Soroush Garivani 2014 - 2017
// table of contents
Design Stuido IV
Design Studio III
// a study on adaption of islamic patterns to building scale
Date: Feb 2017 Directors: Edouard Cabay - Rodrigo Aguirre Assistant: Ramtin Taherian Collaborators: Appareil (early research by Hsin Li and Jenrung Hong) Photography: Deed Studio Size: 5m x 3m x 4.5m
Regions Added To Finalize The 3-D Pattern
Role in the process: design process, fabrication files, documentation and presentation process 3-Dimensionalized Pattern
The research sets to challenge the superficiality of a geometric system by giving it depth, addressing its structure capacity and to deploy potentials of inhabitation. Rather than a canopy, a pavilion or a building, the experiment is simply an attempt to construct space, remote from any architectural typology; it can be defined as one of the many inhabitable material expressions resulting in the â€œthree-dimensionalizationâ€? and parameterisation of a mathematical system of grids. This workshop explored the adaptation of Islamic patterns to building scale with the use of 2 materials. A hard material,rebars, which will help to give structural stability and a soft material, fabric, which will serve as the skin of the finished structure. With both cases we relied on the local materials and techniques available. Such material exploration is key for the development of the systems core design.
Drawing of Pattern
Links: (click to open) Delta Z on Iaac blog Appareil
// 3 dimensionalization alternatives of different patterns
// design process diagram
// original islamic patterns
// patterns and their differentiated ones
The tile patterns contain a hidden system: a code – or an algorithm – or even a game of simple geometrical operations of symmetry and rotations, materially absent, yet strongly perceivable in its form because of its effect as an organisational system. The tiles are placed according to these rules, on either side of an imaginary axis, the axis is not physically constructed; it simply dictates an order as a network of hidden lines.
// 110 cm x 220 cm prototype of 3d pattern
The research sets to challenge the superficiality of a geometric system by giving it depth, addressing its structure capacity and to deploy potentials of inhabitation. Rather than a canopy, a pavilion or a building, the experiment is simply an attempt to construct space, remote from any architectural typology; it can be defined as one of the many inhabitable material expressions resulting in the “threedimensionalization” and parameterisation of a mathematical system of grids.
// 1:1 prototype
This workshop explored the adaptation of Islamic patterns to building scale with the use of 2 materials. A hard material,rebars, which will help to give structural stability and a soft material, fabric, which will serve as the skin of the finished structure. With both cases we relied on the local materials and techniques available. Such material exploration is key for the development of the systems core design.
CRAFT 2016 RE-ENVISIONING CANDELA
// a study on ruled surfaces, customized sandwich-structured composites and customized robotically fabrication
// Re-Envisioning Candela
Felix Candela frequently made use of the hyperbolic paraboloid, a form that made the construction of timber formwork easy because it is generated only from straight lines. The best example can be found in Los Manantiales Restaurant. We decided to focus only on ruled surfaces as Candela did, but since our material was a composite made of mostly polystyrene foam we decided to use a robotic arm that features a hot-wire tool in the fabrication process to cut the pieces for our final pavilion.
Date: September 2016 Directors: Zubin Khabazi, Mehran Davari Tutors: Arman Khalilbeigi, Esmail Motaghi, Sina Salimzade, Yasamin Khalilbeigi and Kunaljit Singh Chadha Assistant Tutor: Soroush Garivani Material: Sandwich Structured Composites Size: 4.20m x 4.20m x 3.40m Variable Thickness of Shell
Role in the process: design method, material research, robotic fabrication files, fabrication and assembly. For the third year of this program, the agenda is to further push the fabrication of curved surfaces with composite materials. However this time, the design studies of the work will be shifted from pure mathematics to the work and legacy of Felix Candela which still features a good deal of math and geometry in his works. By â€˜Re-Envisioning Candelaâ€™, the idea is to study the intricacy as well as technicality and methodology of his work and to push it towards further computational design of the shell/surface geometries. Using the strategies like hyperbolic paraboloid geometries and ruled surfaces to generate ultrathin shell structures, the aim is to see the potentials and embed them in the design of composite surface geometries.
Links: (click to open) Tehran CRAFT website
// hyperbolic paraboloid
// Los Manantiales restaurant
FE Analysis of Shell Structure
// KUKA KR 150-240-2 with a hotwire cutter tool
Pluckers Surface Deformed
// Material Research In terms of material system, this year’s focus is on Sandwich-Structured Composites, which is one step further than the normal fiber composite surface. Sandwich structured composite are helping to strengthen the load-bearing/bending-resistance capacities of the composite and make it a suitable method for making functional curved surfaces. Using a low-density core with hi-density coating, the result would be similar to industrial sandwich panels. But here, based on the fabrication strategy, Customized Sandwich-Structured Composites would be used for the construction of the project.
cobalt / activator
acid / hardener
// These elements combined together would make our coating which would be applied on our polystyrene foam core. // Variable Offset Based on FE Analysis
polyvinyl acetat / applied up to 5 layers
// Polyester resin will dissolve foam so it’s necessary to cover the foam before applying resin. We found out that polyvinyl acetat can protect the foam dissolving againts the resin.
In the finite element stress analysis use is made of newly developed linear, quadratic, and cubic, variable thickness, elements based on axisymmetric Mindlin‐Reissner shell theory. An integrated approach is used to carry out the whole shape optimization process in a fully automatic manner. A robust, versatile and flexible mesh generator is incorporated with facilities for generating either uniform or graded meshes, with constant, linear, or cubic variation of thickness, pressure etc. The midsurface geometry and thickness variations of the axisymmetric shell structure are defined using cubic splines passing through certain key points. The design variables are chosen as the coordinates and/or the thickness at the key points. Variable linking procedures are also included. Sensitivity analysis is carried out using either a semi‐analytical method or a global finite difference method. The objective of the optimization is the weight minimization of the structure.
// Fabrication Process As it is always an integral part of the CRAFT programs, analogue and digital would be incorporated again, and the fabrication process is tailored around the needs and necessities of the project. Thus making relevant tools, and development of the techniques are part of the work, parallel to the design development. In this yearâ€™s fabrication strategy, robotic arm (Kuka kr 150-240-2) is used to wire cut the polysterene foam pieces which will be the core of our sandwich strucured composites for this yearâ€™s pavilion. Bottum-Up design strategies focused on fabrication method are followed during the design process. This is helping to fabricate more complex products, where in combination with the material system of the project, is leaded towards the realization of the Customized Robotically Fabricated, Sandwich-Structured Composites. // Subdivision Process The hot-wire tool that we used was 100 x 100 cm therefore we used 50 x 50 x 100 cm blocks of polystyrene foam and then subtracted them using the hot wire to get to the final pieces that were needed. So we had to make sure our pieces had a bounding box less than that and also we had to minimize the number of pieces for fabrication and assembly ease. In addition to that we had make sure the cutted surfaces are also ruled. For that purpose we used isocurves of original surface and an evloutionary algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the number of pieces and also checking every output with the bounding box to make sure they fit in it.
// UV subdivision of surface
// a study on 3d graphical statics using polyhedral reciprocal diagrams
Date: July 2016 - on-going Directors: Masoud Akbarzadeh - Mehrad Mahnia Ramtin Taherian - Amirhossein Tabrizi Material: GFRC Size: 8m x 10m x 3.3m Role in the process: design process, volumetric design process, digital fabrication files and concrete casting.
Form Diagram Perpendiculared (deviation < 1°)
Force Diagram Form Diagram
The workshop is based on a research by Masoud Akbarzadeh , Block Research Group at ETH, developing a three-dimensional extension of graphic statics, based on polyhedral form and force diagrams, for compression-only and tension-only spatial structures with externally applied loads. The design idea started with an inspiration by a 2D drawing of fractal branching structure by Frei Otto which was then developed to 3D spatial structure. After the final form was decided we developed a customized “volumetric process” to have our final form. For the fabrication part we had to cast glass-fiber reinforced concrete into customized CNC milled/ Hotwired molds to have our final pieces.
Links: (click to open) Three-dimensional polyhedral reciprocal diagrams on block research group website
Force Diagram Exploded
// Joints Volumetric Process
2. Sphere | Crvs intersection
3. Intersection points covex hull
- Tension Members
4. Circles on midpoint of crvs
5. Circles | Convex hull int.
6. Arcsâ€™ midpoints from shattered circles
8. Sections moved to center
9. Connecting corresponding edges
- Rigid Connections
- Male-Female Connections
10. Sections moved out
11. Added lines for filleting effect
12. Final Joint
0.01 cm - Displacement Diagram
- Support Members
// Fabrication Process There were several parts in fabrication process: The supports were folded metal sheets which were then welded together and coated. The molds for arms were polystyrene foams hotwired using a 4axis cnc machine. The molds for joints were also polystyrene foams that were cnc milled using a 3 axis cnc machine, both types of molds were coated withv epoxy resin to become durable for concrete casting. since the model was symmetrical we made molds for a third of parts and the casted concrete 3times. finally the concrete pieces were cured and prepared for assembly.
// Preliminary Design Ideas
DESIGN STUDIO IV // designing a multi-purpose complex
Date: Oct. 2015 - Feb. 2016 Director: Mahmoud FeizAbadi Assistants: Hadi Motevali - Negar Mohtashami Area: 5000 sqm
The project sought to enable a continuation of the shopping mallâ€™s original character which was based on exclusive materials and a hospitable atmosphere, translated into a new and contemporary materiality. The goal was to rationalize and modernize the mall, building on the existing atmosphere without copying the old patterns. The brief was to elevate the mall to a high end shopping destination in way that felt intimate and exclusive. Researching on the new technologies and structural systems, specially structual surfaces, were key points of this projects.
// Minimal Surfaces In mathematics, a minimal surface is a surface that locally minimizes its area. This is equivalent to having a mean curvature of zero. Physical models of area-minimizing minimal surfaces can be made by dipping a wire frame into a soap solution, forming a soap film, which is a minimal surface whose boundary is the wire frame. However the term is used for more general surfaces that may self-intersect or do not have constraints. Examples: - The Plane, which is a trivial case - Catenoids, minimal surfaces made by rotating a catenary around its directrional axis - Helicoids, A surface swept out by a line rotating with uniform velocity around an axis perpendicular to the line and simultaneously moving along the axis with uniform velocity - Schwarz minimal surfaces, triply periodic surfaces that fill R3
The Neovius surface is a module in this design that is morphed into different shapes depending on the base polygon geometry. The form was optimized to reach necessary area for different functions of the mall.
// 3d Voronoi n mathematics, a Voronoi diagram is a partitioning of a plane into regions based on distance to points in a specific subset of the plane. In 3D we can also divide space according to proximity to points, giving polyhedral cells -like bubbles in a foam- and this is usually what is referred to as a 3D Voronoi (and what has gained popularity within architecture).
// Funicular Shells A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is small compared to its other dimensions and in which deformations are not large compared to thickness. A primary difference between a shell structure and a plate structure is that, in the unstressed state, the shell structure has curvature as opposed to the plates structure which is flat. In physics and geometry, a catenary is the curve that an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its own weight when supported only at its ends. The curve has a U-like shape, superficially similar in appearance to a parabola, but it is not a parabola: it is a (scaled, rotated) graph of the hyperbolic cosine. The curve appears in the design of certain types of arches and as a cross section of the catenoidâ€”the shape assumed by a soap film bounded by two parallel circular rings. The catenary is also called the alysoid, chainette,or, particularly in the material sciences, funicular.
// Structural Analysis
// the projects and the city
Given the fact that the projects site was inside the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and the publicity of shopping malls, It was an opportunity to blend the society and the city into the university. Therefore, the programs and the design was meant to serve to the city rather than itâ€™s site. In addition to that, Using funicular funnel shells provided the opportunity to use large spans and freedom in the design of interiors and it was also providing views, lights, etc.
CRAFT 2015 // a research on composite materials and fabrication of double curved surfaces
Date: September 2015 Directors: Zubin Khabazi, Mehran Davari Assistant Tutor: Ramtin Taherian Material: Composite Material Size: 3m x 3m x 3m
Role in the process: design process, fabrication process and assembly. Pushing forward the 2014 agenda, here the idea is to further continue on working with free-form surfaces to make them with composite materials using flexible forming technique. The idea of design started with Gyroid minimal surface, but to see how further it could be manipulated and deformed to be able to use it as a pavilion. This yearâ€™s scenario was more like a negative geometry of a surface as subtracted from its bounding box. This helped to have some regular sides, parallel to the walls of the old building, yet the space inside would allow for the experience of a flexible language of design. Craft 2015 pavilion has been assembled together in Vartan historical house in the central areas of Tehran.
The selected surface will be subtracted from this cube
Gyroid surface // some of the alternatives for the subtractive surface
*The project was exhibited in the first Tehran Architecture Biennale. Links: (click to open) Tehran CRAFT website Design and Fabrication Video on Vimeo CRAFT 2015 Pavilion on Architizer
Blue points represents the answers of gyroid equation: sin(x) . cos(y) + sin(y) . cos(z) + sin(z) . cos(x) = 0
Grid of Points
// Material Research Composite material systems were the initial idea to be used in this work. The important part was to make sure that the flexible formwork system would match the desired material outcome, based on its size and geometry. Polyester resins was the material we chose. Because of the controlability it brings, and also its ability to be combined with layers of fiber glass as reinforcment, which gives desired strength and structural stability. Polyester resin is of the â€˜unsaturatedâ€™ type which is thermo-set, capable of being cured from a liquid or solid state when subject to the right conditions. The polyester resin consist of two essential components: a base resin and a hardener to initiate a reaction whereby the liquid materials will solidify into a hard, durable plastic.
Final Piece Ready to be Assembled
Resin Fiber-glass Composite // RCA-0206004 Activator
// Fabrication Process For the fabrication we subdivided the model into 12 pieces to have smaller parts to handle. Then, made a waffle structure, made of cnc cutted sheets of MDF, for each piece to act as a formwork for our double curve surface. After that we covered the waffle structure with a layer of fabric as the base layer and applied a layer of polyester resin, fiberglass, and again a layer of resin, This would be our composite material. Finally, when the pieces were cured and ready we had to assemble these 12 pieces to get the final model which then was polished and painted and refined.
SMALL OBJECTS // a bottom up design approach to product design
Date: June 2015 Indivisual Project in collaboration with Behsang Co. Material: Honey-Onyx Marble Size: 50 cm x 50 cm x 60 m Role in the process: design, digital fabrication process and assembly.
The idea was to create a vase using minimum amount of materials, which also means reducing the waste materials. The form of the vase was inspired from Le Corbusier’s ‘’Unité d’habitation’’ in Marseille, France. There are 20 layers that form the vase, which are extracted from four 60*60 honey onyx marble tiles, Using water jet cutting system. Besides, the honey onyx marble is translucent so the vase can also be used as a lighting source for indoors. By rotating the layers, Form of the vase alters in different ways. Links: (click to open) Behsang company
20 layers, divided to 4 groups; every 4th layer in one group creating 4 groups to have an overlap to make it able to be assembled without any rotation
All the layers together
// different variations achieved only by rotating the layers
layers 1 to 20
// design process diagram
DESIGN STUDIO III
// exploded diagram
// designing a learning environment
Date: Feb. 2015 - Jun. 2015 Director: Naghmeh Talaei Assistants: Hadi Motevali - Nooshin Hasani Area: 2000 sqm
// the school and the site
Amin Park individual project
Located by a local park in north Amin street, the site where the school is located has 3 street facades and a facade facing Boostan-e Amin. The north side of the site is in front of Sajad sports complex. As the emphasis in modern education in classrooms based on methods dropped steadily and more individual education and group based work rose the traditional classroom came to be considered too small. The center of classroom teaching and learning activity shifted to the entrails of the building. This changed the nature of these cavernous chilly ancillary spaces which were usually too long and too tall and often dimly lit, into living and working spaces. The change begins with workplaces outside the classroom where children can .work individually or in groups, curriculum permitting
The site is interpreted as an extenstion of the sorrounding park, all within an urban block
Connecting Landscape The south edge is lowered to blend the park and school
Daylight Two spaces are hollowded to provide direct sunlight to the yards and internal spaces
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
entrance gymnasium & multi functional space working balconies outdoor classes outdoor games learning street green roof corridor view to park articulated classroom community hall
PAPER HOUSE // a study on 2D graphic statics and funicular shells
Date: Decemeber 2014 / One Week Workshop Tutors: Akram Hosseini, Milad Rezazadeh, Mahsa Rezazadeh Material: Corrugated Cardboard Size: 5.6m x 3.8m x 2.8m
Role in the process: design process, digital fabrication process and assembly.
In December 2014 we had a workshop in our university called â€œpaperhouseâ€? and the project was about designing and building a pavilion for students of our faculty. a place inside the faculty area where students would be able to communicate with each other or doing their daily works and working on their projects and studying, and our team decided to design some kind of vault to make a space for students to relax and enjoy. We designed a vault to create a shaded space in the atrium of our faculty using the RhinoVault for the design process and form finding and we used grasshopper and rhino to prepare the model for digital fabrication. the material we used was cardboards since the aim of the course was to use recycling material and was called paperhouse!
Relaxed Form Diagram
Boundary Curve *The project won the RhinoVAULT case study prize.
Links: (click to open) Paper-House on Block Research Group blog Paper-House on Youtube
// the diagram explains the form-finding process of pavilion