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BADALPARA

hand - made


Compartment S4 is an architectural firm of eight fresh graduates from CEPT university, initiated in May 2017. We intend to provide well-designed built environments to not just the urban fabric but also the much neglected rural communities. Hand-made is a workshop series under the architectural firm Compartment S4 focused on the grassroot level design involvements.


content About handmade

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1) Why hand-made? 2) Criteria of Selection In search of a place

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1) Why Badalpara? About Badalpara

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1) Sense of Place 2) Material 3) People and Practice The Intervention

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1) Site 2) Concept 3) Design details ( Building ) 5) Design details ( Play Area ) 6) Design details ( Courtyard ) 7) Design details ( Boundary Wall ) 8) The anganwadi Sequence of Construction

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Photo-story

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End Note

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Appendix

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ABOUT

HAND-MADE 4

why hand-made ? Our journey in Compartment S4 began as a bunch of architects eager to intervene in different kinds of communities so as to give solutions which can have a larger impact on the context. Compartment S4 as an architecture firm emphasizes on the ‘power of many’, with the strength of eight architects working under one head, to combine our individual ideas into a pool of valuable inputs. With intents and interests towards the rural communities, exploration of local materials and systemic architectural solutions to specific issues, the ‘Handmade’ series was introduced. The handmade workshop series is a medium for us to ‘learn by doing’, by experimenting with newer materials and techniques for building, while making sure to create valuable interventions in rural and other community based areas. Having identified the professional neglect to rural projects earlier on, handmade is one of the ways we aim to fill in the gaps with welldesigned solutions. Engaging people of the community is a way to create a sense of belonging to the place being intervened at, for a greater and long lasting impact. Involvement of people being an essential exercise of the workshop further activates spaces. Eventually the ‘power of many’ during the workshop is exercised in a way of team-building within ourselves along with other participants and communities. Making sure that as architects we are aware and directly a part of all stages of construction on site.


criteria of selection The programme and method of construction for the workshop is dependent primarily on the site context. Our intervention is intended not in a way to stand out or scream out its existence, but rather in a way to merge with the surroundings so that it creates a larger impact on the people using it as well as people around. Such skin deep solutions require a close look at the context for materials and techniques, ensuring that all that is locally available is employed to its full potential, also giving possibilities for growth. While a large stakeholdership for the programme comes from an understanding of how a particular programme can either behave as a public utility or provide a replicable tendency at a larger scale. Hence an impactful intervention is our eventual goal. Recapitulating, the criterion of selection are:

SELECTION

POSSIBLE OPTIONS

CATEGORY

- An accessible geographical location, for ease of revisiting and execution - Use of locally available techniques and materials of construction - A programme with large stakeholdership

ACCESSIBLE GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS

Surendranagar Gir Kutch Dahod

COASTAL BELT OF GIR

LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS

Rammed Earth Sand Stone Wattle & Daub Bamboo Fabric Plastic Industrial Waste

? SITE DEPENDENT

IMPACTFUL PROGRAMMATIC SOLUTIONS

Residencial Shelters Public Shelters Animal Shelters Reading Spaces Playing Spaces Community Spaces Sanitation Facilities Drinking Water Facilities Transport Shelters/Stops

? SITE DEPENDENT 5


6

5 31

km

Junagadh

km 52

km 75

96 km

Madhavpur

-Building for Osho ashram -No community engagement

Sasan Gir Bhojde 76 km

-Building a pavillion for tourists -Exploration in structure -No community engagement

13 km

IN SEARCH OF A PLACE

Ahmedabad

km 30

Bhagirath

-Building a cottage on pvt land -Next to a canal -No community engagement

hwy -Una h t a n Som

Arabian Sea

Badalpara

-Building an extension to an Anganwadi -Village practicing sustainability -Next to the coast -Possibility of community engagement

Map of places visited around the coast of Junagadh with programmatic requirements in each context and their possibilities of exploration.


why badalpara ? The coast of Junagadh was visited for potential workshop sites, owing to the possibilities of ease in execution and intervention with the help of personal acquaintances present there. Madhavpur, Bhojde, Bhagirath and Badalpara, all were essentially rural areas of Gujarat requiring well designed interventions. However, the need for a programme with a large stakehordership led to the selection of Badalpara site. The program in Badalpara involved an extension of their anganwadi, which gave possibilities of community engagement. Moreover Badalpara is a fine example of an Indian village conscious of sustainable practices like tree plantation drives, maintenance of hygiene and other cleanliness exercises.

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ABOUT

BADALPARA 8

sense of the place Badalpara is a village located in Patan Veraval taluka in the rural coastal area of Gir Somnath district of Gujarat. It has a population of 1500 and is considered a model village of Gujarat. Since 2003, the village has started to adopt principles of sustainability by implementing proper waste disposal and management systems, tree plantation drives, ban of fire crackers to reduce pollution, while recharging and developing their artificial lake are amongst their other smart village facilities. The village has received awards like the Cleanliest village Award, Bharat Nirman Award and Aadarsh Gaam Award. The village fabric has many clusters of houses cut across with intersecting paths leading into the central temple chowk. The road connecting from the highway to the village cuts through an artificial lake. Along with the many houses, the village is also surrounded with large spreads of coconut tree plantations. Overall the buildings use local materials for construction like the stone blocks, timber sections, mangalore tiles,etc. Owing to its rather small size, the village depends on a very close knit social structure, with a limited number of employment opportunities within it.


Birdview of Badalpara village

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5 11 2 1

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N 1. Intervention 2. Existing anganwadi 3. Gram Panchayat (sleeping place) 4. Vadi (eating place) 5. Chilling place 6. Bhiku Kaka’s House 7. Primary school 8. Village chowk 9. Temple 10. Weavers house 11. Limestone waste 12. Pot firing space 13. Potters houses

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6

8


a

omn

S ards Tow

na th-U

way

high

10

9 12

13

4

map of Badalpara

3

11


people

12


practices

material Clay Roof Tiles

Bamboo

Timber Sections

Limestone Slabs ( Pardi ) 17.5” X 23.5: x 2.5”

Limestone Blocks ( Bela ) 9” x 8” x 15”

LOCAL BUILDING MATERIALS RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

(1) tree plantations with names of villagers to create a sense of ownership (2) plantations in public benches and in front of houses (3)bird feeders in front of houses (4)awareness towards waste disposal and water saving practices.

Stone Dust

Hollow Cement Pipes

Electrical Poles

Oil Tin Cans

Waste Bottles

Tyres and Tubes

AVAILABLE BUILDING MATERIALS

Cane

Weave of Khatla Concrete Jaalis

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THE

INTERVENTION 14

the site The pre-primary school site at Badalpara had an existing anganwadi building and an open area in front for the extension. The extension was mainly to provide a classroom and lunch space for children as well as a secure play area. Hence an enclosed space with an open space around it was required.

the concept Placement of the new building and spaces around was based on space requirements as well as climatic factors, so as to receive maximum shaded areas.

courtyard

building

boundary wall playground

Making of the extension is designed in a way to use local materials and techniques, so as to give employment to the people of village while simultaneously restoring a connection to the place.


The new building is placed in a way to form a space between itself and the existing building - courtyard - is envisioned as an open classroom and play area.

The sandpit is placed between the existing building and boundary wall to keep it shaded all throughout the day. A plinth defines and connects the two buildings around the courtyard.

The new building is designed as an open plan allowing easy movement from one side to the other. Connecting the courtyard and playground.

A boundary wall on all sides with just one entry point ensures the security of the children, free to play around the entire area. It also defines the playground.

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design details - building The building is divided into the structure, roof and infill for ease of explaining the design decisions and process. Structure: Structure consisting of the foundation and walls is designed using limestone blocks, the locally available material. The foundation is designed as a 1 foot excavation followed by filling and wall construction. A load bearing wall structure supports the building with 50% punctures. Large openings are designed on two sides allowing a kind of porosity between the courtyard and playground, the other two sides are used to get in light and allow ventilation. Finally, an insitu concrete beam is designed to tie all four walls and support the roof above. Roof: The limitation to use locally available materials and skills led to possibilities of using clay tiles made by the village potter. Using clay tiles not just as cladding but also as a structure, introduced the Wardha guna tile roof construction technique. It involves the construction of a vaulted self-supported roof structure using guna tiles inserted one inside another, and supported on a mild steel forma removed after assembly of tiles and application of mortar. Since the forma is made of mild steel, it is reusable ensuring a fast and easily constructable guna tile roof which could be repeated throughout the village. Hence introducing this technique in Badalpara was intended to encourage construction of guna tile roofs, ensuring not only fast and cheap construction but also simultaneously providing employment to the village potter. Infill: The shorter side of the building was designed as jali walls after a 2.5 feet height using limestone blocks with small openings. Upto 2.5 feet a blackboard for children was imagined. While the moon wall just below the roof, was a combination of guna tiles and limestone blocks, allowing light to come in and allowing hot air to escape through small gaps. The longer sides of the building were designed to fit in two pivot doors, which when opened encourages children to walk through the building from the courtyard to the playground. The upper portion of the panels were made from Khat weaving a skill available within the village, while the lower portion of the panel was made interactive for children with painted blackboards and abacus balls.

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ROOF

STRUCTURE (beam) INFILL (moon jali wall) INFILL (jali wall)

STRUCTURE (walls)

INFILL (panels)

STRUCTURE (foundation)

Exploded axo of building 17


a. structure China mosaic PCC Guna tiles Guna tiled jalis One horizontal brick course RCC beam Pivot doors with infill panels

IPS flooring 3'' Plinth beam Earth filling Stepped stone foundation PCC

Initial wall section

China mosaic PCC Guna tiles Guna tiled jalis One horizontal brick course One vertical brick course RCC beam Pivot doors with infill panels IPS flooring Earth filling 15'' stone masonry Ground

PCC Limstone ground

Final wall section 18


CHINA MOSAIC PCC GUNA TILES GUNA TILES JALI ONE HORIZONTAL BRICK COURSE ONE VERTICAL BRICK COURSE RCC BEAM PIVOT DOOR WITH INFILL PANELS IPS FLOORING EARTH FILLING 15'' STONE MASONRY GROUND LINE PCC LIMESTONE GROUND

Initial design • The foundation was first designed as a regular raft foundation with an excavation of around 4 feet below. • Supports were first designed as a column structure for an open plan, allowing porosity from one side of the building to the other. • The beam was extended to incorporate a gutter and chajja for openings.

Final design

UP

SKILL - Unskilled labourer for excavation - Unskilled labourer for cement mortar mix - Stone mason + helper - Skilled labourer for Shuttering - Skilled labouer for Concrete casting

• It was realized that the site had a hard stone surface below, requiring an excavation of only 1 foot for foundation, followed by filling. • Owing to compression load from the vaulted roof, a load bearing wall structure needed to be constructed. Hence walls with 50% punctures were then designed. • The beam was aligned to the walls with no extensions.

MATERIAL Stone blocks Cement mortar RCC Reinforcment Bars

DISTANCE 0.5 KM 2 KM 2 KM 2 KM

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b. roof China mosaic Second layer of PCC (25mm thk)

First layer of PCC (40mm thk)

Guna tiles

DETAIL A JOINING THE G.I.PIPES

G.I. pipes Bent steel bar used as a hook

A Steel trusses used as forma

DETAIL B REMOVING THE TRUSS AND WOODEN PEGS

Metal plate welded to forma Wooden pegs to hold the forma in place Horizontal brick course with cementing for laying guna tiles Brick course for gutter

B

DETAIL B ASSEMBLING THE TRUSS FOR PLACING GUNA TILES

Exploded axo of guna tile roof 20


Sequence of construction of roof The roof was a guna tile construction technique, adopted from Wardha, Nasik. It is a cheap and fast way of roof construction, requiring only 2-3 days to complete. Also the steel forma used for supporting the roof is reusable.

to initiate, a single brick course is laid over the concrete beam running along its complete length..

the steel forma is picked up and placed on top of the beam. It is adjusted with wooden pegs.

G.I.pipes are screwed together through the forma to hold the guna tiles.

after placing 4 lines of guna tiles, each line opposite to the other, the 4 lines are tied with a binding wire.

once all the guna tiles are placed, one layer of mortar is filled in by hand, followed by a second layer of plaster.

SKILL - Skilled labourer for Guna Tile roof from wardha - Potter for Guna Tiles - Unskilled labourer for cement mortar mix - Mild Steel Fabricator for forma

MATERIAL Guna clay Tiles Mild Steel Wooden pegs Cement mortar China mosiac tiles Bricks

5 guna tiles are inserted one inside another and placed along the forma from either side of the arc.

after 2 days of drying of plaster, the forma is removed and china mosaic applied.

DISTANCE 2.5 KM 1.5 KM 0.5 KM 2 KM 2 KM 2.5 KM

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c. infill

Stone block jali above

Stone block wall upto 3ft

Jali wall detail

Jali wall detail

guna tiles guna tiles Stone blocks

Moon wall detail 22


Ms frame section Khat weaved panel Split bamboo Plastic balls for abacus

Blackboard panel

Pivot door panel detail

SKILL - Unskilled labourer for cement mortar mix - Mild Steel Fabricator - Stone mason + helper - Weaver

MATERIAL Mild Steel Rope Plastic Balls Plywood Stone Guna Clay Tile Cement mortar Paint Split Bamboo

DISTANCE 1.5 KM 0.5 KM 2.5 KM 1 KM 0.5 KM 2.5 KM 2 KM 2.5 KM 2 KM 23


the playground The playground was required to be designed as a safe space for children to play. Hence a boundary wall runs in front of the playground, intended to keep children away from traffic on the road beside.

Key plan

The playground is livened up to respond to curiosities and playfulness which children require in an environment, by designing a maze. The maze though essentially made of standing limestone slabs, also holds surprise elements like the tin can seats, waste bottled seat, niches and the ringing plates. All elements are created from the waste materials available around. Similarly a step tyre seat and springy seat also adds to the dynamism needed when designing for children. The playground is thus not designed with conventional swings and slides but rather with elements which can cater to the playfulness of a child’s imagination. Alongside the playground, a path is defined with stone slabs leading towards the main courtyard and buildings. This path starts from the single entry point of the anganwadi, secured with a gate. The gate also is designed as an element with two openings, one is a rather small one for children to pass through and the other is for teachers, parents and visitors. Waste trye tubes are used to fill in the gate, adding to the demonstration of ways to use industrial waste as a building material. A bench is designed in front of the gate, as a waiting point for children after school. As a whole this portion of the anganwadi is designed in an ad-hoc manner with the use of unconventional materials, to respond to the playfulness in children.

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view of playground

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Waste bottled seat

Concrete jali

Tin can Tin can

Plates

Stone slabs ‘pardi’

Stone slab pathway

Maze and pathway detail

SKILL - Unskilled labourer for cement mortar mix - Mild Steel Fabricator - Stone mason + helper

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MATERIAL Mild Steel Stone blocks & slabs Cement mortar Paint Tin cans Waste glass bottles Waste Tyres China mosaic tiles Industrial waste spring

DISTANCE 1.5 KM 0.5 KM 2 KM 2.5 KM 3 KM 1.5 KM 2 KM 1.5 KM 3 KM


Creepers

Tin can

Ms sections Waste tyre tubes

Gate detail

SKILL - Unskilled labourer for cement mortar mix - Unskilled labourer for excavation - Mild Steel Fabricator

MATERIAL Mild Steel Cement mortar Paint Tin cans Waste Tyres tubes

DISTANCE 1.5 KM 2 KM 2.5 KM 3 KM 2 KM

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the courtyard The space between the two buildings is designed as a multifunctional space for open classrooms, lunch areas, as a cycling space etc. Though intended in some ways towards play, the space is mainly oriented towards learning. The variation of plinths surrounding the space is designed to encourage sitting spaces, when requiring smaller groups. The plinth also connects the new and old building, bringing a uniformity to the space.

Key plan

While the space between the existing building and boundary wall being shaded throughout the day, is designed as a sandpit attached to the courtyard. Playfulness added to with tyre swings under the existing tree.

view of the courtyard towards the sandpit

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view of the courtyard towards the new building

view of the courtyard as an open classroom

SKILL - Unskilled labourer for cement mortar mix - Unskilled labourer for excavation - Stone mason + helper

MATERIAL Stone blocks Cement mortar Ropes Waste Tyres

DISTANCE 0.5 KM 2 KM 0.5 KM 2 KM

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the boundary wall Safety and security of the children from going outside without supervision required a boundary wall around the space. Moreover the boundary wall would prevent cows from loitering within the compound. The wall is designed to have pockets with a staggering of limestone blocks and embedding of clay pots. These pockets are for sitting, playing, etc, breaking the linearity of a static boundary wall. The wall is further designed as a stepped surface till the entry gate with coloured tin cans with plants at intervals.

Key plan

Stone block niches and seats

Clay pots

boundary wall detail

SKILL - Unskilled labourer for cement mortar mix - Unskilled labourer for excavation - Stone mason + helper

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MATERIAL Stone blocks Cement mortar Clay pots Tin cans

DISTANCE 0.5 KM 2 KM 0.5 KM 3 KM


all distance diagrams The distance maps are representative of the maximum distance travelled for procurement of material under each category.

STRUCTURE / 2 KM RADIUS

ROOF / 3 KM RADIUS

INFILL / 2.5 KM RADIUS

MAZE / 3 KM RADIUS

GATE / 3 KM RADIUS

COURTYARD / 2 KM RADIUS

BOUNDARY WALL / 3 KM RADIUS 31


the anganwadi

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33


Excavation for Foundation

Columns

Lintel Beam Shuttering

DAY 6

DAY 5

DAY 4

DAY 3

DAY 2

DAY 1

sequence of construction

Lintel Beam Casting

Vault Shuttering Guna Tile Laying

Maze Lineout

Maze Excavation

Stone Slab Erection

Plinth Masonry Excavation for Sand Pit

Construction of Boundary Wall

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n y

Concrete pouring on Roof

China Mosaic

Plastering on Roof

Maze Coating

Masonry with Waste Bottles

Fabricating the frame of the gate

Collecting and Painting Waste Tin Cans

China Mosaic on Waste Bottles

Covering edges of tin can with tyre tube

Collecting Waste Bottles and Tyres

Painting and Placing Tyres

DAY 12

DAY 11

DAY 10

DAY 9

DAY 8

DAY 7 Walls between columns

Wall Plaster

IPS in Flooring

Collecting and Placing Stone for Pathway

Tying the bamboo and tyre swing

Construction of Boundary Wall

Construction of Boundary Wall

Plastering the Boundary Wall

Plastering the Boundary Wall

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photostories

“Chalu kari do” “Election sudhi kai nai thai”

Dotting the ideas!! “Our intervention should involve even the villagers, while making the anganwadi” vi “The villagers need to know what we are doing here”

Construction in progress!! Bela and co. in motion ”BAHOBALI!!”” “Sakhaat bhare che a pathhar” “Pe lahri laav ahhiyan mari “Peli kammar tuti gayi” ”Bela and co. AAGE BADHO! HUM TUMHARE SAATH HE” “5 guna tiles at a time, AAVA DO!!” pa javano chu” “Hu padi “the forma is very heavy”

Guna tiled! “Ajji 400 kulhad baki” “It is still not fired properly, what if it breaks” “ We will have to test the roof with our heaviest member”

Paneled “Fabricator is so slow, he still has’nt started, weaver bhai ka ho gaya”

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Chilling after drilling! “Bela and co. no boss aaram ma che” “Tropa break!!”

Testing the spaces! “It is perfect too sit, like a chair” “Bau majja ave che”

Playing while making!! “Laxman bhai aa pardi sidhi nathi, pachu karvu padse” “Lets make a curved seat, bottles are’nt enough” “China mosaic ko firse karna padega, edges bahar nahi aa sakte”

“Saras lage che” Blastering Plastering! “Aa ketla khancha che, khatamj nathi thata”

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END NOTE 38

The need to intervene in rural areas owing to their professional neglect towards design was recognized earlier on. The workshop series, handmade was introduced as one of the ways for us to fulfil our urge to cater to this need. The burning urge to merely do something meaningful for the community overpowers any singular explorations of materials, building techniques or participatory design. Our workshops and interventions are aimed towards making a holistic impact, following a non-linear process of engaging the community in the making of its spaces. The making of community spaces as an extension of the place requires negotiations with the context, pushing and pulling between the resources available, extremities on site, involvement of people and sensitivity to users. Since each context is different, the process is governed by negotiations on site, which are contingency based. Then, what is the enquiry? What is the larger intent? The workshop is a means for us to enquire in rural areas, searching for a process of designing and executing or rather, making community spaces true to its place. Such a kind of search cannot end with one or two such explorations, but will in fact require a range of back and forth processes of making and reflecting, to extract systemic solutions. Since there can be no one solution, it is necessary to let this process evolve through multiple interventions of varying scales, each finely moulded and detailed for that particular locale but responding to the larger questions of place. It is a journey that will span across communities, places and time.


Appendix

limestone plinth sand pit hard ground plantation mosaic

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BADALPARA

hand - made

BUILDING PROCESS


Compartment S4 is an architectural firm of eight fresh graduates from CEPT university, initiated in May 2017. We intend to provide well-designed built environments to not just the urban fabric but also the much neglected rural communities. Hand-made is a workshop series under the architectural firm Compartment S4 focused on the grassroot level design involvements.


content Building process 1) Foundation and the walls 2) Wardha roof 3) Door panels Play area and the courtyard The users Final product


discussing the design of the aanganwadi with the villagers

starting the excavation and laying the foundation 4


reusing the limestone from a nearby site

limestone masonry for the columns 5


masonry in process

masonry in process 6


mixing the mortar for the RCC beams

making of the courtyard 7


making of the mud kullads by a local potter

inserting mud kullads to make a set of 5 kullads 8

lifting a set of kullads and passing it to the roof


placing and fixing the formwork to lay the guna tile roof

tying the first 4 rows of mud kullads with a GI wire 9


laying the sets of mud kullads on the roof

making of guna tile roof 10


making of guna tile roof

laying cement mortar on the rows of kullads 11


view of the guna tiles from inside before putting the mortar on top

applying cement plaster on the limestone jali 12


weaving of the jali used in the door panels

painting the door panels

door panels with abacus

door panels with black boards 13


line out for the maze in the playground

erecting the limestone panels for the maze 14

making of a glass bottle seat


laying china mosaic on the glass bottle seat

making of the playground 15


industrial steel waste reused to make seats for the kids to play

articulations done in the compound wall 16


making of the limestone jali

limestone jali

the users of the aanganwadi 17


kid sitting on a seat made in the compound wall

kids playing in the maze 18

kids playing in the maze


kids running through the door openings

kids using the gate

kids playing on the tyre mound 19


finished angaanwadi

plastered wall and finished guna tile roof from inside 20


finished aanganwdi

interior view of the space

interior view of the space 21


kids sitting in the courtyard

view of the aanganwadi from the road 22


finished aanganwdi and the courtyard

finished aanganwdi and the playground 23


hand-made at Badalpara, Gir-Somnath, Gujarat June 2018

handmade@compartments4.com www.compartments4.com

Profile for Compartment S4

Handmade at Badalpara  

Handmade at Badalpara, rural development, aanganwadi development, Gir-Somnath

Handmade at Badalpara  

Handmade at Badalpara, rural development, aanganwadi development, Gir-Somnath

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