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E A S T G AT E R E V I V A L AT T H E M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E R Y C L I E N T: M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E R Y 580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

by GAIL BERRIGAN and SUNNIE JOH The Conway School | Spring 2018 Sustainable Landscape Planning + Design


INDEX PROJECT OVERVIEW

EXISTING CONDITIONS

4.

PROJECT CONTEXT

5.

ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP

ANALYSIS 6.

CONTEXT: ZONING & NEIGHBORHOOD

7.

CONTEXT: URBAN CONNECTIVITY

8.

CONTEXT: ENTRANCES & ACCESS CONDITIONS

9.

CONTEXT: PERIMETER CONDITIONS

10.

CONTEXT: CEMETERY CIRCULATION

11.

CONTEXT: LANDSCAPE CHARACTER

12.

VEGETATION

13.

SLOPES & DRAINAGE

14.

SUMMARY ANALYSIS

DESIGNS 15.

DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

16-17. FINAL DESIGN: EAST SIDE REVIVAL 18.

DESIGN DETAIL: ECOSTATION

19.

DESIGN DETAIL: INFILTRATION GARDENS

20.

DESIGN DETAIL: MEMORIAL ISLAND

21.

ADDITIONAL DRAWINGS

22.

CONCEPT DRAWINGS

23.

GRADING PLAN

2018

3.

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

PROJECT GOALS & CLIENT

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

2.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

1. INTRODUCTION

24-25. PLANTING PALETTE 26. MATERIALS & PRECEDENTS

INDEX

27. SOURCES


The Mount Auburn Cemetery organization (the "Cemetery") supports the cemetery's role as an urban wildlife sanctuary and has encouraged the development of programs to support new research in urban ecology. It also recognizes its potential, as an urban oasis and greenspace, to support human health and outdoor activity. Local initiatives aimed at developing green corridors in adjacent communities have been proposed in recent years, and the Cemetery has been approached as an ally and potential link. As part of its long-term vision and planning, the Cemetery is considering how to partner with local greenway projects while also respecting and preserving its role as an active burial ground.

... an urban oasis and place for quiet contemplation ...

The Mount Auburn Cemetery landscape is prized for its beauty and historic visual character. Burial areas, featuring widely spaced markers, are enclosed by dense plantings and shaded walking paths.

... a historic collection of commemorative monuments ...

... and a world-famous horticultural garden and arboretum.

2018 D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

From its inception, Mount Auburn Cemetery has been a multi-purpose landscape, at once an active cemetery, a public garden, and a museum-quality collection of more than 60,000 commemorative monuments. In 1975, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places and in 2003, it was designated a National Historic Landmark. While it is a highly designed and managed landscape, it supports ecological function: the 174-acre site contains deciduous and coniferous forest as well as ponds, lakes, rock ridges, meadows, hedge rows, and an extraordinary diversity of plants and wildlife. Almost 2,000 species of plants are found on cemetery grounds; the Massachusetts Audubon Society designated it an important Bird Area (IBA), where more than 227 species of birds have been observed; and the Cemetery offers habitat that supports a host of other wildlife species, including rare species.

Mount Auburn Cemetery is a wildlife sanctuary ...

INTRODUCTION

Today, even as the cities of Boston, Watertown, and Cambridge have grown up around the Cemetery, inside its walls visitors can still experience quiet contemplation and regain a sense of respite and sanctuary from the modern world outside. The Cemetery is open and free to the public every day of the year and annually attracts more than 200,000 visitors. According to its mission statement, "Mount Auburn Cemetery inspires all who visit, comforts the bereaved, and commemorates the dead in a landscape of exceptional beauty."

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

The Mount Auburn Cemetery was established in 1831, in partnership with the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, as a rural cemetery where visitors could be comforted and restored by contemplative walks in nature. Designed in the picturesque landscape style, it featured long vistas, secluded wooded dells, reflective ponds, and bright, sunny clearings. In this beautiful and tranquil setting, the visitor might be inspired to feel what the Romantic poets viewed as the sublime experience of melancholy, and leave, if only temporarily, the cares and stresses of the world behind.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

INTRODUCTION: MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY

In Silent City on a Hill, a book about the Mount Auburn Cemetery, author Blanche Linden describes how the cemetery's ideal picturesque landscape incorporated “references to death ... [with] winding paths leading from sunny spaces through cool dark woods ... reflective bodies of water ... and vistas of great distance, height or depth.� Photo courtesy of Mount Auburn Cemetery.

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PROJECT GOALS & CLIENT

Mount Auburn Cemetery hosts an array of urban ecology research and citizen science programs that engage and attract hundreds of students, volunteers, and professionals every year. While the cemetery itself serves as the larger classroom, storage for equipment and supplies and informational kiosks would support program activities.

Improve arrival experience The gate is used approximately 10 to 15 times a year by visiting tour groups who arrive by bus. Buses drop off and pick up tour groups outside the gate along the unpaved western shoulder of Coolidge Avenue. Water frequently pools in this location after rain, creating muddy and unsightly conditions when visitors arrive. There is no designated landing area.

BIGELOW CHAPEL & CREMATORY

HALCYON LAKE

OPERATIONS ENTRANCE

HORTICULTURAL CENTER

DELL

SHADY HILL SCHOOL

PUMP HOUSE

GREENHOUSES

EAST GATE

EAST GATE

WASHINGTON TOWER

HORTICULTURE ENTRANCE

CAMBRIDGE CEMETERY

Demonstrate ecological design

WILLOW POND

GROVE STREET ENTRANCE

The ecostation is an opportunity to showcase sustainable design elements such as a green roof, infiltration gardens, solar power, composting toilets, and use of renewable materials.

CEMETERY BOUNDARY LINE

COMPOST CENTER

WATERTOWN CAMBRIDGE CHARLES RIVER

Show contemporary face of organization

Provide universally accessible restrooms

The contemporary face of the organization includes being a practitioner of sustainable landscaping and green infrastructure techniques, and the Cemetery wants to highlight these practices at the East Gate. Examples of sustainable practices include increasing wildlife habitat; using rain gardens to capture stormwater; and replacing turf grass with lowmaintenance groundcovers.

Currently, the only restrooms at the cemetery are located near the main gate, 0.4 miles from the East Gate. Groups arriving at the East Gate frequently have traveled a distance and require the use of restrooms. Use of facilities at the main visitor center has increased over the past ten years and the cemetery has a need to provide additional facilities.

LOWER ALLSTON

EAST GATE

View from inside the East Gate facing east.

Vinca Path, one of two sites identified by the Cemetery for the ecostation.

Information boards and supplies for citizen science programs are currently housed in the main gatehouse. The small (roughly 8 x10 foot) room contains limited storage for equipment and supplies. Many citizen science and student projects are located far from the main gate, in the interior of the cemetery.

CEMETERY CONTEXT MAP

Mount Auburn Cemetery East Gate Project Berrigan | Joh | The Conway School

0

600

900 Feet

2018

The Cemetery would like the entrance to welcome visitors and signal arrival at a premiere horticultural landscape. Currently the gate is unmarked and partially obscured by overgrown hedges.

WATERTOWN

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Site an educational structure with amenities

ADMINISTRATION STOREY CHAPEL ASA GRAY GARDEN

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

Enhance and refresh the East Gate entrance

MAIN GATE MAIN GATE

CAMBRIDGE

EAST GATE

Maple Avenue, one of two sites identified by the Cemetery for the ecostation.

GOALS & CLIENT

2 ) S I T E A N E C O S TAT I O N

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

The East Gate provides convenient access to popular sites used for citizen science and urban ecology studies at the cemetery, such as Auburn Lake. To support this programming, Mount Auburn Cemetery is considering building a structure (an ecostation) to serve as a gathering space for tour groups, classes, and other visitors; provide storage room for program supplies; and offer restrooms. This study evaluates two potential building sites near the East Gate and proposes a landscape design for the ecostation and the area between the building site and the East Gate.

1 ) R E D E S I G N T H E E A S T G AT E

KE LA

The East Gate was built in 1834 to accommodate service vehicles. At one time it was open to the public and manned by a gatekeeper; however, the cemetery closed it for public use decades ago as a cost-saving measure. Today, the East Gate is used on a limited basis: facilities staff occasionally enter with vehicles; tour groups arriving by bus to visit the cemetery are dropped off in front of this gate; and classes from a neighborhood school enter through the gate on foot, sometimes daily, during the school year. The gate is unmarked and overgrown with hedges, is surrounded by chain link fencing, and does not signal a renowned, historic landscape.

GOALS

RN BU AU

In 1993, Mount Auburn Cemetery commissioned a Master Plan to guide its long-term development. The Cemetery is implementing aspects of the plan at the site scale, and is now turning its attention to its East Gate entrance, located along the eastern perimeter of the cemetery and currently closed to the general public. The organization anticipates re-opening the gate to the public and would like to enhance the entrance to make it more welcoming and to showcase the landmark landscape. The Trustees and project team from the cemetery, led by Bree Harvey, Vice President of Cemetery & Visitor Services, contacted the Conway School to engage a team of graduate students to generate inital design ideas for the historic East Gate entrance.

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35

Path

E A S T G AT E

Maple Avenue

Evergreen

EXISTING CONDITIONS

B1

A1

30

This study focuses on an area less than 4 acres in size around the East Gate. Within this area is an historic and largely inactive burial area that is expected to become active again within the next 5 to 10 years. The historic character of the area adjacent to the gate is one of the reasons for using this entrance for tour groups. A notable feature within the area is Auburn Lake to the west. Views of the lake are blocked by a pumphouse built in the 1980s to pump irrigation water and measure water consumption at the cemetery. The pumphouse is designed in a historic architectural style. Facilities staff visit the pumphouse for maintenance work daily at certain times of the year.

MAPLE AVE SITE

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Pumphouse as seen from inside the East Gate looking west. Auburn Lake is located behind the pumphouse.

Stormdrain Stormdrain

e Avenu

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Larch Stormdrain

Pump

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Buried Water Storage Tanks

Stormdrains

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SITE #1

Avenue

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Magnolia

25 30

EAST GATE

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Cambridge Cemetery

Vinca Path

Citron Avenue

Oak Avenue

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Stormdrain

B

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A

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SHADY HILL SCHOOL SHADY HILL SCHOOL

Dense vegetation at the East Gate impedes visibility. CAMBRIDGE CITY Pedestrians enter the gate CEMETERY CAMBRIDGE CITY CEMETERY and cross a cemetery road, creating unsafe crossing conditions.

WATER TANK WATER TANK

LARCH Buses use the AVENUE shoulder of Coolidge Avenue to drop off tour groups LARCH 24’ in front of theAVENUE unmarked East Gate. There is no clearly designated 24’16’ landing area outside the gate. 16’8’

IRRIGATION SUPPLY LINES

STORM DRAINAGE LINES

IRRIGATION SUPPLY LINES

VINCA PATH

25

BANK OF AUBURN LAKE

STORM DRAINAGE LINES

e

WATERTOWN CAMBRIDGE

0’ BANK OF AUBURN LAKE 8’ 0’

MOUNT AUBURN

CEMETERY MOUNT AUBURN CAMBRIDGECEMETERY WATERTOWN

30

Cambridge Cemetery Main0Entrance 100

CAMBRIDGE WATERTOWN

EXISTING CONDITIONS E C O S TAT ION SITES PUMPHOUSE

LARCH AVENUE LARCH AVENUE

VINCA PATH

VINCA PATH

FOUNTAIN AVENUE FOUNTAIN AVENUE

FOUNTAIN AVENUE FOUNTAIN AVENUE

200 Feet

Shady Hill School

Mount Auburn Cemetery East Gate Project Two open one behind Berrigan | Joh | spaces, The Conway School the pumphouse (SITE #1) and one on the slope above Magnolia Avenue (SITE #2), have been identified by the Cemetery as potential sites for the ecostation learning center. Both sites are within 200 feet of the East Gate.

LIME AVENUE LIME AVENUE

PUMPHOUSE

VINCA PATH

Ave n

MAUSOLEUMS

idg

Compacted soils and poor drainage cause muddy, unsightly conditions outside the gate, at the bus drop-off area.

MAUSOLEUMS

PUMPHOUSE

Coo l

MAGNOLIA AVENUE MAGNOLIA AVENUE

ue

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COOLIDGE AVENUE COOLIDGE AVENUE

The East Gate is generally locked with no public access.

Aven

Coolidg e

Larch

Vinca Path

The gate itself provides access from Coolidge Avenue to the Cemetery and is constructed of two flanking granite pillars joined by a wrought-iron swing gate 9' high and 16' wide. The gate is unmarked and charter buses bringing tour groups to visit the cemetery arrive via Coolidge Avenue and often miss the entrance entirely. Buses drop tour groups outside the gate as the entrance is not large enough to allow a bus to enter and most cemetery roads are too narrow to accommodate buses. The buses park elsewhere and return to the East Gate to pick up groups.

Avenue

15

2018

ch ar

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

SITE #2

10

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

20

Stormdrain

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

Circulation routes within the East Gate area include vehicular roads, shared pedestrian-vehicle roads, and pedestrianonly paths. Parking is allowed along Magnolia Avenue, a cemetery perimeter road. Pedestrians entering at the East Gate cross this road.

LIME AVENUE LIME AVENUE

WATER TANK

B

B1

EXISTING

Section along Magnolia Avenue showing historical cemetery character, including mature canopy trees, grass, and upright burial markers. EAST GATE

EAST GATE EAST GATE

EAST GATE

A

Section along Coolidge Avenue showing the East Gate hidden amongst a vegetated perimeter composed of trres and shrubs of varying ages and heights.

CONDITIONS

WATER TANK

A1

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G R O W T H O F A M U LT I - F A C E T E D O R G A N I Z AT I O N

Cemetery as Environmental Steward (1993 - present)

2 Ac Wi 015 tio ldl n ife Pl an Ci tiz 20 en 1 Sc 6 ie nc e Bi R ge en 2 ne lo ov 01 w w at 8 cr Ch io em a n at pel of or w iu ith m

D e H sig ist na 20 or te 03 ic d La N nd ati m on ar al k

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E N V I R O N M E N TA L S T E W A R D S H I P T H R O U G H C O N S E R VAT I O N P R A C T I C E , L A N D S C A P E S T E W A R D S H I P A N D E D U C AT I O N In its 2016-2020 Strategic Plan, the Cemetery identified being "a model of environmental stewardship" as a key objective and this vision now steers management and development decisions. Stewardship is put into practice in three key ways: increasing sustainable landscape and burial practices; continuing the legacy of decisions designed to preserve a naturalistic landscape and encourage wildlife; and expanding citizen science programs and educational partnerships to support ecological research and curriculum. Mount Auburn Cemetery currently employs many state-ofthe-art sustainable landscape and cemetery management practices, and is actively working to introduce new ones. A sampling of current operational practices is shown in photos at right. The Cemetery's goals for the future include replacing threatened or declining trees in preparation for climate change; continuing to reduce consumption of fossil fuels; reintroducing native species; and increasing and enhancing biodiversity and wildlife habitat. Other future goals are listed at right.

Current practices: Future goals for improving operational sustainability include: • •

Reducing energy consumption with a state of the art crematorium

Supporting wildlife by planting fruit-, seed-, and nut-bearing trees and pollinator gardens

Conserving land and reducing pollution with natural burials at Spruce Knoll

Reducing greenhouse gases by converting to electric mowers and tools

Closing resource cycles with in-house propagation at the LEED-standard greenhouses

Reducing irrigation, fertilizer, mowing demands, and maintenance costs by converting turf to ground-covers

• • • • •

Embracing “zero-waste” landscaping Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by transitioning from fossil fuels to solar electric Reducing use of pesticides and herbicides Adding green roofs to buildings Using permeable paving in new construction Adding drinking water filling stations Using non-toxic materials for signs

Reducing irrigation demands with drought-tolerant plants and xeriscape gardening

Improving water quality with rain garden at Willow Pond

Using ecopods, natural fiber caskets, in natural burials

2018

Cemetery as Arboretum (1920 - 1990)

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Landscape Cemetery (1874 - 1919)

Cemetery as Arboretum with 100-year-old trees

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

Garden Cemetery (1853 - 1873)

Expansion of infrastructure, roads, and views

te r

Rural Cemetery (1831 - 1852)

Rapid expansion with formal garden design

The 1993 Master Plan reinforced the cemetery's role as steward of the landscape itself, and prioritized the preservation of its beauty and historic visual character as essential to its mission and future.

PROJECT CONTEXT

Cemetery was carved out of the forest

Ce M m oun 183 et t 1 er A y ub Fo u un rn de d

Since its inception, Mount Auburn Cemetery has been responsive to changing times and strives to balance innovation with historical preservation. It has evolved through many phases: from rural cemetery with rolling hills and streams; to formal Victorian-era gardens; to vehicle-oriented public park; to arboretum. In 1993, concerned about the prospect of running out of burial space and in need of a comprehensive, long-term horticultural plan, the Cemetery developed a Master Plan to guide growth and development into the current century. The Master Plan, which is still the active framework for cemetery planning, prioritized spaceconserving cremation burials, introduced flush grave markers and collective markers to avoid overcrowding and preserve views, and promoted natural green burials. The plan underscored the Cemetery's move towards sustainability in all operations, and highlighted its role as environmental steward and protector of an ecologically rich urban green space. Subsequent initiatives have emerged from thinking about the Cemetery's role in this light, and sustainability is a defining feature of the current era.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

E V O LV I N G W I T H T H E T I M E S

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E N V I R O N M E N TA L S T E W A R D S H I P LANDSCAPE STEWARDSHIP

WILDLIFE ACTION PLAN

The cemetery undertakes projects to restore existing natural areas and improve ecological function and wildlife habitat. Examples of these efforts include:

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Phenology is the study of recurring plant and animal life stages and the relationship of those stages to weather and climate.

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One of the ways the Cemetery models leadership in environmental stewardship is through education. In 2015, it started an “Educator in Residence” program with Lesley College, which brings students and faculty to the cemetery for on-site biodiversity research projects, including woodland ant study and microclimate study on trees and air quality.

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Local elementary and middle schools use the cemetery as an outdoor classroom for science, art, and leadership programs

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Mount Auburn Cemetery currently supports the only known spotted salamander population within Watertown or Cambridge. The rare spotted salamander population depends on the vegetation and vernal pool habitats at Consecration Dell for its unique life-cycle needs.

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Ongoing studies of amphibian and reptile species take place at Auburn Lake.

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Siting a new educational facility near the East Gate presents an opportunity to reach new audiences and enhance the cemetery as an educational resource for local schools.

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Graduate students participate in a tadpole release program at Dell Pond.

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Lakes and ponds at the Cemetery provide aquatic habitat for wildlife and opportunities to study urban ecology.

The Learning Center at Phipps Conservatory in Pittsburgh was cited by the Cemetery as a model educational facility. The Cemetery envisions building its own educational facility as a resource for local schools.

ARSENAL STREET

American Toads have been successfully reintroduced and are breeding in three water bodies at the Cemetery, including Willow Pond and Dell pond.

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The Cemetery is currently considering plans to build a new educational facility to support its environmental and citizen science programming. Investing in a new facility would signal the Cemetery's commitment to being a national leader in environmental education and stewardship.

YARD RECYCLING

36.88

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This program adds to the Cemetery's long-standing citizen science program, which attracts hundreds of volunteer naturalists and birdwatchers, many of whom act as visitor tour guides and perform other support roles vital to the cemetery's broad range of activities. The Cemetery also partners with local wildlife and conservation groups, as well as with local schools that use the cemetery grounds as an outdoor classroom.

2018

ENTRANCE

N

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

RTOW

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

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Reestablishing the native vernal pool and woodland habitat at Consecration Dell and reintroducing amphibian species; Planting a wildflower meadow and butterfly garden near Washington Tower; Installing a rain garden at Willow Pond; Incorporating shrubs and herbaceous perennials with habitat value throughout the cemetery.

ES FR

More than 100 volunteer citizen scientists collect data on bird sightings and note changes in vegetation along the Phenology Trail at the Cemetery.

LARCH RD.

The Cemetery is currently implementing recommendations from its 2015 Wildlife Action Plan, which include assessing current aquatic and terrestrial wildlife populations; reintroducing native amphibian species; establishing wildlife corridors; creating more resilient habitat and breeding grounds; and improving water and air quality, all in an effort to increase ecological health and demonstrate leadership as an environmental steward.

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C O N T E X T: Z O N I N G & N E I G H B O R H O O D URBAN CONTEXT Mount Auburn Cemetery is located outside Boston, a densely developed metropolitan area with a population of more than 4.5 million people. It is situated between a largely residential zone to the north and a light industrial zone to the west and south. To the east lies the Cambridge Cemetery and the Charles River.

Fresh Pond

BURN STREET MOUNT AU

Mount Auburn Cemetery Mixed (Ind/Res)

A1

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C O M M U N I T Y R E L AT I O N S H I P S

SHADY HILL & BB&N SCHOOLS

Catholic Cemetery

Cambridge Cemetery

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The Mount Auburn Cemetery is located approximately six miles west of downtown Boston. Harvard Univeristy

Industrial

Two private primary and secondary schools, Shady Hill School and Buckingham Browne & Nichols (BB&N), are located less than a quarter mile from the Cemetery to the east. The Cemetery has a close relationship with Shady Hill School that goes back decades and during the school year teachers bring students regularly (sometimes daily) to the Cemetery for field classes in history, art, biology and other sciences. The Cemetery provides Shady Hill School with keys to the East Gate, offering teachers unlimited access. Access to the Cemetery by BB&N is currently constrained by lack of a direct route between the two sites.

Boston

Arsenal Yards

1" = .2 miles

RESIDENTIAL MIXED (INDUSTRIAL / RESIDENTIAL)

N

The area surrounding Mount Auburn Cemetery is a mix of light industrial and residential use.

INDUSTRIAL NEW MIXED-USE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT SCHOOLS

2018

BOSTON

COOLIDGE HILL NEIGHBORHOOD

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Residential

Most of the cemetery is located in Watertown and is zoned as open space. A corner of the Cemetery to the northeast, including the main cemetery entrance, lies within Cambridge. Coolidge Avenue, where the Cemetery's East Gate is located, marks the boundary between the two municipalities. Proposed changes inside the East Gate area will fall under Watertown zoning regulations. Outside the East Gate area, Cambridge regulations will apply. As a cemetery, Mount Auburn is eligible for exemptions from standard zoning requirements.

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

ZONING

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY

CEMETERY

A historic residential neighborhood known as Coolidge Hill abuts Shady Hill School to the north. Coolidge Hill residents once had keys to the East Gate, and some current residents have asked that keys be provided again. The Cemetery values these neighbors and wishes to strengthen relationships within this community. Exploring ways to do this is a component of the East Gate design project.

GROVE STREET

AUBURN LAKE

WILLOW POND

COOLIDGE AVENUE

COOLIDGE HILL NEIGHBORHOOD

ZONING

PARKING LOT

WASHINGTON TOWER

MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY

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Section showing Mount Auburn and adjacent zones of use.

& NEIGHBORHOOD

TOWN LINE

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1 mile section NTS

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Spring Migrants Most of the birds passing through Mount Auburn in spring (and to a lesser extent in fall) are Neotropical migrants. For the great majority the Cemetery is not a final destination but a waystation, a place to rest and feed en route from their wintering grounds—mainly in Mexico, Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean Islands—to nesting grounds in the forests of Canada. Most of the species involved— including 60% of those that nest in Massachusetts—feed mainly on insects or fruit and nectar and therefore must retreat to the tropics, not to escape cold weather, as many people believe, but rather to find a reliable winter food supply.

Black-throated blue warbler (left) and Magnolia warbler (right) are spring migrants known to visit the Cemetery, while the rare Spotted salamander (middle) is a year-round resident.

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INDUSTRIAL NEW MIXED-USE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Boston

Arsenal ArsenalYards Yards

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Map of Boston Basin ecoregion, courtesy of Friends of Alewife Reservation (FAR) Mount Auburn Cemetery is located at the boundary between two towns west of Boston in the Boston Basin ecoregion. Surprisingly, this densely developed ecoregion still supports rare species.

N RESIDENTIAL MIXED (INDUSTRIAL / RESIDENTIAL) INDUSTRIAL NEW MIXED-USE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT SCHOOLS

CEMETERY MAJOR ROAD TOWN LINE PUBLIC BUS TOUR BUS

CONNECTIVITY

Mixed (Ind/Res)

URBAN

Mount Auburn Cemetery

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Watertown Greenway

The East Gate is located on Coolidge Avenue, a through-road with peak use around the Shady Hill School's opening, closing, and events schedule. Traffic along Coolidge Avenue is likely to increase due to development of Arsenal Yards, a large-scale mixed use commercial development to the southwest.

2018

The Main Gate is located on Mount Auburn Street, a busy commuter artery. A traffic study along the Mt. Auburn Street corridor is underway to reduce public transit delays, improve safety and air quality, and expand transportation options to include bicycles. The study proposes to convert an eastbound through-lane to a bus and bicycle lane. This proposed lane closure is expected to impact Main Gate automobile traffic and may increase the number of visitors arriving by public transit and bicycle.

Coolidge Av

Watertown

Mount Auburn Cemetery provides significant conservation value to the populations of birds that use the cemetery as a “refueling stop” on their way to breeding grounds farther north.

The Cemetery provides a year-round home to a rare species of spotted salamander that has likely been there for centuries.

As the challenge of limited greenspace in urban centers grows around the country, it is changing the way cities think about and manage cemeteries. Urban cemeteries have had a long history of use as public parks. Will cemeteries adapt to the pressures to serve as green space providers? Will increased use threaten their ability to manage their grounds in accordance with their mission and business needs? These questions face many urban cemeteries today, including Mount Auburn Cemetery. Fresh Pond

T R A N S P O R TAT I O N C O N N E C T I O N S

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Together, the cemeteries of Mount Auburn and Cambridge comprise approximately 240 acres of open space in the heart of a densely developed metropolitan area. Encompassing roughly two-thirds of the area between the Charles River and Fresh Pond, the adjacent properties offer the promise of establishing human and ecological connectivity between the pond and the river, a project that a number of local organizations are working to accomplish. Watertown's Department of Conservation and Recreation is working with the City of Cambridge to develop multiple greenway projects, including the recently completed Greenough Boulevard bike trail along the river. One active proposal would create a greenway through both the Cambridge Cemetery and Mount Auburn Cemetery. The initial proposal has been rejected by both cemeteries, due to the potential conflict between recreational and cemetery uses; however, the proposal may be re-opened for consideration in the future. Mount Auburn Cemetery, unlike Cambridge Cemetery, prohibits cyclists from riding through its grounds.

ECOLOGICAL CORRIDORS

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

G R E E N S PA C E

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

C O N T E X T: U R B A N C O N N E C T I V I T Y

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3

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With minimal security personnel and a volunteer staff, minimizing access points allows the cemetery to control the flow of visitors, reduce potential security and vandalism issues, and enforce rules like no bicycles or parking on the grass. Adding a second public entrance will place additional demands on maintenance staff and other resources.

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ASA GRAY GARDEN BIGELOW CHAPEL & CREMATORY

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PUMP HOUSE

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GREENHOUSES WASHINGTON TOWER

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LOWER ALLSTON 0

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The East Gate is closed to the public and used occasionally by maintenance staff, large tour bus groups, and a local school. Located on Coolidge Avenue, this entrance connects to the cemetery perimeter road and provides direct access to the pumphouse. The granite pillars and iron gate are met by chain link fence. Overgrown evergreen hedge creates poor visibility and safety concerns. This entrance is unmarked and provides no welcome sign.

The Grove Street entrance is open daily. It is not advertised as a public entrance, and is used primarily by neighborhood residents, memorial visitors, and maintenance staff. This entrance provides direct access to the most active burial areas and to the cemetery's compost facilities across the street. A metal gate breaks a length of chain link fence; visitors are greeted by a simple free-standing welcome sign that also posts the cemetery rules.

The entrance to the Horticultural Center is open daily and primarily used by staff and volunteers. This is a production area and includes a maintenance garage, greenhouses, production garden, and staging area for landscaping materials. The metal gate and driveway were designed to accommodate large vehicles, like tour buses. Abutting the western boundary is a large manufacturing facility. Young evergreen trees along the driveway do not currently block the view of a wall of loading bays facing the cemetery.

Open every weekday and used by staff, this entrance connects a cluster of cemetery buildings located off the property. This entrance is not visible from a public road and access is through a residential neighborhood. A metal sliding gate provides the single access point through 3,300 linear feet of concrete perimeter wall that separates the cemetery from the residential neighborhood and the (unaffiliated) Catholic Mount Auburn Cemetery.

2018

E A S T G AT E

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

2

The Main Gate is open during the Cemetery's hours of operation (8am-8pm). It the main public visitor's entrance. It is located on Mount Auburn Street, a busy commuter corridor. Narrow roads flanking the gatehouse allow single lanes of traffic in and out of the cemetery, creating congestion during rush hour and cemetery events. Many visitors arrive by bus or bicycle. The gatehouse serves as a meeting point, has information boards and pamphlets, and houses citizen science supplies.

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

M A I N G AT E

ACCESS CONDITIONS

Over time, a series of service entrances along the eastern and southern borders were erected to provide direct access to active burial areas. These entrances were primarily used for cemetery services and by maintenance staff, and are not advertised for public use. The 1993 Master Plan recommended that an entrance along Coolidge Avenue be developed to reduce the dependence on the Main Gate. Today, as the cemetery expands public and private programming beyond burial services, reducing conflicts at the Main Gate is a priority, and the cemetery is actively considering converting the East Gate to a public entrance.

1

ENTRANCES &

The Main Gate, on Mount Auburn Street, is the public and original main entrance to the cemetery. Originally configured to allow for carriages to pass through the central arch, this entrance was redesigned with the advent of automobiles to allow vehicles to enter and exit the cemetery on either side of the gate. The central arch is now assessible only to pedestrians. The Egyptian Revival gate is a legacy of the founders' interest in using Neoclassical architecture to recall the greatness of past civilizations. Today, the monumental gate still evokes the feeling of passage into a special, tranquil place from a busy commercial corridor.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

C O N T E X T: E N T R A N C E S & A C C E S S C O N D I T I O N S

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C O N T E X T: P E R I M E T E R C O N D I T I O N S The 174-acre cemetery is enclosed by approximately 14,000 linear feet of fencing and perimeter walls with no single, consistent perimeter treatment. Originally, the cemetery was bounded by an ornate iron fence in the Egyptian Revival style. This historic cast-iron fence persists in small sections, however, as original sections deteriorated, they were replaced decades ago with chain-link fence, due to the high cost of restoration.

In 1996, a row of evergreens was added along the chain-link fence to enclose Spruce Knoll, designed as a natural burial area.

10

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MAIN GATE

SPRUCE KNOLL

In the 1980s, a concrete retaining wall and chain-link fencing were added near a commercial zone on the southern perimeter.

In some places, the chain-link fence along the perimeter is softened by mature canopy trees and understory.

9 EAST GATE

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HALCYON GARDEN

RESIDENTIAL SEPARTATION

4

The state-of-the-art horticulture greenhouses are visible from the street and may one day be open to the public.

8

2018

6

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Maintaining privacy and landscape character inside the cemetery is of key importance to Mount Auburn, and perimeter walls and vegetated buffers both provide dense visual screens and reduce noise. Non-porous perimeter walls and structures recapture valuable land for burial space by claiming 15 to 20 feet of land otherwise occupied by vegetation. New burial areas incorporating perimeter walls combined with cremation burials provide contemporary memorialization options with a minimal footprint on the land (cremation burials require only 1 square foot of land). Vegetated buffers on the other hand provide greater ecological value by increasing habitat, shade, and the infiltration of stormwater. Retaining privacy, carefully selecting views in and out of the cemetery, and increasing ecological value are important to the organization.

MOUNT AUBURN STREET

3

A relatively undisturbed area near the southeast corner features one of few remnant sections of historic cast iron fence.

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

2

The original Main Gate features a restored gatehouse and cast iron fence.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

1

As the cemetery looks to increase burial capacity, segments of the vegetated and fenced buffer along the perimeter are being turned over to active burial, and perimeter conditions are being redesigned to reflect the new use. Three perimeter burial zones have been redesigned within the last decade. In the Birch Gardens area (5), the chain link fence was replaced by a Neoclassical-style stone inscription wall and wrought iron fence. Spruce Knoll (2) is bounded by densely planted spruce trees and chain link fence, and Halcyon Gardens (3) is defined by a densely planted shrub and herbaceous layer under mature deciduous trees.

HORTICULTUAL CENTER

BIRCH GARDENS

Dense yews grow over the East Gate, interspersed with gaps along the chain-link fence where shrubs have been lost.

5

In 2008, a burial inscription wall and cast iron fencing were installed at Birch Gardens as part of a new burial area.

Where the cemetery directly abuts a residential zone, a high concrete wall was erected to bar entry and provide sanctuary.

7 COMMERICAL ZONE

East Gate area

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A similar stretch of concrete perimeter wall runs along busy Mount Auburn Street.

CONDITIONS

4

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2 MILE LOOP 1 MILE LOOP PARKING ALLOWED

CAMBRIDGE CEMETERY MAIN ENTRANCE

WATERTOWN CAMBRIDGE

CIRCULATION

2022+ ACTIVE BURIAL AREA

1874 Circulation Plan Mount

Official cemetery visitor's map showing driving loops, parking areas, and active burial zones.

Auburn Cemetery East Gate Project

Berrigan The Cemetery expanded rapidly in its first fifty years.

| Joh | The Conway School

BU

SL AN AR DIN EA G

Tour buses drop passengers off outside the East Gate along Coolidge Avenue.

C O M M O N C E M E T E R Y C I R C U L AT I O N R O U T E S

T H E E A S T G AT E

CEMETERY

Located less than a half mile from the Main Gate and visitors center, the East Gate opens onto a straight section of the two-mile perimeter loop and is near major areas of scenic interest and scientific study. Speeding is known to occur along this section of road, creating unsafe crossing conditions to and from the East Gate. Dense evergreens bordering the gate shield pedestrians entering through the gate from view, and there is no sign or crosswalk indicating the entrance. The lack of a pedestrian crosswalk on Coolidge Avenue creates a second layer of unsafe crossings for pedestrians entering the gate. Citizen science phenology study routes and locations of scientific research studies.

"Kid-friendly" destinations and the path of students from neighboring school.

Recreational trail route and major attractions.

C I R C U L AT I O N

CURRENTLY ACTIVE BURIAL AREA

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D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

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VINCA PATH SITE

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

1831 Circulation Plan

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T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

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The development of new burial space impacts the system of internal circulation. Roads have been selectively closed or narrowed to one-way traffic to accommodate more burial space while still providing access to vehicles. Pull-over and parking places along the road must be provided to accommodate gravesite visits. Avoiding circulation conflicts between groups engaged in program activities and people visiting active burial areas is a priority.

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There are currently 70 miles of paths and 12 miles of roads in the cemetery. Roads are shared by motorists and pedestrians and speeds are constrained by narrow, winding roads. Buses, other large vehicles, motorized bikes, and bicycles are not permitted on the grounds. Narrow, circuitous roads and paths conform to the topography, and views are framed by layers of vegetation. The design of short and long views along circulation corridors promotes exploration of the landscape, a play on immersion and reorientation through densely vegetated areas and open spaces. The cemetery is used by people visiting memorials, tourists, local residents, and scientists. The most popular tourist destinations are concentrated within the historical zones contained within the one-mile and two-mile core driving loops. Parking is not permitted on these driving loops, but is allowed along all other roads. The roadside parking scheme is generally effective because it disperses traffic along roads.

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Over the decades, the cemetery's boundaries have expanded and its circulation system has evolved from dirt roads supporting carriages to paved roads for automobiles. A system of roads and paths forms the framework within which visitors experience the cemetery. The original designers of the system considered the balance of comfort, ease of use, and the safety of the motorist and the pedestrian, while maintaining a quiet, contemplative space.

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C O N T E X T: C E M E T E R Y C I R C U L A T I O N

Pedestrians entering through the East Gate from Coolidge Avenue walk directly into the path of a cemetery road.

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Path

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CAMBRIDGE CEMETERY

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RURAL CEMETERY NATURALISTIC PARKLAND BORDER/TRANSITIONAL WILDLIFE HABITAT COUNTRY BURIAL GROUNDS

The perimeter road marks the transition between a Naturalistic zone and a Ornamental zone and lacks distinctive landscape elements.

LANDSCAPE CHARACTER ZONES ORNAMENTAL Mount Auburn Cemetery East Gate Project Berrigan | Joh | The Conway School PARKLAND ORNAMENTAL/GARDENESQUE LAWN CEMETERY VICTORIAN SPECIAL GARDEN USE

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Ornamental and Naturalistic Landscape zones converge near the East Gate. BORDER/TRANSITIONAL Cemetery character zones guide the choice Mount Auburn East Gate Project design. This0 area, WILDLIFE Cemetery HABITAT of plants and landscape with varying topography, patches of open Berrigan | Joh | The Conway School space, mature canopy trees, and large areas ORNAMENTAL of turf offers a rich canvas for ecological landscape and garden design. Changes at PARKLAND the East Gate will be informed by patterns SPECIAL GARDEN USE established within existing cemetery zones. NATURALISTIC

Flat and historical areas, such as 0 600 900 Feet the one shown at right, are typically Ornamental, with mature canopy trees, higher maintenance turf lawns, historic monuments, and exotic species. Ornamental areas are more formal with embellishments, pruned shrubs, and highly managed gardens showcasing annual plantings.

LANDSCAPE CHARACTER

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Special Garden Area Woodland cremation burial area

Naturalistic Parkland Historic monuments woven into hillside

100

200 Feet

LANDSCAPE

LANDSCAPE CHARACTER ZONES

SPRUCE KNOLL

SHADY HILL SCHOOL

EAST GATE

Buried Water Storage Tanks

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Oak Avenue

Citron Aven

COMPOST CENTER

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WILLOW POND

Naturalistic areas, like the one shown above, are typically along steep slopes and borders, and employ native, lower maintenance species. They include screening hedges, a naturalistic pruning of shrubs, native groundcovers, wildflowers, and bulbs. Generally informal with low plantings between burial lots, the Naturalistic areas often have a more woodsy and wild feel.

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Ornamental Victorian Historic monument with formal plantings

Ornamental Lawn Outdoor rooms

Wildlife Habitat Rain garden at Willow Pond

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SHADY HILL SCHOOL

GREENHOUSES

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The landscape character zones were changed in 2008 to accommodate new burial areas and the addition of propagation greenhouses. Notable improvements to the ecological health of the cemetery include the designation of a"Wildlife Habitat" zone around all waterbodies and addition of a wildflower meadow around the base of Washington Tower. These changes reflect Mount Auburn's goal of increasing wildlife habitat and improving water quality. The area of focus near the East Gate contains both "Ornamental/ Parkland" and "Border/Transitional" zones. One of the design challenges of the East Gate project will be to integrate multiple uses (ecological function, screening, active burial, roads, and walking paths) with a cohesive landscape design across two different zones.

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Mount Auburn Cemetery is a complex and diverse collection of landscapes, from Victorian gardens with monuments to forested woodlands with cremation burials and communal markers. Creating visual cohesion between these styles of landscape while enhancing and preserving the historical elements is challenging as the landscapes grow and change. Managing these landscapes sustainably adds another layer of complexity.

AT T H E E A S T G AT E

MAIN GATE

CAMBRIDGE

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Landscape character zones were developed in the 1993 Master Plan to ensure the preservation of historic character, guide sustainable maintenance practices, and ensure that future development remains flexible to changing aesthetics. Values surrounding sustainable land use and adapting the horticultural collection to climate change relate to environmental stewardship and are of primary importance to the Cemetery. The landscape character framework provides a guide to vegetation, circulation, and other landscape elements such as hardscaping, fences, and curbs.

Evergreen

C O N T E X T: L A N D S C A P E C H A R A C T E R

Maple Avenue

COOLIDGE HILL NEIGHBORHOOD

BIRCH GARDENS

Special Garden Area Memorial perimeter wall

Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

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COOLIDGE HILL NEIGHBORHOOD

n Path Evergree

E A S T G AT E E L E M E N T S The landscape zone near the East Gate contains many mature trees. Based on historical images and trunk and canopy diameter, some of these trees are estimated to be more than 100 years old. A variety of native and nonnative species are represented. The trees are arranged and planted as specimens for the most part, and trees within the burial zones are spaced more widely apart.

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EAST GATE

Dwarf False Cypress

Japanese Yew

PUMPHOUSE American Elm

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Norway Maple

EAST GATE Yew Arborvitae Rhododendron Douglas Fir Red Maple Norway Spruce

Lace Bark Pine

Norway Maple

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Rhododendron

Sugar Maple Norway Maple

Japanese Pagoda

Crabapple Yellow Birch

Yellow Birch

Dwarf Oriental Spruce

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Re-envisioning the vegetation around the East Gate offers an opportunity to open up views into the cemetery from outside, revealing the exceptional ornamental tree specimens located within. However, new active burial areas will require a buffer from the street to maintain a sense of sanctuary.

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E. White Pine

Nikko Maple Lar ch Golden Rain Tree Av en ue Gingko Tree Weeping Higan Cherry Loebner Magnolia Kousa Dogwood

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Rhododendron E. Red Cedar

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Magnolia

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Red Maple

Red Oak

Maple Buried Water Storage Tanks

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Forsythia Sugar Maple

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Hedges along the interior of the fence perimeter are two to three times the height of the 8-foot-tall fence, obscuring it from view from the inside. This is welcome, as the historic wrought-iron fencing that once surrounded the cemetery has been replaced along much of Coolidge Avenue with chain-link fence. In general, hedges along the perimeter of the cemetery were designed to screen burials from public view and maintain a sense of sanctuary and refuge within the cemetery.

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580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

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Maple Avenue

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The 1993 Master Plan raised concerns that the number of mature trees is too great, stating that they might compete for light and nutrients and create inhospitable conditions for understory plantings. Furthermore, the expansive, dense canopy throughout the site has limited the number of open, sunny spaces that serve to rest the eye and calm the mind. As the Plan notes, the strength of the overall design depends not so much on singular objects but on the relationship of objects within a series of interconnected spaces. The balance between open space, views, and trees is one that needs to be managed over time.

Maple Avenue

V E G E TAT I O N

NATIVE

WATERTOWN CAMBRIDGE The canopy of existing shrubs and trees near the East Gate features a mix of tree sizes and many mature trees. Individual specimens include a mix of native and non-native species.

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200 Feet

LOEBNER MAGNOLIA

EXISTING CONDITIONS

Mount Auburn Cemetery East Gate Project Berrigan | Joh | The Conway School

Dense evergreen hedges, gaps filled by young plants, and towering evergreens define the East Gate perimeter.

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200 Feet

Mature evergreens have been pruned around power lines and some have lost lower limbs.

DWARF CYPRESS

WEEPING CHERRY

GOLDEN RAIN TREE

GINGKO

Trees planted within the historic burial areas are mature and spaced widely apart.

V E G E TAT I O N

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SLOPES & DRAINAGE S T O R M W AT E R I M PA C T S

Slopes

The area where buses drop off visiting tour groups along the sandy shoulder of Coolidge Avenue is unpaved and water frequently pools here after rain. The bus drop-off site is likely compacted by use. There are no storm drains along the western edge of Coolidge Avenue, further compounding water retention in this area.

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COOLIDGE On Coolidge Avenue, soils compacted by heavy use along the AVENUE shoulder create poor conditions for infiltration. The shoulder is frequently used by drivers picking up students at the Shady Hill School just north of the East Gate.

LARCH AVENUE

¯ WATER TANK

CAMBRIDGE CITY CEMETERY

1.25-2.5%

PUMPHOUSE

IRRIGATION SUPPLY LINES

BANK OF AUBURN LAKE

STORM DRAINAGE LINES

24’ 16’ 8’ 0’

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MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY CAMBRIDGE WATERTOWN Sawins Pond

1" = 200' Charles River

Water flows mainly to the south and east, towards the Charles River.Legend 0 - 3% The East Gate is located at the lowest point within a flat area. 3-8

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The East Gate entrance is located at the lowest point of a flat area that extends both inside and outside of the fence along Coolidge Avenue. Water runs more swiftly and with greater force along impervious surfaces compared to vegetated surfaces. LIME AVENUE

PUMPHOUSE

VINCA PATH

VINCA PATH

The East Gate is situated at the lowest point in the study area. Water pools here and exceeds the capacity of the storm drain, which is required to handle water flowing to this point from both the north and the south as well as from west to east. While there are numerous trees WATER TANK in the immediate area, the low point is asphalt paving, an impervious surface.

LARCH AVENUE

FOUNTAIN AVENUE

FOUNTAIN AVENUE

LIME AVENUE

EAST GATE

EAST GATE

A

Drawing shows elevation near the East Gate, and gradually sloping areas to both the north and the south. The East Gate entrance is located at the lowest point in the area.

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2018

VINCA PATH SITE

VIEW NORTH

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

During a storm, vegetation slows surface runoff and trees help absorb and retain water onsite. Planting trees is an effective and sustainable stormwater management practice, as is the practice of building swales to change contours and redirect water flow in areas where pooling is problematic. Installing drought-tolerant plants that can withstand periodic inundation can also help with stormwater treatment. Water moves more swiftly and with greater force along impervious surfaces, and using permeable paving materials will support greater on-site infiltration as well.

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580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

The Mount Auburn Cemetery has a stormwater drainage system. Precipitation falling within the cemetery evaporates, is infiltrated onsite, drains to water bodies onsite, or flows into catch basins and pipes SHADY that eventually discharge into the Charles HILL SCHOOL River. Precipitation falling along the perimeter of the cemetery on Coolidge Avenue percolates very slowly, most likely due to heavily compacted soils and the absence of storm drains along the road. Some of the polluted runoff from the road is entering the cemetery and, according to Cemetery staff, has an impact on horticulture as well as cemetery drainage systems.

6.25%

SLOPES & DRAINAGE

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S U M M A R Y A N A LY S I S E A S T G AT E A R R I VA L E X P E R I E N C E

• • • •

Water drains to a low point at the East Gate and pools along the shoulder at the bus drop off point and where pedestrians enter the gate.

Storage for supplies; Proximity to citizen science and ecology study sites; Universally accessible restrooms; Flexibility to accommodate multiple uses (wedding receptions; wildlife photography workshops; gathering spaces)

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M A P L E AV E E C O S TAT I O N S I T E

V I N C A PAT H E C O S TAT I O N S I T E

This site is located 150 feet from the East Gate; is 4,000 sq. ft. (approximately 100 x 40 feet) in size; has an irregular shape; is flat; sits behind the pumphouse; is in the Ornamental/Parkland landscape character zone and has a limited view to Auburn Lake and mostly obstructed exterior views to Coolidge Avenue. It receives some southern exposure and shade from trees.

E A

C I R C U L AT I O N

Fast-moving, two-way traffic along the perimeter road poses a risk to pedestrians entering the road from the East Gate. Students must cross a busy traffic corridor outside the gate without a crosswalk.

F

V E G E TAT I O N

Overgrown hedges along the fence obscure views of pedestrians entering perimeter road from the east gate and feature gaps that create an uneven, porous, and untended-looking buffer.

This site is located 180 feet from the East Gate; is 7,000 sq. ft. (approximately 180 x 40 feet) in size; has a rectangular shape; is moderately sloping (10%); sits along the perimeter of the cemetery; is in the BorderTransitional landscape character zone and has a long view to the south (from mid-slope and higher) and exterior views to Coolidge Avenue. It is located at the terminus of the long view looking north from south of the East Gate. It receives some southern exposure and shade trees.

B

HISTORIC CHARACTER

Ornamental landscape character and historic monuments provide premiere attractions to visitors. Edges (in purple on map) along these burial areas could provide new burial space.

C

B

SITE CONDITIONS

D

D

LEGEND

SHADY HILL POTENTIAL ECOSTATION SITES SCHOOL POTENTIAL NEW BURIAL AREAS

PUMPHOUSE

HISTORIC CHARACTER AREAS

COOLIDGE AVENUE

GOOD VIEWS POOR VIEWS WATER RETENTION POOLING VEGETATION

MAUSOLEUMS

MAGNOLIA AVENUE

WATER TANK

IRRIGATION SUPPLY LINES

CIRCULATION

CONFLICT

CAMBRIDGE CITY CEMETERY

SURFACE WATER FLOW

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D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Two sites were proposed for an educational facility to support programs and visitors. Criteria for this facility include:

W AT E R P O O L I N G

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

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S U M M A R Y A N A LY S I S

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T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

E C O S TAT I O N C R I T E R I A

2018

The Mount Auburn Cemetery East Gate is used by visiting tour groups who arrive by bus and are dropped off at the gate; it is also used by teachers and students from a neighborhood school who walk from the school across Coolidge Avenue.

MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY CAMBRIDGE WATERTOWN

Two-way traffic on Coolidge and Magnolia Avenues create unsafe pedestrian crossing conditions.

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D E S I G N A LT E R N AT I V E S

ECOSTATION

INFILTRATION GARDENS RAISED CROSSWALK

HARDSCAPED BUS PULL-OUT

MAGNOLIA PLACE

Axon drawings show aerial view of site.

N

TA K E I T S L O W

IMPROVE THE FLOW

DESIGN ELEMENTS

DESIGN ELEMENTS

• •

• • • •

• • • •

Moves the bus landing area inside the gate. Redirects cemetery traffic to reduce potential pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. Sites the ecostation at the Maple Avenue site. Converts Magnolia Avenue (perimeter road) to a pedestrian path. Adds an infiltration garden along fenceline to store and treat runoff. Adds a crosswalk to improve the safety of pedestrians crossing Coolidge Avenue.

PROS

PROS

• •

Improves the existing circulation pattern by reducing the potential for conflict. Enhances the arrival area by reducing stormwater pooling and providing a larger, hardscaped landing area. Diversifies vegetation near the gate.

CONS • •

Involves cooperation and planning with community and city partners to add a crosswalk and bus pull-off area, making this a larger project. Does not address existing traffic conflicts along Coolidge Avenue.

• • • •

Minimizes circulation conflicts on Coolidge Avenue and Magnolia Avenue. Provides a drop-off area for other visitor groups (funeral services). Provides greater visibility for ecostation and larger building footprint. Improves safety and drainage. Diversifies vegetation near the gate.

CROSSWALK

N

N

PRIORITIZE THE PEDESTRIAN DESIGN ELEMENTS • • • • •

Moves bus drop-off to the southwest entrance. Locates ecostation and amenities in two (separate) gatehouses flanking the gate. Adds raised permeable paving along Magnolia Avenue (perimeter road) to slow cemetery traffic. Adds infiltration garden along fenceline to store and treat runoff. Adds a crosswalk to improve the safety of pedestrians crossing Coolidge Avenue.

PROS • • • •

Enhances pedestrian arrival by slowing traffic along perimeter road. Bus drop-off at southwest entrance aligns with future plans for development of the horticultural center. Shows newer face of the organization by showcasing green infrastructure practices (green roofs, permeable paving, infiltration gardens). Diversifies vegetation near the gate.

CONS

CONS

• • •

Detracts from the historic character of the area by adding a bus landing within a few feet of monuments. Creates the potential for conflict between tour groups and funeral services arriving at the same time. Requires the construction of two additional cemetery entrances from Coolidge Avenue. Opens gaps in the buffer that screens cemetery visitors from a busy road, reducing the sense of sanctuary.

• •

Southwest entrance lacks the historic character that visitors come to see. The horticultural center is still under development and lacks public amenities. Increases traffic along a residential side street near the horticulture center. Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

A LT E R N AT I V E S

CROSSWALK

INFILTRATION GARDENS

DESIGN

INFILTRATION GARDENS

Expands the existing bus landing area outside the gate and adds permeable hardscaping. Reroutes cemetery traffic away from perimeter road to reduce conflicts between pedestrians and drivers within the cemetery. Sites the ecostation behind the pumphouse at the Vinca Path site. Adds an infiltration garden along fenceline to store and treat runoff. Adds a crosswalk to improve the safety of pedestrians crossing Coolidge Avenue.

PEDESTRIAN ONLY

BUS LANDING

PEDESTRIAN ONLY

2018

PEDESTRIAN ONLY

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

ECOSTATION

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

ECOSTATION

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OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

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FINAL DESIGN: EAST SIDE REVIVAL E A S T G AT E

LEGEND

DESIGN PROGRAM ELEMENTS E X PA N S I O N O F B U R I A L S PA C E Narrowing pavement along Magnolia Avenue allows for the expansion of burial space. Cremation burials require only a 1 foot x 1 foot space and are typically memorialized with a communal marker or are unmarked. Extending the edge of an existing burial area by just 2 feet will allow for many new burial placements. (An 18 foot x 2 foot edge accommodates 36 placements.) Birch Gardens to the south employs a perimeter inscription wall and the same strategy might easily extend north along Magnolia Avenue.

M A G N O L I A AV E N U E N A R R O W E D

SAFETY CROSSWALK

FO UN TA IN

N

AV EN UE

Magnolia Avenue is reduced to southbound traffic only, similar to the flow along Birch Gardens Road. Bump-outs are created along the road to provide proximity parking for memorial visitors and pull-offs for maintenance vehicles. H RC LA

REROUTING TRAFFIC

To slow traffic and improve safety, a raised pedestrian crosswalk is added on Coolidge Avenue. It sits just north of the northern entrance to Cambridge Cemetery and meets the new Mount Auburn North East Gate. The crosswalk offers safe crossing to students at the Shady Hill and BB&N Schools and to local residents. P EC RO O PO ST SE AT D IO N

E C O S TAT I O N

PROPOSED PEDESTRIANONLY GATE

UE EN V A

PROPOSED SAFETY CROSSWALK

LAR CH SER VIC ER OA D

PUM PHO USE

PROPOSED SYSTEM OF INFILTRATION GARDENS

S Y S T E M O F I N F I LT R AT I O N GARDENS TO IMPROVE ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION The design adds four infiltration gardens that will increase the infiltration of stormwater and improve drainage in problem areas. Infiltration gardens improve the ecological capacity of the area by reducing impervious surface, expanding vegetated areas, and diversifying wildlife habitat.

COO LIDG E AVE NUE

The conversion of Magnolia Avenue redirects two-way cemetery through-traffic along Citron and Larch Avenues and onto Fountain Avenue, which eventually connects to the Main Gate.

Using a hinge gate and/or turnstile gate (similar to ones at the Main Gate) offers flexibility in managing the new East Gate entry. Options include keeping it open during all hours of operation; opening it for limited times; prohibiting entry to people with bicycles; giving neighborhood residents a key or security code, and more.

The siting of an educational/visitor facility provides amenities to support various programming and business needs. A designated outdoor space and garden area allows for large groups to gather without intruding on people visiting graves or attending services. The building itself demonstrates ecological design principles with a living green roof, passive solar orientation, and sustainable landscape water management.

EXISTING EAST GATE

2018

A new pedestrian-only gate improves the safety and arrival experience of visitors entering the cemetery from Coolidge Avenue. The historic granite entrance pillars at the existing East Gate (now renamed South East Gate) are reproduced for the North East Gate. The entryway is 16' wide (matching East Gate dimensions) and could accommodate a turnstile gate and/or a hinge gate.

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

N E W P E D E S T R I A N - O N LY E N T R A N C E

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

REROUTING TRAFFIC

EAST SIDE REVIVAL

MAGNOLIA AVENUE NARROWED

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

The original East Gate is retained as a historic artifact and is used on occasion by facilities or for funeral services. Tour bus drop-offs are rerouted to the horticulture center. The driveway apron is regraded and resurfaced with permeable paving to direct stormwater into the flanking infiltration gardens and grass shoulders along Coolidge Avenue.

EXPANSION OF BURIAL SPACE

FINAL DESIGN:

The final design expands the East Gate entry to include a second, pedestrian-only gate to the north. The proposal incorporates 70 feet of road frontage to showcase the cemetery as a premiere landscape and arboretum. This expansion increases visibility, improves comfort and safety, and reduces vehicular and pedestrian circulation conflicts. The design retains historical character by highlighting existing elements while showcasing the contemporary face of the cemetery, and adds new burial areas. This page describes key changes with more details provided on the following pages.

N 15 Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

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FINAL DESIGN: EAST SIDE REVIVAL G

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MEMORIAL ISLANDS

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VICE ROAD

PUM PHO USE

RAISED CROSSWALK AND CURBS

Both gate aprons are paved, raised, and graded to direct stormwater into infiltration gardens and grass shoulders. Raised curbs are installed to deter illegal turnarounds in the shoulder and maintain the appearance and function of grass shoulders. Curb cuts direct flows from the shoulders down to the rain gardens, where the water is captured and filtered onsite.

C E

M A G N O L I A P L A C E A R R I VA L A R E A

An open plaza constructed of permeable pavers greets visitors just inside the gate, providing space to gather. Free-standing informational kiosks that display cemetery hours and rules are located near the gate. A bike rack is located 40' from the entrance in plain view for visitors arriving with bicycles. The ecostation is located 60 feet from the entrance and provides convenient access.

F

B

PLANTINGS

The design proposes native and non-native vegetation. New canopy trees were chosen to match mature specimens in the area and reinforce the existing character. In some areas, plants were also chosen based on ecological function and include wet and droughttolerant, low-maintenance plants that will provide habitat and forage for insects, birds, and small mammals. Along the fence, existing shrubs and trees are replaced with new evergreen and deciduous trees selected for ornamental character.

K MAGN OLIA AVEN UE

Four infiltration gardens near the entrances capture stormwater flowing to low points along the perimeter of the cemetery. The gardens are planted with lowgrowing shrubs and herbaceous plants which allow views into the cemetery from the street, and showcase these environmentally-sustainable examples of stormwater management. Infiltration gardens help to clean and filter runoff. (See sheet 19.)

J

K

L A R C H AV E N U E S E R V I C E R O A D

I N F I LT R AT I O N G A R D E N S

F

UE EN AV

D E M O N S T R AT I O N G A R D E N

Tucked into a nook near a row of new evergreens lining the fence is a second gathering space and display area for a free-standing installation or viewing area for artwork displayed on the ecostation wall. This area includes a butterfly garden that provides visual interest and an additional layer of vegetation to screen interior spaces from the road. (See sheet 18.)

I

E

The Larch Avenue Service Road is regraded and resurfaced with permeable pavers to increase the infiltration of stormwater that is currently pooling in low spots and along the edges of the road.

F

I

F

N 10

2018

G

A 240 foot length of chain-link fencing is replaced with cast iron fence and three granite memorial walls similar to the one found in Birch Gardens. Breaks between the walls afford a view from the street to ornamental plantings lining the zone along the wall and crowning the historic burial area on the other side of Magnolia Path. The central wall is inscribed with names on the interior face and serves as a collective burial monument.

E

H

AV EN UE

Along the newly created Magnolia Path are two memorial burial islands with collective markers to accommodate cremation burials. Benches along Magnolia Path offer a place to sit near the memorial burial areas. Further details about the memorial islands are provided on sheet 23.

D

Located behind the building is a large open space for gathering. A stone retaining wall defines the space and functions as seating that will accommodate a large group. (See sheet 18.)

COO LIDG E AVE NUE

C

FO UN TA IN

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Magnolia Avenue is converted to a pedestrian-only walking path to reclaim space for new burial areas. Renamed Magnolia Path, the path is converted from asphalt to grass to slow movement and remove impervious surface, narrowed to a width of 6 feet, and planted with ornamental trees, shrubs, and groundcovers.

O U T D O O R S PA C E

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

H

M A G N O L I A PAT H

H LIA PAT MAGNO

B

EAST SIDE REVIVAL

Vehicle traffic is rerouted to Larch Avenue. The curve of the road is realigned to offer a wider turning radius. A parking pull-off to the east of the bend in the road allows mobility-challenged visitors access to restrooms located in the ecostation.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

A 450-square-foot building at the base of the slope between Fountain and Lime Avenues contains two ADAcompliant restrooms and storage for citizen science equipment and supplies. The ecostation features a green roof and incorporates energy-efficient design. Information about cemetery programming is located within the vestibule of the building. (See sheet 18.)

F O U N TA I N AV E N U E

F I N A L D E S I G N C O N T.

A

E C O S TAT I O N

20 Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

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D E S I G N D E TA I L : E C O S TAT I O N OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

B U T T E R F LY G A R D E N

MAGNOLIA PLACE

As part of the Wildlife Action Plan to support native and migrating butterflies, this garden will feature plant species that are known to host food sources for butterfly larvae and adults. Collections of these nectar-producing plants are appearing less frequently in nature due to invasive plant species, pollution, and other land uses. The Butterfly Garden serves as a demonstration garden and will provide an additional 400 square feet for students to engage in science and art projects. EAST GATE NORTH

MAGNOLIA PLACE

ECOSTATION

N

OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

10

View west towards Fountain Avenue and historic burial areas.

A

10

A

1

Detail plan of ecostation

A1 OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

B RO ATH O M

& MU ST LT O I-P RA U G RPO E RO SE O M

A

EN TR Y

B1

D E S I G N D E TA I L :

EXISITNG BURIALS

B

B RO ATH O M

EAST GATE NORTH

ROCKY DRAINAGE SWALE BRIDGES OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

B

ECOSTATION

MAGNOLIA PLACE

EXISTING BURIALS MAGNOLIA PLACE

10

View east towards the East Gate arrival area.

B

N

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

An "extensive" green roof system covers the entire roof of the ecostation. Low-growing mosses and sedums require minimal roof construction (<3 inches), irrigation after establishment, and are low-maintenance. The 432 square feet of green roof also helps to retain stormwater.

ECOSTATION

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

GREEN ROOF

E C O S TAT I O N

OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

2018

The 800-square-foot flat, grassy area is defined by a curved stone retaining wall. The wall provides a sense of enclosure in the outdoor classroom and separates the public gathering space from existing burial area. The outdoor classroom provides opportunities to develop study sites for student projects. To enhance the usability of the space, a seasonal or event canopy can be extended from the building to cover part of the lawn. T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

The 432-square-foot ecostation faces southwest, towards Auburn Lake, and opens onto a plaza called Magnolia Place. It is located at the base of the slope between Fountain and Lime Avenues. Two ADAcompliant restrooms and a water fountain are universally accessible from the plaza. The multi-purpose room is accessible from the rear of the building, which opens onto a flat, grassy area. The modestly-sized and flexibly-designed building permanently houses citizen science equipment and supplies. Combined with the 1,200-square-feet of surrounding outdoor space, the ecostation can accommodate multi-purpose uses (such as serving as support and reception space for weddings or funerals; classroom space for workshops; and gathering space for visiting tour groups) while supporting the structure's primary function as an educational space. The exterior of the building and outdoor spaces can also serve as a site for public artwork. In a place where artistic expression is integral to the landscape, public artwork can further enhance the experience and be designed to support educational programming and will engage visitors on multiple layers.

N 5

1

Concept interior plan of the ecostation

Area of detail Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

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D E S I G N D E TA I L : I N F I LT R AT I O N R A I N G A R D E N S

These small infiltration gardens can serve as demonstration projects to educate visitors on water-wise initiatives at the Cemetery, which also include a rain garden at Willow Pond, a wildflower meadow at Washington Tower, and xeriscape planting at the Merriam Lot on Fountain Avenue. (Xeriscaping is a garden practice common in arid to semi-arid regions that aims to conserve water.) Interpretive signs at the ecostation rain garden will support the Cemttery's goals of environmental education.

EAST GATE NORTH

W AT E R D E M A N D S

White heath aster “Snow Flurry” 6-8” (hundreds) Tussock sedge 1-3’ (6-8)

PLANT SPECIES These plant species have been selected because of their aesthetic, functional, and structural characteristics and their tolerance to a variety of environmental conditions. They are generally drought-tolerant but can handle occasional inundation; they require partly sunny to full-sun conditions and are less maintenance than ornamental plantings. Native shrub and perennial herbaceous species also provide habitat and forage for insects, pollinators, birds, and small mammals.

Prairie dropseed 2-3’ (6-8) Sweetshrub 4-8’ (14) River rock Purple lovegrass 1-2’ (6-8) Red chokeberry 6-8’(2) Other good possibilities (not shown): - Itea (3-4’) - Buttonbush (5-12’) - Dwarf fothergilla (1.5-3’)

Conceptual infiltration garden planting plan.

PLANTING SOIL

EAST GATE SOUTH

SAND FILTER

Conceptual detail of an infiltration garden showing shallow depth of depression. Dense plantings create a natural visual character and a diversity of root systems better percolate, absorb, and filter water.

MAG NOLIA AVEN UE

White spruce 30’ (1) Nannyberry viburnam 14-16’ (4)

N 15

Detail plan of infiltration gardens

RAIN GARDENS

Serviceberry 25-30’ (1)

As part of its horticultural maintenance, Mount Auburn uses large quantities of irrigation water. The Cemetery has three ponds, a vernal pool, and multiple source wells. Combined, these resources meet all of their irrigation needs as well as provide aquatic habitat for wildlife. (Potable water is provided by municipal water supplies.) Conserving water, improving and maintaining water quality, and replenishing groundwater supplies are important priorities to the Cemetery and part of its environmental stewardship efforts.

D E S I G N D E TA I L :

Red oiser dogwood 6-9’(2)

COO LIDG E AVE NUE

M AG NO LIA

PL AC E

TO T HE C HARL ES RIV ER

2018

EXSTING CATCH BASIN WITH OVERFLOW TO CAMBRIDGE STORM SEWER

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Infiltration gardens at the East Gate will provide a final filter for runoff before it enters the Cambridge sewer system, promoting Mount Auburn’s goal of being a good neighbor and environmental steward.

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

Blue arrows indicate the direction of flows into the series of infiltration gardens. The upper garden collects runoff from the ecostation. An underground pipe beneath the entrance plaza connects the upper garden to the lower garden to the south. Native, uncompacted soils drain excessively well in this area, but the system has a backup overflow drain connected to the City of Cambridge storm sewer system in the event of a heavy rainfall. A catch basin allows sediment to settle before entering the city system which has combined sanitary and storm sewer with outfalls in the Charles River.

MAGNOLIA PLACE

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

I N F I LT R AT I O N S Y S T E M

A series of infiltration rain gardens at the East Gate provide horticultural interest and ecological services. Infiltration gardens are shallow, vegetated depressions that collect runoff and allow it to be taken up by plants or infiltrated back into the ground slowly, increasing absorption. Rain gardens can play a significant role in areas with extensive impermeable surfaces (paved roads and buildings) by cleaning, slowing, and cooling runoff before it enters waterbodies. These gardens naturally filter pollutants and sediment from stormwater, improving water quality, reducing flooding, and recharging groundwater.

N Example of existing vegetated border at the East Gate.

Photorendering of new infiltration plantings at the East Gate.

Area of detail Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

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D E S I G N D E TA I L : M E M O R I A L I S L A N D S Space-saving cremation burials can be accommodated in small patches. Two such patches are designated as memorial islands along Magnolia Path, using land reclaimed from the conversion of Magnolia Avenue (currently a road) to Magnolia Path (a proposed new walking path). These islands abut the edges of an existing inactive and historic burial area and will extend the area and make it into an active burial area. MEMORIAL ISLAND

BENCH

INFILTRATION GARDEN

MA GN OL IA PAT H

N EAST GATE NORTH

10

Birch Garden offers existing examples of memorial island plant composition with a central Birch tree, understory plants, ground cover, and a communal marker.

Detail plan of memorial islands (highlighted).

NTS

D E S I G N D E TA I L :

Sketch of new burial area with two memorial islands and 1x1 foot cremation burials. This area has the potential to accommodate more than 400 cremation burials. This estimate is based on the cremation layout at Birch Gardens

A B

A1 B1

COOLIDGE AVENUE

NEW BURIAL AREA

MAGNOLIA PATH

EXISITING BURIALS

COOLIDGE AVENUE

NEW BURIAL AREA

MAGNOLIA PATH

EXISITING BURIALS

Magnolia Path meanders between existing burial space and new memorial islands

A1

N 10

10

A

2018

The Cemetery has a state-of-the-art and an energy-efficient crematory onsite. It is located in Bigelow Chapel, which is currently being restored and is expected to re-open in the summer of 2018.

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

MEMORIAL ISLAND

BENCH

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

M AG NO LIA

Crematory burials save space and have different environmental impacts than conventional burials, which use toxic pollutants (formaldehyde) that can leach into soils and ground water systems, and rely on resourceintensive industrial processes to produce tons of caskets, concrete liners, and other non-biodegradable materials that are buried each year.

MEMORIAL ISLANDS

INSCRIPTION WALL

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

BENCH

PA TH

Cremation burials require a minimal 1 x1 feet of space and are typically memorialized with a communal marker or are unmarked. The proposed memorial islands will use collective or flush markers and incorporate mid-sized specimen trees and low growing plants to provide visual interest and a sense of refuge. Three benches placed along Magnolia Path, two near the memorial wall, offer a place to rest and reflect for visitors walking this path or visiting grave sites.

BENCH

B

Magnolia Path meanders between existing burial space and new memorial islands

B1

Area of detail

NTS

Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

20/27


B1

A

View of ecostation and art garden looking west.

SOUTH EAST GATE

NORTH EAST GATE

A

Elevation from Coolidge Avenue showing the new East Gate

2018 D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

N

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

B

A1

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

FINAL DESIGN: ADDITIONAL DRAWINGS

A1

B

NORTH EAST GATE

NEW BURIAL AREA

SOUTH EAST GATE

Section through Magnolia Path looking east showing infiltration gardens and Magnolia Place

DRAWINGS

OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

ADDITIONAL

View of ecostation from the west

B1

21/27


Design of the East Gate showing the historic gate with curbed apron, cast-iron fence, low infiltration gardens, and the pumphouse in the distance.

Existing conditions showing chain-link fence and gaps in the dense evergreen hedge.

Design of the proposed pedestrian gate with curbed apron, cast-iron fence, low infiltration gardens, and the ecostation in the distance.

T H E N O R T H E A S T G AT E

2018

Existing conditions at the East Gate showing historic gate, chain-link fence, and dense evergreen hedge.

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Design of the East Gate.

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

T H E S O U T H E A S T G AT E

Existing conditions at the East Gate.

CONCEPT DRAWINGS

T H E E A S T G AT E

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

C O N C E P T D R A W I N G S | T H E E A S T G AT E B E F O R E & A F T E R

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GRADING PLAN

The plaza and outdoor classroom areas are relatively flat areas with slopes of 1-2%. These areas will require spot grading in order to direct water off of the plaza and avoid pooling. Spot grades (+) and blue drainage arrows show the direction of water. This design recommends permeable paving for the plaza, spot grading is recommended for porous and impermeable paving.

MAGNOLIA PLACE

BUTTERFLY GARDEN

A stone-lined drainage swale runs across the front of the ecostation directing flows off of the plaza and from the hillside into the system of infiltration gardens.

INFILTRATION GARDEN

EAST GATE NORTH

Entrance aprons are paved with concrete or asphalt and crowned. Raised curbs with curb cuts help to direct water into grass roadway shoulders and down the road minimizing pooling and build-up of sediment at the entrance.

EXISTING CATCH BASIN WITH OVERFLOW TO CAMBRIDGE STORM SEWER

TO TH EC SHAD HARLES R IVER Y HIL VIA LS RETE NTIO CHOOL N BA SIN

A catch basin allows sediment to settle before entering the City of Cambridge combined storm and sanitary sewer system. Storm drains first daylight across Coolidge Avenue on th Shady Hill School property. Combined sanitary and storm sewer outfalls in the Charles River.

N

GRADING PLAN

The two upper infiltration gardens are connected with an underground pipe. Overflow from the upper garden is directed into the lower garden.

PATH MAGNOLIA

CH R LA

UE N E AV

2018

ECOSTATION

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

AV EN UE

The stone retaining wall is 3-feet along the top of the curve and tapers to 1-foot at the ends, providing expansive seating. A vegetated swale of low plantings and groundcovers along the upper side of the wall absorbs and directs water around and away from the wall foundation. These plantings also help to reduce mowing and trimming.

COOL IDGE AVEN UE

FO UN TA IN

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

The new ecostation is located at bottom of the 10% slope between Lime and Fountain Avenues. Approximately 2,000 square feet of flat area is carved out of the hill to accommodate the new ecostation building and outdoor classroom. The new contours, shown in red, reflect the grading required. Blue arrows show the direction of flows around the wall, away from the building foundation, and into the system of infiltration gardens along the perimeter.

5

Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

23/27


P L A N T PA L E T T E

Type

Sun

America Arborvitae

Thuja occidentalis

20 to 40

10 to 15

medium water, low maintenance

Evergreen

full sun to part shade

Blue (Colorado) Spruce

Picea pungens

30 to 60

10 to 20

medium to wet, low maintenance

Evergreen

full sun

Cornelian Cherry Dogwood

Cornus mas

15 to 25

15 to 20

medium water, low maintenance

Understory/Small

full sun to part shade

Douglas Fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii

40 to 80

12 to 20

medium to wet, high maintenance

Evergreen

full sun

European White Birch

Betula pendula

30 to 40

15 to 30

rain garden; medium to wet, high maintenance

Hardwood

full sun to part shade

Flowering Dogwood

Cornus florida

15 to 30

15 to 30

medium water, medium maintenance

Understory/Small

full sun to part shade

Fringe Tree

Chionanthus virginicus

12 to 20

12 to 20

medium water, low maintenance

Hardwood

full sun to part shade

Hinoki Cypress

Chamaecyparis obtusa

50 to 75

15 to 25

medium water, low maintenance

Evergreen

full sun to part shade

Red Maple

Acer rubrum

40 to 70

30 to 50

medium to wet, low maintenance

Hardwood

full sun to part shade

Red Oak

Quercus rubra

50 to 75

50 to 75

street tree (NE native)

Hardwood

River Birch

Betula nigra

40 to 70

40 to 60

rain garden; low maintenance

Hardwood

full sun to part shade

Saucer Magnolia

Magnolia × soulangeana

20 to 25

20 to 25

medium water, medium maintenance

Hardwood

full sun to part shade

Serviceberry

Amelanchier canadensis

25 to 30

15 to 20

medium water, low maintenance

Understory/Small

full sun to part shade

White Spruce

Picea glauca

40 to 60

10 to 20

medium water, low maintenance

Evergreen

full sun

Yellow Birch

Betula papayrifera

50 to 70

25 to 50

medium to wet, high maintenance

Hardwood

part shade

Common Name

Botanical Name

Height (ft)

Spread (ft)

Culture

Type

Sun

Blood-twig Dogwood

Cornus sanguinea

5 to 8

5 to 6

rain garden

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Buttonbush

Cephalanthus occidentalis

5 to 12

4 to 8

rain garden

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Carolina allspice

Calycanthus florida

6 to 10

6 to 12

medium water, low maintenance

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Common Ninebark

Physocarpus opulifolius

5 to 8

4 to 6

rain garden; attracts birds, bees

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Dogwood Pagoda

Cornus alternifolia

15 to 25

20 to 32

medium water, low maintenance

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Nannyberry Viburnum

Viburnim lentago

14 to 16

6 to 12

rain garden

Shrub

full sun

Red Chokeberry

Aronia arbutifolia

6 to 8

3 to 4

rain garden; pollinator

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Red-twig Dogwood

Cornus sercea/alba

6 to 9

8 to 12

rain garden

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Shrubby Cinquefoil

Dasiphora

2 to 4

3 to 6

rain garden; edging, pollinator

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Smoke tree

Cotinus coggygria

10 to 15

10 to 15

medium water

Shrub

full sun

Sweetshrub ‘Ruby Spice’

Clethra alnifolia

4 to 8

4 to 8

rain garden

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Sweetshrub ‘September Beauty’

Clethra alnifolia

4 to 8

4 to 8

rain garden

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Sweetshrub ‘Sixteen Candles’

Clethra alnifolia

4 to 8

4 to 8

rain garden

Shrub

full sun to part shade

Virginia Sweetspire

Itea virginica

3 to 4

4 to 6

medium to wet, low maintenance

Shrub

full sun to part shade

2018

Culture

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Spread (ft)

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

Height (ft)

PA L E T T E

Botanical Name

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

Common Name

PLANT

SHRUBS

TREES

Native and non-native plants in this palette replicate and/or mix well with existing tree species found in the Ornamental/Parkland and Border-Transitional Landscape Character Zones. They provide a variety of color, shape, texture, and habitat value for animals. They are generally low-maintenance, drought-tolerant, tolerant of a variety of soil ph (preferring slightly acidic).

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Type

Sun

Aster ‘Snow Flurry’

Symphyotrichum ericoides

6 - 8”

2 to 3

average to dry soil

herbaceous perennial

tolerates shade prefers full sun

Blue Star Aster

Symphyotrichum oolentangiense

2 to 3

1.5 to 2

dry, low maintenance

herbaceous perennial

full sun

Butterfly Weed

Asclepias tuberosa

1 to 2.5

1 to 1.5

rain garden

herbaceous perennial

full sun to part shade

Creeping Silver Willow

Salix repens

2 to 3

5 to 6

rain garden

low growing

full sun to part shade

Lesser Calamint

Calamintha Nepeta

1 to 2

1 to 2

dry to medium, fragrant and long-blooming

perennial

full sun

New England Aster

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

3 to 6

2 to 3

medium water, medium maintenance

herbaceous perennial

full sun

Common Name

Botanical Name

Height (ft)

Spread (ft)

Culture

Type

Sun

Prairie Dropseed

Sporobolus heterolepis

2 to 3

2 to 3

dry to medium, drought tolerance

native perennial grass

full sun

Purple Lovegrass

Eragrostis spectabilis

1 to 2

1 to 2

dry to medium

warm season grass

fun sun

Tussock Sedge

Carex stricta

2 to 3

3 to 5

rain garden; medium to wet

evergreen sedge

full sun to part shade

2018

Culture

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Spread (ft)

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

Height (ft)

P A L E T T E C O N T.

Botanical Name

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

Common Name

PLANT

GRASS

HERBACEOUS

P L A N T P A L E T T E C O N T.

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M AT E R I A L S & P R E C E D E N T S P E R M E A B L E PAV I N G

4

Exterior wall of the ecostation shown with flat informational kiosk

MEMORIAL WALL The new Memorial Wall between the South East Gate and the North East Gate is made of stone similar to Birch Garden Memorial Wall. The wall repeats the neoclassical treatment of the wall at Birch Garden and is a collective inscription wall.

I N F O R M AT I O N K I O S K S Flat information kiosks attach to the walls of the ecostation. A large (8 x 8 foot) kiosk attaches to the south wall of the ecostation in full view of arriving visitors. In addition to kiosks, the walls of the building support artwork that can be oriented to be seen by visitors gathering on the lawn behind the ecostation or from the butterfly garden.

1

Permeable pavers

4 Ecostation with green roof, and informational kiosk

Apron

2 Curb cut

5 Grass pave

3

3

Green roof

Green roof

3 Green roof planting

Birch Gardens wall

Not for construction. Part of a student project and not based on a legal survey.

M AT E R I A L S

4

D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

2

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

1

& PRECEDENTS

The ecostation has a lightweight "extensive" type of green roof with a shallower soil depth (3-6 inches) and uses only 10-20% organic matter in soil. An extensive roof uses a limited range of species (sedums, small grasses, herbs, and flowering herbaceous plants) which need little maintenance and no permanent irrigation system. These systems are ideal for efficient stormwater management with low maintenance needs.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

3

GREEN ROOF

2018

The plaza in front of the ecostation is made of permeable paving. The transition from the street to the asphalt apron in front of the gate repeats the pattern to tie the entrance outside the gate to the plaza inside. A curb cut near the apron directs runoff into the stormwater infiltration garden inside the cemetery. Magnolia Path and the Larch Avenue Service Road is resurfaced with grass pavers.

N

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2018 D E S I G N B Y: G A I L B E R R I G A N & S U N N I E J O H | S P R I N G

Photographs taken by Gail Berrigan and Sunnie Joh “Auburn Lake” by Richard Cheek from Linden, Blanche M.G. Silent City on a Hill. University of Massachusetts Press, Boston, 2007. Google Earth and Google Earth Street View 2018 Mount Auburn Cemetery. Sweet Auburn Magazine, Community, Conservation, and Citizen Science. 2017 Volume 2. Mount Auburn Cemetery. www.mountauburn.org. Accessed April 9 to June 23, 2018. Mount Auburn Cemetery. “Instagram. www.instagram.com/mountauburncemetery Techno-Bloc Precious Stones. Spectacular Landscape Products. USA Catalog Edition 26 Wikimedia Commons

580 MOUNT AUBURN STREET CAMBRIDGE, MA

PHOTO CREDITS

SOURCES

Berg, Shary Page, The Halvorson Company, and Mount Auburn Cemetery. Mount Auburn Cemetery Master Plan. Volume II Historic Landscape Report. 1993. City of Cambridge Geographic Information System Fialkoff, Anna. New England Wildflower Society: Rain Garden Plants. 2018 Darke, Rick and Tallamy, Doug. The Living Landscape. Timber Press. 2014. Dropkin, Ethan M. et all. Woody Shrubs for Stormwater Retention Practices, Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Regions. Second Edition. Cornell University. Dunnet, Nigel and Clayden, Andy. Rain Gardens. Timber Press. 2007. The Halvorson Company and Mount Auburn Cemetery. Mount Auburn Cemetery Master Plan. Volume I Master Plan Overview and Recommendations. 1993. The Halvorson Company. Charles River Basin Pedestrian and Bicycle Connectivity Study. 2014. The Halvorson Company. Mount Auburn Cemetery Wildlife Action Plan. 2015. Linden, Blanche M.G. Silent City on a Hill. University of Massachusetts Press, Boston, 2007. Massachusetts Office of Geographic Information (MassGIS) Missouri Botanical Garden http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/ Mount Auburn Cemetery. Five Year Cemetery Development Plan FY2017 - FY2021. 2015. Mount Auburn Cemetery. Mount Auburn Cemetery Landscape Character Zone Enhancement. Draft Report. 2009. Mount Auburn Cemetery. Mount Auburn Cemetery Strategic Plan FY2016 - FY2020. 2015. Mount Auburn Cemetery. Sweet Auburn Magazine, Community, Conservation, and Citizen Science. 2017 Volume 2. Mount Auburn Cemetery. www.mountauburn.org. Accessed April 9 to June 23, 2018. Northcreek Nurseries https://www.northcreeknurseries.com/ Rainer, Thomas and West, Claudia. Planting in a Post-Wild World. Timber Press. 2015.

T H E E A S T G AT E AT M O U N T A U B U R N C E M E T E RY

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180 Pleasant St. | Suite 211 | Easthampton, MA 01027 413-369-4044 www.csld.edu

East Gate Revival at the Mount Auburn Cemetery  

By Gail Berrigan and Sunnie Joh. Spring 2018.

East Gate Revival at the Mount Auburn Cemetery  

By Gail Berrigan and Sunnie Joh. Spring 2018.