Page 1

Community Commons Master Plan Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Context Watersheds: Tributaries of the Deerfield River BioMap: Priority Conservation Areas Living Waters: Freshwater Habitat Land Use

1 2 3 4

Inventory and Analysis Cole Property Slope Analysis Solar Orientation Protected Resource Areas Apple Trees Sun/Shade Analysis Clearance For Solar Gain Soil Composition (see also Appendix B)

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Concepts and Plans Concept Diagram: Element Relationships Access Zones Concept Plan Proposed Plan Plan Summary Meadows & Succession Forest Gardens

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Appendix A: Forest Garden Plant Lists Herbs Herbs, cont. Shrubs Trees & Vines

20 21 22 23

Appendix B: Soil Samples Soil Sample A

24

Soil Sample B Soil Sample C Soil Sample D Soil Sample E Soil Sample F Soil Sample G

25 26 27 28 29 30

Contents Katywil Community Commons Master Plan

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


T

he goal of the Katywil community is to establish an ecologically and socially sustainable community in rural Colrain, Massachusetts. It is hoped that Katywil can serve as a model of sustainablility that other communities can strive toward, and preserve land and ecological health, while enhancing the productivity of the landscape for community residents.

View to the southeast from atop one of the four alluvial terraces within the Katywil development site.

The proposed site of this community is nestled into a south-facing slope of former pasture land with dramatic views of the wooded hillsides of western Massachusetts. This project has assembled a team of architects, civil engineers, landscape architects, and other professionals to develop plans to minimize the impacts of the development in the long and short-term, and to implement energy and resource conservation and production strategies for the community. As students at the Conway School of Landscape Design, we are pleased to be a part of this team in our role of developing a plan for the land use, both cultivation and conservation, for the Katywil community. Prunus pennsylvanica, the native pin cherry’s edible fruit is enjoyed by many species of the abundant wildlife that frequent the property.

The goal of the Katywil Community Commons Master Plan is to develop an adaptable long-range plan that responds to the needs of the community by integrating the functions and harvest of the cultivated and designed landscape with the community while preserving the beauty and integrity of natural lands and fostering stewardship thereof. The plan identifies areas with suggested uses such as a community garden, edible forest gardens, community gathering spaces, meadows, natural areas, and trails that connect the residents to the community and the landscape. Appropriate uses were located based on an area’s accessibility, its sun and shade patterns, soil conditions, and other existing site conditions. The proposed plan attempts to integrate the homes of the community into a unified neighborhood with a shared harvest, shared work, and shared experience of the natural environment.

Remnants of an old apple orchard dot the site, with over 50 trees present on the north western quarter of the property.

Introduction Katywil Community Commons Master Plan

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Deerfield River Watershed

Watersheds of Massachusetts

Deerfield River Watershed Local Drainage Basin

Vincent Brook

Cole Property

Roberrts Brook

Source: Massachusetts Geographic Information System

North

River

The Cole Property is situated within the Deerfield River watershed in northwestern Massachusetts. The property is bisected east to west by the West Branch of the North River. Vincent Brook and Roberts Brook drain across the property from the north and south respectively. As first order streams, the quality of these waterways is critical to the health of the watershed as a whole.

Vincen

est W

Local Drainage Basin

Bra nch

t Brook

Cole Property

Robert

s Brook

Watershed: Tributaries of the Deerfield River Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 1 of 30

N Scale Varies

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Town of Colrain

Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program BioMap

Source: Massachusetts Geographic Information System

Town of Colrain

Cole Property

V i nc ent B rook

Cole Property

BioMap Core Habitat BioMap Supporting Natural Landscape NHESP Priority Rare Species Habitat

W est

Br an

ch

No rt

hR

ive r

Permanently Protected Open Space The Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species BioMap identiďŹ es core habitats throughout the state that are critical to preserving biodiversity. Over 60% of core habitat land remains unprotected. The wildlife rich within these core habitat areas are also dependent upon the supporting natural landscapes, which enhance the core habitat areas. The supporting natural landscapes are large tracts of undeveloped land, roadless areas, and core habitat buers. Colrain is home to a wealth of core habitat areas and supporting natural landscapes, as well as rare species habitat. The Cole Property is part of this system of natural lands.

BioMap: Priority Conservation Areas Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 2 of 30

N Scale Varies

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Town of Colrain

Freshwater Biodiversity in Massachusetts

Source: Massachusetts Geographic Information System

Town of Colrain

Cole Property

Vinc ent B rook

Cole Property

Living Waters Core Habitat Living Waters Critical Supporting Watersheds We st

Living Waters Core Habitats are lakes, ponds, and waterways that protect rare aquatic plant and animal species and provide exceptional habitat for other freshwater species. The Critical Supporting Watersheds are the terrestrial regions that drain into these core habitats. The supporting watersheds have the most significant effect on water quality within these lakes and waterways. The town of Colrain is exceptional in its abundance of high quality streams and rivers. It is crucial to pay close attention to surface water runoff and water quality at Katywil. Vincent Brook and the West Branch are both core freshwater aquatic habitat, and the land of the village is pivotal to their quality.

Living Waters: Freshwater Habitat Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 3 of 30

Br an

ch

No rth

Riv er

s Brook Robert

N Scale Varies

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Town of Colrain Colrain is a rural community in Massachusetts’ northwestern highlands. Over 80% of Colrain remains forested or in a natural state, while pasture and rowcrop agriculture occupy nearly 3300 acres, or 12% of the land. Colrain is sparsely settled, and has few retail stores, and restaurants available to residents.

Cole Property

Cole Property Agriculture Natural Land Industrial Uses Residential

% 2% 4 1%

12 %

Commercial

1%

0.

Surface Water

Colrain Land Use 81% Source: Massachusetts Geographic Information System

Land Use Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 4 of 30

N Scale Varies

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Existing House

Old Pastures

Adamsville Road

Hay Fields

West Branch North River

Locus of Community Commons Plan Bill Cole’s property is bisected by the West Branch of the North River and Adamsville Road. The land is largely forested with hemlocks and hardwoods. Two old pastures with mature apple trees sit on a south-facing slope north of the road. Two ďŹ elds along the river are hayed by local farmers.

Cole Property

Source: Massachusetts Geographic System

Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 5 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


0-3%, at

570

3-8%, gently sloping 0

56

570

8-15%, moderate 56 0

55 56 0

0

15-25%, moderately steep

54 0

550

0

53

25% +, steep

0

54 0

55

0

54

52

0 0

0

53

51

500

520 53 0

0

52

0

51

50 0

52 0 50 0

51

0

490

0

49

0

48 0

490

490

47

500

0

48

450

44 0

480

0

0

43

46

450

460

430

450

44

0

430

42

400

430

0

42

410

0

410

400

40

0

390

390

380

370

360

370

360

350

360

35 0

340

350

340

330

Sources: Massachusetts Geographic System, Property Survey, Studio .625

The Katywil development site sits on a series of alluvial terraces. This terraced slope has an average grade of 12% with widespread moderate to steep slopes throughout, constraining the alignment of roads and accessible paths considerably. The homes are situated at the back side of two of these terraces, nestling them into the hillside and providing more level space in front of the homes.

N

25% and over

15 to 25% 8 to 15% 3 to 8% 0 to 3%

Slope Analysis Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 6 of 30

one inch equals two hundred feet 0 100 200 400 600 Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Northwest-North-Northeast

570

East-West 0

56

570

Southeast-Southwest 56 0

55 56 0

0

South

54 0

550

0

53

0

54 0

55

0

54

52

0 0

0

53

51

500

520 53 0

0

52

0

51

50 0

52 0 50 0

51

0

490

0

49

0

48 0

490

490

47

500

0

48

450

44 0

480

0

0

43

46

450

460

430

450

44

0

430

42

400

430

0

42

410

0

410

400

40

0

390

390

380

370

360

370

360

350

360

35 0

340

350

340

330

Sources: Massachusetts Geographic System, Property Survey, Studio .625

The development will be situated on a predominantly south-facing slope, providing for maximum solar gain and creating a warm site that is suited to ripening fruit and vegetables. This exposure enhances the comfort of outdoor areas in cooler months, though may necessitate shady refuge during the summer.

N

WI

NTE R

SUMM ER

S UN

SUN

Solar Orientation

one inch equals two hundred feet 0 100 200 400 600

Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 7 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


570

Protected Riverfront Areas

The Rivers Protection Act establishes a state policy for protecting the natural integrity of the Commonwealth's rivers and to establish open space along rivers. The riverfront area is measured 200 feet from each side of the river. The Rivers Protection Act identifies eight purposes: protection of private or public water supply, protection of groundwater, flood control, prevention of storm damage, prevention of pollution, protection of land containing shellfish, protection of wildlife habitat, and protection of fisheries.

0

56

570

56 0

55 56 0

0 54 0

550

0

53

0

54 0

55

0

54

52

0 0

0

53

51

500

520 53 0

0

52

0

51

50 0 52 0 50 0

51

0

490

0

49

0

48 0

490

490

47

500

0

48

Any proposed projects within the Riverfront must be reviewed by the local Conservation Commission through a permitting process. Two standards are specified in the Riverfront Protection Act. First, no permit is granted for work in the riverfront area that would result in a significant adverse impact on the riverfront area pertaining to the eight purposes mentioned above. Second, no permit is granted if there is a practicable and substantially equivalent economic alternative to the proposed project with less adverse impacts pertaining to the resource area.

450

44 0

480

0

0

43

46

450

460

44

0

430

42

400

430

0

42

410

0

Vince nt

430

Brook

450

410

400 40

0

390

390 380

370

360

370

360 350

360

35 0

340

350

340

330

Sources: Massachusetts Geographic Information System, Property Survey, New England Environmental, Studio .625

N

Protected riverfront areas provide wildlife shelter and food. The riverfront areas are also natural corridors for wildlife migration, and aesthetic retreats for Katywil residents. Currently the fields within the floodplain of the West Branch of the North River are hayed by a local farmer. If these fields are converted for crop production, the use of fertilizers and pesticides should be prohibited.

Protected Resource Areas Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 8 of 30

one inch equals two hundred feet 0 100 200 400 600 Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


570

Existing Apple Trees

0

56

570

56 0

55 56 0

0 54 0

550

0

53

0

54 0

55

0

54

52

0 0

0

53

51

500

520 53 0

0

52

0

51

50 0 52 0 50 0

51

0

490

0

49

0

48 0

490

490

47

500

0

48

450

44 0

480

0

0

43

46

450

460

430

450

44

0

430

42

400

430

0

42

410

0

410

400 40

0

390

390 380

370

360

370

360 350

360

35 0

340

350

340

330

Ea er mead w ot cl d ded eed d in inventoory ryy

Sources: Massachusetts Geographic Information System, Property Survey, Studio .625

N

Apple trees, marked by red circles above, are remnants of the former orchard located on the property. With pruning and care these 51 apple trees may still provide a harvest and a beautiful reminder of the site’s land use history. These trees should be protected during construction and incorporated into the designed landscape. Maintaining the trees through pruning will stimulate apple blossom production and eventual fruit development through pollination by bees on site.

Apple Trees Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 9 of 30

one inch equals two hundred feet

0

100

200

400

600

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Annual Sun/Shade Composite The surveyed portion of the property is used in this sun/shade analysis. The green represents vegetation masses and the proposed duplexes are placed in their proposed sites. The darker shadows represent longer periods of time an area is shaded throughout the year.

N

The open meadows provide solar gain throughout the year. Removal of a few trees may be required to ensure uninterrupted solar gain to the photovoltaic panels and the passive solar-designed duplexes during the winter months.

Oblique View Source: Studio .625

A. Spring and Fall Equinox March /September 21

B. Summer Solstice June 21 8 AM

N

Noon

4 PM

A. The open areas on the Katywil property provide at least six hours of solar gain during the spring and fall. This solar gain will beneďŹ t ripening fruit and plant growth during the early and late growing season.

B

8 AM

N

Noon

C. Winter Solstice December 21

4 PM

B. During the summer months with long days of solar gain, shade cover is recommended for human refuge from the heat. Gardens should be located in areas that provide full sun throughout the day. Most open spaces will provide at least eight hours of sunlight.

C. Due to the existing open meadows, six hours of solar gain is available during the winter months. This solar gain will beneďŹ t the passive solar duplexes and their photovoltaics during the coldest of winter days.

9 AM

N

Noon

3 PM

Sun/Shade Analysis Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 10 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


0

49

0

Height Limits of Vegetation 490

47

500

0 - 10’: Limit plants in this zone to perennials, ground covers, and small and medium shrubs.

0

48

10’ - 20’: Tall shrubs and smaller plants are approprite in this area. Avoid trees.

46 0

450

43 0

44

0

480

20’ - 40’: This area is appropriate for small trees that will be no taller than 20 to 40 feet when mature.

450

460

450

430 4

40’ - 80’: Medium-sized shade trees are appropriate in these areas as long as they will not block winter sun when mature.

44

0

430

42

400

0 430

0

In order to maintain solar access to homes throughout the year, new plantings should be planned to not shade south-facing windows. Height limits are based on the anticipated size of mature plants and the sun’s position on the Winter Solstice, when it is lowest in the sky.

0

42

410

410

400

40

0

390

390 380

370

360

370

360

350

360

0

35

340

350

340

one inch equals two hundred feet

0

100 330

200

400

N

Sources: Massachussetts Geographic Information System, Property Survey, Studio .625

un

f

le o g An

S The

The n o

tice s l r So 40’ e t Win

80’

600

oon N at

20’

10’

20’

40’

80’

160’

one inch equals 20 feet

0

10

20

40

60

Clearance for Solar Gain Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 11 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Samples Seven soil samples were collected from the property. The location of these samples are illustrated in the orthophotograph below. Soil samples A, B, D, E, F, and G underwent soil chemistry analysis. Sample C underwent a Soil Foodweb Analysis which identified and quantified beneficial bacteria and fungi. Results indicate soil nutrient deficiencies may require soil amendment for healthy growth of cultivated crops. The desired ranges within each graph represents the range of that nutrient or mineral in which healthy plant growth will occur. The full test results and Soil Foodweb recommendations are located in Appendix B.

Calcium levels correlate with pH levels. Samples with the highest calcium levels also have the highest pH. Sample E’was extracted from a conifer stand and the low pH is most likely caused by the decomposition of conifer needles.

Sandy soils contain large pore spaces which allows for easy percolation of water. This water will also leach out the vital nutrients, minerals, and organic matter within the soil. Portions of the property were used as pasture and evidence of plant species indicate portions were overgrazed. Soil samples B, C, D, F, and G were extracted from pasture land. Sample A was extracted from open land just south of a fertilized hayfield. Sample E was extracted from a two-year old clearing in the woods.

Overall, soil composition and nutrient cycling can be improved by amending with composted organic matter. To some extent, soil amendment can also help buffer against the low pH and improve the cation exchange capacity. However, a selection of drought and acidtolerant plants will improve plant performance and will develop a more sustainable garden.

The high quality of sample A may be explained by manure nutrients leaching from the upslope hayfield and depositing downslope. Another explanation may be that the soils have been undisturbed by tilling, overgrazing, or other farming practices

Soil Nutrients Soil pH

Desired Range

20

pH

NH 4 (ppm)

25

15 10 5 0

A

B

D

E

F

G

Soil Sample ID

% Organic Matter Within Soil Samples

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

% Organic Matter

NH 4 , Ammonium Within Soil Samples

Desired pH

A

B

D

E

F

8

A

B

6 5

D Range E Desired

F

G

Soil Sample ID

7

A

B

D

E

F

G

Soil Sample ID

4 3 2 1 0

A

G

B

D

E

F

G

Soil Sample ID

Soil Sample ID

Trace Minerals Soil Sample Locus

NO 3 , Nitrate Within Soil Samples

% Base Saturation of Calcium Within Soil Samples % Calcium (Ca)

30

NO3 (ppm)

Desired Range

25 20 15

A

10

G

5

80 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

A

0

A

B

D

E

F

B

G

D

E

F

G

Soil Sample ID

E

Soil Sample ID

C

B

% Base Saturation of Magnesium Within Soil Samples

D 16

Phosphorus Within Soil Samples 140 120 100

F

80 60

G

40

G

Desired Range

20 0

A

B

D

E

F

% Magnesium (Mg)

14

160

Phosphorus (ppm)

Desired Range

70

Desired Range

12 10 8 6 4 2

G

Soil Sample ID

G

0

A

B

D

E

F

G

Soil Sample ID

% Base Saturation of Potassium Within Soil Samples

% Base Saturation of Sodium Within Soil Samples % Sodium (Na)

% Potassium (K)

18 16 14

G

12 10 8 6

Desired Range

4

25 20 15 10 5

2

Desired Range

0

0

A

B

D

E

F

A

G

Soil Sample ID

Source: Massachusetts Geographic Information System

N

B

D

E

F

G

Soil Sample ID

Soil Composition (See Also Appendix B) Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 12 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Personal Space

Quiet Retreat

Paths

Native Edibles

Cultivated Plants

Private Gardens

Forest Gardens Community Garden

Natural Areas Forest

Community Space Community Building

Homes

Gathering Space

Chicken Coop

Meadows

Successional Edge

Community Green

Livestock Shelter

Domestic Animals Pasture

There are fifteen program elements that are key to providing a balanced community at Katywil. These fifteen program elements, indicated by colored circles, are grouped into five categories; personal space, community space, domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and natural areas. The colors in this diagram correlate to the colored elements in the conceptual plan. Program elements are arranged around the homes based on their relative frequency of use. The closer to the home an element is, the more frequently it is utilized. This arrangement should reflect element relationships so that the landscape supports activities throughout the Katywil community commons.

Concept Diagram: Element Relationships Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 13 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


570

Home Zone Private Garden and Patio

0

56

570

56 0

55 56 0

0 550

Community Zone 54 0

Meadows, Chicken Coop, Community Garden, Community Building, Community Green, Gathering Space, Forest Gardens, Paths

0 53

0

54 0

55

0

54

52

0 0

0

53

51

500

520 53 0

52

0 0

51

50 0 52 0 50 0

51

0

490 490

48 0

Edge Zone Meadows, Pasture, Livestock Shelter, Gathering Space, Community Green, Forest Gardens, Successional Edge, Native Edibles, Paths, Quiet Retreats, Forest

0

0 49

490

47

500

0

48

450

44 0

480

0

0

43

46

45 50 0

460

430 4

450

44

0

430

42

400

0 430

0

42

410

0

Local Environment

410

Forest, Quiet Retreat, Paths, Native Edibles

400 40

0

39 3 90

390 380

37 70 0

360

370

360 35 50 0

360

35 0

340

Natural Lands

350

Forest, Quiet Retreats, Paths

340

330

N The landscape is divided into five zones, originating at the homes and extending into the natural areas around the proposed community. The zones are defined by ease of access, defined by steep slopes and vegetation. These zones each have preferred uses based on distance from the homes and relative relationships illustrated in the Concept Diagram (Sheet 13). Zones of yellow are easily accessed areas immediately around the home and are suited for frequent use. Orange areas encompass the three regions of the community. These areas should provide for most of the active landscape uses on site. Green regions are an interface zone, where the different regions connect, or the developed area meets the natural landscape. These areas are ideal areas for open meadows and natural succession. The blue areas are largely forested. Their relationship to the community makes them well suited to local access trails or harvest of native edibles. The remote purple areas are steep and forested. These areas shoudl be managed for long-term forest integrity.

Land Use Zones Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 14 of 30

one inch equals two hundred feet 0 100 200 400 600 Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Immediately surrounding the duplexes, these gardens provide herbs and vegetables for easy and quick access.

1 570

PRIVATE GARDENS

6 0

56

570

56

Should be located within a large enough area to provide 13,000 sq. ft. of planting beds to supply food for the community.

0

55

2

56 0

0

7

550

COMMUNITY GARDEN

54 0

7

0

53

Forest gardens provide a diversified harvest of herbs, fruits, nuts, and greens. A forest garden community consists of ground cover, shrub layer, and forest canopy.

0

54 0

55

0

54

52

0

3

0

0

53

51

500

520 53 0

1

0 0

51

50 0

7

52 0 50 0

0

7

490

0 47

6

0

450

480

44 0

6

0

COMMUNITY BUILDING 0

49

500

48

46

1

0

1

6 42

1 3 4 5 1 3 430

430

0

430

1

450

COMMUNITY GREEN

400

Natural Areas include meadows, forest succession, forest edge, and pasture.

42

410

Community greens provide space for outdoor meetings and activities, which may include active and passive recreation.

5

450

460

44

Centrally located, the community building provides a meeting space for residents, root cellar for storage, space for community events and craft production, and a possible greenhouse addition for seed propagation.

4

48 0

5

0

490

490

51

FOREST GARDEN

43

52

0

410

400 40

0

1

6

390

390

NATURAL AREAS

380

370

360

370

2

360 350

6

360

7

3

35 0

340

350

Retreats provide secluded quiet areas for relaxation and contemplation in a natural environment.

RETREAT

1

340

330

5

2

Paths provide access to the land uses within the Katywil community and to the surrounding natural areas.

1 PATHS

Source: Massachusetts Geographic Information System, Property Survey, Studio .625

N

Locations of land uses were assigned by taking into consideration topography, the proximity to homes, and the relationships between the differing elements identified in the Concept Diagram. Some of these areas may serve multiple uses.

Conceptual Plan Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 15 of 30

one inch equals two hundred feet 0 100 200 400 600 Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


6

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

7

8

6

The proposed plan for the use and development of the Katywil community commons includes extensive perennial cultivation in forest gardens clustered around the homes and located centrally on a terraced garden next to the community building. A large vegetable garden provides a large, level, sunny area for residents to share work, food, and time while growing annual crops. Two community greens provide places for residents to gather or hold outdoor events. A barn in the east meadow shelters livestock that help manage meadows and lawns. Natural meadows and successional areas are maintained to preserve the biological richness of the site. Trails connect the community and give residents an opportunity to explore the natural world.

8 7

4 1

6

8 6 7

2

Terraced Garden Edible Forest Gardens Vegetable Gardens Community Green Barn Meadows Successional Zones Trails

2

2

2 1 8 2 7

7

2

6 3 1 8 2

6 13

14

5

N

Proposed Plan Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 16 of 30

one inch equals one hundred ďŹ fty feet 0 75 150 300 450 Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Terraced Garden

Forest Gardens

At the center of the community, natural stone terraces rise from a the community building to the upper road. The terraces accommodate trees, shrubs, ground cover, and vines as well as paths and stairs to facilitate movement through the neighborhood.

Islands of garden beds are home to a diverse mix of plants that provide food for the community, nutrients for the soil, and beneďŹ t to wildlife. Gardens are shaped to provide access to plants and are situated near the homes for easy harvest.

Vegetable Gardens

Successional Meadows

The community vegetable garden is in a relatively level, sunny location on the lower terrace. The shared garden allows for shared work and harvest while facilitating vegetable production on a larger scale. A shed and work area are located centrally, but do not shade the garden plots.

Natural areas at Katywil are managed to preserve their open character, wildlife beneďŹ ts, or production of forest products. Open meadows gradually transition to the forest edge and are periodically cleared or cut to maintain their role in the landscape.

Plan Summary Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 17 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Managed Successional Zones Meadows and successional areas must be managed to maintain their open character, wildlife value, and human use. From mown lawn to forest edge, a gradual transition provides a diversity of spaces, uses, and visual interest as well as ensuring adequate forage and refuge for wildlife. These areas are modeled after the stages of succession of old pasture to woodland.

1

2

3

4

5

1. Mown Lawn - Keep mown areas to a minimum to reduce maintenance and increase wildlife habitat. 2. Open Meadow - Maintain naturalized meadows by mowing or burning once a year in the late winter or early spring. Burning reduces buildup of dead vegetation, adds nutrients to the soil, rejuvenates plant growth, and helps prevent the spread of woody vegetation. 3. Access - Paths between commonly used areas can be mowed periodically to keep open for walking. 4. Pasture - An alternative to managing open areas naturally is to pasture goats and sheep to browse and graze.

6

7

6. Tree Nursery - At forest edges or in clustered groups within large meadows, allow tree saplings to mature. Coppice trees for use in garden structures, as ďŹ rewood, or in crafts and ďŹ ne carpentry. Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management, by which young tree stems are cut down to a low level, or sometimes right down to the ground. 7. Forest Edge - Forest edges should function to protect tree trunks from sun scald and to take advantage of the extra sunlight not available under the canopy. Forest edges are excellent habitat for many species, and provide shelter and food. Edges should contain ground cover, shrubs, and trees to provide layers of cover.

5. Shrub Masses - Thickets and masses of shrubs provide food and habitat to wildlife. Maintain this balance of cover and open space by removing tree saplings in these areas and mowing open spaces once a year.

Meadows & Succession Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 18 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Elements of a Forest Garden The cultivated landscape of the community should be arranged in patches of plant uses that provide food for the community, forage and refuge for wildlife, and nutrients for the soil. These uses can be created through cultivated perennial forest gardens which replicate the multi-layered symbiotic ecosystems within forests. Plants requiring regular care or providing a harvest should be located nearer the homes and along pathways. The beauty and integrity of the site should be honored by developing forest gardens slowly, replacing invasive plants with cultivated ones as they are removed. A list of site appropriate herbs, shrubs, trees, and vines for forest gardens can be found in Appendix A.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 8 9

10

11

12 13

14

1516

1. Hedgerows - Use a mix of tall, dense, and thorny shrubs

9. Vines - Whether on the ground, climbing on a built structure,

and small trees to delineate space, provide wildlife habitat, and discourage browsing.

or scrambling over trees and shrubs, vines can provide harvest, shade, and cover across the vertical layers of a forest garden.

2. Cane Fruits - Wild and cultivated cane fruits, such as

10. Existing Junipers - Junipers present in fields that are set

raspberries, are harvested from two-year-old growth. Alternate cutting of groups of plants each year to ensure a regular harvest and control the growth of the thickets.

aside to revert back to forest can provide a good nursery environment for young trees. These plants should especially be kept on steep slopes in order to prevent erosion.

3. Herbs & Greens - Culinary, tea, and medicinal herbs

11. Dynamic Accumulators - Here are grown deep-rooted

mix with perennial greens to consolidate areas that are frequently harvested and maintained.

cover crops that accumulate soil nutrients and trace minerals. These plants can also be harvested for biomass, including mulch or compost.

4. Insectary Plants - Plants that provide nectar sources for bees and beneficial insects support honey production at Katywil while encouraging natural predation of pest insects.

5. Nitrogen Fixers - Plants that have a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria (which fix atmospheric nitrogen into usable plant nutrients) benefit the entire plant community by increasing soil fertility.

6. Swales - Shallow depressions established perpendicular to the slope of the land can help slow the flow of runoff and promote the infiltration of precipitation.

7. Fruit-Bearing Shrubs - A variety of fruit-bearing shrubs provide a harvest that can be eaten fresh or preserved.

8. Paths - Access throughout forest gardens should be well defined to reduce damage to plants and soil compaction. The tops of berms are well suited to this function while north-south oriented paths maximize solar gain for neighboring plants.

12. Old Apples - The Katywil site is rich with mature apple trees. With renovation and care, these heritage trees can once again become productive.

13. Mulch & Mushrooms - Layers of mulch are important for building healthy soil. Trees and shrubs should receive a woody mulch while herbaceous beds should be mulched with straw or fresh material. Mulch piles can double as mushroom production areas.

14. Native Edibles - Many Northeastern native plants can provide a low-maintenance harvest from areas kept in a largely natural state.

15. Ground Covers -Exposed soil invites weeds. Use ground covers to suppress unwanted plants in the gardens.

16. New Fruit & Nut Trees - Young trees should increase the diversity of the tree harvest on site and eventually replace the old trees which will decline in time.

Forest Gardens Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 19 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


z

The following plant lists were developed from an extensive list from Edible Forest Garden. These plant species are chosen for their preference or toleration of sandy acidic soils. Sandy soils such as the ones found on site, have little capability of retaining water. These plant species will prefer or tolerate the lack of water due to their drought tolerance, and will provide for a more sustainable forest garden. The following tables are organizedd by plant form.

Botanical Name

Common Name

Borago officinalis Chamaemelum nobile Chimaphila maculata Chrysogonum virginianum Houstonia caerulea

borage chamomile pipsissewa green and gold bluets prostrate bird's-foot trefoil 'plena' false lily-of-the-valley dwarf ginseng moss pink sheep sorrel yerba buena Labrador violet pussytoes pussytoes purple poppy-mallow pipsissewa bunchberry trout lily musk strawberry wild strawberry silverweed white clover rose verbena barren strawberry white tansy yarrow wild sarsaparilla fringed sagebrush Carpathian bellflower dwarf tickseed Maryland dittany woodland strawberry alpine strawberry garden strawberry orpine running club moss mountain sorrel mayapple stonecrop large-flowered comfrey bellwort speedwell chives garlic chives columbine balsamroot sunflower downy wood mint good King Henry hay-scented fern Robin's plantain wild geranium rattlesnake weed Virginia waterleaf wood lily lupine sweet cicely ground cherry Solomon's seal French sorrel round-leaved ragwort false Solomon's seal red clover golden alexanders New England aster chicory leafcup stinging nettle

Lotus cornniculatus cv. Maianthemum canadense Panax trifolius Phlox subulata Rumex acetosella Satureja douglasii Viola labradorica Antennaria dioica Antennaria plantaginifolia Callirhoe involucrata Chimaphila umbellata Cornus canadensis Erythronium americanum Fragaria moschata Fragaria virginiana Potentilla anserina Trifolium repens Verbena canadensis Waldsteinia fragarioides Achillea ptarmica Aralia nudicaulis Artemisia frigida Campanula carpatica Coreopsis auriculata Cunila origanoides Fragaria vesca Fragaria vesca alpina Fragaria x ananassa Hylotelephium telephium Lycopodium clavatum Oxyria digyna Podophyllum peltatum Sedum reflexum Symphytum grandiflorum Uvularia sessilifolia Veronica officinalis Allium schocnoprasum Allium tuberosum Aquilegia canadensis Balsamorhiza sagittata Blephilia ciliata Chenopodium bonus-henricus Dennstaedtia punctilobula Erigeron pulchellus Geranium maculatum Hieracium venosum Hydrophyllum virginianum Lilium philadelphicum Lupinus perennis Osmorhiza claytonii Physalis heterophylla Polygonatum biflorum Rumex acetosa Senecio obovatus Smilacina racemosa Trifolium pratense Zizia aurea Aster novae-angliae Cichorium intybus Smallanthus uvedalia Urtica dioica

Sun Form { {  { {

annual herb prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate herb

{ {z z { { { {z { { {  {z z { { { { { {z { { { { {  { { { {  { z { { z { { { { {  { {z { { { z { { z { {z {  {z { { { {  {

prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb prostrate-small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-medium herb small-large herb small-large herb small-large herb small-large herb

ed g C ero an w s e H Fru er b its In & G se r ct een i a N ry s 2 F ix Pla Sw er nt s al es Fr ui tVi Bea ne r s ing D Sh yn ru am bs N i at c A iv cc e u G ro Edi mu un bl la to W d es rs ild Co ve lif e Fo rs od & /o rS he lte r



Full Sun: Plant prefers or tolerates total sunlight for at least six hours of the day. Part Shade: Dappled or thin shade all day, full sun for three hours followed by full shade for three hours, and so on. Full Shade: Plant prefers or tolerates complete shade almost all day, can grow in the understory of forests.

H

{

9 9

9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9

9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9 9

9

9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9

9 9 9 9

9

9

9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9

9

9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9

9

9 9

9 9 9

9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9

9 9

9 9 9

9 9 9

9 9 9

9

9

9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9

9 9 9

9 9 9

Source: Dave Jacke, Edible Forest Gardens, vol. 2, 2005.

Appendix A: Forest Garden Herb List Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 20 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006




z

Full Sun: Plant prefers or tolerates total sunlight for at least six hours of the day. Part Shade: Dappled or thin shade all day, full sun for three hours followed by full shade for three hours, and so on. Full Shade: Plant prefers or tolerates complete shade almost all day, can grow in the understory of forests.

Botanical Name

Common Name

Achillea millefolium Aster divaricatus Baptisia tinctoria Bunias orientalis Bunlum bulbocastanum

yarrow white wood aster yellow wild indigo Turkish rocket earth chestnut

{ {z { { {

medium herb medium herb medium herb medium herb medium herb

Coreopsis verticillata Fritillaria camschatcensis Glycyrrhiza lepidota Malva alcea Malva moschata

thread-leaved coreopsis Kamchatka lily American licorice mallow musk mallow

{ { { { {

medium herb medium herb medium herb medium herb medium herb

9 9 9 9

Myrrhis odorata Pimpinella saxifraga Polygonum bistorta

sweet cicely burnet saxifrage bistort

{ { {z

medium herb medium herb medium herb

9

9 9 9

Zizia aptera Baptisia australis Desmodium canadense Hemerocallis fulva Hemerocallis lilio-asphodelus

heart-leaved alexanders wild blue indigo showy tick trefoil tawny daylily yellow daylily

{ { { { {

medium herb medium-large herb medium-large herb medium-large herb medium-large herb

9 9 9 9 9

Lomatium macrocarpum Monarda fistulosa Perideridia gairdneri Petasites japonicus Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum Solidago odora Armoracia rusticana Arnoglossum atriplicifolia Asclepias syriaca Chasmanthium latifolium Helianthus decapetalus Lilium lancifolium Monarda didyma Symphytum officinale Helianthus x laetiflorus Heracleum sphondylium Levisticum officinale Lilium canadense Phytolacca americana Vernonia noveboracensis Alcea rosea Andropogon gerardii Aralia cordata Helianthus tuberosus Tripsacum dactyloides Rheum australe Rheum palmatum

large-fruited biscuit root wild bergamot yampa fuki

{ { { 

medium-large herb medium-large herb medium-large herb medium-large herb

giant Solomon's seal sweet goldenrod horseradish pale Indian plantain milkweed northern sea oats thin-leaved sunflower tiger lily bee balm comfrey showy sunflower cow parsnip lovage Canada lily pokeweed New York ironweed hollyhock big bluestem udo Jerusalem artichoke eastern gamma grass Himalayan rhubarb turkey rhubarb

{ { z { { { { { { { { { { { { { { { { { { {

medium-large herb medium-large herb large herb large herb large herb large herb large herb large herb large herb large herb large-very large herb large-very large herb large-very large herb large-very large herb large-very large herb large-very large herb very large herb very large herb very large herb very large herb very large herb very-large herb very-large herb

H

Sun Form

ed g C ero an w s e F H r er uit b s In & G se r ct een i ar s N y 2 F ix Pla Sw er nt s al es Fr ui tVi Bea ne r s ing D Sh yn ru am bs N i at c A iv cc e u G ro Edi mu un bl la to W d es rs ild Co ve lif e Fo rs od & /o rS he lte r

{

9

9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9

9

9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9

9

9 9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9

9 9

9

9

9 9

9 9 9

9 9

9 9 9

9 9 9

9

9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9

9

9 9 9

9

Source: Dave Jacke, Edible Forest Gardens, vol. 2, 2005.

Appendix A: Forest Garden Herb List, cont. Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 21 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


z

Botanical Name

Common Name

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Dryas octopetala Epigaea repens Gaultheria procumbens Linnaea borealis

bearberry (kiniknik) mountain avens trailing arbutus wintergreen twinflower

Sun Form { { { z 

Opuntia compressa Amorpha nana Aralia hispida Ceanothus americanus Gaylussacia baccata Genista tinctoria Mahonia repens

{ { { { { { {

Rhus aromatica cv. Rubus flagellaris Rumex scutatus Vaccinium angustifolium

prickly pear cactus fragrant false indigo bristly sarsaparilla New Jersey tea black huckleberry dyer's greenwood creeping mahonia fragrant sumac 'Growlow' prickly dewberry buckler-leaved sorrel lowbush blueberry

Rosmarinus officinalis

rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis cv. Amelanchier stolonifera Aralia racemosa Caragana pygmaea Lonicera caerulea var. edulis Mahonia aquifolium Prunus pumila Ribes hirtellum Ribes missouriense Ribes nigrum Ribes silvestre Ribes uva-crispa Rosa rugosa Rubus allegheniensis

rosemary 'Arp' running juneberry spikenard pygmy pea shrub

small shrub { small shrub { small shrub { small shrub small-medium { shrub small-medium { shrub { medium shrub {z medium shrub { medium shrub

edible honeysuckle Oregan grape eastern dwarf cherry smooth gooseberry Missouri gooseberry black currant red currant gooseberry rugosa rose Allegheny blackberry

{ {z { { { { { { { {

medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub medium shrub

prostrate shrub prostrate shrub prostrate shrub prostrate shrub prostrate shrub prostrate-small shrub small shrub small shrub small shrub small shrub small shrub small shrub

ed ge ro C w an s e Fr ui H ts er b & G In re se en ct s ia ry N Pl 2 F an ix er ts Sw al es Fr ui t-B ea Vi rin ne g s Sh ru D yn bs am ic N A at cc iv um e Ed ul G ib at ro l or es un s d C W ov ild er lif s e Fo od & /o rS he lte



Full Sun: Plant prefers or tolerates total sunlight for at least six hours of the day. Part Shade: Dappled or thin shade all day, full sun for three hours followed by full shade for three hours, and so on. Full Shade: Plant prefers or tolerates complete shade almost all day, can grow in the understory of forests.

H

{

9 9

9

9

9 9

9

9

9

9

9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9

9 9

9 9

9

9

9

9

9 9

9 9 9

9

9 9

9

9

9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9

9

9

9 9

9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9 9

9 9

9

9

Rubus idaeus var. strigosus American red raspberry Rubus occidentalis black raspberry purple-flowering Rubus odoratus raspberry

{ {

medium shrub medium shrub

9 9

9

9

9

Amelanchier alnifolla Caragana frutex Cornus paniculata Corylus americana Eleagnus commutata Eleangnus multiflora Ilex glaba Lespedeza bicolor Myrica pensylvanica Quercus prinoides Ribes odoratum Robinia hispida Rosa setigera Shepherdia canadensis Vaccinium corymbosum Viburnum cassinoides

saskatoon Russian pea shrub gray dogwood American hazel silverberry goumi inkberry bush clover northern bayberry dwarf chinkapin oak clove currant bristly locust prairie rose Canadian buffaloberry highbush blueberry witherod viburnum

{ { { { { { { { { { { { { { { {

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

9

Caragana arborescens

Siberian pea shrub

{

Castanea pumila

chinquapin

{

Rhus glabra

smooth sumac

{

Robinia viscosa Alnus serrulata Aralia elata Corylus avellana

clammy locust smooth alder angelica tree European filbert

{ { { {

medium shrub medium-very large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large shrub large-very large shrub large-very large shrub large-very large shrub large-very large shrub very large shrub very large shrub very large shrub

Rhus copallina

winged sumac

{

Rhus hirta

staghorn sumac

{

9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9

9 9

9

9

9

9

9 9 9

9 9 9

9

9

9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9

9

9 9

9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9

9

9 9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9

9 9

9 9

9

9 9

9 9

9 9

extra large shrub 9

9

9

9

9

extra large shrub 9

9

9

9

9

Source: Dave Jacke, Edible Forest Gardens, vol. 2, 2005.

Appendix A: Forest Garden Shrub List Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 22 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006




z

Full Sun: Plant prefers or tolerates total sunlight for at least six hours of the day. Part Shade: Dappled or thin shade all day, full sun for three hours followed by full shade for three hours, and so on. Full Shade: Plant prefers or tolerates complete shade almost all day, can grow in the understory of forests.

ed g C ero an w s e H Fru er b its In & G se r ct e e n s N iar y 2 F ix Pl Sw er an ts al e Fr s ui tVi Bea ne r s ing D Sh yn ru am bs N at ic A iv cc e u G E di mu ro un bl la to W d es rs ild Co ve lif e Fo rs od & /o rS he lte r

{

Trees Common Name

Sun Form

Mespilus germanica Prunus domestica var. institia Xanthoceras sorbifolium

medlar

{

damson plum yellowthorn

{ {

Crataegus punctata

dotted hawthorn

Maackia amurensis

Amur maackia

Malus baccata

Siberian crabapple

Malus ioensis

prairie crabapple

Prunus hortulana

hog plum

Sorbus aucuparia Castanea mollissima Cornus kousa Morus alba Sassafras albidum

rowan Chinese chestnut kousa dogwood white mulberry sassafras

Alnus incana

gray alder

Pinus koraiensis Betula lenta Diospyros virginiana Gleditsia triacanthos Quercus macrocarpa Robinia pseudoacacia

Korean pine black birch American persimmon honey locust bur oak black locust

H

Botanical Name

9

small tree

9 9

small tree small tree small-medium { tree small-medium {z tree small-medium { tree small-medium { tree small-medium { tree small-medium { tree { medium tree { medium tree { medium tree { medium tree medium-large { tree medium-large { tree { large tree { large tree { large tree { large tree { large tree

9

9

9 9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9 9

9 9 9

9

9

9 9 9 9 9 9

9

9

9 9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9

9 9

9

9

9 9

9

ed g C ero an w s e F H er rui ts b & In se Gre ct e N iar ns y 2 F ix Pla Sw er nt s al es Fr ui tVi Bea ne r s ing D Sh yn ru am bs N a t ic A iv cc e u G E di mu ro un bl la to W d es rs ild Co ve lif e Fo rs od & /o rS he lte r

9

9 9 9

9

9

Vines Botanical Name

Common Name

Amphicarpea bracteata Apios americana Apios fortunei Lathyrus latifolius Smilax herbacea Actinidia arguta Actinidia kolomikta Actinidia purpurea Schisandra chinensis Vitis labrusca and hybrids Wisteria floribunda Wisteria frutescens

hog peanut groundnut Fortune's groudnut everlasting pea carrion flower hardy kiwifruit super hardy kiwifruit purple hardy kiwifruit magnolia vine

{z { { { { { { { {

large vine large vine large vine large vine large vine high vine high vine high vine high vine

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

fox grape Japanese wisteria American wisteria

{ { {

high vine high vine high vine

9 9 9

H

Sun Form

9

9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9

9 9 9 9

9

9

9

9

9 9 9

9

9 9

9 9

Source: Dave Jacke, Edible Forest Gardens, vol. 2, 2005.

Appendix A: Forest Garden Tree & Vine List Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 23 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Chemistry Analysis s

Soil Foodweb New York, Inc. 555-7 Hallock Ave, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 USA Phone: (631) 474-8848 Fax: (631) 474-8847 e-mail: soilfoodwebny@aol.com

Sample #:

2625ch

Sampe ID:

A

Received:

pH and Buffer Index

Notes:

4/28/2006

pasture

10.0 9.0

7.43 6.5 5.55

Nitrogen (ppm)

8.0

NH4

NO3

7.0

21.3

27.3

6.0

M

M

SO4

Boron

NR

NR

NR

NR

5.0 4.0 pH

Buffer

Desired pH -

Plant Available - REAMS (ppm)

Page 2

Ca

Mg

K

Na

P

Fe

Mn

Cu

Zn

553

61

39

78.2

30

NR

NR

NR

NR

M

L

M

H

M

NR

NR

NR

NR

Percent Soil Moisture

Percent Organic Matter

Cation Exchange Capacity meq/100g

23.3 15 - 50

6.8 5+

6.4 10+

2625ch

Desired Range

Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) 0.0 <.4

Percent Base Saturation Mg 7.9% K 5.1% Na 10%

H 5.9%

Ca 71.1%

Desired Range

Ca

Mg

K

Na

65 - 75%

10 - 15%

2 - 7%

1 - 3%

Soil Food Web Interpretation The percentage of organic matter is good, but the cation exchange capacity is a bit low in soil sample A. Typically soils with high organic matter have better cation exchange capacity. Compost teas can help inoculate the microbes needed to further breakdown existing organic matter so better nutrient retention is achieved. High iron or aluminum may also be a factor. Good soil moisture content. The pH is low and can be increased with an application of dolomitic lime at 18-20 lbs/1000. Apply with or after compost to maximize retention of applied elements. Nitrogen levels are in good range to high. Routine compost tea applications will help retain excess plant nutrients. Humic acid should also be applied in low amounts to help tie up excess nutrients. Phosphorus and potassium are both in good range to high. Adjust the fertilizer schedule to include materials low in phosphorus and potassium. Soluble salts are low, which is good.

Appendix B: Soil Sample A Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 24 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Chemistry Analysis s

Soil Foodweb New York, Inc. 555-7 Hallock Ave, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 USA Phone: (631) 474-8848 Fax: (631) 474-8847 e-mail: soilfoodwebny@aol.com

Sample #:

2626ch

Sample ID:

B

Received:

pH and Buffer Index

Notes:

4/28/2006

pasture

10.0 9.0

7.46 6.5 5.65

Nitrogen (ppm)

8.0

NH4

NO3

7.0

11.3

21.3

6.0

L

M

SO4

Boron

NR

NR

NR

NR

5.0 4.0 pH

Buffer

Desired pH -

Plant Available - REAMS (ppm)

Page 2

Ca

Mg

K

Na

P

Fe

Mn

Cu

Zn

297

28

75

116.8

24

NR

NR

NR

NR

L

L

H

H

L

NR

NR

NR

NR

Percent Soil Moisture

Percent Organic Matter

Cation Exchange Capacity meq/100g

Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm)

20.9 15 - 50

4.4 5+

5.3 10+

0.0 <.4

2626ch

Desired Range

Percent Base Saturation K 13.5% Na 21%

Mg 4.9%

H 7.7% Ca 53.1%

Desired Range

Ca

Mg

K

Na

65 - 75%

10 - 15%

2 - 7%

1 - 3%

Soil Foodweb Interpretation The percentage of organic matter and the cation exchange capacity are both low for soil sample B. Add compost or pelletized compost to increase the organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Apply a dusting of compost. The pH is low for perennials, and the calcium and magnesium both should be increased. Apply 18-20 lbs/1000 sq ft dolomitic lime, but be sure to apply with or after compost to maximize the retention of the elements and reduce leaching. Nitrogen levels are a bit low. Compost teas with good levels of predatory microbes will help make more nitrogen plant available. A source of organic nitrogen should be applied with compost teas. Fish hydrolysate or soy would be good. Fish hydrolysate is a good source of phosphorus which is low in the soil. Soluble salts are low, which is good.

Appendix B: Soil Sample B Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 25 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Foodweb, Inc.

Soil Foodweb Analysis

555-7 Hallock Ave, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 USA Phone: (631) 474-8848 Fax: (631) 474-8847 e-mail: soilfoodwebny@aol.com

Organism Biomass Data Sample Unique Dry Weight # ID of 1 gram Fresh Material 5619 C 0.84 In good range, but on the dry side.

Plants: Perennials Sample Received: 4/29/2006 Report Sent: 5/11/06 Active Bacterial Biomass (μg/g) 22.3

Total Bacterial Biomass (μg/g) 299

Active Fungal Biomass (μg/g) 16.8

Total Fungal Biomass (μg/g) 378

Very good bacterial activity.

Good total bacterial biomass.

In good range.

Excellent total fungal biomass.

Hyphal Diameter (μm) 2.5

Total Percent Nematode Mycorrhizal Protozoa Numbers/g Numbers Colonization Flagellates Amoebae Ciliates #/g of Root NR NR NR NR NR

Fungal community Fungi and bacteria are both is more growing rapidly and will be typical of retaining nutrients. Compost or turfgrass tea applications will provide soils than provide a source of inoculum perennial soils. of protozoa and nematodes Inoculate to cycle nutrients. highly beneficial species with compost tea. Desired 0.45 15 100 15 100 (A) 10000 + 10000 + 50 20 Range 0.85 25 300 25 300 100 30 (A) Hyphal diameter of 2.0 indicates mostly actinobacteria hyphae, 2.5 indicates community is mainly ascomycete, typical soil fungi for grasslands, diameters of 3.0 or higher indicate community is dominated by highly beneficial fungi, a Basidiomycete community. Season, moisture, soil and organic matter must be considered in determining optimal foodweb structure. If sample information, such as pesticide, fertilizer, tillage, irrigation are not included on the submission form, sender's locale is used. One report is sent to the mailing address on the submission form. All submissions receive free 15 minute consultation, call 1-631-474-8848

Bold Means Low

40% 80%

05619, Soil Type: Sand, low organic matter. Irrigated: None. Plant: Perennials.

Organism Ratios Sample #

Unique ID

5619

C

Total Fungal To Total Bacterial Biomass 1.26

Active to Total Fungal Biomass

Active to Total Bacterial Biomass

0.04

0.07

Good F to B ratio for perennials. A Compost tea drench should be applied in the spring to inoculate predators needed to cycle nutrients. Apply 3-5 gal/1000 sq ft of tea with 1/2 cup/1000 each of fish hydrolysate and humic acid. Repeat the tea in early and mid-summer, but increase the fish and humic acid (double) on these apps. *(1)

Fair amount of the fungi present are active.

Good bacterial activity.

As an option a long term source of organic N such as feather meal can be used with tea in early summer. *(2)

Active Fungal to Active Bacterial Biomass 0.75

Plant Available Root-Feeding N Supply Nematode from Predators Presence (lbs/acre) NR NR

The soil is getting more bacterial through the spring. The humic acid will keep the activity balanced.

Desired *(2) *(3) *(4) *(5) Range (1) Brassica: 0.2-0.5; Row crops: 0.6 to 1.2; Early successional grass: 0.5-0.75; Late successional grass: 0.8 to 1.5; Berries, shrubs, vines: 2-5; Deciduous Trees: 5-10; Conifer: 10-100. (2) Warm spring, early summer: 0.25 to 0.95; Early spring, late winter & mid-summer: 0.10 to 0.15; Fall rain: 0.15 to 0.20; Drought/frozen soil/heavy metal/many pesticides: 0.05 or lower. Values greater than indicated mean the organisms are recovering from a negative impact. Values lower mean organisms are not recovering and help is needed, typically addition of their food resource is required. (3) Generally 1:1 results in good soil aggregate structure in crop soil; 2 to 5 for deciduous trees; 5 for conifers. Values above 1:1 mean soil pH may be decreasing, values less than 1:1 means pH increasing. Anaerobic conditions generally will result in extremely low soil pH. (4) Based on release of N from protozoan and nematode consumption of bacteria and fungi (see Ingham et al. 1985). Often protozoa and nematodes compete for food resources. When one is high, the other may be low. Also, if predator numbers are high, the prey may have low numbers. (5) Identification to genus.

Appendix B: Soil Sample C Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 26 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Chemistry Analysis s

Soil Foodweb New York, Inc. 555-7 Hallock Ave, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 USA Phone: (631) 474-8848 Fax: (631) 474-8847 e-mail: soilfoodwebny@aol.com

Sample #:

2627ch

Sample ID:

D

Received:

pH and Buffer Index

Notes:

4/28/2006

pasture

10.0 9.0

7.47 6.5

Nitrogen (ppm)

8.0

NH4

NO3

7.0

12.3

23.0

6.0

L

M

SO4

Boron

NR

NR

NR

NR

5.25 5.0 4.0 pH

Buffer

Desired pH -

Plant Available - REAMS (ppm)

Page 2

Ca

Mg

K

Na

P

Fe

Mn

Cu

Zn

388

21

21

61.0

61

NR

NR

NR

NR

M

L

M

H

H

NR

NR

NR

NR

Percent Soil Moisture

Percent Organic Matter

Cation Exchange Capacity meq/100g

15 - 50

5+

10+

2627ch

Desired Range

Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) <.4

Percent Base Saturation Mg K 4.0% 4.0% Na 11%

H 7.9%

Ca 72.7%

Desired Range

Ca

Mg

K

Na

65 - 75%

10 - 15%

2 - 7%

1 - 3%

Soil Foodweb Interpretation Good soil moisture content, and percentage of organic matter in soil sample D. The way to increase the cation exchange capacity is by boosting the organic matter with a compost application. Apply 10-15 lbs/1000 sq ft compost. The pH is low and can be increased with an application of dolomitic lime at 18-20 lbs/1000. Apply with or after compost to maximize retention of applied elements. Nitrogen levels are low, and can be boosted with ďŹ sh or soy added to teas. A long term source of organic nitrogen such as feather meal can be used in early summer to be made available slowly by microbes during the summer. Phosphorus and potassium are both in good range to high. Adjust the fertilizer schedule to include materials low in phosphorus and potassium. Soluble salts are low, which is good.

Appendix B: Soil Sample D Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 27 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Chemistry Analysis s

Soil Foodweb New York, Inc. 555-7 Hallock Ave, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 USA Phone: (631) 474-8848 Fax: (631) 474-8847 e-mail: soilfoodwebny@aol.com

Sample #:

2628ch

Sampe ID:

E

Received:

pH and Buffer Index

Notes:

4/28/2006

recently cleared forest

10.0 9.0

7.2

6.5

4.38

Nitrogen (ppm)

8.0

NH4

NO3

7.0

23.6

20.3

6.0

M

M

SO4

Boron

NR

NR

NR

NR

5.0 4.0

pH

Buffer

Desired pH -

Plant Available - REAMS (ppm)

Page 2

Ca

Mg

K

Na

P

Fe

Mn

Cu

Zn

290

24

89

108

6

NR

NR

NR

NR

H

M

M

NR

VH

NR

NR

NR

NR

Percent Soil Moisture

Percent Organic Matter

Cation Exchange Capacity meq/100g

27.2 15 - 50

6.9 5+

6.4 10+

2628ch

Desired Range

Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm) 0.0 <.4

Percent Base Saturation K 15.4%

Na 19%

Mg 4.2% H 11.1%

Ca 50.5%

Desired Range

Ca

Mg

K

Na

65 - 75%

10 - 15%

2 - 7%

1 - 3%

Soil Foodweb Interpretation The percentage of organic matter is good, but the cation exchange capacity is a bit low in soil sample E. Typically soils with high organic matter have better cation exchange capacity. Compost teas can help inoculate the microbes needed to further breakdown existing organic matter so better nutrient retention is achieved. High iron or aluminum may also be a factor. Good soil moisture content. The pH is low and both the calcium and magnesium need to be increased. Apply dolomitic lime at 27-30 lbs/1000 sq ft. Apply with or after a dusting of compost to help maximize the retention of the elements. Repeat the lime in the fall. Nitrogen levels are in good range to high. Routine compost tea applications will help retain excess plant nutrients. Humic acid should also be applied in low amounts to help tie up excess nutrients. Soluble salts are low, which is good.

Appendix B: Soil Sample E Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 28 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Chemistry Analysis s

Soil Foodweb New York, Inc. 555-7 Hallock Ave, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 USA Phone: (631) 474-8848 Fax: (631) 474-8847 e-mail: soilfoodwebny@aol.com

Sample #:

2629ch

Sampe ID:

F

Received:

pH and Buffer Index

Notes:

4/28/2006

pasture

10.0 9.0

7.45 6.5 5.71

Nitrogen (ppm)

8.0

NH4

NO3

7.0

6.0

19.5

6.0

L

L

SO4

Boron

NR

NR

NR

NR

5.0 4.0 pH

Buffer

Desired pH -

Plant Available - REAMS (ppm)

Page 2

Ca

Mg

K

Na

P

Fe

Mn

Cu

Zn

637

14

79

100.6

19

NR

NR

NR

NR

M

L

H

H

L

NR

NR

NR

NR

Percent Soil Moisture

Percent Organic Matter

Cation Exchange Capacity meq/100g

Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm)

24.1 15 - 50

6.1 5+

6.3 10+

0.0 <.4

2629ch

Desired Range

Percent Base Saturation Mg 1.6%

K 9.0%

Na 12%

H 5.0%

Ca 72.9%

Desired Range

Ca

Mg

K

Na

65 - 75%

10 - 15%

2 - 7%

1 - 3%

Soil Foodweb Interpretation The percentage of organic matter is good, but the cation exchange capacity is a bit low in soil sample F. Typically soils with high organic matter have better cation exchange capacity. Compost teas can help inoculate the microbes needed to further breakdown existing organic matter so better nutrient retention is achieved. High iron or aluminum may also be a factor. Good soil moisture content. The pH is low and can be increased with an application of dolomitic lime at 18-20 lbs/1000. Nitrogen levels are low, and can be boosted with ďŹ sh or soy added to teas. Fish hydrolysate is a good source of phosphorus which is low in the soil. A long term source of organic nitrogen such as feather meal can be used in early summer to be made available slowly by microbes during the summer.

Appendix B: Soil Sample F Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 29 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006


Soil Chemistry Analysis s

Soil Foodweb New York, Inc. 555-7 Hallock Ave, Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 USA Phone: (631) 474-8848 Fax: (631) 474-8847 e-mail: soilfoodwebny@aol.com

Sample #:

pH and Buffer Index

2630ch

Sampe ID:

G

Received:

4/28/2006

Notes:

pasture

10.0 9.0

7.48 6.5 5.46

Nitrogen (ppm)

8.0

NH4

NO3

7.0

9.5

25.2

6.0

L

M

SO4

Boron

NR

NR

NR

NR

5.0 4.0 pH

Buffer

Desired pH -

Plant Available - REAMS (ppm)

Page 2

Ca

Mg

K

Na

P

Fe

Mn

Cu

Zn

579

38

47

99.6

140

NR

NR

NR

NR

M

L

M

H

H

NR

NR

NR

NR

Percent Soil Moisture

Percent Organic Matter

Cation Exchange Capacity meq/100g

Electrical Conductivity (mS/cm)

22.5 15 - 50

4.6 5+

6.1 10+

0.1 <.4

2630ch

Desired Range

Percent Base Saturation Mg 4.7% K 5.8% Na 12%

Ca 71.9%

Desired Range

H 5.2%

Ca

Mg

K

Na

65 - 75%

10 - 15%

2 - 7%

1 - 3%

Soil Foodweb Interpretation The percentage of organic matter and the cation exchange capacity are both low in soil sample G. Add compost or pelletized compost to increase the organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Apply 10-15 lbs/1000 sq ft compost. The pH is low and can be increased with an application of dolomitic lime at18-20 lbs/1000. Apply with or after compost to maximize retention of applied elements. Nitrogen levels are low, and can be boosted with ďŹ sh or soy added to teas. A long term source of organic nitrogen such as feather meal can be used in earlysummer to be made available slowly by microbes during the summer. Phosphorus and potassium are both in good range to high. Adjust the fertilizer schedule to include materials low in phosphorus and potassium. Soluble salts are low, which is good.

Appendix B: Soil Sample G Katywil Community Commons Master Plan Sheet 30 of 30

Conway School of Landscape Design Danny Stratten & Ian Hodgdon June 2006

Katywil Community Commons Master Plan (2006)  

By Ian Hodgdon and Danny Stratten, Plan for Katywil Ecovillage, Colrain, Mass., 2006