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A Suitability Study for Senior Housing on the Ox and Cow Pasture Properties in Chesterfield, Massachusetts

Introduction 1 Context Analysis Slopes, Drainage & soils Wildlife & Wetland ecology

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Legal restrictions 5 Summary Analysis 7 Suitability analysis Alternative Design 1

8 9

Alternative Design 2

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Cost analysis 11 Appendix A: Recreational Trails

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Appendix B: Septic, Conservation, & Stormwater

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Appendix C: Energy Efficient Designs Appendix D: Renewable Energy

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Appendix E: Funding 16 Appendix F: Precedents 17 Bibliography 18


Designing a community for senior citizens located near the center of town, with sidewalks and walking trails, assures that the pattern of development will be sustainable and blend with the village. This suitability study considers ways to blend new growth with the rural, hilltown setting of Chesterfield.

Aging in Place: A State Survey of Livability Policies and Practices examines state policies that can help older adults age in place. “The great majority of older adults have a strong desire to live in their own homes and communities. However, unsupportive community design, unaffordable and inaccessible housing, and a lack of access to needed services can thwart this desire. Starting in 2011, growth of the older American population will accelerate, in part because the leading edge of the baby boomer generation will reach age 65” (AARP).

Today, many well-preserved Federal-style houses line the Main Road (Route 143) of Chesterfield. The agrarian nature of the town dates back to the early settlers who, in the 1760s, farmed and raised Merino sheep. Successively, sawmills, tanneries and clothing mills were established within the Westfield River watershed. After the land was cleared and became overgrazed, many people moved westward or toward cities seeking opportunity. Farming and lumbering have remained the dominant economy, and now the area is also interspersed with horse farms and seasonal summer residents who are attracted to the natural beauty of the area.

A large part of aging-in-place design is to help people feel emotional security, that they are still in control of their lives and can manage living at home. Secure, safe surroundings that are near assistance and services provide assurance to residents who experience reduced mobility. Accessible design assures that residents and their friends can continue to get in and out of their homes to enjoy life.

Chesterfield Senior Housing project Goals

Find a suitable site for older residents to: • Age in place. • Remain a part of the community. • Reduce home maintenance. • Maintain access to services and care. • Achieve Green Community standards. • Enjoy natural surroundings. Chesterfield Public Library

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

In addition to blending with Chesterfield’s community character, potential housing units should be suitable for residents to “age in place.” When middle-aged and older adults move to smaller, simpler housing, how can they maintain a healthy, active lifestyle and remain engaged with their community?

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Preserving that rural community character is a priority for Chesterfield. How can a new housing development be integrated within a traditional New England town such as Chesterfield? Ideally, new development should: • Strengthen the existing community. • Increase the availability of affordable housing. • Preserve open space, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas. • Foster a distinctive and attractive community. • Encourage community input in development decisions.

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Chesterfield is a rural hilltown located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, fifteen miles northwest of Northampton. Rolling, rocky fields and forests are punctuated by extensive wetlands, vernal pools, and the Westfield River as it carves through the granite bedrock of the Chesterfield Gorge.

Age in Place

Town of Chesterfield

Historical Context

Maintain community Ties

Ox and Cow Pastures

The committee identified a potential site for senior housing and engaged a team from the Conway School to assess the site’s suitability for 11 independent housing units. Site assessment includes the suitability of the physical conditions of the land for development (slopes, drainage, and soils), legal constraints, renewable energy potential, and potential to integrate the new development within the character of the town.

Chesterfield is a rural hill town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, fifteen miles northwest of Northampton.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

In 2011, the Chesterfield Select Board authorized the Senior Housing Committee to look for a possible location for “elderly congregate” housing. The committee polled town residents and found that people generally wanted to remain a part of their community as they aged, reduce home maintenance, have access to services and healthcare, and continue to enjoy the beauty of Chesterfield’s natural surroundings.

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

A group of dedicated citizens in the town of Chesterfield has been searching for a place where senior housing can be built. Many of the rural single-family homes in Chesterfield require more maintenance than residents can handle as they age. Rather than move from their town for a downsized, simpler lifestyle, wouldn’t it be better if they could remain in their own community?

Introduction

Introduction

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RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Elementary School

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Housing features most desired were energy efficiency, good light, affordability, and barrier free access.

Well with 50' and 100' setbacks

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Implications

Outdoor space Green space for gardening Good solar orientation Privacy (separation from neighbors) Carport or garage

Stone Wall

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(U.S. Census 2010 data, American Fact Finder)

• • • • •

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Current Owner of Property

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In 2010, 22% of town residents were 60 years or older. By 2020, that number will more than double.

In order of their highest priorities, respondents valued:

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2020

Because of this aging population, the town has been researching options for people in Chesterfield to “agein-place.” In May 2012, the Chesterfield Senior Housing Committee surveyed town residents regarding their needs. Household chores, lawn upkeep, and snow removal provided challenges for many of the older respondents. Those in favor of senior housing ranked affordability, low maintenance, and small unit sizes with common areas—as reasons they might choose to move from their current home.

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Road

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Chesterfield Town Center

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Area of interest

Project

The parcel identified by the Chesterfield Senior Housing Committee is known as the Ox and Cow Pastures. The 110-acre parcel is bounded by Smith Road to the north and North Road to the east, and it is just north of Main Road to the south. The property is covered with mixed hardwood forests that include hemlock, pine, beech, sugar maple, birch, and some cherry. The residence of the current owner of this property fronts on North Road and abuts the southeast portion of the Ox and Cow Pastures property.

The purpose of this project is to identify a suitable location for 11 independent housing units within the parcel, with possible expansion of an additional 11 units in the future. Chesterfield has no public sewer or water, so on-site waste treatment and a public well must also be sited. Vehicular circulation and parking are also key to the project, since transportation in this rural area relies exclusively on vehicles. Renewable energy, particularly solar, has been identified as a goal for the community to reduce their consumption of carbon-based energy and reflect Chesterfield’s commitment after being named a Massachusetts Green Community.

Ox and Cow Pastures

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Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Shifting Demographics

Town-owned Property

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

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The town of Chesterfield has approximately 1,222 residents and the population is aging rapidly.

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Ox and Cow Pasture Property Base Map

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Context

Context

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The water table is 0-20 inches below ground on about 90% of the property. Soil types and water table boundaries are nearly identical. Three types of soil exist on the site, all including rocky glacial till deposits. Two wetlands, in the southeast and southwest areas of the property, contain dense muck-like soils typically found in bogs. • 40% of the soils on this property are poorly-drained, muck-like silt loam as found in bogs. • Soils are very stony or poorly-drained on much of this property. The best soils for potential development are located on the central portion of the property. • None of the soils on this parcel are considered prime farmland.

Implications: • Buildings would need to have slab-on-grade foundations (no basements). • Finding sites for acceptable percolation tests (for septic systems) may be difficult because of the high water table. Septic system may need to be mounded. Slow, but acceptable, percolation tests may lead to increased construction costs. • Driveway material options would be limited; porous concrete and porous asphalt require 3-4' to groundwater. • Recreation trails would need to be sited upland or along constructed boardwalks.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

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the wetlands with construction sedimentation and increased amounts of water. Library • Chemical pollutants (petroleum, herbicides, and insecticides) from residences would impact the water Community Center quality of the surrounding on and off-site wetlands. Community Center Fire Station Library

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Road by steep slopes. Offices • Slopes greaterTown than 10% increase construction Town Recreation General Store Town Offices costs, and provide ongoing challenges for winter Town Recreation General Store maintenance and emergency vehicle access. • Barrier-free access and trails require slopes 0-5%. Terrain with slopes greater than that pose significant challenges for accessibility. • The flattest terrain is located in the center median and along the west side of the site.

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higher area, surface water flows to the west towards wetlands, and to the east to off-site properties and 500 1,000 2,000 wetlands. Feet 500

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relatively flat, 0Observed to 5%, about 90% (102 acres) of it is Wet Area less than a 10% slope. Observed Wet Area • Moderate slopes of 5-10% bisect the property. • Steep slopes ranging from 15-25% form about 10% Ma iof n R the eastern boundary. oad Town Owned Ma i nR • Slopes run in a northwesterly to southeasterly oad Town Owned direction. 12

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59% Ashfield-Shelburne Association: Depth to Water Table d Bog Bog oa R • Rolling, extremely Parcel h it Poorlystony. Glacial till, Sm Wooded Swamp Wooded Swamp PropertyBoundary Water moderately welldrained drained. 100ftWetlandsBuffer 0-10 inches 100ftWetlandsBuffer Bog • 10-20” to water table. Steep, 10-20 inches Deep Marsh Deep Marsh Wooded Swamp 39% Pillsbury-Peachamstony, Wonsqueak Association: 20-40 inches moderately Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen 100ftWetlandsBuffer Moderately • Course loamy deposits drained 40-60 inches well-drained Shrub Swamp Shrub Swamp and rocky till. Deep Marsh Road consists • Wonsqueak Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen of muck-like silt loam RoadClip RoadClip Contour Line found in bogs. Depth to Water Table Index Contour Line Index Contour Line Shrub Swamp Depth to Water Table Depth to Water Table • Poorly-drained. to Table Depth to Water Water Table PropertyBoundary SupplementalDepth Contour Line Supplemental Contour Line PropertyBoundary RoadClip 0-10" to Water Table, PillsburyPropertyBoundary • 0-10” to water table. 0-10 inches PropertyBoundary PropertyBoundary Peacham-Wonsqueak Soil 0-10 inches Drainage Direction 0-10 inches Drainage Direction 10-20 inches Index Contour Line 13% Shelburne-Ashfield 10-20" to Water Table, 0-10 0-10 inches inches 10-20 inches Ashfield-Shelburne Soil 10-20 inches inches 20-40 10-20 inches 10-20 inches inches Supplemental Contour Line Association: 20-40 20-40"inches to Water Table, 20-40 40-60 inches • Steep, Extremely stony. 20-40 inches Shelburne-Ashfield Soil 20-40 inches 40-60 inches 40-60 to inches Road Drainage Direction 40-60" Water Table, 40-60 inches • Moderately well40-60 inches Road Shelburne-Ashfield Soil Contour Road Line Road Contour drained. Road Line Contour Line Contour Contour Line Line - 3-meter interval • 20-60" to water table. Miles 13 58

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The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

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RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

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3/19


1/2-Mile Buffer

Critical Natural Landscape

Protected Space

Critical Natural Landscape Water Body Connections Open Water

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Fiske Meadows Wildlife Management Area

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• Portions of three wetlands are located on this property. • The wetlands on the property are connected to the Westfield River. • The property is less than one mile from the Westfield River to the west and within a half

mile of the Fiske Meadows Wildlife Management Area to the east. • Core critical habitats and priority habitats of rare species are located along the Westfield River and Fiske Meadows. There are many insects, reptiles, and plants that live in these areas, including those identified by the National Heritage Endangered Species Program (NHESP), shown at right. • All the species of conservation concern listed by NHESP depend on clean water.

Implications • Any negative impact on the wetlands, including polluted run-off or particulates from

erosion or development, has an impact on the surrounding water bodies and the wildlife they support.

Spring Salamander

Jefferson Salamander

Wood Turtle

Smooth Green Snake

Four-toed Salamander Twelve-spotted Beetle

Lake Chub

Riffle Snaketail

Need Clean Water

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Oscillated Darner Hadena ectypa

Ostrich Fern Borer Fox-tailed Sedge

These National Heritage Endangered Species are found in the Fiske Meadows Wildlife Management area or in the Westfield River.

Wetland & Wildlife Ecology

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Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Open Water

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

dg

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

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The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Protected Open Space, Protected Open Space, Wetlands, Priority Habitats, Wetlands, Priority Habitats, and and Potential Vernal Pools Potential Vernal Pools

Protected Open Space, Protected Open Space, Wetlands, Priority Habitats, and Wetlands, Priority Habitats, and Half-mile radius Potential Vernalaround Pools property Potential Vernal Pools

Protected Open Space, Critical Natural Wetlands, Priority Habitats, and Landscape Potential Vernal Pools

3-mile radius around property

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Wetland and Wildlife Ecology

4/19


A buffer zone of 100' out from the boundary of vegetated wetlands is regulated. Activities within that 100-foot discretionary buffer zone are subject to permit review. Conditions for use may be issued if the issuing authority believes activities could have a potential negative impact upon the protected resource area. Elementary School Elementary School 13

Ox and Cow Pasture Property Base Map

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Community Center Community Center

141 7

1309

1407

Pump

13

69

13

12

1427

49

1397

Aeration

Septic tank

9 128

18

1377

12

Groundwater

1,000

1417

13

10-20"

500

99

1348

4’ minimum depth to groundwater

ΜΝ

Potential Vernal Pool 12

8 136

Septic System

100' Wetland Buffer

1240

Water WELL

Massachusetts Title 5 requires that a private well be located a minimum of 50' from a septic tank and 100' from a soil absorption (leach) field. Community wells have larger setbacks (200-400'), based on soils and the rate of flow from the well.

Town-owned Property Property Boundary

1210

Chesterfield Town Center Post Office

Portions of three wetlands are located on the property, shown above in blue, with their surrounding buffer areas indicated with blue hash-marks.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

Massachusetts Title 5 allows a septic system for an elderly housing facility to be designed with a flow of 150 Gallons Per Day (GPD) per unit. Based on this standard and other calculations below, a 22-unit housing project would require two septic systems, one for each 11 units. Title 5 is administered by local Boards of Health and includes required minimum setbacks (such as 50' to wetlands and watercourses), requirements for suitable soils, and minimum depths to groundwater (4' or 5' to the maximum groundwater elevation, depending on the soil type). The regulations also specify the engineering design requirements for the system components, as well as the soil and hydrological testing needed to prove a complying system can be constructed on a site. Chesterfield zoning by-laws state that “no septic system serving the project

9 124

15' from property line

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

25’ from road

Wetlands are a protected resource area regulated by the MassDEP. The Massachusetts Wetlands Protection Act (WPA) defines freshwater wetlands in terms of vegetation and hydrology.

Capacity

Town of Chesterfield

50’ from wetlands or septic tank

Ox and Cow Pastures

100’ from leach field or stable

Massachusetts Wetland Protection Act

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

An 11-unit housing development (calculating two people for each unit) could remain under the threshold of requiring a community well, as long as the housing project has no full-time staff, shared community room, or municipal uses. If Chesterfield Senior Housing intends to phase the construction of an additional 11 units at a later time, the water well should be constructed according to community well standards during phase one, and certified by DEP when the volume increases.

Siting considerations for the septic system would require soils with the best percolation rates, a distance of at least 50’ from a wetland, and a minimum of 100’ from a public water supply.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

The Chesterfield Board of Health regulates private wells that serve less than twenty-five people. If a well serves water for public consumption or for multiple dwellings, it is considered a community system, regulated by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP). Community systems must be built, maintained, and monitored according to more stringent standards than private wells. The water protection zone (area surrounding the well to protect water quality) is much larger (200-400') for a community well, due to the greater public health effect of the water quality (MassDEP).

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Water Wells

The shallow depth to groundwater throughout the area of interest represents the greatest constraint upon development and will ultimately determine whether or not a portion of this property is suitable for building. With septic systems, the “depth to groundwater” refers to the minimum vertical separation distance between the soil absorption system and the high groundwater elevation. Massachusetts Title 5 requires a 4' “depth to groundwater” if the percolation rate is more than 2 minutes per inch and 5' if the percolation rate is less than 2 minutes per inch. If that depth is not naturally occurring, a raised mound of soil is constructed to create a minimum of 4' between the absorption system (leach lines) and the groundwater (see illustration below). Given the high water table and the proximity of any new development to the wetlands, a mounded system would be required for septic. Although many variables exist based on soils, existing rock ledge, percolation rate and systems, a general cost estimate for septic for 22 units could range from $50,000-75,000.

Legal Restrictions

Legal Restrictions

shall exceed 2,000 gallons per day of sewage flow. More than one septic system may serve the site in order to meet this requirement.” Massachusetts Title 5 governs systems with design flows less than 10,000 gallons per day (the equivalent of approximately thirty 3-bedroom units or 200,000 sq. ft. of retail space). One septic consultant estimated that 22 units x 150 gallons would require about 11,000 linear feet of leach line. Two systems would be recommended, one for each 11 units. Based on a percolation test rate >20-30 min/inch, a raised system is required with a lowpressure distribution system for collection, which is pumped out to the leach field periodically. The periodic pumping into the leach field allows beneficial bacteria a chance to work in the leach field and it extends the life of a system.

Septic

5/19


Frontage 100 ft. min.

Front 75 ft. min.

Back 50 ft. min.

Two-story structure allowed 35 ft. max. height

Side 75 ft. min.

All land not devoted to dwellings, accessory uses,or roads must be permanently protected by a donated conservation restriction to the town, recorded on the deed.

Congregate Elderly Housing

Creative

13 acres

Creative zoning contains provisions for development with some flexibility about the minimum lot size, property setbacks, and required open space requirements. Cluster development, including reducing

lot size, visual buffering between buildings, and narrowing the width of roads, would require special permits from the Chesterfield Zoning Board.

Cluster 8 acres

13 acres

1 dwelling unit requires at least a 40,000 sq. ft. lot. 6 dwelling units require at least 240,000 sq. ft.

Development

Development

2 acres 2 acres

8 acres

Development

Solar Clearing Solar Clearing

Solar Clearing

Utilizing Chesterfield’s Elderly Congregate zoning by-law regulations would result in covering over 26 acres of land for 11 living units. Elderly congregate housing allows 6 living units in one structure, which would help to reduce the footprint. The overall forest clearing would have to double to accommodate solar access.

Chesterfields’ creative zoning standards reduce minimum setback requirements. As a result this type of development could occupy about 8 acres for 11 housing units.

A clustered design further reduces the required footprint on the land to about 2 acres for 11 living units. This type of development could be allowed by special permit from the Chesterfield Planning Board.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

Building footprint no more than 30% of lot

Side 75 ft. min.

Town of Chesterfield

40,000 sq. ft. minimum lot

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Up to 6 dwelling units allowed per structure

Ox and Cow Pastures

When required, large lots and setbacks result in development that is spread out and autodependent. In an effort to reduce carbon-based fuels, conserve open space, and promote walkable communities, planners are trying to cluster new development. This type of planning, generally referred to as “Smart Growth,” reduces costs—both short and long-term.

Dwelling Unit

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Traditionally, New England villages contained a variety of stores, residences, and services within walking distance of the town center. In today’s planning terms, the village centers were clustered and mixed-use. Today, many towns have zoning that requires buildings be spaced farther apart and separated by use. Zoning can actually prevent traditional village-style development.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Density and Land use

Chesterfield’s zoning by-laws specify setbacks and vegetative buffer requirements for zones. The density of buildings has a large impact on the “walk-ability” of the neighborhood, and how integrated or isolated a community may feel. Chesterfield’s zoning by-law for Congregate Housing for Elderly and Handicapped requires these setbacks for dwelling units:

Between dwelling units 50 ft. min.

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Chesterfield Zoning

Zoning

Zoning

6/19


12 40

1249

1279

1368

1200

1190 1348

1338 20 12

12 30

1289

13 58 1387

12 59

28 13

18 13

77 13

1259

North R

Observed Wet Area

12 99

1417

oad

(not verified)

1259

12 59

1358

1358

38 13 40 12

89 12

1368

Residence of Current Current Owner Owner of Parcel

12 49

13 09

12 69

of Parcel

1387

17 14

48 13

79 12

1368

Observed Wet Area

89 12

1181

13

12 99

9 124

(not verified)

28

1309

1318

0

90 11

58

1328

1348

1348 1210

40

124 9

Town-owned Town Owned 12

1279

1417

1200

1348

1230

1190

1318

Fire Station

1348

Library

12

12 30

20

Elementary School

1338

1240

1210

1368

1220

97

38

Implications

1338

13

13

oad

87

in R

1338

13

Ma

12 59

1289

13

58

1377

1387

1397

09 13

69 12

1338

90 11

49 12

Sm

Property Boundary

1328

8

1210

12

28

40 12

Parcel

1200

1328

13 28

99

1417

1348

Bog Steep Grade

1338

Chesterfield Town Center

1259

Water

1190

1417

1407

1328

59

1259

87

124 9

13

18

1368

1279

13

77

97

13

12

13 18

Community Center

59

13

13

1338

Structure 1309

12

8 135

8 135

Wooded Wetland

38

30

1289

100ft Wetlands Buffer

40

89

1259

North R

1190

oad

Well

1417

12 59

12 20

1210

8 1289 135

1348

12

89

1427

18

49

69

1377

13

12

12

9

13

17

48

59

14

13

12

338

1387

Shrub Swamp

09

40

13

12

89

8 136

1240

1220

Potential Vernal Pool

12

1230

Deep Marsh Current Owner Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen of Parcel

500

1,000

0

0.1

0.2

2,000 Feet 0.4 Miles

• • •

7/19

1417

100' Wetlands 100ft Wetlands Buffer Buffer

0

tests, a prerequisite for siting septic systems. A new delineation of the wetlands on the property will be required to determine acceptable distances for building, septic and walking trails. Potential areas for the development of structures and trails could be located in the middle of the property running in a northwesterly or southeasterly direction. Vehicle access is only available to the north from Smith Road. Pedestrian trails from north to south are most suitable in the central ridge area of the property. Development could impact the wetlands on and off the property.

1348

1318

124 9

ΜΝ

12

28

1348

Stone Wall

Wooded Wetland

40

12

12

Most developable land Poorly drained soils 0-10” to groundwater

Contour Line

1259

99

Post Office

49

69

1387

17

48

13

18

59

99

Bog Steep Grade

1338 30

59

Road 12

12

12

14

13

79

13

77 13 1200

Water

12

09

Not for sale by owner

Shrub Swamp

8 136

12

12

12

12

89

8 136

90 11

1387

1338

Parcel

13

Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen

Structure

Town Recreation 12

1181

General Store Deep Marsh Property Boundary

Observed Wet Area

Town Offices

20

13

12

12

9 124

Ox and Cow Pasture Property Base Map

1210

1279

1181

58

ith

1427

9 124

Ox and Cow Pasture Property Base Map

89 12

13 18

d

a Ro 13

Elementary School

• Development will require tree removal and regrading. • No building can occur without successful percolation

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

1338

97 13

87 13

1338

38 13

13

boundaries in the northern part of the property, remnants of past land use as pasture. • The distance from Smith Road to the Chesterfield town Parcel center is one mile. Water • A central ridge area, running from north to south, has Bog the flattest terrain with 0-5% slopes. From that ridge Steep Grade area, water drains to the east and to the west, toward Wooded Wetland existing wetlands. 100ft Wetlands • Buffer Most of this property has a high water table, except within the eastern, steeper, sloped portion. Deep Marsh • The best draining soils are located in the middle and Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen eastern section of the property. Shrub Swamp• There are portions of three wetlands on the property. Two wetlands connect to potential vernal pools. The Road “claw-shaped” wetland has waterway connections that Contour Line lead to the Westfield River. Stone Wall • A wetland delineation was completed for the southeastern wetland on Jan. 8, 2000. Chesterfield Well Conservation Commission completed gross mapping of all three wetlands in 2012. Potential Vernal Pool • In addition to the mapped wetlands, seasonal standing water was observed by the Conway student team in two areas of the property. This condition has not been verified professionally. The north area is situated where drainage flows from a higher elevation 500 1,000 2,000 into a depression. The south area is along a water Feet connection from a delineated wetland towards a potential vernal pool. Structure

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

1348

Property Boundary

1210

Town of Chesterfield

90 11

• The entire area of interest is covered with woodlands. • Existing stone walls border the former parcel

it

Sm

Ox and Cow Pastures

1181

o hR

58 13

1328

ad

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Elementary School

1318

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Observations

Ox and Cow Pasture Property Base Map

1249

13 28

1309

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Elementary School

Summary Analysis

Summary Analysis


1 118

Poorlydrained

Site 1

00 12

1387

Wooded Swamp

18 13

100ftWetlandsBuffer

1220

12 59 0 124

Site 2

59 12

28 13

The Ox and Cow Pastures property is located in a beautiful woodland, close to the center of Chesterfield. There are several significant constraints to this property and its two potential building sites.

12 59

Deep Marsh

13 58

Not for sale Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen

1417

1377

1358

• The greatest concern is the high water table—0-20” below the ground 48 13

38 13

99 12

on nearly 90% of the property. Finding a site for successful percolation may be a major challenge.

123 0

07 14

8 136

12 59 12

18 13

• If a percolation test is acceptable, requirements for a septic system

Shrub Swamp

1210 122 0

69

RoadClip

77 13

7 138

on this property could still be costly for what is intended to be an affordable community, due to the high water table, and if a mounded system is necessary.

Moderately

0 123

1358

49 12

17 14

89 12

Supplemental Contour Line

89 12 09 13 99 12

additional expense and require a larger portion of land to be purchased for the well protection zone required by Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection.

1348

PoorlyDrainage Direction

27 14

Not for sale by owner

1417

Suitable for conservation

1318

• Development of this property could create an isolated, single-age

1230 1240

Poorly drained soils

community and cause social segregation of older adults from the community.

12 20

12 10

1348

Potential building sites

131 8

89 12

69 12

Davenport School (town offices)

Main Road

12 49

ΜΝ

132 8

drained

Town Center Chesterfield

133 8

13 18

Potential Trail

Index Contour Line well-drained

7 139

8 136

79 12

• Siting a well for community use (for more than 25 residents) would add

00 12

Steep, North stony, Road moderately drained

1397

1397

1348

13 09

18 13

1358

1417

Pros • Surroundings of scenic beauty of woods, stone walls and natural • •

• • •

areas. Space is available for siting structures for passive solar gain with forest clearing. Pedestrian or bicycle recreational trails could be established along the contours for barrier-free trails of 0-5% slope, creating a link from the New Hingham Elementary School to the center of town through the town-owned Davenport Property where town offices are locates. Location near New Hingham School creates possibilities of shared resources, collaborative mentoring programs, and the shared use of facilities. Site 1 is nearer to Smith Road and would require a shorter length of roads and utilities. It would be the most cost effective site for housing if a successful percolation test is obtained. Site 2 is about a .75-mile walk to the town center, and would require longer distances of roads and utilities. It would be the more expensive location to build housing due to increased infrastructure costs.

1328

28 13

0

200

400

800 Feet

1309

1318

1387

99 12

13 28

12 59

1417

0

0.05

0.1

0.2 Miles

Cons • A wetland delineation would be required to determine • • • •

protected areas and acceptable distances for locating septic and building sites. Constraints due to high water table could increase construction costs, especially for the septic system. Percolation tests, required to determine how well the soils drain and how well septic systems would work, are a prerequisite prior to any final site selection. Considerable site alteration would be required prior to construction--tree removal, grading, and restoring existing stone walls. Wetlands would require protection from construction disturbances like stormwater and sediment runoff, and contamination from pesticides, insecticides, fertilizers, and petroleum products. Regulation of use of those substances would be recommended. Potential construction would increase the amount of

impervious surfaces altering the ground’s ability to absorb water and reduce stormwater runoff. • Site 1 is a one-mile walk from the town center where many community activities for older residents occur, potentially isolating senior residents who can’t walk or drive that distance.

Town of Chesterfield

30 12

7 138

Bog

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

1151

i

Sm

13 48

13 58

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

1338

ad Water Ro h t

Ox and Cow Pastures

1161

Two potential building sites may exist within the northern section of the property, based on obtaining good percolation rates. Green areas may be best suited for passive recreation or conservation due to the high groundwater table, poorly draining soils or steep slopes. Buffers are recommended along the eastern boundaries to mitigate possible impacts of development on adjacent neighbors. Vehicular access at the southern portion (to Main Road) is constrained by a DEP delineated wetland and the close proximity of an existing septic system for the Davenport building, but pedestrian access at this point is possible.

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

1190

1171

8 136

Parcel

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

1338

38 13

New Hingham Elementary School

Suitability Analysis

1279

Suitability Analysis

1249

1338

Structure

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

1210

8/19


RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Alternative Design 1 Creative Development

Duplexes must be located 50' apart according to the Elderly Congregate zoning bylaws, but using a creative, compact layout that can reduce some required setbacks. Living units are situated around a formally designed common area, which provides space for impromptu conversations and socializing. Community gardens may be located near housing units. This design requires about 8 acres of land for 11 living units. Buildings are oriented for solar gain. Pros • Community-oriented. Large areas of shared public space to maintain social contacts. • Private space is located in backyards. • New England style of commons. • Smaller building footprint than standard design. • Good solar gain if structures are placed south-facing. • More open space than standard design; less area is cleared of trees and vegetation, providing transpiration, infiltration (reduces runoff volume and helps clean water before it reaches wetlands and rivers). • Fewer roads mean less construction costs and less impervious surfacing within the development. • Less mass grading; less soil area is compacted by heavy machinery during development. Cons

• Units are spread out, creating a larger footprint than is necessary.

• Less privacy. • Closer to Smith Road. • Less expensive to develop.

• More privacy. • More roads & infrastructure. • More expensive to develop.

Closer walk to town.

Alternative design 1

Site 2

Longer walk to town

Duplexes

Common area

Private area ΜΝ

0

30

Feet 60

Ox and Cow Pastures

Site 1

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

Town of Chesterfield

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

NTS

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

These sheets show examples of designs that comply with creative and cluster by-laws.

9/19


RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Alternative Design 2

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Cluster Development This is the more compact development, using just 2 acres. The remaining 24 acres required under zoning by-laws are saved as conservation open space. The living units are joined as duplexes. A New England commons provides a parklike front yard for community life, with an outdoor dining area. Backyards provide private space for each living unit. A native plant meadow covers the solar clearing, requiring less mowing than conventional landscaping—decreasing maintenance and fossil fuel use, while providing wildlife habitat. Community gardens could be located in nearby raised beds for easy accessibility. A community center with potential guest space, reading room, and communal indoor dining or a municipal building could be sited nearby. Pros • Community-oriented. Large areas of shared public space to maintain social contacts. • Private space located in backyards. • Commons design typical of New England character. • Smallest development footprint of the designs. More options for siting on land. • Consolidated parking removes cars from site and decreases impervious surfacing. • Less area cleared of trees and vegetation for develpment, less impervious surfacing decreases stormwater runoff. • Less mass grading; less soil area compacted by heavy machinery during development. • Swales, instead of curb and gutters, reduce cost and improves stormwater infiltration. • Good solar gain if structures are placed south-facing.

Common area

Closer walk to town.

ΜΝ

Longer walk to town.

Covered & consolidated parking

0

15

Feet 30

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

All paths can accommodate vehicles for accessibility needs, emergency access

Site 1 Site 2

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Town of Chesterfield

Duplexes

• More privacy. • More roads & infrastructure. • More expensive to develop.

Ox and Cow Pastures

Private areas

• Less privacy. • Closer to Smith Road. • Less expensive to develop.

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Cons

• Less privacy.

Alternative Design 2

NTS

10/19


Water well  drilling        Septic  system $50,000-­‐75,000 $50,000-­‐75,000 (estimated  d    epth   300') $40/LF $12,000        Water  well  drilling    

(estimated depth   Electric  (buried)300') $60/LF $40/LF

Site work

Site work Electric  (buried) Rate

$60/LF

Clearing trees  

$8000/ac

Rough grading

$4000/ac

Site work

Totals

$506,880-­‐760,320 $380,160-­‐570,240 Elderly C ongregate Creative $50,000-­‐75,000 $50,000-­‐75,000

Rate

$50,000-­‐75,000

$316,800 $12,000

$8000/ac

Site work  subtotal Rough  grading

$4000/ac

Total -­‐  11  units

$50,000-­‐75,000

$12,000

$12,000

$237,600 $12,000

$158,400 $12,000

$208,000

$64,000

$32,000

$104,000

$32,000

$16,000

$775,760-­‐990,840 $32,000

$521,840-­‐673,560 $16,000

8 acres

$208,000

$1.2-­‐1.5M $104,000

$64,000

$3.7-­‐7.3M

Total -­‐  11  units

$253.440-­‐380,160 Cluster $50,000-­‐75,000

4 $158,400 acres

$1.2-­‐1.5M

Total 22  units

.5 mile/  2640  LF

$253.440-­‐380,160 Cluster

8 acres $237,600

$2.4-­‐4.4M

Site work  subtotal

$1.24-­‐2.89M $2.47-­‐5.77M $1.24-­‐2.89M Cluster $2.47-­‐5.77M .5 mile/   2640  LF Cluster

26 acres $316,800

26 acres

Clearing trees  

Cluster

$2.4-­‐4.4M

4 acres

$32,000

$2-­‐3.9M

$1.8-­‐3.6M

$775,760-­‐990,840

$521,840-­‐673,560

$2-­‐3.9M

$1.8-­‐3.6M

$2.8-­‐4.9M

$2.3-­‐4.3M

Walkways 5'  wide

Rate

Elderly Congregate

Creative

Cluster

     Concrete

$5-­‐6 SF

$146,667

$110,000

Alternatives $73,350

Total 22  units

$3.7-­‐7.3M

     TRG $12/  SF Rate Walkways  5'  wide        Asphalt        Concrete $4/  SF $5-­‐6  SF

Trail surface alternatives

     TRG        Asphalt

$316,800.00 Elderly Congregate $105,600 $146,667

$2.8-­‐4.9M

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Utilities$50,000-­‐75,000Rate      Septic  system

Cluster

$2.3-­‐4.3M

$237,000 Creative

$158,400 Cluster

$79,200 $110,000

$52,800 $73,350

$12/ SF

$316,800.00

$237,000

$158,400

$4/ SF

$105,600

$79,200

$52,800

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

“Site construction involves many physical features that later sink beneath our notice— pavements, curbs, foundations, grading, sewer pipes, power lines—all those technical underpinnings economists dignify with the name of “infrastructure.” We are astonished at their cost and at the chaos that accompanies their installation on the site. But their absence, or their faulty design, will remind us of them.” (Lynch and Hack)

Creative Duplex Cottages                       $ 150-­‐ 3 50   S F Duplex   C ottages                     750  SF,                                         750      S  F,   $1.24-­‐2.89M $1.24-­‐2.89M slab  on  grade,                                              11  units with  solar  pslab   anels $2.47-­‐5.77M $1.24-­‐2.89M $1.24-­‐2.89M on  grade,               22  units 11  units $2.47-­‐5.77M Creative with  solar  panels 22  unitsElderly  Congregate $2.47-­‐5.77M $2.47-­‐5.77M 24'   ntry  R Rate 1  mile/   5280  CLongregate F .75  mile/  Creative 3960  LF        AEsphalt   woad /  6'   Elderly   6' shoulders 24'   ntry  Rwoad Rate 1  mile/  5280  LF .75  mile/  3960  LF        AEsphalt   /  6'   $4-­‐6/  SF $506,880-­‐760,320 $380,160-­‐570,240 shoulders Utilities Rate Elderly  Congregate Creative $4-­‐6/  SF

Utilities

Alternatives

Town of Chesterfield

Hauling fill and rocks from the site is expensive and fuel-intensive, and it creates more environmental disturbance. It is recommended the native soil and stones be left on the site to be reused in swales, landscaping berms and restoration of rock walls. Native vegetation, typically found in the surrounding natural areas, is best adapted to these conditions and should be used for landscaping.

Road

Creative

Ox and Cow Pastures

Although these road costs reflect a 24' width, a narrower road (18-20') is recommended to reduce the amount of impervious surface and create a more rural appearance to the subdivision.

Housing

Rate Elderly Congregate Elderly  Congregate  $150-­‐350  SFRate

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

These rough, but realistic, costs offer a tool to measure pros and cons of the various alternative designs offered, both in terms of initial cost and ongoing sustainability of maintenance and use of community resources.

A similar woodland site in Chesterfield, after tree clearing and grading.

Cost Analysis

Compact development reduces the required land needed, decreases the length of utilities and road to access the development—resulting in significant reduction of costs—both short-term and ongoing.

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Complex decisions when siting new development are made not only through site analysis, but also by weighing the costs associated with land, construction, and utilities. Initial costs that are higher, may provide long-term savings through the years, by reducing ongoing expense of maintenance, consumption of energy and other irreplaceable resources.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Cost Analysis

11/19


13 28

1309

1318

13 28

40

1249

1190

28

1259 12 12

89

40

1387

17

48

14

13

79

12 89 12

500

1,000

2,000 Feet

99

Davenport School Septic (Town Offices)

59

1348

1220

1230

1318

Fire Station

1240

Library

1348

13

69

1338

49

09

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Town of Chesterfield

1328

1417

1328

18

General Store

Town Offices

Town Recreation

1407

13

Community Center Shorter trail distances are needed for steep grades when crossing Town the contours, and the recommended distances in Center the trail guidelines above should be followed. 1328

Trails following the contours running north to south would provide a path with 0-5% slope - a relatively flat path.

1309

28

12

1427

89

1397

12

12

18

1377

13

13

1210

1417

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

13

18

1417

8 136

8 136

12

0 12

Post Office

Recreational Trails

28

20

13

77

38 49

69

Town Center

Ox and Cow Pastures

Community Center

1417

18

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

1338

09

1328

1190

1328

13

12

13

0.2

Miles A combination of following the contours and changing grades, allows for the greatest variety of trails, while keeping the slope of the trails to 0-5%.

Appendix A

1210

1220

1230 1240

1397

40

124 9

1318

1338

13 28 1279

0.1

89

1407

12

1289

13

8 135

8 135

13

Potential Vernal Pool 12 12

Library 1427

1200

1348

1338

1387

Well

09

0.05

12

13 18

Boardwalks through the wetlands on this property could provide protection to ecologically sensitive areas, while allowing New Hingham students close access for educational experiences.

Stone Wall

13

0

800 Feet

1397

1368

Contour Line

99

69 12

400

1377

97

87

Road 1259

1,000

Fire Station

Wetlands provide a rich habitat for a variety of plants and animals. New Hingham Elementary School curriculum in math, science, English, and history could be enhanced with the direct observational opportunities that outdoor learning labs provide.

Shrub Swamp

Current Owner of Property

12

1171

1161

1190

12 10

12 49

12 59

ΜΝ

99 12

13 09

1279

1279

1249

89 12

Trail parking at Town Offices

Town Offices

100ft Wetlands Buffer

500

1348

Town Recreation General Store Outdoor nature education stations

Wooded Wetland

59

59

1309

1348

1328

1338

13

13

12

49 12

200

13

Deep Marsh

12

0

1328

Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen 12

40 12

89 12

17

48

14

13

1368

79 12

Davenport School Septic (Town Offices)

1309

Bog

58

1259

1387

99 12

1230 1240

28 13

1417

09 13

1318

90 11

18 13

Slopes Crossed

Parcel

30

18 13

77

1368

89 12

0

12 59

1181

58

1417

Water

12

12 69

1348

Structure

1338

20 12

1289

13

38

49 12

17 14

27 14

9 124

13

1348

Property Boundary

38

1200

1348

1338

1387

13

1230

1397

89 12

12 20

1368

1358

1358

1387

77 13

1358

1368

79 12

Drainage Direction

1417

Town-owned Property

1397

Potential Vernal Pool 12 49

13 09

12 99

Ox and Cow Pasture Property Base Map

1210

Stone Wall

Well

1417

Slopes

Contour Line

Current Owner of Property

Supplemental Contour Line

1318

Contours Followed

Road

12 59

1348

1387

Shrub Swamp

12 59

12 99

Index Contour Line

(American Trails)

28 13

1358

1338

97 13

87

1220

1240

59 12

28 13

07 14

18 13

RoadClip

1328

1328

Deep Marsh

Shrub Swamp

122 0

1417

28

100ft Wetlands Buffer

1259

1210

69

89 12

1309

13

13

1 118

00 12

18 13

1368

12 59 12

The current American Trials proposed accessibility guidelines recommend grades of: • 0 - 5% for any distance • 8.33% for up to 200 ft • 10% for 30 ft • 12% for 10 ft • 14% for 5 ft

Elementary School

Wooded Wetland

Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen

Shallow Marsh Meadow or Fen

1417

1377

1358

48 13

38 13

99 12

69 12

Bog

Deep Marsh

1348

13 18

Parcel Water

12 30

100ftWetlandsBuffer

58

123 0

(Adapted from the MA Department of Conservation and Recreation)

13

13

13 58

00 12

13

1151

30 12

1387

Guidelines from American Trails are comparable to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) building codes, but were adopted for outdoor environments. American Trails guidelines are used for trail building, as a guide for recreation and nature trails access for people with a wide range of physical abilities.

1318

Property Boundary Structure

Trail from elementary school to town center

Wooded Swamp

12 59

12 59

2. Meet users’ expectations. Connect features and destinations Keep the trail interesting and enjoyable! 3. Keep water off the trail to prevent: Trail erosion. Trail widening. Environmental damage. Poor user experience. 4. Follow natural contours Along ridge lines or valleys Fall lines (the quickest way down)

Town-owned Property

1210

Bog

38

Trail Slope Guidelines

1. Protect the environment. Avoid sensitive areas. Keep users on the trail.

1318

1338

13

1387

Principles of sustainable trail Design

90 11

1348

1338

Water

13 48

13 58

58

Parcel Potential boardwalk trail

8 136

38 13

13

1328

1338

Chesterfield residents have expressed interest in having recreational trails near town. This property could potentially provide space for hiking and biking trails for Chesterfield residents. A trail from the center of town to the New Hingham Elementary School, would provide a route for children to walk or bike to school more safely than by using the road. The nearby location of wetlands to the elementary school could be used for hands-on outdoor nature education.

Ox and Cow Pasture Property Base Map 1181

1318

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

1338

Structure Potential Trails

1309

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

0 119

Property Boundary Elementary School

1210

1249

Recreational Trails 1328

Post Office

(National Archives and Records Administration, via Wikimedia Commons)

(Nigel Chadwick, via Wikimedia Commons)

12/19


For a complete listing of the accepted innovative technology approved by Massachusetts Title 5 see www. mass.gov/eea/agencies/massdep/water/wastewater/ summary-of-innovative-alternative-technologiesapproved.html.

Swale

Rain gardens and swales help collect and direct water. Rain gardens allow the water to infiltrate into the ground slowly.

Town of Chesterfield

Raingarden

Carbon emissions can be decreased with the reduction of fossil fuel use. Replacing lawn with native grasses and meadows that only require mowing 1-2 times per year reduces the use of fossil fuels, as well as reducing landscape maintenance. Even septic fields can be planted as meadows if plants with shorter roots are selected, such as little bluestem grasses and wildflowers.

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Low Carbon Emission Landscapes

Meadows help provide beauty and animal habitat, as well as stormwater management and reduction of fossil fuel use.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

Some such systems provide better water quality. In some applications, using an additional treatment system may help place the system closer to the ground water table and reduce the area needed for the leaching field. Some potential drawbacks to such a system are the need of regular maintenance, electricity, additional costs, and the elimination of garbage disposal or water softener options for residents.

Plant or retain trees in landscape. Use native plants in landscapes. Reduce or eliminate lawn. Collect rainwater for gardening. Create swales and rain gardens.

Septic, Water Conservation, Stormwater

Additional nitrogen removal from the septic effluent should be considered to maintain high water quality of the groundwater and surrounding wetlands. A range of technologies has emerged that provide enhanced treatment (removal) of nitrogen and other pollutants associated with sewage. One such system being used in Massachusetts is called the FAST system (Fixed Activated Sludge Treatment). It uses two chambers that treat the waste to 95% clean, enabling the treated effluent to be used for irrigating fields or lawns. Air is pumped through the effluent allowing it to seep out holes providing drip irrigation to the grass and plants above it. The pump operates on demand and, if there is no demand, the system doesn’t pump.

Water Conservation Techniques

Appendix B

Innovative Septic Technology

Using rain gardens and bioretention areas can save up to $4,800 per residential lot over conventional engineered solutions (Sherwood Gap Creek, 2000).

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Nitrogen removal of septic effluent allows use of discharge to irrigate fields or lawns.

A street-side swale helps retain stormwater. (By U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

Ox and Cow Pastures

Tree roots help hold soil in place and help water infiltrate into the soil. Tree removal can cause erosion and increase the rate of stormwater drainage—more water runs across the surface of the soil at a faster speed. Development and solar clearing will require tree removal, so steps to slow stormwater runoff and allow it to infiltrate slowly will be necessary. To protect surrounding wetlands from greater and possibly morepolluted runoff from development, direct water into vegetative swales, raingardens, or infiltration basins.

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Water Conservation and Stormwater Management

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Septic, Water Conservation, and Stormwater Management

13/19


energy-saving appliances LED and fluorescent lighting double or triple pane windows super-insulation wind blocks green roofs shade trees and structures

40

9

3 0

As a Green Community, it is important to understand that sustainable development is not only associated with decreased energy use. The most sustainable housing also achieves:

50

12

6

Sustainable development

30 20 10

0

Comparison of energy use based on building type.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

High standards of indoor air quality. Use of building materials that are locally-produced and/or recycled. Water conservation and storm water management. Minimal footprint on the land. Include the real cost of materials and development. Low carbon emissions through decreased energy use and use of renewable energy. (Guylas)

Indoor air Quality

Livability of a house is important. If a house has great energy efficiency, but poor ventilation, the house can become “sick.” Proper ventilation and air exchange is a vital part of keeping super-insulated houses a healthy place to live.

Building Materials There are many hidden environmental costs to construction. Use of recycled building products and locally-sourced or built products decreases the negative impacts of development. Minimal footprint Comparison of land use for 11 units: Standard Congregate Elderly Housing = 26 acres Creative = 8 acres Cluster =2 acres

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

15

Passivhaus design reduces heating expenses by 90% indefinitely, by spending an extra 10% during construction. (Minervini, 2009)

60

Heating Air Conditioning Water Heat Lights/Appliances

Passivhaus Design

Town of Chesterfield

18

Ventilation System with Heat Recovery

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Triple Pane Double Low-E Glazing Windows

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

Ways to Decrease Energy Use

Super-insulated Walls

Ox and Cow Pastures

As post-peak oil becomes a reality, energy costs are predicted to rise significantly, so planning ahead with efficient building designs should be a priority for reducing long-term energy use, which will also reduce long-term costs. As a Green Community Chesterfield residents can continue to look for ways that new developments in their community use less energy, so it is important to understand the components of sustainable development.

Winter Sun

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Reducing long-term energy use and costs

Summer Sun

Energy Efficient Designs

This senior housing development can focus on #3 and #5 of these criteria to comply with these Green standards.

Winter Sun

Green Roof Detail Green roof keeps photovoltaic panels cooler for better efficiency.

Appendix C

4. 5.

Compact design. Reduced parking footprint. Wetland and water body conservation. Recycled content for infrastructure. Reuse of historic buildings. Steep slope protection. Light pollution reduction.

Annual Thousands of BTUs per Square Foot of Floor Space

3.

• • • • • • •

Passivhaus

2.

energy generation, research & development, or manufacturing facilities. Adopt an expedited application and permit process for energy facilities. Establish an energy use baseline and develop a plan to reduce energy use by 20% within 5 years. Purchase only fuel-efficient vehicles for municipal use. Set requirements to minimize life-cycle energy costs for new construction.

Summer Sun

Photovoltaic or Evacuated Tubes o Tilted to 35-45

An example of the characteristics of LEED certification for community development that Chesterfield could incorporate into this senior housing project include:

Low Energy Home

1. Provide designated locations for renewable/alternative

For 750 sq. ft. home: Standard = 7,500 kW/year Passivhaus home = 750 kW/year

Examples of : LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Energy Star Green Globe GreenBuilt Passivhaus Net-zero

Average New Home

Chesterfield was named a Massachusetts Green Community in 2012. As a Green Community, Chesterfield has agreed to:

Chesterfield can reduce its carbon emissions by using energy-efficient building techniques and renewable energy sources. There are many different certifications for green development, and whether or not certification of a development is sought, they provide guidelines for sustainable building.

Average Existing Home

“For an old town, Chesterfield has a forward-thinking population. The residents have recycled for years and believe strongly in reducing the town’s carbon footprint. Becoming a Green Community was a big step in allowing the town to not only improve efficiency in municipally-owned structures, but also allow residents to make improvements to their homes through the Chesterfield Green Communities Residential Home Energy Efficiency Fund.” (EEA)

Energy-saving Building Programs

Annual Kilowatt-Hours per Square Foot of Floor Space

Massachusetts Green Communities

The standard American home uses about 10 kW of energy per square foot of floor space per year.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Energy Efficient Designs

14/19


150

In 2011, the average cost in Massachusetts for installed PV was $6 per watt.

150

• • • • •

South

Trees should be cleared so full sun is achieved on the southern portion of structures for optimal Tree Clearing passive solar heating. This diagram represents the solar clearing needed if located on a flat landscape. The shape of the clearing may change significantly depending on the placement of the structures relative to topography. Standard development - 52 acres of trees cleared Creative Development - 8 acres of trees cleared Cluster Development - 4 acres of trees cleared

house

44' 88' 176'

90' from house 180' from house

Summer Sun Winter Sun

Chesterfield zoning by-law states a maximum height of 130' for wind turbines and would not restrict placing a wind turbine on this land. The average wind speed on this property is 4.2 - 5 mph., so it may not be a good renewable energy source for this site.

361' from house

Shade Overhang

Summer Sun

Winter Sun

A clustered development could be easily sited for passive solar gain on this property. A clustered development would not require as large of a clearing as the creative and congregate elderly housing developments.

To generate 2,000 Watts from a 12%-efficient photovoltaic system, 200 sq. ft. of roof area is needed.

Rotor diameter 23', 80-100 foot tower Recommend 10 mph average wind speed Replacement: 30-50 years (Bergey Windpower)

(Energy.gov)

Trees should be selected based on their mature height and placed to maintain an optimal solar clearing during the winter months. Trees should be planted on the southwest side of house for shade in hot summer months.

Overhangs provide shade to house during hot summer sun, but allows winter sun to maximize passive solar heating in winter. Angles of winter and summer sun shown in this cross section.

10kW PV system $60,000 Savings: depends on size on size & electric use Replacement: PV Panels: 20-25 years (or more) On-grid, little maintenance Off-grid battery replacement 8-10 yrs (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

10kW turbine (1,000-2,000 kW/mo) Installation: $8,000-15,000 Equipment: $40,000

Solar energy is a viable option for this site. Alternative areas for solar panels could include carports, pole-mounted PVS, or patio shade structures.

Geothermal Energy Geothermal loops or horizontal systems could be installed on this property in areas that are cleared for passive solar gain (see this sheet), and wouldn’t require additional space. Geothermal Installation Cost - average $11,000-$30,000 per unit Example: Heat Pump Installation $14,000 Loop Field 12,000 Total System 26,000 30% Federal Tax Credit 7,800 Final Cost $ 18,200.00

Biomass Energy Wood boiler systems using wood chips or pellets are primarily used for space heating and domestic hot water. Efficient wood stoves using on-site harvested wood is also possible. 1 cord can be harvested from every 1/2 acre/year. Emissions, must be monitored and controlled to comply with regulations. Heating savings: Replacement: 18 years Requires daily maintenance.

Heating savings: 40-60% Electric (for pump) increase: 20% Replacement: Heat pump: 10-15 years Loop system: 50+ years (GeothermalGenius.org)

Small, clustered housing may be able to share a geothermal system and decrease the initial cost. Coils could be placed within the passive solar clearing.

Wood is abundant in western Massachusetts and if it is locally-sourced and sustainably-harvested, produces less carbon emissions than fossil fuels.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Panels

Wind Turbine Installation Cost - average $48,000-65,000

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Active Solar Energy

Wind Energy

Town of Chesterfield

A 750 sq. ft. house, similar to what is being considered for Chesterfield senior housing, has approximately 460 sq. ft. of roof with southern exposure.

Ox and Cow Pastures

Position structures 0-15 of true south for greatest solar exposure and heat gain. The western side of the ridge on this property offers good solar exposure, if trees are cut for a solar clearing.

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

0

Solar Aspect

Senior Housing

Positioning a house for passive solar gain is a simple step towards harnessing the sun’s energy for home heating. Enough acreage should be purchased for this senior housing development to allow for solar tree clearing (see cost analysis on page 11).Other uses such as siting septic, wells and solar panels could be included within the solar clearing.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Passive Solar criteria

Renewable Energy Suitability Study for

Chesterfield

Appendix D

Renewable Energy

15/19


MHFA Elder Choice & MHFA 80/20 A leading provider of affordable housing resources in the state, MHFA offers a number of resources to meet a variety of affordable housing needs across the state, including mixed income rental housing, assisted living, and housing for special needs populations. The Agency is able to finance these developments by combining tax- exempt or taxable bond financing with other public and private sector resources, such as federal Low Income Housing Tax Credits, to create attractive and affordable places to live. As a requirement of MHFA financing, developments reserve at least 20% of the units for low-income households at affordable rents. (www.masshousing.com/portal/server.pt/ community/home/217/home)

Rural Rental Housing Program Rural Rental Housing Program, Section 515, provides eligible tenants affordable rental housing and related facilities in rural areas (communities with less than 20,000 population). For families, individuals, senior citizens (age 62 or over) and persons with a disability with low to moderate incomes. (www.rurdev.usda.gov/Home.html)

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

One of the twelve HPET partners, based in Springfield MA, is HAP, Inc. HAPHousing, began providing housing assistance to the people of Hampshire and Hampden counties in western Massachusetts in 1973. Originally established to provide innovative forms of assistance to families seeking to rent affordable housing, HAP now provides a wide variety of services to tenants, homeowners, home-buyers, and rental property owners. It is the largest nonprofit developer of affordable housing based in western Massachusetts and has participated in the development of 42 completed projects with a total of nearly 950 affordable homes (including homes for sale to low- and moderate-income first time buyers) for families, elderly, and people with disabilities. (housingpartnership.net/enterprises/ equity-trust/)

Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston is a bank for banks, cooperatively owned by more than 450 New England financial institutions. They offer a variety of programs: • The Affordable Housing Program (AHP) - to address affordable-housing needs across New England. • Community Development Advance Program offers community fixed-rate financing for affordable housing, or improvements to local roads or schools. • The New England Fund (NEF) provides advances to support housing and community-development initiatives that benefit moderate-income households and neighborhoods. (fhlbboston. com/)

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston

HPET provides a ready source of long-term equity investment to quickly and efficiently acquire and operate a portfolio of marketaffordable apartment units across the country and preserve them as affordable and workforce housing.

Town of Chesterfield

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) owns and operates multifamily buildings in partnership with 12 housing operators/ members. It is the latest social venture start-up incubated by Housing Partnership Network (HPN), with initial capitalization of $100 million from the MacArthur Foundation, the Ford Foundation, Prudential Life Insurance and Citibank.

Ox and Cow Pastures

Housing Partnership Equity Trust

LIHTC Program primarily funds multi-family residential and rental apartments. It is an indirect Federal subsidy used to finance the development of affordable rental housing for low-income households. Many local housing and community development agencies are effectively using these tax credits to increase the supply of affordable housing in their communities. (portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_ offices/housing/mfh/progdesc/eld202)

The reuse of existing buildings or new construction on previously developed sites is a stated preference of the law. CPA is a smart growth tool that helps communities preserve open space and historic sites, create affordable housing, and develop outdoor recreational facilities. An example of a CPA housing project is the Main Street Housing Project, in Amherst, MA. (www.mhp.net/uploads/resources/071019_mhp_cpa_guidebook. pdf)

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Section 202 program helps expand the supply of affordable housing with supportive services for the elderly. It provides very low-income elderly with options that allow them to live independently but in an environment that provides support activities such as cleaning, cooking, transportation, etc.

The Community Preservation Act (CPA) allows communities to create a local Community Preservation Fund to raise money through a surcharge of up to 3% of the real estate tax levy on real property for open space protection, historic preservation and the provision of affordable housing. The act also creates a significant state matching fund, which serves as an incentive to communities to pass the CPA.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

In the past, HUD has provided capital advances to finance construction, rehabilitation or acquisition of housing for very low-income elderly persons, including the frail elderly. These funds have become more scarce in the recent economic downturn and political discord on federally-funded programs.

Community Preservation Act

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Section 202, LIHTC

Funding

Decisions about the type of housing to build, are integrally related to potential funders’ priorities. For example, affordable housing, green energy standards, historic preservation, or multi-family housing, each have different funding criteria and expectations. What to build is linked to which agencies will loan or help pay for the development costs. Here are a few possible funding sources--by no means a complete list.

Appendix E

Funding

16/19


Betty Lu Cottage located at Danielson Grove, Seattle, photo and design by Ross Chapin Architects and developed by The Cottage Company.

In 1999, a group of friends in Boston decided to look beyond conventional “single issues, such as housing, medical care, or social activities.” They wanted to stay in their homes while recognizing they would need support in the future. They wanted to be active, remain engaged in their neighborhood and take “care of ourselves and each other rather than being “taken care of.” They developed a self-supporting organization funded by membership fees and donations; established a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization to hire staff, establish service providers, volunteers, and partners to make it all happen. Membership provides services or discounts on services:

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

handymen, computer experts, caterers, meals delivered or cooked, dog walkers, housekeepers, home visits, plumbers, tax experts, electricians. • Health care- exercise classes, personal trainers, massage therapists, medication reminders, home health care, geriatric care. • Transportation- to the grocery store, airport, around town • Cultural arts, literature and learning • Social events, • Cooking classes • Travel (Beacon Hill Village)

Town of Chesterfield

Development Density

• Household management assistance- access to

A Different Kind of Independent Living

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Town Center

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

(Breakthroughs, Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2008 <www. huduser.org>)

1/4-mile radius

Ox and Cow Pastures

Greenwood Studio located at the Greenwood Avenue Cottages, Seattle, photo and design by Ross Chapin Architects and developed by The Cottage Company.

Port Townsend, Washington The Port Townsend Cottage Housing Development Design Standards, adopted in 2004, encourage affordability, innovation, and a variety of housing types. Each development is required to have a minimum of 4 and maximum of 14 units per project, with lot sizes ranging from 2,857 to 5,000 sq. ft. per unit. Design standards also require 400 sq. ft. of common open space per unit and 200 sq. ft. of usable, private open space. The 1.25 parking spaces required per unit are designed to minimize the visibility of off-street parking from the street.

Although this kind of zoning overlay district may or may not be feasible for Chesterfield, the Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit provides a model for suitable development that would concentrate growth in the traditional town center, prevent expensive sprawl development and encourage a more walkable community that is less dependent on cars and fossil fuel use.

1/2-mile radius

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

Greenwood Avenue Cottages, Seattle, photo and design by Ross Chapin Architects and developed by The Cottage Company.

Seattle, Washington Cottage living has it’s own zoning district in Seattle, WA. To encourage higher density, usable open space and less car dependency, they have established a residential Small Lot zone. Cottage units (up to 975 sq. ft.) may be placed every 1,600 sq. ft., but the lot size must have a minimum of 6,400 sq. ft. (minimum of 4 units). 400 sq. ft. of open space is required per unit, 200 of which must be private. The city requires only one parking space per unit and limits the maximum number of cottage units to 12 per development.

Precedents

Cottage living

Massachusetts encourages cities and towns to establish new overlay zoning districts to promote compact, walkable communities. Financial incentives are available to communities that adopt these new zoning districts. Smart growth zoning districts can be in towns and city centers, existing rural village districts or areas that by virtue of their infrastructure, transportation access, existing underutilized facilities, and/or location make highly suitable places for residential or mixed use smart growth zoning districts. (Mass.gov) These overlay districts must provide at least twenty percent of the housing that is affordable to those earning 80% or less of the median income and be deed restricted for at least 30 years. The district must provide a minimum allowable density of eight units per acre for single-family homes,12 units per acre for two and three family buildings, and/ or 20 units per acre for multi-family dwellings. Smart growth zoning districts must provide a range of housing opportunities for a diverse population including households with children.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

Smart Growth Overlay District

Appendix F

Precedents

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Energy.gov, <http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/installing-and-maintaining-home-solar-electric-system>. Energy.gov <Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy>. Equity Trust, Housing Partnership Network, <www.housingpartnership.net â&#x20AC;ş Enterprises>. Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston, <fhlbboston.com/>. GeothermalGenius, <http://www.geothermalgenius.org/thinking-of-buying/geothermal-installation-by-thenumbers-in-pennsylvania.html>. Guylas, Carole, < http://www.topretirements.com/tips/Green_Communities/Looking_for_Green_Retirement_ Communities.html >. HAPHousing, <www.haphousing.org>. Housing Partnership Equity Trust, <housingpartnership.net/enterprises/equity-trust/>.

MA Department of Conservation and Recreation, Trails Guidelines and Best Practices Manual, < http://www. mass.gov/dcr/stewardship/greenway/docs/DCR_guidelines.pdf>. MHFA Elder Choice & MHFA 80/20, <www.masshousing.com/portal/server.pt/community/home/217/home>. Mass.gov, <www.mass.gov eea/agencies/massdep/water/drinking/private-wells.html>. Mass.gov, <www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/mod-40R.html>. Minervini, John, Futurehaus, Wilmette Weekly, June 3, 2009, < http://www.wweek.com/portland/article-10601futurehaus.html>. National Trust for Historic Preservation, <http://www.preservationnation.org/>. Nigel Chadwick, <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons>. Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse, Breakthroughs, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2008 <www.huduser.org>. Rural Rental Housing Program, <www.rurdev.usda.gov/Home.html>. Schwartz, Sydney, The Patriot Ledger, Posted Jan 06, 2009 @ 06:50 AM. Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Program - HUD, <portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD/program_ offices/housing/.../section202pt>. Town of Chesterfield, <www.townofchesterfieldma.com>. Town of Southwick Community Development Plan, <www.southwickma.org/.../swk%20community%20 dev%20survey.pdf>. U.S. Census 2010 data, American Fact Finder. U.S. Dept. of Energy, <http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/56776.pdf>.

Town of Chesterfield

Lynch, Kevin and Hack, Gary, Site Planning, 1996.

Suitability Study for Senior Housing

HUD.Gov, < portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/housing/mfh/progdesc/eld202>.

NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION. THIS DRAWING IS PART OF A STUDENT PROJECT AND IS NOT BASED ON A LEGAL SURVEY.

Community Preservation Act, < (http://www.mhp.net/uploads/resources/071019_mhp_cpa_guidebook.pdf>.

422 Main Road, Chesterfield, MA 01012

Bergey Windpower, <http://bergey.com/wind-school/residential-wind-energy-systems>.

Ox and Cow Pastures

CHAPA, Affordable housing development primer, <www.chapa.org/pdf/appendixb_housingprimer.pdf>.

The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | PO Box 179 | Conway, MA 01341 413-369-4044, www.csld.edu Spring 2013

AARP, <www.aarp.org/home-garden/livable-communities/info-11-2011/Aging-In-Place.html>.

RACHEL EDWARDS & AMY NYMAN

American Trails.org, <http://www.americantrails.org/resources/accessible/ADAcoloDec.html>.

Bibliography

Bibliography

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Suitability Study for Senior Housing, Chesterfield, MA  
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