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CONSTRUCTION MANAGER | JANUARY 2018 | WWW.CONSTRUCTIONMANAGERMAGAZINE.COM

JANUARY 2018 For members of the CIOB

HERITAGE

RESTORING GOVERNMENT INSIDE PARLIAMENT’S VAST RENOVATION PROGRAMME

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S A V E B E T W E E N £ 3 , 6 5 0 & £ 7 , 0 0 0* WIT H F O RD ’S CO M M ER CIA L V EHI CL E S CR A PPAG E S CHEM E M O D E L SH OW N T R A N SI T B A SE L 2 H 2 F W D AVA I L A B L E W I T H £ 7,0 0 0 (E XC L. VAT) S C R A P PA G E S AV I N G .

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Official fuel consumption figures in mpg (l/100km) for the Ford Transit Base L2 H2 FWD range: urban 35.3-40.4 (8.0 -7.0), extra urban 39.2-44.1 (7.2-6.4), combined 37.2-42.2 (7.6-6.7). Official CO2 emissions 192-174g/km.

The mpg figures quoted, sourced from official EU-regulated test results (EU Directive and Regulation 715 /2007), are provided for comparability purposes and may not reflect your actual driving experience. *If you trade in any Car or Commercial Vehicle that is registered up to and including 31st December 2010 you can receive between £3,650 and £7,000 (Excl. VAT) Scrappage saving off the Recommended Retail Price of a New Ford Commercial Vehicle. Offer available on Ranger, Transit Courier, Transit Connect (Excl. Base and Tourneo), Transit Custom (Excl. New Custom – 2018.5MY), Tourneo Custom (Excl. New Tourneo – 2018.5MY) and Transit models only. New Ford Commercial Vehicles must be contracted between 1st January and 31st March 2018 (the “Contract Date”) and registered between 1st January and 30th September 2018. Scrappage vehicle must have been registered to the customer for at least 90 days before the customer’s Contract Date. Customer savings of £3,650 to £7,000 (Excl. VAT) available dependent on model line. Offer not available in conjunction with any other customer saving programme. Available to retail customers only (Excl. Privilege and Ambassador). For more information please see ford.co.uk/scrappage.

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CONSTRUCTION MANAGER | JANUARY 2018 CONTENTS

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Switchboard +44 (0)20 7490 5595 Editor Will Mann 020 3865 1032 will.m@atompublishing.co.uk Deputy editor James Kenny 020 3865 1031 james.k@atompublishing.co.uk Production editor Sarah Cutforth Art editor Heather Rugeley Community editor Nicky Roger Redesign art director Mark Bergin Advertising manager Dave Smith 0203 865 1029 Key account manager Tom Peardon 0203 865 1030 Credit control Eva Rugeley Managing director Stephen Quirke

In this issue

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Circulation Net average 30,699 Audit period: July 2016 to June 2017 Subscriptions To subscribe or for enquiries, please contact: Subscription team Tel: 020 7490 5595 Or go online at: https://constructionmanager.isubscribe.co.uk Or write to us at the address below: Construction Manager Published for the Chartered Institute of Building by Atom Publishing, 3 Waterhouse Square, 138 Holborn, London EC1N 2SW Tel: +44 (0)20 7490 5595 firstname@atompublishing.co.uk Editorial advisory board Mark Beard FCIOB, Ann Bentley, Ian Eggers, Peter Caplehorn, Harvey Francis, Professor Jacqui Glass FCIOB, Paul Morrell, James Pellatt, Nick Raynsford, Richard Saxon, Andy von Bradsky, Phil Wade Construction Manager is published monthly by Atom Publishing. The contents of this magazine are copyright. Reproduction in part or in full is forbidden without permission of the editor. The opinions expressed by writers of signed articles (even with pseudonyms) and letters appearing in the magazine are those of their respective authors, and neither the CIOB, Atom Publishing nor Construction Manager is responsible for these opinions or statements. The editor will give careful consideration to material submitted – articles, photographs, drawings and so on – but does not undertake responsibility for damage or their safe return. Printed by The Wyndeham Group. All rights in the magazine, including copyright, content and design, are owned by CIOB and/or Atom Publishing. ISSN 1360 3566

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Prelims 04 Mace and 'industry 4.0' 05 CITB reform plan 06 Lendlease and gender pay 08 Chris Blythe 09 Comment: Mark Beard 10 Art of Building shortlist 11 Feedback

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Experts Sexual harassment policy Sarah Fox on contracts Stop/start adjudications Smash & grab adjudications Extensions of time Digital tech roundtable

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Community Global student challenge Novus talent recognised Me and my project

Insight • Onsite Heritage special introduction Heritage: Restoration of the Houses of Parliament Heritage: Rebecca Thompson Heritage: Grimsby Tower Heritage: Bristol Old Vic Heritage: Using BIM Groundworks goes digital CPD: Sustainable urban drainage systems The Priory Hotel, Wareham

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Prelims

THE LATEST NEWS, PEOPLE AND COMMENT

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New skills, different jobs: Mace prepares for construction 4.0 MACE HAS PREDICTED 600,000 CURRENT CONSTRUCTION ROLES WILL DISAPPEAR BY 2040. THE FIRM’S INNOVATION DIRECTOR MATT GOUGH TALKS TO WILL MANN ABOUT THE RADICAL RESKILLING THAT LIES AHEAD

“The skills we need aren’t necessarily technical skills – we need to empower people to try new technology and understand how they might use it” Matt Gough Mace

With a forecast that up to 600,000 current roles will disappear by 2040, Mace provided a startling vision of construction’s future in its report, Moving to Industry 4.0, launched at the end of last year. Should the industry’s workforce be apprehensive? Mace’s director of innovation Matt Gough, charged with “aligning” the company’s technological transformation, thinks not. “It is an opportunity,” he argues. “The past few weeks have been really significant for the industry, with the government recognising construction as one of four key sectors in its industrial strategy. We can catapult ourselves into a different space – if we seize the opportunities offered by emerging technologies and reskill the industry.” So which jobs will be affected first by construction 4.0, and how will the industry’s workforce need to adapt to survive? Mace has identified 10 trades in its report – based on CITB statistics, Oxford University research on the impact of automation, and

MIND THE GENDER PAY GAP CHRIS BLYTHE COMMENT: MARK BEARD THE ART OF BUILDING SHORTLIST FEEDBACK economic forecasting from the Westminster Policy Institute – which will be most affected (see chart). Joinery, painting and decorating, and bricklaying will all see over 94% of current roles disappear. “We are already seeing some traction in certain areas, with development of bricklaying robots,” Gough notes. How quickly those roles disappear depends on how quickly construction embraces the new technology. This may not come naturally for an industry that “hasn’t always been good at innovating”, acknowledges Gough, whose own background includes a degree in film studies and IT, and a spell in the music industry. “We were slow to catch on with industry 3.0, the digital revolution, and you could say construction didn’t really spot 2.0, which was mass manufacturing,” he observes. But with 4.0 – which includes robotics, artificial intelligence and the internet of things – Gough says the industry’s advantage is that “it isn’t hampered by old technology, because construction companies don’t own many assets, unlike manufacturing for instance, so they can be agile and flexible”. Mace has identified seven priority areas where Gough believes “industry 4.0 technology” can have a significant positive impact. Drones is one. “Already we are using drones to survey large sites at a pace you wouldn’t have been able to previously, and inspect areas of buildings that are really hard to get to, for example, tall building facades,” says Gough. Other priority areas include use of augmented and virtual reality, big data and analytics.

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CITB focuses on Brexit and productivity after ‘uncertain year’ “Smart building technology is becoming more commonplace,” says Gough. “Our FM business is using sensors regularly now to monitor building operation, utilisation and energy performance. The FM and property space is a market ripe for disruption using 6D BIM and smart construction technology.” Mace’s technological ambitions are helped by the firm being privately owned and “pretty agile”, acknowledges Gough. “When we’ve wanted to create new services or move into new sectors, we’ve been able to do it pretty quickly. ” But the wider industry is also changing, he stresses. “Entrepreneurs are moving into construction; venture capital startup funding for construction technology worldwide grew from £70m in 2012 to £286m last year and is forecast to grow even more,” Gough says. “The government upped the R&D tax credit to 12% in the autumn statement, and also there is the £170m challenge fund for innovation in construction. Mace will be bidding for some of that.”

The next steps for Mace are to implement a skills strategy so it can exploit industry 4.0 technologies in its business. That is the plan for 2018, Gough says. “The skills we need aren’t necessarily technical skills – we need to empower people to try new technology and understand how they might use it,” he explains. “We are not going to build a drone-flying business at Mace, but we will work with drone experts who can help us make drones part of what we do.” Notably, Mace’s report doesn’t forecast how many white-collar roles will be affected though Gough says “we are already automating lots of processes in Mace”. “People who used to spend a lot of time banging things into spreadsheets will now have their time freed up,” he says. “For example, there has been speculation that BIM will put estimators out of a job. We are predicting that data analytics will become very important for construction, and will

Construction employment change 2021-40: top 10 trades affected No. of employees

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50,000

100,000

150,000

200,000

250,000 2021

Joinery/fit out

2040 2021

Labourers

2040 2021

Painters and decorators

2040 2021

Bricklayers

2040

The Construction Industry Training Board (CITB) will turn its focus on to Brexit and productivity in 2018 after what it described as “a year of uncertainty”. Writing for CM, chief Beale: "twin executive Sarah Beale challenges” acknowledged that during 2017, the “CITB’s future [was] in the balance as we waited for the outcome of the consensus vote and the review into industry training boards”. She said the organisation had “taken steps on our reform journey”. Beale said that “now, as an industry we need to put our heads together and agree on how we will meet the twin challenges of Brexit and homebuilding, including a plan to recruit and train more British workers alongside greater investment in modern construction methods and technology”. Regarding Brexit, she said the CITB’s role will be to lead on “creating the evidence base for industry and government… on what a future migration regime might look like and the breathing space needed to prepare for it”. She added that “a key plank” of the organisation’s response will be about boosting productivity, building on the sector deal construction secured with the government before Christmas. The CITB plans to roll out its new grants scheme, alongside the new national skills register and training directory, in the spring, when it will also appoint a new chairman and additional SME representation on its board. Read Sarah Beale’s article in full at: constructionmanagermagazine.com.

2021

Specialist operatives

2040 2021

Plasterers

2040 2021

Roofers

2040

Plant operatives

2021 2040 2021

Floorers

2040

Steel erectors/ fabricators

2021 2040 Source: Mace (figures based on fast-paced technological change).

see a growth in jobs – and who better than estimators, who are already used to number crunching, to lead the charge in that field?” Project managers will need to understand how best to employ the new technology, says Gough: “Artificial intelligence will help with some aspects of project delivery, but somebody still has to ask the question in the first place.” The report’s tagline is “a skills revolution”. While Mace may be preparing for the revolution, it will be interesting to see if the wider industry is. ● 5

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PRELIMS JANUARY 2018 | CONSTRUCTION MANAGER l Lendlease Group: 1,200 UK employees l 29% of employees are women: 348 l Lendlease Group: average hourly fixed pay gap 19.2% l Lendlease Group: average bonus gap 46.2%

What prompted Lendlease to become an early adopter in publishing its gender pay gap data? Lendlease ensures everyone working for us is paid equally for “equal work” – but the gender pay gap is a separate issue, and signifies any difference in the average earnings of all men and women collectively across a company. It also provides an indication of the number of men versus women employed, as well as the seniority of their respective roles. Just 11% of the construction workforce is female – so we can assume the gender pay gap is large. We think the industry should now focus on narrowing this by increasing female representation, especially at senior levels. The time for this has never been better: the government’s new legislation requires all companies with more than 250 employees to report their gender pay gap measurement by April 2018. Lendlease has opted to publish our gender pay figures early to raise awareness of this issue in the built environment sector. In the UK, only our construction business employs more than 250 people and is required to report its figures. However, we’ve also decided to report the wider Lendlease group in the UK to give a more accurate picture. Our construction business has a gender pay gap measurement based on overall female representation of 30%, while the overall representation gap for our UK business is 19% – in line with the national average. The construction business gap results from the fact that – as in the wider industry – more men than women are employed. We want to close that gap. What specific schemes are Lendlease implementing to boost female representation within the company? We are taking strong measures across all levels of job roles to recruit and retain women, and to support them to rise up through the ranks. These include flexible working, shared parental leave and a requirement that all recruitment shortlists include women. For

How Lendlease is minding the gender pay gap LENDLEASE RECENTLY BECAME THE FIRST UK CONTRACTOR TO REVEAL ITS GENDER PAY GAP DATA – SIX MONTHS AHEAD OF THE GOVERNMENT’S APRIL 2018 DEADLINE. HEAD OF DESIGN LUCY HOMER EXPLAINS THE FIRM’S THINKING TO JAMES KENNY

“In the last 18 months we have increased senior female representation from 24% to 29%” Lucy Homer, head of design, Lendlease

graduate roles we are recruiting 50:50 men and women. We are already seeing results: in the last 18 months we have increased senior female representation across the business from 24% to 29% – and we are now targeting 33%. I run a female networking group across construction and one of things that we learnt from this is that females want further support in terms of their confidence and career progression, so we have now implemented a female empowerment programme.

l 19% of Lendlease Construction employees are women l Lendlease Construction: average hourly fixed pay gap 30.4% l Lendlease Construction: average bonus gap 65.4%

Does Lendlease have a return-to-work programme, and is the company looking at encouraging women back into construction? We are currently working on a returners programme to enhance our existing benefits, which include six months’ fully paid, shared parental leave. Due to be launched next year, it will further support returning parents and carers with their reintegration back to work. Are there other sectors and industries, which have addressed similar gender pay gap issues, that you feel construction can follow? Countries which regularly top rankings for gender pay equality – for example, Finland, Norway and Sweden – are all really transparent about who is employed where and what they earn. In Sweden you can even call up the tax authority and ask what someone earns. I’m not advocating we go that far but the point is that being open about the facts is the foundation needed in order to move forward. Are there any specific roles Lendlease will target to close the gender pay gap? Some roles have been traditionally easier to fill with females, commercial and design for example, and we will strive for 50/50 shortlists for these. We also ensure a level playing field for the recruitment process through balanced interview panels and people management assessments for our people managers. What roles are the most difficult to employ women in? Site-based roles remain the hardest. I put this down largely to the perception of building sites as physically demanding and unwelcoming environments. The reality is different though – Lendlease sites are orderly and driven by an incredible range of skills and ingenuity, as well as sophisticated technology. Safety measures are extensive and the management of complex logistics is amazing. It’s down to everyone in the sector to get the word out that this is a great place for women to work. ●

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PRELIMS JANUARY 2018 | CONSTRUCTION MANAGER

Mark Beard Beard Construction

I have always had a good deal of empathy with trade union leaders who bargained hard for a good pay rise for their members on the back of their efforts raising company productivity and profits. I have far less empathy with trade union leaders who demand a greater share of the cake, with no solid justification. Over the last six months, we have seen a variety of statements from construction industry leaders, a number who lead companies that earn good margins through adding significant value to the construction process, but also a number who aspire to grow their net margins from 1% to 5% with little outward communication of what extra they will bring to the party. Even in his pomp Arthur Scargill was never quite this ambitious. If I was an investor in a Tier 1 contractor that was delivering margins of 1%, I would be far happier to hear the chief executive highlighting his plans to move the dial from 1% to 2% and how he would keep the margin at 2% for the full economic cycle, than clamour for 5% margins. As a part-owner of a medium-sized Tier 1 contractor, it would be very easy for me to join the clamour for 5% margins, but such proclamations make me uneasy, in part because: l Over the last 20 years, our average net margin at Beard has been just over 2%, which has equated to over 25% annual return on shareholder funds, which I feel is plenty for a cash-generative business; l If net margins soar to 5%, return on capital will get out of line with the risks we are taking, which is likely to lead to a whole variety of

Comment

Clamour for 5% margins makes me uneasy TO GROW THEIR BUSINESS CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES NEED TO FOCUS ON THE WAYS IN WHICH THEY CAN ADD VALUE, RATHER THAN JUST CHASING HIGHER MARGINS

short-term financial investors descending on our industry, creating a bubble, which will of course, in time, burst; and l Rising profits need to reflect greater added value. Over the last 20 years, Tier 1 contractors have taken on more design responsibility which clearly warrants higher net margins; conversely the majority of Tier 1 contractors are doing less and less construction work themselves, subcontracting responsibility and margin to Tier 2 and Tier 3 contractors. This way of working invariably means Tier 1 contractors’ cashflow is significantly improved, to the detriment of Tier 2 and Tier 3 contractors’ cashflow. Exploring in more detail who is and who is not making good margins, it is no surprise to see Tier 2 and Tier 3 contractors doing the best, and rightly so. When I see the effort our supply chain make for us, I often think: “You deserve every pound of profit you make.” If we focus our efforts and pronouncements on what we can and will do differently to add value for our customers, we are more likely to move the dial towards 5% margins than by simply demanding a greater share of the cake. Good luck to all those chasing higher margins: anyone who can deliver 5% net margins from Tier 1 contracting for a full economic cycle, without getting overly contractual with their customers or supply chain, will be quite exceptional and will have earned my utmost admiration. ● Mark Beard is executive chairman of Beard.

CIOB signs construction conservation agreement in China The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB) has signed an agreement with a Chinese conservation body for joint development of heritage construction skills. The institute has signed a ‘memorandum of understanding’ with the Suzhou Wudu Construction Investment Company, to work together on research, methodologies

and training, and boost conservation expertise in China. The agreement allows for exchange of heritage experts for workshops and site visits. There are 52 UNESCO World Heritage sites in China. The agreement was signed by current CIOB president Rebecca Thompson, a conservation specialist who runs her own heritage consultancy.

“The heritage sector provides unique challenges and opportunities for construction professionals and demands many specialist skills, and this agreement will help both the UK and China develop their conservation expertise,” she said. “It continues the development of the CIOB’s presence in China, where the institute has established a strong

relationship with government and educational bodies, construction companies and trade associations.” The CIOB currently offers a building conservation certification scheme at three levels – registered, proficient, and certified – which links to the CIOB Academy course Understanding Building Conservation. Heritage special, pages 12-28.

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MPs’ built environment chair raps housebuilding’s ‘92% failure rate’

Chris Blythe

Chief executive CIOB

Comment

2018 sees the industry at a quality crossroads WITH FINDINGS DUE FROM THE BUILDING REGULATIONS REVIEW, THE CIOB QUALITY COMMISSION, AND A PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRY INTO HOUSING – THE YEAR AHEAD COULD BE A WATERSHED FOR CONSTRUCTION The recent announcement of a construction sector deal as part of the industrial strategy is positive news for the industry in a year which has been a series of contradictions by any standards. How realistic the government promise to consider whole-life costs and best value in its procurement is yet to be seen. The industry has been pushing the message for 25 years or more. It has been shown time and time again that the initial build cost is a tiny, tiny proportion of the whole-life cost of projects.With some major infrastructure schemes, the actual construction work is a small part of the whole initial project costs. The initial estimates for the third runway at Heathrow had a construction cost of about £3bn out of a total £18bn. There lies the nub of the issue. That so much gets spent on “due process” probably explains why the Chinese can lay 1,000km of high-speed rail in a year where it will take us 20 years to do 200km. Governments talk about improving

productivity, but they could start by getting to grip with the processes that make what they do so expensive and time consuming. The real risk is that infrastructure becomes obsolete by the time it is commissioned, or that by trying to contain costs, daft compromises are made. Seriously, who goes from London to Leeds via Birmingham or wants to stop at stations nowhere near the cities they are supposed to be going to. But the contradictions we have are telling. Recent Home Builders Federation research shows how dependent its industry is on migrant labour. According to the HBF, over 50% of housing construction workers in the capital are not from the UK. Mind you, much of the housing output in London is destined to go to people not from the UK either, so if there are restrictions on migrant workers it is likely to damage housebuilders’ profits rather than slow the housing of Londoners in London. The alternative narrative to this is that the housebuilding sector would rather bank its profits than invest in a sustainable industry. Its own research reveals that most of the younger workers are from outside the UK – yet still it pleads for special treatment post-Brexit. So, what does 2018 hold? The flurry of work following Grenfell will start to have outcomes. In the immediate new year, we should see the report of the preliminary review into the building regulations. That will be followed by more work on fire safety. In the spring the CIOB’s Presidents’ Commission on Quality will begin presenting its findings. The All-Party Parliamentary Group for Excellence in the Built Environment will be getting to grips with poor quality in housebuilding, as well as consulting on a proposed new homes ombudsman. Finally we could see the start of the end for leasehold. 2018 will be a watershed. For those that care about the industry it could be a cause for optimism; for the mean and the greedy it’s time to get out. Let’s hope for a happy and generous new year. ●

Churchill: Leading new housing inquiry

The chair of the All-Party Parliamentary Group for Excellence in the Built Environment has slammed the housebuilding sector for the quality of the homes it builds. “Your biggest purchase in your life has the least protection,” said Jo Churchill (pictured), Conservative MP for Bury St Edmunds. “If somebody told you that a 92% failure rate was what you would expect from your car, you wouldn’t buy it.” She was alluding to the findings of the Home Builders’ Federation customer satisfaction survey for 2017. The APPG recently launched a new inquiry into creating an ombudsman for housing. Churchill, who was finance director of scaffolding company SLS prior to becoming an MP, was speaking at the CIOB parliamentary reception in the Palace of Westminster before Christmas. She said it is “each and every person’s job” within the construction industry to work towards improving the quality of homes that are built. In doing so, Churchill continued, it would lead to several economic benefits: boosting productivity, raising skills levels in the industry, and improving the wellbeing of people who live in the housing. The reception was hosted by her Tory colleague, Eddie Hughes, MP for Walsall North, a CIOB member.

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PRELIMS JANUARY 2018 | CONSTRUCTION MANAGER

Left: Geometric Concept by Dymtro Levchuk. A sky view through floors of a lobby

Above: Cemetery of the 21st century by Petr Starov. The suspended construction of a shopping centre in Ryazan, Russia Right: Bicycle Rider by Hans Wichmann. The Oscar Niemeyer Cultural Centre in Avilés, north Spain

Seen through a different lens THE CIOB’S ART OF BUILDING PHOTOGRAPHY COMPETITION CELEBRATES THE FINEST DIGITAL IMAGES OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT. HERE ARE SOME OF THE PICTURES SHORTLISTED FOR THIS YEAR’S PRIZE. VIEW THE FULL SHORTLIST AT ARTOFBUILDING. ORG. THE PUBLIC VOTE CLOSES ON 8 JANUARY. THE WINNER WILL BE ANNOUNCED ON 30 JANUARY

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Feedback A selection of readers’ comments about news and issues in the industry from www.constructionmanagermagazine.com CM 14/11 LFB on fire Keith Fox

While I support the London Fire Brigade (LFB), it must extend its concerns to existing buildings and particularly to old purpose-built and converted flats. Ninety per cent of those I see as a fire risk assessor do not comply with the regulations, and 80% have no fire detection system or adequate precautions. There needs to be a central register where all fire risk assessments can be lodged.

Ian Watts

Top: The Showstopper by Linda Van Slobbe. A historic theatre in Bar-le-Duc, France Above: Cross Bridge Waltz by Guo Ji Hua. Drone view of an intersection garden in China

Part of the problem is that social housing providers are unable to attract the brightest and best of the construction industry. The difficulty is that the maintenance activities of social housing providers do not cover the spectrum of the industry for a person to consider it a career move. Once you are in maintenance of social housing, there is rarely a way back into the mainstream industry. This is an aspect both Dame Judith Hackett’s inquiry and the CIOB taskforce should address.

CM 09/11 Sir Michael Latham dies Simon Jacklin

Deeply saddened at Sir Michael’s passing. Having completed my thesis in 1996 on Constructing The Team, I share his passion for the client being the driving force and the goal of working towards a more collaborative approach. He has without doubt impacted all of us in construction and the supply chain, with even some adapting the same principles to their industry, thanks to his vision and sense of what is or should be fair.

Trevor Patterson

I had the pleasure of working with Sir Michael on the Roofing Industry Alliance project and indirectly through Construction Best Practice and M4i during my time at CIOB. He was a knight in the truest sense of the word, giving of his time and considerable intellect and asking for little in return.

Although he hasn’t been able to be involved with the industry for a while, his legacy will live on and the industry is, and will continue to be, a better place because of him. My heartfelt sympathies to his family and friends.

Robert Hall

I was very saddened to hear about the death of Sir Michael Latham, whose lifetime contribution to the construction industry and society in general was incalculable. From his early days at the National Federation of Builders (NFB), it was clear that Sir Michael was destined for greater things. He was hugely talented, hardworking and always very approachable. I remember inviting him as a guest of honour to the CIOB West Midlands Regional Annual Dinner where he gave a truly inspirational speech.

For more comments and updates on issues and events in the industry, updated daily with the latest news, go to

www.constructionmanagermagazine.com

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INSIGHT• ONSITE JANUARY 2018 | CONSTRUCTION MANAGER

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Insight • onsite TAKING AN IN-DEPTH LOOK AT CURRENT ISSUES AND PROJECTS

PRESERVING THE PAST TO SECURE THE FUTURE THIS MONTH, CM TURNS THE SPOTLIGHT ON HERITAGE, AND THE CHALLENGES OF DELIVERING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS ON SOME OF BRITAIN’S MOST FAMOUS HISTORIC BUILDINGS. FIRST, JAMES KENNY TALKS TO SOME ESTATES PROFESSIONALS IN THE HERITAGE SECTOR ABOUT THE WORK THEY ARE PLANNING AND THE SKILLS REQUIRED

Solar panels were retrofitted at St Nicholas Chapel, King’s Lynn

NICKY BRAYSHAW

The UK’s heritage sector has an impact that extends far beyond its cultural status. According to the latest government assessment of the sector’s importance to the UK economy, it generated a gross value added of £987m in 2016. Historic England, the public body that looks after the country’s historic environment, says that the industry provides direct and indirect employment for around 278,000 people. So its economic significance is clear. But along with that come the challenges of upkeep, restoration and retrofitting of heritage buildings in order that they can remain open and continue to welcome millions of visitors a year. Organisations such as the National Trust, English Heritage and the Churches Conservation Trust are leading the way in maintaining some of the UK’s vast number of historic buildings. Of England’s 60,000 places of worship, around 15,000 are listed, and 45% of England’s Grade I listed buildings are parish churches. However, the sector is under increasing pressure. Reduced funding, the push to make existing buildings more energy efficient, profitable and serve new purposes, and a shortage of specialist skills and quality tradespeople can make heritage projects a real challenge.

16 20 22 24 28 30

HERITAGE: PARLIAMENT HERITAGE: REBECCA THOMPSON HERITAGE: GRIMSBY TOWER HERITAGE: BRISTOL OLD VIC HERITAGE: MAKING USE OF BIM GROUNDWORKS GOES DIGITAL Rory Cullen, who is chair of the CIOB’s maintenance, adaptation, restoration and conservation special interest group, says that, from a construction point of view, a skills shortage presents the biggest threat to the sector. “The main barrier we see is ensuring we will have sufficient specialist skills to maintain and repair our historic and traditional buildings in the UK,” he explains. Cullen points to the Traditional Skills Report by the National Heritage Training Group, which said that, of the companies working in the sector, 89% of contractors were general construction companies and 87% did not hold formal qualifications relating to traditional buildings. “There is a greater need for expertise in heritage trades and for practical ways to train people in these skills – many college curriculums only cover new-build,” Cullen adds. This is starting to be addressed. In June 2017, the CIOB launched a new certificate scheme to train up conservation specialists, while organisations such as the National Trust, with its Fit for the Future retrofitting campaign, are encouraging construction professionals and the wider public to take an interest in the conservation and restoration of the country’s historic buildings.

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Morwenna Slade

The Churches Conservation Trust was behind a £2.7m conservation project at St Nicholas’ Chapel in King’s Lynn

Estates officer, Churches Conservation Trust What heritage work are you currently undertaking? The Churches Conservation Trust looks after 352 historic churches in England that have been classified as redundant. In the west region, we cover 118 buildings in 12 counties and the team runs everything from maintenance contracting all the way through to multimillion-pound regeneration projects. A good example of our work would be St Nicholas’ Chapel in King’s Lynn, which reopened in 2015 after a £2.7m conservation and regeneration project. Currently we’re working on St Mary’s Church, Hartley Wintney in Hampshire, which is undergoing a programme of repairs such as repointing and stone replacement as well as redecoration.

ANDY MARSHALL

What are the main problems you face in your work? Funding is a big issue for redundant places of worship. Our core funding reduces every year even though our estate continues to grow. Many projects are funded by the Heritage Lottery fund, but their resources are getting tighter. One of the key challenges for us is vandalism and lead theft. A substantial part of our maintenance budget is consumed by mending windows and doors after attempts to break and enter. We are constantly repairing wall safes and removing graffiti, sometimes from the most delicate and historically valuable areas like medieval wall paintings. In just the west region we have had four major lead thefts in the last six months and the trust has a repair liability of over £1m for lead thefts alone. What are the barriers encountered by clients in the heritage sector? There is a widely acknowledged skills shortage and efforts are being made to increase training in the heritage sector. This is particularly true when it comes to understanding how traditional buildings actually work and the materials, detailing and methods that must be used. It is often difficult to find specialist craft trades willing and happy to work in remote areas of the country where are projects are often located.

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Below: Somerset House is retrofitting services to 21st century standards Bottom: Stone repairs are lined up for the National Trust’s Penrhyn Castle

Mick Figg

Head of buildings, Somerset House

What heritage work are you currently undertaking? Somerset House in central London is an iconic building in itself, but over the last six years we have transformed the estate. There’s about 32,500 sq m of space and we are retrofitting building services throughout in order to bring the buildings up to 21st century standards.

Alan Ross

Lead building surveyor, National Trust

What are the main challenges you’ve encountered? I think the skills issue is the biggest problem. Across all construction we have a problem with skills and getting younger people into the industry, but it can be more difficult in specialist areas such as joinery, stonemason and specialist crafts. I’ve tried to get apprentices through to heritage crafts, but we have to put them through the

traditional training route and then they can only take heritage as an option in the third year. We would prefer them to be able to learn conservation from the outset.

What heritage work are you currently undertaking? Coming up in 2018, we have stone repairs at Penrhyn Castle in Bangor, Wales, a 19th century neo-Norman castle, while in Northern Ireland we are working on the conservation, restoration and reservicing of Springhill mansion house, a fine example of a plantation house in Mid Ulster. Elsewhere, in the West Country, we are repairing the roof and windows at Edwin Lutyens’ Castle Drogo in Devon, as well as carrying out structural repairs to the Wellington monument in Somerset, and repairing the 18th century dams in Prior Park, Bath. Our renewable energy programme of works, from hydro schemes to heat pumps, biomass and thermal upgrades, is also ongoing.

often we uncover hidden snippets of history that none of our team had any idea might be there. One recent example is at Tredegar House, a mansion just outside Newport that dates back to the 17th century, where we discovered a timber-framed wall hidden behind modern cement render. Dendrochronology testing of the timber was inconclusive, so no formal dating was possible, but when looking at the evolution of the building it was considered likely to be part of the 1670 phase of construction. Our solution was to omit the lime render and change to oak boarding – conserving the timber frame and creating a visual appearance more in keeping with the original structure.

What are the main challenges you’ve encountered in heritage work? Despite making informed allowances for any “known unknowns”, all too

What other delivery problems come up in heritage? Heritage projects are not cheap. Even maintaining the status quo costs heritage organisations a lot of money. We are lucky as we are a private trust

What are the barriers encountered by clients in the heritage sector? Historic building materials aren’t often found in high street builders’ merchants and sourcing high quality, sustainable materials – such as long

but budgetary and funding issues are a constant worry for many. What are your thoughts on the use of new technology and BIM? For anything new-build we do I will look at using BIM. But the cost still needs to come down for it to be widely adopted in heritage – for a roof replacement when time and budget is pressured, BIM would not be a top priority.

straw thatch or local water reed – can be troublesome and expensive. Procuring highly skilled traditional tradespeople can also be a challenge. We have a direct labour team of highly skilled craftspeople – from carpenters to stonemasons, plumbers to painters – who work on our most cherished built assets across the country. But often there is a waiting list for specialist trades, such as ornamental plasterers who can repair scagliola. When it comes to retrofitting of historic buildings to make them more energy efficient, how are projects usually approached? Careful analysis of how to improve energy efficiency while not damaging the historic fabric is an essential starting point. Usually, retrofitting new materials isn’t necessary, but it can be a challenge ensuring the building is weatherproof while still adequately ventilated.

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1834 Fire destroys old palace. Charles Barry appointed in 1836 to design its replacement.

1840

1854

1860

1883

1902

1941

Foundation stone of new Palace laid.

Installation of ventilation system, and gas lighting.

Stonework completed.

First electric lighting installed.

22,500 cu m of new stone used for masonry repairs.

House of Commons chamber destroyed by bombing. It is rebuilt and reopens in 1950.

Palace of Westminster timeline

RESTORING GOVERNMENT

PHOTOGRAPHY: GRAHAM TONKS

WITH AN ESTIMATED COST OF £4BN TO £6BN, THE PALACE OF WESTMINSTER’S RESTORATION AND RENEWAL PROGRAMME IS THE GRANDDADDY OF ALL HERITAGE PROJECTS. THE SCHEME’S ARCHITECTURE LEAD JULIAN FLANNERY TOOK WILL MANN ON TOOK A TOUR OF PARLIAMENT TO EXPLAIN SOME OF THE CHALLENGES

As heritage projects go, few can match the Palace of Westminster for sheer scale and complexity. This month, MPs will debate the proposed renovation and renewal (R&R) programme for the estate, which has attracted wide criticism for its jaw-dropping price tag – estimates range from £4bn to £6bn – and the requirement that all politicians and support staff will have to be decanted while it takes place.

“The reality is that the nature of the work now required simply cannot happen while the buildings are occupied,” says Julian Flannery, architecture lead for the R&R programme. Flannery has agreed to give CM a tour of the Houses of Parliament to explain the challenges faced by the Palace’s estates team and the issues the R&R programme needs to address. “As things stand, we are spending a

significant amount on general upkeep but that is rising each year as the condition of the buildings deteriorates,” Flannery says. “Last year we spent £49m. This year it will be £60m. And it’s not enough to keep up.” Also, much of the work now needed simply cannot be completed in the windows available, adds Flannery. “In the House of Lords debating chamber, many of the high-level decorations could

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Cleaning and restoration of stonework and roofs begins. The programme is still ongoing.

2000

2010

2012

2016

2018

2025

Eight-year study of proposed M&E overhaul begins.

All previous plans halted. New ‘buying time’ strategy implemented, and planning starts for a long-term restoration and renewal (R&R) programme.

First feasibility study on R&R published.

Joint Select Committee publishes recommendations on R&R proposals.

MPs to debate proposals.

(Estimate) R&R programme starts.

only be accessed by constructing an internal scaffold,” he explains. “There simply wouldn’t be time to erect and dismantle that, even in the parliament recess. In the meantime, these features are slowly being damaged irreversibly.” Besides the general upkeep, the estates team is managing one-off projects such as replacing Westminster Hall roof and renovating Big Ben. The latter has also drawn criticism after the cost, following a two-stage tender process with Sir Robert McAlpine, rose from £22m to £61m. A harbinger of things to come on the main R&R programme? CM’s tour begins at the gate to Victoria Tower. The Palace of Westminster was built from traditional load-bearing brickwork, with some 14,000 cu m of stone sourced from Anston Quarry in Yorkshire, the personal choice of architect Charles Barry. But there were problems from the start. “At the quarry, the wrong bedding was selected so the stone that came to Westminster was often very poor quality,” Flannery says. “Spalling began during the construction programme, and the condition of the stone worsened because of Victorian London’s terrible air quality. A further 22,500 cu m of Anston Stone were used for repairs in 1902, but running repairs have been carried out ever since the 1930s.” The masonry at the Victoria Tower does not look in bad condition at first glance, although the tonal differences where stones have been replaced are clear on close inspection. A programme of stonework cleaning and restoration, across the entire Palace estate, began in the 1980s and is still ongoing; there are three internal courtyards still to finish. Later in the tour, we walk through one of these, Peers Court, and get a glimpse of what the Palace must have looked like in

Opposite page: The Houses of Parliament under wraps during work Above: Stonework damage to the exterior of the Palace Below right: The effects of pollution on the stonework of Peers Court

the 19th century: the walls are black with soot. Contractor Walter Lilly is carrying out the restoration here, and one of its materials palettes gives us some idea of its complexity: every stone is a different shape and size, intricately carved to match the originals they will replace. Inside the Palace, the poor condition of many of the Gothic decorations and furnishings, mostly designed by Barry’s assistant Augustus Welby Pugin, soon becomes apparent. “Access has prevented us from carrying out many much-needed repairs,” Flannery says. “Even during the summer recess the pressure from visitors and the need to ensure the House can be recalled with only 48 hours notice means that significant features such as the statues of the Magna Carta barons remain inaccessible. The electroplated zinc surface of these statues has been pitted by dirt and atmospheric acid deposits, and this can only be addressed by removing the statues from site for conservation.” Protecting fragile murals There are constraints on the renovation work in many of the lavishly decorated interior spaces. The Royal Gallery houses two of the largest murals in the Palace, Daniel Maclise’s The Death of Nelson and The Meeting of Wellington and Blücher, painted using the “water glass” technique, a departure from the traditional Italian fresco style – and they are in a delicate condition. “The murals were painted on a relatively fragile lath and plaster surface, and because stone repairs are being carried out in the courtyard behind, we must have monitoring equipment in place to check the vibration levels from the drilling do not affect the paintings,” says Flannery.

“The other problem for the murals is humidity. The air is extremely dry at present and this has caused the canvases to become very tight and more susceptible to damage. So when we come to the R&R programme, we would prefer not to remove the paintings due to the damage risk, and instead will have to find a way of protecting them during the renovation work.” Underfoot, part of the floor area is cordoned off because of an ongoing encaustic tiles repair and restoration programme for all major circulation areas in Westminster, which is being managed by Lendlease. Although the tiles are durable, heavy footfall has worn off their colourful patterns in many areas. Conservation specialist DBR, also working on Walter Lilly’s courts restoration project, is renewing the tiles. The tiles were originally supplied by Minton, which is no longer in operation, so replacements are being sourced from Craven Dunnill Jackfield in Shropshire, says Flannery. “They will be of higher quality than the originals, so hopefully will wear better, and the manufacturer has studied the original techniques used by Minton for the reproductions.” One of the biggest problems for the interior of the Palace is water damage caused by the leaking roof. The cast iron roofs, constructed on wrought iron structures, were leading-edge JAMES ROBINSON; ADAM WATROBSKI

1981

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technology in the mid-1800s, but have never undergone a major renovation. “It’s a Victorian ‘kit of parts’, and unfortunately for the present day estates team, because rainwater downpipes and ventilation were built into the structure, it is very difficult to find the source of the leaks,” explains Flannery. The roof structure is not the only place water comes in. Flannery leads the way up a narrow spiral staircase into the Central Tower, which rises above the octagonal Central Lobby, the heart of the Palace. The tower is closed to public access and it’s apparent why. Designed as one of the Palace’s seven ventilation shafts, the belfry is open to the elements and rain drips down on to the roof of Central Lobby and seeps through to the decorative ceiling – where the damage is visible even from ground level. Jammed with ductwork Here, hidden from the public eye, is another of the estate team’s big issues. This redundant void in the 96m tower is stuffed full of services – mechanical plant directly over the lobby, ductwork, cables winding around the walls like ivy. “They’ve been installed in a piecemeal fashion over the decades,” says Flannery. “All of the original ventilation shafts are jammed with ventilation ductwork serving the mechanical plant, because there was nowhere else for them to go.” The ventilation system, designed by David Boswell Reid, involved seven ventilation towers, including the Victoria Tower and Elizabeth Tower. Fans occupying 40% of the basement would extract air through concealed passages – such as under the benches of the Royal Gallery and in between the ceiling decorations – and out through these “chimneys”. Barry kept the design feature through did not use it for the purpose

intended. Mechanical ventilation plant was added in the 20th century, and the ductwork runs through the towers. “We are now looking at how these historic voids may be incorporated into the new building services design, which will be installed in the R&R programme,” says Flannery. “Sustainable architecture expert Dr Henrik Schoenefeldt has been seconded to Parliament to investigate the potential.” Building services will, in fact, be comfortably the biggest element of the R&R programme. “As much as three-quarters, by value,” says Flannery. The basement of the Palace is a tangle of pipework and cabling. The steam-based heating and distribution system, which runs the length of the building, has some pipes up to 130 years old. This is partly due to access being restricted by asbestos, which is present throughout the estate, and is another obstacle for the R&R work. M&E work began in 2010 to address some of the legacy problems, but has only replaced 15% of the infrastructure, buying time. Energy performance is a “massive issue”, says Flannery. “Most of the 3,800 windows do not shut properly, which is terribly energy inefficient, and some are in such a bad state as to be dangerous.” The lighting quality is also poor, Flannery continues. “The light fittings

Palace of Westminster key facts l Grade I listed building and part of Unesco Westminster World Heritage Site l 32,375 sq m total ground area of Palace, including courtyards, gardens and 2ha of buildings l 112,476 sq m total internal area l Nearly 300m in length l More than 1,100 rooms, 100 staircases and 31 lifts l More than 3km of passages over seven levels

were originally designed for gas, including the biggest in the Palace in Central Lobby, and converted to electric not long after,” he says. “Many new fittings were added in the 1950s. “The intention is to use LEDs and fibre optics throughout, though the design has not started yet. Most of the electrics will also need to be rewired. This will also improve the appearance of the heritage features – we estimate it will increase the visibility of the murals by 70%.” Flannery and the R&R team are currently poring over 3,000 of Barry’s original drawings of the Palace, held in the National Archives in Kew, which will be used to plan the work programme. “A BIM Revit model will also be created as part of this process,” says Flannery. “Drones are being used to survey the northern end of the estate. It’s a major help as otherwise access would be extremely difficult. “We want to include details of building fabrics, paintings, sculptures and other decorations in the model – which isn’t common in BIM. We are also cataloguing the many decorative features which have fallen off or been removed from the Palace over the years, and are now held in our architectural salvage store in Acton. For example, the carved bosses fell off the House of Lords ceiling 20 years ago. We may be able to reinstate some of them during the R&R programme.” The start date for the work is still some way off, “probably 2025”, says Flannery. BDP and CH2M Hill were appointed to manage the work last year. As for a completion date, that is likely be near 2060. The scaffolding and protective sheeting currently encasing Big Ben and Westminster Hall is going to become a familiar site across the whole Parliament estate. ●

JAMES ROBINSON X2; ADAM WATROBSKI

Clockwise from left: Patched up repairs to the leaky roof; the open belfry of Central Tower; faded encaustic tiles; cabling in the basement

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JANUARY 2018 For members of the CIOB

HERITAGE

RESTORING GOVERNMENT INSIDE PARLIAMENT’S VAST RENOVATION PROGRAMME

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