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KHADKI


Compartment S4 is an architectural firm of eight graduates from CEPT university, initiated in May 2017. We intend to provide well-designed built environments to not just the urban fabric but also the much neglected rural communities. Hand-made is a workshop series under the architectural firm Compartment S4 focused on the grassroots level design involvements.


content Why handmade Context - Sense of place: Khadki - Map of the village - About Khadki

Design intervention - Village installations - School intervention

Hands-on workshop - Material - People - Tools - Processes - Sequence of construction

End Note Appendix/Documentation


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why hand-made ? Our journey in Compartment S4 began as a bunch of architects eager to intervene in different kinds of communities so as to give solutions which can have a larger impact on the context. Compartment S4 as an architecture firm emphasizes on the ‘power of many’, with the strength of eight architects working under one head, to combine our individual ideas into a pool of valuable inputs. With intents and interests towards the rural communities, involvement of local materials and systemic architectural solutions to specific issues, the ‘Handmade’ series was introduced. The handmade workshop series is a medium for us to ‘learn by doing’, by experimenting with local materials and techniques of building, while making sure to create valuable interventions in community based areas. Having identified the professional neglect to rural projects earlier on, handmade is one of the ways we aim to fill in the gaps with well-designed solutions. Most rural areas, are struggling within economic constraints and a blind acceptance of materials like concrete and steel. Our interventions through handmade brings back the importance of local with a deeper understanding of their daily issues as well as the context. Engaging people of the community is a way to create a sense of belonging to the place being intervened at, for a greater and long lasting impact. Involvement of people being an essential exercise of the workshop further activates spaces. Eventually the ‘power of many’ through the workshop is exercised in a way of team-building within ourselves along with other participants and communities. Making sure that as architects we are aware and directly a part of all stages of construction on site. Thus ensuring an economically, climatically, contextually and programmatically sound intervention.

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CONTEXT

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KHADKI

sense of the place Khadki is a village at the edge of Gujarat separated from Maharashtra by a flowing river. It is very close to Valsad, with a population of around 800 people amounting to about 160-170 houses. The terrain is mostly with sloping, located on a higher ground. The region receives extreme amounts of rainfall in monsoon months, sometimes coupled with thunderstorms. The village has a lively chawk with a temple, general supply store and large open space in front of it, which is generally used to play games during the day. People of the village and the ‘mandali’ (music troupe) come together during festivals in the temple, to sing native and religious songs all through the night. There are two main bus stops in the village, receiving buses helping to commute to surrounding areas. Every Wednesdays, a pop-up market is organized close to the bus stop, for everyday supplies and necessities. The village has one government school and one boarding school run by Sarvoday trust. People of the village are essentially self-sufficient managing everything on their own other than sugar, electricity and clothes. Most villagers are engaged in more than one occupation, being not just farmers but also basket makers, carpenters, drivers, workers in vineyards of Nashik etc. Warli art is also prevalent in this area, artists are disappearing with only a handful remaining. The Sarvoday trust, a non-government organization, led by Sujata ben has been working in the region since the past 25 years. They have been helping to restore the forests, making many check dams and providing villagers with different employment opportunities. Since the ban on usage of Valsadi teak, a high quality wood, procured from forest; the trust has been promoting bamboo plantations. To be used not only as a building material but also as a means of generating developments in craft, observed in neighbouring villages.

Birdview of khadki village 8


farming towards a self-sufficient household

bamboo splitting

bamboo weaving

occupation and practices of locals 9


MANGALORE TILES

WOODEN PURLINS

WOODEN RAFTERS WOODEN BEAMS

ADOBE BRICK WALLS WITH MUD MORTAR

WOODEN DOOR FRAMES

MUD PLASTERED FLOOR

STONE PLIBTH AND FOUNDATION

typical wall section

vernacular construction details 10


typical cross-section

wattle and daub

mud plaster on brick walls

mangalore tiles and wooden battens

typical elevation with materials

local building elements 11


9 4 3

5

10 8

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N 12

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1 SUGARCANE JUICE 2 CARPENTER’S HOUSE JUICE 1 SUGARCANE NO 2 3 HOUSE 2 CARPENTER’S HOUSE 4 CHOWK

3 HOUSE NO 2 4 CHOWK SHOP 5 HOUSE NO 1 TEMPLE 6 SHOP GOVERNMENT SCHOOL 7 TEMPLE BAMBOO PLANTATION 8 GOVERNMENT SCHOOL SARVODAY ASHRAM - INTERVENTION 9 BAMBOO PLANTATION PLANT NURSERYASHRAM - INTERVENTION 10 SARVODAY

5 HOUSE NO 1 6 7 8 9 7

10 11

7

4

11 PLANT NURSERY The village interventions

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The village interventions

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2

1

2

1

map of khadki 13


DESIGN INTERVENTION

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VILLAGE INSTALLATION

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concept A public installation was envisioned in the village, as an interactive intervention emerging from the cultural and social practices of the people. Through primary interviews with villagers and key people in the village, the cultural landscape and daily life of people was understood. They have strong associations with the geographical context – natural landscape, ancient tribal culture – and rituals, forming belief systems ingrained in the community. Most of the associations clearly reflected in their agriculture practices, daily living activities, and their mystical spiritual traditions. Many spaces like the central ground in front of temple, the bus stop, the popup market site, the school, the valley etc were found to have both functional and cultural significance With new developments in infrastructure like electric and road connectivity, there has been significant cultural transitions in the village. For instance their local art of Warli painting has almost disappeared. Amid the times of cultural transitions, which is also leading to transition of identities; an intervention which reconnected the local tribal people to their losing culture was envisaged. Learnings from the vernacular designs of houses and use of Warli art practiced by last few artisans, ‘The Warli Zoetrope’ was proposed as a public space interactive installation. Zoetrope is an instrument used to create animations with a series of photographs or images, perceived as if in motion. The Warli art is drawn in a manner to generate the phases of motion, while rotating the zoetrope which simultaneously also plays sounds of the story depicted in the animation. In this manner an interactive installation was designed to be placed strategically in the main public spaces like the village chawk, bus stop, marketplace and school.


Viewing through any Slit Inside area of Zoetrope will lit up

Rotate the top layer

See the characters in motion

Installation setup at the public space

Listen to the relevant sound

Viewing Slit

Warli character (inside wall)

Decorative frame

The wooden column/pillar

The Warli Zoetrope concept combining the Warli art form with aesthetics of traditional houses 17


SCHOOL

site and requirements The site for intervention is located within Sarvoday Ashram in Khadki. An extremely shaded piece of land facing the river, was envisioned to become a playarea and pavilion for children staying in the school. The pavilion is created to display village handicrafts like Warli art and bamboo crafts, as well as crafts made by the school children. Since the ashram received a large number of visitors, the pavilion is meant to promote the village handicrafts; while functioning as a sitting space facing the river on a day to day basis. The open spaces were to house play equipments like slides, swings and a tyre park for the children to engage with. A tunnel sloping between the two levels was designed to encourage playful experiences for the school children. The tunnel is constructed as a bamboo sub-structure, with mud and cement layers on top. The layering was done to protect the structure from heavy rains experienced in the region. The entire intervention was designed to demonstrate bamboo construction, as a building material which could be then adopted by people of the village. The pavilion was placed at the far end of the site, followed by the tunnel. The design manoeuvres around the many trees on site, careful not to cut any of them.

INTERVENTION

pavilion

tunnel

play area

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0

1

2

3

5m

N

site plan 19


1. the pavilion is kept open at corners to create an exhibition space which frees up movement.

3. A hip roof with large overhangs are designed to protect the bamboo from weather conditions.

concept 20

2. The main exhibition space on the upper plinth connects to the school, while the pavilion on the lower plinth with sitting spaces connects to the play area.

4. bamboo details are simply detailed out with cotton thread and nut and bolt joints. So that it can be easily replicated by the villagers to make bamboo structures.


section

A

A’

plan 21


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DETAIL I. Ladder truss members joining

DETAIL F. Cross truss members joining

DETAIL E. Lengthening joint

DETAIL D. Cross truss members joining

DETAIL G. Cross truss members joining

DETAIL H. Cross truss to ladder truss

DETAIL J. Purlins to cross truss

CROSS TRUSS

PURLINS

GI ROOF


DETAIL B. Tie beam to column

DETAIL C. Bracket to truss

DETAIL K. Screen to tie member

DETAIL A. Column to plinth

exploded axonometric

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L. Seat detail

MODULE 2

MODULE 1

LADDER TRUSS


DETAIL A: column to plinth DETAIL A: column to plinth

DETAIL B: tie beam to column DETAIL B: tie beam to column

DETAIL C: bracket to truss DETAIL C: bracket to truss 24

threaded rod threaded rod column column

threaded rod

bamboo spacer bamboo spacer

bamboo spacer

ms pipe welded ms pipe on mswelded plate on ms plate

ms pipe welded on ms plate

ms pipe in concrete ms pipefoundation in concrete foundation

ms pipe in concrete foundation

column

DETAIL A: column to plinth

column column

column

tie beam tie beam

tie beam

threaded rod threaded rod

threaded rod

DETAIL B: tie beam to column column column

column

truss truss

truss

tie beam tie beam

tie beam

threaded rod threaded rod

threaded rod

bracket bracket

bracket

DETAIL C: bracket to truss


threaded rod threaded rod

two layers of bamboo two layers of bamboo modules modules

bamboo dowel bamboo dowel tie beam tie beam

DETAIL D: cross truss members joining DETAIL D: cross truss members joining

DETAIL E: lengthening joint DETAIL E: lengthening joint

DETAIL F: cross truss members joining DETAIL F: cross truss members joining

DETAIL D: cross truss members joining

bamboo needle bamboo needle

bamboo needle

bamboo dowel bamboo dowel

bamboo dowel

beam beam

beam

DETAIL E: lengthening joint

bamboo needle bamboo needle

bamboo needle

cross truss member cross truss member

cross truss member

bamboo dowel bamboo dowel

bamboo dowel

DETAIL F: cross truss members joining

details 25


tie with rope tie with rope

wedge in the beam for bamboo rest wedge intothe beam for bamboo to rest

DETAIL G: cross truss members joining DETAIL G: cross truss members joining

tie with rope

wedge in the beam for bamboo to rest

DETAIL G: cross truss members joining

ladder truss ladder truss

ladder truss

threaded rod and bolt threaded rod and bolt

DETAIL H: cross truss to ladder truss DETAIL H: cross truss to ladder truss

threaded rod and bolt

DETAIL H: cross truss to ladder truss

ladder truss ladder truss

ladder truss

bamboo dowel bamboo dowel

bamboo needle fixed at an angle needle with areyldite bamboo fixed at an angle with areyldite

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DETAIL I: ladder truss members joining DETAIL I: ladder truss members joining

DETAIL I: ladder truss members joining

bamboo dowel

bamboo needle fixed at an angle with areyldite


DETAIL J: purlins to cross truss

purlin member made double to increase strength

purlin member made double to increase strength

nut and washer between two members to adjust the roof level

nut and washer between two members to adjust the roof level

DETAIL J: purlins to cross truss

column

column

DETAIL J: screen to tie member

DETAIL K: seat detail

column

column

column

column

DETAIL J: screen to tie member

GI wire tie

GI wire tie

split bamboo

split bamboo

split bamboo wattle between two members

split bamboo wattle between two members

tie member for seat

tie member for seat

DETAIL K: seat detail

details 27


Bamboo split weave

Secondary bamboo rib

1. The tunnel acts as a playful connector between the two levels funneling kids from the gathering space in the upper level and opening to the free space below.

2. The vaulted form is achieved by using bamboo ribs as the primary members in both directions, interweaved with bamboo splits.

3. The height difference in the levels is manipulated by a slope which makes the upper opening narrow and short and then opening up on the other side. This gives a sense of openess and freedom as you leave the tunne, going from dark to light.

4. Bamboo splits wrapping the entire shell are added on top to avoid the forces of torsion.

concept 28

Primary bamboo rib


section

plan 29


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details 31


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axonometric view 33


WORKSHOP

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PEOPLE

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Pandu Kaka

Kalpesh Bhai

Raghu Bhai

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MATERIALS

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bamboo (structure)

mud (plaster)

stone (founndation)

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PROCESSES 40

for bamboo • • • • • • • •

cutting cleaning splitting tieing bolting fixing bending weaving


cutting

cleaning

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splitting

tying

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bolting

fixing

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bending

weaving

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for mud ingredients: • cow dung • water • mud • hay

ingredients

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ingredients

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mixing

applying

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TIME-LINE FOR CONSTRUCTION

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Construction of the pavilion was completed in 17 days and tunnel in 13 days, both of which were taking place simultaneously. The pavilion consists of foundation, plinth, frame structure and partitions. The foundation and plinth were constructed before the start of the workshop. While bamboo members were prepared as columns and truss modules off-site and then erected on site. The entire frame structure and roof were constructed within the span of the workshop. The tunnel consists of the foundation, plinth, frame structure, weave and layering. The foundation and plinth were constructed during the workshop, bamboo splits and members were prepared off-site. The assembly of bamboo members erected on site followed by weaving the structure. One layer of mud was completed during the workshop, while the subsequent layers of chicken mesh and concreting were laid after 15 days, once the mud layer was substantially dry.


MAKING THE

PAVILION

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stage 1

foundation + plinth excavation filling plain cement concrete indian patent stone -

total days : 4

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day

1


excavation

filling

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plain cement contrete

indian patent stone

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day

4

stage 2

columns - erection

total days : 1

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erection

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day

5

stage 3

module 1 - main truss - ladder truss - fixing main truss + ladder truss

total days : 6

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main truss

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ladder truss

fixing main + ladder truss

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stage 4

erecting the modules erection -

total days : 1

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day

11


erection

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stage 5

partitions bamboo bone screen wattle & daub -

total days : 2

60

day

12


bamboo bone screen

wattle & daub

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14 day

stage 6

roofing - perlins - g.i.sheet

total days : 3

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purlins

g.i. sheet

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17 day

fin.

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MAKING THE

TUNNEL

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stage 1

foundation excavation sand-packed filling walls -

total days : 5

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1 day


excavation

sand-packed filling

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walls

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day

5

stage 2

structure - primary ribs - secondary ribs - weave - diagonal ribs - plaster

total days : 7

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primary ribs

secondary ribs

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weave

diagonal ribs

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plaster

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13 day

fin.

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END NOTE 94

The need to intervene in rural areas owing to their professional neglect towards design was recognized earlier on. The workshop series, handmade was introduced as one of the ways for us to fulfil our urge to cater to this need. The burning urge to create something meaningful for the community overpowers any singular explorations of materials, building techniques or participatory design. Our workshops and interventions are aimed towards making a holistic impact, following a non-linear process of engaging the community in the making of its spaces. The aim is always to ingrain the sensibilities of the intervention in the consciousness of the locals. Sensibilities coming from a prior research of the contextual requirements socially, culturally and technically. With respect to the Hand-made at Khadki, our collaboration with a trust working in the region for the past 25 years; already provided us with a matured perspective to take forward. The use of bamboo as an efficient material was slowly being fed to the locals by initiatives of the Sarvoday trust. Our intervention in the region became a medium to make the possibilities visible, for easy adaptation. By demonstrating the various ways of using the material as a frame structure, partition as well as robust surface. The last day of the workshop is generally organized as a kind of orientation for the villagers to explain the buildings contextual and technical relevance. Seepage of knowledge is also reinforced in engaging with the local masons and craftsmen working with us through the workshop. Hence the 12-day workshop is a synergizing learning experience for locals, our team and student participants through the intervention. Our larger intent is to enquire in rural areas, searching for a process of designing and executing or rather, creating meaningful community spaces true to its ‘place’. Such a kind of search cannot end with a couple of such explorations, but will in fact require a range of back and forth processes of making and reflecting, to extract systemic solutions. Since there can be no one solution, it is necessary to let this process evolve through multiple interventions of varying scales, each finely moulded and detailed for its particular locale but responding to the larger questions of ‘place’. It is the journey across communities, places and time; which might teach us relevancies of such interventions.


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APPENDIX

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Ramu Dalvi’s house Ramu Dalvi’s house is occupied by 9 people. Ramu and his wife, their son Devchand and his wife and five of their children. Both men are farmers for most of the year, but go to Maharashtra’s vineyards in search of occupation in the lean months of the farms. The family is quite self-sufficient as all adults work together in harvesting and storing the crops. They only depend on others for clothes, electricity and salt. They occupy a single storey house with a rectangular plan. Their house is located on the main street of the village within close proximity of the village chawk and temple. The house follows the vernacular building style of Khadki, with local Sal wood (teak) being used in its construction. The roof is pitched, constructed with a timber frame and Mangalore tiles on top. Partition walls are built using handmade adobe bricks, with only the exterior surface painted. The mud floor is prepped every few months with a ‘lipti’ a paste of mud and cow dung. The house has many small customisations to support their highly specific farming activities. As resources are minimal they use all spaces for multiple purposes.

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section

plan

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Haresh lal’s house This house is occupied by 8 people. The head of the family is primarily a farmer but also makes utensils from split bamboo for storing grains, one of his sons runs a shop and the other son works for vineyards in Nagpur. They are self-sufficient, growing their own grains and depending on others only for electricity and salt. They also own two Buffaloes which are used for farming. The house following the vernacular construction style of Khadki, uses Sal wood(teak) for its structure, wattle daub and adobe bricks for partitions and Mangalore tiles for roof surface. The adobe bricks are handmade by baking it in a kiln on the site, while mud mixture made from cowdung and mud is applied on partitions and floor. Plan of the house is organized in an inside and semi-open space. The inside has 3 kitchens for the 3 sub-divided families and a room for storing grains. The semi-open space or verandah is used for sleeping in summers, while during monsoon months the family moves to the inside space, raised on a higher plinth.


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site plan

section

plan 105


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glossary Fita - measuring tape Fanti - plastering board Talsi - vessel for collecting mortar and other materials Kanni - instrument for applying and smoothing plaster Sola - Plumb line, instrument for maintaining a straight level Aepand - Rangoli or paintings on grounds or walls Patesie- Chisel, an instrument used for woodwork Pathar - Slate stone Daddar - Small logs Panni - Tarpoline or plastic sheet Chinai - Masonry Basula - Axe, for cutting and shaving wooden bark Aada - Chisel for daddar Jiri - instrument for making grooves Dhan - Big hammer

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hand-made

handmade@compartments4.com www.compartments4.com

Profile for Compartment S4

Handmade at Khadki  

Khadki, Dang, Sahayadri hills, sarvodaya trust, tribal education, tribal societies, education, schools, local handicraft

Handmade at Khadki  

Khadki, Dang, Sahayadri hills, sarvodaya trust, tribal education, tribal societies, education, schools, local handicraft

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