (140 x 178 mm). Single fold pamphlet. [With:] TL, 1 p., 213 x 276 mm, Winkler, Manitoba, undated [1949]. From the Continental Booking Agency to the Manager of the Baseball Club in Irvine, Alberta. With stamped envelope. A pamphlet and related letter for a 1949 barnstorming tour of Canada for the Negro League team the Muskogee Cardinals, following a successful tour the year prior. The letter, to the owner of the baseball club in Irvine, Alberta, advertises the tour further and details the terms of engagement and promises advertising material akin to the pamphlet included, with pictures of players and a brief history of the team. Before the integration of baseball in 1947, it was common for African American baseball teams to undertake barnstorming tours. $200 - $300 BID LIVE ONLINE WITH

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286 HANK SAUER & WILLIE MAYS SAN FRANCISCO GIANTS WELCOME PARADE PHOTOGRAPH, 1958 Press photograph of Willie Mays and Hank Sauer. Jim Edelen: San Francisco, 1958. San Francisco Examiner reference library stamp and Jim Edelen stamp to the verso. 8 x 10 in. Pictures left fielder Hank Sauer and center fielder Willie Mays in the back of a convertible during a welcoming parade for the Giants' inaugural season in San Francisco. Mays holds a festive balloon and a banner on the side of the car identifies the players. Throngs of parade watchers are visible in the background. The parade was held on April 14, 1958 to welcome the Giants to San Francisco as they had just relocated from New York in an effort to expand Major League Baseball to the west coast. They would play the Dodgers, who had also relocated west, the next day, winning against their perpetual rivals 8-0. Although Jackie Robinson had broken the color lines over a decade earlier in 1947, there were several teams who remained segregated at the time of the photo, with the Boston Red Sox not integrating until over a year later on July 21, 1959. Mays has the distinction of being California's first African American team sports superstar. Although he was the best player in the league at the prime of his career, and despite what this picture may suggest, Willie Mays was not warmly received in San Francisco. He found it difficult to secure housing as homeowners did not want an African American neighbor. Although he eventually found a suitable home, someone threw a brick through his window shortly after he arrived. In spite of these difficulties, Mays had a storied career, leading the Giants to the World Series in 1962 and named the National League's Most Valuable Player for the second time in 1965. $600 - $800

287 THE THREE WILLY’S S.F. GIANTS PHOTOGRAPH WITH WILLIE MAYS, WILLIE KIRKLAND, AND WILLIE MCCOVEY, 1959 The Three Willy’s. Unidentified photographer for the San Francisco Bureau: San Francisco, August 18, 1959. San Francisco Examiner reference library stamp on verso alongside tipped on press release regarding the batting prowess of the three players begins, “Here’s one of the reasons the San Francisco Giants continue to remain at the top of the heap of the National League with the big bats of the three Willys above.” 9 x 7 in. The image shows outfielders Willie Mays and Willie Kirkland next to rookie first baseman Willie McCovey wearing his glove and holding a ball in the other hand. All three men are wearing their Giants uniforms. The 1959 season was just the second year for the Giants in San Francisco, having moved from New York after the conclusion of the 1957 season. While the season was overall mediocre, the Giants finished 3rd in the National League, and the players pictured here experienced individual success. Kirkland, known as a powerful left-handed hitter, batted cleanup after Mays and earned respectable stats. Mays had an excellent season as the National League stolen base leader, an All-Star, and Gold Glove winner. Mays is considered to be one of the greatest players of all time, elected to the Hall of Fame in 1979. McCovey debuted with the Giants on July 30, 1959, at first base and went on to win Rookie of the Year. He went on to play 19 seasons with the Giants and was known as one of the greatest hitters of all time, inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1986. $1,200 - $1,800

288 WILLIE MAYS PINBACK WITH RIBBON, CA 1960 Willie Mays photographic pinback with ribbon, ca 1960. Diam.: 1.75 in. (143 mm). H: 5 in. (128 mm). Mays, considered one of the greatest baseball players ever to have hit the diamond, began his career in the Negro Leagues with the Birmingham Black Barons from 1948-1950. Like many other pioneering black players who broke the color lines, he began playing in the minor leagues, before moving up to the New York Giants in the 1951 season. Save for a brief stint in the US Army when he was drafted during the Korean War in which he missed most of the 1953 season, Mays played for the Giants for most of his remarkably long career from 1951 to 1972, following them to San Francisco in 1958. The Giants won the World Series in 1954 with Mays and he would win myriad individual awards including National League Rookie of the Year in 1951 and NL MVP in 1954 and 1965. $100 - $150

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289 SPORTS REFERENCE BOOKS Lot of 12 reference books concerning African Americans in the sport. Includes reprint of Nelson-Gans program and contemporary scholarly works. Topics cover Jack Johnson, Joe Gans, Muhammad Ali, Satchel Paige, and more. Most in like new condition. For complete list of titles, please visit cowans.com. $50 - $100

290 RARE FIRST EDITION OF HISTORY OF BLACK LITERATURE, ABBÉ GRÉGOIRE DE LA LITTÉRATURE DES NÈGRES GRÉGOIRE, Henri (French, 1750-1831). De La Littérature des Nègres, ou Recherches sur leurs facultés intellectuelles, leurs qualités morales et leur littérature; suivies de Notices sur la vie et les ouvrages des Nègres qui se sont distingués dans les Sciences, les Lettres et les Arts. Paris: Chez Maradan, 1808. 8vo (144 x 218 mm). Original marbled wrappers with paper spine label and blue glassine jacket, edges uncut (tear to lower right, wear to hinges and spine). FIRST EDITION. Important work by revolutionary leader Henri Grégoire, familiarly known as Abbé Grégoire. An ardent abolitionist and advocate of universal suffrage, he was a prominent member of the Society of the Friends of Blacks (Société des amis des noirs), and it was on his motion that in May 1791 the Constituent Assembly passed a law allowing some free men of color the same rights as whites in French colonies. He published De La Littérature des Nègres in 1808 as a means to prove the intellectual equality of blacks providing biographies of more than 50 writers and artists, often including excerpts of their work and defending their output against critics including Thomas Jefferson. Notables include the first African American woman to publish a book of poetry Phillis Wheatley (American, ca 1753-1784), Jacobus Capitein (Ghanaian/Dutch, ca 17171747), Olaudah Equiano (Igbo/Nigerian/British, 1745-1797), Ignatius Sancho (British, ca 1729-1780), Francis Williams (Jamaican, ca 1700-1770), and more. A scarce and important work. Sabin 28727. $2,500 - $3,000

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291 SAN FRANCISCO ABOLITIONIST JAMES MADISON BELL POETICAL WORKS, 1901 BELL, James Madison (1826-1902). The Poetical Works of James Madison Bell. Lansing: Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co., 1901. 8vo (139 x 200 mm). Frontispiece (port.) with illustrations. (Light even toning to pages). Original pebbled brown cloth with gilt title and illustrations of bells (Very light wear to extremities, fine). Stated SECOND EDITION, to which five poems were added from the first, both published in 1901. With a biographical sketch by Bishop Benjamin W. Arnett (1838-1906) providing much of what we know about Bell. In addition to writing poetry, Bell was an ardent abolitionist and was friends with John Brown. Born in Ohio, he came of age in Cincinnati and moved to Canada in 1854. In early 1860, he moved to San Francisco, quickly become involved with assuring civil liberties and opportunities for African Americans in California. Arnett notes, “While in California, some of his most stirring poems were written. The poems on ‘Emancipation,’ ‘Lincoln,’ ‘the Dawn of Freedom,’ and ‘The War Poems’ were all written while living at the Golden Gate.” $500 - $700

293 TAYLOR GORDON INSCRIBED ADVANCE REVIEW AUTOBIOGRAPHY BORN TO BE WITH ADDITIONAL MONTANA-RELATED PUBLICATION AND EPHEMERA GORDON, Taylor (1893-1971). Born to Be. New York: Covici Friede, 1929. 8vo (147 x 214 mm). Introduction by Muriel Draper (ca 1886-1952) and foreword by Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964). Color frontispiece and 9 additional plates by Mexican artist [Miguel] Covarrubias (1904-1957). (Very fine with only minor even toning). Original brown cloth with orange printed titles and illustrated jacket (dust jacket very good, creasing to hinges, residue to upper edge and some chipping at extremities). FIRST EDITION. Publisher’s advance review copy with tipped-in notice on front flyleaf. Autobiography of Taylor Emmanuel Gordon, best remembered for his career as a singer in the Harlem Renaissance during the 1920s. Born to one of the only black families in White Sulphur Springs, Montana, he left home in 1910 for a job in Minnesota, before making his way to New York. He entered into many fruitful partnerships, notably with J. Rosamond Johnson and his brother James Weldon Johnson with whom he compiled the seminal Book of American Negro Spirituals. This autobiography chronicles his upbringing in frontier Montana and his singing career. Warmly INSCRIBED and SIGNED, “8 P.M. / Sept. 21. 1929 / N.Y.C / NY / “To my dear friend Martin Wright.” / Better known as Grek. / May you get as much / pleasure, out of this volume, / as I have gotten out of our / years of acquaintance, / Sincerely / Taylor Gordon.” [With:] GORDON, Taylor. The Man Who Built the Stone Castle. White Sulphur Springs, Montana: The Meagher County News, 1967. 8vo (138 x 216 mm). Tipped-in color frontispiece with b&w illustrations.

292 RARE SIGNED AND INSCRIBED LIBRARY OF WILLAM C. BOLIVAR, AFRICAN AMERICAN RARE BOOK COLLECTOR BRIGHT, Nellie, ed. Library of William C. Bolivar Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Together with Printed Tracts, Magazines, Articles, Reports, Addresses and Miscellaneous Not Enumerated. Americana, Negroana, Manuscripts, Autograph Letters, Lincolniana, Rare Pamphlets, Travels, Africana, Etc. Philadelphia: Penna, 1914. 8vo (5.5 x 8.5 in.). Original wrappers (some wear, partial spine separation, dampstain to lower corner). INSCRIBED and SIGNED by Bolivar to front wrapper. Only and FIRST EDITION. This pamphlet, of which only 250 were printed, lists over 800 titles of the remarkable collection of William Carl Bolivar (1849-1914) and is an invaluable record of his library. Bolivar wrote for the Philadelphia Tribune under the nom de plume “the Pencil Pusher” as he attempted to respond to Frederick Douglass’s appeal to “keep the past in lively memory.” He also made a monumental contribution to African American history and book collecting by amassing a library upwards of 3,000 volumes. He lived to see the publication of this bibliography, passing away just six months later. Quite scarce, OCLC locates 8 copies. $800 - $1,000

Original printed wrappers (very fine with only minor toning to spine). SIGNED. FIRST EDITION. History of Byron Roger Sherman and Meagher County, Montana. Gordon had returned to his hometown of White Sulphur Springs in 1959 where he lived with his sister until his death. Scarce. [With:] Autograph note signed by Gordon, 1 p.; Christmas card signed by Gordon; and ca 1969 color photograph of Taylor Gordon. $500 - $700

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294 SIGNED SATIRICAL NOVEL NOW I AM CIVILIZED, 1930 FIRST EDITION HUFFMAN, Eugene Henry. “Now I Am Civilized.” Los Angeles: Wetzel Publishing, 1930. 8vo (139 x 202 mm). Frontispiece, illustrations by Herbert Raschie. (Dampstain affecting upper edge of text block). Original red cloth with partial dust jacket (sunned spine, soiling to edges). FIRST EDITION. A “satirical reverie” written in dialect following the adventures of African American cook whose travels take him to early Hollywood where he works as a cook for a film producer and is seduced by a vamp. Huffman was born around 1900 and grew up in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Florida before moving to Oakland and later Los Angeles where he finished high school at night. Regarding his education, he was quoted in a 1931 article in the Los Angeles Times, "My real education was picked up while working as cook, Pullman porter, butler and chauffeur, and reading books in places where I worked." Huffman later wrote a "Negro musical" titled Hoo-Dooed which was performed at the Philharmonic Auditorium in Los Angeles in 1932. Uncommon INSCRIBED “To ‘The Morning / Edition’ / With cordial good / wishes, from the / ‘Columnist.’” $200 - $300

295 SIGNED AND INSCRIBED LOOT BY TENNESSEE POLITICAL CORRESPONDENT T.H. ALEXANDER ALEXANDER, Truman Hudson (1891-1941). Loot. Dallas: Southwest Press, 1932. 8vo (142 x 209 mm). Original patterned cloth with black titles, deckle edge (light soiling to cover with some small stains, light shelf wear, binding slightly cocked). FIRST EDITION. Educated at Howard and Vanderbilt, Alexander was well known for his widely-syndicated newspaper column, “I Reckon So.” He was a significant commentator on Tennessee politics during the early 20th century and he was an advisor to Governor Austin Peay. Using his intimate knowledge of politics, this is Alexander’s first novel which explores Southern politics and corruption. SIGNED and INSCRIBED, “For - / Miss Agnes Selley / with cordial good wishes / TH Alexander / Sept. 7, 1932.” $50 - $100

296 SWEET MAN BY GILMORE MILLEN, SIGNED AND INSCRIBED TO GORDON YOUNG MILLEN, Gilmore. Sweet Man. New York: Viking Press, 1930. Small 8vo (135 x 195 mm). Brown cloth with original dust jacket illustrated by Paul Wenck. FIRST EDITION. African American-themed novel about John Henry by white author and journalist. Story takes place in Memphis’s legendary Beale Street and partly in Los Angeles and includes one of the earliest fictional accounts of life on Central Avenue, referred to affectionately as “the Beale Street of the West.” Author’s first book and only novel. SIGNED and INSCRIBED to GORDON RAY YOUNG (1886-1948) author of Western and adventure stories on front free endpaper. “To Gordon Ray Young / with sincere regards / Gilmore Miller / Los Angeles / July 31, 1930.” $150 - $250

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297 SIGNED AND INSCRIBED BLACK BY BENJAMIN FRANKLIN GARDNER GARDNER, Benjamin Franklin (1900-1974). Black. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1933. 12mo (140 x 199 mm). Original dark blue cloth with printed white title label with dust jacket (fine copy with extremely mild wear to spine cap and corners, jacket shows only mild wear to hinges). FIRST EDITION of author’s only book of poetry. Critically acclaimed book of poetry by Gardner who worked as a Pullman porter in the American West. Poems address the cruel realities of racism while also exalting African Americans. Warmly inscribed and signed by the author in his usual manner. SIGNED and INSCRIBED by the author to the front flyleaf: “In appreciation of a / very pleasant and profit- / able acquaintance, / my very best wishes - / Benj. F. Gardner / 4-25-1954” $200 - $300

298 WPA ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY THE AMERICAN NEGRO: A SELECTED READING LIST PAWLEY, James A. The American Negro: A Selected Reading List. Hackensack, New Jersey: Negro Adult Education, 1937. Folio (8.5 x 11 in.). Annotated bibliography compiled by the Works Progress Administration. Staple-bound mimeograph with yellow cardstock covers (toning to edges and light crease where cover opens, else fine). FIRST EDITION. Very scarce, OCLC locates 5 copies. $100 - $200

299 DOUBLE SIGNED A MAN IN OUR COMMUNITY BIOGRAPHY OF LOS ANGELES COMMUNITY LEADER L.G. ROBINSON SCRUGGS, Baxter S. A Man in Our Community: The Biography of L.G. Robinson of Los Angeles, California. Gardena: Institute Press, 1937. 8vo (144 x 210 mm). Frontispiece with additional plates throughout. Quarter green buckram with textured green cloth and gilt titles. FIRST EDITION. Biography of civil servant and community leader L.G. Robinson. Near fine with only minor scuffs. SIGNED and INSCRIBED “With best wishes / Baxter S. Scruggs” and SIGNED by L.G. Robinson, both to front flyleaf. Very scarce, OCLC locates only 5 copies. $300 - $400

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300 BLACK HERMAN’S SECRETS OF MAGIC-MYSTERY & LEGERDERMAIN, 1938 RUCKER, Benjamin (1889-1934), attributed. Black Herman’s Secrets of MagicMystery & Legerdermain. [sic] Chicago: A.F Seward & Co., c. 1938. 8vo (5.75 x 8.5 in.). Illustrated. (Brittle and evenly toned pages. Small tears to front flyleaf with repairs). Original wrappers. (Toning and water spots to front cover, partial separation, else very good). Fifteenth de Luxe Edition. Benjamin Rucker was the most well-known African American magician of the early 20th century, popular with both black and white audiences. He apprenticed to and succeeded Prince Herman, taking the stage name “Black Herman” in his honor. He specialized in prestidigitation, the Asrah levitation, and a “buried alive” routine which lasted three days, beginning with his “internment” in “Black Herman’s Private Graveyard.” He would then rise from the grave and walk to the performance venue to the rest of his show. When Rucker actually died on stage in 1934, the audience refused to leave believing this was part of his act. This book, consisting of astrological advice, numerology, basic magic tricks, folklore, and a semi-fictionalized autobiography, is reported to have been first published in 1925 and sold at shows. All known copies, however, have a 1938 copyright date, are stated “15th (de luxe) edition,” and were published in New York by Empire or Dorene. This copy has A.F. Seward publishing information pasted to title page. Seward (1877-1965) billed himself as “America’s Foremost Astrologer” publishing several books, with at least one published from the 3620 Fremont Street address in 1932,

suggesting this copy of Black Herman’s Secrets was issued near the 1938 copyright date. Seward possibly bought surplus copies and inserted his own imprint for distribution. No other copies with the Seward imprint have been located. An interesting association copy with a known occultist of an uncommon work. $200 - $300

301 AFRICAN AMERICAN BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND ANTHOLOGIES Lot of 5. With scarce 1939 first edition bibliography A Catalogue of Books in the Moorland Foundation, a bibliography of holdings at Howard University. BRAWLEY, Benjamin (1882-1939). The Negro Genius. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1944. 8vo. Illustrated. Drab cloth. FIRST EDITION. CALVERTON, V.F. (1900-1940). An Anthology of American Negro Literature. New York: The Modern Library, 1929. Green balloon cloth over flexible boards with blindstamped Kent torchbearer and gilt spine titles with grapevine device (Style 52 ). FIRST EDITION, SECOND PRINTING, with blues lyrics attributed on p. 223-227. With scarce original dust jacket (style d), with tear at front hinge and some chipping and toning. Some toning to spine caps. Calverton, the pseudonym of George Goetz was a left-radical literary critic and writer who founded Modern Quarterly (later, The Modern Monthly), notable for supporting and publishing the work of African American authors and intellectuals. Dedicated to influential civil rights activist Walter White (1893-1955), leader of the NAACP at the time. Scarce in jacket. Toledano 163.1. CULP, D.W., ed. Twentieth Century Negro Literature: Or a Cyclopedia of Thought on the Vital Topics Relating to the American Negro. Toronto: J.L. Nichols & Co., 1902. Large 8vo. With frontispiece of Culp and illustrated throughout with full-page portraits of authors and contributors. Original brown cloth. Presumed FIRST EDITION. Important anthology of early 20th century black thought. PORTER, Dorothy (1905-1995), ed. with Margaret R. HUNTON and Ethel WILLIAMS. A Catalogue of Books in the Moorland Foundation. Washington DC: Howard University, Compiled Under U.S. Works Progress Administration, 1939. 4to. Each part preceded by half-title not included in pagination. Rebound in grey cloth, mimeographed with original front board retained and tipped in (corner repair). FIRST EDITION. Very scarce. WORK, Monroe N. (1866-1945). A Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America. New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1928. Folio. Green cloth. (Spine sunned with some scuffs to edges and front board). FIRST EDITION. Born to former slaves, Work was a prominent scholar who founded the Department of Records and Research at the Tuskegee Institute. $200 - $400

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302 EDNA L. GRIFFIN, PASADENA’S FIRST FEMALE AFRICAN AMERICAN PHYSICIAN BIOGRAPHY BRANSON, Helen Kitchen (1919-2006). Let There Be Life: The Contemporary Account of the Life of Edna L. Griffin, M.D. Pasadena, California: M.S. Sen, 1947. 8vo (159 x 2334 mm). Frontispiece. (Pages evenly toned). Green coated cloth (slight wrinkling to cloth (binding imperfection), small stain to rear board). Typed note tipped-in to front flyleaf attesting to a personal relationship with the author and remarking that she and her family are “an example for us all.” FIRST EDITION. A lightly fictionalized biography of Edna L. Griffin (19051992), Pasadena’s first black female physician. She also served as the president of the local NAACP chapter, successfully desegregating the Brookside Plunge swimming pool and integrating African Americans into the police force, YMCA, and more. $75 - $100

303 BLACK DOCTOR’S AUTOBIOGRAPHY, QUEST FOR DIGNITY: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A NEGRO DOCTOR, 1950 PEYTON, Thomas Roy. Quest for Dignity: An Autobiography of a Negro Doctor. Los Angeles: Warren F. Lewis, 1950. 8vo (160 x 235 mm). Burgundy cloth with gilt spine titles and dust jacket (Fine with only minor stains to board. Jacket unclipped with chips to upper corners). SIGNED and warmly INSCRIBED to front flyleaf. FIRST EDITION. Autobiography of African American doctor, grandson of slaves. Explores racism and race relations in America and abroad. $50 - $100

304 SCARCE BEST SHORT STORIES BY AFRO-AMERICAN WRITERS, 1950 FORD, Nick Aaron (1904-1982) and H.L. FAGGETT, ed. Best Short Stories by Afro-American Writers (1925-1950). Boston: Meador Publishing Company, 1950. 8vo (142 x 202 mm). Original black cloth with gilt titles and original illustrated dust jacket (very fine book and jacket). FIRST EDITION. Quite scarce in this edition. $300 - $500

305 SIGNED AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF TEXAS BELLHOP, HOPPING ON THE BORDER THOMAS, Matt. Hopping on the Border: The Life Story of a Bellboy. San Antonio: The Naylor Company, 1951. 8vo (154 x 216 mm). Frontispiece. (Occasional pale brown spotting). Orange cloth with stamped and printed titles (fine with slightly bumped corners, dust jacket good with minor wear). SIGNED to half-title. FIRST EDITION. $150 - $250

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306 SIGNED AND INSCRIBED CHARLOTTA A. BASS MEMOIRS BASS, Charlotta A. (1874-1969). Forty Years: Memoirs from the Pages of a Newspaper. Los Angeles, Privately Published, 1960. Large 8vo (145 x 221 mm). Red cloth. (Near fine with very mild bumping to corners and small cut in front hinge.) FIRST EDITION. Memoirs of prominent civil rights activist and notable newspaper editor Charlotta Bass. She owned and operated the California Eagle from 1912-1951, the first African American woman to own her own newspaper in the United States. She is also the first African American woman nominated for Vice President when she ran on the Progressive Party ticket in 1952. Uncommon. SIGNED and INSCRIBED to front flyleaf, “April 24 - 1960 / To Mandy / with deep respect / Charlotta A. Bass” $500 - $700

307 HISTORY OF THE HALL OF NEGRO LIFE, TEXAS CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION THOMAS, Jesse O. (1885-1972). Negro Participation in the Texas Centennial Exposition. Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1938. 8vo (141 x 199 mm). Plates featuring photographs from the Exhibition. Original red cloth with gilt titles (fine with only very minor rubbing). FIRST EDITION. An account of the Hall of Negro Life at the 1936 Texas Centennial Exposition by its general manager, Jesse O. Thomas of the National Urban League. Regarded as the first recognition of African American culture at any world’s fair, the Hall featured exhibits in education, aesthetics, health, business, and more, with pamphlets written by W. E. B. Du Bois and Charles E. Hall. The art exhibit featured prominent black artists. Several sculptures and paintings are present in an included plate, notably Samuel Contee’s My Guitar. In a chapter examining the influence of the Hall on race relations, Thomas recollects that, “many of the white people came in expecting to see on display some agricultural products, some canned goods and “Black Mammy” pictures...all of them went away with a higher appreciation of the Negroes’ contribution to American culture and with a more tolerant attitude toward the Negroes’ effort.” Approximately 400,000 people visited the Hall and, “at least 275,000 of them were white people.” Uncommon. $300 - $500

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308 W. E. B. DU BOIS WHAT THE NEGRO HAS DONE FOR THE UNITED STATES AND TEXAS, PAMPHLET FOR 1936 TEXAS CENTENNIAL, HALL OF NEGRO LIFE DU BOIS, W. E. B. What the Negro Has Done for the United States and Texas. [Washington DC]: [US Government Printing Office], 1936. (5 x 8 in.). Illustrated pamphlet. Cover illustration by Harlem Renaissance artist Aaron Douglas (1899-1979). FIRST EDITION. Pamphlet written to accompany the exhibits at the Hall of Negro Life at the 1936 Texas Exposition. Minor chipping to edges, minor splitting at creases, else fine. Uncommon $300 - $500

310 HARLEM RENAISSANCE AND NEW NEGRO MOVEMENT MODERN AFRICAN AMERICAN ART EXHIBITION CATALOGUES LOCKE, Alain. Contemporary Negro Art. Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 1939. 8vo (6.2 x 9.25 in.). Illustrated. (Some markings to exhibition list). Original wrappers (Soft fold, some creasing to rear cover). FIRST EDITION. Contemporary Negro Art, exhibited at the Baltimore Museum of Art was the first exhibition of African American artists to be held in a southern region, but perhaps more importantly, it was the first to reframe “Negro art” as a part of the greater movement of modern art. Assisted by the Harmon Foundation, the catalog lists the works included featuring dozens of prominent artists among them Richmond Barthé, Lois M. Jones, and Sargent Johnson, one of the first African American artists working in California to gain a national reputation. The catalog also includes plates of works by Samuel Joseph Brown, Elton Clay Fax, Archibald Motley (BlackBelt, 1934, Whitney Museum of American Art), Ronald Joseph, Jacob Lawrence, and Malvin Gray Johnson (Self-Portrait, 1934, Smithsonian American Art Museum). Scarce. [With:] LOCKE, Alain and John Davis HATCH, Jr. The Negro Artist Comes of Age: A National Survey of Contemporary American Artists. Albany: Albany Institute of History and Art, 1945. 8vo (6 x 9 in.). Illustrated. (Center leaf gathering detached). Original wrappers (wrapper with light wear to

309 AMERICAN NEGRO EXPOSITION, 1940 PINBACK American Negro Exposition pinback, 1940. Diam.: 1.25 in. (32 mm). Caption: “American / Negro / Exposition / July 4-Sept. 2, 1940 / Chicago, ILL.” surrounded by American flag stars and stripes motif. The Exposition celebrated the 75th anniversary of emancipation and was a comprehensive celebration of African American achievement. It featured over 92 installations from all over the country featuring art, music, theater productions, and more with notable African Americans including Langston Hughes involved. $200 - $300

extremities, some staining from staples, light separation). FIRST EDITION. A collection of biographies of prominent African American artists with an introduction by Alain Locke, the philosophical architect of the Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro Movement. Each artist is listed with a biography and pictures of select works. Artists include Romare Bearden (After Church, 1941, Terra Foundation for American Art; Factory Workers, 1942, Minneapolis Institute of Art), Eldzier Cortor (Southern Gate, 1942-3, Smithsonian Museum of American Art; Southern Landscape, ca 1944-45, Brooklyn Museum), Lois M. Jones (Jennie, 1943, Howard University Art Gallery), and many others. Uncommon. $800 - $1,000

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311 W. E. B. DU BOIS SIGNED PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT BY CARL VAN VECHTEN, 1946 Silver gelatin portrait photograph of W. E. B. Du Bois. Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964): New York, July 18, 1946. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint to lower right, verso with stamp and ink notations identifying Du Bois, the date of sitting, with Van Vechten number, “VIII CC 10”. SIGNED and INSCRIBED by Du Bois. 8 x 10 in. A profile half portrait against patterned wallpaper. Carl Van Vechten was well-connected to the people and places of the Harlem Renaissance at a time when racial segregation and Jim Crow laws were intense. Throughout the 1920s, he indulged in the parties and social scene of New York’s black creative class, which he captured in his provocatively titled novel Nigger Heaven. When the Depression came, he stopped writing novels and began taking photographs, most notably of influential African Americans, taking iconic portraits of thought leaders, entertainment stars, sports figures, artists, writers of the Harlem Renaissance, and more. His collection of over 9000 images, mostly portraits, is held at the Beinecke Library at Yale University.

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Taken in the summer of 1946, this image captures the great writer, sociologist, and thought leader at an interesting time in his life. Three years earlier, he had been abruptly fired from his position at Atlanta University. He was offered a lifelong pension and professor emeritus status following outrage at his dismissal, however, despite offers from Fisk and Howard Universities, Du Bois did not return to academia. Instead, he re-joined the NAACP, which he had helped found in 1909 but had resigned from in 1934. He was a part of the three-person delegation from the NAACP that attended the conference which established the United Nations, at which they advocated racial equality and an end of colonialism. This was also a period of political output. As the Cold War ramped up, he distanced himself from communism, but remained critical of capitalism, instead voicing his opinion that socialism was a better alternative to address poverty and racism. This image of W. E. B. Du Bois is notable for its photographer, its sitter, and especially for the fact that it is signed by Du Bois. A copy of this portrait, unsigned, is held in the Library of Congress. $2,000 - $3,000

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312 HARRY BELAFONTE REAL PHOTO POSTCARDS BY CARL VAN VECHTEN, CA 1947 Lot of 4 real photo postcards of Harry Belafonte (b. 1927). Carl Van Vechten: New York, n.d., ca 1947. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint. Photographic series with the King of Calypso in candid and charming poses. In one he holds a ceramic chicken against a patterned backdrop. Another features him pulling a rope while barefoot. $300 - $600

313 CARL VAN VECHTEN PORTRAIT OF JAMES BALDWIN, NEW YORK, 1955 Silver gelatin portrait photograph of James Baldwin. Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964): New York, September 13, 1955. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint to lower right, verso with stamp and ink notations identifying Baldwin, the date of sitting, with Van Vechten number, “XV NN 3” 6.75 x 10 in. A profile half portrait of the pioneering author wearing a terrycloth polo shirt. Taken shortly before his first non-fiction book was published, Notes of a Native Son. $2,000 - $3,000

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314 CARL VAN VECHTEN PORTRAIT OF DIZZY GILLESPIE LEANING ON HIS HORN, NEW YORK, 1955 Silver gelatin portrait photograph of Dizzy Gillespie (John Birks Gillespie, 1917-1993). Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964): New York, December 2, 1955. Van Vechten’s blind-stamp imprint to lower right, verso with stamp and ink notations identifying Gillespie, the date of sitting, with Van Vechten number, “I 00 18.” 6.25 x 9.75 in. Gillespie sits on a stool with both hands resting on his trumpet. $1,200 - $1,800

315 FIRST SIGNED AND INSCRIBED DEVIL IN A BLUE DRESS WITH RELATED TLS BY WALTER MOSLEY MOSLEY, Walter. (b. 1952) Devil in a Blue Dress. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1990. 8vo (147 x 215 mm). Quarter yellow cloth with orange papered boards with original illustrated dust jacket (very fine). SIGNED and INSCRIBED. FIRST EDITION. [With:] Mosley, Walter E. TLS, 1 p., with envelope, New York, New York. Post stamped August 14, 1990. Addressed to Dan Monte. First novel of the Ezekiel “Easy” Rawlins series. Mosley broke ground by introducing issues of racial inequality, social injustice, and the reality of life in post-WWII Los Angeles for African Americans into detective fiction. This copy is the first to ever be signed by Mosley with inscription, “For Dan Monte, / The first person / ever to request my / autograph. / Thank you / Walter S. Mosley / Oct. 13, 1990.” Accompanied by letter addressed to Monte, in apparent response to his autograph request, “You’re the first person to make such a request and I find that it’s one of the moments that lets me know that I’ve become what I wanted to be. Thank you, very much.” $500 - $1,000

316 BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE BOOKS Lot of 18 reference books African American bibliographies and other reference works. Includes two bibliographies and an autobiography by Charles L. Blockson. Most in like new condition. For complete list of titles, please visit cowans.com. $50 - $100

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INDEX (Subject, Lot #) 9th Cavalry - 26, 36, 41, 43, 45, 54, 121 10th Cavalry - 35, 37-41, 43, 45, 48-49, 55-56 24th Infantry - 29, 30, 43, 45, 48, 156-159 25th Infantry - 31-34, 45, 194 Abolition - 1-7, 9, 10, 11, 18, 59, 69, 90, 92, 290-291 African Methodist Episcopal Church - 4, 15, 102, 243 Allensworth, Allen - 116, 156-159 Arizona - 37-40, 56, 132, 145-146 Arkansas - 139, 142 Art - 69, 97-100, 307-310 Ball, J.P. - 22, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 140 Bartender Guides - 240-241 Baseball - 137, 165, 283-289 Bass, Charlotta - 115, 164, 306 Beauty Pageants - 251-252 Bibliographies - 292, 298, 301, 316 Black Liberation Movement - 199-221 Black Panther Party - 204-205, 209-218 Blind Tom - 232-237 Boley, Oklahoma - 128, 145 Boxing - 255-280 Brown, Grafton Tyler - 97-100 Brownsville - 194 Buffalo Soldiers - 26-46 Business - 12, 126-127, 129, 131, 162-168, 173, 187, 197 California - 11, 13, 40, 47, 53, 93, 95, 98-102, 107-116, 133-136, 144, 150, 151, 153-154, 156-159, 163-164, 166, 169, 172, 174, 179-180, 188, 189, 192193, 198-199, 204, 207, 210, 212, 238, 245-249, 252, 256, 262, 280-281, 299, 302, 306, 310 Civil War - 1, 20-25, 182 Cleaver, Eldridge - 203, 209-212, 214, 217, 218 Colorado - 37, 117, 121, 123, 149, 154, 236 Cookbooks - 238-239, 247 Cowboys - 145-148, 150 Crime & Punishment - 138-144 Davis, Angela - 212, 217-221 Douglass, Frederick - 2-5, 169, 188, 254, 292, Du Bois, W.E.B. - 307-308, 311 Education - 83-96 Entertainment - 222-237, 242-250, 253 Flipper, Henry Ossian - 35, 43 Football - 282 Gans, Joe - 257-264 Goodridge Brothers - 60-61

Magic and Occult - 200, 300 Mays, Willie - 286-288 Missouri - 42, 66, 92, 106, 162, 177 Montana - 32-33, 40, 67, 140, 241, 243, 293 Mormons - 102 Nebraska - 36, 120-122 New Mexico - 37, 40, 273-277 Newton, Huey P. - 204-205, 210-212 Nevada - 99, 101, 107, 137, 257-261, 266-272 Oberlin College - 36, 43-44, 66, 69, 89-90 Oklahoma - 30, 40, 125-129, 131, 139, 142, 145, 173, 195-197, 251 Pickett, Bill - 145-146 San Francisco, Oakland, and Greater Bay Area - 13, 53, 69, 95, 97-100, 102, 108, 113, 115, 144, 158, 168-169, 179, 192-193, 199, 204-205, 207-209, 211, 215-219, 238, 244, 246, 250, 260, 263-264, 280-282, 286-288 Seale, Bobby - 204, 209, 215, 216, Slave Narratives - 5-8, 101, 102, 122, 159, 176-177 Slavery - 1, 5-16, 19, 21, 35, 37, 40, 44, 59-60, 70, 73, 81, 84-85, 90-91, 101102, 105-106, 114, 122, 140, 142, 150, 156-159, 177, 182, 191, 227, 232-239, 254, 301, 303 Spanish-American War - 43-45, 180 Suffrage, African-Americans - 290 Suffrage, Women - 177 Temperance - 11, 176-177, 240 Texas - 16, 29, 37, 40, 48-49, 94, 124, 129, 130, 141-142, 145, 165, 175, 181183, 194, 253, 307-308 Thomas, A.S. - 68 Truth, Sojourner - 14 Tubman, Harriet - 1 Tulsa Race Massacre - 195-197 Underground Railroad - 1, 11, 60-61, 90, 102 U.S. Military Academy - see West Point Van Vechten, Carl - 311-314 Washington, Augustus - 59 Washington, Booker T. - 51, 171-174, 180, 254 Watts Riots - 198, 212 West Point - 35-36, 41-43 Wilberforce University - 36, 43-44, 282 Women - 1, 17, 52, 69, 93, 106, 115, 119, 158, 167, 174-177, 181, 187, 195, 202, 207, 216-221, 229-230, 238, 247-253, 281, 292, 302, 306 World War I - 50-52, 127 World War II - 53, 56 Young, Charles - 41-43, 46

Harlem Renaissance - 249, 293, 307, 310-314 Indian Territory - see Oklahoma Japanese Tommy - 222-225 Jazz - 158, 245, 246, 282, 293, 296, 314 Johnson, Jack - 265-278 Kansas - 10-11, 54-55, 89, 118-119, 142-143, 177 LGBTQ+ community - 249-250 Lincoln, Abraham - 13-14, 77, 188, 292 Los Angeles - 47, 52, 111, 134, 136, 152-154, 163-164, 166-167, 172, 180, 185, 189, 192-193, 198, 200-202, 212, 219, 245-246, 248, 252, 262, 294, 299, 306, 315 SEE DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS, ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND CONDITION REPORTS OF ALL LOTS AT COWANS.COM

FEBRUARY 20, 2020 153


FORTHCOMING THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART II CDV of Major Martin Delany, ca 1864, Surgeon with the 54th Massachusetts Volunteers, promoted to major with the 104th USCT

154 THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

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CONSIGN NOW AMERICAN HISTORICAL EPHEMERA & PHOTOGRAPHY JUNE 26, 2020 Consignment Deadline: March 27, 2020 Important Long-Lost Quarter Plate Daguerreotype of John Brown, the Abolitionist, by the African American Daguerreotype Artist, August Washington Sold for $97,750

FEBRUARY 20, 2020 155


Terms and Conditions By registering and bidding in an auction conducted by Cowan’s LLC (“Cowan’s”), Bidders (whether present in person, by telephone, by agent, by written or telephone absentee bid instruction, or through a live internet connection) agree to be bound by these terms. These are the complete and only terms and conditions on which all property is offered for sale. Cowan’s retains the right to bar any Bidder from participating in any auction and to exclude or reject any bid. 1) ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS Bidding on any item, whether in person, by phone, by absentee bid or via a live internet auction indicates the Bidder’s agreement to be bound by these Terms and Conditions for Bidders. Any right of Bidder under this agreement shall not be assignable and shall only be enforceable by the original buyer. The rights and obligations of the parties shall be governed by the laws of the state of Ohio. All Bidders submit to the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts in Hamilton County in the State of Ohio. 2) REGISTRATION All Bidders must register their name, permanent street address (no P.O. Boxes), and telephone number prior to the auction. Unless known to Cowan’s, all registrants are required to present two forms of identification, at least one of which must include a current photograph. Bidders may be required to present a valid credit card. By registering with Cowan’s or submitting an absentee bid form, registrant authorizes Cowan’s to obtain a copy of his or her consumer credit report and authorizes Cowan’s, at its sole discretion, to use the information contained therein to make business decisions regarding the registrant’s participation in the bidding process. Any Bidder unknown to Cowan’s may be required to submit a bank letter of credit prior to the auction, or, using a credit card, deposit with Cowan’s a fee equaling 50% of the absentee bid or 50% of the low estimate, whichever is higher. 3) TERMS OF SALE Announcements made the day of auction take precedence over any previous communication. The auctioneer reserves the right to withdraw any lot at any time before its final sale and to reject any bid for any reason. The highest Bidder for each lot acknowledged by the auctioneer shall be the “buyer”. If any dispute arises as to any bidding, or between two or more Bidders, at the sole discretion of the auctioneer, the successful Bidder will be determined or the disputed lot shall be put up again at the last undisputed bid and resold. 4) BUYER’S PREMIUM The Auctioneer will collect and retain from the Buyer an additional commission (“Buyer’s Premium”). This Buyer’s Premium is not subject to negotiation from the Seller, nor is it a portion of the commission collected by the Seller. (a) Buyer’s Premium for Live “Historic Firearms and Militaria” and all “Coins and Currency” auctions: The Auctioneer will collect and retain from the Buyer, as additional commission, a premium equal to 20% of the Sale Price of each Lot up to and including $250,000, 15% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $250,000, and 12% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $3,000,000. (b) Buyer’s Premium for all other types of auctions: The Auctioneer will collect and retain from the Buyer, as additional commission, a premium equal to 25% of the Sale Price of each Lot up to and including $250,000, 20% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $250,000, and 12% on that part of the Sale Price exceeding $3,000,000. (c) Lots purchased through any fee-based online bidding platform to which the Auctioneer might subscribe may be subject to additional Buyer’s Premium. Such additional pass-through fees will be collected by the subscriber and are not subject to negotiation from the Seller, nor is this additional commission due the Seller. (d) Live “Historic Firearms and Militaria” auctions: In-person buyers paying via cash, wire transfer, money order, or pre-approved check will receive 2% Buyer’s Premium discount day-of sale only. Discounted purchased items must be removed from Cowan’s day-of sale. Cowan’s is pleased to offer a 2% discount for in-person buyers who pay their total invoice in full by the close of business on the day of the auction. Payments must be made in person at Cowan’s Cincinnati Salesroom and buyers are responsible for collecting their purchases upon payment. 5) ESTIMATES AND RESERVES Presale estimates are intended to be guides and may or may not reflect the ultimate hammer price of a lot. Cowan’s retains the right to change estimates on any lot up to time of sale. A reserve is a confidential minimum price agreed upon by the Seller of the lot and Cowan’s. In the case of reserved lots, the Seller has authorized Cowan’s to bid on Seller’s behalf until the reserve price is reached. In no case will the reserve be higher than the low presale estimate. Unless otherwise stated, Cowan’s standard house reserve on all property at auction is one-half of the low estimate. 6) WARRANTIES AND DISCLAIMERS Cowan’s makes a limited warranty only to the original buyer of record concerning the authenticity of each lot for a period of 14 days after the close of the auction. If a buyer is not satisfied that the lot purchased is genuine, the buyer may, at his or her own expense, obtain the written opinion of two mutually agreed upon recognized experts in the field of the disputed lot. If these experts determine that the item is not genuine, the buyer’s sole and exclusive remedy shall be the rescission of the sale and refund of the amount paid for the item. It is specifically understood and agreed that the rescission of the sale and refund is exclusive and in lieu of any other remedy which might otherwise be available as a matter of law or in equity, and such remedy is conditioned upon the buyer returning the property in the same condition as at the time of sale. Cowan’s shall not be liable for any incidental or consequential damages. All sales are final, with no returns or refunds except as provided in this limited warranty. Except as provided in the immediately preceding paragraph, EVERY LOT IS SOLD “AS IS”, without any representations or warranties by Cowan’s or the Seller as to merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, condition or value of the property, or the correctness or completeness of the catalog or other description of the property, and no statement, whether written or oral, shall be deemed such a representation, warranty or assumption of liability. Cowan’s makes no representation or warranty that the buyer of manuscript material, photographs, prints or works of art will acquire any copyright or reproduction rights. Cowan’s does not guarantee the working order of any clock, watch, electronic or mechanical device. Dimensions given in the catalog descriptions may be approximate. 7) INSPECTION Prospective buyers are advised to personally examine any lots in which they are interested prior to the auction. All lots are available for inspection prior to the auction. Condition reports for most items can be found online at Cowan’s website, www.cowans.com, and prospective Bidders are encouraged to contact Cowan’s directly for additional information regarding the condition of any lot. Cowan’s does not warrant the condition of any item. The absence of a condition statement does not imply that the lot is in perfect condition or completely free from wear and tear, imperfections or the effects of aging. Buyers interested in the condition of an item are encouraged to contact Cowan’s and, to the best of our ability, we will document for the prospective Bidder the condition status on any lot. Condition is always a subjective evaluation and final responsibility rests with the buyer to assess the condition of any item sold by Cowan’s. 8) DEFINITIONS OF AUTHORSHIP “By” or “Maker/Artist” — in our opinion, the work is by the artist or maker stated “Attributed to” — in our opinion, the work is probably, but not definitely, by the artist or maker stated “Signed” or “Marked” — in our opinion, the signature or mark is that of the stated artist or maker “Bearing the signature (or mark) of” — in our opinion, the signature or mark is probably, but not definitely, that of the artist or maker stated “Circle of” — in our opinion, the work is of the period and by an artist or maker closely associated with the stated artist or maker “School of” — in our opinion, the work is by a pupil or follower of the stated artist or maker “Manner of” — in our opinion, the work is of the period and done in the style of the stated artist or maker “After” — in our opinion, the work is a copy of a work by the stated artist or maker ABSENTEE, TELEPHONE AND INTERNET BIDDING Absentee and telephone bidding is offered as a free service to our customers and prospective Bidders. Cowan’s shall not be responsible for any errors or failures in executing bids, either absentee, telephone or via the internet. Cowan’s cannot warrant or guarantee any phone or absentee bids made or altered on the day of the auction. All bids must be placed in U.S. Dollars and reflect the bid increments as defined by the Auctioneer. 156 THE ROAD WEST: THE STEVE TURNER COLLECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANA, PART I

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9) ABSENTEE BIDDING Absentee bids are accepted via phone, fax, email and on Cowan’s website. Such bids will be posted with the time and date of arrival, with ties being awarded to the earliest Bidder. Absentee bids that are faxed or emailed need to be received by the Cowan’s office at least 2 hours before the sale begins. All absentee bids are executed competitively by a member of the auction staff. The auction staff will try to purchase the lot for the lowest price possible and will bid up to the amount designated by the absentee Bidder only if necessary. Cowan’s does not accept “buy bids,” or absentee bids which have no limit. In the event of a tie bid between a floor and an absentee Bidder, the floor bid will be honored. 10) TELEPHONE BIDDING Bidding live via the telephone is available on a first come, first served basis. In order for Cowan’s to efficiently serve the needs of those who wish to bid by phone, please note the following: (a) To participate in the auction by telephone, potential Bidders must complete and sign the bid form and check “I WISH TO BID BY TELEPHONE” for the designated lots. Potential Bidders may also reserve a phone line on Cowan’s website. If faxing or emailing requests for phone bidding, they need to be received by the Cowan’s office at least 2 hours before the sale begins. Once the auction begins, bids left on Cowan’s website or emailed may not be retrieved by the staff. (b) As a registered telephone bidder, Bidders are aware the bidding begin at the minimum of one half of the low estimate. (c) Telephone Bidders are advised to indicate an “insurance bid”, which amount will become an absentee bid, pursuant to the absentee bidding process set forth above, if Cowan’s cannot reach the Bidder by telephone for a particular indicated lot. (d) Telephone Bidders must disable any caller ID or other call blocking mechanism. (e) Cowan’s sells about 75-100 lots per hour, so telephone Bidders should plan accordingly. Cowan’s will attempt to reach each telephone Bidder, but Cowan’s is in no way responsible for missed calls. 11) INTERNET BIDDING Internet bidding is available through our website; additionally, Cowan’s may post certain auctions on third party bidding platforms. At its discretion, Cowan’s may restrict select lots from internet bidding; restricted lots can be bid upon directly with Cowan’s via phone or absentee bidding. There may be terms which apply solely to internet bids that should be reviewed online at the time of sale. Cowan’s is not responsible for any failure to execute a bid and shall have no liability to any Bidder for any technical or other failure associated with an internet auction. 12) BIDDING INCREMENTS The following increments are used at the auction. Absentee bids must fall within these increments. Cowan’s will automatically adjust any absentee bid to the closest increment if the bid falls outside the published range of increments. For Bids Falling Between Bidding Increment $0-500 $25 $501-1,000 $50 $1,001-3,000 $100 $3,001-5,000 $250 $5,001 and up $500 or at the discretion of the auctioneer Cowan’s reserves the right to modify increments at any time during the auction. AFTER THE AUCTION 13) BUYER’S RESPONSIBILITY Upon the fall of the hammer, title to the offered lot shall pass to the buyer and the buyer immediately (a) assumes full risk and responsibility for the lot, including liability for loss or damage and (b) is liable for payment of the Purchase Price (as defined below) to Cowan’s. It is the buyer’s responsibility to ask specific questions on condition related concerns prior to the auction. Cowan’s will not rescind sales with buyers that have disputes regarding firearm’s bore condition. 14) PURCHASE PRICE AND PAYMENT The “Purchase Price” for each lot shall equal the hammer price, buyer’s premium, sales tax and, if applicable, all packing, handling, insurance and shipping costs. Buyers who are present at the auction must pay the full Purchase Price at the time of the sale. Buyers who bid by telephone, by internet, or who are absentee Bidders will be invoiced within 5 days after the close of the auction and must pay the full Purchase Price for each purchased lot within 14 days after the date of the auction. If no alternate payment has been arranged, Cowan’s may apply any balance due to the Buyer’s payment method on file after 14 days. No property will be released by Cowan’s unless the Purchase Price has been paid in full and the payment has cleared. Payments must be made with cash, personal or traveler’s check, money order, credit card or wire transfers. Returned checks are subject to an additional $45 return fee. Bidders from outside the continental United States are required to pay via wire transfer unless previously known to Cowan’s. For Fine Jewelry, Coin and Currency, and Fine Silver auctions, Bidders previously unknown to Cowan’s may purchase up to $1,000 via credit card with the remaining balance settled via cash, personal or traveler’s check or credit card or wire transfers. PLEASE NOTE: A surcharge of 3% will be assessed to all credit card transactions. This surcharge is not greater than our cost of acceptance. Institutional billing may be available, and should be arranged prior to the auction. Cowan’s may impose late charges of 1.5% per month (18% APR or the highest interest rate allowed) on any amount owed to Cowan’s that remains unpaid after 30 days. Buyer shall be liable for any collection costs or attorney’s fees incurred by Cowan’s to collect payment, to the extent permitted by law. 15) SALES TAX Buyers are required to pay any applicable state and local sales tax. 16) SHIPPING At the request of the buyer, Cowan’s will authorize the shipment of purchased items usually within two weeks after payment has been received. Shipment is generally made via UPS or Fed-Ex Ground. Unless buyer gives special instructions, the shipping method shall be at the sole discretion Cowan’s Auctions. Cowan’s is in no way responsible for the acts or omissions of independent handlers, packers or shippers of purchased items or for any loss, damage or delay from the packing or shipping of any property. ADVICE TO INTERNATIONAL BUYERS Cowan’s will not ship any package containing a firearm to any location other than within the United States. Buyers outside the United States must make their own shipping arrangements taking full risk for the transportation of any firearm. Property made of or containing certain plant or animal materials, such as coral, crocodile, ivory, whalebone, baleen, tortoiseshell, etc., may require a license or certificate before exportation from the United States and importation to another country. If a purchase contains these materials, the Buyer must check the government wildlife import requirements in the countries from which and to which the item is being shipped prior to bidding. Since the export and import licenses are independently issued by the countries of origin and destination, obtaining one does not guarantee that you can obtain the other. Purchasers are responsible for making timely payments on items won at auction, even if a license is delayed or denied. 17) SHIPPING CHARGES Buyers are required to pay for all packing, shipping and insurance charges. Overseas duty charges are the responsibility of the successful Bidder. Be aware that for larger and/or valuable items, shipping charges can be substantial. 18) REMOVAL AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY AND CANCELLATION OF SALE It is the responsibility of the Buyer to remove purchased property. If purchased property has not been removed, or Cowan’s has not received shipping instructions within 60 days after the auction date, Cowan’s may, at its option, cancel the sale, retaining as liquidated damages any payments made by the buyer, and/or resell the property at auction or by any other commercially reasonable means, for the account and at the risk of the buyer, and in such event, buyer shall be liable for the payment of all deficiencies plus all of Cowan’s costs, including but not limited to storage and costs of both sales. This right of cancellation is in addition to any and all other remedies available to Cowan’s. Copyright © 2020 Cowan’s LLC

FEBRUARY 20, 2020 157


6270 Este Avenue Cincinnati, 6270 Este AvenueOhio 45232 ph: 513.871.1670 Cincinnati, Ohio 45232 fx: 513.871.8670 ph: 513.871.1670 info@cowans.com fx: 513.871.8670 cowans.com info@cowans.com cowans.com

BID FORM

REGISTRATION NO.:

☐ PHONE ABSENTEE BID☐FORM ☐ PHONE ☐ ABSENTEE

REGISTRATION AUCTION:NO.: AUCTION: DATE/TIME RECEIVED: DATE/TIME RECEIVED: ☐REG:

☐REG:

☐CONF: (FOR☐ OFFICE USE ONLY) CONF: (FOR OFFICE USE ONLY)

NAME (please print) NAMEADDRESS (please print) ADDRESS CITY CITY PHONE (1)

STATE

ZIP

STATEPHONE (2)

ZIPEMAIL

Bids(1) must be received at least 24 hours in advance PHONE of the start(2) of the auction. Cowan’s will confirm all registered PHONE EMAIL bids by email as received. I authorize Cowan’s LLC 24 (“Cowan’s”) (i) enterof bids the of following lots upCowan’s to the price indicated in the “Absentee column; or (ii) reserve a telephone line for Bids must be received at least hours in to advance theonstart the auction. willI have confirm all registered bids by Bid” email as received.

telephone bidding. I request that if Cowan’s is unable to reach me for telephone bidding, that Cowan’s enter bids up to the price indicated in the “Insurance Bid” column. I I authorize Cowan’s that LLCCowan’s (“Cowan’s”) (i) enter bids on the following lots up to Ithe priceunderstand I have indicated in the “Absentee column; or and (ii) reserve a telephone lineasfora convenience for understand will to execute bids competitively on my behalf. further that Cowan’s executesBid” absentee bids allows telephone bids telephone bidding. Iand request that if Cowan’s is unable to for reach me to forexecute telephone that Cowan’s up to theorprice indicated in the Bid” column. I bidding at half customers that Cowan’s is not responsible failure bidsbidding, or for errors relating enter to thebids submission execution of my bids.“Insurance The auctioneer will open understand that estimate Cowan’s and will execute bids according competitively on increments my behalf. Ilaid further understand executes absenteeorbids and allows bids asincrements a convenience forrounded the low will advance to the out in our Termsthat andCowan’s Conditions. Any absentee insurance bids telephone placed at invalid will be customers that Cowan’s is notincrement. responsible for receive failure to execute for errors to theprice, submission execution of will my take bids.precedence. The auctioneer willcase openofbidding at half up and to the nearest bidding If we more than bids one or absentee bidrelating at the same the firstorone received In the a disputed bid, the the low estimate and will have advance increments out in our Terms and Conditions. Any absentee or insurance bids placed at invalid increments will be rounded auctioneer shall soleaccording discretion to in the determining thelaid purchaser. up to the nearest bidding increment. If we receive more than one absentee bid at the same price, the first one received will take precedence. In the case of a disputed bid, the I agree be bound by the Terms and Conditions for Bidders printed in the auction catalog and listed on Cowan’s website www.cowans.com and I understand that I am auctioneer shallto have sole discretion in determining the purchaser. responsible for determining the condition and authenticity of any lot prior to the auction, and that all items are sold AS IS with no returns or refunds. I agree to be bound by the Terms and Conditions for Bidders printed in the auction catalog and listed on Cowan’s website www.cowans.com and I understand that I am responsible for determining the condition and authenticity of any lot prior to the auction, and that all items are sold AS IS with no returns or refunds.

LOT NO. LOT NO.

DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION

INSURANCE BID BID BY ABSENTEE BID PHONE (phone bidders only) INSURANCE BID BID BY ABSENTEE BID $ $ bidders only) PHONE ☐ (phone

$ $ $ $ $ $ $

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐

☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$ ☐$

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

$ ☐ $ ☐ $ $ report and authorize Cowan’s,☐ $ By submitting this Bid Form, I authorize Cowan’s to obtain a copy of my individual consumer credit at its sole discretion, to use the information

contained therein to make business decisions regarding my participation in the bidding process. For all new and international bidders, Cowan’s may also authorize credit cards By submitting Bid Form, I authorize Cowan’s a copy my to individual consumer credit and authorize with a this nominal hold for up to 7 days prior to obtain the auction in of order determine the validity of report the card and bidder. Cowan’s, at its sole discretion, to use the information contained therein to make business decisions regarding my participation in the bidding process. For all new and international bidders, Cowan’s may also authorize credit cards If my bid is successful, I understand thatauction the purchase for each the lot will be the of the hammer with a nominal hold for up to 7 days prior to the in orderprice to determine validity of sum the card and bidder.price, the buyer’s premium, sales tax and all packing, handling, insurance and shipping costs (the “purchase price”). I understand that I will be invoiced within 5 days after the auction and that I will be responsible for paying Cowan’s the full purchase price If my bidimmediately is successful, I understand thatinvoice. the purchase price forbe each lot by willcash, be the sum of thetransfer, hammerorprice, buyer’s premium, sales tax and allsurcharge). packing, handling, insurance upon receipt of the Payment can made check, wire creditthe card (credit cards are subject to 3% By signing this bid form I and shipping costsCowan’s (the “purchase price”). I understand thatbelow I will be within 5 days thelot auction and my thatbid I will be responsible for paying Cowan’s full purchase price authorize to charge the credit card listed for invoiced the full purchase price after of each for which is successful, unless payment in full orthe alternative payment immediately upon receipt of the invoice. Payment can made bythe cash, check, transfer, or credit (credit are subject 3% surcharge). signing this bid I instructions are received by Cowan’s within 14be days after date of thewire auction. Cowan’s maycard impose latecards charges of 1.5%to per month (or the By highest interest rateform allowed) on any authorize Cowan’s to charge the credit card listed below for 30 thedays. full purchase price of each lot for which my bid is successful, unless payment in full or alternative payment amount owed to Cowan’s that remains unpaid after instructions are received by Cowan’s within 14 days after the date of the auction. Cowan’s may impose late charges of 1.5% per month (or the highest interest rate allowed) on any amount owed to Cowan’s that remains unpaid after 30 days.

CARD NUMBER:

EXP:

CARDNAME NUMBER: ON CARD:

EXP: BILLING ZIP:

NAME ON CARD:

BILLING ZIP:

CVC:

CVC:

BIDDER SIGNATURE:

DATE:

BIDDER SIGNATURE:

DATE:

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