AZCA MADRID PROJECTS
Anatomy of a Landmark Chair of Complex Projects MSc1 Studio
Anatomy of a Landmark Chair of Complex Projects MSc1 Studio Professor Kees Kaan
Studio Coordinator Aldo Trim
Teachers Stefanos Filippas Afaina de Jong Alexander Pols Albert Takashi Richters Aldo Trim
Teaching Assistants Alessandro Arcangeli Katarzyna Piekarczyk Zaira Pourier
Editors Afaina de Jong Katarzyna Piekarczyk Aldo Trim
Students Francesco Tincani Alexandra Heijink Han Yang Rong Fan Michal Bala Filiz Coskun Mehran Samiyi Maruli Heijman Gijs Beckman MaĂ¤yan DaniĂŤl Martine Huijsmans Jing Lin Therese Eberl Steven van der Woude Mitchell John Gow Marta Kowalczyk Giuseppe Campo Antico Sjoerd Boomars Paolo Turconi Mike de Bruijn Ho Yin Chan Mengyu Li Thilini Pavithra Warnakulasuriya Alon Sarig Silvia Creosteanu Wesley Verhoeven Laurens Pieter de Lange Marck Vrieling
Matthijs Vreke Alessandro Arcangeli Arianna Fornasiero Marinus Jongeneel Lin Wang Mike de Lange Signe Perkone Malou Speets Filippo Fiorani Arjan Schoneveld Hendrik Voegelpoel Paula Bizais Fallon Walton Henrique Gil Matiz Enrico Sciannameo Tadeusz Pruszkowski Mickael Minghetti Victor Koot Jarno Van Iwaarden Sophie Dikmans Rita Wei Carolina Pastor Dimitrios Andrinopoulos Nikoleta Stankovic Hana Mohar Sebastiaan Van Arkel Gerben van den Oever Lukas Kroop
Introduction to the studio
Fall semester 2015
Crime and Punishment Nuevos Archivos Framework[s] Torre Energia The Fictive Garden Agora The Anti Landmark of AZCA Ambiversion Script City Archipelago Vertical Wunderkammer
12 22 30 38 46 54 62 70 78 86
Spring semester 2016
Future of Work Landmark as Critical Space Vertical GAFA Campus Modern Monastery AZCA: A Platform for Film and Protest Stairs as Catalyst Double Density
98 108 116 124 130 138 146
Introduction to the studio In the Landmark studio we dissect existing buildings via anatomy, exposing the basic elements that define the building or an ensemble. A Landmark exists by virtue of its environment; its ‘raison d’etre’ has to be comprehended before analysing the building itself. Through their specific location, function and distinct architecture, Landmarks have become meaningful and recognizable. The city around has changed, but the building has remained and solidified its meaning. The studio promotes broad speculation, independent thinking, collective work with the aim of positioning architecture into a broader social, cultural, political, and economic context. Students perform a thorough urban research in order to understand the area’s history and context, and to identify the Landmarks that could become catalyst for intervention. The research zooms in from the large scale of the city itself, to the medium scale the site, to the small scale of the building. The resulting data is organized into a comprehensive research book. This research book serves as basis for the argumentation of the design brief by the students, which on its turn is leading for the indidividual proposals. We examined the rise of the European skyscraper. How did a building type, which originates from financial and technological developments in de US, become an emblem of prosperity for the modern capital across the Atlantic? We focused on a site in Madrid which is an important node in the city and for decades has had an impact on the skyline. Studying Madrid in general is relevant since estimations predict that the city will grow substantially to become the most dense European city by the year 2025. The studio work has to be seen within the context of this future growth which faces the given site with certain challenges such as density, uses, adaptation and its image within the city. North of the center, along the Paseo de la Castellana, lies the multi layered AZCA complex. It is bordered by the football stadium Santiago Bernabeau and Nuevos Ministerios. AZCA was conceived in the ‘60’s and ‘70’s as the new business district responding to the overcrowded old center. During the ‘80‘s some remarkable skyscrapers have been built and for a long time it was concidered the ‘Manhattan of Madrid’. Alas, the monofunctional program, labyrinthic internal spaces and hidden infrastructure have led to a problematic area during non-office hours. As an uban entity it isolates itself from the otherwise lively city around. The question is how via a redesign of the towers that mark AZCA, a more dynamic and integrated complex can be created.
Fall semester 2015
Crime and Punishment alon sarig and mike de Bruijn
The Rise of Eco-Fascism In the year 2025, Regardless the climate top of Paris 2015, Global warming rapidly increased at an alarming rate, causing major ecological crises and biodiversity extinction around the world. Spain ,due to its ongoing political instability, was unable to reach the EU sustainable development strategy. As a
result, the Spanish government reacted with a fast Anti-democratic legislation and by implementation of an eco-oriented authoritarian regime. Inducing fear and violence supported by an ultra environmental-friendly state apparatus agenda. The consequences were swift. The Spanish Environmental Protection
Agency started operating waste to energy plants, where anti-environmentalists produce sustainable and renewable energy as a new form of an educational penalty to reduce Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen into non global warming matter.
Laurens de Lange and Wesley Verhoeven
The Spanish Civil War (1936-39) and the Franco regime (1939-75) have resulted in more than 500.000 deaths and 300.000 exiles. Yet, Spain still does not properly deal with its legacy of the past. In contrast to other European countries with their own dark history, Spain has no museum or information point attempting to tell the history of the Civil War and Franco era. There is a longstanding tradition of locking down discussions about the past, encouraged by the Pact of Forgetting introduced after Franco’s death. Spain’s Historical memory Law of 2007 can be seen as a first step towards recognition, but after the Popular Party returned to power in 2011 the law’ s impact diminished. As exemplified in Spain, contradictory expressions of memory coexist in the same time and place. Moreover, people even tend to remember the same things differently at different times. Entangled with the process of remembering are material objects, visual arts, films and literature—the physical carriers of memory. This gives us an approach to deal with the conflicting memory of Spain. By creating an archive for the public, the past can be remembered and learned from. It is of high importance that the many untold stories are kept for future generations, before they disappear altogether. Because archives are usually maintained by governmental institutions, they can be a powerful political instrument. Who decides what does and does not get into the archive, has the power to (re)write history. We therefore propose to take the archive out of the political realm and give it back to the public, who can fill it with personal memorabilia. To give these personal items meaning towards the general public, they are juxtaposed with politically charged artefacts from the Civil War and Franco era, such as statues and military equipment. This creates a dialogue, something that is further strengthened by introducing Art Cabinets, spaces for exhibiting contemporary art reflecting on Spain’s history. Like in a Wunderkammer, by juxtaposing apparently unrelated cultural artefacts and phenomena, their interconnectedness is shown and curiosity about history is encouraged. The programme is further completed by an auditorium for symposia, lectures and presentations, a library containing literature relating to the Civil War and Francoism, workshop spaces and a central information point. By doing so, we aim to create a platform for discussion and reflection on the past.
Within Madrid, the AZCA area lies at an important crossroads between the old city, the economical heart, the airport and the university campus. A majority of the cityâ€™s cultural, political and economic institutions are located along the Castellana axis, making this perhaps the most important road in Madrid, with AZCA at its centre. The introduction of a cultural function could attract a wider audience to the AZCA area, benefiting local businesses and improving the attractiveness of the site. This opens up possibilities for partially financing the building by the corporations in AZCA. A public archive also involves the people in the area, counteracting the current socio-economic segregation. Instead of building on the Titania site, we propose to place our building on the corner plot, facing the Castellana street. What is currently a messy parking lot, should be the grand, welcoming entrance to AZCA. The building is therefore set back from the street, creating a clear, public square in front. Several scenarios for the use of the square are proposed, such as festivals, demonstrations and national commemorations. Our archive of memory can also be seen as a counterweight to the neighbouring Nuevos Ministerios building, for many a symbol of the Franco dictatorship. The volume appears thin when viewed from the south, slowly transforming into a massive slab as one drives up the Castellana. The building volume, measuring approximately 80 x 80 x 10 m, is covered in a massive concrete shell with minimal openings. Upon entering, a vast and fragile framework reveals itself. Artefacts and functions seem randomly inserted, enhancing the feeling of endlessness. The routing alternates between order and chaos. Vertical cores and horizontal corridors, running end-to-end, create a sense of place, while randomly excavated paths, stairs and voids result in disorientation. A series of connected escalators takes visitors upwards through the building, inviting them to step off now and then to explore the archive and art cabinets. The archive offers space to about 36.000 boxes for memorabilia, every box measuring about 50 x 50 x 50 cm. Boxes can be requested at a central information desk in the entrance hall, are filled and then put in the framework at a chosen location. Information about the boxâ€™s content and position (xyz-coordinate), as well as an optional background story, are written down by the user and stored in the library.
Different routes by different users. - supporting functions (library & auditorium) - workshop space - art cabinets - restaurant - entrance and main route
ART CABINET (MASS_DEFINITION)
CABINET OF CURIOSITIES (VOIDS_DEFINITION)
CABINET OF DISCUSSION (MASS_DEFINITION)
1. Framework 2. Cores 3. Corridors 4. Functions, 5. Art cabinets 6. Escalators 7. Stairs 8. Voids 9. Facade (read left to right starting from first row)
matthijs Vreke and malou speets
We create a general framework with a plot of fifty-six by thirty-six meters. Inside the frame there are two cores that functions as stability cores, but also for the main vertical traffic distribution.
The fixed elements are connected with each other through a public route. The route starts at the corner located at the â€˜Plaza de Limaâ€™ roundabout. The end of the route will be on the roof, where there is a panoramic view of Madrid.
In every general framework there are four different fixed elements. The location of these elements in the framework depends on the buildings specific location.
The Frame will be filled with content in the form of general units. Units can be combined if requested.
1. The process starts with a visit to the Showroom
5. Unit is lifted through the spine of the Framework
7. Unit is pushed into the Frame
2. Get advice at the â€˜Genius Barâ€™ and compose your own Unit
6. Unit is lifted over the Framework and moved to the empty slot
8. Units are (optionally) combined
4. Framework-site is approached through Azca tunnel system
3. Unit is manufactured at an off-site location
9. If possible, Unit can be expanded
10. If desired, Unit can be moved within the Framework
11. If the Unit is no longer needed it is removed from the Framework
12. Cyclus starts again
View from Paseo de la Castellana
View from first plaza floor
View from rooftop
Possibilities in two directions
One unit has a standard measure of 3.5 x 3.5 x 7.8 meters. It is possible to combine multiple units in vertical and horizontal direction to meet its users need.
The units are prefab elements made out of cross laminated timber. There are three basic facade options.
A young couple and their triplets, three girls, are looking for a new place in Madrid. The father is a stay at home dad, who loves to take photographs in his free time. The mother is a career woman who works in advertisement.
Example floor plan
The units slide in on a rail-system. The distribution cabinet is always located in a fixed spot that makes it possible to ‘plug’ the unit on to the technical circuit and shafts.
The Mountaineer. Juan loves extreme mountain climbing. He has a family and a day-time job. Therefor he can’t always travel and he has to train at home.
minck simonis and david Kooymans
Research to Narrative During our research we concluded that the development of highrise is related to time, that highrise can be an expression or symbol for power and through itâ€™s height forms a landmark. Before the 20th century most cities were landmarked by the churches. During the 20th century highrise buildings developed through economic incentives and often symbolized the power of commercial institutions. Since the energy issue plays a major role in the development and feasibility of 21st century highrise we want to research new opportunities and use the 20th century business district AZCA in Madrid as experimental ground. A good start to prepare AZCA for the future is to see where reduction can take place, and incentives can be added. This could lead to more interest from users and investors. Since AZCA mainly consists of office space, we started looking for ways to save energy and add incentives that would benefit all of AZCA. We found out that the computer is a big and inefficient consumer of energy. Cloud Solution for AZCA Computers and servers produce large amounts of heat and these energy losses can be significant. About 20 to 30% of the cooling load is due to computers. Also 60 to 70% of the energy costs are caused by the computers and servers in an office. Because companies in office buildings work individually, large numbers of servers are used with low utilization and often sub-optimal efficiency. When using a cloud based solution (sharing the servers) a smaller number of cloud servers with a higher utilization and efficiency becomes possible. This solution can decrease the energy use per employee enormously.
Cloud Computer We developed a concept for AZCA where the Torre Mahou is replaced by a cloud computer that serves the other office buildings. The project involves AZCA as a whole and is not autonomous. The central cloud computer makes it possible for the other office buildings to use single screens. This intervention can lead to an advanced and continuously optimized cloud server with a highly efficient cooling system. An energy reduction of 80 % is possible by moving all the servers to one place in AZCA. Water Cooling server spaces is one off the biggest challenges in Spainâ€™s warm climate. We started
Solar Tower The costs of producing a KWH with a solar tower are relatively high compared with a normal gas powerplant. The costs for producing a kWH can be five times as high in comparison with a normal gas powerplant. Therefore research needs to be done to add extra functions to this kind of powerplant. Adding a new function to the solar tower can increase the economic feasibility of the solar tower as an energy generator. A solar tower is basically a high slender vertical pipe. At the base of the pipe a field of glass is placed in order to create a greenhouse effect. Cool air is drawn in and heated
looking into different ways to get a cold source that isnâ€™t harmful to the environment, or costly. Since grey water is still going straight to the sewer, we saw it as a great opportunity to use this cold source. Using water is also the most efficient way of cooling servers. This led to the idea of using the grey water of the offices to cool the cloud computer. Using Leftovers We searched for ways to use the collected heat produced by the server and were inspired by the concept of the solar tower. Therefore we explored this concept and used it as a starting point for our design.
under this field of glass. The only way up is through the pipe and a strong updraft effect is created. Energy is drawn from the streaming hot air using turbines. Horticulture We were searching for an additional function that would increase the economic feasibility of the solar tower but also would add an interesting function to AZCA. We explored different options like algae tanks, city farming and making public space. The water used for cooling the cloud computer could either be send to the sewer or used on the location of the project. We came up with the idea to use the water for the drainage of tomato plants and
other vegetables. Horticulture is also a very suitable addition to a solar tower because lots of varieties can resist high temperatures with ease. We studied different crops to find out which varieties can handle fluctuations in temperature the best. We picked 6 different crops which are used in city gardens and made a zoning plan based on their ability to grow with high temperatures. The most vulnerable crops are placed on the lower floors of the tower while the easy survivers are placed in the top.
enerGY sYstem ConCePt
Pragmatic Tower The design of the Torre Energia can be described as pragmatic or rational. The concept, the functions and the shape of the tower all have a meaning and are an outcome of the research. Construction The construction exists of 6 columns in the core that bear the load of the building. The floors of the building are fixed on a cable tension structure that is draped on the tower. Due to the function of the building it is possible to use very light weight steel floors. The forces are distributed to the steel cable facade, transported to the top and led down through the columns. The construction is very light and the facade also allows for sunlight to come in. Shafts are cut into the slabs to optimize the sun exposure for the crops and the glass core of the tower (the updraft tower).
Climate design The tower is oriented to the South by its shape. The floors of the tower are curved from east to west, following the sunpath to maximize incoming sunlight for the crops and glass core. The north side of the tower is more flat. The stairs and elavator are situated on this side. The tower basically consists of a glass core that functions as a solar tower where energy is drawn from streaming hot air by a turbine. The air is heated by the waste heat of the cloud computer in the basement. The air from the ground floor is also heated when sunlight hits the base of the tower. This increases the effect. Additionally the temperature of the greenhouse that surrounds the glass core heats up if sunlight hits the facade. The hot air is distributed to the glass core. This increases the updraft effect and causes ventilation of the greenhouse. To make sure the rising hot air
is not moving through the open slabs of the tower we made partitions on every 5th slab. The topfloor is fully open and creates a venturi effect. Functions Since the tower houses a vertical garden a solid distribution and transport hub is essential. The groundfloor of the tower is used to process the crops and the residue of the crops. The groundfloor is transparant and allows for the public to see what happens in the tower. The vegetables can be sold at a small market at the plaza level. The basement houses a large space for the cloud computer and the grey water reservoir. Most vegetables will be sold elsewhere. The elevators in the tower are going down to the basement where the tower is connected to the underground world and roads of AZCA. The location is favorable because the basement is directly connected to an existing road, making efficient transport possible.
the FiCtiVe Garden Lin Wang and marck Vrieling
Based on the information from the research, the site of Europa Tower really has a special meaning not only to the AZCA area but also the surroundings. There are three main aspacts which really influence further. From the city scale, the site is exactly beside the main development trunk of Madrid, namely Castellana Avenue, with a metro station right east to the site, which provides a possibility of bringing more people and vitality here.
Visitors high low
From the perspective of surroundings, our site, or we can say the AZCA area, is between a huge contrast condition, with different people from different levels, with different education qualification and even different rations, namely chaos and diversity.
How can we deal with this condition? What attitude should we have?
From a smaller scale, there are two famous icons near our site, the delicate monumental white building Picasso Tower from Yamasaki and the world-known stadium of Royal Madrid- Santiago BernabĂŠu.
Visitors high income
Manual workers Universital qualified
Living in big houses
‘The Garden’ according to Mark Pimlott:
There are various frameworks through which one can look at the public interior. One of them is in therms of fundamental ideas, motifs or themes. The garden is one of those themes. It is openly lyrical and romantic as frames of reference for describing, imagining and making the public interior. The Garden is a hypertrophied conservatory whose own architecture depends on references to pergolas, arbours, bowers and the arcades of trees provided by nature and managed by man to form primitive shelters against the elements. From the garden one looks out to the city beyond. The garden is a realised image—a stage set—of an idealised city scene poised in the midst of the real city, which it regards, and, to some extent, resembles. The public interior here represents the city as it dreams itself: a fabulous specimen (buildings and citizens alike) at the centre of the world.
Hyepothetical panorama based on the theory and the position of Europa Tower
What do we want to achieve by the fictive garden?
From city scale
From surrounding scale
From architecture scale
Frame and communicate with the city
Absorb different people together
Nature-like structure difines the space in it
Hypothetical master plan proposal
Urban texture stays just at the edge of AZCA.
Expansion into AZCA forms two main connection axes going through the area
Main nodes in the neiborhood do have an impact on the whole area.
Add two more strong connections which link the nodes and combine with the two axes.
Three main spaces on the main structure creats a center and two entrance of the whole area.
Our Europa Tower is right at the northeast corner of AZCA, namely a node at one of the new connections. It will be the most important guideline of our site and following practical design.
How do we realize a fictive garden?
Towards city Occupied 46%
Garden Towards city
More than half emptiness AZCA was designed to be the CBD area of Madrid. The 100% occupation was expected of course, but today this is not the case anympre. We choose to inject new functions into the building to re-occupy the emptiness and to activate the building.
General way General mixed-use buildings re-organise the functions but have no connection between those functions except for meeting at lobby.
Erosion and connection The garden theme combined the market will be a public realm as erosion in the building with office and library to connect the functions with each other.
Structure - How do we support our strategy?
How can the garden be shared both of the office and library? In-between By making the volumes connecting with different floors and different functions, namely the library and office, they really become kind of shared space which will absorb people together as what we want to achieve. So we can call this series of volumes fictive garden.
Secret Garden Single Pod
Communication Garden Team Room
Intermediate Garden Service Area
Forum Garden Round Table Meeting Room
Party Garden Lecture Room and stands
How is the garden combined with the transportation system? Fast and slow Apart from the four cores with elevators and stairs for fire escape, thereâ€™s a complete route linking the garden as a whole. With escalators and stairs, the route owns two rhythms: fast and slow one, which organise the fictive garden inside logically and provide an opportunity to let different volumes connected to each other. Escalators
Stairs Go through the private office space and closed stacks
Go through the mechanical floor and truss floor
Go through the mechanical floor and truss floor
Go through the open market
alessandro archangeli and Filippo Fiorani
Core issue Modern capitalism has been the XX century’s religion, and finance is its evil product. This system created utter inequality, the final stage of class struggle, where 1% of the population controls more than 40% of world’s wealth. Growing inequality is the flip side of something else: shrinking opportunity. Whenever we diminish equality of opportunity, it means that we are not using some of our most valuable assets—our people—in the most productive way possible. In 2008 financial capitalism collapsed. This collapse aroused the crowds, breathing life into a new political and economical approach, which we call Socialism 2.0. The upcoming neo-socialist economy requires a collective action, it is based on the certainty that paying attention to everyone else’s selfinterest-in other words, the common welfareis in fact a precondition for one’s own ultimate well-being. The Architectural product of the XX century was the Skyscraper, and its mania for reaching the sky. This is the XX century’s Babel tower, where people only work, speaking different languages, distancing themselves from the city and from other people.
Our position Assuming that every spatial choice is political, and every political choice is spatial, we want to reverse the idea of the skyscraper, giving back the t(p)ower to the public. Most of the hybrid buildings we know failed, resulting in structures where different functions and spaces just stand in top or in front of each other, without interacting. We tried to create a space where functions and spaces interact, rather than co-exist, basing our design on the distinction that Aristotelis first, than Hannah Arendt, made, between the two verbs act and work.A space where people act rather than work. Action goes on directly between men, corresponding to the human condition of plurality, to the fact that men, not man, live the earth. Plurality and connectivity are the natural conditions of Agorà, the keys of democracy.
selfmark vs landmark japanese axonometry
Architectural manifestation We take the street and we flip it, arranging in vertical all the spaces we walk through when we go for a stroll in town. We base our design on the connection within public and private spaces. The former will be distributed along the three dimensions of the tower, the latter will be literally re-invented: a new flexible working space, based on interactions between spaces and people, where sharing is the keyword: sharing services, workforce, ideas. The grid sets the building free of its space and time. From the city of Madrid, we access the tower arising on the new Spanish parliament, where the community decides for itself in a new form of free and collaborative democracy. From this political theatre we walk up to two squares that introduce the working spaces. Six modules of three floors, for different needs. These spaces stand on a structural steel grid along which tools such as chairs, printers, tables and panels slide, being accessible by everyone. This space is conceived for young workers, startuppers, students, who have the possibility to rent a just a cheap table, enjoying the possibility of sharing the cost of common services and more important: to meet other people, potential collaborators and teammates. If we keep climbing the tower we end up in the library, conceived as an ascent on big steps to the rooftop. In the boarding spaces we found the hologram rooms, where people can experience through holograms, and 3d projec- tions the spaces descripted in the good old books. On top of the tower we find what called the labyrinth: a space where people lose themselves and meet inside this monumental labyrinth of monoliths scattered on the square. The whole building is conceived as a spiritual and social path, running from the crowded arena, to the spiritual, intimate, religious labyrinth.
AgorĂ Axonometric Section
SQUARE sharing CAFE
SQUARE getting direct informations
RESTAURANT PUBLIC OFFICE
OFFICES 2.0 PUBLIC OFFICE
POLITICS 2.0 PUBLIC TRANSPORT
time-space organisation diagram
HOME PUBLIC TRANSPORT
BACKGROUND BACKGROUND RESEARCH RESEARCH
the anti LandmarK oF aZCa
ECONOMICS ECONOMICS AND AND DEMOGRAPHY DEMOGRAPHY
Filiz Coskun and rong Fan
It is clear through the research that there is an ever increasing segregation within Madrid. From economical and demographics point of view, the segregation between the northern areas from the southern areas are substantial with AZCA sitting in the geographic cross point. This became the starting point of our project. AZCA is the intersection of the majority of segregation. Hence it is clear that through the use of AZCA as a starting point we should try to breach the segregation that is ever widening in Madrid. From a typological view, AZCA forms a tower fortress, enclosed and isolated from the surrounding districts. This causes a major problem when accessing the site, not only for foreign travelers but also local visitors. The hostile and dissociation with the rest of Madrid has become a urban black hole causing economic and social problems on site. The financial crises in 2008 hit Spain hard, with 50% of on going construction projects abandoned, while 80% of planned projects were scraped. During this period AZCA was also hit hard, with companies downsizing and or bankrupted, the up and coming new modern financial district the multipacility planned for became not only unaffordable but also a political grenade. From the new business landmark towers became obsolete and the site deserted after business hours.
NR. OF JOBS NR. OF JOBS
MANAGER RESIDENCE MANAGER RESIDENCE
BACKGROUND RESEARCH 6 6
4 4 3 3
FINDINGS PROGRAM 2 2
2 2 11 11
4 4 3 3
BORN ABROAD BORN ABROAD
7 7 1 1 2 2 11 11
4 4 3 3
7 7 1 1
2 2 11 11
4 4 3 3
2. Programs: Initially designed as a business venture, the site lacks daily programs that insert itself into the Spanish culture outside of normal business hours. Also with missing programs from the surrounding areas, the site is a perfect opportunity to add additional programs to bring the local community on site. 3. Density: The lack of variation of programs on site has bought upon a density issue. Where locals are attracted to move away from the site after work to where there are more variety and preestablished culture.
PROGRAM ABOVE STREET LEVEL - DAYTIME ORIENTED
Taking these major problems on site, it was clear that our master plan needed to address and manage them. 1. Scale: The lack of human scale on site makes the site unapproachable and hostile.
PROPERTY PRICES PROPERTY PRICES
APARTMENTBLOCKS (CHAMARTÍN ONE FAMILY HOUSES)
FASHION, RESTAURANTS CAFÉS
Looking from the plan there are two major issues with the current master plan. 1. The lack of a visual connection to other streets. 2. The numerous horizontal layers added onto the site. Currently, the site is cut off by the towers and the various entrance layers onto the site. This brings confusion and makes the whole area hard to orientate yourself. From this, our plan is to remove a series of building that cut off the visual connection that can be made through the site, as well as sinking the central park down so it can be seen from the street level. A north south axis is also established by removing the 3 storey building in front of the BBVA building. By taking these two steps we are able to open up the site better by making the whole AZCA visually more open. In the new master plan, the central park is also sunken, to make is visually able to the new eastern and western entrances. Other than the visual connections, by changing the level of the park itself, we removed extra layers that
are currently existent on site. The current central park is overshadowed by the various hidden passages leading to it. However due to the seclusion of these passages that winds through many hidden corners the journey to the park may feel unsafe and dangerous. By removing a large proportion of these veranda like passages, we are able to once again add a visual passage through these paths. By doing this, just like adding the major axis we open up the site once again. Currently on the site, penetration is only skin deep. In order to encourage more cultural activities which are missing on site and deeper pedestrian penetration five programic interventions were added to add to the density of AZCA. 1. Re-programing the park: By reprograming the park and bringing activities on site, we encourage the large elderly population from Tetuan to cross onto the site and engage in activities. 2. Residential Housing: Residential housing is added to help improve the siteâ€™s density during non business hours. By bringing residential housing directly
onto the site we are providing the space with a safer atmosphere, in comparison to the un-naturally dessert nature of a site this size and of importance. [This is in comparison to the Spanish night life culture]. 3. Food Market and Supermarket: After bringing in residential housing and park activities we needed to provide for those who live and move around on site. Hence providing the new community with a on site supermarket and weekly fresh food markets. These fresh food markets and supermarkets also act as activators on site, giving people reason for visiting. 4. Food Street: Extending with the pre-existing food truck festival that is held on site annually and with food as a central element to Spanish culture. By adding the food street, we are once again attracting visitors on site and playing with what is already existent on site. But by intensifying it in addition with the right marketing, itâ€™s in the hopes that this new street will become a social media hotspot. 5. New metro entrance: In the intiventions, we have also designed a new metro entrance in the middle of the site, right
OFFICES DWELLING COMMERCIAL CULTURAL/PUBLIC
masterPLan interVentions MASTERPLAN
PARK ACTIVITY RECREATIONAL
SUBWAY EXIT RESIDENTIAL AREA
FOOD MARKET SUPERMARKET
SUBWAY EXIT FOOD STREET
BBVa BuiLdinG BUILDING DIAGRAM
ART INSTITUTION: PERFORMING ARTS CRAFTS
The Torre BBVA building stands at the gate way of the South Eastern corner of AZCA. The tower is self is designed as the poster boy of Modern Architecture. Keeping the structure of the pre-existing towerâ€™s split core, a series of hanging boxes are designed to become the new cultural center on site. Our main goal with the BBVA building is to attract visitors, families, elderly and for office workers to stay on site after hours. This is down by splitting the program of the building into three elements. Day Programs: The Day programs include government offices and an art institution. In Between Spaces: With the hanging programs produces the in between programs where roof terraces are made. These spaces are both public and private.
NIGHT PROGRAMS: RESTAURANTS/CAFE BARS/NIGHT CLUBS
IN-BETWEEN SPACES: ENTRANCE FLOOR ROOFTOP TERRACES
DAY PROGRAMS: OFFICE ART INSTITUTION
EXHIBITION SPACES: GROUND FLOOR IN BETWEEN SPACES
EXHIBITION SPACES: GROUND FLOOR IN BETWEEN SPACES
FOODIES: RESTAURANTS/CAFE BARS/NIGHT CLUBS
With some terraces private spaces, while others public for pedestrians to move about.
can interact and mix. These spaces are also designed to hold exhibits, pop up ventures and other various activities.
Night Programs: The night programs include, bar, restaurants and night clubs.
The ground entrance floor which is apart of the in between spaces is designed to flow and link onto the public space in front of the building. With pavilion styled cubes littered across the public space in the same language as the entrances, the main ideal behind linkage is to create a visual cue to the public of the activities that occurs inside the building.
The three programs are designed to activate the building at different times of the day. Due to the warmth of the Spanish sun, the Day activity boxes are moved towards the northern side of the building, to create adequate shading sun during office hours. While the Night programs are pushed towards the south facing the historical center of Madrid. This was designed to act as a marker for night activities that are currently running towards the hot spots in the historical center. The in between spaces are designed to activate the building for the public sphere. These spaces are where different walks of life
M U L T I P R O G R AM The idealogical behind out building is to create space where all walks of life from Madrid and AZCA can interact and become involved with the growing of the city itslef. Hence we have chosen to do this through three spaces
IN -B E T W E E N Through the terrace gardens and bridges connecting the two separate cores, this public in the air is designed to let people get lost and explore the BBVA in a different way, perhaps even stumbling across new friends.
SECTION AND FLOORPLANS
D AY AC T IV IT Y Populating the building with day activities will allow the building to draw not only office workers but also students and the younger generation of spanish people.
N IG H T AC T IV IT Y Inversing the current AZCA the building will incorporate â€œUnderground activies at different intervals up the building, drawing in a different crowd of participants later at night.
amBiVersion sCriPt MichaĹ‚ Bala
During last decades Spanish government became more dependent on the big companies, which were the main factor of Spanish economy. They had tried to reverse the trend but their effords failed. AZCA is the product for the big companies and corporations. The lack of identity and bad urban structure led to total disconnection with people and surrounding. Due to the fact that the people who are working there are mostly from the outskirts of Madrid, it is an example of introverted posture, which doesnâ€™t care about the local. The project is basically the metamorphose script for AZCA. The script transfers it from introverted structure, which acts only for global purposes into ambivert complex. In this sense the ambiversion is about mixing global and local and using its advantages. First step was creating new urban corridors, which are the continuation of the existing axes. They are pointing out the community center, Torre Picasso. Its new function is entertaining zone. Second step was stoping the uncontrolled spread of shopping centers by creating limited blocks, which are acting both like the organisms itself as well as one big complex. The last step was defining the role of the site in the redesigned masterplan. It uses the advantages of both local and global, as it is close to public communication and new urban corridors. The site contains the business incubation zone which is an impulse in AZCAâ€™s redevelopment.
amBiVersion sCriPt - ComPLex
American urban planner and economist, Richard Florida stated that the economic growth of modern countries is developed by the creative class. In this project creative class is considered not only by upper class, but also the locals with their own ideas. Their small businesses supported by education help will result in redevelopment of the whole complex.
First step was understanding what the potential users of complex are. There are a lot of unemployed skilled workers, poor elders, which cannot afford normal lifeâ€™s costs, immigrants, young unemployed and the artists. These groups were considered as actors in the script that was made in this project.
These numbers and needs were translated into spaces. The complex consists of the three main functions, which respond to the investor - entrepreneur relationship. The educational center is redesigned BBVA Tower. The second space is activator. It represents the activation process of locals. The last function is attractor. It has a purpose of attraction the potential investors.
education center health research
art center Main Plaza
First step was to clear the underground level and open in all directions by creating open space pavilion.
Secondly, the connection between the towers and the public was improved by creating vertical streets dragging public functions inside the cores of existing buildings.
The last step was folding the form of pavilion into the housing complex, which also created the northern wall of the new avenue that lead across the AZCA.
amBiVersion sCriPt - BBVa toWer During the last decades BBVA tower became the landmark of AZCA and Madrid. It is also a symbol of prosperity. That is why in the project its exterior faĂ§ade remains unchanged. The public space and whole new program enters the building from the inside.
The core becomes the vertical street, which is filled in with public, integrating functions.
The functional structure of the building has been designed in such a way that it starts from the functions providing knowledge and end up with training facilities and offices.
Two elevators are connecting the main floors of each part. The other two provides the connection within each block.
Different functions of education center were divided into 6 blocks which are acting both like different buildings and the complex.
CitY arChiPeLaGo therese eberl and marta Kowalczyk
The idea of the city is the basic concept of the future urban planning (..) as a city-archipelago. The urban island will have an identity in keeping with their history, social structure and environmental characteristics. The city as a whole will be a federation of these single towns with different structures, developed in a deliberately antithetic manner. A decisive factor in the choice ought to be the degree of clarity comprehendibility of the existing basic and design principles. A Manifesto by O.M. Ungers, R. Koolhaas with P. Riemann, H. Kollhoff and A. Ovasaka
COURTYARD There is no urban space without the simulation of nature labyrinths etc., (...) could they be a visible representation of elsewhere? Do they provide an essential reference point against which urban reality can situate and perceive itself? Henri Lefebvre: The urban Revolution
THE BASILICA Originally a house of public use. The main space of nave was surrounded by the structure of the building. The structure itself was a series of columns that moved down the perimeter walls of the Basilica. The nature of Basilica is expressed through the basic compositional principles: repetition of the formal structure. Wendy Orreals: Typology & R. Moneo, Museum of Art Merido
THE MUSEUM Cellular Plan. The Museum Spaces begin to overlap and penetrate one another, becoming quite literally modern space - modern sense of overlapping volumes. Wendy Orreals: Typology & R. Moneo, Museum of Art Merido
ROOFTOP LANDSCAPE There is no urban space without the simulation of nature labyrinths etc., (...) could they be a visible representation of elsewhere? Do they provide an essential reference point against which urban reality can situate and perceive itself? Henri Lefebvre: The urban Revolution
VertiCaL WunderKammer Kasia Piekarczyk and asmund skeie
Introduction In 1966 the city of Madrid invited to an unprecedented, public exhibition. The multimedia event presented the ambitious plans for a brand new city centre at AZCA that would brand Madrid as a modern metropolis and launch the city into the 21st century. At the heart of the proposal were the plans for a new cultural landmark, the national concert hall, that would bind together and unify its various parts and planned programmes. Over the course of the next several years, however, the plans were repeatedly redrawn to the point where the cultural landmark was eventually dropped. Contrary to the initial intentions, AZCA developed instead in line with the interests of private and commercial stakeholders. The resulting homogenous mix of office space and retail has left AZCA a dysfunctional island within the city, with little on offer to the general public. Urban Scale Taking the failure of the original plans as our point of departure, and on the basis of our field trip to Madrid in late 2015, our project seeks to address two issues in particular: 1) AZCAs function as an urban space, and 2) AZCAs function within the city of Madrid. AZCA today suffers from being disconnected from the surrounding urban fabric, as well as from poor connectivity within the site itself. We studied the existing underground levels, and propose to remove the top layer of walkways under which there are today only temporary parking lots. Our intervention does not interfere with the parking spaces under each of the buildings themselves, nor with the flow of traffic underground. At the same, it opens up a whole new ground floor on all the buildings affected, which then can be used for commercial and cultural purposes to enrich public life in the area.
Our proposal also improves access from the south, the east and from Calle Orense, from where you now get direct views and access to the park beyond.
B-B Long section of AZCA Complex
Siteplan of AZCA
At the centre of the new development, the Vertical Wunderkammer represents MadridÂ´s unique, new cultural landmark. The Wunderkammer is operated by a Robot with a vast collection of natural, digital and virtual artefacts at its disposal. With direct access to the internet and worldwide events, and on the basis of its strictly objective logic, the Robot curates exhibitions inside the Wunderkammer with the aim of portraying to the visitor a true and unfiltered depiction of our contemporary society.
Conceptual collage Robot rearranging the Archives
ConCePt Concept - The Wunderkammer Wunderkammers were collections of objects belonging to anything from natural history and geology to religious or historical artefacts. Patrons would exhibit their wunderkammers to a chosen audience or to the public at large with the explicit intention of inspiring awe and amazement in the viewer, who would ultimately be left to reflect on the strange and wonderful world in which we live. In short they were thought of as microcosms of the world, that in many respects are often considered as precursor to museum. Our project aims to take the Wunderkammer into the 21st century, whereby a Robot, an objective machine of artificial intelligence will portray to the visitor a true mirror image of our contemporary societies. At its disposal are the many artefacts stored within its archive, artefacts no longer limited to the traditional physical object, but now also as expressed in their many and varied analogue, digital and virtual forms. The Robot is what makes our Wunderkammer unique. Directly plugged to the internet, it can access, process and analyse an almost infinite amount of information on which to base its exhibition on, using any and as many of the artefacts available to it as necessary. Furthermore, the Robot represents a fundamentally Purely Objective Logic, which, in the end, is what makes it uniquely different from any other curated exhibition or programme out there, whether in the form of national museums or art galleries, newspaper and TV documentaries, or any other such attempts at fairly portraying our society. The Robot will always store the objects in whichever way is more efficient at any given time, which means that the arrangement of objects within the repository and therefore which ones appear to us as we visit the Wunderkammer, will change with each new exhibition.
03: Archive of Artifacts Accelerated elevator ride through the collection of the Wunderkammer
Archive of Artifacts
Cross section and perspective sections of the Wunderkammer
exPerienCe Part 1 The Wunderkammer essentially consists of five parts, where the first part is the experience of the exterior envelope and the building in its urban context. Apart from its function as an effective climate barrier, the building envelope relates to - and respects its immediate surroundings both by way of its rectangular form and height, as well as through its dignified and sober facade in cast concrete. Finally the envelope serves to safeguard and hide the Wunderkammer inside, and its closed facade and monolithic appearance seeks to install in the viewer a sense of curiosity for what lies inside, thereby marking the starting point for the experience of the Wunderkammer as a Whole, both physically and spiritually.
Balancing the skyline of AZCA
Intermezzo - Narrative Concept The organisation and conceptual narrative of the interior experience of the building can be thought of as something akin to Platoâ€™s Allegory of the Cave. Your passage through the building traces the journey from the dark depths of the Cave, here represented by the Subterranean Archive, passing through the material world, as expressed by the artefacts within the archive, to the final stage of enlightenment, which Plato ascribes to his Forms or Ideas as â€œpossessing the highest and most fundamental kind of realityâ€?. This ideal state is embodied in our Robot, whose objective sense of reality is presented to us in the form of the Wunderkammer.
01: Stepping to the Lobby First part of the experience. The glass floor reveils the depth of the Archive of Artifacts.
Part 2 Visitors enter the building through the lobby where behind the massive outer walls is revealed a mighty and entirely different structure. The impressive Archive of Artefacts rises through the building from its underground levels, which are breathtakingly exposed to the visitor through the glass floor of the Lobby. The Perimeter Walk offers spectacular perspective views of the Archive, as the distinction between the inner and outer structures creates soaring voids in the four corners of the building. 02: Perimeter Walk Looking up to the void between the Artifacts and the Wall, archive and the container.
Circulation diagram Central elevator for the visitors
exPerienCe Part 3 In the middle of the space are four elevators, waiting to take the visitor directly through the middle of the Archive to the Wunderkammer at the top. This exhilarating journey, hanging only from a steel cable in mid-air, is meant to be a thrilling experience: exciting to some, while undoubtedly scary to others. It is not, however, meant to be an amusement ride, but to provide the visitors with an initial immersive and emotional experience to clear their minds and to prepare them for the experience of the Wunderkammer. Part 4 Reaching the top, visitors step out of the lift and into the Wunderkammer to an every time unique experience. By means of its Purely Objective Logic, for each exhibition, the Robot will compose and curate a display of artefacts in a manner that is not meant to be a comment on contemporary society, like so many other shows and exhibitions, but to confront us with an unfiltered, true depiction of facets of our own society. The Wunderkammer itself can be arranged and rearranged in a variety of ways, and the intention is that the Robot be able to take full advantage of the full size of the room, even if that means installing new, temporary parts to the permanent load bearing structure. One day a labyrinth of artefacts, the next an empty arena of digital projections, each exhibition is a unique experience, a new theme, an entirely different arrangement of space.
03: Archive of Artifacts Accelerated elevator ride through the collection of the Wunderkammer
Part 5 Visitors leave the Wunderkammer by taking one of two spiral staircases down past the technical floor to the final part of the building, the Panorama Deck. As the first of its type in Madrid, this raised public space offers phenomenal panoramic views over the city and beyond. Itâ€™s intended function is akin to the traditional panorama buildings that were popular in the late 19th century. These buildings would bring visitors into a large circular room where on the wall was painted a panoramic view of some far-away place, in effect taking the visitors on a journey to another place. The Panorama Deck works according to the same principle, but from a far more subjective perspective. While it doesn Ě t offer up any other views than that which is right in front of you, having experienced the Wunderkammer, the visitor will now gaze out and look upon the city with new eyes and a fresh perspective. As the only floor in the building which is open to its surroundings, it serves as a space to contemplate and to reposition yourself in the city, before returning to it.
04: Inside the the Wunderkammer Exhibition of Artifacts, arranged by the Robot
05: Panorama Deck Last step of the journey. Contemplate and reposition yourself in the city.
Exterior context Perspective view of the Wunderkammer
Spring semester 2016
Future oF WorK
Victor Koot and hana marisa mohar
n io at i
m or nf
ent e biotech
We are at the start of an era in which technological innovation and artificial intelligence will eventually reduce all forms of human labor to activities profoundly different from jobs as we know them. As AZCA was conceived as a futuristic vision of the 60s we wanted to take a step forward and see what is the potential of accelerating technological innovation in transforming the values we assign to our jobs. How could the near future of work diversify and activate the routines within Azca. After the initial research we determined that we primarily want to address the mono functional character of Azca and its spaces, the isolation of its individual components from the public life and the lack of variation in the daily schedule of its occupants.
The project proposes taking the elementary modernist fascination with technology, mobility and production to such a reality, where most of the human labor is replaced with automated machinery. In this projection, the imbalance in social, economic and moral values that was intensified upon arrival of finance capitalism is restored through the idea that technological progress is an asset that is truly owned by each and every citizen. It is a pool of wealth upon which every citizen should be able to draw.
Productive leisure activities are considered as most valuable productive time of a person, given that the person is pursuing his own curiosities. amphitheatre
performative Wealth redistribution, education, work sharing, and job rotation
automated food production
are the principles upon which new social contracts are constructed, where technological innovation becomes a collective asset and the universal mobility of the worker holds the potential to replace the fragmented worker by the fully developed individual. The building, with a particular focus on agriculture is an organism in which man and machine coexist, improve and learn from each other. Efficient production is confronted with the intrinsic activities of tending to the plants. The daily route of a person is a series of analogue perimeter rounds that are interrupted by the vertical movement through the building’s interior in which the complexity of the mechanism - the flows of people and things are fully exposed.
In order to facilitate the system of perpetual job rotation the building is programmed by individual monofnctional floors.The 3 main parts of the building consist of automated crop production, biome galleries and a seed bank as the underground base of the building. Between these functions are scattered spaces for education, experiments and research, while the hollow core provides spaces for leisure and stimulating arbitrary activities. While the building could essentially sustain itself in it’s percieved function as a food production and storage facility the workers are integrated in it’s system, ensuring the constant advancement of building’s technology and it’s social role. They are performing tasks of maintenence, innovation, experimentation, education, and creativity, based on the cloud of information that is supplied by the bulding and its users. They acquire different roles in the span of one day, developing beneficial attidtudes toward work and towards the diverse groups of users of the building.
The building is positioned on the site of the existing Mahou tower. This space presented to us as a point in which multiple levels and characters of public space intersect. Recognising this convergence as a distinctive quality of the site within the urban landscape of Azca, the building stands, with its shape and orientation, unbiased to its surroundings. In itâ€™s base, however, the tower is engaging with all levels and pedestrian flows with direct entrances and street-level activities. In this way the complex maze of levels that define the unique character of Azca is exhibited and articulated by elements that connect the spaces to the building. The highest platform is at the height of the exterior perimiter street that connects Azca with the surrounding neighbourhood. It is the main access route for locals on bicycles, a momentary promenade through the isides of Azca. On the main pedestrian level lies a formal sqare, wedged between multiple office towers, with an undergroung garage exit that ensures the base for constant circulation of users. Turning around the building, the square transitions into a more informal corridor, a marketplace. The building roots itselft into the lowest level, the park. It is the the most static out of the four, giving space to relaxation, terraces and outdoor workshops.
Structurally the tower works as a singular core. In order to open up the central spine, the outer columns are held together by a system of circular trusses that cantilever towards the centre. This system allows for minimal floor thickness around the brims of the central void. Where the discs require a thicker layer of soil for planting, such as in the biome gallery, the gapes between the radial thrusses is filled with soil and the drainage layer is resting on floor structure attached to the bottom stingers of the trusses. The building has a double facade with triple glazing attached to the floor structure and a secondary layer of translucent fabric that can revolve around the facade and fold to produce different densities of sun protection. It is guided on magnetic railings, strecthed over steel vertical louvres that form theskeleton for the outer building envelope.
LandmarK as CritiCaL sPaCe enrico sciannameo and Carolina Pastor
low income families
Landmark of AZCA
Stairs as a landmark
Tower as a critical space
In Madrid, skyscrapers (especially the recent ones) are just â€œdesign objectsâ€? without any relation with the social and physical context.
AZCA lacks of spaces able to let the urban life develop. Since ancient times, stairs have been used as plazas where people interact.
By breaking the functional segregation of the ordinary tower, the stairs become a critical space, where urban life can happen and trigger new social circles.
Municipality builds the tower in order to increase the civic sense of AZCA and let the community grow by bringing all the people together. vOpen to all the users of AZCA, aims to offer a place where to produce, to recreate and to realize oneself without distinctions, breaking the cultural and physical segregation of AZCA. Now, municipality owns 100% of the tower.
The community starts owning plots of the tower first of all by building the construnction. Then the municipality would give other plots in exchange for work from the community (through coworking, maintenance of surrounding public space etc.)
After several years, the community will own all the plots of the building. It will keep on going by working for the sake of the community. The processs of selling parts of the building is not a linear one. There may be times where the a coexistence of municipality and community would be helpful for both.
north facade bathroom and showers
capsules 400 people
public space no prefixed function sport club
public space no prefixed function
public space no prefixed function
arts & crafts public space no prefixed function park
theatre seats / scenography storage flytower capsules material storage
I Work for the municipality
II Work for the community
SRVICES The community
Work for the municipality
I Bathroom and shower
IV Three people family Two people + studio
Capsules and social implications Capsules where people live are cubes of 2,3 m x 2,3 m. The modulus derives from the grid of the pre-existent structure (the concrete core and the slabs). However, this micro-houses can be expanded by combining them both horizontally and vertically. This is possible because
SRVICES Get the capsule
II One person capsule
V Four people family Three people + studio
the plywood walls can be teasily moved or replaced. The position of the floor allows to control how much apartments there will be. 800 people is the maximum capacity. The number of capsules one person can get it is proportional to the work he does for the community. To avoid monopolies, it will also be in relation to the number of children one has. In this case,
Work for the community
Keep the capsule
III One person + studio Two people
Detail Steel structure + wood floor
the members of the community can expand when their family grows, or simply when they need a more comfortable space. The living room of a normal house would consists in the public path, while kitchen will be shared. Bathrooms and shower are located on the north faรงade, but the circulation of the capsules is independent from the public path.
VertiCaL GaFa CamPus Paula Bizais
More than 55 security cameras spy each day the outward journeys and arrivals in the streets of AZCA, in particular due to a shared feeling of insecurity.
Technology allows to exercise a social control remotely. The passers-by are aware that they are potentially monitored.
Power "Big Brother is watching you " Headquarters of Google and Amazon are situated in Azca.
PanoPticon Parallel to aZca
Diagram, Panopticon System Jeremy Bentham
Presidio Modelo Prison, Cuba
Torre Picasso, Madrid
The Panopticon is an architectural, social, optic and power system developped by Jeremy Bentham, and theorized by the french philosopher Michel Foucault. In the Panopticon system exists a strong and constant power relation. It works thanks to a permanent visual link between the people watched and the people watching. The dialogue between privacy and regard allows this power system. This system orients acts, modifies them through this permanent focus. It is indeed, the diagram of the power mecanism in its efficient form.
POWER / CONTROL OF MASS The new panopticon develops through technology
Paternalist cities System of managing individuals and businesses in the same area. COMMUNITY and PROXIMITY INCREASE PRODUCTION IMPLICIT SUPERVISORY
Paternalist cities helped for the establishment and development of capitalism. The power of the companies settled on the territory.
ex : Facebook city Google campus..
ex : Salines, Arc-et-Senan Garden Cities..
With the GAFAâ€™s companies, power and surveillance are hid behind services, leisure. New society where surveillance with in a way accepted in return for services, entertainment and information.
informational capitalism informations
BIG DATAS - GAFA Google Apple Facebook Amazon
Capitalism and Power image
GAFAâ€™s Cities way of working
anatomy of the new landmark
network and flexibility
AZCA Public place
Skin + shell
11th floor plan
modern monasterY tadeusz Pruszkowski and mickael minghetti
Five century after King Felipe II moved his court to Madrid, the city has gained a exceptional cultural and economic brilliance with the presence of major global institutions in Madrid. These institutions form a long strip of heterogenous objects on the Paseo de la Castellanaina, like the Prado Museum, the Bernabeu stadium, the Azca complex. These institutions address people on a large scale : they broadcast their football games, address national policies or export terabytes of data through kilometers of underground optical fiber. From the surface, they seems abandoned because most of the goods are exchange thought the undergrounds. It creates fascinating spaces that are constructed but seem unoccupied. As a stranger, Azca appears as a mineral landscape. The relational or historical context disappears. It is quiet and empty. We wanted to preserve this emptiness, away from the frenzy city. We taught was a space suitable for reflection. To attend this space, we introduced a community idealistic, highly educated, skilled people who are reluctant or unable to join the job market. These are the monks of today. We excluded prescriptive religion, hierarchy and gender separation. Our monks are scientists, economists, artists, hackers, philosophers, doctors, writersâ€Ś We didnâ€™t want our monastery to rise above the landscape of towers but rather to create a focal point in the center of Azca. From a distance, the dark and solid object, surrounded by the tall glass towers, appears mysterious to the stranger. The existing park allows the promeneur to walk around the building. We took the old horizontal monastery and recomposed it in a vertical way.
Wanderer above the Azca landscape
A room between the towers
Library Communal Hall Scriptorium
Cellar Kitchen Refectory
St. Jerome in his study
Pre-fab concrete floor Thermal insulation
Pre-fab concrete floor finish Gravel Rain gutter
On site concrete slab Thermal bridge breakers Pre-fab concrete slab
Bracket for brick facade Steel angle
Perforated brick wall
Light without a view
aZCa: a PLatForm For FiLm and Protest Fallon Walton
DESIGN CONCEPT: During our research phase, I became fascinated with the numerous protest movements happening across Spain, the film & arts revival movement after Franco’s death, and the lack of social activities in AZCA. The theme of film became an overlapping element for protest and cultural activities which inspired me to develop AZCA as a platform for film and protest by creating three coherent film-related buildings that form a defined public space that allows for demonstration and public gatherings and also creates a stronger connection between the interior AZCA plaza and the surrounding neighbourhoods.
During Francisco Franco’s reign, artistic expression was suppressed. After Franco’s death, la Movida Madrileña became a counterculture movement supporting the arts and film. The various identities of Madrid’s can be found in film and touches upon a range of issues. As film becomes more accessible, it is being used as a tool for voicing a variety of social issues.
Tactical Media is “cheap ‘do it yourself’ media that is exploited by people who feel aggrieved by or excluded from the wider culture.” (Lovink & Garcia) Important themes between protest movements and mediation is the role of visibility, symbolic power, technology, role of audience and public space. Media has enabled the activist via social media, youtube & film.
AZCA has a multi-layered system of paths and tunnels. These spaces are rarely used and create feelings of insecurity. The city believes the use of CCTV camera’s can deter crime and undesirable people. Security cameras are not the solution. Social control is necessary. Jane Jacobs once said, “There must be eyes on the street.” Around-the-clock functions that brings invested citizens to the area can bring social security.
Since 2011, Spain has seen an uprise in bottom-up movements that are protesting against the government and corporations. These demonstrations are characterised by the occupation of public space, particularly at Plaza del Sol and large roundabouts. Protesters stem from a variety of groups, but in recent years young Spaniards, notably Juventud Sin Futuro, demonstrated in opposition to antisocial measures undertaken by the Spanish government in 2011. Social media has had a large role in voicing and connecting protest groups.
PUBLIC SPACE/ DEMONSTRATION FILM EXHIBITION/ STUDIOS
1 - cinema
2 - exhibition
3 - film institute
SITE PLAN 1:2000
As a reactions against the typically centralized corporate AZCA programs, I wanted to develop a de-centralized design which corresponds with the values of the current Spanish society. By creating three coherent volumes; cinema, film institute and exhibition space, placed in the existing place, it creates a defined public space for protest and activity. My architectural articulation of the project is explored using the cinema volume.
Paseo de la Castellano
CONCEPT SECTION Section through AZCA indicating relationship between the three buildings, public protest space & connection to adjacent streets. PUBLIC SPACE DESIGN ELEMENTS
Connection to Tetuan
A prominent pedestrian route connects Calle Orense to the plaza, creating greater access to AZCA.
Film promotes awareness, learning and enjoyment. Film is an accessible and recurring theme on the site, both indoors and outdoors.
Functions for large events are located at plaza level and can be made accessible with open a pivoting facade.
Calle Orense BUILDING DESIGN ELEMENTS
Structure & Material
6m steel construction grid, perforated pre-fab facade, enclosed elements, 4.5m floor-to-floor height
Facade openings direct users to views & action on central plaza. Eyes on the public space.
Roof & Plaza Access
Strong connection with plaza from buildings and street level. Roof offers extra space in Spanish climate and view onto plaza & surroundings.
LEVEL 2 CINEMA
LEVEL 0 (P. d/l CASTELLANO) CINEMA
SECTION A-A’ CINEMA
SECTION B-B’ CINEMA
CINEMA EXTERIOR: OPEN AIR CINEMA NIGHTVIEW
CINEMA VIEW: CONNECTION TO PLAZA
STRUCTURE & FACADE The primary structure is made of steel columns and beams and concrete shear walls (for circulation volumes). The cinema consists of 2 facade types. The primary skin is made of a pre-fabricated 2x4.5m perforated clay element. Behind the pre-fab element is a cable-truss glass facade system. The perforation and gaps in the glass facade create a greater connection with the outdoors. In contrast, the cinema and circulation volumes are a sealed and insulated constructions.
stairs as a CataLYst Lucas Kropp
The evolution of AZCA AZCA is a businesspark along the Paseo de Castellana, an infrastructural artery that runs through Madrid. It is quite far from the centre, yet it is closer to the centre than other businessparks in Madrid. AZCA is a block with modern office buildings. The masterplan originates from 1946, and has been changed many times. Initial projects, planned in AZCA were cancelled due to lack of money and change of plans. This has lead to a fragmentation of the area. Nowadays, many offices move to the outskirts of the city, because it is cheaper to be further away from the citycentre. The area is near TĂŠtuan, a district with a high unemploymentrate and a relative high percentage of immigrants, mostly from South American countries. AZCA is cut of from its sourrounding because of its walled architecture. Compared to eachother, the streets, that are not far apart, are completely different. The streets of AZCA are empty, the diffferent layers create an uneasy labyrinth. The streets in Tetuan are crowded, the windows of shops filled with color. To understand how this deserted place could be used again, I approached the design from two angles. One with sport as a social element and the other with gradual development as a way to let a project be used as soon as possible, where there is no need to wait for the whole plan to be finished. One sport that is big in Madrid is skating. This category ranges from BMXâ€™s to inlineskates to skateboards. Skating is just the sport that uses urban landscapes in a way that make nonspecific places to ledgendary landmarks. For example, (big) stairs are used to jump off and events are organized to celebrate those who dare to jump off these high stairs. These skating landmarks show that skaters need no skatepark. Skaters find their own skatelandscapes. This happens all over the world.
Also the Madrilean do not need a skatepark in order to skate, they use whateveer space is suitable for skating. In the weekend, the Retiro Park or Madrid RIO are filled with people that are skating on plain surfaces that were initally not designed for skating. Other precedents gave me an insight in what kind of spaces are attractive. The enormous roof of Oscar Niemeyer in SĂŁo Paolo provides shade on hot days.
MACBA in Barcelona provides height differences. This place is a true landmark for the skatingpeople and is a must-visit on every cross-europe skatetrip.
Parque del Retiro, Madrid
Parque Ibirapuera, SĂŁo Paolo
stairs & eVents Using sports (and especially extreme sports) as a basis for the design, gives the opportunity to organise events and incorporate this into the design. I consider this architecture as well, since an important part of architecture is the way people use it. Besides, organised events can inspire and give people ideas in wich way a space could be used. These events can cover all sort of culture, not only sport. Stairs are an important element in my design. Stairs have multiple functions. They can be used to bridge heightdifferences, they can be sat on, jumped off (skating). In this public space with a lot of heighdifferenes, elements like this are important because they form the public space. Stairs in AZCA are at the moment unclear. One does not know where a stair leads to, since they are curled around corners and in dark corridors, leading to an unknown place somewhere higher.
timeLine Besides using sports as a social element in the design, I also focused on a new masterplan that could be carried out stopped at any given moment. Creating a timeline for the design and thinking about its use troughout time creates certainty that a project is succesful, since it can be guided in the right direction at every step. The first step is to open up AZCA to Tétuan and creating a passage between Tétuan and the Paseo del Castellana. Breaking through the block that disconnects AZCA from Tétuan will create a square, that, much like the CaixaForum near the Retiro Park in Madrid, lures people from the street into the project The next step is to create the landscape that will define the different spaces in AZCA. This landscape can immediatly form the basis for the first skate-event held in AZCA. Temporary pavilions will provide food, drinks and seating. Right after, or maybe a while, after the building of the landscape, the temporary pavilions will be replaced by permament building. The functions I thought were relevant for AZCA en Tétuan are a skateshop, right in the centre of Spains new skatelandmark, a dancestudio which is nothing more than a room with a mirror and a musicinstallation, an incubator and a resaurant and bar. The incubator headoffice will be in the biggest building, with the restaurant on the upper floor. The incubator will see to it that the Castellana 77 is tranformed into a startup-hub. This same incubator plays a big role in the organisation of events in the new AZCA. For example open-air cinemas. The next step is building a high roof, covering a street between Tétuan and the Paseo del Castellana. The collonade devides the public space into the park (south), the skateable area. The roof also creates a place for markets. This can be farmermarkets, but the covered space makes it possible to have different types of markets, in each weathercondition. On top of this roof there is a rooftop farm. The square meters of the roof can provide food for nearly 70 persons, so instead of selling it on the farmersmarket under the roof, the food is used in the restaurant, that is on the same level as the rooftop farm. The last step would be to build another roof, covering a part of the skateable space and creating a distinciton between the skatepark and the square in front of the Torre de Picasso. An event that could be organised after this step would be a theater festival.
The section of the building shows how the roof and the heightdifferences define the public spaces. The low roof is light, wooden beams and glass cover this part of the building. The high roof has a stronger construction, steel beams and a concrete roof. Both spaces serve different purposes. The low roof works like a tribune because of the heigth of the floors and the attached stairs. It also serves as a bridge between the two entrances. It nearly bridges the heightdifferences on the edge of the area and makes it easier to cross. The high roof covers a part of the main street. This space is used as marketplace or as a place for events. On the north side of the building is the skatearea. The stairs on this side are, besides a way to go up and down and a tribune also obstacles for the skaters to use in their own way.
Different spaces for different purposes. The northern part is for the skaters and events that require tribunes (theater, open-air cinema etc.). The southern part can not be used by skaters, since there is grass. Football, basketball, markets and other activities take place on this side of the building. On the roof is the rooftopfarm that provides the restaurant on the upperfloor of the central building.
douBLe densitY sophie dikmans
CITY CENTRE VS AZCA - ALL DAY LONG LIVELINESS AND ACTIVITY 8
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Ba bs rs
Ba Sh rs op
R O es ffi ta ce ur s an t
USE OF THE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS IN AZCA AZCA
Every day different kind of people are visiting AZCA. Unfortunately, the majority of these people is an employee at one of the offices. Due to this, there is only liveliness inside the AZCA complex during the office hours. Especially around 9:00 and 18:00, when the employees arrive and leave the complex, there is a lot of activity. Also the lunch break, when people go outside their office to have lunch somewhere, is good moment to be inside AZCA. Outside these moments has AZCA a lot empty open spaces, because nobody use them. For this Complex Projects studio we had to design a landmark. In my opinion, this landmark has to solve the problem of the empty open spaces. So I was wondering what kind of program would attract more people to AZCA outside the office hours. During our research we discovered that AZCA could be seen as a miniature of a city; it has more or less everything. I believe that a public building would not fix the problem, people will still leave the complex. Then I realized that the landmark should ensure that people will stay at AZCA instead of only visiting the site. If there are more people living in AZCA, there will automatically be more activity outside the office hours. The landmark will be a residential intervention; different housing blocks will be placed at the undefined places of AZCA. In the future, these places will be used by the new residents of AZCA
an RS ehs otpa sur C lu
SBha orps s
Research on housing in Madrid The value of the housing market in Madrid is 23% higher than last year. The supply of new construction in 2015 increased up to 68%, but this is still insufficient to demand. There is especially a demand for housing near the city centre. The PAU’s (gigantic new neighborhoods on the edge of Madrid) are a bad example of housing in Madrid. They are too isolated from the city centre. In that respect we can say that AZCA is the perfect place for new housing in Madrid. Current housing in AZCA At the northwest side of the complex are already different residential towers located. In total there are more or less than 1300 apartments in AZCA.
A growth in 1&2 person households is
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Numbers Madrid housing Households in Madrid
Target group and amount of housing The aim for the double density intervention is to double the housing. The focus is on affordable housing for young people. They will bring more liveliness, but they do not need a huge private space for that. They are open to sharing facilities as well.
Rent per month (one bed room) €722,-
in the city centre
outside the city centre
masterPLan ‘TRIGGERPOINTS’ PASSAGE BAR
FLEX CAFE PASSAGE FOODMARKET
CINEMA KINDERGARTEN CULTURE CENTER
Different shared and public facilities below the new stacked housing
No connection between the towers
No connection between the towers AZCA now New AZCA AZCA now; Stacking right on top of extreme the other layervertical Stacking right on top of the other layer
AZCA now New AZCA Stacking right on top of the other layer Stacking right on top of the other layer New housing is AZCA is shifting with the current verticality of the complex
The new housing is AZCA is shifting with the current verticality of the complex.
three CourtYards inside aZCa The different housing blocks are placed in a specific way to create three courtyards inside the AZCA complex. Each courtyard has its own identity, which is consistent with its surroundings. The first courtyard, which is located closest to the metro access, is the most public one. It is designed an urban square, with planters, benches and space for terraces. The facilities below the housing is focused on the urban character of this square. The will be a bar and space for flex workers. The courtyard in the middle of the complex is a place to relax, an oasis inside the former business district. The trees of the current park will be reused in the new design of this peaceful park. At last, at the north west side of the complex, there will be a residential square. This square will be, compare to the urban square in the south west, more private. With its playgrounds and water fountains, the square has a playful, secure character. The different identities of the courtyards are based on the surroundings. There is a transition from very public in the southeast side, to more private in the northwest side of the complex. In other words; there is a gradient from public to private, which is expressed in the courtyards.
housinG ComBined With PuBLiC and shared FaCiLities Since the private living space of the apartments is very minimal, there is more space for shared facilities. The building also provides some facilities which are accessible for everybody.
SHARED SPORT FIELD POSSIBLE TO USE FOR PUBLIC EVENTS
FLEX CAFE WORKING WHILE HAVING A COFFEE
STORAGE FOR THE RESIDENTS
SHARED SWIMMINGPOOL PASSAGE
RESTAURANT / CAFE OUTSIDE TERRACE POSSIBLE
PLan VieW - steeL sQuare Frame 0
0,2 1m LEVEL 60,5- HOUSING
0 1 2
Steel square frame
Steel square frame
straiGht FaCade / no CantiLeVers 0 1 2
SIZE OF ONE BLOCK
The construction of the building is made of a steel square frame. The size of a square is 7,2x7,2 meter, which is a ideal dimension for this project. One square is around 50 m2, a good size for an affordable, minimalistic apartment. 50 m2 is also a good size to double and to devide in two parts, to create different types of apartments. Two squares are big enough to accommodate three elevators, two stairs and two shafts. The houses are stacked towards the two cores of the building, where the elevators, stairs and shafts are located.
7,2 m Because these two cores were 7,2 notm enough to access all the apartments, are they extended. This intervention brings also more daylight 3,6 m inside the building.
adding blocks on this side of the building
Two points of- height CORES Two points of height Access/elevators/shafts ->Access/Elevators/Shafts Stacking the blocks to the top
siZe oF one BLoCK
SIZE OF ONE BLOCK
Extra opening next to the cores EXTENDED CORES -> Extra daylight Necessary to access the apartments on Necessary to access the apartments on the lower levels
7,2 m 3,6 m
the lower levels Extra daylight
Two points of height -> Access/elevators/shafts Stacking the blocks to the top
detaiLinG The typical colors of the housing in Spain as an inspiration for the facade; a pattern of three different earth tones. INTEGRATED BENCH
GREEN ROOF Grass/Vegetation Extensive substrate Drainage layer Protection layer Waterproofing layer Insulation Vapour control layer Construction
Concrete cladding panel timber frame WaterprooďŹ ng layer 160 mm insulation Vapour control layer Plasterboard hea 360 Column
Anatomy of a Landmark Chair of Complex Projects MSc1 Studio