Construction Review Africa

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MANAGING EDITOR Robert Barnes DEPUTY MANAGING EDITOR Francis Makari FEATURES EDITOR Dennis Ayemba COUNTRY EDITORS Kenya - Anthony Kiganda Uganda - Betty Nabakooza Nigeria - Boladale Ademiju South Africa - Jimmy Swira WRITERS Yvonne Andiva, Christine Siamanta, Erick Mongare, Dorcas Kang'ereha, Pascal Musungu, Grace Makumi, Nita Karume WEB & GRAPHIC DESIGN Augustine Ombwa, Bonface Kimunyi, Caleb Larum Sales and Marketing Manager Ken Okore


Building Industrial Parks in Africa

Industrial Parks are centres of industrial development based on the principles of excellence and a quality work environment. They are built in an industrial zone for the purpose of industrial development.

ADVERTISING Kenya: William Mutama, Fred Okoth, Trizah Njoroge South Africa: Thuli Nkosi, Winnie Sentabire, Angeline Ntobeng, Uganda: Nobert Turiyo, Selina Salumah Namuli Botswana: Dickson Manyudza, Gerald Mazikana Ethiopia: Haimanot Tesfaye, Ruth Girma Tanzania: Tom Kiage Malawi: Anderson Fumulani



Ghana: Samuel Hinneh, Caleb Donne Hadjah

Editor's Comment 3

Zambia: Susan Kandeke

Corporate News 4

Zimbabwe: Chiedza Chimombe Rwanda: Collison Lore Nigeria: Seni Bello China:Weng Jie

The editor accepts letters and manuscripts for publication from readers all over the world. Include your name and address as a sign of good faith although you may request your name to be withheld from publication. We reserve the right to edit any material submitted .

Send your letters to: Construction Review is published eleven times a year and is circulated to members of relevant associations, governmental bodies and other personnel in the building and construction industry as well as suppliers of equipment, materials and services in Africa, the Middle and Far East. The editor welcomes articles and photographs for consideration. Material may not be reproduced without prior permission from the publisher. The publisher does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or authenticity of advertisements or contributions contained in the journal. Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the publisher. Š All rights reserved.

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Association News 5 Events 6 Product News 7 Management 8 Opinion - An Evolution in the Development of Modern Hotels


Concrete Waterproofing 19 Infrastructural sustainability in Africa Bathroom: Introducing Kohler Mica 28 Taraji Heights


A Signature Project by Cytonn

Published by Group Africa Publishing Ltd Kenya Office: Consolidated Bank House, 4th floor, Koinange Street, Nairobi 00100 Kenya, Tel: +254 772642042, +254-20-2213607 Email: Uganda Agent Projects Unusual Uganda Ltd. Jemba Plaza, Luwum St. Kampala, Uganda Tel: +256 776 883181 Tanzania Agent The Hub Ltd No 4 Oysterbay Shopping Centre

P O Box 2972 Dsm Tel +255 68 308 3000 Botswana Agent Cadline (Pty) Ltd. P/Bag 494 Gaborone, Botswana. Tel: +267 318 7101, Fax: +267 318 102 E-mail: South Africa Agent College Publishers CC 1st Floor, 267 Oak Avenue, Oakfields, Randburg, Johannesburg Tel: +27 11 781 4253, Fax: +27 11 781 4287 Email:

TENTS Concrete Batching

July 2017 Volume 28 No.7

Editor's Comment

Installing a Concrete Batching Plant in Africa

Industrial development can be Africa’s answer to economic sustainability

The significant environmental impacts of the operation of a concrete batching plant are a concern thus, thorough environmental assessment is necessary to identify and address such impacts

24 Kitchen Fitting Choosing a Modern Kitchen Sink The material the modern kitchen sink is made of has a big impact on not only how it functions, but its aesthetics and cost effectiveness as well.

30 Spartan Developers 34 Charting a Different Path in Property Development Underground Cable Location 38 Safeguarding buried infrastructure through accurate detection The Basics of Building Automation: Luxury or Necessity? 40

Industrial growth is an indisputable pre-requisite of sustainable development. Most development forums looking at economic transformation, environmental sustainability and poverty reduction in Africa have endorsed this; with a general consensus for the need for rapid industrialization in Africa. Despite the importance of industrialization in the context of sustainable development in Africa, the continent lags behind other developing regions in industrial performance; this is according to a report by the United Nations (UN) on the Review of African Sustainable Industrial Development. Within Africa, the distribution of manufacturing activity is highly skewed with just one country, South Africa, accounting for 27.3% of total (Manufacturing Value Added) MVA in sub-Saharan Africa and registering significant growth over the past two decades. Thus for most countries of Africa there has been a loss in their share of global manufacturing output. It is, however, to be noted that while the general growth in the industry has been slow, positive performance in a few countries like Kenya, Nigeria, Zambia and Ethiopia; and an increase interest in foreign direct investment in African industry indicates a potential for industrial take-off. The challenge is to ensure that environmental best practices are incorporated at these early stages of industrialization whenever manufacturing investments are being considered.

Robert Barnes

Ethiopia Agent Haymi Advertising Services 22 Mazoria, Genet Bldg 4th Flr P.O. Box 1316 - 1110 Addis Ababa Tel: +251 118 955 855, Cell: +251 930 099 152 Email:

Kenya Agent Northwest Ventures Ltd P.O. Box 16414 - 00100 G.P.O Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 2679809 I 2679808, 2091305 Email:

Rwanda Agent

Ghana Agent Image Consortium 1st Floor, The Ecobank Building, Tesano. Tel: 233(0)30 223 2728 I 233(0)274807127 I +233(0)206299159 Fax: 233(0)24 882 8286 Email:,

Nigeria Agent Rahma Associates B23/24, Aishetu Emoewa Plaza, 196, Iju Water Works Road, Ifako Ijaye Lga,Agege, Lagos. Tel: 234-1-7347860 Email:

Zambia Agent

Kolline & Hemed Inc., B.P. 3328, Kigali, Rwanda Tel: +250 03 748106 E-mail: Website:

Dayflex Limited, 4th. Floor Tazara House Dedan Kimathi Road, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +260 211 230 529 / +260 977 756 663 Email:, dayflex06@gmail. com


AfriSam commissions new cement plant in Lesotho

FLSmidth signs large cement plant contract in North Africa



FLSmidth has signed a contract

AfriSam recently commissioned

for a state-of-the-art cement plant

a new cement plant in Lesotho

in North Africa valued at more


to help in blending and packing, a first in the country. Speaking at the official opening of the plant, Lesotho’s Prime Minister

Sika opens new production facility in Tanzania

Dr. Pakalitha Mosisili, hailed

Construction chemicals manufacturer Sika is setting up a production

milestone’ for the region and a






than $111.35m. The contract includes engineering, equipment supply, construction supervision, commissioning,



The plant will mainly supply cement to its local market. Once completed, the cement plant will have a capacity of 12,000 tonnes

boost for local socio-economic

per day. In a released statement,

development. The capacity of the

Per Mejnert Kristensen, the

locally. Plans are already being made to add a mortar products

plant (over 200,000 tons a year

Group Executive Vice President,

manufacturing line. Sika’s aim in establishing a local supply chain

of bagged cement) will meet the

Cement Division expressed their

in the East African country is to benefit from planned investments

current local cement demand,

enthusiasm as a firm for being

in infrastructure. According to Mr. Paul Schuler, the Regional

while also being capable of

Manager EMEA and designated CEO, by establishing a new concrete

producing specialised products

admixtures and mortar production plant in the metropolis of Dar es

for large infrastructure projects

Salaam, they are gaining an early foothold as a local producer in the

like the Lesotho Highlands Water

growing market. “In Tanzania, as in other African countries, major

scheme. The main raw material

infrastructure projects are either in progress or at the planning stage,

for the cement plant (milled

and we intend to supply our products to these projects. With 19

clinker) is railed to Maseru

facility in Tanzania for concrete admixtures manufacturing. The company will be the first manufacturer to manufacture these products

national subsidiaries and 17 factories currently, we have established a comprehensive presence in Africa,” he added.

selected as the preferred supplier of the cement plant, saying it would mark the beginning of a close working relationship between the client and them. The contract will also enable them to deliver a state-of-the-art cement plant in North Africa based on

in bulk from AfriSam’s Ulco


facility near Kimberley.

from the cement industry.



VA Tech Wabag wins US$105m order from Dangote Group in Nigeria VA Tech Wabag Limited (Wabag), one of the leading players in wastewater treatment sector, has bagged its second order, worth US$105m from Dangote Oil Refining Company for construction of effluent treatment plant in Nigeria. Earlier, Wabag had won another order from Dangote for the raw water treatment plant for

Dangote Fertilizers which is in an advanced stage of execution. Wabag’s scope of work includes design, engineering, procurement, supervision of installation and commissioning and testing of an effluent treatment plant with reverse osmosis, demineralisation and condensate polishing and raw water treatment package. Rajiv


of plant building experience, lie

and group CEO, Wabag, said,

in the design, completion and

“We are very happy to win

operation of drinking water and








repeat order for us, amidst competition from international players. Winning of this order goes to prove our technological superiority






world class large and complex industrial projects both at home and




Refining Company is the largest single train petroleum refinery in the world while WABAG is one




for both the municipal and industrial



offers sustained solutions for special customer needs through a comprehensive range of services and Their

innovative plants


technologies. facilitate compatible

wastewater disposal and secure access to clean drinking water for an increasing number of

of the world’s leading companies

people. This allows them to

in the water treatment field.

make an important contribution

WABAG’s key competences,

to environmental protection and

which are based on over 90 years

enhanced quality of life.

CR | July 2017


Manufactures Association of Nigeria signs deal on power generation The Manufacturers Development Company




subsidiary of the Manufactures Association of Nigeria (MAN) yesterday




ABCECG launches its five-year strategic plan at the annual AGM The Association of Building and Civil Engineering Contractors of Ghana (ABCECG) has launched its maiden five-year Strategic Plan at its 2017 Annual General Meeting (AGM). The annual meeting which took place at the Accra International Conference Centre was complemented with an exhibition, which aimed at demonstrating

ACMK seeks bill to help end malpractices in the construction industry in Kenya The Association of Construction Managers of Kenya (ACMK)

the commitment of the Association towards facilitating partnerships

is seeking to get a bill passed

and economic growth in the construction industry. These were

that will require all players in

purchase agreement with Tower

contained in a statement, issued by the Association. In a statement

Aluminium Nigeria Plc for an

issued by the Association, Mr. Martins Kwasi Nnuro, the National

the building and construction

independent power plant to be

President of the Association, said the Meeting would create “a perfect

located at Henry Carr industrial

avenue for various industry experts to share ideas to enhance their

cluster in Ikeja, Lagos State.

capacity so that they can handle and deliver on complex demanding

MAN, at the signing ceremony

projects excellently.” The Meeting, themed ‘Promoting an Effective

end malpractices in the industry.

Construction Industry for Sustainable Development (the need for a


Regulator)’ provided a platform for stakeholders to discuss issues


concerning the development of Africa. The Association recognizes

Managers Bill 2017 which is

in Lagos, said the plant will be completed in six months because it has secured the full support of the Nigerian Electricity Commission and the

that construction and building of roads/infrastructure are essential to Ghana’s development and growth into a first world country.

industry in Kenya to register with a new professional body before they can practice; this will help Construction and



being fronted by the association is set to be applied to all

endorsement of the Minister


for Power, Works and Housing,

the country. The bill states that,

Babatunde Raji Fashola. Tower

project managers included are

solutions company that has been

required to register with ACMK

operating Independent Power

before they can be declared free

Provider (IPP) projects in Nigeria

to undertake any construction

since 2009. The Chairman of the Engineer Ibrahim Usman said, “What we experience currently is constant interruption, costly supplies




planning difficult and production expensive. What we have under this pilot arrangement is a 24-hour supply. It is a happy occasion for us, and we are glad that towers have agreed to partner with us, first with six megawatts, which we hope to upgrade to 10 megawatts in the shortest possible time.”


all construction professionals,

Power Nigeria is a power

Board of Directors of MPDC,


MBAWC awards three top future master builders The Master Builders Association of the Western Cape (MBAWC) has granted cash prizes and awards to three students studying towards qualifications in the built environment at the University of Cape Town. The awards and prizes were given to the top students in the

work. ACMK chairman, Mr. Nashon Okowa confirmed the reports and said that there has never been any legal framework in Kenya that guides construction and project managers. “There has

second and third years of the Bachelor of Science (BSc) Construction

never been any legal framework

Studies course, as well as to the highest achieving honours student.

to guide construction and project

“We believe it is important to acknowledge outstanding achievement

managers,” said Mr. Okowa.The

amongst young people and hope that they will go on to carve out

Bill will establish a format that

successful careers in the industry,” said MBAWC Executive Director,

tests and scrutinizes construction

Allen Bodill. Founded in 1891, MBAWC is the oldest organisation of its kind in South Africa. It is affiliated to M.B.S.A. the Master Builders South Africa, but is totally autonomous. The MBA’s primary objective is to ensure that the reputation of members in this

and project managers before being





area remain high and that investment in building is therefore attracted to it. It does this by insisting that members work to the highest possible standards, aesthetically, technically and ethically; in short, they conduct their business in a thoroughly professional manner at all times.

July 2017 | CR



3rd Urban and Infrastructure Development Conference

Africa EPC Energy Projects Conference

The 3rd Annual Edition of the Urban and

Join key stakeholders from Kenya Electricity Generating



2017 Nigeria Gas Summit The Federal Government of

Company, Kenya Electricity Transmission Company,


NEPAD Kenya, Kenya Power and Lighting Company,

(UIDC 2017), to be held at the Imperial

METKA, Strathmore University, China Gezhouba Group of Companies and more this August to learn about

Royal Hotel Kampala on the 30th and 31st

different EPC models, patterns and project delivery

of October, provides a powerful platform to

strategies and solutions, so you can adapt them to your

unlock the immense growth potential of the

business in order to increase profit and reduce risk.

African Smart Cities ecosystem and address




on the local gas sector. With this in mind the NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation) has strategically aligned with the Nigeria gas Summit 2017, taking place on 26th - 28th of

for Fast-track Execution in order

Nairobi, Kenya

the best practices to-Accelerate Innovative

the next 4 years, with emphasis

has listed 7 Critical Gas Projects

28-30 August 2017

and opportunities by facilitating dialogue on

Economic and Growth Plan for

September in Lagos. The NNPC

Africa EPC Energy Projects Conference

Africa’s urban and infrastructure; challenges

Nigeria has launched a National

to boost domestic gas supply by 285%. The Nigeria Gas Summit


will be a one stop shop for

Solutions for Smart Cities in Africa.

companies looking to develop

Addressing best practices, UIDC 2017 brings

long term relationships with the

a whole new way of engaging and interacting

Nigerian gas sector.

with the best and brightest of the industry,

The Nigeria gas Summit 2017

shaping future directions and key priorities

26th - 28th September 2017

in a unique and dynamic onsite environment.

Lagos, Nigeria

Kenya - Architectural Association of Kenya

- Association of Consulting Engineers of - Kenya - Association of Professional Societies of East Africa APSEA)

Association Partners

- Kenya Property developers Association

- Concrete Manufacturers Association


Nigeria - Association of Consulting Engineers Nigeria - Association of Professional Women

- Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers

- The Construction Industry Federation of Zimbabwe (Cifoz)

Ghana - Ghana Institute of Engineers

Engineers Of Nigeria - Council of Registered Builders of Nigeria - The Nigerian Institute of Architects - American Association of Petroleum Geologists Africa Region

- Green Building council of SA

- Architects Registration Council

- Nigeria Society of Engineers

- South African Property Owners Association

- Ghana Institute of Surveyors

- Nigeria Institute of Architects

- Master Builders South Africa

- Ghana Green Builders Association

- Building and Construction Skilled Artisans

Uganda Institute of Surveyors of Uganda Uganda Institute of Professional Engineers (UIPE) & Uganda society of Architects

Botswana 6

and Quantity Surveyors (AQSRB)

- Construction Contractors Association of

- Zimbabwe Institute of Quantity Surveyors


- Khuthaza ( Women for Housing)

- Tanzania’s Registration Board of Architects

- Ethiopian Association of Civil Engineers


- Institution of Surveyors of Kenya

Surveying Profession

- Construction Regulation Board (CRB)

- Association of Ethiopian Architects

- Institute of Engineers of Kenya

- South African Council for the Quantity

- Tanzania Institute of Quantity Surveyors


- Institute of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya

South Africa - ASAQS


- Institute of Botswana Quantity Surveyors

- Ghana Institute of Planners - Association of Building and Civil Engineering Contractors of Ghana


Association of Nigeria (BACSAAN)

Zambia - Zambia Institute of Architects (ZIA)

Institute of Namibian Quantity Surveyors

- Association of Building and Civil Engineering

Association of Consulting Engineers of Namibia

Contractors (ABCEC).

CR | July 2017


Hyundai adds third tandem-drum model to compaction-roller line

Caterpillar launches new M315D2 and M317D2 wheeled excavators and M317D2 – building on the reputation of the predecessor models,

Lorusso heavy equipment introduces new mecalac machines

Hyundai Construction Equipment America recently announced enhancements and an addition to its compaction-roller product line. A new tandemdrum model, the HR26T-9, joins two previously available models, and Hyundai’s four single-drum rollers — the HR70C, HR110C, HR120C and HR140C — now feature Tier IV Final-compliant engines. Hyundai’s compact, tandem-drum roller models are designed for asphalt paving and maintenance, while the singledrum roller models are well suited for soil and aggregate compaction. All Hyundai compaction roller models offer 360-degree visibility for the operator. “The Hyundai compaction roller product line combines the most up-todate compaction technologies with quiet, fuel-efficient engines, a safe and convenient operator environment and easily accessible maintenance points for outstanding overall performance and value,” said Juston Thompson, product specialist, Hyundai Construction Equipment America. “This product lineup gives solid options to users across the compaction market’s highestvolume segments.” he added. Compact Tandem-Drum Models Designed for Paving. The new Hyundai HR26T-9 model has an operating weight of 6,400 lb. (2,900 kg) and drum width of 47 in. (120 cm), with a working width of 49 in. (125 cm).

the M315 and M317 wheeled excavators said to have earned a solid

Lorusso has added two more

reputation worldwide for reliable performance, long-term durability,


versatility, fuel efficiency, low operating costs and easy maintenance.

to its lineup — the AX Series

The new Cat C4.4 ACERT engine meets China Nonroad Stage III

articulated wheel loader and the

emission standards, equivalent to US EPA Tier 3/EU Stage IIIA

AF Series 4 wheel steered loader.

Caterpillar has launched its new “D2” Series models – the M315D2



standards, while delivering the same power and fuel economy as predecessor engines in both working and traveling modes. The C4.4


ACERT also contributes to reliability with a fuel system designed to

Wheel Loader

manage worldwide fuel quality. A primary fuel filter/water separator

Lorusso is offering the AX850.

features a water-in-fuel switch that indicates when draining is required,

Bucket volumes range from

thus reducing the risk of fuel-system contamination. An additional

.9 to 1.9 cu. yds. (0.7 to 1.5 cu

secondary fuel filter has been added to further enhance filtration

m) and are available in widths

capability. These excavators can travel independently between job

of 5.2 to 6 ft. (1.60 to 1.85 m).

sites at speeds of up to 37 kph, reducing travel time transportation

With a height of less than 8.2

costs. The new models also serve as utility machines for moving

ft. (2.5 m), transporting the

material on site. Two stick options are available for each model, and

loader at an overall height of

a one-piece boom provides easy operation in all applications, whether

13.1 (4 m) ensures easy and

loading trucks, working close to the machine against the blade, or in

cost efficient transportation for

situations requiring maximum digging depth and reach.

most contractors. The machine’s



temperature-dependent control



fan lowest

noise emission and minimal fuel consumption and the AX series boasts durability, low running costs, ease of operation, simplified maintenance and an attractive design. The

Engcon improves automatic coupling for hydraulic tools Engcon, a 26-year-old $90 million Swedish firm, is currently updating its fully hydraulic EC-Oil solution, which makes the safe automatic connection of hydraulic tools possible from the operator’s seat. The latest EC-Oil is a newly developed blade-type electrical connector with increased contact surfaces. It’s been moved to the top of the hitch to protect it better from oil and dirt. EC-Oil’s new electrical connector has 12 sturdy pins (6 + 6) that make it even more durable than its predecessor. What’s more, the improved EC-Oil was rigorously tested during the winter of 2016-2017 with approximately 100,000 couplings in varied environments including dirt, saltwater and snow. The tests have made sure the improved EC-Oil can handle really tough working environments. “The test results have been nothing but positive,” says John Lundqvist, test manager at Engcon’s R&D department in Strömsund. Sweden. The pins in the connector are wedge-shaped and, when connected, are inserted about 20 mm into the spring-loaded female half. This provides a cleaning effect with maximum contact in every position, which reduces the risk of the machine losing electrical contact with the tool.


Abundant Power The rigid monoboom of the AX series features high tearout forces. Cables and hoses are protected and out of the operator’s field of vision. The protected internal Z-kinematics allows perfect parallel guidance for attachments, which translates to a high degree of safety, particularly when loading pallets. Fast cycles and high visibility of the attachments make daily work even more efficient.

July 2017 | CR



5 tips for creating a realistic construction timeline


construction project for a business can be very exciting. Unfortunately, without proper and thorough planning, it can also be a nightmare. The key to avoiding that nightmare is to create a realistic construction timeline. A proper construction timeline is one that allows adequate time for the delivery of supplies as well as time for unfortunate and unforeseen hassles like order mix-ups, construction snags or inclement weather. If you are getting ready for an upcoming construction project for your business, follow the tips as you move through construction planning. 1.

Find a great contractor Successful projects often start with a great commercial contractor. An experienced contractor who has expertise in completing commercial projects brings so much to the table when it comes to thorough construction management. Even though hiring an expert contractor can be an investment, the connections and resources they bring with them will profit you and your 8

project in the long run. They also have experience working with teams of skilled construction workers and are able to choose the most talented and reliable personnel to work with. Given that commercial contractors help make construction management plans on a standard basis, you, as a business owner, can count on their help as you nail down a schedule for your project. 2.

Talk to your team and contractors Whether you’re working with a general contractor or a design build specialist, you’ll want to consult with your team before drawing up your construction timeline. Discover when they wait for materials to arrive, if any special orders are necessary, when they can perform their everyday jobs and how long they believe their portion of the construction project will take. You’ll need responses to these questions as you summarize your building schedule. Remember to build extra time into your schedule for unforeseen problems or delays. By being matter-of-fact honest, you can

save yourself from a potential

headache. When you work with an experienced construction partner, they will be able to help with many of these questions and make sure the necessary information is laid out.



Assess material needs Pricing and ordering the necessary materials to complete your building project is essential to success. As you go through construction planning, ensure all the necessary budget items have been ordered. It’s far too easy for a mistake to be made during ordering, which can derail even the most thorough construction management plan — not to mention costing you more money. Have your supplier submit shop drawings for review prior to product shipment. This will help ensure you receive the correct materials in the right quantity.

As soon as you and your building



Balance need vs. want Although construction timelines can seem tight, the longer these projects are drawn out, the higher the expenses grow. They can also negatively impact a business. For example, some construction projects must be done prior to a particular season or to meet a contingent demand. It’s significant to keep these considerations in mind all through construction planning. You may have to forgo some special features for the sake of time management. The best way to meet your time limit is to summarize your schedule backwards from the preferred completion date. This will help you recognize if the time limit is sensible or ideal.

CR | July 2017

Track your project





different. Some run their lives with technology. Others are “old school” and won’t enter any meeting without their notepad. team create your construction management plan, you’ll need to choose a format for tracking it. One option is the bar chart, which can easily incorporate dates, materials needed and other essential



are also smart sheets, online templates and Smartphone apps that can help you in construction planning. Do what is most comfortable and efficient for you, and be open with your team about how you prefer to receive reports and updates. Once




construction timeline, share it with your team. Present every contractor







view the schedule. Be flexible with any adjustments that need to be made. The best way to treat your schedule in order to keep your project on track is by maintaining a three-week lookahead schedule that details the expectations for each trade on the project. That way each team and team member knows where they need to be and when they need to be there. This should be updated and presented to each trade contractor on a weekly basis. With a realistic construction management plan in place, you and your team will have the framework you need for success.

SKIM COAT A Silky Smooth Wall Finish


kim coat is a Special blend of dry powder chemicals of fine Quartz sand, and Portland cement, which has a fine free flowing consistency. It is off white in color and its

density is 1.28kg/liter. Packaging packed in 25Kg bag, coverage is approximately 1.3M2 per kg depending on the surface and application. The dry powder is mixed with clean water and applied like ordinary plaster. Preferably with a power mixer Skim coat dries fully in 24 hrs. Paint can be applied to the skim coat after that. Skim Coats are normally skimmed on walls and facades to give a smooth and silky finish. Painting on skimmed surfaces results in better coverage for the paint, that is less paint is required to cover a large area. As the Skim coat is lighter in color it does not require many layers of coatings to get that necessary paint sheen to the surface applied on. As the Skim Coat is in powder form it

A special blend of dry powder chemical which is mixed with water to be applied on rough plastered walls to give a smooth silky surface.

Silky Smooth Wall Finish Formulated for:

 The highest quality aesthetic finish  More coverage for paint  Durable base for the application of decorative finishes  Can be applied up to 5mm thickness  Efficient setting time of approximately 3-4 hours  Can be used for internal walls and ceiling.

has a long shelf life of 6months. Cleaning Working tools should be cleaned with water when still wet. Protective clothing, goggles, dust masks, gloves, should be worn whilst mixing the powder and water. General Protective precautions should be taken.

July 2017 | CR



Modular Construction Susan Furbay, Vice President Business Development at HVS. Based in Washington, DC she is responsible of developing new business for all of the HVS offices and divisions throughout the world.

Given the higher quality control, faster built times, environmental benefits, and cost savings, it is no surprise that modular construction is gaining prevalence in the hotel industry. 10

An Evolution in the Development of Modern Hotels


he term “modular construction” once conjured images of small construction trailers or antiquated mobile home clusters just off the highway— not the most alluring draw for high-end developers and top-tier hotel companies, nor for their gentried clientele. Today, however, the concept of modular construction has evolved, with developers across the U.S. adopting a modular approach to building 2- to 4-star select-service, fullservice, and even boutique hotels. This article gives a brief overview of the evolution of modular construction, as well as the potential benefits and challenges in terms of cost, timelines, and financing when harnessing this method to build hotels. What is Modular Construction? What are Its Benefits? Modular construction involves a process in which individual “modules” or “pods” are constructed or pre-fabricated off site within a controlled plant environment. The modules are then fitted together in ways that allow the unit to function as a unified structure. Sounds simple, but it’s important to understand how flexible modular construction is in practice. Developers can implement hotel bathroom pods or they can pre-fabricate an entire guestroom. Entire integrated, steel-framed hotel structures can be fabricated, transported, and stacked and sealed through the modular process on sites around the world. While modules are being built at the factory, developers are busy breaking ground,

CR | July 2017

laying the foundation, and performing grading operations at the building site. When the modules are complete with all fixtures and fittings, they arrive at a fully prepared site for installation and final finishes. The method’s many benefits include: Quality Control. Their assembly within these standardized facilities allows each module to achieve exact design specifications while meeting the same codes and standards as conventionally built structures. Efficiency. According to Palomar Modular Building, a full-service modular building contractor, modular construction can reduce build time by up to 50% versus the time it would take to complete a project with traditional construction methods. Reduced Costs. By reducing the construction timeframe, developers can significantly reduce the costs of a build. In the past, transporting the modules was far more expensive than it is today, with a growing number of factory locations and improved techniques in packaging driving down costs. Stronger Structures. Structurally, today’s modular buildings are designed to be both strong and durable. Each module is engineered independently and built to withstand the rigors of transportation and craning onto foundations. No more worries about loosely fitted walls coming apart in high winds.

Other Benefits In addition to quality management and time savings, modular construction provides other benefits to the developers. By building most of the structural elements in a factory, developers avoid site disruption and vehicular traffic at the site. Safety and security are improved, as well. Modular construction also steers clear of issues such as scarcity of materials, problems securing skilled labor in certain areas, and weather conditions—all of which that can adversely affect the construction process. International Markets for Modular Hotel Construction. Modular construction is even more popular overseas. A couple of years ago, Hilton teamed with modular provider CIMC to build a Hampton Inn at Bristol Airport in the United Kingdom. This was Hilton’s initial push to build multiple properties using a new, more comprehensive modular technique where entire guestrooms are factorybuilt then shipped globally. In October 2016, Hilton announced plans to build Africa’s first modular hotel, the 280-room Hilton Garden Inn in the Ghanaian capital of Accra. Patrick Fitzgibbon, Senior Vice President of Development, EMEA, for Hilton Inc. recently spoke to the company’s efforts at “pioneering hotel growth on the African continent” over the past half century. Mr. Fitzgibbon called the new hotel in Ghana “…a fast-paced construction solution that we feel has huge potential in Africa, with quicker returns for investors and a world-class hospitality experience for guests.” Similarly, InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) recently launched its Innovation Hotel 2.0 concept, presenting ideas in sustainable tourism including the use of modular construction methods to reduce waste and energy consumption. Because these modules are factoryconstructed, IHG believes it can deliver a more consistent product and include the use of environmentally friendly building materials and energy-saving technologies. In the age of sustainability and consumer awareness, this move could raise the company’s profile among potential commercial and leisure guests. Potential Challenges Labor The use of pre-fabricated modular construction in markets where construction is predominately controlled by unionized labor can pose certain challenges. However, even in New York City where construction workers are heavily unionized, modular manufacturers are beginning to employ trade union members and work closely with local unions to ensure everyone is educated in the modular process. In cities like Boston and Chicago, other heavily unionized markets, developers need to find ways to include

union participation early on to avoid any opposition that can eat into the efficacy of the process. Again, this can prove tricky, with shortened construction times needing to be balanced by more projects to keep work volume consistent. Developers of high-end residential and luxury hotels often find that highly detailed custom finishes are better left to skilled labor at the construction sites. Nevertheless, even high-end development projects have utilized combinations of pre-fabricated construction for the base building, with detailed finishes performed on site. Costs Measuring the cost of modular versus traditional construction is far from simple. The cost is based on a perunit basis, and the savings can run from minimal to many millions of dollars, depending on the hotel product type, design, location, presentation, and amenities. Given the efficiency of modular construction described above, some of the greatest savings are seen in areas with high labor costs. Furthermore, improved technology and quality control, reduced construction nuisances, and less general disruption in the neighborhood of the site can all contribute to overall cost savings. However, there is an element of give and take. A savvy developer must weigh these benefits against any potential risks such as cost of packing and shipping the modules to the construction site, unexpected delivery delays, and possible conflicts with permits and inspections. Financing and Insurance Finally, is modular construction more difficult to finance or insure? Not necessarily, according to developers. Promise Buildings, a provider of modular structures, notes that as far as appraisal and financing institutions are concerned, these buildings are delivered as real properties. Accordingly, banks, lending agencies, and insurance agencies can treat modular hotel buildings the same as typical hotels that are constructed from the ground up. Conclusion More and more commercial contractors are adopting modular construction, and for good reasons. Given the higher quality control, faster built times, environmental benefits, and cost savings, it is no surprise that modular construction is gaining prevalence in the hotel industry. As major hotel companies like Marriott and IHG sign on for high-end luxury and boutique modular hotels, the industry should see these products come into even greater prominence in the near future. By Susan Furbay, Vice President Business Development at HVS, Republished from opinion/4082768.html

July 2017 | CR



Building Industrial Parks in Africa Prabhaki Park - Kenya


Economic growth in Africa is progressing at an impressive rate, with projections for 2015 placing

African countries among the world's ten fastest growing economies and forecasting strong growth for most of the continent's countries for years to come. Despite this strong economic growth, job creation and poverty reduction remain major challenges for





countries are looking to China, which has proven over the last three decades that industrialization can create jobs and allow unprecedented numbers of people to move out of poverty. An important vehicle for


China's economic growth has been the successful use of industrial zones since the early 1980s. In the 1970s African countries had already started to embrace industrial zones as a means of attracting foreign direct investment, transfer of technology and knowhow and as a way to create employment. Although overall African industrial zones have not yet lead to significant job creation or poverty reduction; the current cooperation between African countries and China, has led to a renaissance in a number of African countries. Promising developments can

CR | July 2017

be found in Ethiopia, Nigeria, Zambia and Kenya, where some industrial zones have unleashed broad interest of international investors in the respective country's economy. Ethiopia Ethiopia's development is guided by its Growth and Transformation Plan 2010/112014/15 (GTP) with the overall goal of poverty eradication through building an economy with modern and productive agricultural and industrial sectors. The GTP identifies industrial zones as one of the means for

industrialization and includes provisions on their establishment for the following medium and large scale manufacturing industries: textile and garment, leather and leather products, sugar, cement, metal and engineering, chemicals, pharmaceutics and agro-processing products. Specific targets spelled out in the GTP's accompanying policy matrix (GTP/PM) regarding the number of companies that are setting up business in industrial zones each year are beginning to be met through Ethiopia's two operational industrial zones, the Eastern Industrial Zone and the Bole Lemi Industrial Zone. Nigeria With a population of 178.5 million and a GDP of USD 565 billion, Nigeria is the biggest economy as well as the biggest oil exporter with the largest oil and natural gas reserves in Africa. To absorb its growing workforce, Nigeria is accelerating its industrialization process through the establishment of Industrial zones. The zones programme in Nigeria is used to attract local and foreign direct investment by providing access to Nigerian and West African consumer markets, and through preferential trade arrangements into US and European

markets. In addition to the Nigerian Federal Government, state and local authorities use their policy autonomy to initiate industrialization processes in their respective jurisdictions. The two most conspicuous zones in Nigeria include: the Lekki Free Zone and the Lagos Free Trade Zone which are both located within the jurisdiction of the Lagos State Government and are controlled by Lagos State Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Zambia Zambia's National Long Term Vision 2030 sets out its goal to become a ‘prosperous middle-income country by 2030’ (RoZ 2006a). Zambia aims to achieve its vision through implementing a five-year national development plan. The ‘Revised Sixth National Development Plan’ (RoZ 2014), which will run from 2013 to 2016, aims to improve the country's investment climate and industrial base through the completion of the country's first six industrial zones and the development of an additional industrial zone. Today a total of eleven zones are under review, development or in operation in Zambia. These zones include: The Lusaka South Multi-facility Economic Zone,

the Zambia-China Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone and the Chambishi MultiFacility Economic Zone. Kenya According to a report by the Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS), nearly half of the industrial zones in Africa are in Kenya, but most of these Kenyan ‘zones’ are in fact, single factory units licensed as industrial zone developers. While they may have the potential under their licenses to develop land and facilities for other industrial zone users, the vast majority house only their own operations and are not industrial parks. However, Kenya is making strides to ensure there is a steady growth in the industrial sector by developing industrial zones; with the construction of industrial parks. One fast developing industrial zone worth mentioning is located in Kenya’s Ruaraka area. Ruaraka Ruaraka falls under Zone 16 in the Nairobi City Council zoning guidelines, which allows industrial and residential uses in this area. Over the last 4 years, since the commissioning of the Thika Super Highway; the vehicle traffic on the outer ring road has increased

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to large real estate developments in primary and secondary cities in East Africa, the Baba Dogo area in Ruaraka has changed in these last 4 years from what was a purely industrial area to a mixed use area with developments in middle income residential like Golden Mile Park and retail like Qwetu Mall.

The interior of the warehouse

tremendously and therefore Ruaraka is experiencing an increasing number of retail and commercial office developments. Being centrally positioned the rise of Ruaraka as an industrial zone can also be attributed to the excellent road networks to Westlands, the Nairobi Central Business District (CBD) and Mombasa road. As a result, it has rapidly become a very attractive area for trade, distributions and logistics companies in Kenya. According to Mohamed Jivanjee a Director at iJenga a Nairobi based real estate developer and financier focused on medium


Industrial Parks But firstly what is an Industrial park? They are centres of industrial development based on the principles of excellence and a quality work environment. They are built in an industrial zone for the purpose of industrial development. These parks entail warehouses that can be used as storage facilities, manufacturing go-downs, showrooms; for trade and distribution, and logistics. While historically a warehouse has been a large box used to store surplus inventory for long periods of time, today’s warehouse facilities are becoming ‘distribution activity hubs’ that add value by processing goods, not storing them. Such value-added services are, by definition, very labor-intensive. This change speaks volumes for the need to focus attention on productivity and operational efficiency. While a warehouse in fact is a large box, the input of experienced operational people, like managers, supervisors and operations managers, can drastically improve the productivity and efficiency of the material handling as well as the use of storage space.

CR | July 2017

Architectural design, construction techniques and warehouse operational know-how are easily compatible if they work together through the initial planning stages. Therefore, the success of an industrial park and eventually an industrial zone highly depends on the calibre of warehouses it has to offer for particular industrial activities. Consequently, Ruaraka has seen the emergence of an industrial park which promises to be the pillar of growth of Ruaraka as an industrial zone in the continent. iJenga has recently launched phase one of an industrial park in Ruaraka.

Prabhaki Industrial Park Prabhaki Industrial Park is an industrial development in Ruaraka located 5mins off the Thika Superhighway Exit 6 along the outer ring road in Nairobi City. The development has two typologies of warehouses: type A which is 11,500 square feet and type B which is 17,650 square feet. The two warehouses are uniquely designed in such a way that, each warehouse will have 3 parking spaces, with additional parking spaces for visitors; plus the site has wide roads (18-16m) turning radius for all vehicle types. All warehouses come installed with a 3 tonne capacity goods hoist and Aluminium windows with burglar proofing and provisions for intruder alarms. The park is an architectural masterpiece with good quality finishing and internal features that include: class 25 concrete floors with

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Power float finish, male and female toilets on all floors and a Kitchenette on ground floor. Energy efficiency Every investor is looking to minimize operational costs so as to maximize returns; and with the high level of energy costs in the continent, saving energy is on the top of the ‘cut costs’ list. Therefore, the development has excellent natural lighting for the day time and LED light fittings for night time to save on operational costs for the users; plus plenty of power sockets with provisions for further expansion. In addition, the Park have the following interior features: cross

Staff bathroom

Fire fighting equipment

Cargo lift


ventilation that will reduce the requirements for air conditioners and day time lighting; excellent security features such as electric fencing throughout the boundary wall, 24 hours CCTV surveillance, 24 hours armed police patrol and security check points at all entry & exit points. Essential amenities Furthermore, the development is a well-lit estate with plenty of street lighting, full backup generator for the common areas and a borehole with number two overhead tanks for higher water pressures. There are also green spaces in front of each warehouse and around the estate making it one of the few industrial parks with green features in the city. Demand Demand is very crucial for the success of any development. “There is definitely a strong demand for warehouses in Ruaraka. At Prabhaki we have delivered 500k sqft of warehousing, of which to date we have sold 67%. However, key advice to any future developers is to build smaller sized warehousing in the range of (5000-7500sqft) where there is a higher demand. Additionally getting to know your local MP/MCA will help you when dealing with any issues with the neighbors,” asserted Mr. Jivanjee of iJenga. Government support In Kenya’s Industrial Transformation Programme, the Cabinet Secretary of the Ministry of Industrialization and Enterprise Development Adan Mohamed, EBS mentioned that, as global production costs continue to rise in the traditional markets of Asia and Europe, we expect manufacturing to move to Africa. “As a country, we are preparing to be at the forefront to capture this opportunity for growth. We are positioning our industrial sector to attract investments through the advantages of our welltrained labor force, low cost of operations, integrated industrial parks and our improving transportation and power infrastructure. Kenya has extraordinary momentum today,” he added. Industrialization “Industrialization has been the modernizing force in every developed and emerging

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economy and this will continue to be the case for Kenya. Industries will be the bedrock upon which we grow jobs, GDP and incomes. We are confident we can also transform the wealth, employment and inclusiveness of our country over the next five to ten years through a targeted approach in sectors in which we have a competitive advantage. We believe that the industrial sector for Kenya is at a turning point. While there is significant domestic and foreign interest, a growing market and existing skills, there has not been a comprehensive effort to create an industrial hub,” affirmed the CS. In a nut shell, the rapid industrial growth in Ruaraka is tipped to drive growth in other asset classes. The area is already experiencing other new developments including: Roshin and the Khetia Drapers project; which further cements its status as one of Kenya’s biggest industrial zones. The Baba Dogo area demands circa 60%, higher rentals than Industrial Area (Mombasa road); which is mainly driven by its prime location, good roads, good security, good water supply, good electricity supply, and even better sewerage and drainage system. Furthermore, Ruaraka has an active Industrial association (RUBICOM) with a strong membership base. RUBICOM works closely with the industries in the area to ensure the area remains conducive for investment and business. Baba Dogo in Ruaraka has the highest warehouses occupancy at 93.57% compared to other industrial locations such as Mombasa Road and Industrial Area, according to the Cytonn Industrial report 2016. This translates into relatively higher yields at 7.13% placing; making warehouses an attractive investment opportunity. Most African zones are in the very early stages of their development and in most cases there is some evidence of progress: growth rates since 2000; although from a low base, they are fairly strong across most zones; this is according to a report by The World Bank on Special Economic Zones in Africa. It is true that even highly successful industrial zone programs have usually taken 5 to10 years to settle in before beginning to achieve rapid growth. Nevertheless, African zones may already be starting to experience some significant level of growth.

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Concrete Waterproofing Infrastructural sustainability in Africa


oncrete is known to be strong, durable and perfect for both utilitarian and decorative purposes worldwide. However, concrete is also porous, permeable and prone to cracking, therefore there is needs to have waterproof concrete. Water while essential in concrete production, placement, and curing is at the same time corrosive to the material, because once it fulfills its role in the production and other processes, it becomes an enemy to concrete. Although rated by its function and the nature of its exposure, concrete can as well perform well in wet environments. As Africa emerges as a key global player in the construction industry with its numerous infrastructural development opportunities, there is need for general awareness on waterproofing products. Therefore, modern technology and revamping of the construction industry with regards to waterproof concrete will be key to ensuring that the infrastructural development is sustainable. Benefits Exposure of concrete to water slowly reduces the permanence/durability of concrete structures, thus raising the cost of maintenance of bridges, buildings and other facilities. Water’s toxic effects on concrete structures can be avoided through the use of waterproof concrete technology, which efficiently improves the durability and lifespan of concrete structures, hence reducing long-term maintenance costs. Water proofing technologies such as PRAs (Permeability-Reducing) can save projects a lot. For example when power generation from hydrodams sometimes may need to be stopped to carry membrane waterproofing and expoxy-coated reinforcement, this comes at great cost. A good example is the rehabilitation of Kariba hydrodam in Zimbabwe and Zambia, whose

walls had been deteriorating as a result of corrosion and blockage. According to studies done on the facility, the two governments were set to receive US$294m from World Bank, European Union (EU), the Government of Sweden and the African Development Bank for the repair; and the project was to be undertaken over six years to achieve minimal disruptions. Waterproof concrete reduces permeability, and the admixture acts as a mild retarder, so it helps to control the heat of hydration and consequently reduces shrinkage cracking. It does not drastically change the properties of fresh concrete, but it can somewhat improve workability. According to John Gichohi, the Operations Director at Kenya Water Proofing Company Limited, correctly done; waterproofing especially using products with crystalline compounds, lasts the lifetime of a building. “Basement waterproofing is quite essential. When doing waterproofing of a building, we start from the


Waterproofing admixtures reduce permeability of concrete, thus are known as permeability-reducing admixtures."

The contractor should need just a roll or a brush, no need of fire and big bituminous membranes.

July 2017 | CR



base upwards. This is to prevent the underground water from penetrating into the building and making it inhabitable. For very deep buildings, we do double waterproofing: at the bottom and at the top of the concrete slab,” he explains. “Also, depending on the design of the building, waterproofing the walls is necessary to protect the reinforcement steel from rusting, which ultimately weakens the structure. It is advisable to do waterproofing of walls from the outside. However, in the big buildings, they do beacon to beacon design of construction which makes it difficult to waterproof from the outside and so we do it from the inside,” he adds. Admixtures Waterproofing


reduce permeability of concrete, thus are known as permeabilityreducing admixtures. Additionally, these are classified in two: those used in non-hydrostatic conditions (PRAN) and those used under hydrostatic conditions (PRAH). According to American Concrete Institute, PRAHs are better than the PRANs. The best choice for waterproofing under hydrostatic pressure would be (water attracting) hydrophilic crystalline admixtures since they offer greatest resistance to water infiltration and best seal pores, cracks and offer long-term benefits. The reaction between the active ingredients contained in these admixtures and the water and cements particles, produce calcium silicate crystals. These crystals bond with cement paste and effectively seal the pores and micro-cracks, and

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therefore preventing infiltration of water through the structure. Cracks will be sealed over the lifetime of the structure as these reactions continue. Concrete admixtures produced from water-repellent chemicals (hydrophobic) materials such as soaps, vegetable oils, petroleum must be avoided since they do not uniformly seal all pores on concrete – concrete has larger voids – although they resist water infiltration by forming a water-repellent layer. Use of waterproof concrete admixtures depends on what conditions the structure will be exposed to; permeability is not a big issue with interior columns, beams, and floor slabs in highrise construction, but use of PRA is important when a structure is to be exposed to water under hydrostatic pressure, wicking, salt water, or moisture or salt itself. They can be trusted in keeping off leaking of water, water migration, carbonation, freezing/thaw damage and efflorescence. Dams, bridges, pools, water tanks, tunnels and subways that will experience more extreme and continuous exposure are better handled by use of PRAHs since they are effective in resisting permeability of water under pressure. PRANs are avoided when water to be resisted is under pressure but mainly used to help structures or products repel rain and dampness as may be needful in pavers, blocks, brick, precast panels and architectural concrete. PRAs waterproofing admixtures can be added in ready-mix concrete at the mixing plant as recommended by an architect or engineer. They can also be added to any concrete mix. Experts can also recommend use of other types of waterproofing products on a building or structure that is complete.

CR | July 2017

Use of Waterproofing Membranes Waterproofing membranes are available in sheet form or liquid form. Liquid membranes are sprayed, rolled or trolled onto the concrete surface and cure to form a rubbery waterproof coating. Sheet membranes come in sheet form and are stuck to the concrete surface to provide a waterproof barrier preventing water intrusion into the structural elements of a building or its finished spaces. The material consist of waterproof plastic, rubber, or coated-fabric materials that prevent the entrance of water into foundations, roofs, walls, basements, buildings, and structures when properly installed. Cementitious Waterproofing The material is a cement-based compound with additives that is mixed with other bonding agents to create slurry that can be applied to concrete surfaces for waterproofing. Materials such as fly ash, slag and silica can be mixed with concrete as fine particles to fill gaps and render it less permeable. Cementitious waterproofing membranes have been used successfully to shield a wide range of buildings and structural components that are exposed to either periodic or longterm wetting, low hydrostatic pressure or, in combination with appropriate engineering, even high hydrostatic pressure. The major applications are the sealing and waterproofing of terraces, basement walls, water tanks, swimming pools, walls and floors in wet-rooms such as toilets and bathrooms. The slurry membranes are easy to use and non-toxic. The membranes can as well be applied to wet or damp mineral surfaces since their physical properties are

less temperature-dependent than bitumen based materials. Crystalline Waterproofing Exposure of concrete to water causes it to become a hard solid mass. The resulting by-products of the reaction reside at the capillary tracts of concrete. Crystalline waterproofing is applied in the form of coating or as a dry-shake application on the structure and acts when the chemical reacts with moisture and the by-products of reaction between concrete and water. This results in an insoluble product – in addition, this reaction occurs wherever water goes, whether in structure cracks or inside. It helps protect structures against effects of aggressive chemicals. It also improves the water proofness and durability of concrete by filling and plugging pores, capillaries, micro-cracks

among other voids which are non-soluble and highly resistant crystalline formation. Choosing the right waterproofing material When it comes to choosing the right waterproofing material for a particular project, quite a number of factors are involved. According to Anthony Ajulo of Advanced Concrete Technologies (Act Nigeria), among these factors are the history of the area where construction is to be done, the water level, and environmental factors such as closeness. “Specifying the wrong waterproofing admixtures or coatings can lead to failure of a project. According to ACI 212, crystalline admixtures are the recommended admixtures for building in areas subject to hydrostatic pressure,” he adds. Act Nigeria offers a crystalline

Admixture from Aquafin INC USA a member of Schomburg building chemical group from Germany with branches in over 90 countries. Additionally, they offer high performance bitumen membranes and cementitious coatings for retaining wall waterproofing, basement waterproofing and all below grade applications. “We also provide advanced polyurethane waterproofing systems, ARMORSEAL 250, from ARMORSIL USA; our polyurethane waterproofing systems offers 15 years and 25 years protection depending on the system chosen by the client,” he affirms. Mr. Francesco Marcelli of Diasen in Italy further advises that, the contractor needs to choose waterproofing materials that are fast and easy to apply. “You should need just a roll or a brush, no need of fire and big bituminous membranes just

some buckets; the materials should be ready to be applied, no need of special mixing. Very low consumption: this means that generally with one bucket of 20 kg it is possible to waterproof up to 10 m2. The materials should be water-based, so they are not dangerous for transport and are safe for the men who apply them,” he adds. Diasen develops and produces innovative


waterproofing with very high fast drying time: just 20 minutes with 1°C and 98% of relative humidity. “We have developed an innovative product line that could be resistant to rain after just a few minutes called Smart Drying Technology; a brand new certified line totally made by Diasen,” he affirms.

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Installing a Concrete Batching Plant in Africa


he rapid infrastructure development in Africa that brings a big boom to the construction industries has lead to the installation of numerous concrete batching plants which are now widespread. According to Murat Bozdag a Company Partner at Bozdag Engineering in Turkey, it is a fact that creating infrastructure like housing, road, energy and water that help boost development in developing countries need one very important raw material which is concrete. Therefore, the African market has a huge potential for different types of concrete batching plants; stationary and mobile. He further explains that, dry type batching plants which do not have a concrete mixer hence increases homogenity of the concrete have been preferred in the African readymix concrete sector until recently. However, because of improving the mix and the strength of the concrete, wet type batching plants have also picked up pace. “Wet type batching plants have different capacity of concrete mixers. Concrete mixer capacity gives


The African market has a huge potential for different types of concrete batching plants; stationary and mobile."


CR | July 2017

the batching plant capacity as well. Concrete mixer is produced as 1 m3 – 2 m3 – 3 m3- 4 m3 – 4, 5 m3 – 5 m3 – 6 m3 compacted concrete capacity. How concrete producers select batching plant capacity depends on the project. For example, one concrete producer chose 100 m3/h capacitated mobile batching plant with a twinshaft mixer 2 m3 compacted concrete for a temporal work that involved housing infrastructure in Morocco; 180 m3/h capacitated stationary batching plant with a twinshaft mixer 4,5 m3 compacted concrete was preferred a highway project in Algeria,” he adds. The significant environmental impacts of the operation of a concrete batching plant are a concern thus, thorough environmental assessment is necessary to identify and address such impacts prior to the construction and operation of the batching plant’s facilities. Buffer Distance Requirement Proponent of permanent concrete batching plant will determine the plant’s primary impact zone and will establish a safe buffer zone around the plant’s facilities. The use of buffer zones around batching plant facilities is one of the approaches in minimizing its immediate and adverse environmental impacts to sensitive areas

• •

such as residential, institutional and public areas due to dust emission and noise pollution. The required buffer zone for temporary concrete batching plant should not be less than 500 meters from sensitive areas such as nearest residential areas, institutional zones and inhabited areas. However, it should be noted that the buffer

The movement and handling of fine materials should be controlled to prevent spillages onto paved surfaces. Minimize mud and dust track-out from unpaved areas by cleaning the trucks before leaving the plant’s yard specially its wheels by the use of wheel wash facilities. Wheel wash facilities shall be installed at the main gate. Regular cleaning of paved surfaces, using a mobile vacuum sweeper or a water flushing system. Observing speed controls on vehicle movements at plant yard at 10-15 km/hr.

Dusts Emission from Unpaved Plant Yard Dust emissions from unpaved surfaces are caused by the same factors as for paved surfaces, but the potential emissions are usually much greater. Dust emissions can be controlled using the following procedures: • Wet suppression of unpaved areas should be applied during dry windy periods, using a water cart and/or fixed sprinklers. As a general guide, the typical water requirement is at least up to 1 liter per square meter per hour. It is important to check that available water supplies and the application equipment are able to meet this requirement. Untreated wastewater generated from the plant’s activities should not be used for wet suppressions. Likewise, treated waste water intended for dust suppression should be used only after taking permit from Environment Department. • Surface improvements. These include paving with concrete or asphalt, or the addition of gravel to the surface. Paving can be highly effective but is expensive and unsuitable for surfaces used by very heavy vehicles or subject to spillages of material

distance is based on the assumption that good pollution control technologies are also being used and with best practices being implemented. A concrete batching plant with inefficient air pollution control facilities would require a larger buffer distance subject to evaluation of the EIA report for the project. Buffer zones should not be considered as a primary means of control, but as a means of providing an additional safeguard in the case of unintentional or accidental emissions. Dusts Emission from Paved Plant Yard Surfaces Dust deposits on paved surfaces can be thrown into the air by wind or by vehicle movements. Dust emissions from paved surfaces can be minimized through the use of the following measures:

On-Site Concrete Batching Plant.

July 2017 | CR



curtain to cover stockpile entrance sides. Limiting the height and slope of the stockpiles can reduce wind entrainment. A flat shallow • Stockpile will be subject to less wind turbulence than one with a tall conical shape. Angle of stockpile shall not exceed 40 maximum at any conditions. • Limiting drop heights from conveyors. • Use of wind breaks. Wind speed near the pile surface is the primary factor affecting particle uptake from stockpiles. Although a large, solid windbreak is the most effective configuration, aesthetic and economic considerations may preclude that from being appropriate. A 50% porous windbreak is almost as effective as a solid wall in reducing wind speeds over much of the pile, when constructed to the following specifications: • Height equal to the pile height; • Length equal to the pile length at the base; and • Located at a distance of one pile height from the base of the pile. •

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in transport. In addition, dust control measures will usually still be required on the paved surfaces. The use of gravel can be moderately effective, but repeated additions will usually be required. Speed controls. Observe speed limits vehicle movements at plant yard at 10-15 km/hr

Materials Loading/Unloading activities Loading /unloading activities and transferring of fine materials from one place to another in a concrete batching plant are a major source of uncontrolled dusts emission. Fine materials taken by shovel from stockpiles and transferred to loading bays are potential sources of dust, either through wind entrainment or spillages. Dust emissions due to such activities can be minimized with the following controls: • Limiting load size to avoid spillages. • Minimizing travel distances through appropriate site layout and design. • Minimizing drop heights at transfer points. • Minimize dust dispersion by providing special (covered) area for loading /unloading process. Material Handling/Storage (Stockpiles Management) Fine material stored in stockpiles can be subject to dust pick-up at winds in excess of about 5 m/sec (10 knots). Aggregates with 5mm or smaller in size shall be stored in a totally enclosed areas. Dust emissions can also occur as material is dropped onto the stockpile from a conveyor. The options for dust control can include the following: • Wet suppression using sprinklers. • Covered storage of fine materials, enclose stockpiles on at least the top and 3-sides and install a flexible 26

CR | July 2017

Reception of new technological trends The potential for concrete batching plants in Africa has given rise to the introduction of new technologies in the market which look to improve the concrete production process plus the quality of the concrete itself. According to Serkan Ozkan the Mechanical Engineer at Elkon Concrete Batching Plants in Turkey, the African market has been quite positive with regards to reception of new technologies. “We recently introduced ELKON Mix Master-30 on Site Concrete Plant to the market. These are ultra mobile concrete batching plants; all components of the on-site concrete Batching Plant, including aggregate storage bins, pan / planetary mixer, cement, water and additive weighing hoppers, water pump, control panel and power board are installed on a single trailer chassis equipped with axle and tires,” says Mr. Ozkan. “The technology has received great interest since its launch. Many units have been sold to Ivory Coast, Mali, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Mauritania, Ghana, Kenya,” he asserts. ELKON produces and sells around 300 batching plants annually in Africa. Companies including Dangote, Lafarge, Group 5, and WBHO all use ELKON equipment. Mr. Jason Jacobs of Jel Manufacturing in Milwaukee Wisconsin USA reiterates this point by adding that, the African market has been very open to new trends and technologies and is not limited by arbitrary technical restraints common in mature economies. This is evidenced by the use of roller-compacted concrete (RCC) in some major African markets. “The high growth in the telecommunications sector within Africa is a positive sign. With the continued focus on the development of infrastructure to move the African market forward, there is a positive outlook for concrete related equipment manufacturers and producers,” he adds.

infinite solutions

CIFA’s technology and innovation is by your side whenever concrete is used. With a specific focus on your safety and our environment. CIFA, your jobsite partner.


CIFA S.p.A. Via Stati Uniti d’America, 26 • 20030 Senago (Milano) - Italy • tel. +39.02.990131


Introducing Kohler Mica Sleek, modern, strong – designer innovation


with Supramic® material for durability and extended lifespan. • Round with a diameter of 410 mm • Square with a diameter of 393 mm

company has firmly established itself as

and function.

The Kohler Mica Vessel Features: Kohler’s thinnest edge in design, at only 6mm, demonstrating true innovation in bathroom product development. Crafted

Designs specifically created for leading edge contemporary bathrooms. “Mica embodies minimalism in design – obsessive reduction and refinement, absolute attention to detail to achieve a delicate precision with the fine edge and feel of bone china. This demanded innovation in materials, manufacturing and design. The result: a ceramic that is not just thin but also 1.5 times harder than normal. Mica is beautifully simple – which like all great minimalist design makes it timeless and universal” shares Mark Bickerstaffe, Director New Product Development – Kohler EMEA and Asia-Pacific. Since 1873, Kohler has been leading the way in style, innovation and providing exceptional products and services. The

OHLER, one of the world’s largest bathroom specialists, seamlessly fuses innovation and technology with their latest Mica Vessel range which is slim, sleek, and ultra-contemporary. Deemed as an absolute showstopper, the Mica Round or Square Vessel has the thinnest edge Kohler has ever produced in a basin. The elegant Mica Vessels emphasize the firm’s refined sense of innovation and embodies true minimalism, becoming a quintessential centerpiece of modern and contemporary style. This piece draws its popularity thanks to its durability, made of Supramic® material for a longer lifespan and which is 1.5 times harder than standard basins, plus the DFI stain-resistant surface coating makes it easier to clean.


CR | July 2017

a global leader in bathroom and kitchen products – providing total design solutions that strike a perfect balance between form

About Kohler Co. Founded in 1873 and headquartered in Kohler, Wisconsin, The Company is one of America’s oldest and largest privately held companies comprised of more than 30,000 associates. With more than 50 manufacturing locations worldwide, Kohler is a global leader in the manufacture of kitchen and bath products; engines and power systems; premier furniture, cabinetry and tile; and owner/ operator of two of the world’s finest five-star hospitality and golf resort destinations in the company , and St Andrews, Scotland.

THE LEADING EDGE IN INNOVATION INTRODUCING THE NEW MICA BASIN RANGE. These elegant products embody true minimalism with a 6mm thin edge, becoming the quintessential centrepiece of modern and contemporary style. Created with ultra durable SupramicÂŽ material, the basins are finished with a DFI coating, resulting in effortless cleaning. For more information contact:

| +27 11 050 9000



Choosing a Modern Kitchen Sink


he kitchen sink, is a routine feature of our daily lives that we take for granted. This is until of course the water dries up or turns smelly, inconveniencing our schedules or threatening our health. It is also put into consideration when considering a house purchase or renovation. The tap turns on, the water obligingly pours out; the tap turns off, the water obligingly drains away. But it was not always so. The advancement of kitchen sinks from dishpans filled with

buckets of water to today’s modern kitchen sink with carefully controlled municipal systems with its in/out pipes, hot water tanks, very attractive and lucrative materials and on/off taps; reflects developments in plumbing technology, society’s evolving concerns about civic and moral health, and major alterations in expectations around kitchen activities. Whilst Africa is now at par with the rest of the world in terms of sink trends, Mr. Roger Westbrook of Larson Industries in

South Africa mentions that, the evolution thereof was never a fast one. “In fact, the majority of home renovators seeking a new kitchen sink will first consider what they are most used to: a standard stainless-steel sink. Only when they are educated on the trend do they consider switching over to coloured Silgranit derivative,” he affirms. He further adds that, the demand for classic stainlesssteel sinks remains high, and cheap imports are prevalent in market where budget will always be a primary concern. According to Mr. Westbrook, when compared to other kitchen accessories, the sink enjoys about 60% usage through a number of applications. They are exposed to a lot of mucky activities and must endure the wear and tear of water, harsh chemicals and germs on a daily basis. However, a sink has a role to play as the kitchen’s fashion element. It has not only to function as a culinary pit stop but at the same time make the kitchen look good. Sizing it up Before choosing a modern kitchen sink, consider its uses and compare the proportion of the size to that of your kitchen. Kitchens over 200 square feet in space with sinks used for light washing and a garbage disposal


CR | July 2017

should consider the popular double bowl, which allows the sink to handle multiple jobs at once. Large basins, which are on trend right now, and triple bowls, can be used for those who frequently cook or wash dishes in the sink, but their size might overpower a smaller kitchen for instance, one that is less than 150 square feet. In a kitchen this size, smaller single bowls will not only function well, but will also fit the room best. When in a showroom, it is advisable to stand next to the sink at a counter and picture yourself scrubbing pots or peeling carrots. This will enable you to know if the sink is too deep to an extent of banging your elbows while you work, or too narrow that it chips your platters during washing. Most importantly, Mr. Oguz Can of Asilkrom in Turkey, one of the leading sink manufacturers in the world insists that; cut-out dimensions and models to cover your specific kitchen design are very important factors to consider when sizing up a modern kitchen sink. Consequently, the material the modern kitchen sink is made of has a big impact on not only how it functions, but its aesthetics and cost effectiveness as well. Moreover, as sinks are a notable design element in your kitchen; choose one that complements the other fixtures and decor of the space, plus check on the durability of the material with regards to its function and whether the material will hold its aesthetic properties over time; this is according to Errol Cronje the Brand Manager of Franke in South Africa. Selecting a sink material For long house owners and real estate developers have had fondness for stainless steel kitchen sinks due to durability, price point and easy availability reasons. According to Devendra Mishra of Acrysil Limited in India, its neutral and clean look has been another crucial factor for popularity of Stainless Steel Kitchen Sinks globally and in Africa. Stainless Steel: This material offers a good balance of cost, durability and ease of cleaning as well as availability in a variety of types, styles and sizes. Stainless-steel sinks are very budget friendly, but can easily scratch and show water marks. Alternatively, a brushed satin finish will ensure that the water marks and scratches are less noticeable compared to the mirror finish. Lastly, sound-absorbing pads fitted at the bottom will help minimize the noise. “Although, now with the popularity of modular kitchen and customization trend; Kitchen Sinks made of natural Quartz (also known as Granite Sinks) and Solid surface materials are gaining popularity in the continent,� adds Mr. Mishra Composite Granite: These are the go-to sink for interior designers because of their attractive look and reliability. Unlike stainless steel, these sinks don’t show water marks or scratches. They come in a variety of neutral colors, but

July 2017 | CR



the darker hues best disguise grit and grime. Although durable, they can crack if mishandled, especially during shipping and handling. “In recent years, we have seen a trend of Kitchen Sinks made using innovative materials such as ‘Composite Quartz’ and ‘Solid surface materials’ are gaining popularity, especially in mid to high-end projects where developers want to offer some unique experience to their home buyers. Earlier, these types of Sinks were mostly used in private houses and villa projects,” affirms Mr. Mishra. Acrysil Limited have been manufacturing high quality Composite Granite and Quartz Sinks since 1987 and exporting them to more than 50 countries worldwide. “Acrysil is the only company in Asia and Africa to have this technology and capability. From countries like South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt, we have been experiencing good demand for our CARYSIL brand Quartz Kitchen sinks in recent years,” he adds. Fireclay: This is the best choice for those looking to make over their kitchen in solid whites and neutrals. These are manufactured at extremely high temperatures and are resistant to scratches, staining and chipping. Clean up is simple; dish soap on a sponge; but for tougher marks, a mild abrasive cleanser and some elbow grease will get that sink back to white. Natural Stone: This is best experienced when the countertops are matching the sink. This integral style makes the flow from the countertops seamless to the sink. However, some stones, like marble, are susceptible to stains, making it advisable to test a sample of the stone first and watch how it stands up to constant water splashes and colored liquids. As much as you are choosing a particular type of material for your kitchen sink, it is also important to consider other aspects of the material for instance hygiene. According to Marco Maccaroni Plados of Plados and Telma Group in Italy, while the client is choosing the material of a modern kitchen sink he should highly consider the hygienic nature of the kitchen sink material. “The client should ensure that the material is easy to clean and do not harbor any bacteria or support bacteria replication,” he adds. In this regard, Plados Telma have developed different technologies to address the same. “Our UltraClean technology makes the surface of the sink ‘hydrophobic’, in other words, the drops of water in contact with the sink do not shatter but slip away giving the sink a ‘self-cleaning’ property (the lotus effect); and our Microstop technology is based on natural silver ions, and gives a constant protection against bacterial proliferation. The silver ions released from the composite material, can penetrate the membranes of bacteria, blocking the activity and bacterial replication,” affirms Mr. Plados. 32

CR | July 2017

July 2017 | CR



Taraji Heights A Signature Project by Cytonn


araji Heights is one of the signature developments by Cytonn Real Estate. The project sits on 2.8 acres and consists of 2, 3 and 3-bedroom with DSQ apartments, a retail facility, a private clubhouse with a swimming pool as well as a gym and spa. Like other Cytonn developments, Taraji Heights is located in a prime area in the outskirts of Nairobi, yet in close proximity to all the essential services and amenities such as shopping, leisure, education and health. It is situated along Limuru Road.

According to Cytonn, the motivation behind the project was to create institutional grade real estate to meet the housing demand driven by a growing middle class. It also aims to provide an investment opportunity based on the fact that real estate has consistently delivered stable returns compared to other investments vehicles. In total, there are 249 units housed in four blocks. The 3-bedroom apartments with DSQ have a plinth area of 130sqm, 3-bedroom apartments measure 117 sqm while 2-bedroom apartments have a plinth area of 84 sqm. Investors have the

option of buying the unit in cash, installments or through mortgage facilities. The cash option is for a period of ninety days while the installments can be spread over the construction period depending on the client’s preference. Other payment plans can be tailored to the client’s ability. Features Taraji Heights will offer a quality and convenient lifestyle to the residents as they can live, play, unwind and shop under one roof. Its proximity to high-end malls

ST HELLEN LANE, OFF LANGATA ROAD, KAREN P. O. Box 53748-00200 Nairobi, KENYA PHONES:+ 254 (20) 3873430/3808/3816, 3860026 OFFICE MOBILE: +254 (722) 207236 EMAIL: WEBSITE:

We are proud to be associated with Cytonn on the Taraji Heights Project as the Consulting Engineers 34

CR | July 2017

such as Rosslyn Riviera, and Two Rivers

ceilings and polished, fully vitrified granite

team of experienced consultants, contractors,

Mall – which is the largest mall in East

tiles for corridors. There will be a back-up

subcontractors and suppliers have been

and Central Africa – makes it an attractive

generator for communal areas, solar water

assembled for the project. Groundbreaking

residential address. The development will

heating, borehole and a perimeter electric

took place in March this year and the project



fence with CCTV surveillance. Apartments

is expected to come to an end in the second

quality internal finishes including gypsum

will be accessed through high speed lifts. A

quarter of 2019.



Project Team Client:

Registered Plumbers, Sanitary Engineers, Fire Fighting & Solar Installations

Cytonn Investments Partners Ten LLP

P.O. Box 10992-00400, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel +254 20 2644843/2 Email:

Project Manager:


Cytonn Real Estate Real Estate Services Manager: Cytonn Real Estate Project Architects: Tectura International Civil/Structural Engineers: JM Kariuki Limited Mechanical/Electrical Engineers: Geomax Limited

Some of the Other Recent Projects in Which We Have Offered Various Services

Quantity Surveyor: Aegis Development Solutions Limited Physical Planner: Anchor Plans EIA Consultant: Anchor Plans Main Contractor: Landmark Holdings Electrical Subcontractor: Master Power Systems Ltd Mechanical Subcontractor: Yogi Plumbers Ltd

Park Inn by Radisson

JKUAT Pension Tower

We are proud to be associated with Cytonn Investments as their Mechanical Services Contractor on Taraji Heights

Proudly Kenyan Tel: +254 20 6550276 / 7 Email: Website:

We are proud to be the main contractor for Taraji Heights by Cytonn Investments

July 2017 | CR



Spartan Developers Charting a Different Path in Property Development


partan Developers Limited was founded in 2010 to fill what the company’s founders felt was a void in the delivery of quality homes with extraordinary features that delivered high returns for investors in a hassle free environment. According to Project Manager Fahm Bekele, the main objective was to provide quality, unique and exceptionally designed homes for high end clients. “The idea was to deliver buildings that met or surpassed the client’s expectations and in doing so, also provide sufficiently high returns on the rental side”, he says. “With that in mind, the end game was value for your money and satisfaction for the creativity and uniqueness of the building”. Mr Bekele says that Spartan did not want to merely fall into line and become just another developer in the country churning average


projects. He says the developer has sought to become distinct in the market in various ways. Unique and Extraordinary Buildings “For every development we partake in, there is a unique idea, or design feature we try to achieve with each project’s goal being to better designed and finished than the last one. A lot of thought goes into each project to make them unique and because they do not only offer just shelter but a bold sense of design, which then translates to a sense of belonging and emotional attachment from the owners to the tenants that reside in them. This finally equals to a superior investment return for the investor long-term.” He cites The Curve, one of Spartan’s signature projects, as an example. “The Curve is an epic luxury residential development that combines the celebration of

nature’s beauty with a totally luxurious yet contemporary lifestyle.” The development is set up to showcase Nairobi’s most distinguishable natural feature, the Nairobi National Park. The Curve combines the convenience and luxury of a hotel with the freedom and comfort of apartment living and is just a part of the unique property development concepts that Spartan Developers has introduced in the Kenyan capital.” Top Notch Fit and Finish At Spartan Developers, great emphasis is laid on quality and workmanship. “It is always the small details that make a difference”, says Bekele. “We will traverse the world to find fixtures and fittings that we feel fit into the narrative of the project we are working on.” He adds that it is this attention to detail that earned

CR | July 2017

one of their projects an award at the East Africa Property Awards in 2014. “The Courtyard at Vanga “won in the category of the Best Apartment Development. Other developments have also been nominated in their classes too. Customer Service, Delivery and Management of the Developments The developer is keen to provide superior service to its clients before, during and after purchase of property. The company has trained its employees to adjust themselves to the personality of the clients in order to provide personalized service. Management ensures that everyone follows set standards so as to achieve uniformity across the organization.

Meeting clients imagination and expectation at all costs One of our Spartan’s cornerstones is meeting and surpassing its clients’ expectations throughout their interaction with the company right from the purchase experience. “We are always looking for new and better ways to keep our clients satisfied with our development and management offerings. Without our clients we would not exist.” Spartan Developers is currently engaged in high end residential homes and apartments. Mr Bekele however reveals that in future the company may venture into commercial developments in its own unique way. And while it is currently operating within Nairobi, the company plans to venture out in what he promises will be “market-shaking developments” in their respective locations. Portfolio The company has accomplished several projects since inception while others are ongoing or at planning stages. The Lofts at Wood Avenue The Lofts at Wood Avenue is premier place to live, play and rejuvenate. Situated along Wood Avenue off Argwings Kodhek in Kilimani, The Lofts at Wood Avenue offers a choice of only 23 sleek and contemporary twobedroom duplex lofts; a perfect blend of stone, wood and glass mixed with a splash of modern technology. Some of the features include a rooftop pool and gym with spectacular views. The Courtyard The Courtyard at Vanga road offers a modern contemporary design complimented by the highest quality of finishes. This

extraordinary development of thirty-eight exquisitely designed apartments is made up of chic one-bedroom units, large unique two-bedroom duplexes and a few avant-garde three-bedroom apartments. The apartments consist of 5 different floor plans with large windows and balconies where it combines a mix of exotic wood and exquisite stone finishes and lots of large glass windows all overlooking a spectacular landscaped Courtyard with a heated swimming pool. This property was awarded ‘The Apartment Development of the year – 2014’ at the East African Property Awards. 8545 Kirichwa Creek The development is made up of eleven classy 320 square meter four-bedroom town houses. These triple level residences come complete with a stunning clubhouse, heated swimming pool and feature cutting edge high end finishes. Starting with stunning front facades, bold glass skylights, wide driveways and ending with generously spaced private gardens the unique designs and fantastic location of these townhomes offer unparalleled luxury. This property was nominated for ‘Gated Community of the Year – 2014’ at the East African Property Awards. Challenges Like other developers in Kenya, Spartan is faced with a myriad challenges as it seeks to achieve its objectives. Land is among them. As a resource whose supply is fixed in nature, land is always one of the key factors influencing property trends. Whereas land supply is fixed, demand is constantly on the rise. The challenges that Spartan and other developers face revolve

around land acquisition and

cumbersome loan procurement



procedures contribute to the

are often complex and time-

challenges developers face in



the construction industry. The

up costs. Finance is another

financial environment plays a

issue. According to Bekele,

vital part in construction industry

there are two elements of this:

and its affordability from both the

Construction Debt and Mortgage

client and developer standpoint

Finance. “Most developers are

is the last cog required to

involved in major projects and

create explosive growth for this

therefore resort to Construction


regulations and


Financing”, he says. “The drastic change in interest rates and





infrastructure and urban planning.

Registered Plumbers, Sanitary Engineers, Fire Fighting & Solar Installations

P.O. Box 10992-00400, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel +254 20 2644843/2 Email:

Some of the Recent Projects in Which We Have Offered Various Services

4th Ngong Plaza

Park Inn by Radisson

Fortis Suites –Hospital Rd

JKUAT Pension Tower

We are proud to be associated with Spartan Developers Limited as their Mechanical Services Contractor on The Curve - Mombasa Rd

July 2017 | CR



soundness, effective protection

200,000 units annually. He feels

against fire, use of construction

that new projects should target

materials that do not cause

the middle class and provide


premises that are affordable to



and environmental protection, the government and stakeholders should regulate activities of building



industry. Other factors that Bekele feels pose a challenge include Cities are growing rapidly due

quality services developers will

to increased population. The

build more impressive buildings

need for modern infrastructure in

and maintain the existing ones

urban areas cannot be overstated.


The infrastructure will ease




political instability especially in the electioneering season as well as corruption in the awarding of tenders. On the status of the property market in Kenya, Bekele feels the sector is

traffic congestion, fix sewer and

laws as pertains to approvals,

storm drainage, and in general

regulations and permits has

improve the environment in

also been cited as another area

better managed. There should

which the construction industry

of concern. “The quality of

also be regular consultation

functions in general. According

construction activities should not

between authorities and key

to Bekele, Government should

be compromised”, says Bekele

players in the industry.

invest in modern infrastructure

adding that in order to ensure

and proper planning. “With

minimum standards of structural

performing remarkably well but would like to see issues of land



the majority of those who have a need. “However, this can only be addressed when there is affordable credit that will allow this sector of the market to afford to have mortgages.” So




Developers see itself in the next few years? “We see Spartan Developers growing to be one of the most admired Real Estate Development



Africa that will have developed unique, sustainable, and among the most extraordinary buildings in this part of the world”, says Bekele. “ “Our major aim is to build



housing deficit estimated at

iconic buildings that will stand the test of time!” he concludes.


We are proud of our association with Spartan Developers 38

CR | July 2017

Poolshop EA Ltd. P.O. Box 13529-00100 Nairobi, Kenya Tel: +254 20 2016838, +254 733 247415, +254 713 014032. Email:

• Swimming Pool Construction • Swimming Pool Equipment and Accessories • Steam and Sauna Design & Construction • Water Fountains

We are proud to be associated with Spartan Developers on The Curve and other projects



Kithimani Road, Off Kenyatta Highway, P.O. Box 867 01000 Thika, Kenya Cell: +254 707 526 111, Email: or Website: Imara Workshop Kithimani Road, Off Kenyatta Highway Thika (Adjacent to Thika Motor Vehicle Inspection Unit)

OUR SERVICES Hydrogeological Surveys Environmental Impact Assessments Borehole Drilling and Test Pumping Borehole Maintenance and Rehabilitation Service and Installation of Water Pumps Dams and Waterpans Water Storage Solutions

We are proud to be associated with Spartan Developers Limited

July 2017 | CR



Safeguarding buried infrastructure through accurate detection Buried electrical cables can be very dangerous, and if a locator is used correctly, then there should be very little chance of cable strikes


roject developers may resort to guesswork, instead of proven tools, in

the detection of pipes and cables buried underground to offset rising project implementation Radiodetection image and caption -RD7100 radiodetection underground cable locating device







using detection

of buried pipes and cables,

typically an elaborate task that needs efficient tools; might unwittingly backfire, cautions Brad King a specialist from D&B Equipment; a South Africanbased organisation that supplies RD 8100 and RD7100 radiodetection underground cable locating equipment to clients in the construction sector in South Africa and neighbouring countries. “Guesswork can lead to two major problems. Firstly, it can result in damage to existing infrastructure, which the contracting company might have to bear the unnecessary costs, as well as downtime to the service provider that owns the now damaged cable or pipe. Secondly, while excavating, labourers can suffer from serious injury or death,” states King. Using drawings to locate the cables may not work, as they may not be up-to-date. So, the sure way is to use some sort of locator for verification. The right tools Definitely, there is no substitute for using the right tools. And one of the tools that have proved effective in locating elaborate cables and pipes which are buried underground is the radiodetection underground cable detection equipment. A commercial locator

CR | July 2017

that was released forty years ago, radio detection underground cable detection equipment is one of the tools at the forefront of underground location. Range of applications A wide range of applications for radiodetection underground cable location models include but are not isolated to construction, pipe laying, directional drilling - basically any type of ground excavation. Radio detection equipment is ideal for operators that require the need to trace single services in congested areas. Electricians can trace live or dead cables, including faulty cables, then, once exposed use an accessory (stethoscope) for cable identification should there be multiple services in the same trench. Benefits Radio detection equipment definitely reduces time that is wasted in searching for infrastructure which either hasn’t been mapped out on drawings accurately, or its mapping is nonexistent. Eventually, this significantly contributes to containing project costs. What would work best? To handle the demands of the

contemporary construction industry, where cost containment and efficiency are the buzzwords, King recommends that the equipment should have up-todate technology, as well as be user friendly, as it is important to have a locator that is not complicated for the end-user. “The biggest benefit besides functionality would be reliability, which should include warranty from the supplier,” he adds.

Amongst recent innovations in radio detection that are becoming popular universally, King singles out the onscreen compass on midrange and top locators, as

Apex Steel:

a hunger for ‘firsts’

developments that are handy. In particular, he says, the onscreen compass locators have definitely enhanced accuracy as it brings the internal aerial count to five. “Online calibration checking has also been a big plus which has eliminated


Apex Steel continues to bring new innovations into the Kenyan construction industry, one such innovation is the Bartec rebar coupler system, manufactured by Dextra. Many engineers throughout the world are now specifying rebar couplers, with Kenyan engineers intending to use and specify rebar couplers. Here are some frequently asked questions, answered and explained.

and has greatly reduced The

Can rebar couplers be used for slab column

end user is able

connections and if so can couplers be

costs involved. to



calibration in


comfort Managing interference Obviously, there are always going to be certain sites which might have major potential interference factors, for instance railway lines and high voltage substations. However, King points out that modern locators include many different software and hardware features which filter these interference factors and help the operator to get the best results possible. “The best results are normally attained by using some sort of direct connection either via transmitter clamp or leads,” he adds. “The advice that DB Equipment, as a service provider, gives is that, during service avoidance, induction would be best, as we are looking for services which are not visible and therefore direct connection is impossible until found,” affirms King. Novel technology





office a print

n out

d the

certificate,” he adds.

positioned flush with the top of the slab? Yes, rebar couplers are often used for slab column connections as an alternative to lapping rebar. They can if necessary be placed flush with the top of the slab. Is the same amount of concrete cover required for rebar couplers? Yes. However, rebar couplers are usually only used for the main longitudinal reinforcement, with the cover calculated for the stirrups. In this situation, as long as the stirrup is not positioned on the coupler itself, the minimum cover is usually still to the stirrup and not the coupler.

Top priority As a final point, King reminds

In the event of seismic loading should rebar

project developers about the

couplers be staggered to ensure proper


ductility of the structure?



effective detection of buried pipes

Although there is no specific code of practice requirement

and wires in projects to minimise

to stagger rebar couplers, it is common practice to do so.

costs and improve efficiency.

However, it should be noted that Bartec rebar couplers

“Buried electrical cables can be

offer guaranteed bar break performance, meaning that when

very dangerous, and if a locator is

loaded to destruction, it will ultimately be the rebar that

used correctly, then there should be very little chance of cable strikes,” he says. “If a company is able to perform their duties with little to no incidents, it will boost its reputation in the market as having high safety standards and work ethics which will give it the edge in securing contracts over

fails away from the influence of the connection. This alone ensures the ductility of the reinforcement is maintained throughout the whole of the reinforcement system. Can couplers be used to reduce rebar congestion? Yes. Rebar couplers are often used to reduce rebar congestion, particularly with large structural elements heavily reinforced with large diameter rebar. If congestion still remains a problem when couplers are used, the couplers can be staggered.

competitors,” asserts King.

July 2017 | CR



The Basics of Building Automation Luxury or Necessity? A specialist from a South African-based company, iLed Holdings, IVAN POTTER, has the right answers.


ost businesses operate from a building and spend massive amounts of time on planning their business strategy, maximising

productivity and conducting the business end of business. The building they occupy is the face of that business and the comfort conditions of that building are directly related to the well-being and productivity of their staff. So from a pure comfort point of view, Building Automation for the control of comfort conditions is important. Control of the comfort conditions in a building is referred to as HVAC control (Heating Ventilation Airconditioning Cooling) – this is one aspect of Building Automation. If we look behind the fabric of a building we will find a number of systems, each with a very specific function.A couple of examples are: Electrical system for plugs, another electrical system for lights, another for hot water geysers. Air conditioning systems for chilled and hot water


The standard in Building Automation is BACnet –an open protocol defined by ASHRAE, the American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, Air-conditioning Engineers."


CR | July 2017

(different to the geysers) as well as supplying conditioned air into the building – this is called the air conditioning primary plant. There is a secondary air system that provides preconditioned air from the primary plant to the floors and makes changes to the air temperature and air quantity in each room to ensure that the room temperature and air quality are maintained. This is a sample of the number of systems in a building – each with a specific function. For the building to operate efficiently, the various systems need to be controlled to achieve optimum comfort with minimal energy. As the outside air changes, the primary and secondary air systems must match that change by using more or less cooling or heating. These changes are dynamic and affected by many factors such as occupancy levels, heat gain from the sun as it moves over the building, outside air temperature etc. The changing dynamics have an energy demand to compensate – more cooling or heating requires more energy (electricity).If there is a building automation system, these changes can be optimised to reduce the energy used. All in all, if you are concerned with the running costs per square meter then the answer is “Building Automation

is a necessity”. If you are concerned with the indoor air quality and productivity of the tenants then the answer is “Building Automation is a necessity”. If you have access to cheap energy and are not interested in the indoor air temperature and quality then automation might not be for you. The scenario described above is an example of a few systems in a building. In real terms, Building Automation covers every electrical system in a building. Lights, Energy quality (Power factor), Emergency power (Generators), Solar Power and then on to Access Control, Life Safety, CCTV etc. With a well-designed Building Automation system these disparate systems are able to interact with each other to provide a better, safer and more manageable environment with the added benefits of reduced energy costs, reduced carbon footprint and improved green star energy rating.

intervention) along with this comes the ability to use data from different systems to achieve very simple yet effective cost savings. An example – Use the passive infrared from the intrusion system to automatically switch the lights off after 7pm if there is no movement. Sounds simple and it is-implement this in a building that has no automation and you will need to install another system to achieve this because the intrusion equipment cannot communicate.

Benefits Building Automation has a few major benefits – energy efficiency and responsiveness (the building is able to automatically correct changes without human

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The example given illustrates that a building automation system allows for each element that is connected to be measured, logged and controlled. This is all handled via a set of rules that are applied in the controllers. If a new set of rules is required, the controller programming need to be adjusted and the job is done. No need for rewiring and re-installation. Just as the internet and Google has opened the world of data to allow everyone with access to a computer to know everything about everything, a Building Automation system allows you – the building owner – to know everything about your building. If that knowledge allows for reduced energy consumption, maintenance intervention (preventative maintenance) before major capital plant and equipment fail then the cost of implementation is worth it. Key factors for consideration Building Automation or Building Management Systems (BMS) need to be carefully considered to ensure the system provides the desired results. Each sub system in the building must be considered and a matrix drawn detailing the benefits if a BMS system is added to that sub system. In theory, every piece of equipment that uses electricity can be added to the BMS system. Example below 1. Primary Air Conditioning – Yes Energy and comfort 2. Secondary Air Conditioning – Yes Energy and comfort 3. Electrical – Plugs and electrical reticulation – No 4. Electrical Lights – Yes – energy saving occupancy control through intrusion system



6. 7.

8. 9.

Electrical Geysers – Yes – energy saving time schedule control to disable over weekends and holidays Intrusion Detection- Yes – for lighting control Life Safety (Fire Detection) – Yes -no energy savings but improves building response in case of emergency IT (Computers,Servers) – IT room to be on BMS but no other requirements CCTV – Yes – allow for control of lights based on specific incidents

Once the high level system matrix is complete, a framework for the system can be put together. It is very important that the system framework allows for integration of each sub-system at the early stages of design. Each sub system will have a number of suppliers for the equipment – the equipment will also have specific technical capabilities and these capabilities are price dependant. If the decision is taken to purchase equipment without considering its eventual integration into a BMS then, at implementation stage the reality that integration will not be possible will come as a surprise. Planning through the use of professional service providers that specialise in Building Automation design is a key factor in a successful implementation. Scope of Areas If we look at the Mechanical, Electrical and Audio Visual then the following equipment should be considered. 1. Air Conditioning – Primary and Secondary Plant 2. Electrical Lighting – Internal and External 3. Energy Management –Power Factor, Maximum Demand, Generators, Solar and other sources 4. Lifts and Escalators 5. Sumps and Tank levels 6. Intrusion Detection 7. CCTV 8. Access Control 9. Audio Visual (Boardrooms, meeting rooms etc) IT (Data Centers /

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IT room environment monitoring and control) Trends in Building Automation Building Automation has become a mature industry and with this maturity the implementation of international standards. Standards are designed to improve the industry by implementing rules that are product agnostic. When BMS first appeared, each manufacturer designed and manufactured equipment that worked as an isolated system – could not communicate to other systems and only that manufacturer could be used on that system – effectively the equipment supplier locked the customer in for the life cycle of the equipment. Standards changed this by ensuring manufacturers designed equipment that could communicate using a common wiring standard and common protocol (language). Much the same as ethernet became the standard in the IT industry with IP (Internet Protocol) the standard language for the internet. These standards allow for multiple companies to develop toward a common goal with resulting lowering of prices as more and more equipment is made available. The standard in Building Automation isBACnet –an open protocol defined by ASHRAE, the American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, Air-conditioningEngineers. A parallel standard Lonworks is available however has not gained the international momentum of BACnet. When implementing a Building Automation System one of the key aspects of design be that ALL equipment must conform to industry standards. These standards allow for the equipment to be connected to a common network and share data thereby enabling the various systems to interact with each other. A number of new trends such as IoT (Internet of things), Big Data (analysing the data from all of the systems to pick up trends or make new rules) as well as ReST (Representational State Transfer ) are the topics that everyone in the industry is talking about. The most important is that the building has a system designed to industry standards that uses

open protocols. This will allow these new devices to be connected and interact via either directly or through cloud based services. Standard of Work Building Automation Systems are great if they work, conversely, they are a problem for all concerned if they do not. So how do we ensure a working system when looking at a BMS. The starting point is design – design by professionals that know the industry and the applicable standards. With a welldefined scope of works, data points list and defined equipment specification, the process can begin to find a contractor or System Integrator (SI) to install the system. Selecting the SI is very important – theymust be able to provide the necessary certification showing they are trained industry professionals –as an example: iLEDhave a certified training institute in South Africa for Distech and Niagara4. The candidates from iLED University are issued with an international certification on completion of the courses. The appointment of an SI that is certified and has a track record as well as the support of the international suppliers is important. As an example iLED are the master distributers for Distech Controls in South Africa – they import and distribute to System Integrators (SI’s) who in turn provide systems to the end user

or building owner. If the SI has a problem on site, iLED have engineers available to assist with additional support from our international suppliers in France. This multilevel support is important for the successful implementation of a BMS system. With a well-defined specification and competent SI, the next item to consider for a successful system is the attention given at commissioning stage. Documenting that each Input and Output has been checked and tested and the location of the transducer is correct and installed to applicable standards is very important. This documentation also forms the basis of building certification by the green building council (GBCSA). With the above basic steps followed the client is assured of a system that will perform as expected. State of the industry While building Automation has always been seen as a luxury, the opposite is true.

Building Automation is a necessity if the building owner wants to manage the energy consumption per square meter. It is also important for reducing the carbon footprint of the building and achieving “Green Building” ratings. In South Africa, BMS systems are not regulated as for example in Europe where regulations enforce the installation of a BMS in new and existing buildings. The BMS industry is evolving and moving away from traditional “Airconditioning Controls Contractors” to more of an integration role – where the systems Integrator (SI) provides the service to link equipment that is supplied complete with controls into an integrated framework. The SI is also integrating the other disciplines – Fire, Intrusion etc. to provide a single dashboard for all the systems in a building. Gone are the days of 10 monitors in a control room each with their own operator procedures and instructions – welcome to the new world of Integrated Building Management Systems. Ivan Potter is the Managing Director of iLedControl, a South African based company that provides building automation solutionsmost important is that the building has a system designed to industry standards that uses open protocols. This will allow these new devices to be connected and interact via either directly or through cloud based services.

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