TRAINING KIT MODULE 5 RESULTS-BASED PLANNING: RESULTS CHAIN AND INDICATORS
Summary ● Underlying RBM RationaleThe Logical Framework: an important tool for RBM ● Introduction to the Logical Framework Matrix (LFM)
● Importance of the Results Chain in the LFM ● Performance Indicators
● Distinction between outcome/output indicators and effect indicators ● Indicator design: 7 stages
Logical Framework and Results Chain
RBM: a useful approach at all stages "Results-based-management" is a global trend ď Ž Programme managers are evaluated based on performance and not on their management of resources and activities. ď Ž Creation of links between Design M&E, the design of development interventions (policy, programme, Logical project), and budget Evaluation frame Ownership work design. ď Ž Concept becoming more and more important for Achievment effective public policy and (monitoring) programme management.
RBM and the sequence of project design Activity 1.1
Outcome 1 Resources
Outcome 2 Outcome 3
Activity 3.1 Resources
Activity 3.2 Activity 3.n
Logical Framework Matrix (1/2) Intervention Logic Overall Objective/ Impact (1) Project Objective/ Effects (2) Outcomes / Outputs (3) Activities (4)
Objectively Verifiable Indicators
Hypotheses and Risks
(7) Resources / Inputs (8)
The LFM is a management tool which: ● Contributes to an intervention’s design, implementation and evaluation ● Clearly defines the objectives of an intervention; ● Identifies the strategic elements and their causal relationships, as well as indicators and external factors.
Logical Framework Matrix (2/2) The LFM summarises in one page: Why
Is the programme being executed? (Goal / Impacts)
are the programme’s anticipated effects? (Programme Objective / Effects)
results will be delivered by the programme? (Outcomes /Outputs)
will the planned results be achieved? (Activities)
will the programme’s success be measured? (Indicators)
will the necessary information for measuring the programme’s success be found? (Verification Sources)
are the external conditions influencing the programme’s success? (Major Assumptions)
Is the project cost and the necessary resources for implementing the programme? (Resources / Inputs)
LFM: Vertical and Horizontal Logics Vertical Logic Overall objective
Horizontal Logic Overall objective
Framework of Estimated Costs
Results Chain Concept Efficiency
Input Human and financial resources
Actions to convert inputs into outputs • Training • Study
Product or concrete deliverable • Training • Building • Medics
Outcome Use of outputs by target people • Use
Impact Long term objective without attribution • Job • Growth
Quality and relevance of goods and services
The Results Chain: Of what use is it? In Results-Based Management (RBM), the results chain helps respond to 3 key questions: 1. What objectives/results does the programme target? 2. How will the programme achieve the objectives/results it has been tasked with? 3. How do you determine if the programme has actually achieved the objectives/results it has been charged with? The results chain is a determinant logical relationship between activities and outputs of a development intervention and the results that they are supposed to produce.
Logical Framework: some useful definitions (1/5) Logical Framework = Tool which facilitates the design, execution and evaluation of a development intervention. It helps identify strategic elements (resources, outputs, achievements, impacts) and their causal relationships, indicators, as well as external factors (or risks) which could influence the success or failure of the intervention. Results = Outputs (or outcomes), outcomes (or effects) and/or impacts, anticipated or otherwise, positive and/or negative of a Source: OCDE (2002). Glossaire des principaux termes development intervention. relatifs à l’évaluation et la gestion axée sur les résultats. A result in the context of RBM is a describable and measurable change in situation resulting from a causal relationship (or "cause and effect") created through a development intervention.
Logical Framework: some useful definitions (2/5) Resources / Inputs Financial, human and material resources, used for a development intervention. Examples: budget, supplies, personnel, energy, know-howâ€Ś
Activities Actions taken or work performed to produce specific outcomes/outputs. The activity mobilises resources such as funds, technical assistance and other types of resources. Examples: - Design new primary education programmes. - Develop education materials (manuals, guides). - Organise a teacher training course. - Recruit instructors. - Print training materials. - Print and distribute education materials in schools.
Logical Framework: some useful definitions (3/5) Outcomes / Outputs Goods, equipement or services resulting from a development intervention. The term can be applied to changes produced from the intervention which could lead to direct effects. Examples: Secondary roads produced and open to the public. - Primary schools renovated/expanded, furnished and equipped. - Household and community water pipes installed. - Trainings implemented.
IMPORTANT: Only outcomes which can be delivered by the programme are included. All outcomes necessary to the achievement of results must be included. Outcomes are defined clearly as are results (improved quality of school structures; community members trained; dental clinic constructed and operational). Outcomes are verifiable and measurable. All outcomes are attainable with available resources.
Distinction between outcomes/outputs and effects Outputs
Professional training courses organised
Number of interns recruited increased
Rural road fixed
Transport costs reduced
Quality of drinking water produced and delivered
Incidence of water-borne diseases reduced
Agricultural inputs distributed
Yield per hectare increased
Logical Framework: some useful definitions (5/5) Impacts Long term effects, positive and negative, primary and secondary, resulting from a development intervention, directely or otherwise, intentionally or otherwise. Examples: - Mortality rate among children below 5 years reduced. - Net primary enrollment rate increased. - Proportion of households living below the poverty line reduced.
Impact represents a macro level development objective that a development intervention must help fulfill.
Objectively Verifiable Indicators
What is a RBM indicator? It is a quantitative or qualitative factor or variable which measures the achievement of a result and provides information on changes linked to the development intervention or helps evaluate the performance of a development actor.
Impact indicator(s) â€“ in reference to MDGs, country strategic objectives, etc. QQT
Indicators of initial/intermediate/fin Programme al impact/â€“ on the Objective/ causal chain towards the reference Effect(s) objectives QQT
Indicators linked to The specification must be collectively Outcomes/ programme deliverables accepted by partners and stakeholders of Outputs QQT the development intervention. Activities Resources If it can be mesured, it can be managed All indicators must be expressed in terms of quantity, quality and time (QQT). The result only highlights the change; the indicator gives evidence on the scale of change.
Why are indicators necessary? ● They describe successful results of the programme through the establishment of targetd.
● They help in outlining each result (outcomes/ outputs, effects and goal/impact) by making statements more clear and precise. ● They help verify outcomes in an "objective" manner so as to arrive at an agreement on the progress as demonstrated by the evidence. ● They constitute the foundation for programme monitoring and evaluation. The progress towards achieving anticipated results can be measured at the outcomes/outputs and effect levels, at which the programme is more "accountable". ● They constitute the foundation for making informed decisions in the case of corrective measures.
Characteristics of a good indicator ● It must be targetted and satisy 5 dimensions: Quantity (what quantity will attained? ) Quality (with what quality?) Time (when? Or between when and when?) Target-Group (who will improve/change?) Place (where will the changes be measured?) ● It must be objectively verifiable (measured in the same way for all, and linked to the verification sources column). ● It must be pratical (measure what is important– ensure that the targetted parameters are attainable). ● For the outcome indicators, it is important to have the baseline data in order to set targetted parameters and measure changes.
Types of indicators ● Quantitative indicators: measures change in numeric terms such as number, percentage, frequency, ration, proportion, etc.
Percentage of girls and boys attending primary school. Female and male unemployment rates in rural areas.
● Qualitative indicators: give information on judgements, opinions, perceptions, or attitudes of people and groups. It can be expressed in terms of satisfaction, perception of change, applicability, etc.
Satisfaction of water service beneficiaries. Community interests in project activities.
Indicator: a sine qua none condition There cannot be an "indicator" for monitoring or evaluating a development intervention if there isnâ€™t a system (existing or planned) which enables the collection of information corresponding to that indicator, in a regular manner and in real time.
Output indicators ● They measure the most immediate or delivered outputs of a development intervention (during and at the end of implementation). ● They highlight the physical quantities of goods produced or services supplied through the development intervention.
● They highlight the number of beneficiaries having had access to – or received – these goods or services produced by the development intervention. ● They must also include a qualitative dimension and a time frame (QQT).
Outcome indicators â—? They help in measuring the short and medium term effects (or outcomes) resulting from beneficiary use of outputs/ouctomes produced through the development intervention. â—? Generally, they highlight a change in behaviour, attitude, pratices or an improvement in skills and capacities. â—? They can also be used to measure a change in preferences or the satisfaction of beneficiaries with regard to the quality of received goods and services.
Designing indicators: 7 stages Objective of the intervention: Agricultural food production increased. 1. Identify the indicator
Small farmers increase their wheat production
2. Set the quantity
Increase in production by 50%
3. Specify the group
10,000 small farmers (owning 3 ha or less)
4. Specify the quality
Use of new varieties of bread-making quality
5. Set the time frame
Between October 2010 and October 2012
6. Specify the location
Objectively Verifiable Indicator 10,000 small farmers (owning 3 ha or less) of province X, increased their wheat production by 50% between October 2010 and October 2012, using new varieties of bread-making quality.
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