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STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT

CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO • CAUQUENES, CHILE

THE CONWAY SCHOOL • WINTER 2012 • MOLLY HUTT & CHRISTINA PUERTO


STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT

CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO • CAUQUENES, CHILE

THE CONWAY SCHOOL • WINTER 2012 • MOLLY HUTT & CHRISTINA PUERTO


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the following people for contributing to the development of this manual:

Thank you... To the people who work at Alto Cauquenes including the owner Alberto Ellena; General Manager Carlos Nilo; Secretary Bernarda Salgado Machuca; Field Operations staff, Eduardo Lineros, Ivan Moraga, Reinaldo Alarcon, Domingo Henriquez; and general caretaker Margarita Henriquez. To the following business owners and government officials: Louis Antoine Luyt, Don Francisco, Don Raul, Don Jose Alarcon, Las Lomas Vinas de Cauquenes, and Fernando Fernandez of INIA. To the ecologists and foresters that consulted with us throughout the project, John O’Keefe, John Barclay and Glenn Motzkin. To the professors who worked diligently to advise and edit the manual. Thank you for the continued inspiration, support and enthusiasm of Pamela Hurtado without whom this project would not have been possible.


CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1

INTRODUCTION

2

CONTEXT

6

SOILS

14

HYDROLOGY

18

NATIVE VEGETATION

26

FORESTRY

34

AGRICULTURE

50

HUMAN INFRASTRUCTURE

58

OFF-SITE CONNECTIONS

66

CONCLUSION

71


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Alto Cauquenes is an agroforestry business—owned by Alberto Ellena and Pamela Hurtado—that manages 1,380 hectares of land in south-central Chile. The land in production was purchased in 2002 and is referred to as Campo San Francisco. The land serves as a business operation and a homestead for the owners and property caretakers. When Campo San Francisco was purchased, the soils were eroded and degraded, which is a common condition in the region. Today, Alto Cauquenes has reclaimed the landscape and diversified it by planting three types of timber trees, vineyards, olives and experimental field crops. This manual offers management strategies for Campo San Francisco based on principles of ecology, sustainability, and resilience. By incorporating these strategies into the management of the soil, water, native vegetation, forestry, agriculture, human infrastructure, and off-site connections of Campo San Francisco, the land will continue to be a place from which others may learn. Due to its erosive nature and previous history of management, soil has been a defining element in the landscape patterns of this region of Chile. At Campo San Francisco, the new plantation trees and other vegetation have helped slow erosion and stabilize soils, however, fully rehabilitating the soils will be an ongoing process. Strategies such as reducing mechanical and chemical disturbance will increase soil fertility and overall soil health to benefit all crops grown at the Campo. Because the region is subjected to extreme flood-drought cycles, the water resources on the site are precious, especially in the dry summer months. Implementing ecological strategies in the management of water sources is crucial to maintaining water quality for those living downstream, as well as for use at Campo San Francisco. Strategies such as expanding riparian buffers will help filter harmful sediments and chemicals from streams. Another strategy is to create uneven edges along man-made waterbodies that mimic natural shorelines. This will encourage diversity among plants and create high quality habitat for wildlife. Native vegetation is important due to the high rates of endemism that are found in both plant and animal species in the region. In the region, only 7 percent of the original native forest still stands. Campo San Francisco has an opportunity to contribute to the conservation and preservation of remaining native forests. Strategies such as developing corridors and connecting existing patches of native vegetation will enrich the biodiversity within Campo San Francisco. Also, by taking inventory and monitoring the plants and animals on-site, Alto Cauquenes can create a conservation program that can also be used to teach other landowners about the native forest and the importance of these efforts in the region. Forestry is paramount in the region. The Chilean forestry sector has helped to remediate degrading soils, and boost Chile into the global export market. These systems are generally monocultures, and diversifying the even-aged and singlespecies stands is necessary in order to increase resilience. Diverse stands will be less susceptible to natural disturbances and will contribute to the overall health of the ecosystem, thus making the system more productive. Strategies such as increasing rotation times for tree harvest and incorporating native trees in the system will increase the overall diversity of forest stands. Agriculture at Campo San Francisco has been instrumental in increasing both species and economic diversity within the landscape. Because agriculture is important to the culture of the region its success and continued resilience is imperative to teaching the current generation the opportunities that are present in this business. Strategies including experimenting with different agricultural systems such as crop rotation and keyline design will present alternative ways to encourage soil health, limit erosion and improve soil structure. Expanding and investing in the vineyards will allow the Campo to diversify products and encourage crop diversity. By investing in infrastructure such as roads and trails, the natural beauty found in the ponds, river and native forest can be enjoyed by the people who interact with the landscape. The land can be used for recreation and education, teaching other landowners about the importance of maintaining a healthy ecosystem while maintaining a thriving agroforestry business. Ultimately, Campo San Francisco is more than an agroforestry business, it is a place where people can take part in the farming culture. It is a place that can serve as a model for soil, water and forest health, allowing those practices to sustain, in turn, the people who live on the land.


INTRODUCTION In 2002, Alberto Ellena and Pamela Hurtado purchased 1,380 hectares in Cauquenes, Chile. This property, called Campo San Francisco, is located in the dry interior of the coastal mountain range in south-central Chile. Alberto began a forestry company called Alto Cauquenes to manage and rehabilitate the degraded land at Campo San Francisco. Alto Cauquenes, whose office is based in the nearby city of Cauquenes, has transformed a degraded, eroded landscape into an expansive forest dotted with vineyards and olive trees.

CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO, 2002

CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO, 2012

This guide aims to offer strategies that will inform future management decisions made at Campo San Francisco. The strategies presented are founded in ecological and sustainable management. Identifying and assessing the various ecological systems on the property lead to holistic recommendations that encompass the whole system and ensure its lasting health and vitality. Implementing sound ecological strategies will increase Campo San Francisco’s resilience to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

IntRodUctIon

3


GUIDING PRINCIPLES Four main principles guided the development of the strategies presented in this document. These principles were considered with the ultimate goal of further integrating Campo San Francisco into the agrarian heritage of Chile’s Central Valley. If Campo San Francisco adopted strategies based on these principles, it would cultivate a resilient and productive landscape.

GUIdInG PRIncIPLeS 1. ensure the health, safety and stability of families 2. Sustain the capability of land production for future generations 3. contribute to and integrate local communities 4. ensure economic return on production investments

PRoJect GoALS to assess the landscape patterns in the region and at campo San Francisco, and to present ecological management strategies which cultivate resilience within the landscape. to recommend strategies that will allow campo San Francisco to serve as a model of a successful and sustainable forestry business that will enrich and contribute to the culture of the region.

4

A ModeL FoR otHeR LAndoWneRS In response to the opportunities and challenges presented at Campo San Francisco, and the Cauquenes province, this guide recommends strategies that other landowners in the region can employ on their own land. If Campo San Francisco implements these strategies, Alto Cauquenes would establish itself as a pioneer in sustainable agriculture and forestry in the region.

Alto Cauquenes is in the fortunate position to serve as a leader and innovator in these fields, and this leadership could greatly contribute to revitalizing the agrarian culture in Cauquenes province. ReSILIence This document recommends management strategies that are meant to further strengthen the resilience of Campo San Francisco and the operations that occur within the landscape. These strategies will increase adaptability to inevitable changes in the market, climate, and social and cultural systems. For more information see Resilience section.

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

IntRodUctIon


MOVING TOWARDS A RESILIENT SYSTEM The Central Valley experiences disturbances such as pests and disease, flood, drought and wildfires. It is probable that climate change will alter or exacerbate these disturbances. Further uncertainties lie in the stability of the economic and cultural systems of the Central Valley, and building a resilient system could allow for flexibility in face of ecological, economic or cultural disturbance. Below is a historical example of a cultivation system in the Central Valley that was not created with resilience in mind, and today is obsolete.

A resilient system is able to absorb and adapt to disturbance while maintaining its original function. Resilience in forestry and agriculture is dependent on the health and vitality of the land. Natural systems are highly adaptable, and natural disturbances constantly challenge these systems, but do not significantly alter their functioning. In order for a system based on cultivation to be resilient, it must mimic the adaptability of these natural systems. BUILdInG ecoLoGIcAL ReSILIence In cHILe’S centRAL VALLey By the end of the 19th century, the once fertile land of chile’s central Valley had become unproductive and erosive, after years of supporting wheat and cereal plantations (Aronson 1998). Between 1850 and 1900, these crops were planted in large monocultures across the valley, and were a source of economic stability for chile. over the years, these cash crops stripped the soil of nutrients, minerals and organic matter and very little effort was made to replenish the soil. After more than 50 years of intensive wheat production, chile lost its ability to compete with other large wheat-producing nations, and its soils were extremely degraded. the chilean wheat industry collapsed into stagnation from which it never recovered (Wilcox 1996). this system failed in part because of its lack of resilience. the historical chilean wheat industry depended heavily on nourishment from fertile soils and the widespread demand for a single product. When both of these scenarios had shifted, the inflexible wheat production system was so greatly disturbed that it dissolved, leaving behind a degraded landscape and a desperate economic situation.

HI

GH

the widespread planting of fast growing tree species has evolved into a booming forestry sector, and these forest products have become one of chile’s leading exports. the forests were planted to alleviate a problem, and they do successfully reduce erosion across the landscape. However, with economic stability that has come with these plantations, it is easy to forget the story of the chilean wheat industry. the forestry industry is in the position to direct resources not only toward reducing erosion, but also toward replenishing the landscape so that it is able to provide economically viable products well into the future. there are countless methods in which a forestry business might reach a state of resilience, such as natural replenishment of the soil, and diversified products that can adapt in an uncertain economic market. INGTREE SPEC ROW I ES TG

T OR

FA RM

AB AN DO NM EN T

PLANT ING FA S

WHEAT PLANTATIONS

P EX

today, chileans are working to remedy the issues that this failed system left behind. one widely applied strategy to alleviate soil degradation is the planting of fast growing tree species, whose roots help to hold the eroding soil in place.

FORESTRY

FALLOW LAND

STABILITY:

COLLAPSE:

RESTRUCTURING:

STABILITY:

• • • •

• • • •

• • • •

• • • •

FERTILE SOILS INCREASING EROSION HIGH YIELD HIGH DEMAND FOR PRODUCT 1850 - 1900

DEGRADED SOILS EXTENSIVE EROSION LOW YIELD LOW DEMAND FOR PRODUCT 1900 - 1960

E FUTUR

DEGRADED SOILS EXTENSIVE EROSION HIGH YIELD SOME DEMAND FOR PRODUCT

1970 - TODAY

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

DEGRADED SOILS REDUCED EROSION HIGH YIELD HIGH DEMAND FOR PRODUCT MODERN DAY

ReSILIence

5


CONTEXT PROJECT SETTING The country of Chile is divided into 12 regions, and within each region are a number of provinces. Campo San Francisco is located in the Cauquenes province within the Maule Region (VII).

LAnd tyPeS oF cHILe Three major land types exist between regions IV and X, the coastal range, the Central Valley, and the Andes mountains. Campo San Francisco is located between the foothills of the coastal range and the Central Valley.

REGIONS IV-X

CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO MAULE REGION (VII)

SOUTH AMERICA CHILE

ANDES MOUNTAINS CENTRAL VALLEY COASTAL MOUNTAINS

Coastal Mountain Range

Central Valley

Andes Mountain Range

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While Alto Cauquenes operates primarily within the property boundaries of Campo San Francisco, there are many broader factors that influence what happens on the property. These include:

contextUAL ISSUeS • Regional Climate Patterns • Regional Soils • Social and Cultural Context • Regional Disturbances • Climate Change

REGIONAL CLIMATE PATTERNS The dry interior of the Central Valley in Chile receives an average of 600 to 1000 mm of rain each year (Aronson 1999) and this falls mainly between the months of May and September, in the winter season. During the summer, the coastal mountain range casts a rainshadow over the dry interior. Additionally, the water running down from the Andes mountain range infiltrates into the soil before running into the dry interior area. This pattern results in an area that is very dry during the summer months. This dry period makes cultivation difficult and has also encouraged native species that are specialized and highly adaptable to this climatic variability (Fernandez 2009). These weather patterns describe the current situation in the area, but with the uncertainty of climate change’s effects on regional weather patterns, the property should be managed to exhibit resilience.

4500

ME LT AL GL AC I

ALTITUDE (M)

3500

2500

1500 RA

IN

SH

AD

500

OCEAN

8

DRY COAST

25

COASTAL DRY RANGE INTERIOR

OW

115

65 CENTRAL VALLEY

135 PRE-ANDES RANGE

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

215 ANDES MOUNTAIN RANGE

context

DISTANCE FROM OCEAN (km)


(C)

TEMPERATURE

+3

Cross-section of average annual rainfall and temperature in central Chile. Temperature decreases further from the ocean and rainfall increases then drops suddenly after the coastal mountain range due to the rainshadow.

0 1500 1100 700

(mm)

RAIN FALL

+6

25

50

115

135

215

DISTANCE FROM THE OCEAN (km)

REGIONAL SOILS

CAUQUENES

In the dry interior, there are two main land types, the hills and the plains. The soil type for each area is based on the same granitic parent material; however, each area has evolved to exhibit different soil profiles. In the hills the soils are characterized by severe erosion and are well drained (Olivares 2011). The soils in the plains are mostly clay material and are therefore less susceptible to erosion than the soils in the hills, but are poorly drained. Since Campo San Francisco exhibits both land types and soil qualities, the difference between these soil types should be considered in any management strategies applied to the property.

HILLS

PLAINS

DRY INTERIOR

Soils in the Hills: Generally more suited to forestry • Low fertility • Average pH of 6 • Low levels of nutrients and organic matter Soils in the Plains: Generally more suited to agriculture • Mostly clay • Less susceptible to erosion than soils in the hills • Poorly drained • Higher levels of fertility than in the hills • Rich in magnesium and iron Adapted from (Fernandez 2009)

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

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9


SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT The social and cultural history of the Cauquenes province has informed many of the landscape patterns seen in both the region and Campo San Francisco. The indigenous community which inhabited Cauquenes was the Promaucaes del Maule, but the Spanish included them with the Mapuche “earth man” (Aronson 1998). Their agrarian society was based on soil building and irrigation systems. During the Spanish Conquest, they joined the Mapuche people to fight in the Arauco War which lasted for three centuries. Throughout this conflict the indigenous people were displaced and repressed, and their traditional cropping systems were displaced by sweeping fields of Spanish wheat and cereal crops. By 1814, Chilean patriots overturned the Spanish government, and with the new Republic of Chile, the culture of modern day Chile was born. These exchanges of power have influenced the transformation of the country’s landscape patterns.

FRoM SUBSIStence to PLAntAtIon FARMInG Before the Spanish Conquest the Central Valley was covered in an oak-dominated forest, which built up large amounts of fertile organic matter in the soil. The indigenous people burned tracts of this forest to grow crops in a rotational pattern, leaving old fields fallow (Aronson 1998).

These crops depleted the soil which led to the abandonment of degraded fields. The lack of vegetative cover caused heavy erosion, which threatened to degrade the land beyond repair. In the early 1900’s the country began to address this issue by planting fast growing tree species to stabilize the soil. Since then, this solution has been applied widely over the region, and has evolved into a expansive plantation forestry system. Today, plantation forestry functions both as a soil stabilizer and a large part of Chile’s export market. As a forestry company, Alto Cauquenes is in the position to be a leader in soil restoration, and there are many opportunities for the organization to further improve the soil health and ecological functioning of the landscape.

PAtteRnS oF LAndScAPe USe In ReGIon MAULe, cHILe AGRICULTURE

NATIVE FOREST

AGRICULTURE

NATIVE FOREST

10

PLANTATION FORESTRY

GRASSLAND

AGRICULTURE

Promaucaes del Maule

NATIVE FOREST

AGRICULTURE

Spanish Conquistadores

Post-Spanish

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

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GRASSLAND

NATIVE FOREST

Modern Day


A SHIFt FRoM RURAL to URBAn The fertile soils have influenced the historical land uses in the Cauquenes province, which in turn has influenced social practices in the region. The culture in the area has historically been based on rural agrarian practices.

These practices have historically been grounded in agriculture, but today the region is currently in a period of transition. More and more young people are leaving the countryside and seeking a less agrarian lifestyle in the city of Cauquenes or in other Chilean cities. The population of the city of Cauquenes grew, according to the 2002 census by 2.3 percent in ten years, and the demographic trend for the province shows a 2 percent annual decrease in rural population (Institute of National Statistics, Chile).

Mural, downtown Cauquenes

This culture shift can be partially attributed to the degraded soils and lack of arable land. Because many fast growing tree species are a valuable commodity that are able to grow well in this degraded land, they are more viable than traditional agrarian crops, and many small farmers have been physically and economically displaced from their land (Aronson 1998). Small-and-medium sized farms are not as prevalent in the province as they once were, and the operations on Campo San Francisco have the potential to re-instill pride in the agrarian lifestyle. Alto Cauquenes manages both plantation forestry and agricultural operations at Campo San Francisco and therefore is in a position to serve as an example by demonstrating a successful union of forestry and agriculture in one operation. Cauquenes holds a market every Wednesday in the central part of the city. Farmers come from around the province to sell their fresh fruits and vegetables, and other household items.

A VIeW oF cAUQUeneS todAy As you travel through the Cauquenes Province between the city and the rural landscape, there is a visible tension between the desire for urban efficiencies and the strength of agrarian traditions.

Long expanses of vineyards line the country roads and the hills are covered with pine trees and eucalyptus as far as the eye can see. With the exception of some small farm operations, much of the land is covered with an industrial-scale plantation of either vineyards or forests. These patterns translate directly to the economy of the province; wine and pine are major exports and they support the local economy of the province.

Long expanses of vineyards and small olive groves line the country roads and the hills are covered with pine trees and eucalyptus as far as the eye can see. Wine and pine are major exports that support the local economy of Cauquenes.

As you travel from the countryside into the city, roots of true agrarian tradition can be seen. Cauquenes holds a market every Wednesday that floods the streets with fresh fruits and vegetables and traditional artisan crafts. Some agrarian traditions have been transplanted to the modern, urban landscape and evidence of corporate-scale technology is evident throughout the countryside.

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

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11


REGIONAL DISTURBANCES Disturbances can throw a functioning, stable system into disarray without warning. Understanding the potential damage from disturbances at Campo San Francisco can inform effective planning that might allow Campo San Francisco to be resilient to unexpected changes. Potential disturbances within the Central Valley range from pest or disease to wild fires, all of which have to potential destroy a plantation crop. Other potential disturbances are economically driven such as the rising price of oil or the decreasing demand for forestry products. If any one of these disturbances were to affect Campo San Francisco it would challenge the functioning of the production systems currently in place. Pine plantation affected by disease, Maule Region, Chile. Potential disturbances within the Central Valley range from pest or disease to wild fires, all of which could destroy a plantation crop without warning.

View of wildfire from Campo San Francisco

CLIMATE CHANGE Climate change in this region is predicted to bring changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. The projected temperature increase is between one and one-and-a-half degrees over the next forty years, and rainfall is predicted to drop anywhere between ten and fifteen percent (Fernandez 2009). Each of these changes not only might be influential in and of themselves, but also could exacerbate the potential threat of existing regional disturbances.

“Agriculture is the most exposed sector, particularly the forestry sector, and the vines and fruits in the central region which are reliant on irrigation schemes” -Professor Santibanez of University of Chile on climate change in Chile

ReGIonAL cLIMAte cHAnGe PRoJectIonS—the next 40 years (Painter 2009) • Projected temperature increases of 1°C to 1.5°C • Drop in rainfall of 10 to 15%

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STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

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AIR TEMPERATURE

CLIMATE CHANGE

DEFORESTATION NATIVE & PLANTATION FOREST

FLOOD-DROUGHT EXTREMITY NATIVE VEGETATION COVER

AIR TEMPERATURE

FIRE FREQUENCY & INTENSITY WATER QUALITY & AVAILABILITY

FLOOD-DROUGHT EXTREMITY NATIVE VEGETATION COVER

CLIMATE CHANGE and CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO The effects of climate change coupled with the alterations and manipulation of land cover occurring in the region could potentially exacerbate the negative effects exhibited by both phenomena. According to Professor Santibanez of the University of Chile, “Agriculture is the most exposed sector, particularly the forestry sector, and the vines and fruits in the central region which are reliant on irrigation schemes� (Painter 2009). Species Shift: The temperature increase will likely entail range shift or shrink for native species. These species are also threatened by the expansion of plantation forestry. The deforestation of native vegetation, along with afforestation followed by clearcut of plantation species, decreases native species range and further increases air temperature (Hansen et al. 2011). Risk to Water Quality: Both deforestation and the increase in air temperature could affect water quality. The loss of riparian vegetation and decreased water infiltration after clearcutting could lead to increased runoff into water systems. If air temperature increases, the water runs off at increased temperatures, potentially altering aquatic habitat. Buildup of soil contaminants could also occur during long dry periods. This buildup would be quickly washed into water systems during periods of heavy rain (Hansen et al. 2011).

Additionally, runoff from clearcut forest stands can carry increased amounts of soil particles and agricultural chemicals, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, which would further degrade aquatic habitat and increase the occurrence of eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (Hansen et al. 2011). Wildfires: Increased air temperature associated with climate change also has the potential to increase the frequency and intensity of wildfires This is of particular concern in the Central Valley, because monoculture forestry plantations are susceptible to fire. The systems in place to combat fire were developed with the current climate and fire patterns in mind, but with the increase of fire frequency and intensity likely to occur from climate change, it is possible that fire management needs to focus on prevention-based strategies. In addition, as fire frequency increases, so will the deforestation that occurs as a result of fire. This deforestation then intensifies climate change, further increasing air temperatures and in turn, the risk of large wildfires (Hansen et al. 2011). All of these risks apply to Campo San Francisco, and they should be strongly considered in future management decisions.

Strategies for ecological management: campo San Francisco

context

13


LANDSCAPE PATTERNS SOILS campo San Francisco sits in the foothills of the dry interior of the coastal range in chile. It regionally represents the landscape pattern of south central Valley with steeper hills (lomas) to the west and plains (llanos) to the east. Along with the topographical variation there is variation in soil type and structure. Soil is a defining element in the landscape pattern of the region due to its erosive nature that resulted from historical mismanagement of soil health. Increasing soil health by encouraging the growth of beneficial bacteria and fungi, decreasing or eliminating fertilizer and herbicide use, and limiting mechanical disturbance could increase the productive capabilities of the land at campo San Francisco.

REGIONAL PATTERNS HIStoRIcAL USe The historical land use patterns have had an impact on the existing soil conditions. After years of intensive farming and overgrazing, most of the soil in both the hills and plains of the dry interior was heavily degraded, compacted, and highly erosive (Aronson 1998).

The erosion was causing large amounts of soil to break off, leaving areas unmanageable and unproductive. Erosion creates instability in soil health by not allowing organic matter to accumulate and by disrupting beneficial organism development that would otherwise help stabilize the soil structure. In part to combat this erosion, and to aerate the compacted soil, pines have been planted extensively throughout the dry interior.

SoILS todAy As stated in the Context chapter, there are two main land types in the dry interior. The soils in each area are based on the same granitic parent material but have different characteristics.

The Hills: The hills are undulating with steep slopes of approximately 15-20 percent. The soil in the hills is clay and sandy loam. The combination of steep slopes and clay and sandy loam contributes to high susceptibility to erosion and increased infiltration of water (Olivares 2011). The soil is low in organic matter, phosphorous, nitrogen, calcium, and sulfur, all of which indicate poor soil health and low fertility (Fernandez 2009). Nitrogen and phosphorous levels often determine vegetative vitality, and low levels of these nutrients could inhibit plant growth. The Plains: The plains are generally found east of the hills, farther from the coastal range and into the Central Valley. The soil in the plains has a higher ratio of clay to sandy loam than in the hills and therefore drains more slowly. These soils are not as susceptible to erosion as the soil in the hills because of the relatively flat topography of the plains. The pH for this soil varies from 5.5 to 6.5, which is less acidic than the pH levels of the soils in the hills, and often more conducive to vegetative growth and efficient nutrient exchange.

Erosion within a pine plantation at Campo San Francisco. Erosion creates instability in the landscape and soil health. Though pines were planted to address the erosion problem, it still occurs throughout the landscape.

The soil in the plains also has a higher organic matter content than the soil in the hills and has high iron and magnesium content, further increasing soil suitability for vegetative vitality (Fernandez 2009).

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

SoIL

15


SOILS at CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO Campo San Francisco spans the two major land types in the region, the hills and the plains. The different soil qualities, runoff and infiltration patterns, and erosion patterns of these land types are reflected on the property.

HILLS

PLAINS

The hills are steep and highly eroded, which limits accessibility. All houses are located on the plains, which means residents can avoid frequent travel on the eroded hills. When the current landowners purchased the property, most of the land was eroding and degraded. To address this issue while also generating a profit that could help the company sustain the land further, Alto Cauquenes planted over 1,000,000 trees over the course of four years (Ellena 2012).

Approximation of hill and plain land types, Campo San Francisco.

1 km

ASSESSMENT PIneS—A SteP toWARdS HeALtHy SoIL Good soil health is critical to maintaining the productivity and vigor of plants.

While the pines’ roots successfully reduce erosion and aerate the soil, they do not fully eliminate the issues associated with degraded soil (Brookfield 2009). What further detracts from the benefits of pines is that they are planted in a monoculture. IMPLIcAtIonS oF MonocULtUReS Monocultures do not contribute readily to organic matter that would improve soil fertility, and they are susceptible to disturbances (Toro 1998).

Erosion between rows of a pine plantation, Campo San Francisco.

Mycorrhizal vitality has been proven to aid in the resilience of forests, and beneficial organisms aid in nutrient cycling and increasing soil fertility (Brookfield 2009). Also, because the soil in a plantation is mechanically and chemically disturbed, beneficial organisms and mycorrhizal growth is limited (Brookfield 2009). RedUcInG eRoSIon FURtHeR Soil erosion reduces the stability and diversity of the soil profile (Olivares 2011). Alto Cauquenes has taken many steps towards improving the soil on-site, and the organization is now in a position to be a leader in soil improvement. Monoculture of radiata pines at Campo San Francisco.

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STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

SoIL


RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Soils encoURAGe BeneFIcIAL BActeRIA And FUnGI Beneficial organisms that live in the soil are vulnerable to disturbance, particularly in fine-grained soils (Kimmins 1997).

Beneficial fungi and bacteria in the soil help trees take up important nutrients and absorb water, and management should preserve their health (Olivares 2011). These beneficial organisms are vulnerable to disturbances caused by planting, harvesting, and managing plantation forest stands. Better understanding the effects of forest practices on the soil can inform management decisions that aim to limit impact.

Cover crops growing before planting in a radiata pine plantation in New Zealand. Cover crops are an alternative to chemical fertilizer in preparing the soil

• Limit clearcutting to avoid removal of vital nutrients from the soil (Merino et al. 1997). Alternating harvesting methods can minimize these detrimental effects. • Investigate cover crops for use during planting and after harvest. Cover crops can limit erosion and contribute to organic matter, replenishing vital nutrients and beneficial organisms in the soil. LIMIt FeRtILIZeR And HeRBIcIde APPLIcAtIon Fertilizers and herbicides have been shown to negatively affect soil organisms within the soil substrate (Brookfield 2009). Studies have also shown that the results of fertilizer and herbicide application are variable, and application does not always ensure increased tree growth.

In a study from the University of Concepción, the application of herbicide on recently planted radiata pine resulted in increased sapling growth during the first season (Rubilar et al. 2008). However, in the second season, differences between growth rates of stands that had received herbicide and control groups were negligible. Additionally the application of fertilizer was not shown to increase growth during either season. Researchers attributed the lack of increased growth to limited water availability. When water is a limiting resource— as it may be at Campo San Francisco— pesticides and fertilizers might be an unnecessary investment. Assessing the necessity of fertilizers and herbicides and reducing use accordingly could save money and increase soil microbial health. • Assess the necessity for and, if possible, minimize or eliminate the application of herbicide and fertilizer. • Preference cover cropping and interplanting as nutrient addition and weed suppression methods.

Groundcover growing within radiata pine plantation. Vegetative cover between the trees can minimize erosion, especially on steep slopes.

LIMIt MecHAnIcAL dIStURBAnce Machines used during planting and harvesting, such as skid steer loaders, deep tillers and other heavy equipment can negatively impact nutrient cycling by compacting the soil, disturbing fungi and bacteria colonies, and breaking up the soil strucTillage in preparation for pine planting.Tilling breaks ture (McAvoy 1995). up the compacted soil to allow for aeration and water infiltration. Growing then turning over cover crops before planting would achieve the same benefits while adding nutrients to the soil.

• Limit tilling and leave maximum vegetation undisturbed during planting to avoid altering sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium available in the soil (Puettmann et al. 2002).

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

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HYDROLOGY the central Valley is beholden to a wet and dry season. the property sits in a rain shadow of the coastal range, making water resources precious. campo San Francisco does have several water sources to draw from; the main resource is the Estero el Rosal that flows north to south on the property. The management of water on the property is important to the ecology of the whole system, fire management and crop viability.

WATER at CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO There are three types of waterbodies on-site: a large stream, Estero el Rosal; ponds (one man-made reservoir and several natural ponds); and small creeks.

exIStInG condItIonS The Estero el Rosal is the main waterway at Campo San Francisco. It is a large stream that runs north to south across the property.

The headwaters of the Estero el Rosal are north of the property, running through thousands of hectares of pine plantation. The floodplain is wide and there is visual evidence that the water has jumped its channel in the past, potentially during an earthquake or, more likely, a substantial flood. During the summer months, the Estero el Rosal slowly meanders through the property, with a maximum depth of approximately one meter. Each year, during the rainy season from May through October, the Estero el Rosal floods substantially (Nilo 2012).

The Estero el Rosal flowing slowly in the summer months, Campo San Francisco.

Because the seasonal flood is related to intense rain events, the river floods at a high velocity. These fast, high-impact floods generally leave minimal silt deposits (Barclay 2012). Soil that is affected by flooding in this way is often degraded and not ideal for cultivation.

MAIN HOUSE ESTERO EL ROSAL Drainageways

RESERVOIR

Water at Campo San Francisco: The two main waterbodies and the Estero el Rosal are located in the eastern portion of the property, close to the homestead. Intermittent streams and drainageways run evenly throughout the entire property.

POND

Alberto approaching the bank of the reservoir.The access road leads to the water’s edge.

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Man-made reservoir, Campo San Francisco.

The man-made reservoir, constructed in 2006, is approximately a half a kilometer long and three to four meters deep (Nilo 2012). This pond was constructed both for recreational purposes and as a water source for extinguishing fires. The banks of the reservoir along the western boundary are approximately three meters from the Estero el Rosal. A substantial wall was built on the southern end of the reservoir to reduce the possibility of the Estero breaching the bank and entering the pond. The reservoir does not receive a natural inux of water from the Estero el Rosal and the water level in the reservoir is maintained through a diesel pump system, draining water from the Estero.

Water flowing from the Estero el Rosal into the man-made reservoir at Campo San Francisco. The water level is maintained with a pump system.

PLAnS FoR A neW ReSeRVoIR Alto cauquenes has plans to create a large reservoir covering approximately 10 hectares and up to 10 meters deep. the construction is expected to occur some time within the next few years. this reservoir is being built with the intention of providing an additional water resource. Because the construction has not yet occurred, there are opportunities to implement ecological construction and management practices.

FUTURE RESERVOIR Proposed location of the future reservoir. This area is characterized by typical grassland species, and is at the convergence of a number of drainageways.

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The largest natural pond is comparable in area to the reservoir, and is naturally filled each flooding season by the Estero el Rosal. Both the pond and reservoir have pines surrounding them, with a buffer of mostly native vegetation that is approximately six to eight meters wide, making them home to diverse avian populations, including nesting herons and black neck swans.

Heron flying over the largest pond. Both natural and man-made ponds are home to a diverse avian population.

A mat of vegetation covers most of the surface area of the natural pond, and a smaller mat has begun to grow in the reservoir. There are two more ponds on the west side of the river that also have this vegetation. The species of vegetation that forms this mat is unknown, but its continued growth could affect recreational and management practices and potentially threaten avian diversity.

Mat of vegetation that covers most of the ponds and reservoir. This growth could potentially impede the water quality and recreational potential of the waterbodies. Vegetated buffer comprising radiata and native pine species. Plantation pines surround the ponds within a 6 to 8 meter buffer.

On the west side of Campo San Francisco are two creeks that run year round. During the dry season, the water levels are very low in some areas, often reduced to a trickle (Nilo 2012). During the rainy season, the drainageways flow into the creek system and flood the smaller floodplains throughout the property. Extensive erosion can be seen in most of the drainageways due to the flooding that happens during the rainy season and the nature of the soils.

Low-flowing creek on the west side of the property.

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cURRent MAnAGeMent Water from the Estero el Rosal is utilized to irrigate crops and maintain the water level of the reservoir.

Small earth dams are built seasonally in the river corridor to pool water so pumps can supply water to an irrigation system. The system irrigates poplar trees that are planted along a hillside close to the road, the olive grove, and the grapes that grow closest to the main house. Up-slope, a retaining pond used for irrigation is fed by Estero el Rosal.

Earth dam constructed in the river corridor to pool water, allowing pumps to supply water to an irrigation system.

Pump-driven irrigation system pulls water from pools formed by dams in the Estero el Rosal, and directs it to a portion of the poplar plantation, the olive grove and the irrigated vineyards.

The reservoir water level is maintained through a culvert that can be opened to pump water from the Estero el Rosal. Each winter, runoff from rainfall and floodwaters from the Estero fill the large natural pond. The ponds on the west side of the Estero are also flooded with runoff during the rainy season (Nilo 2012). Each year a tractor drives through the channel of the Estero el Rosal, clearing the debris left by the previous flood. This is done with the intention of maximizing potential water flow through the channel, in order to reduce erosion and flood damage on the property (Ellena 2012). Also in an effort to reduce erosion and rainwater runoff, onemeter-wide and one-meter-deep trenches were dug next to each tree during the planting phase. One-meter-wide and one-meter-deep trenches, adjacent to every newly planted tree. These trenches are meant to collect rainwater to slow runoff, minimize erosion, and increase infiltration near the tree roots.

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To supply drinking water to the families that live at Campo San Francisco, potable water is trucked in from the town of Cauquenes. Additionally, two wells for irrigation were dug to the west of Estero el Rosal, but are not in use because the waterbodies on-site currently provide substantial irrigation water (Ellena 2012).

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ASSESSMENT There is a possibility that climate change in the coming years will lead to a decrease in average rainfall for the region. Alto Cauquenes depends on the waterbodies on Campo San Francisco for irrigation and fire management, and if the water availability decreases, this will pose a challenge for Alto Cauquenes.

Estero’s corridor. The Estero el Rosal has the potential to be a rich, biodiverse corridor for wildlife movement, and suitable aquatic habitat. However, regularly clearing debris from the riverbed can limit the diversity and habitat quality of this area, while potentially increasing the impact of flooding.

Climate change also has the potential to increase water temperatures on-site, which could decrease oxidation in the water, creating a niche for less desirable invasive species and decreasing the ecological diversity within the system (Hansen et al. 2011).

When the river is dammed and driven in, the river bed is disturbed. This could lead to a loss of ecological viability and a constraint on the movement of wildlife (Barclay 2012). Removing debris could also destroy valuable macro and micro invertebrate habitat and compromise the watercleansing services that these species provide (Barclay 2012).

During the rainy season, rainwater runs off rapidly into the waterbodies on-site, potentially bringing contaminants and particulate matter from the soil. Fertilizer, herbicide, pesticide, and eroded soil all have the potential to negatively impact water quality and the ecological integrity of aquatic habitat.

While there are issues associated with the waterbodies at Campo San Francisco, the Estero el Rosal, the ponds, the creek system, and the wells currently provide water security on the site. Water security is rare in the dry interior region, and these resources are able to support the productive landscape at Campo San Francisco.

Vegetated buffer areas around waterbodies can slow the runoff, thereby increasing infiltration into the soil, and filtering out contaminants before they reach the water.

There is a great opportunity for Alto Cauquenes to establish mutually beneficial relationships between scientists and ecologists in the area. This partnership could result in more ecologically sensitive management of the water resources at Campo San Francisco that would help to control flooding and preserve water quality.

There is a vegetative buffer that runs along much of the Estero el Rosal but biodiversity may be limited within the

DRAINAGES AND SEASONAL STREAMS

FF

RUNO

PUMP

RUN

MAN-MADE RESERVOIR

PUMP AT URAL FLOW

ESTERO EL ROSA L

OFF

MP

PU

IRRIGATION POND NATURAL POND

IRRIGATED CROPS

FF

RUNO

N

N Mechanized manipulation in the Estero el Rosal corridor. Heavy manipulation of the channel can lead to a loss of ecological viability and constrain wildlife movement.

Water movement: This diagram shows the flow of water across Campo San Francisco. Most of the rainwater runoff on the property flows into the Estero el Rosal. Water from the Estero fills the pond seasonally, and is pumped into the reservoir. Water from the Estero is also pumped out to irrigate crops on the eastern side of the property.

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Hydrology ASSeSS VeGetAtIVe BUFFeR ZoneS The width of a buffer largely determines how it will function. If a buffer is too narrow it may not be able to filter sediments or stabilize banks (Hellmund et al. 2006).

Many studies have been done on effective widths for optimal buffer functioning. It is important that every system be considered individually to determine the most appropriate width. Following, however, are general guidelines that should be considered when establishing a healthy riparian ecosystem (Hellmund et al. 2006). • Avoid interference with the natural course of the river and floodplain. • Assess existing vegetation • Know where the upland feeder streams and drainageways are, especially in areas prone to seasonal flooding. • Map the ecological integrity of all segments of drainageways noting where the existing protected vegetation seems adequate to buffer its uphill areas • Pay particular attention to buffer zones close to harvest and production operations.

Vegetated buffer between the natural pond and pine plantation at Campo San Francisco. A functional vegetative buffer will filter sediments and chemicals such as fertilizers and herbicides.

enHAnce toPoGRAPHIc dIVeRSIty oF eSteRo eL RoSAL A healthy stream and river corridor should have topographical diversity. A healthy corridor has rocks and logs that create pools and other forms of habitat for macro and micro invertebrates. These objects also help slow water velocity during flooding, and increase overall diversity of the riparian vegetation (Silk et al. 2005).

• Maintain aquatic diversity in the river channel by leaving some natural debris. BeneFItS oF RIPARIAn BUFFeRS (Forman 1995)

•Filter sedimentation and potential chemicals from runoff •Provide vegetative cover to keep water temperatures cooler •Provide habitat for diverse species of wildlife and vegetation •Control flooding downstream •Act as a corridor for wildlife and a conduit to other corridors Stream channel at the Reserva los Ruiles. The dense vegetated buffer and topographical diversity in the streambed provide filtration services and create habitat for a diverse array of wildlife.

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USLe: Universal Soil Loss equation the USLe predicts the long term average rate of erosion on a field slope based on rainfall pattern, soil type, topography, crop system, and management practices. the USLe can be used to compare soil losses from a particular field with a specific crop and management system to “tolerable soil loss rates” (USLe). Cross section

StRAteGIeS FoR tHe neW ReSeRVoIR A management plan to manage the biodiversity and water quality of the planned reservoir could be used as a case study for other landowners in the region.

• Consider establishing parts of the reservoir’s vegetative buffer before construction of the reservoir to allow the buffer to grow in. • Use Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and consider uphill site conditions to help determine appropriate buffer widths. • When clearing land for the reservoir, set up a nursery to keep valuable native material to re-vegetate the reservoir edge or other areas needing riparian vegetation. • Rescue important plant species before construction; replant again after pond construction.

UNVARYING BOTTOM

VARIABLE BOTTOM

Plan view

• Construct variable edge conditions, especially flatter slopes in some areas to encourage edge vegetation, which can provide important wildlife habitat. • Quickly revegetate disturbed areas and monitor for invasive species.

UNVARYING EDGE and BANK CONDITION

VARIABLE EDGE and BANK CONDITION

• Plant/encourage vegetation close to the water’s edge to provide cover for wildlife.

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NATIVE VEGETATION The temperate forests of Chile are globally important due to their high rates of endemism and their contribution to the ecology of the planet. The rate at which they have disappeared from the Central Valley of Chile is alarming. The region of south central Chile has 7 percent of native forest cover left. Campo San Francisco has a patch of native Southern Beech (Nothofagus glauca) forest and miles of native riparian vegetation. While this preservation is a great contribution to the region, connecting corridors to increase diversity of plants and wildlife will contribute to the health of the whole ecosystem, including the plantation forest.

REGIONAL PATTERNS One-third of all the world’s remaining temperate forests grow in Chile (Neira et al. 2000). The temperate forests of Chile are ecologically valuable due to the high species diversity and endemism. An endemic species is found only in one location on the planet, and the high level of endemism in Chile’s central region exists mainly because of an island effect created by the Pacific ocean to the west, the Andes mountain range to the east and the Atcama desert to the north (Echeverria et al. 2006). Today, the number of endemic plant species growing in the Chilean temperate forest has been reduced to 7 percent of its original number. The fragmentation of the forests and the extinction of these endemic species has decreased biodiversity and heavily degraded this rich and unique ecological resource (Armesto et al. 1997). 1975

NATIVE VEGETATION: HISTORICAL PATTERNS The fragmentation and removal of the temperate forest is a historical pattern in Chile’s Central Valley, and has been ongoing for centuries.

The first major event that affected the Central Valley’s temperate forests was the war between the indigenous tribes and the Spanish Conquistadores. During this time thousands of hectares of forest were burnt down. The second major event took place in the nineteenth century. The Spanish settled in the valley and forests were extensively burned for cropland and pasture. By the twentieth century, forest clearing, selective logging, and the introduction of exotic species irreparably changed the temperate forests (Neira et al. 2002). The rate of deforestation from 1975 to 2000 in the province was 4.5 percent per year (Echeverria et al. 2006).

1990

2000

Major Native Forest Cover in Rio Maule-Cobquecura for years between 1975-2000 Adapted from (Echeverria et al. 2006)

Strategies for ecological management: campo San Francisco

native VEGETATION

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nAtIVe VeGetAtIon In context Although the rate of deforestation and fragmentation of the native forest appears grim, the province of Cauquenes is home to a number of conservation areas and remnants of native forest. These areas serve as reminders of the once diverse landscape that spanned the Central Valley. They also serve as models for diversity and conservation within the region.

Cerro Name, the highest mountain in the province, is abundant with native ora and fauna, many of which are thought to have existed across the whole dry interior region of the province of Cauquenes. Some examples include the maiten (Maytenus boaria), an evergreen tree whose wood is used to make tool handles; soapwood (Quillaja saponaria), valued for its soap-making properties; the puemo (Cryptocarya alba), valued for its fruit; and the boldo (Peumus boldus), valued for its medicinal properties (Aronson 1998).

NATIVE PLANT AND WILDLIFE DIVERSITY

ROBLE Maulino or Hualo

QUILLAY Soapwood

Range: Central Valley and foothills Description: Deciduous woodland tree grows to 40 meters high. Fruit is a small husk enclosing three nuts. Value: Esteemed for its beautiful, solid and durable wood.

Range: Coastal range and Central Valley. Sea level 0-1600 meters. Description: Perennial woodland tree grows to 15 meters high. Woody, starshaped fruit encloses many winged seeds.

RUIL

COCOI HERON

Range: Coastal range on south-facing slopes, Maule Description: Deciduous woodland tree grows to 30 meters high. Small, multiwinged husk encloses three to seven nuts.

Range: Antofagasta to Magallanes. Description: Largest heron in Chile. Found in flooded lowlands in rural areas near rivers and ponds.

Nothofagus glauca

Quillaja saponaria

At the base of Cerro Name is the lush wetland, Cienagas del Name. This 4,000-hectare wetland is conserved by Corporacion Nacional Forestal (CONAF), the federal forest service of Chile. Cienagas del Name has diverse avian and plant populations that are protected by the government as valuable sources of biodiversity and endemism. Nothofagus alessandrii

Cerro Name, Sauzal

Garza cuca

Another intact portion of native temperate forest is the Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles. This 45-hectare reserve located in the coastal mountain range has mainly southern beech tree species, which make up a large portion of the species in Chile’s temperate forests. Many of the tree species in the reserve are in danger of extinction, including the Roble (Nothofagus glauca) which also grows at Campo San Francisco. nAtIVe WILdLIFe The main predator of the region is the South American gray fox (Lycalopex griseus). Because of the limited habitat, the number of foxes has decreased, resulting in a regional overpopulation of old world rabbits (Oryctologus cuniculus). These rabbits destroy the bark on young trees and grape vines.

BLACK NECK SWAN

OLD WORLD RABBIT

Cygnus melancoryphus

Oryctologus cuniculus

Range: Atacama to Tierra del Fuego. Lays eggs in reedbeds on the lake shore or on small islets. Description: Feeds on aquatic vegetation, insects and fish spawn.

Range: Arica to Magallenes Description: Live in woodland edge and areas with sandy or soft soils. Digs and lives in burrows. Females have 5 to 7 litters per year.

While there are not many mammalian species in the region, there is a diverse avian population including condors, herons, and black neck swans. 28

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The native forest patch along the western boundary of Campo San Francisco. Riparian Habitat

nAtIVe VeGetAtIon At cAMPo SAn FRAncISco The native vegetation on-site consists mostly of riparian vegetation growing along the drainageways and waterways. There is a patch adjacent to the southeastern boundary along the river that is more substantial in size.

Grassland

Core Native Forest Habitat

The riparian vegetation is highly fragmented with large portions of edge habitat, as opposed to intact core habitat. Because of the nature of this vegetative pattern, there is a high probability that the plant and animal species inhabiting these areas do not require large tracts of core habitat. Beyond the riparian vegetation there is a patch of secondary native forest comprised of Roble and other native shrubs along the western perimeter of the property. Since core habitat occurs less frequently than edge habitat, it is likely that the wildlife composition at Campo San Francisco does not resemble the wildlife composition in either the historic or current intact native temperate forests. If vertebrate, invertebrate and plant species that thrive in intact tracts of native temperate forest were present, they would inhabit the two small areas of core habitat, and might not have a means to safely move between the two areas to increase the genetic diversity of the populations.

Core Riparian Habitat

As the land patterns exist today, the distance between patches of native vegetation could impede the survival and genetic variation of any species that depends on interior habitat, such as the South American gray fox (Lara 2006). Also, since many species native to Chile’s temperate forests are endemic, it is possible that many of the plants found in both the riparian forests and the native forest at Campo San Francisco are endangered, endemic species and should be preserved as ecological rarities. The preservation and conservation of existing native vegetation is essential to encourage and ensure a healthy, biodiverse ecosystem. If steps are taken to preserve and expand current forest and riparian vegetation, Campo San Francisco will continue to provide valuable habitat for species that already inhabit the land, and possibly encourage additional species to inhabit the area.

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Riparian vegetation along drainage way at Campo San Francisco.

cURRent MAnAGeMent The riparian vegetation has been protected under riparian buffer zones required by CONAF. The current regulations implemented by CONAF derive from the Forest Law of 1930 and Executive Order 701. These regulations require landowners to protect streams and drainageways from pollution, excess nutrients, and particulate matter.

Specifically, these regulations require a vegetative buffer of at least 20 meters wide on either side of streams or drainageways. Because these strips of vegetation are meant to protect water quality, they are minimally managed (Nilo 2012). The only intact patch of native forest is a secondary regrowth forest comprising mainly southern beech tree species. The management maintains a six-meter open buffer between the plantation forest and the native forest. Alto Cauquenes has planted oak and chestnut tree species both adjacent to the native forest patch and close to the homestead, however the young trees have not been thriving.

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ASSESSMENT Patches of native riparian vegetation spread throughout the property. However, there are minimal areas of large intact habitat. The spaces between riparian vegetation disrupt the potential for an intact riparian corridor for plants and wildlife. Also, the lack of connection between the core habitat patches and the riparian vegetation buffers further inhibits biodiversity and ecosystem health. There is an opportunity to form connections between existing riparian vegetation patches to increase overall habitat connectivity on the site. These riparian corridors could eventually form a network between the core habitat patches, further increasing connectivity. This connection could be achieved by widening existing patches of riparian vegetation to create corridors for plants and wildlife. Creating corridors and actively conserving native forest and vegetation could enhance seed regeneration, seed dispersion, and overall species health of plants while increasing habitat connectivity for wildlife (Lara 2006).

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Native Vegetation

Current Patch of Native forest

“A forest is more than trees. It is a complex ecosystem ever changing, defined by the interactions of living organisms and surrounding environments.” -Thom J. McEvoy

Proposed extension of native forest

cReAte An AdAPtIVe MAnAGeMent APPRoAcH Adaptive management is a process of decision making utlized in the face of uncertainty. The aim is to minimize uncertainty over time through system monitoring. The common adaptive management process follows these steps:

conSeRVe And exPAnd cURRent PAtcH oF nAtIVe FoReSt The native forest at Campo San Francisco is part of remaining native forest in the region, of which only 7 percent of the original forest cover still exists. The conservation of the existing native temperate forest at Campo San Francisco is crucial to conserving this remaining forest cover.

1. Assess Problem (E.g., at Campo San Francisco there are an abundance of rabbits that feed on saplings and young grape vines and olive trees.)

Consider expanding the existing native forest patch to extend and incorporate the riparian vegetation that exists in the valley adjacent to the forest. The native patch currently exists at approximately 25 hectares. This expansion would increase the size of the patch to approximately 100 hectares.

2. Design Control Techniques (E.g., design corridors specifically meant to enhance habitat and wildlife movement of the gray fox, a predator species.) 3. Monitor and Assess (E.g., create a monitoring system to assess rabbit population and predator movement within the property.) 4. Review and Modify (E.g., collect and review data, use results to inform future management decisions.) There are many valuable resources in the community surrounding Campo San Francisco that could help establish a plan and monitoring system for conservation and preservation efforts on the property. There are five universities in the nearby city of Talca and an agricultural experiment station (INIA) located in the city of Cauquenes. Forming relationships with these schools and organizations could help Campo San Francisco enhance biodiversity and control pests such as the rabbits.

The conversion could begin after the harvest of the pine, replanting the harvested areas with native trees and shrubs. During this process, careful consideration must be given to possible invasive plant species and other unwanted vegetation. Another potential method for expansion is to remove the first two rows of the adjacent pines and thin the third row. This would open the canopy to allow space and sunlight for the growth of understory native trees and shrubs. As the native plants establish, further rows can be thinned, slowly shifting the land cover from pines to native trees and shrubs. SoUtH AMeRIcAn GRAy Fox Lycalopex griseus

STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

Range: Atacama to Magallanes, inhabits open grassland and foothill forest edge. Description: Omnivorous, feeds on rodents, birds, lizards, frogs, insects, and fruit. Protected species in Chile, but illegally hunted.

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“Forest corridors are often considered the main instrument with which to offset the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation.” — Lees and Peres

CORE HABITAT RIPARIAN CONNECTIONS OFF-SITE CORRIDOR CONNECTION Core Habitat and Potential Connections This map shows the areas of core habitat that have potential to be expanded. Also shown are potential areas of riparian vegetation connection, and potential off-site corridor connections.

connect RIPARIAn BUFFeRS Connecting existing riparian corridors will create a network of corridors throughout the property. Investigate ways to connect to nearby core habitat patches that would avoid promoting the spread of invasive species, disease, or major disturbances such as forest fires. Following are diagrams representing different approaches to establishing connections:

Utilize the “stepping stone” approach, creating smaller patches in between the corridors for species to migrate through. Establish parallel corridors when possible, with a central corridor and a corridor edge on either side of the central corridor. This would allow movement of edge-dependent species, as well as interior species that may move through the central corridor (Forman 1995).

coRe HABItAt exPAnSIon The same recommendations apply to expanding other areas of existing native vegetation bordered by the radiata pine. Benefits of corridors • Provide a place to protect biodiversity. • Serve as a mechanism to enhance water resource management, such as flood control, soil run-off, water levels and cleaning water. • Act as safe havens for isolated species allowing them to move from one core habitat area to another, serving as “stepping stones.” • Act as corridors for wildlife, and conduits to other corridors. • Are places of beauty and recreation, including hiking and biking trails. Adapted from (Forman 1995)

Different methods for connecting corridors Adapted from (Forman 1995)

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eStABLISH A MonItoRInG SySteM Set up a permanent monitoring system that will provide continuous information about the health of the forest and indirect impacts of plantation forest practice.

A company in the Maule Region, Compania Agricola y Forestal El Alamo (CAF) actively monitors river water quality and wildlife diversity. With this information they are able to determine the effects of harvest and planting regiments on the water quality and wildlife movement, and adjust management practices to minimize negative effects accordingly. Refer to Forestry section for more information. condUct A BIoBLItZ A BioBlitz is an organized event where teams of scientists, students and community members come together and record as many species of plants, animals and other organisms as they can find on-site. This could be an opportunity to assess the biodiverstiy existing on-site, and to engage other landowners in the region to do the same. encoURAGe LAndoWneRS to conSeRVe Engage surrounding landowners who own remnant patches of native forest, and assess the potential for a system of “stepping stones” of important vegetation and habitat that stretch through multiple properties. Stepping stones are smaller patches of vegetation dispersed throughout a landscape that provide connections between larger patches of vegetation, such as the native forest patch at Campo San Francisco or the larger patch of riparian vegetation along the southern end of the Estero el Rosal. If Alto Cauquenes and adjacent landowners were to conserve patches of vegetation, these patches might serve as stepping stones for larger patches such as Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles or Lake Tutuven (Discussed further in Off-site Connections).

A BioBlitz is an event in which teams of volunteer scientists, families, students, teachers, and other community members come together for 24 hours to conduct an inventory of plants, animals, microbes, fungi, and other organisms that inhabit a site. national Geographic is performing BioBlitzs in all national Parks in the United States. the Saguaro BioBlitz was performed in 2011. Within 24 hours they discovered 859 species of plants and animals of which 400 species were previously unknown to the 37,000 hectare national Park. “A BioBlitz gives adults, kids, and teens the opportunity to join biologists in the field and participate in bona fide research expeditions. It’s a fun and exciting way to learn about the biological diversity of local parks and to better understand how to protect them.”

Larger patches of vegetation are connected by smaller patches representing the “stepping stone” concept.

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PLANTATION FORESTRY Radiata pine plantations sweep across the coastal range of chile. their inception was historical and a call to repair a highly degraded landscape that was blowing away with the wind. Many plantation foresters have contributed greatly to the forestry industry through afforestation, enhancing soil vitality and actively conserving native forest, vegetation and wildlife. campo San Francisco has made a commitment to develop the health of the land through agroforestry. Understanding that monocultures can have positive and adverse effects on the landscape will enable foresters to manage their forest through the thoughtful lens of biodiversity to ensure longevity and high quality forest for future generations.

REGIONAL PATTERNS Plantation forestry is the prominent land use in Chile’s Central Valley. A number of species are produced in plantation stands, but the most prominent species is the radiata pine (Monterey Pine, Pinus radiata). Most of the land and soils in the Central Valley and the dry interior are degraded, highly eroded, and devoid of nutrients. However, radiata pines are able to grow quickly in this region, and have been planted across much of the Central Valley. To fully understand the role that these pines play in the environment, it is important to understand the land use history that has led to the current landscape. PLAntAtIon FoReStRy: HIStoRIcAL PAtteRnS In 1910, Federico Albert, a German forest ecologist, was hired by the Chilean government to propose solutions to severe erosion problems. Historically, the lands in the Central Valley were covered in oak and southern beech forests that built up a large amount of organic matter on the forest floor. In the 1700’s the Spanish moved through the land, clearing the trees to grow cereal crops on the fertile soil beneath (Wilcox 1996).

The wheat and cereal crops removed nutrients from the soil, and the Spanish farming practices did not lead to replenishment. Additionally, the extensive root structures of the trees, and the layers of organic matter were no longer available to maintain the integrity of the soil structure. Severe erosion began to occur across the region, and Federico’s proposed solution was to plant radiata pine across the landscape.

This solution did stabilize soils to a certain extent, and soon turned into more than just erosion prevention; it became an economic opportunity because of the demand for timber and wood pulp (Toro 1999). With the coming of the Chilean industrial revolution came the centralization and reorganization of the means of production, and this was reflected in the growing forestry industry in Chile. In 1974 Augusto Pinochet’s military regime initiated a government subsidy encouraging the planting of trees and the semiarid regions of Chile, including the dry interior (Aronson 1998). The government absorbed 75 percent of the costs related to forestation expenses. Because this subsidy had no further specifications about the density and formation of these plantings, large forestry companies have been the major beneficiaries of this subsidy. Large companies have bought up former agriculture land for large scale tree planting (Toro 1999).

Young radiata pine plantation, Cauquenes.

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PLAntAtIon FoReStRy todAy The forestry subsidies been successful in creating a Chilean product for the world market; the forestry industry is the second leading exporter in the country (Toro 1999).

Also, many large forestry corporations have been of help to peasant farmers who own degraded land. These businesses purchase pines planted by small farmers across the region. This offers peasant farmers a viable option for profitable production on otherwise unproductive soil.

Since the subsidy decree in 1974, plantation forestry has spread from 300,000 hectares to over 2.07 million hectares today (Estrada 2007). There are a number of explanations for the rapid expansion of this land use. For instance, radiata pine is one of the few forest species of economic importance, capable of growing in degraded, eroded soils. The species also displays a fast growth rate and high financial returns in a rotation of less than thirty years (Toro 1999). Furthermore, radiata pine is easy to establish on eroded soils (Toro 1999).

The benefits of this partnership go both ways, as the pines on the farmers’ land increase the forest companies’ projected tree supply. The companies do not have to expend capital on the purchase of land (Clapp 1995).

The plantation forestry model has had a number of positive effects on the region. In many cases, forestry activities in the Central Valley have created jobs in small towns located close to the pulp mills. In 1999, 2.1 percent of the active working population of Chile was in the forest sector, a higher percentage than the 1.8 percent of the mining sector at the time (Toro 1999). Large, single-use plantations offer economies of scale, concentration, and simplicity. They lend themselves to maximized production and efficient investment return (Clapp 1995).

Small-scale farmer and plantation owner. Farmers plant pine plantations according to government regulations, and forestry corporations offer a viable option for production on degraded soil.

coRPoRAte cHILeAn FoReStRy Forestal ARAUCO is a major Chilean forestry company that produces wood pulp, sawntimber, and wood panels. ARAUCO has five pulp mills and four wood manufacturing plants in chile and they serve customers in over 70 countries. Some 327,000 ha of ARAUco’s 1.5 million ha forest holdings, consist of native forest that is protected under strict international regulations. these forests that have been permanently set-aside from harvest, and include areas of exceptional biological diversity. In May, 2009, ARAUco formally committed itself to securing certification of all of its forest holdings in Chile to the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standard. ARAUco’s Radiata Pine cycle: Research & Development: Seeds obtained from genetically superior trees. Nursery: new plants are cultivated in high technology nurseries. Plantations: Harvested forests are replanted. Management: Slower-growing trees are removed to allow healthier trees to grow, and limbs are removed to create clear, knot-free wood. Production: • Logs are carefully selected and used to produce lumber, panels, and pulp. • Processed wood by-products are used to produce other industrial products or energy. • ARAUCO sells its products in more than 75 countries.

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Two workers doing measurements in Radiata Pine stand.

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While the root structures of radiata pines and other fast growing tree species can reduce soil degradation on steep slopes, planting these trees does not improve soil fertility. There is evidence that plantation forestry practices as they are carried out today may further deplete soil health (Clapp 1995). Common tree planting practice in Chile and at Campo San Francisco begins with intensive tilling of the land to loosen the compacted soil. Next, a highly mechanized planting process involves the insertion of saplings along evenly spaced rows that follow the contours of the slopes (Nilo 2012). Subsidy benefits are given for water catchment ditches, which are dug within the stands at varying densities. These ditches are meant to slow water runoff and erosion and increase infiltration within the plantation stands (Nilo 2012).

Preparing land for planting radiata pines at Campo San Francisco. Common forestry practice involves intensive tilling of the land to loosen the compacted soil.

Prior to planting, general herbicide is applied across the stand, and is applied once more to facilitate the establishment of the forest. This second application is applied during the early development of the tree. Newly planted pines are fertilized with boron, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium, and again when the plants are between 4 and 6 years of age (Nilo 2012). Pines are harvested about 22 years after planting, but this varies from site to site depending on their growth and development (Ellena 2012). No pines have been harvested to date at Campo San Francisco, but regionally harvesting is done by clearcutting. In clearcutting all of the trees in a designated area are cut and removed at the same time (Toro 1999). The machinery used for harvesting is very heavy and fuel intensive, and significant soil compaction occurs after harvest (Toro 1999). After an area is clearcut, the soil is tilled again before the next planting, and the land is replanted and fertilized.

Timber logs on their way to mills near the coast, Cauquenes

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Pine species have been shown to have different impacts on soil properties and processes as compared to the grasslands that existed prior to plantation forestry afforestation. It has been shown that there is a net reduction in total carbon and associated nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur due to the lack of build-up of organic matter and the lack of nutrient returns in the form of plant matter to the soil under the trees (Chirino et al 2010). The pine plantation landscape pattern may also have negative implications on wildlife. The native forests have been extensively cleared, leaving only scattered fragments of natural forests embedded in a matrix of pine woodlands (Estades and Temple 1999). The effects of this pattern on wildlife are not fully understood, but because of a lack of habitat diversity and understory plant species, the habitat for understory birds and ground-dwelling creatures is marginal (Estades and Temple 1999).

1975

Sparse understory of a radiata pine plantation, Campo San Francisco.

1990

2000

Major Land Cover in Rio Maule-Cobquecura, 1975 to 2000 (Adapted from Echeverria et al. 2006) NATIVE FOREST TREE PLANTATIONS

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In Chile, the annual growth of radiata pine generally exceeds the growth associated with the trees in their native environment in California. This increased growth in the foreign landscape may be widely attributed to the separation of the trees from their natural enemies. While increased growth raises the economic value of the trees in the short run, it also puts these large monoculture stands at great risk to danger when pests and pathogens eventually appear (Duran et al. 2008). The risk of the rapid spread of disastrous epidemic is potentially the biggest challenge facing the uniform pine plantations. Large, exotic monoculture stands, while economically efficient, greatly raise the probability of widespread disturbance (Clapp 1995).

Pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia buoliana).

Globally, several significant pests and diseases occur in radiata pine: needle blight (Dothistroma septosporum), pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia buoliana) and pitch canker (Fusarium circinatum) (Duran et al. 2008). These diseases may not yet be widespread in Chile, but the transcontinental transportation of humans and goods often brings foreign pathogens. Pitch canker (Fusarium circinatum) on radiata pine stem.

One prominent pathogen issue in the Central Valley of Chile is a needle blight disease (Phytophthora pinofolia). In February 2004, 70 hectares of unusual tree mortality appeared in a six-year old radiata pine stand in Arauco, Chile. The damage attributed to this blight increased to approximately 60,000 hectares by the end of 2006 (Duran et al. 2008). Referred to as Dano Foliar del Pino (DFP), this pathogen is accepted as the most serious issue pine forestry in Chile has faced. DFP causes rapid death of the needles of young plants. The pathogen can affect pines of all ages. In young and adult trees, infection occurs in current year needles towards the end of the growing season resulting in severe needle loss. In seedlings the disease kills young terminal shoots, eventually killing the entire plant (Duran et al. 2008).

DFP (Phytophthora pinofolia) effect on radiata pine needles.

Studies show that the pathogen was introduced into Chile in 2004, and has spread rapidly from its single entry point in Arauco, Chile. The rapid spread of the disease so far is typical of an introduced pathogen exposed to a highly susceptible host grown over large areas in monoculture patterns (Duran et al. 2008).

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FORESTRY at CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO Plantation forestry covers a large portion of the land at Campo San Francisco. There are three types of trees currently being cultivated: radiata pine (Pinus radiata), blue gum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), and poplar (Populus spp.). The radiata pine and eucalyptus are non-native species, which reach maturity very rapidly (12-20 years) in the Central Valley. Radiata pines make up most of the trees planted and they were all planted within four years of each other. Planting was performed according to common regional practice, which is highly mechanized and inserts trees into the ground at even spacing and depth. These planting practices have resulted in approximately 900 hectares of evenly spaced trees of similar age, size, and form. Smaller stands of eucalyptus and poplar grow on the eastern side of the property. Each stand was planted all at once in a monoculture, resulting in a homogeneous pattern. View from the fire watch tower, Campo San Francisco. Radiata pines make up most of the trees planted and they were all planted within four years of each other.

RADIATA PINE EUCALYPTUS POPLAR

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cURRent MAnAGeMent Stands are generally harvested eighteen to twenty-two years after planting. The radiata pine stands receive two applications of NPK fertilizer, once during planting and once after four to six years of growth. The stands also receive two applications of herbicide and pesticide (Nilo 2012).

Radiata pines are used for a variety of products. At Campo San Francisco, the trees are managed for timber. Ideally, this wood product is long, straight and free of knots. To achieve this growth formation, the pines on the property are pruned and thinned every year. Eucalyptus trees produce a lower quality wood, and are used primarily for woodpulp production (Nilo 2012).

Pruning radiata pines at Campo San Francisco. Pines are pruned to achieve ideal timber log formation.

Newly planted radiata pine saplings, Campo San Francisco.

Planting dates 1994 1999-2000 2002 2002 2004

Radiata pine saplings.

2005

Planting: Most of the pine stands were planted between 2002 and 2006. One stand along the northern perimeter was planted in 1994, eight years before the current owners purchased the property. Since the average time between planting and harvesting for timber is twenty-two years, the first harvest is scheduled to take place in 2016. The rest of the stands are scheduled for harvest between 2024 and 2028. The eucalyptus stands were harvested in 2010-2011; they were coppiced and will be mature in ten years. The poplar that were planted in 2006 will be mature in eighteen years.

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Pine Harvest: No pines have reached harvest age at Campo San Francisco, but the common harvest practice in the region is clearcutting. In clearcut, all of the trees in one stand are cut and removed at once. This process is highly mechanized, needing only eight people to harvest 100 square meters of trees. The harvested trees are then dragged and trucked off-site to a mill or pulp processing plant. After the intensive harvest, roots and remaining debris are removed and soil is tilled using heavy machinery. New saplings are replanted on the recently harvested plot. Eucalyptus and Poplar, Planting and Harvest: The eucalyptus and poplar stands also receive applications of fertilizer at planting, and a small portion of the poplar stand planted on a hill is irrigated regularly. None of the poplar trees have been harvested to date.

Clearcut eucalyptus stand, Campo San Francisco. The common harvest practice in the region is clearcut, in which all of the trees in one stand are cut and removed at once.

The eucalyptus trees are grown in short rotations of ten to twelve years. The northern eucalyptus stand was planted in 1994 and harvested in 2010. Eucalyptus trees produce low quality timber, and are used for wood pulp. The northern eucalyptus stand was planted in 1996, and the eastern stand was planted in 2002. Both stands were harvested in 2011. These trees were all coppiced at once, and new trees have sprouted from the stumps. The coppice harvest allows for less disturbance of the soil, but because eucalyptus trees re-seed easily, it is often difficult to remove eucalyptus plants from a stand. This could pose a problem in the case that the land is designated for a use other than growing eucalyptus.

Recently harvested eucalyptus logs, Campo San Francisco. Eucalyptus trees produce low quality timber, and are used for wood pulp.

Eucalyptus re-growth after coppice, Campo San Francisco.

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ASSESSMENT PLANTATION TREE PROFILES

RADIATA PINE

Pinus radiata

Origin: California Description: Evergreen conifer, light, soft wood with coarse grains Lifespan: 80-90 years Growing Conditions: Intermediate shade tolerance with optimal growth in sun Fire Resistance: Foliage is low in volatile terpenes therefore is not extremely flammable. Value: Erosion control-wide spreading root system, easy establishment

BLUE GUM EUCALYPTUS

Eucalyptus globulous

Origin: Tasmania Description: Evergreen hardwood grows 30-55 meters Lifespan: Reaches maturity within 17 years Growing Conditions: Rapid growth, low salinity, good drainage, intolerant of shade Seed Dispersal: Wind Fire Resistance: Highly susceptible during dry season

POPLAR

Populus spp. Origin: Northern Hemisphere Description: Deciduous hardwood Lifespan: Short life span of 50 years Growing conditions: Fast grower, thrives in moist soils around waterbodies, does not grow well in compacted environments, full sunlight. Seed Dispersal: Wind Fire Resistance: Fire resistant

Plantation forestry currently results in a stable and relatively predictable return on investment. However, it is known that homogeneous timber stands are susceptible to disturbance and therefore are not able to respond to disturbance as well as a diverse system would. The forest expert Puettmann (2009) states that a homogeneous, monoculture forest pattern is highly susceptible to disturbance. As stated earlier in the section, if disease, wildfire, or extreme drought aficted the property, the entire stand and the entire investment would be at risk. Additionally, monoculture plantings have limited biodiversity and poor soil health. Studies have shown that in radiata pine monoculture, a homogeneous overstory along with minimal ground vegetation can alter the hydrology of water systems. Minimal ground vegetation often results in increased amounts of runoff, which can increase water levels, alter water temperatures, and degrade aquatic habitat (Neira et al. 2002). Harvesting methods also pose a number of opportunities and challenges on the site. Since the vast majority of trees on-site have not reached maturity, there is ample time to investigate alternative planting and harvesting methods and optimal planting and harvesting times. If harvest methods are carried out following the common practice of the region, this practice will negatively impact biodiversity, water quality, soil quality, and view corridors on the property. Clearcut methods can limit biodiversity, increase runoff of particulate matter and debris into water systems, and do not allow for substantial buildup of organic matter (Neira et al. 2002). These results could have an impact on regional water and habitat quality and furthermore affect the overall health of the ecosystem. With the limitations and advantages of plantation forests in mind, it is important to devise strategies to encourage resilience within the current forest system to ensure productivity for many generations. If Campo San Francisco can achieve this, it will become a model in Chile for sustainability and contribute to the diversity of plantation forestry worldwide. Following are ideas for moving forward that have been practiced or studied in other places within Chile and internationally. These are meant to guide the management decisions to incorporate diversity for the overall health and wellbeing of the plantation and the people who work on the plantation.

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Forestry “Embrace the vision that a thriving local forest economy is compatible with forest ecosystems and good for its human communities.” — Susan Campbell AddInG nAtIVe tReeS to tHe RotAtIon Adding native tree species to the timber rotation would increase the diversity of the forest and could limit the cost of forest management by decreasing the need for fertilizer, herbicide, and pesticide (Donoso et al. 2009).

nAtIVe PLAntS In tHe UndeRStoRy Planting native plants or cover crops to cultivate and create an understory within the pine plantations could increase soil health and fertility as well as diversity within stands.

In a study done at the Catholic University of Concepcion, a stand of coigue tree (Nothofagus dombeyi) was planted adjacent to a radiata pine forest in Valdivia, Chile.

The most important contribution of an understory would be the additions to nutrient cycling. Understory plants provide more organic matter and supply more nutrients. Understory growth increases water absorption by adding fine roots into the substrate, breaking up the compaction that results from planting.

The findings for the study determined that the coigue can be planted in degraded soil with minimal tilling requirements (Donoso and Donoso 2010). The implications of this study support the value that native trees could add to the exotic, monoculture forestry practices that exist today. Native trees are more adaptable and resilient to local environmental stressors, making them an ideal addition to a timber rotation. These trees require less fertilizer, tillage and other costly soil amendments. Using native trees would diversify the canopy and understory of forest stands at Campo San Francisco, enhancing soil health and wildlife biodiversity (Donoso et al. 2009).

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Increasing the trees’ ability to obtain more water and withdraw more nutrients from the soil improves the health of the overall tree, thus increasing the quality of the wood product (Guerrero and Bustamante 2004). PLAnt PRoFILe: PUeMo (Cryptocarya alba) It was thought that understory plants including native woody shrubs would not grow in the shaded, degraded soils of radiata pine plantations. However, researchers at Universidad de chile have found that cryptocarya alba will regenerate in the understory of these plantations. (Guerrero and Bustamante 2004). the puemo is a woody shrub found in the secondary native forest in the coastal mountain range of chile. cultivating understory plants within the pine planation would be highly beneficial to production and would reduce resource inputs.

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IncReASInG RotAtIon tIMe In plantation forestry operations, the stand rotation length is largely determined by the tree species’ age of maturity. Most plantation forestry stands consist of trees that are fast growing and planted all at once. Therefore, most stands don’t grow for more than thirty years, and the trees within the stand reach maturity all at once.

coMPAnIA AGRIcoLA y FoReStAL eL ALAMo (cAF)

Age homogeneity within the stands can be harmful to forest and soil health. Increasing the rotation time of certain portions within a plantation would create age diversity within stands. It has been shown that increasing the rotation in this way can have a positive impact on soil health through limiting the impact of harvesting on a stand’s vitality. The longer a stand grows, the more opportunity for vegetation to continue to regenerate and contribute to the soil profile (McEvoy 2004). A forestry company with 3,000 hectares of land in cultivation in Region Maule VII, cAF is a fully operating agro-silvopastoral system. Main tree crops • Poplar • Walnut • Eucalyptus

Uneven-aged forest stand

cReAtInG VeGetAted StRIPS WItHIn PIne StAndS Creating strips through the stands approximately four meters in width will be conducive to grassland and woody shrub growth. This baseline width is generic and it should be noted that every system is different. The strip of vegetation can provide both a break from the homogeneity of the pine plantation as well as a stepping stone for plant species (Munoz et al. 1990).

Main edible crops • Maize • Asparagus • Bilberry

contribution to conservation • Performed ecological survey on property to identify ecologically sensitive areas and critical habitat for conservation • Created zones for conservation • Demonstrated commitment to habitat and wildlife diversity • Established a monitoring system that generates feedback on forestry impact to conservation Forest Stewardship council certified Because of cAF’s commitment to sustainable forestry and conservation practice on-site, they obtained certification from a highly demanding council that is recognized globally for its high standards.

Native vegetation corridors within pine stands.

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“A good forester takes a perfect forest and makes it less perfect, a bad forester spoils it.” — Henrich Cotta cLeARcUt And FeAtHeRed edGeS If clearcut harvest cannot be avoided, there are ways to minimize the impact of clearcutting. To minimize some of the effects of clearcutting a forester can implement the practice of feathering the edges rather than cutting straight rows when harvesting. Feathering is the selective cutting of trees at the edge of the harvest boundary to create an uneven edge (Refer to diagram to the right for example).

Straight Cut-Traditional Clearcut Line

Feathering an edge mimics the effects of wildfire. Wildfires are beneficial in a natural forest because they create diversity at the vegetative and habitat level by increasing the edge of the forest. The edge of a forest plays an important role in biodiversity within the forest. There are certain species of plants and animals that depend on the edge to exist.

Irregular cut pattern increases edge habitat

By feathering the edge of a clearcut, a wider edge emulates a wildfire edge which helps maintain a population of plants and animals that depend on the edge (Mallik et al. 2011).

Highly irregular pattern creates alcoves for specific edge habitat species

Uneven aged Pine Stand

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Uneven-aged stand rotation Staggering the harvest of specific blocks of trees according to their age can cultivate diversity in a plantation forest by diversifying the age of tree stands.

This method requires the land manager to divide existing stands into designated “blocks.� The block size will vary depending on the production goals. Each block is harvested at a different time, establishing diversity within stands and reducing the size of a contiguous clearcut. Once a block is harvested it is replanted prior to the harvest of the other blocks in the same stand. This process continues in the stand until all of the trees have gone through one harvest rotation cycle. Implementing a staggered harvest regiment can reduce some of the negative impacts of clearcutting. Harvesting each stand in sections can preserve the viewshed, limit erosion caused by clearcutting, improve soil health and increase diversity and vitality of the forest (Barclay 2012).

CLEARCUT Strip Cutting for natural regeneration This method is not commonly used in timber operations that are intensively managed because it depends on seed regeneration and natural regeneration of the stand. It is a viable option for stands closer to the homestead at the Campo San Francisco because it minimizes the impact of harvest on the viewshed. The strip method cuts strips through the entire stand. There are considerations to be taken with this method. Trees can be susceptible to damage from prevailing winds; the direction of the cuts should respond to wind patterns as seeds will disperse faster with the prevailing wind. After several years of regeneration, the strips can be widened by cutting adjacent strips. After many years and a series of successive cuts, the entire stand will have been removed (United States Forest Service).

Young forest

Mid-size forest

Mature forest

Clear strip method of harvest

Strategies for ecological management: campo San Francisco

Forestry

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SHeLteRWood Shelterwood harvesting is a three-cut regeneration method that staggers the establishment of young pines within a stand allowing for a strong crop of seedlings to establish and regenerate a forest within fifteen years. This method depends on natural regeneration and considerations of this method should be thoughtfully made as it impacts profitability.

This method of sapling establishment is lower impact than planting saplings and harvesting trees all at once. Shelterwood harvesting also creates openings within the plantation forest for wildlife and shade-tolerant shrubs and trees. Benefits of this method include limiting the impact on a viewshed when the entire stand is harvested because the trees that were planted in the initial cuts have established and provide coverage for the landscape. This also aids in limiting the amount of erosion and sediment runoff caused by clearcut. The adverse effect is the limited amount of wood produced during the first major thinning; this may be an expensive approach to limiting clearcut effects on a forest stand (Marion et al. 2002).

SHeLteRWood HARVeSt detAILS

opening cut: 20-30 percent of mature trees are removed, leaving a fairly contiguous overstory. this allows the remaining trees to have more space and light, and creates higher quality wood while leaving valuable area for seed regeneration. Seed cut: Six or eight years after the opening cut, the seed cut removes half the original stand. the cutting permits the establishment of new seedlings. Final cut: the remaining trees bear more seeds and protect the young growth from excess sun exposure. After six to eight years this remaining stand can be removed.

Opening cut shelterwood pine forest, Washington

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GReen ceRtIFIcAtIon There are several green certifications available both in Chile and internationally. One of the better-known certifications is from the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). This is an independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests. This is a global certification process performed by a third party to ensure sustainable forest management practices are being carried out. The principles that guide the certification are driven by environmental, social and economic welfare. The benefit of certification is an increased marketability of wood products. Consumers have become diligent in their awareness of forest management practice and are demanding products from responsible forestry operations. Companies in Chile that are certified include Forestal Celco (Arauco) who has pines planted adjacent to Campo San Francisco. Please see the following list for more information on certifications. More Information on the certification Process can be found at the following websites: • Forest Stewardship Council: www.fscus.org • Sustainable Forestry Institution: www.afandpa.org • Pan European Forest Certification: www.pefc.org • International Organization for Standardization: www.iso.org • Global Institute of Sustainable Forestry: www.research.yale.edu/gisf/index.html

Benefits of Bioenergy • Maintaining the existing carbon supplies by avoiding deforestation and forest degradation • Increasing carbon reservoirs by increasing rotation age, planting on covered land • Sustainably producing biofuels

BIoeneRGy As the world continues to find new ways to limit dependency on fossil fuel, bioenergy has gained a lot of momentum. It is proven that the accumulation of biomass generated from forestry outfits (pruning and thinning) can be used as an additive to gasoline. The development of this practice could generate more jobs and alleviate the dependence on fossil fuel. By using logging residue to generate bioenergy, plantations could play a substantial role in diminishing the effects of global warming (Acuna et al. 2010). cARBon cRedItS Carbon credits have been discussed frequently in light of the carbon that plantation forests can sequester. There is a potential that this sequestration may be enough to warrant credits that can be sold to international investors who need it to satiate the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. A study that was done in a loblolly pine plantation showed the following results in accordance to carbon sequestration. For a forest that is 40 years old, 165 Mg of Carbon was sequestered. Of that 165 Mg, 51 percent came from main stems, 13 percent came from branches and foliage and the remaining 37 percent came from roots and soil (Johansen et al. 2001).

• International Institute for Environment & Development: www.iied.org/forestry/index.html • IUCN Forest Conservation Programme: www.iucn.org/themes/fcp/home.html

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AGRICULTURE

A STORY OF LOCAL WINE

South central chile was blessed with deep fertile soil that defined its culture as an agriculturally rich valley. Historical mismanagement of the soil led to poor fertility and soil structure which caused the culture to shift away from agriculture. today, after many years of revitalizing the soils, grapes, olives and small fruit crops have increased in production and economic value. While regionally many farms are owned by large companies, smaller farms have begun to make traction. their success will bolster a culture that is a strong part of the region’s heritage. campo San Francisco is a part of this movement and wants to contribute to the pride of its agricultural heritage.

Due to agricultural reforms throughout the past decade, most of Chile’s agriculture has shifted away from crops introduced by the Spanish such as wheat, and even further away from the traditional indigenous food crops of maize, potatoes, and beans. Small-scale fruit and vegetables are still produced in the province, but these crops are mostly grown by small-scale subsistence farmers. Today, the majority of the agricultural sector in Chile is devoted to wine production and tender fruit crops (Filho 2011). The amount of irrigated crops in the sub humid dry interior region is dependent on the crop type, access to water and water rights. Not all farms are able to irrigate because of these variables. The larger companies irrigate their crops because most have access to water and have water rights to the river. Many small farmers, however, may not have access or do not own the water rights on their property which limits their ability to utilize water for irrigation (Filho 2011).

The Local Farmer Don Raul has a small vineyard in the plains north of the city of Cauquenes. On his vineyard grows the Pais grape, a variety originally introduced by the Spaniards over a century ago. Don Raul is an eighty-fiveyear-old farmer who planted the vines forty years ago. He alone tends to the rows of his vineyard covering less than one hectare. His sons left for Santiago in search of a more urban lifestyle. He is visited often by a local viticulturist who buys his grapes to make fine wine. The Winemakers Louis Antoine Luyt is a French born viticulturist. He came to Cauquenes to continue his wine business. He has formed many relationships with local grape farmers that he buys grapes from, such as Don Raul. He has spearheaded the growing of the Pais grape for fine wines, which is currently used as a grape for mass-produced wine. He is dedicated to resurrecting the value of the Pais grape through dry farming and winemaking. He sells his wines in Europe and recently began a business venture in the United States. Vina de Las Lomas is a cooperative of 250 small farmers with vineyards of less than twelve hectares. Las Lomas makes wine in their centralized production center and sells the wine both nationally and internationally. The cooperative allows small farmers to stay in business and receive a fair price for their products.

These small farmers have utilized this reality to their advantage by dry farming grapes. In the grape industry, dry farmed grapes have emerged as a coveted crop. Because the grape vine has to adapt to the limited water source its roots grow deeper into soil substrate than the roots of an irrigated crop. This adds an additional natural flavor to the wine that is made from a dry farmed grape; the undertones have a more mineral taste as stated by local wine consultant, Louis Antoine Luyt. This has given small farmers the ability to compete with some of the other larger grape farmers. Louis Antoine Luyt in one of his leased vineyards, Cauquenes.

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AGRICULTURE at CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO At Campo San Francisco, two vineyards grow in the highly mineralized soils of the eastern plains. In the northernmost vineyard, Carminere and Syrah grapes are planted in rows that follow contour lines. Rows of 100 year-old Pais grapevines sit lower to the ground in the southern vineyard. The Pais grapes have historical value, and have adapted in order to thrive in the dry area. An olive grove near the northernmost vineyard contains a number of different olive varieties. The olives were planted five years ago and have yet to produce fruit. The olive and vineyard specialist explains that the cause of this lack of productivity is unclear. Four hectares of corn and potatoes are planted in the southern floodplain, on the west side of the river. This is an area that floods seasonally but does not receive a large deposit of fertile silt due to the high velocity of the floods. Additionally, two small greenhouses sit close to the caretakers’ house near the property entrance. They are conveniently located near the houses on the property, and are used seasonally to grow produce for residents. Inside one of the two greenhouses located near the caretakers’ house.

CORN and POTATOES VINEYARDS OLIVES GREENHOUSES

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Fruits and vegetables grown at Campo San Francisco.

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cURRent MAnAGeMent The Pais grapes are grown without irrigation or fertilization while the Carminere grapes, Syrah grapes, and olive varieties are all fertilized and drip irrigated with water pumped from the river on-site (Nilo 2012).

Sulfur is applied on all three plots to combat mildew (Nilo 2012). The addition of fertilizer and sulfur can impact water quality through runoff from heavy rains. Aside from a few grasses growing in between rows, the grape vines are the only plants growing in the vineyards. The greenhouses are used to grow food for the families living on-site. Based on direct observation, the extreme summer heat creates a challenge for food production across the entire site.

Irrigated vineyard, Campo San Francisco.

The corn and potato crops replaced native shrubs and grasses, and are irrigated and fertilized. Due to the proximity of the plot to the river, it is highly probable that the fertilization and chemicals applied to the site run directly into the water, and potentially affect water quality downstream.

ASSESSMENT Agriculture is well placed on-site: cultivated land is located in the more fertile soil of the plains, near to water sources and the homestead area. Additionally, the number of different crops grown in this fertile soil has increased since the property was purchased.

Dry-farmed Pais vineyard, Campo San Francisco.

If increased, this diversification of crop types can help promote soil health and organic matter, and increase the resilience of the crop production system at Campo San Francisco. Through integrated farming methods such as inter-planting between crops, using cover crops, and revitalizing old systems, agriculture at Campo San Francisco can truly adapt to the challenges of growing crops in the dry interior region of the coastal mountain range.

“…the landman’s job is not so much to conserve soil as it is to develop soil, to improve his soil and to make it more fertile than it ever was….” — Percival Alfred Yeomans

Corn and potato field, Campo San Francisco.

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Agriculture “Wines made from grapes grown according to organic and biodynamic agriculture are healthier than those made from conventionally grown grapes because they contain no residues. They are wines that are made a better way, with practices that protect both the environment and the people who work in the process. They are also much more personal, unique wines that have more character of their own with more expression of their origins….” — Alvaro Espinoza, winemaker at Viñedos Emiliana VIneyARdS And cLIMAte cHAnGe Chile’s wine industry is dependent on the unique climate system that until recently has provided farmers with ideal conditions for growing premium grapes in the Central Valley. However, it is unclear whether climate change will strengthen, weaken, or disrupt these ideal conditions (Gatto et al. 2009).

Air Temperature: Several studies have confirmed the various effects of temperature variability on wine. Higher temperatures reduce the success of grape varieties that are better suited to cooler temperatures; rising temperatures increase the number of grape diseases and other pests; fewer cool nights decrease grape quality; and more extreme hot days decrease grape productivity (Gatto et al. 2009). Water Supply: Potential increased periods of drought in the future of the Central Valley could threaten the regional water supply. Grapes that are sensitive to drought may suffer during a period of limited water availability (Gatto et al. 2009). Following are more risks that are associated with climate change that could potentially become a challenge in Chile.

VIneyARdS At cAMPo SAn FRAncISco As Campo San Francisco invests in its vineyards, creating a management plan that minimizes the potential effects of these disturbances will be important to vineyard yield and overall health.

Currently there is an emphasis on culture and heritage in the grapes that are being grown at Campo San Francisco. Some of the grape vines are 100 years old and have been uncovered, cared for and are producing grapes for wine. These grapes are being dry farmed and have become resilient to drought. Following are pictures of the Pais grape vines when they were uncovered from years of neglect compared with what they look like today. The health of the land and the people are important considerations for Campo San Francisco’s pursuit of grape growing and winemaking. Emiliana Vineyards, although a larger company, performs exemplary management practices that invest in the health of the land and the people who work there. These practices could serve as a guide for Alto Cauquenes as they begin to establish themselves in the wine industry.

Potential Risk to Vineyards • Water scarcity • Decreased water quality • Decreased soil quality • Pest outbreaks

Uncovering Pais Vineyard, Campo San Francisco, 2006.

california Sustainable Wine Growing Alliance 2008

Pais Vineyard, Campo San Francisco, 2012

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oRGAnIc And BIodynAMIc AGRIcULtURe Emiliana Vineyards are planted from the Casablanca Valley to Bio Bio Region. The company began in 1986 and is leading Chile in the organic wine industry with special concern for the land and the people who work it. Their commitment to sustainable agriculture and progressive ideas—such as implementing biodynamics—has led them to become the first Chilean vineyard to adopt international standards of protection and care of the environment through ISO 14,001 certification.

SUStAInABLe MAnAGeMent PRActIceS

• Wastewater Treatment: Biologically treating their own waste. • Alternative Energy: Using solar panels to heat water and biofuels to run equipment on the vineyard. • Reduce, Re-Use, Recycle: Making a commitment to using less packaging, re-using old wine barrels to make signs or birdhouses, and having a composting system in place for solid organic waste. • Carbon Neutral Certification: Certified by Germany’s TÜV SUD and supported by CORFO-INNOVA CHILE. • Sustainable Management Practice: Supporting the“Wine, Climate Change, and Biodiversity” project in connection with the IEB Institute (Ecology and Biodiversity Chile Institute). Using practices that reflect their philosophy that the land is a living organism.

“Each of our vineyards is a faithful reflection of organic practices based on two general concepts: the development of biodiversity and the absence of agrochemicals (pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers).” — Emiliana Vineyards WoRKInG WItH tHe coMMUnIty Emiliana has a strong foundation of social responsibility and offers educational programs to teach children about organic practice on their vineyards.

The organization supports local business owners by purchasing locally handcrafted items for their workers, such as much-needed summer hats. They also sell locally handcrafted items at their vineyard shops.

BIodynAMIcS: three Basic Principles Based on a philosophy of Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) 1. the land is alive and is balanced. this balance must be maintained by keeping the nutrient and waste cycle of the farm within the farm, minimizing outside elements to enter the system. It is important for a farmer to preserve and conserve what is there rather than intervening in the natural biological balance. 2. Plants are exposed to light from the sun, the moon, and the planets, which have regular cycles and rhythms. emiliana uses the biodynamic calendar to structure their growing cycle. 3. connections between plants, animals and the minerals in the earth are utilized to create the best living environment for the crops. composting and soil amendments are consistently put on the fields to invigorate the soil and health of the land.

Emiliana hats purchased from local crafts people for workers.

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cRoP RotAtIon Crop rotational systems were developed in the sixteenth century when farmers realized that this practice helps fend off disease and pests, and contributes to soil health and vitality (BAAP 2001).

There are two categories of crops involved in crop rotation: crops that exhaust nutrients from the soil and crops that add nutrients to the soil. Every rotation scheme is determined by the forecrop (crop planted presently) and the aftercrop (crop to be grown in the future). The forecrop is commonly a crop that exhausts nutrients from the soil and an aftercrop replenishes those nutrients. In general, cereal crops exhaust nutrients while leguminous cereals and perennial grasses increase nutrients by fixing nitrogen and adding organic matter (BAAP 2001). Every region has different possible crop combinations. In the dry interior of the Cauquenes region, the Instituto Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) has done extensive research on cereal crops and leguminous cereal crops that thrive in the region. The following plant types, investigated by INIA, could be considered as part of a crop rotation scheme.

dRyLAnd FARMInG: Big Sandy, Montana Farmer Bob Quinn Bob Quinn is a dryland farmer who converted to a crop rotational system 15 years ago as a way to combat pest infestation. Today he begins a five-year rotation of his crops. during dry years, he grows lentils or winter peas and turns them under in the soil in the late spring. He attributes the lack of pest and disease to the increasing structure and health of the soils on his land. ecosystems with greater diversity are generally more stable. they can absorb disturbances and recover better than less diverse systems. the more diverse the plant species and soil-borne organisms are in a cultivation system, the more inviting the system is to support diverse pest-controlling organisms. As Quinn explains, “the rotation and soil-building program we have in place allows a great diversity in soil biology, and that’s what keeps the pests in place.”

Clover, a cover crop that adds nutrients to soil.

Crops which Replenish Nutrients in Cauquenes •Annual pastures, legumes, and potential cover crops: Subterranean Clover (Trifolium subterraneum), Big Flower Clover (Trifolium michelianum), Arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi), Bur Clover (Medicago polymorpha), Yellow Seradella (Ornithopus compressus), Biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus) (INIA)

Scientific study of dryland crop rotation systems in Bozeman, Montana. Test plots include: lentil, winter pea, sunflower, canola seed, mustard, chick pea, wheat, barley, and rye. Research led by Dr. Perry Miller. For more information about sustainable agriculture go to www.sare.org

•Annual Pulse Crops: chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.), and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

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KeyLIne deSIGn And PLAnnInG Keyline design helps to restore soil health and water infiltration within a highly degraded system, and may be appropriate for the degraded soils at Campo San Francisco. The design uses a site-specific pattern that draws water from the naturally wetter swales in the landscape to the drier ridges. The core concepts of Keyline design include the keypoint and the keyline. As water naturally flows from the ridge down a slope to the base it slows down and infiltrates at the keypoint where the convex angle of the slope meets the concave angle of the valley. This area can be identified quickly in the spring as it greens up first and usually has the densest vegetation. The contour passing through the keypoint is the keyline.

Contour plowing parallel to the keyline creates an off contour pattern that redirects the natural flow of water going to the valley and keeps it on the slopes, slowing down the water and allowing it to infiltrate. This helps in areas that get heavy rains and severe erosion. The dispersal of water across the slope allows more water to infiltrate the slope more evenly (Yeomans 1981). The Keyline approach is similar to Alto Cauquenes’ current practice of digging small trenches near each newlyplanted plantation tree. The trenches retain rainwater to encourage infiltration close to the trees and to limit erosion (Nilo 2012).

Keyline design distributes water more readily than the trenches, and allows more water to infiltration during major rain events. Because the trenches act as holding tanks for water, they have a maximum capacity, and they overflow during flooding events, potentially contributing further to erosion.

Trenches for trees at Campo San Francisco.

coMPoStInG Campo San Francisco has designated areas for forest compost that sit within the pine stands. For the grapes, corn, olives, and any other crop, there could other designated compost areas.

Compost piles should be close to an area that has easy access and has the space to manage the compost pile. There are important considerations to take when deciding on using compost such as fly control, mechanisms to aerate the pile, and moisture control. The resulting compost could be added to any soil being cultivated to increase organic matter and nutrient content, and encourage growth without the use of chemical fertilizers. Benefits of composting

Example of a Keyline design system in Australia

• Reduces the use of herbicides • Reduces the use of chemical fertilizers • Increases soil fertility • Conserves water • Improves soil structure through increased resistance to erosion and runoff • Increases water holding capacity • Improves disease resistance in plants Adapted from Composting Association of Vermont

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HUMAN INFRASTRUCTURE campo San Francisco has a vast road network spanning the perimeter of the property and reaching many points within it. the maintenance and construction of the roads show varied success, with the main arterial road and primary secondary roads being in great shape and easy to access. However, the secondary roads in the steeper western region of the property limit access to many areas because of severe erosion. Functional roads are essential to forestry and recreation. there are many opportunities to improve the roads for future use.

ROADS at CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO A main road running east to west serves as an artery within Campo San Francisco. Many of the secondary roads run directly down slopes, but a few follow the contour lines across the landscape. In the western portion of the property most of the roads are running down the slopes and in some cases they also run along drainageways. The roads that run up and down slopes are severely eroded, limiting their functionality. The steepness of the terrain contributes to severe erosion along the roads and makes the far western part of the property difficult to access. The roads that follow the slopes across the hill are not eroded, allowing for easier travel.

The accessibility of all of the roads on-site is extremely important for harvesting. Full access to all of the trees planted is required for a successful harvest. The main road is currently the only way to cross the Estero el Rosal. There is a wooden bridge that crosses the river adjacent to the main artery. The road sits approximately six meters south of the bridge and was built in the river basin elevated with three small culverts to let the water flow under the road. During the rainy season this road washes out and the bridge may be flooded out. This limits accessibility to the western portion of the property during the winter months. Currently most of the roads throughout the plantation do not have landings. Landings are flat areas that allow logs to be piled up and carried away by trucks more efficiently. The landings allow trucks to turn around and give them space to store and load timber. Because the pine has not been harvested yet it is not clear whether the absence of these landings will create inefficiencies in harvesting.

OFF-SITE ROAD ON-SITE ROAD 25 m CONTOUR

Roads at Campo San Francisco: A network of roads runs throughout Campo San Francisco. Many of the roads on the property run directly up-slope, and the roads in the western portion of the property run up very steep slopes. Erosion of roads is an issue on the property, and can be attributed in part to the placement of the roads. STRATEGIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

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RoAd MAnAGeMent The roads are graded every three years. It does not appear that there are swales or other methods to manage water on the roads. The road and bridge that cross the river need to be repaired seasonally.

Regrading the roads occurs every three years. A large portion of the road system becomes heavily eroded in this time-span. Because roads are placed perpendicularly on slopes, water runs down them, leading to rapid erosion. Bridge crossing the Estero Rosal at Campo San Francisco. The bridge is one of two available crossings. Crossing the Estero is a challenge due to seasonal flooding.

ASSESSMENT: Roads

The relationship between the placement of roads and the natural slopes of the landscape pose a challenge on Campo San Francisco. The secondary road system appears to be degraded which creates a heavy reliance on continued maintenance and limits access to the property. Erosion from roads also contributes sediments to waterbodies and reduces their ecological integrity. Erosion makes roads less convenient and increases maintenance. Access to the entire property is required for harvest and will open many areas of recreation to everyone who lives or visits on the property. The opportunity to label the roads will aid in making the property useful and easy to navigate.

Erosion on a steep road at Campo San Francisco.

The river crossing is a challenge due to seasonal ooding. A crossing point that is suitable yearround would improve access to the entire site, help neighbors who cannot cross the river from the main road in the winter, and maintain yearround access to the air hanger, which is on the west side of the Estero el Rosal. Estero el Rosal flooding over the bridge during the rainy season. This bridge is the only accessible crossing point when the river is flowing high, and when the bridge is not passable, as shown here, there is no on-site crossing to access the western portion of the site.

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Roads ASSeSS RoAd SySteM • Inventory roads and identify segments with current or potential for erosion.

• Assess all roads that exhibit severe erosion and develop a plan for the future placement and management of the road on-site. IMPRoVe RoAd StRUctURe • Along with harvesting timber from an area, reroute roads that are in assessed problem areas, especially in the western portion of the property.

• Reroute roads away from riparian corridors.

Severe erosion on a road at Campo San Francisco. The roads on the property should be assessed for this type of erosion, and the reason for erosion should be identified.

RoAd conStRUctIon: General Guidelines When constructing a road the main factors to consider are topography, soils and method of harvest (Silk et al. 2005). Following are guiding concepts: • Roads are best located on naturally low grade features and should follow natural contours (dnRc 2002). • The design of the road will direct water off the road with limited sedimentation runoff (Silk et al. 2005). • The length and width of the road and amount of fill should be minimized (Silk et al. 2005) • Stabilizing roadside slopes can reduce erosion (Silk et al. 2005).

VeGetAted SLoPeS • Plant/encourage roadside vegetation to stabilize slopes and intercept stormwater and dust.

AREA OF CONCERN IDEAL SIGN LOCATIONS

IMPRoVe WAyFIndInG: • Create simple wayfinding maps in designated areas throughout property to improve ease of navigation.

• Create simple names for all roads on-site, and place road signs at all intersections. • Use color coated trail blazers along each designated road. Examples of possible maps and road signs.

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TRAILS at CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO Campo San Francisco sits in the foothills of the coastal mountain range, the area that is home to one-third of the remaining temperate forests of the world.

“In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks.” — John Muir

The beauty of the hills is paired with small intimate places within the landscape spread out throughout the property. Most of these beautiful places are separated by many acres of pine plantations and currently, there are no foot trails connecting or moving through these beautiful areas.

ASSESSMENT: Trails

Creating trails could allow people to access the beauty of Campo San Francisco, and to experience the natural wonders that can be found away from the city. Trails will allow access for people to explore the places that are special not only to Campo San Francisco, but also to the dry interior. Trails can also serve as a management tool to increase the enjoyment of natural areas, while guiding people away from more sensitive ecological places. Because the places of interest and beauty are spread out across the property, the trails at the campo are less likely to be a site-wide trail network and more likely to be shorter local trails from various trailheads.

Altos del Lircay National Reserve Trail to Laguna

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Los Ruiles National Reserve

Altos del Lircay National Reserve Trail along Lircay River

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Altos del Lircay National Reserve Enladrillado Mountain

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Trails tRAIL deSIGn As noted earlier the exact design of the trail should be generated on-site during the wet season in order to best understand the erosion and water patterns specific to Campo San Francisco.

deSIGn GUIdeLIneS When planning a trail it is best to survey the area during the rainy season, and to build trails that follow the natural contour of the land. Below are guidelines and grade specifications to limit erosion during the maintenance and construction of trails.

NATIVE

FOR-

EXISTING WATER PROPOSED POTENTIAL TRAILS

• Design for all potential uses • Plan for prevention of erosion • Prioritize use of vegetation for slope stabilization • Avoid using heavy equipment • Assure that implemented erosion control measures are appropriate for the intended recreational use • Avoid trails on steep slopes • Recommended trail grades: Hiking/Interpretive: 10-12% Mountain Biking: 4-10% Equestrian: Less than 15% Motorcycle: Less than 30% (dnRc 2004) conStRUctIon detAILS

There are trails proposed along lake and river habitat. Construction of trails through wetland areas require specific planning and may need built features such as boardwalks or small bridges across creeks.

Diagram: stream crossing

Diagram: wetland boardwalk

PRoPoSed tRAILS The native forest is designated for a trail. Although it is important to maintain core habitat here, a short trail that allows access to the forest from the road would be useful. This short trail would enter the forest for the benefit of viewing the diversity of plant and animal life. This area could serve as an interpretive trail that will teach students and other foresters about the importance of conserving Chile’s temperate forest.

Diagram: retaining wall along a footpath

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HOMESTEAD at CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO The two homes on the property are located in close proximity to each other, and near the main entrance to the property. Within the homestead area are the large facilities building, various facilities storage areas and a water storage and pump system. All of these structures and areas are within close walking distance from the main entrance to the property.

CURRENT HOMESTEAD AREA

The area around the caretakers’ house is currently used to grow food and owers in plots of varying sizes, as well as to raise chickens and contain dogs.

ASSESSMENT: Homestead The close location of the homes and facilities area to the entrance is logical and functional. Not only does it allow for easy access between the homes, but it allows for a compact water, fuel, electricity, and other resources. This set up is efficient, and ideal. If in the future, the property owners wished to build homes or other buildings on the property, the current facilities compound would be a good model to follow. Ellena/Hurtado home with vineyards in front.

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Facilities building near the entrance to the property.

Caretakers home near the main entrance to the property.

Facilities storage area.

Water storage and pump system.

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Homestead

FACILITIES BUILDING

CARETAKERS HOME

CREATED SPACE

coMPoUnd deSIGn In the event that the property owners decide to construct new buildings on the site—whether they be for wine/olive oil processing, guest houses, barns, storage buildings etc.—a compound design, such as the one that currently exists in the facilities area, should take preference.

GREEN HOUSE/

WINE/OLIVE PROCESSING CENTER Concept 1: Caretaker/Facilities Compound This conceptual design shows a compound in the existing facilities center. If the open area around the existing buildings was framed by a wine/olive processing center, or a greenhouse or tree nursery, the area in between the buildings could be used for a number of different things such as an enclosed outdoor storage space or an outdoor tree nursery.

Compound building arrangements offer a number of benefits. Because of the close proximity of the buildings, resources such as water, fuel and electricity do not have to routed very far. The increased efficiency generally reduces energy and water costs. Compound building arrangements also frame outdoor spaces that encourage shared use and creative use of space. HORSE BARN

HOME HOME CREATED SPACE

HOME

CARETAKERS HOME

STORAGE

CREATED SPACE

HOME Concept 2: New Homes Compound This conceptual design shows a possible compound formed with new homes on the property. If the open area around the existing buildings was framed by the houses, the area in between the buildings could be used in a number of ways including a common outdoor gathering space, garden or pool area.

SUGGESTED CHATEAU LOCATIONS

Suggested Wine Chateau Locations The circles shown on the above map give general suggestions for ideal locations of a wine chateau. These areas are all close to the property entrance, the airstrip and locations of existing and future vineyards. They are also on the eastern side of the property, away from the main forestry operation.

CHICKEN COOP

LOWER MAINTENANCE

VEGETABLE GARMISC. STORAGE

Concept 3: Caretaker Homestead Compound This conceptual design shows a compound area near the existing caretakers’ home. A horse barn, chicken coop, dog run, vegetable garden, storage space and other food production plots could frame an open space. This space could be used as a private outdoor gathering space, or a grazing area for horses or foraging grounds for chickens.

WIne cHAteAU In the case that the property owners want to create a more private space away from the other homes, a wine chateau compound would be an ideal use of space. The area would be best suited on the east side of the property, away from the main forestry practices and close to existing and future vineyard sites. The compound might include a house that could be rented to vineyard tourists in the Central Valley, as well as a wine production facility center.

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OFF-SITE CONNECTIONS the surrounding landowners are integral to the story of campo San Francisco and the region. the campo’s neighbors are equally invested in the wellbeing of the landscape and are actively cultivating their lands. It is the hope of campo San Francisco that a mutual relationship can be formed with its neighbors to work together in making the south central Valley a connected and economically stimulating place where the young people of the region share the promise of a bright future.

neIGHBoRS There are several small-scale farm owners to the north-northeast growing pines and food crops, and pasturing livestock. One neighbor owns just under 12 hectares of land and often crosses through Campo San Francisco to access the main road. There are a number of other neighbors to the northeast, and their land has limited access to water sources compared to Campo San Francisco.

FORESTAL CELCO

Campo San Francisco’s neighbor to the west-southwest is Forestal Celco, a large forestry company owned by Arauco. Alto Cauquenes maintains a relationship with the Celco operation and in the case of wildfires they communicate directly with Celco to join forces in fire suppression.

Reserva Nacional Federico Albert

Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles Campo San Francisco Lake

Reserva Nacional Los Queles

ASSESSMENT Viewing the region around Campo San Francisco as a whole system, one can see the potential for the property as a resource to enhance the vitality of human connections, education, and ecological functioning in the region. Alto Cauquenes is committed to the vitality of the land and the people who live in Cauquenes. They have worked hard to generate jobs for community members and to help their neighbors in any way they can.

PLAceS oF ReGIonAL InteReSt Between Campo San Francisco and the Pacific coast, there are at least four places of biological interest. These include the Reserva Nacional Federico Albert, the Reserva National Los Ruiles, the Reserva Nacional Los Queles, and the area surrounding Lake Tutuven. These areas are the few remaining treasures of biodiversity in the region, and Campo San Francisco could potentially become part of this biodiversity web across the Central Valley.

There are also several universities to the north of Campo San Francisco, which could be wonderful resources for both gaining ecological information about the Campo, and providing research areas for scientists from the universities. With this cooperative mentality, Campo San Francisco has potential to be a community hub for landowners to come together and share knowledge of working and revitalizing the degraded landscape. The Campo could also serve as an experimental station for local conservation organizations and universities. Interns from local colleges or from international colleges could learn about agroforestry systems in the context of Cauquenes’ culture. The land at Campo San Francisco could also serve as a model for other landowners to encourage conservation and corridor management. Through encouraging the enhanced connection of biodiverse areas, Campo San Francisco would pay homage to the valuable and endangered natural wonders in the region.

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oFF-SIte connectIonS

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RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES: Off-site Connections cReAte ReLAtIonSHIPS WItH LocAL UnIVeRSItIeS There are many universities in Talca and Concepcion with forestry departments and biology departments. These departments can use Campo as an extension for experiments such as growing different crops, erosion management, and conservation biology.

• Hire interns seasonally to teach the trade of agroforestry or land management. Interns could also serve as master tradesman who teach skills needed by seasonal workers for the agroforestry business.

“When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe” — John Muir InVIte LocALS to conSULt And teAcH: As observed in the city of Cauquenes there are many people who are active in the business of agroforestry, viticulture and olives. Invite these trades people to consult and train workers. nAtIVe FoReSt AS A teAcHInG tooL Because a third of the world’s temperate native forest exists in Chile, the native forest that is located in Campo San Francisco could be a place to bring young students, landowners and government authorities to teach them about the natural wonder that exists in Chile and conservation methods.

A case Study: WILLoW LAKe FARM Willow Lake Farm is a 1,400 hectare farm located in southern Minnesota. It is owned and operated by a fifth generation farmer, James Thompson, who just won the Siehl Prize for agricultural excellence. He runs a fully functioning farm generating profit while contributing to the prairie land conservation and wildlife diversity. the farm is dedicated to the preservation of ecology and the cultural value of farming.

every year the farm hosts an agroecology summit where for two days farmers, conservationists, researchers, consumers and educators explore ideas and approaches to make connections between agriculture and ecology. the farm promotes experiential learning with a strong relationship to the University of Minnesota and Iowa. the farm hosts entire college classes, doctorate and master candidates that study the farming system that integrates sound conservation practices with sound agricultural practice.

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Reserva Nacional Federico Albert

Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles FORESTAL CELCO Neighbors’ Houses

Campo San Francisco Lake Tutuven

coRRIdoR connectIonS Create relationships with neighbors encouraging them to establish conservation corridors on their property for the sake of wildlife movement and biodiversity management.

Reserva Nacional Los Queles

City of Cauquenes

The above map introduces the concept of corridor connections from Campo San Francisco to other areas of biological interest in the region. Creating these connections would be a paramount achievement in south central Chile and a powerful idea that could inspire other connections throughout the region.

CAMPO SAN FRANCISCO

RESERVA NACIONAL LOS RUILES

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RESERVA NACIONAL FEDERICO ALBERT

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CONCLUSION The strategies for ecological management presented in this guide are categorized according to landscape patterns. However, after a thorough analysis of regional and on-site landscape patterns, an overarching group of strategies emerged. The emergence of these strategies demonstrates the connections between the systems at Campo San Francisco. If these overarching strategies are integrated into Alto Cauquenes’ management decisions, the landscape’s resilience to natural and anthropogenic disturbances will increase. This will ensure the lasting health and vitality of the land at Campo San Francisco. Overarching Strategies: • Diversify management practices and number of species: Diversity enhances resilience in the face of climatic shocks, disease and pest outbreaks and variability in the returns from sale of a range of crops. • Increase resource use efficiency:  Make precise applications of water and other external inputs in both space and time to minimize waste and other problems that arise from overapplication. • Allow natural processes to take management precedent whenever possible: Aim for biological solutions, and diverse management strategies that mirror the diversity of the biophysical characteristics on-site. Manage pests by monitoring them, and encouraging the presence of their natural enemies, rather than seeking to eliminate pests. • Increase soil health: Shift from nutrient management based on fertilizer application to processes such as biological nitrogen fixation, crop rotation and nutrient recycling, and incorporate the use of manure and compost. • Manage for adaptive dynamism: Constant monitoring and experimentation is critical to adaptive and dynamic management.


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PHOTO CREDITS All photos taken by Molly Hutt with the exception of: Page 2 Client Page 3 Client (Center, left) Client (Bottom, right) Page 4 Client Page 10 Flickr user KevinLallier (2nd from left) Client (2nd from right) Page 12 Forest Phytophthoras of the World (Top, right) Client (Center) Page 14 Client Page 16 Client (Bottom) Page 17 Auburn Forest Nursery (Top) Realestate.com New Zealand (Center) Client (Bottom) Page 21 Client (Top, left) Client (Center, left) Client (Bottom, right) Page 22 Client (Bottom, left) Page 24 Client (Top, right) Page 28 Epineux (Center, left) Jardin Botanical (Center, right) Crazy Creatures (Bottom, right) Page 30 Client Page 31 Crazy Creatures Page 33 BioBlitz Saguaro (Top) BioBlitz Saguaro (Bottom, right) Page 35 Client Page 36 Arauco (Bottom) Page 37 Client (Top) Page 39 Biopix (Top, right) L. D. Dwinnel, USDA Forest Service (Center, right) E. Hansen, Forest Phytophthoras (Bottom, left) Page 41 Client (All) Page 42 Client (Top right and center)) Page 44 Fundacion Nacional Botanica (Bottom, right) Page 45 Compania Agricola y Forestal el Alamo (Top, right) Page 46 Washington State University (Bottom) Page 47 Foresthistory.com (Bottom, right) Page 48 Foresthistory.com (Top, right) Esagor (Bottom) Page 52 Client (All) Page 54 Client (Top, right) Page 55 Emiliana Vineyards (All) Page 56 Dr. Perry Miller, MSU (Center, right) Page 57 Client (Top, right) Permaculture Research Institute of Australia (Bottom, left) Page 60 Client (Top, right) Client (Bottom, right) Page 63 Client (Center) Page 64 Client (Top, right) Page 68 Willow Lake Farm (Bottom, left) Willow Lake Farm (Bottom, right)


Through implementing strategies for ecological management, Alto Cauquenes can shape Campo San Francisco towards greater ecological, economic, and social resiliency. This report provides recommendations and strategies for increasing Campo San Franciscoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s adaptablity and diversity. The recommendations were developed through an assessment of regional land use patterns and current management practices at Campo San Francisco. The recommended strategies aim to foster resiliency at Campo San Francisco and to position Alto Cauquenes as a model for other forestry companies and land owners in the region.

The Conway School is the only institution of its kind in North America. Its focus is sustainable landscape planning and design. Each year, through its accredited, ten-month graduate program just eighteen to nineteen students from diverse backgrounds are immersed in a range of applied landscape studies, ranging in scale from residences to regions. Graduates go on to play significant professional roles in various aspects of landscape planning and design.


Strategies For Ecological Management for Campo San Francisco, Chile