Photo credit: Julia Reynolds from Monmade
the studio at
2018 workshops winter/spring
CONTENTS Visiting Artists Workshops at a Glance Metal Clay Mixed Media Wood
1 2-3 4-5 5 6 7
Book Arts & Paper Fiber Special Topics Crafts & Drafts Registration
BACKGROUND 8 9 10 11 12-13
Presenting contemporary art in craft media by regional, national, and international artists since 1971, Contemporary Craft (CC) offers cutting edge exhibitions focusing on multicultural diversity and non-mainstream art, as well as a range of studio workshops, community outreach programs, and a retail store. With its mission of engaging the public in creative experiences through contemporary craft, CC offers meaningful art opportunities for more than 145,000 people a year through four core values: providing vital support for artists; filling critical gaps in public education; sharing cross-cultural perspectives; and using art to build community.
EXHIBITION & STORE HOURS
General program support provided by the Allegheny Regional Asset District, the Elizabeth R. Raphael Fund of The Pittsburgh Foundation, The Heinz Endowments,Â and the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts.
Monday - Saturday, 10am to 5pm
VISIT US AT www.contemporarycraft.org to browse our digital catalog and to register online.
Don’t miss these unique opportunities to work alongside our Visiting Artists! Looking for flexibility? Call the studio at 412.261.7003 x24 for one-day options for the classes marked with an * after the title. FIGURING OUT THE FIGURE* Clara Hoag, Houston, TX Sat & Sun, January 27 & 28 Page 5 FOUND, HAND-STITCHED & ALTERED: EMBROIDERY COLLAGE* Maggy Hiltner Rozycki, Red Lodge, MT Sat & Sun, January 27 & 28 Page 9 BRUSH MAKING Troy Bungart, Three Rivers, MI Sat, March 17 Page 10 MIXED MEDIA FOR TEXTILE ARTISTS Jane Dunnewold, San Antonio, TX Sat & Sun, April 28 & 29 Page 9 WELLNESS & YOUR STUDIO PRACTICE YOGA IN THE GALLERY Missy Graff-Ballone, Hoboken, NJ Sat & Sun, April 28 & 29 Page 10 THE ART OF PERSONAL ADORNMENT* Bob Ebendorf, Santa Fe, NM Sat & Sun, May 5 & 6 Page 4
Saturday & Sunday, January 27 & 28 Figuring Out the Figure
Saturday, February 17 PMC Celtic Knots
Saturday, February 10 Steel Jewelry: Beyond the Chain
Saturday, March 10 Tin Can Collage
Saturday, February 3 Introduction to the Lathe
Saturday, February 24 Small Pots for Big Jobs
Saturday, March 3 Whistling Water Vessels
Saturday, February 10 Introduction to Relief Carving
Saturday, March 3 Mesh Blocked Mosaics
Saturday, April 7 Encaustics Exploration
Saturday & Sunday, May 5 & 6 The Art of Personal Adornment Saturday, May 19 Volumetric Jewelry with the Hydraulic Press
Saturday, February 3 Chains of Steel
Saturday, January 20 Wire Woven Baskets
WOOD page 7
Saturday, May 12 Layered PMC Pendants
MIXED MEDIA page 6
Saturday & Sunday, April 28 & 29 Memory Keepsake Box
CLAY page 5
METAL pages 4-5
WORKSHOPS AT A GLANCE
BOOK ARTS & PAPER page 8
Saturday, March 10 Gyotaku: The Art of Japanese Fish Printing
Saturday, April 21 Reinventing the Wheel: Handmade Paper with Texture & Collage Saturday, May 5 3-D Pulp Printing Saturday, May 12 Papermaking with Mother in Mind
FIBER page 9
SPECIAL TOPICS page 10
CRAFTS & DRAFTS page 11
Saturday & Sunday, January 27 & 28 Found, Hand-Stitched & Altered: Embroidery Collage
Friday, January 19 Sweater Slippers
Saturday, February 24 Wet Felted Hats
Friday, February 9 Adjustable Rings
Saturday, March 24 Knitted Socks
Saturday & Sunday, April 28 & 29 Mixed Media for Textile Artists
Sunday, May 6 The Art of Marbling Fabric
Saturday, March 17 Brush Making
4 Saturdays, April 21, 28 & May 5, 12 Explore: Visual Voices: Truth Narrative Saturday, April 28 Wellness & Your Studio Practice Sunday, April 29 Yoga in the Gallery
Friday, March 9 Not Your Grandmaâ€™s Brooch
Friday, April 20 Papermaking From Hops
Friday, May 11 Throw & Grow Seed Bombs
WIRE WOVEN BASKETS Sat, January 20 10am-5pm Instructor: Melissa Davenport Level: all Students will learn annealing, weaving, and embellishment of metal and incorporate other materials of their choice into a project of their design. A basic metal weaving technique and process will be taught. Each student will complete a small basket for a variety of uses. Tuition: $85 Materials: instructor will provide a list
CHAINS OF STEEL Sat, February 3 10am-5pm Instructor: Maia Leppo Level: all Explore the use of steel as an affordable, lightweight alternative material for chain making. Students will learn, experiment with, and apply different soldering methods with steel wires, and then personalize their jewelry with non-toxic finishing techniques and added accents of their choice. All levels are welcome; experience with metalsmithing is helpful. Tuition: $100 Materials: included
STEEL JEWELRY: BEYOND THE CHAIN Sat, February 10 10am-5pm Instructor: Maia Leppo Level: all Students will expand their knowledge of steel as a material for a variety of jewelry applications. Learn, experiment with, and apply different soldering and riveting methods with steel wires and sheet metal. Simple mechanisms for pin backs, clasps, and earring wires will be covered to help make a unique jewelry piece. Tuition: $100 Materials: included TIN CAN COLLAGE Sat, March 10 10am-5pm Instructor: Robert Villamagna Level: all Take collage to a whole different level using repurposed metal or â€œtin.â€? Students will learn to cut, bend, and manipulate metal product containers to create original artworks, along with exploration of composition and methods to unify materials for their creative vision. Tuition: $90 Materials: included
THE ART OF PERSONAL ADORNMENT: LOW-TECH PROBLEM SOLVING* Sat & Sun, May 5 & 6 10am-5pm Instructor: Bob Ebendorf Level: all Working with traditional and alternative materials, this workshop will explore a wide range of concepts applicable to adornment and the narrative object. Participants will fashion objects of personal importance and expression. The class will be centered on instruction and demonstration with plenty of time for hands-on and individual attention. Tuition: $205 Materials: instructor will provide a list
VOLUMETRIC JEWELRY WITH THE HYDRAULIC PRESS Sat, May 19 10am-5pm Instructor: Katie Rearick Level: all Learn to make hollow, volumetric forms in metal using the hydraulic press! By utilizing the die-forming process, students will produce a pendant and earrings during the workshop. The basics of sawing, filing, annealing, soldering, and forming will be covered along with surface design and finishing techniques. Tuition: $115 Materials: included *Call for one-day options.
FIGURING OUT THE FIGURE* Sat & Sun, January 27 & 28 10am-5pm Instructor: Clara Hoag Level: all This workshop will cover the basics of building a human head and bust, including coil-building and slab-building methods, and their applications in figure sculpture. Basic proportion and anatomy of the human body, useful tools, tips, and tricks for sculpting the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and hair will also be covered. Tuition: $205 Materials: instructor will provide a list
SMALL POTS FOR BIG JOBS Sat, February 24 1-4pm Instructor: Amanda Wolf Level: all Get ready to create small pots made to hold a variety of household objects! Students will create several pieces to be fired and ready to use in their home. The instructor will lead participants in the process of forming clay and creating a decorative narrative surface using stamps, sprigs, and colored slips. Tuition: $70 Materials: included
WHISTLING WATER VESSELS Sat, March 3 10am-5pm Instructor: Kimberlyn Bloise Level: all Learn to make water vessels that whistle with instructor â€¨Kimberlyn Bloise, a Pittsburgh-based artist specialized in creating functional musical ceramics. Students will use pinching and soft slab construction techniques to create a water pitcher with a built-in whistle, and decorate the pitcherâ€™s surface using sliptrailing processes. Tuition: $100 Materials: included
visit our digital catalog at www.contemporarycraft.org for additional details
PMC CELTIC KNOTS Sat, February 17 9am-4:30pm Instructor: Donna Penoyer Level: all Master PMC Flex, a pure silver metal clay, to create a beautiful Celtic knot pendant. Students will make the same design during the workshop and will learn how to go about making other forms and constructions in the future. Tuition: $120 Materials: included
MESH BLOCKED MOSAICS Sat, March 3 10am-5pm Instructor: Rachel Sager Level: all Learn the secrets of working with mesh and installing your handcrafted mosaic anywhere in your house or community. In collaboration with the instructorâ€™s lifelong legacy installation, The Ruins Project, students will learn how to handle outdoor elements when installing mosaic work. Sign up to tour The Ruins Project for an additional $25. Tuition: $125 Materials: included
TOUR OF THE RUINS PROJECT Sunday, March 4 10-11am Instructor: Rachel Sager Location: Rachel Sager Mosaics, 549 River Road Perryopolis, PA The Ruins Project is a long-term mosaic art installation that represents the vision of one artist but welcomes the hands, hearts, and hammers of mosaic artists from around the world. Come tour the walls of a working coalmine that has become a living, learning substrate for mosaic artists everywhere. Tuition: $25 Materials: included
visit our digital catalog at www.contemporarycraft.org for additional details
ENCAUSTICS EXPLORATION Sat, April 7 10am-3pm Instructor: Katy Dement Level: all Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves adding colored pigments to heated waxes. Materials can be encased or collaged onto the surface by using the encaustic medium. Students will complete a sampler of encaustic techniques and create several small works to take home. Tuition: $85 Materials: included LAYERED PMC PENDANTS Sat, May 12 9am-4:30pm Instructor: Donna Penoyer Level: all Students will learn how to texture and add dimension to fine silver metal clay to make a beautiful piece of jewelry. During this workshop, students will start with simple designs and then build up interest and complexity by joining multiple layers and components. Tuition: $135 Materials: included
METALS BENCH RENTALS
Take advantage of Contemporary Craftâ€™s bench rental program. Rentals include a locked bench, locker, and use of the metals studio when workshops are not in session.
INTRODUCTION TO THE LATHE Sat, February 3 1pm-5pm Instructor: Linda Van Gehuchten Level: all Master simple techniques for using the lathe with an experienced woodturning artist! Process and safety issues will be addressed, along with hands-on experiences with tools and woodturning techniques. Students will walk away with an understanding of lathe operation and safety, and will have a few small pieces to show for it. Tuition: $85 Materials: included
*Call for one-day options.
INTRODUCTION TO RELIEF CARVING Sat, February 10 10am-5pm Instructor: Dave Betler Level: all Students will create a candy dish while exploring the use and maintenance of wood carving tools. Strategies for selecting a pattern and transferring it to a piece of wood will be covered as well as considerations for layout, perspective and composition. Tuition: $105 Materials: included
MEMORY KEEPSAKE BOX* Sat & Sun, April 28 & 29 10am-5pm Instructor: Robert Bishop Level: all Make your own lidded keepsake box while becoming acquainted with various wood species. Joinery, design, and proper finishing techniques will be covered. Woodworking machinery and hand tools will be used. Looking for flexibility? Call the studio for one-day options. Tuition: $225 Materials: included
Cost: $100 per month; $250 per quarter; or $600 for the year. To inquire, call 412.261.7003 or email email@example.com.
Have some studio experience under your belt? Use Contemporary Craftâ€™s studios to work on your own independent wood, metal, and mixed media craft projects. A variety of tools and equipment will be available during the four weekly sessions. Wednesdays, open until 7pm. Tuition: $90 for a group of four sessions, or $30 per session.
Scholarships are available for all of CC’s workshops. If cost is preventing you from registering, or you are a local high school or college student, faculty member, or teacher, please contact us for details at 412.261.7003 or firstname.lastname@example.org. Materials fees may still apply. Scholarship support for Pittsburgh Public School teachers is generously provided by the Buhl Foundation.
The Studio offers a wide variety of educational programming, group tours, private workshops, and corporate teambuilding experiences. Visit www.contemporarycraft.org and click on the “Education” tab for more details.
BOOK ARTS & PAPER
GYOTAKU: THE ART OF JAPANESE FISH PRINTING Sat, March 10 10am-3pm Instructor: Albert Pantone Level: all Create an intricate image of a fish and other natural objects with the 400-year-old Japanese printing technique. By applying inks or pigments directly onto the relief surface of natural objects, students can capture the delicate features, textures, and shapes of the objects they are working with on paper or cloth. Tuition: $75 Materials: included
REINVENTING THE WHEEL: HANDMADE PAPER WITH TEXTURE & COLLAGE Sat, April 21 1-5pm Instructor: Katy Dement Level: all Learn about the traditional papermaking process while exploring more modern techniques with color and texture. By experimenting with surface design, texture, and composition, students will create sheets of recycled paper and “wet on wet collages” that can include mementos from home. Tuition: $75 Materials: included 3-D PULP PAINTING Sat, May 5 10am-3pm Instructor: Albert Pantone Level: all Students will learn to build an armature around molds to make a cup or bowl with paper pulp. Wet pulps such as abaca, cotton linter, and other natural pulps will be attached and sculpted according to each student’s vision. Inclusion of various materials and colored pulps will be used to enhance the design. Tuition: $75 Materials: included
PAPERMAKING WITH MOTHER IN MIND Sat, May 12 11am-3pm Instructor: Katy Dement Level: all Include memories of home and motherly love into the process of creating unique handmade paper. Students will learn about the traditional papermaking process while exploring modern papermaking using natural and found materials. Include mementos from home to make “wet on wet collages,” for one-ofa-kind Mother’s day gifts or cards. Tuition: $70 Materials: included
FOUND, HAND-STITCHED & ALTERED: EMBROIDERY COLLAGE* Sat & Sun, January 27 & 28 10am-5pm Instructor: Maggy Hiltner Rozycki Level: all Master the ability to make dynamic stitched imagery and examine the meaning and value of repurposed materials with the instruction of an experienced embroidery artist. Through working with the mediums of embroidery and collage, students will explore various textile materials and techniques, and will enjoy experimentation and discussion. Tuition: $215 Materials: included *Call for one-day options.
WET FELTED HATS Sat, February 24 10am-5pm Instructor: Juliane Gorman Level: all Transform soft Merino fiber intoâ€¨ a colorful, wearable art cloche. Using a flat resist, students will layer the wool, add textural interest with fabrics and felt the fiber. After wet felting, the hats will be shaped and draped to fit. Tuition: $120 Materials: included KNITTED SOCKS Sat, March 24 10am-5pm Instructor: Carolyn Rose Level: Intermediate Students will begin by knitting a mini sock to learn the entire process of the long tail cast on, ribbing, leg, heal, gusset, foot, toe, and finishing. The instructor will also help students concentrate on sock design, sizing, and how to work around and correct mistakes. Tuition: $85 Materials: instructor will provide a list
MIXED MEDIA FOR TEXTILE ARTISTS Sat & Sun, April 28 & 29 10am-4pm Instructor: Jane Dunnewold Level: all Explore exciting techniques that can be used to enhance current textile work, including spackling, photo transfers, metal leafing, Inktense crayons, and ecoprinted papers. Students will work with each technique as a stand alone, and then develop samples combining processes to discover a wealth of creative opportunities. Tuition: $225 Materials: included
THE ART OF MARBLING FABRIC Sun, May 6 10am-1pm Instructor: Melissa DeLisio Level: all Use ancient marbling techniques to create one-of-a-kind fabrics. Play with color and pattern to create contemporary and traditional free-form designs. Become versed in a variety of products to use in fabric and paper marbling. Students will walk away with a beautiful stash of fabric to use in their next project. Tuition: $80 Materials: included
visit our digital catalog at www.contemporarycraft.org for additional details
June 22, 23 & 24 10am-5pm Plan your summer get away with Contemporary Craft! Choose from one of the three experiences for a weekend of creativity and making under the guidance of renowned international artists. NATURAL DYEING Instructor: Jennifer Moss Savannah, GA JOOMCHI: THE ART OF PAPER FELTING Instructor: Julie Sirek Edina, MN
DRAWING & PAINTING WITH ENAMEL Instructor: Barbara McFadyen Chapel Hill, NC Call the studio for more information and to register early.
BRUSH MAKING Sat, March 17 10am-5pm Instructor: Troy Bungart Level: all Students will learn the bamboo brush making process and construction techniques, stepby-step with the instructor. During this intensive, handson class, the making of brush heads, ferrules, and bamboo handles will be covered. Tuition: $140 Materials: included
EXPLORE: VISUAL VOICES: TRUTH NARRATIVES 4 Sat, April 21, 28 & May 5, 12 10am- 12pm Instructor: Sheila Kelly Level: all Explore the exhibit of Visual Voices: Truth Narratives and write about artworks that engage your vital life questions. Students will meditate on a variety of themes inspired by the artwork. This fourSaturday writing adventure uses image-rich poems and questions for reflection as jumping-off points for creating new writing. Tuition: $80 Materials: please bring a notebook and pen
WELLNESS & YOUR STUDIO PRACTICE Sat, April 28 10am-3pm Instructor: Missy Graff Ballone Level: all This class is designed for artists, craftsmen, and creative people to help them maintain a healthy, sustainable studio practice. Missy Graff Ballone, founder of Wellness for Makers, will demonstrate basic stretching and massage techniques that students can incorporate into their workday and studio practice to increase health and productivity. Tuition: $110 Materials: included YOGA IN THE GALLERY Sun, April 29 9-10am Instructor: Missy Graff Ballone Level: all Grab your yoga mat and join a morning yoga session in the gallery at Contemporary Craft. Find your peace of mind as the morning light streams through and brushes on the beautiful works of art. All levels welcome but space limitedâ€” pre-registration is required. Tuition: $15 Materials: please bring a yoga mat
CRAFTS & DRAFTS
These delicious Studio offerings pair local brews with beginner-friendly, quality crafting. Must be 21 or older to participate. Each workshop includes two complimentary beverages! SWEATER SLIPPERS Fri, January 19 6-9pm Instructor: Lauren Sims Level: all Dig out those moth-eaten old sweaters and transform them into a pair of cozy feet-warming slippers! Don’t forget sweater sleeves too—they make wonderful legwarmers. No sewing experience necessary. Sewing machines and hand sewing supplies will be provided. Tuition: $35 Materials: please bring your own sweaters
NOT YOUR GRANDMA’S BROOCH Fri, March 9 6-9pm Instructor: Chelsea Arthur-Succop Level: all Bring a friend or treat yourself to a riveting evening of contemporary metalsmithing. Students will enjoy a cold brew and create a fabulous mini wearable sculpture! This class is great for people of all genders and experience. Tuition: $35 Materials: included
ADJUSTABLE RINGS Fri, February 9 6-9pm Instructor: Lindsay Huff Level: all Learn basic metalsmithing processes to fabricate sheet metal into adjustable rings. Basic rings can be personalized with stamped names and words, as well as a variety of textures and finishes. Using copper, brass, and nickel, students will cut, file, stamp, hammer, patina, and polish their way to completing several adjustable rings. Tuition: $35 Materials: included
PAPERMAKING FROM HOPS Fri, April 20 6-9pm Instructor: Katy Dement Level: all Craft brewing meets papermaking in this unique workshop! Using the grains, fibers, and vines reclaimed from the brewing process, students will create golden handmade papers. Embellish the paper with hops flowers and “wet-on-wet” collage using vintage ephemera. Tuition: $35 Materials: included
THROW & GROW SEED BOMBS Fri, May 11 6-9pm Instructor: Albert Pantone Level: all Get into the swing of spring with this great garden project! Students will make seed bombs with wildflower seeds molded together by recycled paper pulp that can then be thrown or laid in the soil. Materials are provided but students are welcome to bring their own favorite seeds. Tuition: $35 Materials: included
The Western Pennsylvania Potters Association (WPAPotters) is committed to strengthening the potters’ community. All potters are invited to participate, from beginners to professionals and collectors. Bring your enthusiasm, passion and excitement and let’s work together. Learn more about the WPAPotters at www.wpapotters.org.
WAYS TO REGISTER
CANCELLATIONS & REFUNDS
Online www.contemporarycraft.org By mail Contemporary Craft The Studio 2100 Smallman Street Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Phone 412-261-7003 x25 Fax 412-261-1941 In Person 10am-5pm, Monday through Saturday E-mail email@example.com
Class and workshop cancellations are decided three business days before start date. If a class must be canceled due to insufficient enrollment, the entire class fee will be refunded.
WORKSHOP INFORMATION • Students who register by mail or fax will receive a confirmation e-mail within seven days. • It is the responsibility of the student to appear in class on the correct day and time without additional notice. • Students’ photos may appear in CC’s promotional materials. • CC makes every effort to maintain the schedule of courses as announced in the catalog, however, CC reserves the right to cancel any course or to substitute faculty when necessary.
1-2 Day Workshops Student refund requests must be made at least three business days before a class begins. There will be a $25 cancellation fee. No refunds will be given without three business days notice. Processing of refunds takes approximately three weeks.
3-5 Day and Visiting Artist Workshops Cancellations, 14 or more days notice: A student may cancel a registration for a 3, 4 or 5 day workshop up to two weeks prior to the start date of the class. There will be a $50 cancellation fee. Cancellations, fewer than 14 days notice: If a student cancels a registration within two weeks of the start date of a 3, 4 or 5 day workshop, there will be a 50% cancellation fee.
REGISTRATION There will be no refund issued without three business days notice of a cancellation.
MATERIALS Instructors may request that students have certain supplies upon registration. Materials fees are built into the tuition unless otherwise stated..
PAYMENT OPTIONS • Check payable to Contemporary Craft. (A $25 fee is charged for returned checks.) • Credit card. We accept Visa, Mastercard, Discover and American Express.
CC does not discriminate on the basis of sex, age, race, color, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, handicap, disability or veteran status. Furthermore, CC will continue to take affirmative steps to support and advance these values consistent with our mission.
LOCATION & DIRECTIONS
FLEXIBLE WORKSHOP OPTIONS?
Contac t us for details.
ONE-ON-ONE & STUDIO RENTALS Private lessons in many media can be arranged upon request for students of all ages and skill levels. Private lessons are $50 per hour, with a two-hour minimum. In addition, independent studio use is available during open studio hours and by special arrangement.
CC is conveniently located on the corner of 21st and Smallman streets in the Strip District. Bus Stops The following buses serve the Strip District: 54, 86, 87, 88, 91. Parking A paid, monitored parking lot is located on 21st Street, behind the private building lot. Metered parking is also available. Accessible services available. Please call for more information.
Name________________________________________ Date_____________ Address_______________________________________________________ City_____________________________ State____________ Zip__________ Phone________________________________________________________ E-mail_________________________________________________________
2100 Smallman Street Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Phone: 412-261-7003 x25 Registered:
Cash Check Credit Card
Fax: 412-261-1941 Phone
CC may provide my e-mail address to my instructor prior to the workshop, for class preparation only. This information will not be shared or sold for other purposes.
Credit Card #________________________________________
Student's Name (if purchasing for another person)
Expiration Date_______________________ CW#___________
I would like to contribute to CC in the amount of $___________________
Donation Grand Total
registration is available online at www.contemporarycraft.org
2100 Smallman Street Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Phone: 412-261-7003 Online Registration: www.contemporarycraft.org
COMING UP AT CONTEMPORARY CRAFT Out of Hand Saturday, April 14, 2018
Get ‘Out of Hand’ at Contemporary Craft’s annual fundraising gala! Visit www.contemporarycraft.org for details.
Shelter: Crafting a Safe Home September 8, 2017–February 17, 2018
Shelter is universally identified as a basic human right, yet refuge and protection are out of reach for millions of people worldwide. Shelter provides a forum for craft artists’ responses to issues of homelessness—global and local, public and private.
Vantage Point: Maggy Rozycki Hiltner October 6, 2017–February 4, 2018 BNY Mellon Satellite Gallery
Visual Voices: Truth Narratives March 14–August 18, 2018
Guest curated by Winnie Owens-Hart, Visual Voices: Truth Narratives is The National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (NCECA) annual exhibition featuring ceramic artists who create powerful sculpture in a variety of visual volumes, touching on personal and global issues and emotions. Their narratives, whether literal or abstract, acknowledge that intolerances spawn racial, religious, class, and gender biases in every part of the world.
Storyteller: Jami Porter Lara February 16–May 6, 2018 BNY Mellon Satellite Gallery
Allegheny Regional Asset District
Published on Jan 9, 2018
Published on Jan 9, 2018
Contemporary Craft (CC) presents contemporary art in craft media by regional, national, and international artists since 1971. CC offers cutt...