Law Library Annual Report 1991/92
SELF-STUDY To better understand the work, concerns and aspirations o f each Cornell law librarian and to set the ground work for future planning, the Cornell Law Librarians wrote a Self-study and Longrange planning document. Each librarian wrote at least one section and then joined in the staff meetings to discuss every section draft and redraft. The completed study can provide the basis for setting priorities in the years to come. A copy is attached.
BUILDING In the third year after construction, we can identify two welcome, if unexpected, benefits: (a) The Reading Room is much quieter, a true study space rather than a social hall, as students now have many other spaces to meet and greet each other, (b) The Open Reserve area guarantees access to recent journals so the Law Review staff no longer feel the need to check out and keep every cited issue. Therefore, these materials are much more readily available to others. Three first floor carrels have been connected to the Law School computer network, allowing students to access the network with their personal equipment.
STAFFING We had no turn-over in our professional staff this year and less than usual in the rest o f the staff. When Chris Standish resigned as Circulation/Reserve Supervisor, we were very fortunate to be able to replace him with Nancy Moore, a treasured former employee, back after a sojourn to Maine and in Olin's Interlibrary Loan Department. Nancy now handles all o f our interlibrary loan and provides reference back-up as necessary. A Syracuse library school student worked here as an intern for six weeks during the summer, assisting in both Acquisitions and Cataloging as he learned how libraries really work. As the year closed we prepared for reassignment o f duties in the A/V-Computer Lab. For a one-year trial, the line occupied by Leonardo Vargas Mendez (Multi-Media/Computer Assistant) and that o f the Law School Educational Technologies Media Technician will be merged into one full-time position within the Law School. Given the need for the technician leave the area to provide audio/video support in the classroom, student assistants will be scheduled in the Lab whenever that area is open. This joint arrangement will be reassessed at the end o f next year.
PUBLIC SERVICES A.
The final piece o f the Law Library's automated system, on-line circulation, came into use in August o f 1991 with no fatalities on either side o f the desk. Implementation followed a summer o f barcoding one-fourth o f the collection and o f intensive training for the public services staff. Changing from a hand-written, manual system to an on-line system forced us to rethink virtually every aspect o f the circulation operation. The resultant changes required considerable flexibility and patience on the part o f all the staff. We began assessing over-due fines by adopting the procedures used by the rest o f the libraries on campus. Because many o f our materials do not circulate at all or only selectively, e.g. to the Law School community or to locations within Myron Taylor Hall, the staff has had to be innovative in order to keep within the boundaries o f the NOTIS system and at the same time continue to circulate according to policies which support the academic mission o f the Law School. By the end o f the academic year, we had enough experience to refine the on-line fine procedure and to circulate the course reserve collection on-line. We have begun a sweep o f faculty offices to move all library materials there from manual to on-line circulation. By the end o f the summer we will have virtually eliminated the manual circulation file. B.
Several new reference services were introduced this year as Pat Court and Linda Karr O'Connor hit their stride as our Reference Librarians: 1.
Advanced legal research seminars were offered as one-hour presentations on specialized topics (such as environmental law, federal legislative history and European Community law).
A "Commando Legal Research" film festival was presented for three days showing the video-taped series o f that name.
The Law Library Letter, a quarterly newsletter highlighting the services, resources and policies o f the Law Library, was instituted, with Pat Court as editor.
Research appointments for extended consultation by students or faculty with specific problems were available with either Pat or Linda. This proved to be particularly popular with summer associates going to a new state.
LL.M. Orientation, held before classes started in August, included for the first time, lectures to familiarize those students with U.S. legal publication patterns and research methods.
C. Other activities John Hakso secured approval from Cornell Life Safety to install a photocopier in the Open Reserve area of the old stacks. Not only was a new copier installed there, but a new vendor replaced all library public photocopiers with new equipment, a much needed improvement. W ith this equipment came Venda-Card units which allow the same cards to be used in every library on campus. A new reader/printer for microforms has been promised for early in the next fiscal year, which will make that portion o f the collection much more useable. LEXIS and WESTLAW continue to be upgraded. This year Westlaw added DIALOG to their package, making that large and varied resource available to our clientele without direct charge and with WESTLAW's sophisticated search engine. Laser printers were provided by both vendors for use o f faculty and library staff; LEXIS has provided a dedicated printer to be shared by the student journals, and WESTLAW has promised one in the near future.
TECHNICAL SERVICES A.
Our Technical Services staff continues to be extraordinarily productive, maintaining its very high ranking in the statistical comparisons o f large law libraries. Our goal o f converting all our card catalog records to machine-readable form ("Recon") came much closer this year as Diane Hillmann obtained a grant for $15,000 from the South Central Research Libraries Council for staff and equipment to convert and reclassify our European Community and general law (K 1-9999) collections. Diane has applied for a renewal o f this grant for 1992/93, to add United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and New York state records to the onÂ line catalog. The regular staff already have completed the conversion for United States materials classified in KF 300-9999. To accommodate the on-line circulation o f Congressional hearings, the cataloging staff now adds the Law Library holding information to the NOTIS record for each newly received hearing and for older hearings as they circulate, rather than leave them under the inclusive record for committee hearings. Because Olin Library has consistently done this for their hearings collection, we can attach our location with very little staff effort. This will provide on-line subject access to this collection,
in addition to the Congressional Information Service indices. As a side benefit, this will increase our statistics for titles cataloged. B.
Collection Development and Maintenance
The largest single unit added to the collection this year was the New York Court o f Appeals records and briefs for the years 1915 - 1925, more than 1,200 volumes, given to us by the Supreme Court Library in Binghamton. This gift was especially welcome now as we have been borrowing briefs for this period from other libraries to support the research o f Professor Polenberg and his students. Expenditures for new titles have increased 11% in the past two years, from $68,787 in 1989/90 to $76,641 in 1991/92. At the same time our continuations expenditures increased 26%, from $532,452 in 1989/90 to $673,386 in 1991/92. To help control these serial costs, we continue to review each continuations invoice for value received. Questionable items are then evaluated by the librarians, in consultation with interested faculty. After several years, we are finding fewer and fewer subscriptions that can be canceled. In 1990/91 we canceled 165 titles, in 1991/92 only 53. At the end o f this year we asked the faculty to review the entire Matthew Bender subscription list, as that company had increased its prices 60% in the last two years. The results o f this review will be implemented next year. Missing books received more attention this year than for several years. As missing books were identified during barcoding, the librarian decided which should be replaced. Monographs currently available were ordered at a cost o f $2,071 (as opposed to $69 spent last year). Replacement cost o f journals and other continuations was $5,944, up from $4,841 last year. A complete review o f the serials check-in file (Kardex) was begun. Non-current records were reviewed by the collection development committee; some were claimed; others were moved to the "dead file" because (a) they were no longer within our collection profile, e.g. reports o f state tax commissions, (b) better alternatives are now available or (c) the title is no longer published. O f those not claimed, some with very scattered holdings were withdrawn. A total o f 2,134 volumes were withdrawn this year, compared with 1,386 last year and 618 the year before.
Cornell Law Library Myron Taylor Hall Ithaca, New York 14853 Phone: F a x:
(6 0 7 ) 255-5857 (6 0 7 ) 255-7193
Self-Btudy and Long-range planning Spring 1992
This document is a statement drafted, jointly, by the librarians of the Cornell Law Library to reflect their perceptions of the present position of the Library and their plans for its future. Its preparation provided an opportunity for each librarian to be involved in the planning for every area of the library's operation. This plan is designed not to preempt the next director of this Library but to provide a considered statement on which to base further planning. I.
ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE A.
The Cornell Law Library is an integral part of the Cornell University Library (CUL), yet is closely identified with the Cornell Law School, its mission, program, faculty and students. This dual allegiance works remarkably well in general, but a few, select points can create tensions 1. Many aspects of the Law Library are totally CUL activities. This includes all activity involving NOTIS and RLIN, personnel appointment and promotion, and conservation. 2. Collection development is loosely coordinated in that the Law Library follows campus-wide procedures, especially involving NOTIS, but actual purchase decisions are within the province of the Law Library staff. The Law Library participates in the CUL blanket order plan for university press publications and in one approval plan by selecting materials from them as needed. The social science selectors across campus coordinate some expensive purchases and also work to avoid unnecessary duplication. 3. The Law School ultimately pays most of the cost of the Law Library. This can lead administrators in the Law School to seek more control over this expensive part of the enterprise. The Dean appoints a faculty Library Committee, with the Law Librarian as an ex-officio member, to consider library issues at the policy level. In practice, the Associate Law Librarian also attends meetings of the library committee. 4. The creation of the audio-visual/open reserve/computer area within the library following the building renovation has created some
management issues which are still being worked out, particularly staffing. Presently the day person is on the library payroll and the evening person is on the Law School payroll. The equipment has been provided by the Law Library, the Law School and the online vendors. The maintenance of all computer equipment in the labs is the responsibility of the Law School's Educational Technologies Department. How much maintenance that department will assume for library staff equipment is still an open question. All of the library's Administrative and Public Services computers are now on the Law School Network. Negotiations are underway to extend that network to the Technical Services staff, moving their access to NOTIS, RLIN, etc. to Ethernet through the Law School node with support from the Law School staff. While * network support will certainly be provided by the Law School, support for the hardware is still being negotiated. Software advice, support and training from any source is marginal. 5. Allocation of space in Myron Taylor creates the same pressures as occur in all jointly occupied buildings. Since the expansion/renovation waB completed, the Law Library has lost the room used by the Public Services staff and, upon the retirement of the present director of alumni affairs, will probably lose an office adjacent to that room and regain use of the group study room now occupied by the alumni director. B.
The Law Library is divided into two departments - Public Services and Technical Services - plus a small administrative unit. At one time the Acquisitions and Cataloging units were very separate, but they now function as one coordinated department. For the official organization chart, see Appendix A. The functional split between Public Services and Technical Services is becoming less pronounced as automation is implemented. For instance, online circulation enables the binding unit to enter "circulation" records for material going to and from the bindery. Before the building expansion, the Kardex unit was very close to the circulation desk and provided immediate reference support. Having moved some distance from the public service stations, the serials staff are no longer positioned to provide convenient personal support, but their online check-in records are immediately available to staff and patrons. The barcoding project requires very close coordination of the activities of both departments. All of these activities create the need for good communication between the departments. To facilitate this interaction, we maintain a list of "job duties" which is most specific on those activities which affect the other department. (Appendix B) II.
A. The Law Library occupies about 68,000 gross square feet in Myron Taylor Hall and the Jane Foster Annex, with a net square footage of 51,534. This includes 100,000 linear feet of shelving, 450 reader stations of which 200 are carrels and 7,000 net square feet of staff work areas.
B. The book collection (including the unbound U.S. Supreme Court briefs) now occupies 63,600 linear feet of shelving. The total volumes added for the last four years has averaged 8306; subtracting volumes that were withdrawn gives a net average growth over that period of 6727. At this rate the library will not reach its working limit of 85% of capacity until well into the twenty-first century. However, this rate of growth will probably increase because we have been withdrawing many more volumes than usual as part of the barcoding and Kardex review projects described below. The upper stack level of the Jane Foster building has the floor load capacity for moveable shelving, which means that the existing conventional stacks could be replaced with moveable shelving to increase the book capacity on that level by 7,000 - 10,000 linear~feet. 1. Presently the pressure points for book space are: (1) the first floor cage where the growth of the state statutes and session laws Bennett collection is creating pressure for more secure space, (2) the Reading Room where the growth of the regional and federal reporters creates constant need to move material to other locations, (3) fourth floor stacks, which houses most of the material moved from the Reading Room. The early state reports have been moved from this area to the compact shelving on the B level. 2. Microform storage space is becoming very tight. The spaces originally designed for microform storage are now occupied by the Public Services work room and the two offices off the third floor stacks. The fire hose on the wall of the remaining space limits the arrangement of the cabinets there. Moving all of the microforms and readers to the ground level of the new stacks may be necessary at some time, but the need for staff assistance in the use of the reader/printers makes this a less than satisfactory solution, especially since the volume equivalents in microform now equal about onefourth of the hard-copy collection. C. Staff work space doubled with the addition and renovation of the building. Room 340, the Technical Services area, has proved very satisfactory. The severe floor-load constraints of that space have been overcome by careful placement of file cabinets and other heavy equipment. D. Improved library security through controlling access points was vetoed by the Building Committee planning the Myron Taylor expansion and renovations; in fact, more unsecured interior and exterior doors were installed. Several equipment thefts in 1991 mandated some rekeying of the library and faculty office areas and more restrictions on the distribution of master keys. This had a direct impact on service: because the administrative corridor is locked weekends and evenings when the night supervisor is not working, the circulation staff cannot retrieve material from the unbound periodical room during those periods. Fortunately almost all the material in the unbound journal room is duplicated in the Open Reserve Area.
Source of funds
1. The Cornell University Library budget comes directly from the Provost and a portion is then reassigned by the CUL administration to the Law Library in three discrete categories. a. The Acquisitions budget covers all library materials, including those in machine readable form, as well as binding and all other preservation activity. The amount of these "appropriated funds" is determined by the Assistant University Librarian for Collection Development. The conservation of rare books done by the CUL Conservation Lab is funded from the CUL conservation budget. b. The personnel budget includes all nonâ€”student staff except for that portion of the director's salary which is attributable to her joint appointment on the Law School faculty. Initial salaries are negotiated by the Law Library Director and the CUL Personnel Director. Significant departures from previous norms are made only with the prior approval of the Law School Dean. The increment pool is the same as that given to all CUL departments. Distribution of the pool within the Law Library is made by the Director in consultation with the two department heads. c. Equipment and general expenses are funded by the CUL Director of Administrative Operations. Some of theBe expenses are never allocated specifically to the Law Library, most notably RLG, RLIN and NOTIS. Other expenses, such as communication costs, are allocated to the Law Library but are not within the Law Library's budget (neither positive or negative year-end balances accrue to the Law Library). Another group of expenses are paid from the Law Library's general expense budget, which the librarian can allocate as needed with negative and positive balances carried forward. This fund is used primarily for consumable supplies, printing, telecommunications and equipment maintenance. Student wages also appear in this fund, but all funds in that line item are transfers from the Law School as the allocation from CUL is zero since the base allocation was converted to a regular parttime staff position for stack maintenance. Finally, all capital equipment, i.e. items costing more than $500, is funded directly by the CUL Director of Administrative Operations, following an elaborate request and evaluation procedure. 2. The Law School Dean pays for the Law Library in three ways: (a) by direct payment of specific costs (LEXIS, WESTLAW and the computer lab), (b) by direct transfer to CUL budget lines and (c) by paying indirect charges assessed by the central university administration.
a. The direct payments of LEXIS and WESTLAW char that these contracts are negotiated by the Law School Dean, in consultation with the Head of Public Services, rather than by CUL. These contracts include accounts for individual faculty and law students. The support of the computing lab includes not only hardware and network support, but also the staff member who works the evening shift and all of the consulting done by 4
other members of the Law School's Educational Technology staff. b. The direct contribution to CUL is made by the Dean of the Law School, based on the request from the Director of the Law Library. Originally a supplement to the acquisitions budget, it is now used also for student wages. Its division among the Law Library's budget lines is at the discretion of the Law Library Director. c. The indirect charges made by the Provost to the Law School for the Law Library are a percentage of the CUL appropriated money designated for the Law Library. This percentage, now 88%, is the percentage of law/non-law use of the Library as determined by a user survey conducted periodically at the behest of the University Controller. 3. Endowments designated for the Law Library presently return an annual income of over $20,000 for "purchase of law books." An outside trust earns about $3500. The income from the Comparative Law Fund (described further in the Collection Development section below) is considered "unrestricted" and may be used for equipment or other Law Library needs. 4. Direct gifts and incidental income do not add significant sums to the budget. Fine income is returned to the Law Library as unrestricted income. Beginning with fiscal 1992/93, the Law Library will receive one cent for every photocopy made on the coin-operated copy machines in the building. The staff has agreed that the fine income be designated "to improve the quality of life around here," more specifically for small, unbudgeted items and that the photocopy income be used for professional development. 5. Grant funding has been rare and devoted exclusively to the conversion of the card catalog to machine-readable records. Most funding agencies require matching funds, which are very difficult for this library to provide given our limited, over-committed staff. At this point, the maximum we can commit to matching funds seems to be a half-time person, with minimal professional supervision, i.e. $15,000 a year including salary and fringes for staff member and supervisor. B.
Staff compensation reflects the endemic problems of librarianship and educational institutions: low initial salaries and increments frequently below the increase in the cost of living. Salary has not been a problem in attracting support staff, but at times it has been an issue for entry level professional librarians. Then, when the entry level salary is adjusted upward, the resulting compression of the entire salary scale is most unfair. The CUL administration is aware of this problem (being reminded by the CUL Annual Report of the Committee on the Economic Status of Librarians) but has no source for funds to relieve the situation. Usually funds can be found to make competitive offers when hiring experienced librarians. C. The materials budget is discussed in the Collection Development section immediately below. 5
Collection development in the Law Library is driven primarily by the status of the Law Library as a research collection and as the depository of materials which support the academic program of the Law School. As a consequence, there is very little in the collection which could be described as "practitioner-oriented." A significant portion of the collection consists of continuations in the form of court reporters, statutes, law reviews and journals, and looseleaf services. The runs on most of these types of publications are quite complete, and generally start with volume 1 of such tools. In the past few years, as the costs of maintaining continuations subscriptions have increased, we have been forced to cancel some of these subscriptions; looseleaf services have been the hardest hit among these cancellations. In some cases, the decisions regarding just what to cancel have been made on a comparison of cost to use. In other cases, competing publications dealing with the same subject have been compared and contrasted, with resulting cancellations. The increase in the cost of subscriptions to continuations has also had an impact on the addition of monographs to the collection. Since more of the acquisitions budget is required to keep active our continuations, there is less money available to purchase monographs. Very hard choices have been made regarding such purchases in the past few years. Our ability to maintain depth in the collection will be seriously jeopardized if funding for acquisitions remains at its current level. The recent nation-wide movement for diversity will have an impact on the collection, e.g., Critical Legal Studies, Law & Literature, Feminism & the Law, and other similar courses have arrived or are on the horizon. Materials will have to be purchased to support those courses and the research of the faculty teaching them. A great advantage of having the campus-wide online catalog available through the law school network is that faculty can determine immediately if materials are available anywhere on campus. The law school hires a student to retrieve materials from other campus libraries at the request.of law faculty members. A.
The Law Library does not have a policy of purchasing rare or valuable materials. We do occasionally receive material with one or both of these qualities as gifts. We are lucky to also have a number of visitors each year who have identified materials in the stacks which are worthy of special treatment. The Rare Book Room exists for the housing of Law materials which fall into the categories of rare or valuable. The physical condition of the material currently in the Rare Book Room is mixed. While temperature and humidity in the Rare Book Room are controlled, creating an excellent environment for books, several of the items in that collection came to us in less than perfect condition. An inventory of the Rare Book Room has identified several pieces in a severe state of 6
deterioration. Yet to be addressed is how to deal with this situation. Preservation and replacement both generate significant costs. Only a small proportion of the needed work can be funded through the CUL Conservation Department. In addition to rare and valuable gifts, we also receive items which are not so rare or valuable, but do add depth to the collection. Such donations usually come from retired professors or alumni, and they are considerable in number. A very significant amount of time is spent by staff in identifying what should be added, processing the additions, and disposing of the items not chosen for addition. One of the most distinctive pieces of the Law Library is the Bennett Collection of Statutory Law, which houses the session laws and prior codes of all the states and the U.S. While most law libraries have chosen to collect this sort of material in microformat, Cornell has been lucky in receiving endowment funds to support the addition to that collection of this material in paper. The hope is that the endowment income will allow such collection to continue. A limitation on that collection, however, is the decreasing amount of space left in the secure part of the Law Library where the Bennett Collection resides. For ease of use, the collection is kept together in the locked cage on the first floor, rather than having the rarest materials in the Rare Book Room. B.
While choices must be made regarding the addition of materials in paper format, developing technologies add another wrinkle to the selection process. Increasingly more materials are becoming available in CD-ROM. In addition to the cost of subscribing to the CD-ROM product, equipment to run the disks is another cost. We currently have subscriptions to 3 indexes on CD-ROM; we have 3 separate workstations to run these products. CD-ROM as a viable format for collecting research information is less than a decade old. Another generation of technology may be out there on the verge of taking its place in library settings. As with microforms, online databases, and CD-ROMs, reasoned decisions will have to be made regarding these new formats as they become available. C.
With the implementation of the Online Catalog and online circulation, barcoding of the collection has proceeded in earnest. The barcoding project has turned up several opportunities for the weeding of the collection. Barcoding has effected the first systematic inventory of the Law Library collection. The weeding which has been an offshoot of that inventory will continue as more material is barcoded. Weeding of the reserve materials occurs, to some extent, automatically, as new editions of publications are added to those collections. The hiring of new reference staff has occasioned the weeding of the reference collection as these individuals survey those pieces as part of their orientation.
Recon projects also are used to weed the collection. Staff may be instructed to ask the Law Librarian for decisions on keeping multiple copies of works being cataloged and also on keeping titles for which no RLIN or LC records exist (which may be ephimera no longer of use to the library's clientele). D.
Foreign and International Legal Materials
The Law Library has a good working collection in foreign, international, and comparative law. This part of the collection is able to support research done by the staff of the Cornell International Law Journal, and the work done by faculty and students with an International Law specialization. International trade and the European Community have been particular areas of emphasis in this collection. Historically the foreign law collection was strongest for countries originally in the British Commonwealth and for continental Europe, with only basic materials for other jurisdictions. More recently, reflecting current faculty interests, we have increased our purchases for Africa south of the Sahara, Japan and China while eliminating all purchases of Central and Latin America materials, except for Mexico. The changing political climate internationally has already had an impact on our collection decisions. The integration of the European economy in 1992 has generated a host of publications dealing with that topic; the fall of the Soviet Bloc has spawned another group of materials available to add to the collection. More hard choices regarding acquisitions have been presented as a result of such events. Budgeting for this aspect of collection development is always difficult as our costs depend upon highly variable foreign exchange rates and on the rate of inflation in the country of publication. E.
Cooperation with other libraries
Some law libraries have been able to offset some of the rising costs of materials by entering into consortium type agreements with other libraries, assigning primary responsibility for collection, especially of foreign materials, to individual libraries. This seems to work well with groups of law libraries in urban areas, such as New York City. The possibility of such an arrangement with Cornell, SUNY Buffalo, Syracuse, and Albany exists, but may not be as effective when distance and disparity in current collection depth of the above libraries are considered. The first meeting of librarians of these law schools to consider such cooperation is being planned for Spring 1992. V.
The Law Library has struggled for many years with an inadequate level of staff to accomplish its mission. With seven professional librarians and 14.3 FTE support staff, the library is not able to provide much more than basic services to its clientele. This necessarily means that there is a lack of 8
redundancy at all levels, so that normal turnover, illness, or vacations have an immediate negative effect on services. An exceptionally conscientious and hardworking staff as well as a library-wide commitment to maintaining a stable, well-trained support staff has masked the situation somewhat to our clientele, but clearly adequate staffing continues to be a major concern. The comparison of the size of the Cornell Law Library staff with those of other large academic law libraries shows that the only one library has fewer professional staff than Cornell and that library (Illinois) does not do its own technical processing (See chart appended as Appendix C). A.
Where lack of staff support has perhaps been most noticeable is in the area of computer technology. Central library support for the online catalog and its associated activities has made it unnecessary for us to assume some technology support tasks normally considered part of computer support. In addition, cooperation with the Law School Dept, of Educational Technologies has allowed the introduction of computer lab services for the students. However, beyond those two areas, we have been unable to take advantage of the computer to the extent that we should, for the simple lack of staff time to support exploration and acquisition of appropriate software, as well as the training and ongoing assistance to staff in using the equipment and software available to them. A full-time person with computer skills assigned to these areas could allow the library to better utilize the computer facilities we now have and move ahead with this rapidly changing technology. 2.
Another area under particular stress because of lack of staff support is catalog maintenance. Because we have no staff with specific responsibilities for catalog maintenance, catalogers must do much routine maintenance themselves. As the load of maintenance has increased and the complexity of the database evolved, less work can be delegated to students. A full-time support staff person with responsibilities for database maintenance activities would free the catalogers to do what they are trained to do and would allow us to keep more current with new materials as well as make progress on our backlogs. An additional person to assist with retrospective conversion projects would allow us to proceed much more quickly towards our goal of converting the collection to machine readable records. 3.
With two circulation points requiring full time staffing, a library with 68,000 sq. ft., two major service points, and a collection of over 400,000 volumes, staff in Public Services is stretched very thin. Lack of security in the building makes secure areas mandatory; materials in these areas must be retrieved by staff when requested. In addition, while the automating of circulation functions has simplified some tasks and allowed for tighter control of materials, some tasks have become more complex and time consuming. Maintaining a larger area of stacks and carrels has also stretched 9
staff, as some of the additional staff hours allotted after the addition and renovation were lost in recent budget cuts. Staffing both the Circulation Desk and AV/Open Reserve/Computer Lab area is often impossible, particularly because of the specialized computer skills needed in the lab. 4.
Some needs have been met in both Public and Technical Services by hiring additional student staff, but this solution has its hidden costs as well. With a current total of about 35 students, scheduling, training and supervision requires a great deal of staff time, and turnover, vacations and exam times mean that often regular staff are filling in for absent students. B.
Law Library professional staff are a part of the University Library peer review system, and as such are expected to maintain standards of professional activity as a condition of continued employment as well as promotion. Most of the librarians attend the annual meetings of the American Association of Law Libraries, and some are active in other professional associations as well. This level of activity is only partially supported by the library system, due to the paucity of professional development funds available. The library's photocopy income is expected to augment the support for professional development for professional staff and also for support staff, who presently receive no support whatsoever. Other staff development opportunities are available to all Law Library staff through the library system, Cornell Information Technologies, the Cornell Dept, of Human Resources, and the South Central Regional Library Council. As part of their formal training, all new library staff audit the Practice Training I course (first year introduction to legal research) sometime during their first year in the library. VI.
Cornell Law Library strives to be among the top law school libraries in the United States. In a library with an inadequate staffing level, but with high aims, hard choices must be made among worthy endeavors. The intent of the Law Library's service philosophy is to provide guidance in choosing activities in harmony with its goals. The priorities in service at the Law Library are to meet the needs of law faculty and students. Faculty outreach, research services, current awareness services, and circulation policies reflect this service priority. Important Law Library services to students include teaching Practice Training I (the first year legal research course), reference and research appointments with reference librarians, programs such as the Advanced Legal Research Seminars, and providing intellectual access to the collection through pathfinders, research guides, tours, and reference services. 10
Cornell Law Library ia a part of the Cornell University Library. It has been proud of the extensive and valuable bibliographic instruction provided to both Cornell and outside groups who, while not studying law, have research needs related to law and legal materials. It makes available to non-law patrons the library facilities, collection, and reference services. However, given the priorities of serving law faculty and students, services to non-law students are offered only when time permits, and when there is not another library more closely affiliated with them which can meet their needs. For example, LEXIS and WESTLAW searches at the reference desk are used for ready reference at the reference librarian's convenience and discretion; the Law Library cannot provide research and instruction to non-law patrons. Online databases, including legal databases, are available at other libraries. Non-law students using basic primary source materials can often use the collections at the libraries affiliated with their departments. Basic research instruction can be provided by teachers or non-law librarians. Handouts and research guides oriented to these groups can save the time of reference librarians. Teachers of undergraduate classes can be discouraged from sending students to do complex assignments for which the teacher has not or cannot provide adequate preparation. Faculty service could be augmented. Reference librarians have been encouraged to actively pursue and promote research services to law faculty. Basic current awareness services, such as the recent acquisitions list, and current journals contents pages, have been delayed due to other time commitments, student needs for better library guides and handouts have been deferred. More attention given to improving the Practice Training I class and supervising its TAs would be time well spent. As discussed in the personnel section of this plan, when not much more than basic services can be provided, we are obliged to choose those services carefully. B.
Cornell Law Library is committed to giving faculty the direct research service professors in major law schools expect and deserve. Librarians are committed to developing and promoting innovative pathways for scholarly research and communications. The two reference librarians have both law and library degrees and are equipped to give personalized service to faculty. Reference librarians have made appointments with faculty to determine faculty needs and increase utilization of reference services. Reference librarians market their skills as experts in the project origination stage of research: identification of sources, indexes, and databases, and information management. They promote their database expertise, both as searchers and trainers. While faculty have research assistants to help with daily needs, the reference staff wishes to integrate its unique contributions more fully with faculty research. The Associate Librarian/Head of Public Services functions as the faculty liaison, developing policies which promote both library and faculty interests, and working closely with the faculty to fulfill their needs.
Students are also in need of sophisticated and personalized research services. Law students are encouraged to make appointments with reference librarians when time is needed to explore research strategy, plan writing projects, or hone research skills before getting their first jobs. Students could benefit from information management software and services to learn efficient management of research projects, but this has not been provided by the library thus far. Reference staff sees a strong need to work in conjunction with the Law School's Educational Technologies Department to make the services it offers more useful to the public and less time-consuming to the staff. Information management systems are sorely needed to organize research data and convert computer database records into finished products such as bibliographies and guides. Coordinated technological support to assist both library staff and the law community in using these systems has been lacking. Use of these systems requires knowledge of both library and computer operations. Joint projects involving library and computer professionals need to be encouraged so that we can share our expertise and needs. Together we can address questions of library automation and offer training to the law school community. There is a strong movement towards cooperation between these groups which, while in the initial stages, is expected to benefit all concerned and to result in stronger information products and services. The reference desk is staffed by professional librarians and paraprofessionals. Reference service is available at the desk in the afternoons and evenings during the school year, and is available upon request in the mornings and when school is not in session. Reference desk service and telephone inquiries are available to the entire Cornell community and to the public, and electronic mail reference service is being strongly considered. Because of the staffing shortage, the reference desk often goes unstaffed during regular hours because of illness or competing demands. The major difficulty in providing the research services outlined is lack of time and money. Adding more reference librarians and providing more funding can solve these problems. Faculty outreach and marketing efforts come to a halt during the fall semester, when librarians are swamped by teaching duties, tours to law students and undergraduates, and services provided to the Faculty Appointments Committee. While all these activities are deserving, service to faculty may continue to suffer if reference librarians are spread too thin. It is hoped that as relations with faculty are strengthened, professional staffing will be brought up to a level present at comparable institutions and commensurate with our service needs. C.
The teaching responsibilities of the library infuse nearly all of the interactions that we have with law students, so the outcome of our efforts here are an indication of our total effectiveness. With a goal of helping students become efficient, effective legal researchers, there are a variety of methods we may offer for individuals to achieve and demonstrate their 12
Practice Training I
The centerpiece of the instructional services provided by the Law Library is the Practice Training I course for first year law students. While it had in the past been taught completely under the auspices of the library, currently half of the first year class is instructed by librarians and the other half with a different syllabus by Professor Peter Martin. The traditional classroom lectures and library exercises are being reÂ evaluated. Closer work with the teaching assistants and more integration of new technologies will help strengthen the basic program. Use of prepared exercise packages is an alternative to be considered, since writing and refining exercises is such a time-consuming annual process. Other alternatives for enabling students to learn reseaxch skills can include self-paced instruction by way of computer program, interactive video, or booklets. The library can make known the research manuals, exercises sets, and answer keys available for students to use on their own. Videotapes and computer programs currently exist that would give students choices to help them learn from a format most useful to their needs. With alternatives in ways to learn, we may be able to encourage better researchers. A test of fundamental skills acquired would still be a necessary part of our teaching responsibility, for which we would need an innovative approach. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the various approaches would be very useful to develop. Instruction on use of LEXIS and WESTLAW is an integral part of Practice Training I and is taught by the public services librarians. Hands-on instruction is presented in 90-minute sessions on each system, in groups of 5 students. Computer-assisted research is so integral to legal research that librarians assist students regularly in designing search strategies and locating information online. Online training and specific searches have also been conducted for nonâ€”law school users. 2.
The opportunity to present lectures and demonstrations of research tools and strategies in a group setting getB the information to more people at one time. We currently offer advanced legal research seminars as a lunchtime brown bag series each month during the academic year on topics such as environmental law, legislative history, tax, and European Communities. The usefulness of those programs should lead us into opportunities to provide classroom presentations for substantive law classes. We need to work with faculty to define which courses would benefit from our instruction. Instructional sessions for undergraduate classes have been a part of the extensive, well-received bibliographic instruction offered by the Law Library. Orientation and teaching tours are also given for first year law students, LL.M. students, and non-law students at Cornell and other colleges. In light of the high priority of service we intend to give our law faculty and 13
students, we may need to keep undergraduate encounters at a minimum, when this can be done without creating a demand for one-on-one assistance that would place an undue burden on the reference staff and particularly when their needs can be met elsewhere on campus. Many law schools offer a course for credit in Advanced Legal Research that would allow interested students to build on their skills and learn more specialized and more automated tools and techniques. It would be interesting to gauge the interest and need for such a course at Cornell. 3.
The Law Library should develop a series of information guides useful for patrons to use alone or in conjunction with instruction. Guides to major research resources, such as reporters and digests, state cases, federal regulations, treaties, and court rules, would be very helpful to patrons, time-saving in a reference situation, and ultimately more instructive when the patron can keep a written explanation. Pathfinders that describe the major sources used for researching a particular subject are also needed on topics such as labor law, tax law, and professional ethics. A uniform format and appearance would connect the handouts into an integrated publication series. Current publications that will continue to be published are the annual Library Guide, the quarterly newsletter, the acquisitions list and a guide to law faculty services. Each of these publications could be made available to the law school community via the online network, in addition to a print format. D.
To best serve our library users, we must rely on a welltrained staff for the many services we offer. Service to the public requires on-going training and review of procedures and policies and the people who implement them, particularly in light of ever-increasing automated functions. Our commitment to legendary service should be transparent but felt by patrons. Where lacking, written procedures need to be developed, and individuals empowered with responsibility for expanded exercise of judgment in their own areas. All new staff are required to audit the Practice Training 1 course and meet weekly to review the materials. The considerable talents of the library staff are a major factor in the services we are able to provide with such a small staff. 2.
Use of the collection goes beyond having materials available on the shelves ready to read. With so much of our collection held in microformats, patrons need proper equipment to read and print the information. Plans are in place for improved photocopy machines and service. Telefacsimile equipment in the Law Library for receipt and dissemination of documents is 14
needed. Routine maintenance and cross-trained staff need to be established for the growing inventory of public equipment in the library, from NOTIS terminals and printers throughout the stacks to CD-ROMs and microform readers.
Online circulation has created the opportunity for us to serve users more efficiently. With a goal of having all circulation transactions handled online, only a few special privileges for law faculty and law students are still handled with a paper system. Policies and procedures are still being revised to fully incorporate the advantages of the automated checkout functions, reserves control, and management reports. To make best use of the online system and to insure consistency in application of policies, it is essential that the library develop and maintain routines for training and supervision of permanent and student staff. 4.
The Law Library is a selective federal depository, with obligations to serve the needs of the Law School and the local community. The library is required to be open to the public for use of the depository documents, which include the basic federal statutes, regulations, and Supreme Court decisions. The library maintains an open door policy, allowing all Cornell students and the general public to use the documents, which are integrated into the collection. Even during the Law School final exam period when use of the library restricted, access is given to anyone needing to use any of the library's materials, including depository items. VII.
The Cornell Law Library, while functioning as an integral part of the Cornell University Library System, performs its own technical processing. Automated cataloging began in 1976 on OCLC, moved to RLIN in 1981 and is now performed on the University's NOTIS-based system. Records created for the online catalog are shared by all libraries campus-wide, requiring coordination of cataloging policies and practices with the other Cornell processing units. RLIN remains a vital source for bibliographic and authority records. Weekly uploading of local tapes onto RLIN ensures that other RLIN members have the benefit of Cornell's cataloging as well. The University's online catalog, brought up in 1988, includes records for all Law Library materials cataloged since 1976. In addition, records for all current serials, all international law materials in the JX classification and the majority of U.S. Federal materials have been converted to machinereadable form. A significant portion of the collection (approximately 55%) is not yet represented by machine-readable records. Retrospective conversion of these records in order to provide access to them through the online catalog remains a high-priority objective of the Catalog Dept. We expect to receive grant monies in 1992 to fund additional personnel and equipment to convert 15
records for European regional and general law materials. As part of this project we plan to reclassify these materials to the Library of Congress classification system. The Library's non-European foreign collection also requires reclassification to the Library of Congress scheme, as these materials are presently classified according to the Los Angeles County classification system. Because our online catalog has no effective way of differentiating Los Angeles call numbers from LC call numbers, having two classification systems causes a great deal of confusion for users. The task of reclassifying the foreign collection will be a long-term undertaking, requiring the efforts of knowledgeable personnel with the requisite language skills. The advent of the online catalog has had a considerable impact on technical services operations. The online system has allowed us to lessen our reliance on printouts and paper files for maintaining bibliographic control of items as they progress through the workflow. Much departmental time has been devoted to putting the Library's holdings of individual titles in machinereadable form. Patrons have access to information that is accurate and up-todate, reflecting the Library's current holdings. The fact that patrons can now view records for material from the moment an order is placed has resulted in increased demand for rush processing. The recent implementation of online circulation at the Law Library has created additional tasks for Technical Services, including the barcoding of materials and maintenance of item records. Incorporation of these additional tasks into the day-to-day workflow has necessitated some revision of departmental procedures, and has increased considerably the amount of database maintenance that must be performed on a regular basis. Improving access to inadequately cataloged material in the Library's collection remains a long-standing but elusive goal. Significant portions of the Rare and Trial collections are uncataloged, rendering some of our most historically interesting titles inaccessible to users. Insufficient access is also a problem with large microform sets and some older print collections which should be cataloged separately and assigned subject headings to provide users With proper access. Because of staffing and time constraints, at least one library on campus is presently performing minimal-level cataloging. The Law Library staff resists this idea because we believe it constitutes a disservice to our clientele. However, our present level of staffing does not allow us to provide optimal access in all cases. B.
In the ideal Acquisitions Department, records are available in a single file, procedures and policies are easily accessible in a written manual, and job descriptions are kept current. Unfortunately, the ideal is seldom found in real-life operations. Cornell Law Library is no exception in having serials check-in procedures that are partly manual and partly online. Procedures and responsibilities have continued to change over the past few years, making them difficult to codify. These challenges remain to be solved.
Acquisitions still has much to do in changing over recordkeeping and procedures to a fully online system. All ordering, monograph receipts and paying of invoices and most claiming are now done on NOTIS. Many periodical titles and some other serials are checked in online. A special procedure using the holdings screen for receiving bound volumes of statutes, reporters and similar materials was developed. However, there still remain over 7,000 titles in the manual checkin system (kardex). The acquisitions staff has begun to clear the kardex of dead titles which may reduce it by as much as one third. A complete switch to online processing will not be possible with NOTIS as it is now configured. The proposed serials module for NOTIS is seriously flawed and unable to accommodate many law materials. When the Law Library does commit to receiving all materials online, the conversion will take considerable staff time. It is difficult at the present time to estimate what resources and personnel will be needed to make the switchover when and if it comes in the next five years. As mentioned above, payment' procedures are now fully automated. The accounting clerk processes all invoices upon approval of the Library Director. The NOTIS system makes it possible to track expenditures by type of material and jurisdictions. Beginning in 1992, the acquisitions staff will make an effort to codify procedures for the department's operations. As the staff becomes more specialized in its tasks and automation becomes more a part of the daily workload, a written manual is necessary to provide guidance in the many decisions that must be made every day and to give an overall picture of processes that is often missing. The Acquisitions Librarian will begin writing an outline covering all procedures and making some attempt to show linkages when possible. Each staff member will then work on developing guidelines for her/his specific set of tasks. With the advent of online circulation, the Acquisitions and Circulation departments have written a "missing books" procedure to deal with the multitude of items not found during the barcoding project. The barcoding project served as an inventory, which had never been done at the Law Library. A regular system of reporting, searching and replacing missing books has been established. At least two years will be required to process all items not found during barcoding. The replacement procedure now in place will undoubtedly need refinement as we proceed. A desiderata file for titles that are out of print has been transferred to a computer file so that lists can be generated to send to secondhand dealers. The procedure of sending all unwanted gift books and duplicates to Library Gifts & Exchange was halted in September 1991 due to Central Technical Services' inability to process and store any more books. The Law Library acquisitions staff is developing policies and procedures for handling these books independently. Efforts will be made to dispose of unwanted gifts, duplicates and withdrawn items through sales or exchange. The Law Library is a selective depository library for federal documents from the U.S. Government Printing Office. About fifteen percent of the available items are selected from those offered. The Acquisitions Librarian 17
serves as Depository Librarian as well. The processing of depository items is currently handled by the bindery assistant. The collection development committee makes decisions on adding items to the collection or boxing them for later disposal. The Depository Librarian is in the process of discarding boxed items acquired before 1987. More work needs to be done in establishing procedures for claiming missing and unreceived items. Binding is a part of Acquisitions. There will no substantial changes in bindery processing until a bindery module is added to NOTIS or some other automated system is developed. As soon as a circulation terminal is installed in Technical Services, journals sent to the bindery will be checked out online, providing public access to that information and reducing the paperwork involved in bindery preparation. The Acquisitions staff faces a formidable challenge in developing recordkeeping procedures that will work in an online environment. Records must be brought up to date, which can sometimes be an arduous, time-consuming job. It will take the next five years and longer to assure that correct, timely information for every record is available to the library users. VII.
The physical deterioration of the Law Library's collection is perhaps more severe than that of other Cornell campus libraries. Much needs to be done in the way of preservation, but funds and personnel to carry out the work are extremely limited. The completion of a controlled environment for rare books several years ago has provided the means to protect the older, irreplaceable books in the collection. But large portions of the working collection, consisting of law reports printed in the latter half of the 19th century, are still in jeopardy. The means to give them the necessary deacidification treatment are not available locally. The Law Library acquisitions department is in charge of minor repairs, boxing and replacement of worn volumes. Shelvers regularly bring materials from the stacks to the bindery assistant who makes preservation decisions based on the library's written policy for treatment of older material in need of repair. Most commercially bound books are replaced with new copies. Materials that cannot be repaired here are sent to the Cornell University Libraries conservation department for treatment. Some fragile items are bubble-wrapped, boxed or tied. Minor or urgent repair work is done by the bindery assistant as time permits. With present staffing the Library's response to preservation needs will be limited to these procedures for the foreseeable future. The Law Library does have a disaster plan in place, with tools and other materials needed to handle emergencies readily accessible. The Law Library staff needs to continue the evaluation of the collection, and primary materials in particular, to identify volumes in need of preservation work or replacement. The shelving supervisor has begun doing this systematically, but the flow is controlled by the amount of material that can be handled by the bindery assistant.
Weeding of the collection is being carried out through Acquisitions projects to clear out dead records in the files and to catch up on serials binding. The 1991 barcoding project, by serving as an inventory, has also contributed to the weeding process. The Law Library is working with other facilities on campus to start a recycling program for materials that are to be discarded. Microform conversion of deteriorating materials is an option that is being pursued. However, the problems of accessibility and user resistance limit the usefulness of microforms. The two reader-printers currently in use should be replaced as soon as possible to alleviate these difficulties. To some extent the availability of law texts online has taken the pressure off some high-use materials, but again, equipment plays the limiting factor in online use. The Cornell University Libraries and Xerox Corporation are engaged in a pilot project that holds promise for large-scale preservation of information contained in crumbling books. This project uses photocopiers to convert texts to machine-readable format; the texts can then be reproduced on demand. Resources exist within the Cornell library system to handle most kinds of preservation problems. The Law Library has been steadily routing materials to the Conservation Lab for more extensive work, but because of time and dollar limitations this handling is reserved for a few precious materials and does not address the problems of the collection as a whole. These problems are not overwhelming, but require sustained attention if they are not to become so in the near future. Larger concerns, such as mass deacidification, can only be addressed by the university libraries as a whole; a concerted effort to keep up with maintenance of the collection will depend on staff time.
LAW LIBRARY September, 1991
JOB DUTIES LIST
Job Title/ Primary Duty
Responsibilities, esp. as affect other departments
Head of Technical Services
* Administers Technical Services * Catalogs special formats such as microforms, videos, sound recordings, manuscripts * Policy changes
Head of Cataloging/ cataloging
* Catalogs foreign language monographs & | -serials * Creates on-line authority records * Figures out vol. holdings with Jennifer 8 * Supervises retrospective conversions
* Catalogs mostly serials, old monographs, rare items and occasionally | new monographs * Handles withdrawals of titles from the collections * Handles item location changes * Conversion of older items and serials * Changes on-line record when something ceases or is canceled
LC Cataloger/ Cataloging
* Deals with barcoding problems & cleanÂ up * Deals with rush cataloging requests * Catalogs LC & member copy monographs * Updates on-line records * Revises book marking done by students
Sr. Records Assistant/ Cataloging
* VHLD creation, clean-up & maintenance for on-line records for serials * Updates holdings for superseded or withdrawn volumes when new vols. received * Item record creation, deletion, linking
Sr. Records Assistant/ Retrospective Conversion
1 * Catalogs member copy monographs * Adds CLL locations to existing on-line records * Occasionally does original cataloging * Updates locations, holdings & item information on-line * Conversion of 1920- monographs * Supervises students in cataloging dep't | * Initiates traces for items to be converted * Inputs and edits retrospective conversion records on RLIN (rev. 4/92)
APPENDIX B - p. 2
JOB DUTIES LIST
Job Title/ Primary Duty
Responsibilities, esp. as affect other departments
Acquisitions Librarian/ Acquisitions
* Takes calls from sales reps * Talks with people about what we do/ don't buy * Deals with missing items/replacements * Answers questions when other acq. staff not available
Acquisitions Coordinator/ Acquisitions
* Handles problem receipts and billings of serials * Maintains faculty routing lists * NOTIS serial maintenance * Claims & replacements for serials maintained on NOTIS
Sr. Records Assistant/ Acquisitions
* * * *
Head Account Clerk/ Acquisitions
* Receives all new material and adds routing info and requests * Opens and sorts 1st class mail * Processes invoices for payment * Handles billing problems * Answers O/P/R questions * Processes orders for new items
Sr. Records Assistant/ Acquisitions
* * * *
Sr. Bindery Assistant/ Acquisitions
* Does all prep work for bindery * Sends material to bindery * Handles repairs & slip cases * Adds volumes to NOTIS records * Handles court briefs * Processes Depository items * Supervises students in bindery department
Mail and delivery, and UPS Kardex check-in Claims & replacements Handles receipt questions
Handles duplicate items Processes gifts and exchanges Maintains file of missing OP items Handles procedures for missing book replacements
APPENDIX B - p. 3
JOB DUTIES LIST
Job Title/ Primary Duty
Responsibilities, esp. as affect other departments
Associate Law Librarian/ Head of Public Services
* Reference * Makes decisions re. supersedes, withdrawals, and items to be placed in the A cage * Liaison to faculty * Makes decisions about placement of looseleaf pamphlets in green boxes * Makes decisions on additions to GPO microfiche & committee prints to the collection * PT I
Reference Librarian/ Reference
* * * * * * *
Reference Assists in collection development Legal research seminars Bibliographies Faculty research PT I Coordinates Public Services barcoding project
O'Connor, Linda Karr
Reference Librarian/ Reference
* * * * * *
Reference Bibliographies Legal research seminars Faculty research PT I Acquisitions List
Administrative Supervisor/ Access Services
* Supervises support staff * Supervises student assistants * Oversees Circ./Res. operations and Interlibrary loan * Reference
Circulation/ Reserve Supervisor/ Circulation, Interlibrary Loan, Reserve, Reference
* * * * * * * *
Interlibrary loans Puts material on Course Reserve Updates Closed Reserve All Reserve filing except Maxwell Macmillan and CCH Delivers material to Faculty Oversees binding of looseleaf and reference material Updates reference material Retrievals (rev. 4/92)
APPENDIX B - p. 4
JOB DUTIES LIST
Job Title/ Primary Duty
Responsibilities, esp. as affect other departments
Sr. Circulation/ Reserve Assistant/ circulation and reserve
* Files McBee cards & maintains the circulation file * Traces * Overdues and billing * CCH Reserve filing * Newspaper & periodical upkeep in Casual Reading Room * Retrievals * Copiers
Sr. Night Supervisor/ night and Sunday supervisor
* * * * * * * * *
Collections Assistant/ Updates American Legal Material in RR and KF-KFZ; Saturday Supervisor
* All filing in professors offices, except CCH * Sorts book trucks * Trains students * Troubleshoots - identifying and working with Tech. Services on cataloging and Kardex problems
Special Collections Assistant
* Maintains all material in ORES except NY State Senate & Assembly Bills and microforms * V/F * Oversize mail filing * Maintains foreign and international materials * Law exams collections, NYSEG, Law School catalogs, Cornellia * Theses, Trials, Safe * c. 3, Fed. Tax in Osgood's office * Maintains Bennett Collection * Maintains House & Senate bills and reports * Maintains Circuit Court, Supreme Court slip opinions, Public & Private slip laws (rev. 4/92)
In charge of unbound journal room Processes new KFlO's and JXl's Sorts mail truck Retrievals Reference Assistance Supervises students Conn. Law J. Maxwell MacMillan Reserve filing State Rules & Regulations (except NY)
APPENDIX B - p. 5
JOB DUTIES LIST
Vargas Mendez, Leonardo
Job Title/ Primary Duty
Responsibilities, esp. as affect other departments
Stacks Supervisor/ stacks maintenance
* * * *
Faculty pickup Carrel sweeps for library material Shelving and shifts (not cage) CCH Fed. Tax c. 2 filing (Green's office) * Circ. Desk relief * Signs, guides, charts * * * *
Software troubleshooting Computer problems Maintains microforms and equipment Maintains NY State Assembly and Senate bills (rev. 4/92
Comparison of staff size of law libraries - 1990 statistics
FTE FTE Prof supp. staff staff
Total FTE staff
Harvard Texas Georgetown NYU Yale Penn Columbia Berkeley Virginia Iowa Northwestern LSU Wash(Seattle) Michigan UCLA Minnesota Boston U Southern Cal. Hastings Chicago Ohio State SMU Buffalo Duke Stanford Cornell* Rutgers-Camden Vanderbilt Georgia Illinois*
43.7 22 19.6 17 16.1 15.8 15 14.7 13.4 12 11.8 11.7 11.5 11 11 10 10 10 10 9.8 9 9 9 8.8 8.5 8 8 8 8 6.6
52.4 17.6 46 41.6 30.4 18 26 16 18.8 13 20.3 14 17.1 31.3 24.5 17.8 16 10 8.5 15.7 12 12 11 13.8 19.3 15.3 14 10.5 9 11
96.1 39.6 65.6 58.6 46.5 33.8 41 30.7 32.2 25 32.1 25.7 28.6 42.3 35.5 27.8 26 20 18.5 25.5 21 21 20 22.6 27.8 23.3 22 18.5 17 17.6
300,000+ mean median
Volumes FTE FTE held faculty students including microforms 1,684,613 60 1,611 768,341 55 1,564 608,882 68 1,898 824,003 76 1,252 816,230 47 546 486,488 32 745 38 849,799 1,017 665,693 37 867 43 630,094 1,148 43 645,605 714 36 538,998 616 31 814 481,416 33 486 427,081 48 1,154 684,176 54 962 441,403 690,671 37 783 50 1,199 404,921 25 629 291,029 48 1,325 493,647 26 551 523,314 642 34 542,982 796 32 367,875 32 769 416,233 589 26 401,117 35 525 386,266 27 570 475,482 712 30 441,990 540 25 276,282 665 29 441,295 607 26 560,461
Notes: Illinois Law Library has no Technical Services staff. Cornell's professional total includes one para-professional.
AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION SECTION OF LEGAL EDUCATION AND ADMISSIONS TO THE BAR FALL 1992 LAW SCHOOL ANNUAL QUESTIONNAIRE
PART III - LIBRARY Report financial figures in whole dollars and all other figures in whole numbers, except where otherwise indicated. If exact figures are not available, enter your best estimate. Space has been provided at the end of the questionnaire to enter any comments on the data reÂ ported. An asterisk (*) marks a defined term. It may be helpful to review the definitions in the printed questionnaire before beginning. Return disk, one printed copy, and Dean's Certification Form by October 2, 1992, to: Julia D. Hanrahan Data Specialist American Bar Association Indiana University 550 West North Street Indianapolis, IN 46202
SCHOOL NUMBER Name of Law School: City:
Name of Director:
Jane L. Hammond
Name of Person to Receive Inquiries:
Jane L . Hammond_________
Title of Person to Receive Inquiries:
Edward Cornell Law Lib'n
ABANET Number: Ending month of library fiscal year (number of month)
SECTION 1 - INFORMATION RESOURCES (1991--92 Fiscal Year) a. b. Added Withdrawn during during fiscal fiscal year year 1. Volumes* (excluding microforms)
c. Held at end of fiscal year
2. Microfilm reels*
3. Volume equivalent of microfilm reels (microfilm reels x 5)
4. Microfiche* (include microcards)
5. Volume equivalent of microfiche and microcards (microfiche / 6)
6. Units of other microform formats 7. Total volumes* and volume equivalents held (Questions lc + 3c + 5c)
a. Added during fiscal year 8. Titles* (excluding nonbook titles) a. Is title quantity determined by shelf measurement? (Y/N) N 9. Microform titles*
c. Held at end of fiscal year
10. Other non-book titles* 10a. Total titles (Question 8+9+10)
b. Withdrawn during fiscal year
11. Number of CD-ROM titles held or leased 11a. Number of CD-ROM titles or tape load titles accessible through campus network, if any
12. Number of active serial subscriptions*
13. Number of active serial titles* 14. If library is a federal depository, what percentage of items are selected?
SECTION 2 - INFORMATION ACCESS (1992-93 Fiscal Year)
15. Number of microform readers 16. Number of microform reader printers 17. Number of computer work stations* in the library or under library controls (Do not report a computer work station in more than one category.) a. b. c. d. e.
used predominately used predominately used predominately used predominately other (specify):
by by by by
law students law school faculty law school staff law library personnel ___________
47 0 1
18. Number of computer printers in the library or under library control: 19. How many CD-ROM players are installed in work stations identified in Question 17?
20. Total hours of all online* computer assisted legal research (LEXIS/NEXIS, WESTLAW, DIALOG), last fiscal year 11,549 21. List the integrated automation systems you have, whether or not they are completed: NOT IS
Have you automated any of the following functions? (Y/N) a. c. e. g.
Public catalog Budget & accounting Serials control Other
23. Does the library participate in: ("Participate" means contribute records to the database) 24. This question deleted in 1992-93
Y Y Y
b. Cataloging d. Acquisitions f. Circulation
a. OCLC? b. RLIN? c. WLN?
Y Y Y
SECTION 3 - PERSONNEL (1992-93 Fiscal Year)
Part-Time 25. Number of librarians and other professional staff*
26. Number of full-time equivalent* part-time librarians and other professional staff* 26a. Number of hours in institution's prescribed work week
27. Number of support staff (excluding hourly students and other temporary part-time support staff) 28. Number of full-time equivalent* part-time support staff (excluding hourly students and other temporary part-time support staff) 29. This question deleted in 1992-93. 30. Number of hours worked by hourly students and other temporary part-time employees, last fiscal year 31. Average hourly rate paid students or other temporary part-time employees, current fiscal year
32. This question deleted in 1992-93. 33. Base salary* for director of law library, current fiscal year
34. Fringe benefits* for director of law library, current fiscal year NOTE: If you do not wish salary information for the director of the law library to be distributed on a confidential basis in our subscription service, please so indicate below. Note that Deans wishing to withhold this information from distribution will not receive the Consultant's salary table for directors of law libraries. WITHHOLD DIRECTOR'S SALARY INFORMATION FROM DISTRIBUTION? (Y/N)
35. Years of professional library experience, director of law library
36. Director of law library degrees code*
37. What is the minimum starting salary you would pay for a candidate new to librarianship for fall 1992? JD only MLS only MLS/JD Other (give degree code*) _______
0 0 0 0
38. What are the average and median salaries for the current fiscal year of full-time professional* members of the library staff, other than the director of the law library. Include budgeted but vacant positions eligible to be filled this academic year. a. Average salary ________ 0 b. Median* salary 0 39. What are the average and median salaries for the current fiscal year of full-time non-professional members of the law library staff? Include budgeted but vacant positions eligible to be filled this academic year. a. Average salary b. Median* salary NOTE:
Additional salary data is requested in Section 8 .
SECTION 4 - FINANCIAL RESOURCES (1991-92 Fiscal Year) NOTE:
Report expenditures in one category only.
40. Salaries*/wages (excluding fringe benefits*) paid all law library personnel, including permanent part-time employees and excluding student and temporary part-time employees, last fiscal year 609,925 41. Fringe benefits* paid to law library personnel, last fiscal year
42. Student and temporary part-time employee wages paid (excluding federal contribution to work/study wages, see Question 57), last fiscal year
43. Total salaries, wages and fringe benefits paid last fiscal year (Questions 4 0 + 4 1 + 4 2 )
44. Amount spent for serial subscriptions, last fiscal year (including microform serials and CD-ROMS)
45. Amount spent for online legal and nonlegal databases, last fiscal year (not including bibliographic services, see Question 50)
a. Amount paid by governing institution b. Amount paid by users (fee-paid searches) 46. Amount spent on acquisition of other library information resources (books, non-serial microforms, audio-visual, CD-ROM not reported in Question 44 and other formats), last fiscal year
47. Amount spent on binding and rebinding, last fiscal year
48. Amount spent on other preservation activities, if any, last fiscal year 49. Amount spent on library equipment* (purchase, rental, repairs, maintenance) and library supplies, last fiscal year (Do not include automation expenses reported in Question 51)
50. Amount spent for computer bibliographic services, last fiscal year (e.g. OCLC, RLIN) 51. Amount spent (out of your budget) for automation of library operations,* last fiscal year 52. Other library expenditures, last fiscal year Describe categories: Professional development, AALL dues
53. Total amount spent on law library last fiscal year (sum of Questions 43-52) 54. Indicate theamount of fundsin Question 53 spent from endowment orgift income 55. For Questions 44-52, please state the total amount that was for one-time major expenditures: Question 49 ______
Amount 12,696 0
56. Amount spent for law library staff development* during the last fiscal year, regardless of source of funds
57. How much new money was raised in the previous fiscal year for the library from the following sources? Private gifts Return on endowment Government grants 58. Total amount budgeted* for law library current fiscal year (include same categories used in Questions 43-52)
____ 0 15,983
SECTION 5 - LIBRARY PHYSICAL FACILITIES 59. Net square feet of space assigned for library purposes*
60. Linear feet of shelving capacity:* a. Occupied by library materials b. Not occupied 61. Number of volumes in working collection counted in Question 7 which are systematically retrievable and stored off-site 62. Number of carrel seats available for library users
63. Number of non-carrel study seats available for library users
64. Number of all study seats available for library users (Question 62 + Question 63)
SECTION 6 - HOURS OF LIBRARY OPERATION
Regular Schedule 65. Number of hours per week library is open a. Hours per week professional staff* on duty b. Hours per week only full-time support staff on duty c. Hours per week only students or other part-time staff on duty
6 6 . Number of hours of reference service
provided per week 67. Number of weeks per year library operates on: a. Abbreviated schedule*
b. Extended schedule
6 8 . Is access to the library after hours, without any staff present,
generally allowed for: a. Law students?
b. Law faculty?
SECTION 7 - SERVICES TO OFF-SITE PATRONS 69. Requests for services to off-site patrons* last fiscal year: a. Sent by library _____289 c. Received by library ____349
b. Filled for library _____209 d. Filled by library _____ 252
70. For the figure reported in 69d, how many requestswere filled by: a. b. c. d. e.
Loan of original Photocopy Microform duplication Telefacsimile Other
68^ 170 ______ 4 10 0
71. What provision is made for access to information available through consortia or network arrangements? Answer Y for all that apply. Telefacsimile Overnight courier Consortium staff delivery Library messenger E-mail (transmission of text)
as ss ss z
a. b. c. d. e.
SECTION 8 - SALARY DATA (1992-93 Fiscal Year)
The following data is being collected to enhance our ability to provide aggregate salary data by category and geographical area. This data will not be distributed on a line-by-line or individual school basis but only in aggregate form. 72. Please fill in the requested information for each full-time profesÂ sional on the staff, except for the Director. Salaries should be for the current fiscal year. Position and degree codes are listed at the end of the question. For sex, enter M or F. Count only years of professional library experience or their equivalents. Begin list with highest paid position and work down in salary scale until as many lines are filled as possible. Position Degree Position Degree Code Sex Code* Yrs Salary Code Sex Code* Yrs 1. DD M MJ 11 8. F ML 2. DH 15 9. F MJ 3. PS 15 10. TS F ML 4. 7 11. PS F MJ 5. 11 12. 6. TS F ML 6 13. 7. 1 PS F GR 2 14. Position Codes DD - Deputy Director/Associate Director (Second in charge) DH - Division Head or Associate Director (e.g., head of public or technical services) HD - Department Head PS - Public Service Specialist (e.g. reference, circulation, media, inter-library loan) TS - Technical Services Specialist (e.g., cataloging, acquisitions, serials) C - Computer Specialist GD - Document Specialist FI - Foreign and International Specialist O - Other: Salary
Degree NB BD ML MJ MF MO GR JD FL -
Codes No bachelor's degree Bachelor's degree is highest degree MLS or equivalent is highest degree MLS and JD both earned MLS and foreign law degree both earned MLS and other graduate degree both earned Other graduate degree is highest degree; no MLS JD or other graduate law degree is highest degree; no MLS Foreign law degree is highest degree; no MLS
SECTION 9 - COMMENTS 73. Please include here any descriptive information or comments you wish to make regarding the data entered in this questionnaire. 50. All RLIN costs are paid by the central university library system. We have no rational way to prorate the Law Library's costs. 51. All costs of maintaining the library's automated system (NOTIS) are paid by the central university library system. We have no way to prorate the Law Library's share of these costs.