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PLANNING FOR RAPID URBANISATION SURVEY OF THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION IN THE COMMONWEALTH COMMONWEALTH ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

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Survey prepared by the Commonwealth Association of Architects Principle contributors: Dik Jarman, Peter Oborn, Joseph Walters Design by Allies and Morrison, Architects and Urban Planners, London, UK Twitter: @comarchitect Web: www.comarchitect.org Email: admin@comarchitect.org Survey published: April 2018 With grateful thanks to all participating member organisations.


PLANNING FOR RAPID URBANISATION SURVEY OF THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION IN THE COMMONWEALTH

1 INTRODUCTION

04

2

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

07

3

COMMONWEALTH CONTEXT

12

4

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

18

5

NEXT STEPS

27

6

SURVEY METHOD

28

7

SURVEY RESULTS

29

APPENDIX

66


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INTRODUCTION

The Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) ‘Survey of the Profession’ is the first such survey to have been undertaken in over thirty years1 and represents an attempt to assess the capacity of the profession to help deliver the targets contained in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development while responding to the United Nations predicted increase in the worlds urban population of 2.5bn by 2050, with nearly 90% of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. UN Habitat estimates that cities today occupy only 2% of the total land area yet are responsible for 70% of global GDP, 60% of global energy consumption, 70% of greenhouse gas emissions and 70% of global waste2. Well-planned cities contribute to economic, social and environmental well-being while poorly design places are more likely to result in social exclusion, poverty and environmental degradation, as recognised by a growing number of international agreements.

Figure 1 World urbanisation prospects3

7bn 6bn 5bn 4bn

2018

3bn 2bn 1bn

less developed countries more developed countries

1 2 3 4

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The last known survey was undertaken in 1985 by Alan Wild from the School of Architecture in Auckland, New Zealand. http://habitat3.org/the-new-urban-agenda/ http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Architects, together with other built environment professionals such as planners and engineers, play a central role in the design of the places and spaces where people live.

At Habitat II, held in Istanbul in 1996, World Leaders adopted the Habitat Agenda as a global plan of action to deliver adequate shelter for all, having recognised that cities are the engines of global growth and that urbanisation provides an opportunity to promote sustainable development. In 2015, Global Leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity comprising 17 Goals. Goal 11 seeks to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and at Habitat III in 2016 World Leaders adopted the New Urban Agenda which creates a new framework for sustainable urban development. In its 2018 Global Risk Report4, the World Economic Forum recognised ‘Failure of urban planning’ as one of the ‘global risks’ which, if it occurs, can cause significant negative impact within the next 10 years. Architects, together with other built environment professionals such as planners and engineers, play a central role in the design of the places and spaces where people live. At the 9th World Urban Forum, held in Kuala Lumpur in February 2018, over 25,000 delegates met to discuss how best to accelerate the Action Framework for Implementation of the New Urban Agenda (AFINUA). This survey represents a contribution towards that endeavour and its findings are important. The findings of the survey reveal critical issues in some of the countries of the Commonwealth which are rapidly urbanising and are among the most vulnerable; issues which will be of concern to policymakers and professionals alike.

Vincent Cassar CAA President

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

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Architects, together with fellow built environment professionals such as town planners and engineers, help shape the places and spaces in which we live and work.

An architect’s training imparts knowledge in a broad range of subjects and develops the ability to solve complex problem using creativity and design. Good architects are able to use their knowledge, problem solving and design skills to create places that function efficiently, bring all kinds of benefits for their users and add value for their clients while responding to the local climate and culture.

WHY ARCHITECTS MATTER Together with fellow built environment professionals, architects have a key role to play in helping to realise the social, economic and environmental opportunities presented by continuing urbanisation and for helping to ensure that we deliver the aims of the New Urban Agenda for cities to be inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

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Architects work with government and municipal authorities to help develop built environment policy, with public and private sector clients to design and deliver individual projects and with local communities to help realise their ambitions for the places in which they live.

Well-designed offices, for example, enable us to be more productive while well-designed hospitals encourage patients to recover more quickly and well-designed public spaces not only encourage social interaction but can also reduce crime and have a positive impact on property values . Well-designed places and spaces contribute to our sense of identity and create cultural value.

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This survey represents an attempt to assess the capacity of the architectural profession in the Commonwealth to help deliver the targets contained in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It comprises a response from a representative number of member organisations from each of the five regions of the Commonwealth, including: Africa: Botswana, Ghana, South Africa and Uganda Asia: Bangladesh, Hong Kong5, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka Caribbean and Americas: Antigua and Barbuda and Canada Europe: Cyprus, Malta and the United Kingdom Pacific: Australia and New Zealand

Figure 2 Number of architects per thousand population compared with rates of urbanisation. Registered Architects per thousand Population -0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.0%

1.0%

2.0%

3.0%

4.0%

5.0%

6.0%

UK Australia Hong Kong New Zealand Canada Antigua and Barbuda South Africa Malaysia Sri Lanka Botswana Pakistan Bangladesh Ghana Uganda 5

While Hong Kong is no longer a member of the Commonwealth, the HKIA remains a member of the CAA

-1.0%

Rate of Urbanisation (%)

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

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The following are among its principal findings.

There is a critical lack of capacity in a number of Commonwealth countries, many of which are rapidly urbanising and are among the most vulnerable. 6

7

The Architects Council of Europe’s 2016 Sector Study has established a figure of 1 architects/1,000 head of population but this is somewhat distorted by Italy, with 2.6 architects/1,000 head of population: https://www.ace-cae.eu/ fileadmin/New_Upload/7._Publications/Sector_Study/2016_ V2/2016_EN_Full_021017.pdf http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/list-oecdmember-countries.htm

While no definitive benchmarks exist against which to assess the number of architects required6, figures from OECD7 countries including Australia (0.53), Canada (0.26), New Zealand (0.39) and the United Kingdom (0.58) suggest a ratio of between 0.26-0.58 (average 0.44) architects per 1,000 head of population. Survey results provide clear evidence of a critical lack of capacity is many parts of the Commonwealth, with ratios of 0.02 in Ghana and Bangladesh, 0.03 in Pakistan, 0.04 in Botswana, 0.05 in Sri Lanka, 0.06 in Malaysia and 0.07 in South Africa, ie indicating a significant shortfall in many countries of the Commonwealth which are also urbanising most rapidly. The situation in Uganda is even more acute, with only 178 registered architects in a country of over 43 million population, urbanising at a rate of over 5.3% per annum (ie 0.004 architects per 1,000 head of population).

Australia

Uganda 8

0.53 / 1000

1.37%

0.004 / 1000

5.30%

Architects per 1,000 of population

Architects per 1,000 of population

Rate of urbanisation

Rate of urbanisation Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


There is a corresponding lack of educational and institutional capacity to grow the profession fast enough in a number of Commonwealth countries. While lack of capacity is cause for concern in a number of Commonwealth countries, the rate at which the profession is growing in these same countries is insufficient to achieve the same ratios to be found in OECD countries.

Hong Kong Malaysia Australia United Kingdom New Zealand Botswana Canada Bangladesh Pakistan South Africa Sri Lanka

80%

Uganda Ghana

UK -The proportion of registered architects who have become members of RIBA

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Schools per million population

Figure 3

Architects per thousand population

Number of architects/k population compared with number of architecture schools/M population.

20%

Pakistan - The proportion of registered architects who have become members of IAP

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

While the number of registered architects in Ghana, for example, is growing at a faster rate than any of the other respondents, at 10.9% per annum, it is starting from a low base of 484 members and with a ratio of 0.02 architects per 1,000 head of population; insufficient for a country of almost 29 million which is urbanising at 3.1% per annum.

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Another important consequence of low numbers of architects in many Commonwealth countries is the small pool of professionals from which national institutes are able to attract members, coupled with their relatively low earning potential thereby reducing the institutes ability to develop the profession (ie professional, educational and technical standards) and engage with government on issues of policy making. Membership rates (ie institutional membership/ number of registered architects) range from 20% in Pakistan, 33% in India and 80% in the UK, suggesting that institutes need to do more to demonstrate value and relevance.

There is a perceived weakness in built environment policy in many Commonwealth countries in terms of standards, implementation and enforcement. Respondents were invited to comment on the perceived fitness for purpose of various instruments of built environment policy including planning legislation, building code, health and safety standards etc. 80% 70% 60%

Planning Legislation

71%

73%

Building Code

50% 40%

43%

30%

40%

20% 10% 0% Fit for purpose?

Implemented effectively?

Figure 4 Effectiveness of Planning Legislation and Building Code

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Responses indicate a perceived weakness in a number of areas, both in terms of standards, implementation and enforcement.

Next steps This is the first survey of the profession in the Commonwealth to have been undertaken in over 30 years and while it is by no means comprehensive and relies largely on self-reports, its findings highlight a number of significant challenges to the professions ability to contribute to delivery of a more sustainable Commonwealth. The CAA will therefore work with member organisations and other stakeholders to help address the principal findings. While further research is clearly necessary to both verify some of the survey’s results and secure a wider response, action clearly needs to be taken now to address its findings and, while much is already being done in some of these areas, such is the scale and scope of the challenge that no single agency is going to be capable of addressing all of the issues raised or achieving the transformation required. In order to do so, innovative responses will be required involving partnerships and collaborations between INGO’s, governments, NGO’s, the built environment professions, academia and the private sector. With nearly 75% of Commonwealth country’s eligible to received Official Development Assistance (ODA) finance, opportunities exist to develop programmes which will have lasting impact at scale. Tomorrow’s cities are being planned and built today and only by addressing these issues now will we be able to realise the potential of urbanisation to create prosperity, stability and a truly sustainable future.

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COMMONWEALTH CONTEXT

At the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) held in Malta in 2015, Commonwealth countries welcomed adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and committed to work together to create an enabling environment to implement the agenda8. The launch of this survey has been timed to coincide with the 25th Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) that is due to be held in London in April 2018, in the hope of drawing attention to its findings and focusing effort on tackling the issues raised. The theme for CHOGM20189 is for the Commonwealth to work collectively: ‘Towards a Common Future’ in accordance with the values and principles declared within the Commonwealth Charter10. At the summit, leaders will come together to focus on delivering: a more sustainable future, a fairer future, a more secure future and a more prosperous future.

The unique character of the Commonwealth While urbanisation is a global phenomenon the diversity of the Commonwealth creates a unique set of challenges and opportunities, eg: The unprecedented scale of the challenge11 in the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth comprises 53 countries with a total population of over 2.4bn, a third of the world’s population, 93% of whom live in Africa (circa 500m) and Asia (circa 1.7bn). India alone is predicted to add 404 million urban dwellers and Nigeria 212 million over the period to 2050, ie over 19 million new urban dwellers per annum or over 1.6 million per month in these two countries alone. The vulnerability of small island developing states (SIDS). Many countries in the Commonwealth particularly in Pacific and Caribbean regions are small island developing states which are particularly vulnerable to climate change and other impacts due to their small size, fragile economies, lack of resilience in the face of hazards including sea level rise, cyclones, earthquakes and other extreme weather events as evidenced most recently by hurricanes Irma and Maria.

8

http://thecommonwealth.org/sites/default/files/news-items/ documents/CHOGM%202015%20Communique.pdf https://www. 9 chogm2018.org.uk/ 10 http://thecommonwealth.org/our-charter 11 https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Report. pdf 12 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ fields/2212.html 13 http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/data/

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High rates of urbanisation are anticipated in some of the Commonwealth’s most fragile states (ie vulnerability to conflict or collapse). 14 Commonwealth countries are rapidly urbanising at rates of more than 3% per annum12 eg: Rwanda (5.59%), Uganda (5.30%), Tanzania (5.00%), Zambia (4.35%), Nigeria (4.30%), Kenya (4.15%), Malawi (4.02%), Solomon Islands (3.79%), Namibia (3.63%), Cameroon (3.40%), Mozambique (3.36%), Vanuatu (3.23%), Bangladesh (3.19%), and Ghana (3.07%). By comparison, the average among OECD countries participating in the survey is 1.08% per annum.

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Six Commonwealth countries have a Fragility Index13 of more than 90 (‘Warning’) or over 100 (‘Alert’), ie: Nigeria (101.6), Pakistan (98.9), Kenya (96.4), Uganda (96.0), Cameroon (95.6), and Rwanda (90.8). All of these countries are rapidly urbanising.

High rates of urbanisation are anticipated in some of the Commonwealth’s most fragile states. 5.30%

Uganda

3.19%

Bangladesh

3.07%

Ghana

2.77%

Pakistan

2.28%

India

2.19%

Malaysia Botswana

1.38%

Australia

1.37%

South Africa

1.33%

Canada

1.16%

Sri Lanka

1.11% 0.98%

New Zealand Cyprus

0.84%

United Kingdom

0.82%

Malta Antigua and Barbuda

0.32% -0.38% Figure 5 Projected annual rate of urbanisation among respondent countries

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

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Urbanisation provides an opportunity to address many of these challenges. An opportunity to use urbanisation to promote prosperity in some of the Commonwealth’s poorest countries: 13 of the 16 Commonwealth countries which are urbanising most rapidly are classified as either ‘Low’ or ‘Low-middle’ income countries by the World Bank14. Several of the countries with the highest rates of urbanisation are home to Commonwealth cities which score poorly on the UN’s City Prosperity Index(CPI)15, namely Accra (44/100), Cape Town (45/100), Johannesburg (36/100), Lagos (36/100) and Nairobi (59/100. For comparison purposes Melbourne scores 75/100. A need to improve the business environment in country’s experiencing rapid urbanisation: 22 Commonwealth countries score below 50 on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index16, 7 score below 30 with Mozambique and Cameroon scoring 25. All 7 are rapidly urbanising with 6 of these 7 countries urbanising at rates greater than 3%. An opportunity to use urbanisation to improve the quality of life for some of the poorest people in the Commonwealth: The five Commonwealth countries with the lowest Human Development Index (HDI)17 are Mozambique (0.418), Sierra Leone (0.420), Malawi (0.476), Uganda (0.493) and Lesotho (0.497), all of which are in Africa. All are classed as Low or Low-middle income, and all are urbanising at 2.72% per annum or more. An opportunity to engage young people in the creation of their future cities: More than 60% of the population of the Commonwealth are under 30 years of age, most of whom live in cities. The Commonwealth sees young people aged 15-29 as assets to a country’s development who should be empowered to realise their potential. Young people have a proven capability to lead change and are a vital and valuable investment for the future. A need to strengthen the resilience of cities, especially in those parts of the Commonwealth which are most vulnerable to climate change impacts: High rates of urbanisation are anticipated in parts of the Commonwealth which are most vulnerable to climate change impacts. The five Commonwealth countries with the most vulnerable Climate Risk Indexes (CRI)18 are: Bangladesh (25), Pakistan (30.5), India (37.5), Grenada (40.33) and Dominica (42). The five Commonwealth countries with the biggest financial losses attributable to Climate Risk are: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Australia and the United Kingdom. Three of these countries are rapidly urbanising. The Commonwealth Association of Architects believes that only by working collaboratively and in partnership will we be able to avoid the risks and capture the potential social, economic and environmental benefits created by the growth of cities. Tomorrow’s cities are being planned today and only by addressing these issues now will we be able to realise the potential of urbanisation to create prosperity, stability and a truly sustainable future.

14 http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD?year_ high_desc=true 15 http://cpi.unhabitat.org/ 16 https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_ perceptions_index_2017 17 http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/HDI 18 https://germanwatch.org/en/download/16411.pdf

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


THE COMMONWEALTH IN A NUTSHELL

53 independent countries that work together to pursue common goals which promote development, democracy and peace. The Commonwealth spans the globe and includes both advanced economies and developing countries, encompasing:

Africa (19 countries), Asia (7), the Caribbean and Americas (13), Europe (3), and the Pacific (11) Thirty of our members are small states, usually with a population under 1.5 million, and 24 members are small island developing states.

Many small and developing Commonwealth countries are among those with the lowest ecological footprints worldwide. Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

2.4 billion citizens of which more than 60% are aged 29 or under.

The combined gross domestic product of the Commonwealth countries is estimated at

$10.4 tn $13.0 tn which by 2020 is predicted to reach

The Pacific nation of Nauru is the smallest Commonwealth member country with a population of about 10,000. The most populous member country is India with over 1.2 billion people.

1.2bn 10k

Half of the top 20 global emerging cities are in the Commonwealth:

New Delhi Mumbai Nairobi Kuala Lumpur Bangalore Johannesburg Kolkata Cape Town Chennai Dhaka 15


URBANISATION AND THE COMMONWEALTH

The Commonwealth is comprised of 53 countries with a total population of over 2.4bn, a third of the world’s population.

Canada has a population of 36.6 million and a population density of only 3.67 people/sqkm

Toronto

1.21%

The Commonwealth contains many dynamic cities, including some of the world’s most populated, its most important centres of commerce, its fastest growing cities as well as its most liveable.

Antigua and Barbuda has a population of 102,000 with a population growth of 1.21% yet a decreasing urbanisation rate of -0.38%

Top 20 global emerging city Top 20 global emerging city and an Alpha city + Alpha + city ++ Alpha ++ city According to the GaWC index of the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network at Loughborough University as a measurement of cities integration into the global economy. Alpha ++ cities are the most integrated. Alpha ++ Cities: London, New York Alpha + Cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Paris, Beijing, Tokyo, Dubai, Shanghai Aplha Cities: Sydney, São Paulo, Milan, Chicago, Mexico City, Mumbai, Moscow, Frankfurt, Madrid, Warsaw, Johannesburg, Toronto, Seoul, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Amsterdam, Brussels, Los Angeles

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


0.82% The United Kingdom has a population of 66 million which is growing at a rate of 0.52% with an urbanisation rate of 0.82%

++ London

India has a population of 1.34 billion which is growing at a rate of 1.17% with an urbanisation rate of 2.28%

New Delhi Dhaka Kolkata Mumbai Alpha

Uganda has a population of 36,860,700 which is growing at the fastest rate of 3.2% with an urban growth rate of 5.3%

5.3%

Bangalore

Nairobi

+Hong Kong

Chennai Kuala Lumpur + Singapore

100% URBAN Johnnesburg

At 100%, Singapore is the most highly urbanised country in the world. The city-state also has the highest GNI per capita - $85,020.

Cape Town

93%

of the population of the Commonwealth live in Africa and Asia.

+ Sydney

89.7% URBAN Australia is 89.7% urbanised with an urbanisation rate of 0.82%

Rate of urbanisation

5.00+%

4.00-4.99%

3.00-3.99%

2.00-2.99%

1.00-1.99%

0.00-0.99%

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

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PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

The following are among the surveys principal findings:

1

There is a critical lack of capacity in a number of Commonwealth countries, many of which are rapidly urbanising and are among the most vulnerable. While no definitive benchmarks exist against which to assess the number of architects required19, figures from OECD20 countries including Australia (0.53), Canada (0.26), New Zealand (0.39) and the United Kingdom (0.58) suggest a ratio of between 0.26-0.58 (average 0.44) architects per 1,000 head of population. Survey results provide clear evidence of a critical lack of capacity is many parts of the Commonwealth, with ratios of 0.02 in Ghana and Bangladesh, 0.03 in Pakistan, 0.04 in Botswana, 0.05 in Sri Lanka, 0.06 in Malaysia and 0.07 in South Africa, ie indicating a significant shortfall in many countries of the Commonwealth which are also urbanising most rapidly. The situation in Uganda is even more acute, with only 178 registered architects in a country of over 42 million population, urbanising at a rate of over 5% per annum (ie 0.004 architects per 1,000 head of population). Indeed, anecdotal evidence suggests that there may be no more than 1,600 architects in the whole of East Africa (ie Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania) with a combined population of over 150 million. While the Indian Institute of Architects is not currently a member of the CAA, information from the Council of Architecture (COA), the national registration body, suggests a total of 59,949 members in a country of circa 1.324 billion population, ie a ratio of 0.045. The COA’s website also provides data for cities having more than 500 architects and this data notes cities such as Mumbai with 5,855 architects, ie a ratio 0.028 for a population of 20.7 million.

19 The Architects Council of Europe’s 2016 Sector Study has established a figure of 1 architects/1,000 head of population but this is somewhat distorted by Italy, with 2.6 architects/1,000 head of population: https://www.ace-cae.eu/ fileadmin/New_Upload/7._Publications/Sector_Study/2016_ V2/2016_EN_Full_021017.pdf 20 http://www.oecd.org/ 21 https://www.coa.gov.in/index1. php?lang=1&level=1&sublinkid=32&lid=45

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


2.182

Malta

0.580

UK

0.532

Australia

0.458

Hong Kong

0.390

New Zealand

0.263

Antigua and Barbuda

0.235

Canada South Africa

0.067

Malaysia

0.062

Sri Lanka Botswana Pakistan

0.054 0.042 0.029

Bangladesh

0.019

Ghana

0.017

Uganda

0.004

Figure 6 Ratio of architects/1,000 population22

These figures should also be seen in the broader context of the capacity of built environment professionals and with research undertaken by Cities Alliance in their report entitled ‘Human Resources Capacity Benchmarking’23 which has established benchmarks for Local Authority staffing from which it has suggested shortages in planning capacity at local government level amounting to 857 Planners in Ghana, 388 Planners in Mozambique and 115 Planners in Uganda.

22 With regard to the number of registered architects shown for Malta it should be noted that the numbers for Malta include those of Warrant holders as a ‘Perit’, which is a combined profession for Architects and Civil Engineers. Holders of the Warrant graduate from the University as Architects and Civil Engineers. The law is in the process of revision and Warrant holders will, in future, be classified as ‘Perit (Architect)’ and ‘Perit (Civil Engineer)’. Both Warrant holders can undertake work as an architect or as a civil engineer and it will be up to the individual to regulate in which area they practice so long as he is professional competent in that area. In Cyprus, the numbers include both architects and civil engineers. Both sets of data have therefore been truncated here. 23 http://www.citiesalliance.org/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/ Final%20Report%20on%20Municipal%20Staffing%20 Toolkit_0.pdf

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

The Institute of Architects Pakistan further illustrates the issues, reporting 5,637 registered architects, with 523 members in the Institute of Planners Pakistan. Based on the ratio’s referred to above, urban population figures would suggest a requirement for circa 28,000 architects and 12,000 planners, highlighting a significant shortfall in both disciplines. While these figures, and the ratios upon which they have been based, may be subject to error and are certainly subject to challenge, the figures highlight a critical lack of capacity amongst architects and planners in some of the most vulnerable countries of the Commonwealth which are urbanising most rapidly, particularly when set against the targets contained in SDG 11, to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

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2 There is a corresponding lack of educational and institutional capacity to grow the profession fast enough in a number of Commonwealth countries While lack of capacity is cause for concern in a number of Commonwealth countries, the rate at which the profession is growing in these same countries is insufficient to achieve the same ratios to be found in OECD countries within a realistic timeframe. While the number of registered architects in Ghana, for example, is growing at a faster rate than any of the other respondents, at 10.9% per annum, it is starting from a low base of 484 members and with a ratio of 0.02 architects per 1,000 head of population; insufficient for a country of 28 million which is urbanising at 3.1% per annum. At the other end of the spectrum, Uganda, with only 178 registered architects, has been shown to have the most critical shortage yet the profession is only growing at 3.2% per annum while the country is urbanising at 5.3% per annum.

3.39

Cyprus

2.28

Malta Hong Kong

0.82

Malaysia

0.76 0.74

Australia

0.70

United Kingdom

0.63

New Zealand Botswana

0.44 0.33

Canada Bangladesh

0.18

Pakistan

0.17

South Africa

0.16

Uganda

0.09

Sri Lanka

0.09

Ghana

0.07

Antigua and Barbuda

0.00

Figure 7 Number of architecture schools/1m population

Not all respondents were able to provide sufficient historic data from which to calculate the growth of the profession. However, if one considers (as a crude measure) the number of architectural schools per 1m head of population then figures from Australia (0.74), Canada (0.33), New Zealand (0.63) and the United Kingdom (0.7) suggest that for mature economies an average of circa 0.6 schools per 1m head of population as a guide. This figure compares with survey responses from Ghana (0.07), Sri Lanka (0.09), Uganda (0.09), South Africa (0.16), Pakistan (0.17) and Bangladesh (0.18), highlighting the need for measures to increase capacity over the short, medium and longer term.

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


While the CAA’s survey focused mainly on the quantum of provision rather than quality of education, it’s experience in this area suggests that quality and consistency of standards is an issue in many parts of the Commonwealth. Similarly, the survey reveals that Continuing Professional Development is only mandatory for 63% of respondents suggesting that the maintenance and development of professional standards may also be an issue. Another important consequence of low numbers of architects in many Commonwealth countries is the small pool of professionals from which national institutes are able to attract members, coupled with their relatively low earning potential (and hence low subscription levels; see chapter 7.2.5 and 7.1.5) thereby reducing the institutes ability to develop the profession (ie professional, educational and technical standards) and engage with government on issues of policy making. Membership rates (ie institutional membership/number of registered architects) range from 20% in Pakistan, 33% in India and 80% in the UK, suggesting that institutes need to do more to demonstrate value and relevance.

3

There is a perceived weakness in built environment policy in many Commonwealth countries in terms of standards, implementation and enforcement Respondents were invited to comment on the perceived fitness for purpose of various instruments of built environment policy including planning legislation, building code, health and safety standards etc. Responses indicate a perceived weakness in a number of areas including standards, implementation and enforcement. Planning legislation: Over a quarter of respondents felt their national planning legislation was not fit for purpose while over 50% considered that it wasn’t being implemented effectively. Malta reported that its planning legislation is neither fit for purpose nor being implemented effectively. Building Code: Similarly, over a quarter of respondents felt that their national building code was not fit for purpose while 60% considered it wasn’t being implemented effectively. Uganda reported that its building code is currently being drafted by its Ministry of Works and Transport while Botswana noted that its building code is neither fit for purpose nor being effectively implemented. Cyprus noted that both its planning legislation and building code are outdated and are neither fit for purpose nor being implemented effectively. Fit for purpose Implemented effectively

43%

40% 71%

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

73%

Figure 8

Figure 9

Planning legislation, fit for purpose?

Building code, fit for purpose?

21


Health & Safety legislation: 20% of respondents reported that Health & Safety legislation was ineffective while 50% of respondents considered that standards were not being adequately enforced. 35% reported no requirement for on-site H&S Officers. Sustainable Development Goals, target setting: While all members of the Commonwealth have adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals less than 50% of respondents reported that their governments have established targets or have established an effective implementation plan and only 20% reported that their government has appointed a body to oversee delivery of the SDG’s. Renewable Energy Policies: Less than 50% of respondents reported that their governments have adopted effective renewable energy policies and less than 50% agree that the profession is conversant with the principles of energy efficient design. COP21 target setting: While practically all members of the Commonwealth have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), only two thirds of respondents report that their governments have developed COP21 targets, only a third report that their governments have established an effective implementation plan and only Canada reports that its government has designated a body to develop, implement and monitor its climate change commitments. New Urban Agenda: 40% of respondents report that their governments have embraced the principles of the New Urban Agenda. 25% report that their governments have developed and effective implementation plan but only 2 respondents report that their government has designated a body to deliver its commitments. The survey also asked a number of further questions related to built-environment policy: • Inclusive Design Standards: Only 33% of respondents reported that their governments had developed Inclusive Design Standards • Anti-bribery and corruption legislation: 81% of respondents reported that their governments had established Anti-bribery and Corruption legislation. • Sustainable design and construction standards: Only a third of respondents reported that their governments have established sustainable design and construction standards. • National Construction Strategy: Only a third of respondents reported that their governments have developed a National Construction Strategy. • National BIM Strategy: Only 2 respondents reported that their governments have developed national BIM Strategies. • Smart Cities Strategy: Only a third of respondents reported that their governments have developed a Smart Cities Strategy. • City Resilience Strategy: Only a quarter of respondents reported that their governments have established City Resilience Strategies. • Disaster Management Plans: Nearly three quarters of respondents reported that their governments have developed Disaster Management Plans The final section of the survey invited participants to respond to a series of questions concerning the challenges facing the built environment and the profession in their country. While the responses support the key findings outlined above, they also identify a number of other areas requiring attention and paint a picture of a profession struggling to explain what it does and why it matters. The following are among a range of responses received:

22

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Sustainable Development Goals Developed? Effective SDG Implementation Plan? COP21 Targets Developed? Effective COP21 Implementation Plan? Embraced the New Urban Agenda? Effective NUA Implementation Plan? Effective Health and Safety Standards Developed? Effective Renewable Energy Policies Developed? Effective Inclusive Design Standards Developed? Anti-Bribery Corruption Legislation? Sustainability Design Construction Standards? National Construction Strategy? National BIM Strategy? Smart Cities Strategy? City Resilience Strategies? Disaster Management Plans Developed? YES NO

Figure 10 Existence and effectiveness of various built environment legislation and standards

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

23


RESPONSES RECEIVED FROM THE SURVEY

What are the most important challenges facing the built environment? • Lack of effective built environment legislation, especially poor spatial planning together with outdated building regulations, poorly implemented and enforced. • Urban sprawl, poor public transport and lack of investment in infrastructure • Housing and land shortages coupled with affordability. • Sustainability, including climate change, climate adaptation and resilience

What are the most important challenges facing architectural education in your country? • Lack of education provision, insufficient teaching staff coupled with the high cost of education at home and abroad. • High student/teacher ratios, poorly funded faculties. • Balancing time for teaching design with the increasing focus on technology. • Building stronger links between education and practice.

What are the most important challenges facing the profession? • Corruption, public procurement practices, low fees and a reliance on design and build. • Achieving design quality in the face of strong development pressures combined with poor construction technology. • Lack of opportunity for young architects and small practices, aggravated by cross border trading practices and an influx of large international firms. • Lack of respect/recognition for the profession caused partly by an inability to demonstrate its value coupled with weak regulation of the profession in some countries.

Changes in salaries, working hours and conditions over the past ten years? • Working conditions appear to have improved marginally but with long working hours and tight programmes despite advances in technology. • Salaries appear to have flat-lined or marginally declined over the period in a number of countries. • There appear to be better opportunities for women than there were 10 years ago.

24

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Public perception regarding the role of the architect as a worthwhile profession and as a contributor to the community? • The growth in popularity as a subject of study appears to have been somewhat offset by a lack of appreciation of the practice of architecture. • There appears to be a divergence of views and no real consensus regarding the way in which the architect’s role is perceived.

How optimistic are you regarding the future of the profession? • Cautious optimism at best, underpinned by an abiding sense that the profession appears to have difficulty articulating what it does and why it matters. • Public sector clients do not appear to understand the value of the profession. • Noted that in several Commonwealth countries, architects can only be found in the main towns, ie there is considerable potential for growing the profession. • Threats perceived from unregulated paraprofessionals.

Whether the role of the architect on site has improved over the past 20 years? • Responses from several countries suggest a slow deterioration in the authority of the architect during construction and a rise in the influence of para-professionals such as project managers.

Ways in which the CAA can support your region? • Advocate the value of architecture and its importance in terms of place making and urban design. • Advocate the value of architecture to government together with policies which support the profession, eg procurement practices, fees etc • Develop guidance for cross-border practice. • Promote internship/exchange programmes between member countries at both faculty and student level. • Provide scholarships for talented students in financial hardship. • Organise regional competitions to help tackle real-world issues and help secure funding to deliver projects.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

25


SO, HOW MANY ARCHITECTS DO WE NEED ANYWAY?

Having established a shortfall in the number of architects in a number of Commonwealth countries, on what basis might we assess the number of architects required in each case? Figures from the OECD countries which responded to the survey suggest a ratio of roughly 0.44 architects per 1,000 head of population. These figures relate to mature economies and to countries which are, on average, already 85% urbanised. Applying such a ratio to a country such as Uganda, which is currently only 16.8% urbanised would clearly be inappropriate. It may, therefore, be more appropriate to apply the ratio to the urbanised population before then incrementing on an annual basis to reflect the rate of urbanisation. Applying such a ratio to the urban population of Uganda, for example, would suggest a current shortfall of circa 2,990 architects together with a requirement for a further 275 architects per annum. The calculation upon which this assessment has been made is as follows:

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M.

Total population Urbanisation Urban population Number of existing architects Total number of architects required Shortfall in the number of architects Population growth Urban growth per annum Total population (2019) Urbanisation % (2019) Urban population (2019) Total number of architects required (2019) Additional architects required (2019)

:42,863,000 :16.8% :7,200,984 :178 :3,168 :2,990 est :3.2% :5.3% :44,234,616 :17.69% :7,431,415 :3,443 :275 est

(A x B) (C x 0.44) (D - E) (A + (A x G) (B + (B x H) (I x J) (K x 0.44) (L - E)

Applying the above method to the other respondent countries showing a shortfall, produces the following results:

Country

Bangladesh Botswana Ghana Malaysia Pakistan South Africa Sri Lanka

Urban population 2018 (est)

Indicative shortfall, 2018 (est)

Additional Urban population 2019 (est)

Additional requirement, 2019 (est)

58,951,860 1,329,360 15,945,202 24,034,240 78,215.352 37,268,462 3,940,870

22,850 489 6,532 8,618 28,778 12,626 579

2,513,222 39,235 846,151 862,830 3,316,027 869,535 74,027

1,106 17 372 380 1,459 383 33

While the above figures are purely indicative, they serve to illustrate the scale of the shortfall and of the need to increase capacity. They also illustrate the need to develop alternative approaches to ensure that those places and spaces which are currently being developed are being designed and constructed in a manner that is both safe and sustainable and achieves the aspirations of the SDG’s and the New Urban Agenda. Such approaches may include accelerated learning programmes for existing members of the profession, secondments and/or joint ventures to supplement short term capacity. They will almost certainly also need to include strengthening of planning policy and building code, including implementation and enforcement.

26

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


5

NEXT STEPS

This is the first survey of the profession in the Commonwealth to have been undertaken in over 30 years and while it is by no means comprehensive and relies largely on self-reports, its findings highlight a number of significant challenges to the professions ability to contribute to delivery of a more sustainable Commonwealth. The CAA will therefore: 1. Disseminate the findings of the survey: The findings will be widely shared with member organisations and a variety of stakeholders in order to promote awareness of the issues raised. 2. Discuss the issues raised with member organisations and key stakeholders: The CAA will engage with member organisations and key stakeholders such as UN Habitat, DfID together with NGO’s and academic partners to discuss the issues raised. 3. Develop an action plan to help address the principal findings: The CAA will develop an action plan to help address the principal findings in partnership with MO’s and key stakeholders In addition to the above, it is apparent that there is a need for more and better data to fully understand the capacity of Built Environment Professionals in the Commonwealth to respond to the pressures of urbanisation. The CAA will therefore: 4. Encourage more member institutes to participate: In order to enrich the results, a further invitation will be issued to those architectural institutes which have yet to respond, encouraging them to contribute to the survey. 5. Encourage other built environment professions to undertake similar surveys: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the issues revealed by this survey may apply equally to other disciplines. Fellow professionals will therefore be encouraged to undertake similar surveys, eg Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP), Commonwealth Engineers Council (CEC), Commonwealth Association of Surveyors and Land Economists (CASLE). 6. Undertake the survey more regularly: In order to monitor progress, the survey will be undertaken on a more regular basis. While further research is clearly necessary to both verify some of the survey’s results and secure a wider response, action clearly needs to be taken now to address its principal findings and, while much is already being done in some of these areas, such is the scale and scope of the challenge that no single agency is going to be capable of addressing all of the issues raised or achieving the transformation required. In order to do so, innovative responses will be required involving partnerships and collaborations between INGO’s, governments, NGO’s, the built environment professions, academia and the private sector. With nearly 75% of Commonwealth country’s eligible to received Official Development Assistance (ODA) finance, opportunities exist to develop programmes which will have lasting impact at scale. Tomorrow’s cities are being planned and built today and only by addressing these issues now will we be able to realise the potential of urbanisation to create prosperity, stability and a truly sustainable future.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

27


6

SURVEY METHOD

The survey consists of 8 principal subject areas and a total of 125 separate questions. The main subject areas are as follows:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Country Profile The Professional Institute/Chamber/Association Nature of the Profession Professional Practice Education and Training The Market Architecture and Government Context Challenges and Opportunities

The survey was issued to all known architectural associations within the 53 countries of the Commonwealth whether or not currently members of the CAA. No architectural association could be found in 8 countries of the Commonwealth, many of which are among the most vulnerable to climate change impacts, ie: Kiribati, Mozambique, Nauru, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. A total of 16 completed questionnaires were returned accounting for 33% of all known associations and representing a cross section of countries across all five regions of the Commonwealth, namely: • • • • •

Africa: Botswana, Ghana, South Africa and Uganda. Asia: Bangladesh, Hong Kong24, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka Caribbean and Americas: Antigua and Barbuda, and Canada Europe: Cyprus, Malta and the United Kingdom Pacific: Australia and New Zealand

24 While Hong Kong is no longer a member of the Commonwealth, the HKIA remains a member of the CAA

28

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7

SURVEY RESULTS

AAB GIA SAIA USA

Canada

UK

HKIA IAP SLIA

Malta

Cyprus

ABIA

Pakistan

RAIC

Bangladesh

Antigua and Barbuda

CAA KTP

Hong Kong

RIBA (R)AIA NZIA

Ghana Sri Lanka

IAB PAM

Malaysia

Uganda

Botswana

Australia South Africa

New Zealand

Figure 11 Location of respondents

7.1.1 DETAILS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION/CHAMBER/INSTITUTE Region

Country

Abbreviation Name

Type

Website

Est

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

AAB GIA SAIA USA

Architects Association of Botswana Ghana Institute of Architects The South African Institute of Architects Uganda Society of Architects

Association Institute Institute Society

www.aab-bw.com www.gia.org.gh/new www.saia.org.za www.architects.ug

1989 1969 1927 1996

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong25 Malaysia

IAB HKIA PAM

Institute Institute Institute

www.iab.com.bd www.hkia.net www.pam.org.my

1972 1956 1920

Pakistan Sri Lanka

IAP SLIA

Institute ofAssociation Architects Architects Bangladesh of Botswana Ghana The Hong Institute Kong Institute of Architects of Architects Ghana Institute Pertubuhan Akitek of Architects Malaysia (Malaysian Institute of Architects) The SouthofAfrican Institute Architects Institute Pakistan of Architects Uganda Sri LankaSociety Institute of of Architects Architects

Institute Institute

www.iap.com.pk www.slia.lk

1957 1976

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

ABIA

Antigua & Barbuda Institute of Architects

Institute

no current website

1989

RAIC

Royal Architectural Institute of Canada

Institute

www.raic.org

1907

Cyprus Malta

CAA KTP

Association Chamber

www.architecture.org.cy www.ktpmalta.org

1981 1920

United Kingdom

RIBA

Cyprus Architects Association Kamra tal-Periti (Chamber of Architects and Civil Engineers) Royal Institute of British Architects

Institute

www.architecture.com

1834

Australia New Zealand

(R)AIA NZIA

The Royal Australian Institute of Architects Limited New Zealand Institute of Architects Incorporated

Institute Institute

www.aab-bw.com www.nzia.co.nz

1930 1905

Caribbean and America Europe

Pacific

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

29


7.1 THE ASSOCIATION/CHAMBER/INSTITUTE

7.1.2 ORGANISATION OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION/CHAMBER/INSTITUTE Region

Country

Africa

Botswana Ghana Malta

Y Y Y

N Y Y

Uganda

Y

N

Asia

National Organisation

Bangladesh Hong Kong

Method of Regional Organisation n/a AUA West Region National and regional constitutions are complimentary, and all Regions serve on the National Board. Reconstituted in 1997 with 11 Regions. n/a

Y N n/a A special administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. The HKIA comprises 1 Hong Kong office and 1 representative office in Beijing. Y N n/a Y Y Through Chapters of the IAP National Council Y Y National overarching body with regional chapters

Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka Caribbean and America

Regional Organisation

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Y

Y

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) & Single Market Economy

Y

Y

(CSME) Several regional chapters

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Y Y Y

N N Y

n/a n/a National overarching body with 11 regional and 5 international chapters

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Y Y

National overarching body with 6 regional and 1 international chapter 8 regional branches

The RIBA (UK) has a relatively large number of regional chapters to support its sizable membership both within the UK and overseas. The RAIA (Australia) and the NZIA (New Zealand) both have a relatively large number of regional chapters for reasons of geography and climate. RAIA members are supported by an international chapter which reflects the fact that many more Australian architects are now working around the world. 7.1.3 MEMBERSHIP NUMBERS AND GROWTH RATES 2014-1016 INCLUSIVE Region

Country

Compulsory or Voluntary

Total Members 2014

Total Members 2015

Total Members 2016

Annual Growth Rate

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Voluntary Compulsory Voluntary Voluntary

95 389 2,385 180

98 433 2,391 191

103 484 2,372 203

4.0% 10.9% -0.3% 6.0%

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Voluntary Voluntary Voluntary Voluntary Voluntary

2,650 4,072 3,081 1,477 1,008

2,760 4,239 3,221 1,559 1,073

3,089 4,385 3,355 1,660 1,155

7.6% 3.7% 4.3% 5.8% 6.8%

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Voluntary

9

10

11

10.0%

Voluntary

4,874

4,883

4,925

0.5%

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Voluntary Voluntary Voluntary

900 253 40,258

940 290 40,832

980 303 42,247

4.3% 9.0% 2.4%

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Voluntary Voluntary

9,456 2,731

9,686 2,937

9,891 2,943

2.3% 3.7%

30

While membership growth has been positive for all but one of the institutes, this has not kept pace with growth in the number of registered architects (see Figure 14) in Australia, Cyprus, Pakistan and the UK.

25 While Hong Kong is no longer a member of the Commonwealth, the HKIA remains a member of the CAA 26 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ICPEXT/Resources/ ICP_2011.html

Note: Includes students in some cases (eg 12,643 in the case of the UK)

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.1.4 MEMBERSHIP FEES BY CATEGORY OF MEMBERSHIP (in currencies selected by the respondent) Region

Country

Chartered

Associate

Student

Affiliate

Retired

International

Fellow

Africa

Botswana (GBP) Ghana (Cedis) South Africa (Rand) Uganda (Shilling)

40.00 200.00 804.00 600,000.00

30.00 200.00 348.00 -

5.00 100.00 22,000.00

372.00 -

384.00 -

1,100,000.00

FREE 200.00 FREE 1,000,000.00

Asia

Bangladesh (GBP) Hong Kong (Dollar) Malaysia (Ringgit) Pakistan (Rupee) Sri Lanka (GBP)

15.11 2,400.00 500 21.21

10.07 2,400.00 1,500.00 13.25

3.02 100.00 FREE FREE 1.33

1,200.00 1,500.00 -

1,000.00 250 FREE -

1200.00 500 -

15.11 3,600.00 500 1,500.00 37.10

Caribbean and America

Antigua and Barbuda (Dollar) Canada (Dollar)

250.00

100.00

-

-

-

-

-

385.00

415.00

FREE

415.00

185.00

250.00

385.00

Europe

Cyprus (GBP) Malta (Euro) United Kingdom (GBP)

80.00 411.00

17.00 80.00 246.00

FREE 12.00 FREE

123.00

12.00 83.00

328.00

FREE

Pacific

Australia (GBP) New Zealand (Dollar)

640.00 406.66

640.00 216.82

53.00 FREE

216.82

151.00 82.08

320.00 293.81

604.00 406.66

Membership fees vary greatly across the Commonwealth with the Australian Institute being the most expensive in all categories. This is, however, offset by the relatively high salaries enjoyed by Australian architects (see 7.2.5). While many respondents provided responses in local currency, Botswana, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Cyprus and Australia all gave figures in GBP. 7.1.4a MEMBERSHIP FEES BY CATEGORY OF MEMBERSHIP (converted to GBP and adjusted for purchasing Power Parity26) Region

Country

Chartered

Associate

Student

Affiliate

Retired

International

Fellow

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

£40.00 £178.53 £105.14 £449.39

£30.00 £178.53 £45.51 -

£5.00 £89.27 £16.48

£48.65 -

£45.51 -

£823.89

FREE £35.92 FREE £748.99

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

£15.11 £274.34 £213.95 £21.21

£10.07 £274.34 £38.46 £13.25

£3.02 £11.43 FREE FREE £1.33

£137.17 £38.46 -

£114.31 £106.98 FREE -

£137.17 £213.95 -

£15.11 £411.52 £213.95 £38.46 £37.10

Caribbean and America

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

£90.17

£36.07

-

-

-

-

-

£193.43

£208.51

FREE

£208.51

£92.95

£125.61

£193.43

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

£89.47 £411.00

£17.00 £89.47 £246.00

FREE £13.42 FREE

£123.00

£13.42 £83.00

£198.00

FREE

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

£640.00 £170.86

£640.00 £91.10

£53.00 FREE

£91.10

£151.00 £34.49

£320.00 £123.45

£640.00 £170.86

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

31


$70,000

£700

$60,000

£600

$50,000

£500

$40,000

£400

$30,000

£300

$20,000

£200

$10,000

£100

h

U ga na da

ad es

ha na

Ba ng l

Sr i

An

Figure 12

G

La nk a

ric a Af

So ut h

Bo tsw an a

ys ia

Ba rb ud a

GNI per capita (PPP) ($int)

tig

U

ua

an d

M al a

M al ta

N

ew

Ki d nit e

Ze al an d

ng do m

an ad a C

H on g

Au str al ia

£0 Ko ng

$0

Chartered Fee (£GBP PPP)

A comparison between the membership fee of a Chartered member and GNI

This figure illustrates the cost of membership in relation to Gross National Income showing the relative affordability of membership. Clearly, those institutes which can convert a higher proportion of registered architects as members, and can charge a relatively higher membership fee, have greater resources with which to fund activity. 7.1.5 MEMBERSHIP NUMBERS BY CATEGORY OF MEMBERSHIP Region

Country

Chartered

Associate

Student

Affiliate

Retired

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

2,083 178

92 484 25

38

72 -

6 6

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

1,005 3,370 1,89127 -

1,638 34 1,100 1,035

172 10 1,100 1,073

15 11,167 -

436 179 93 60 107

8

3

-

-

-

Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda and America Canada

2,405

106

1,494

42

744

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

303 27,777

980 745

438 12,643

640

442

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

5,169 241

971 1,513

1,161 902

762 319

193 241

The larger institutes offer more categories of membership to reflect the progress of members throughout their professional careers.

27 The Malaysian Institute (PAM) refers to ‘chartered’ members as ‘corporate’ members

32

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


44,000 4,000

40,000

3,200

Number of Members

36,000

32,000 28,000

Number of Members

Fellow Affiliate Student Associate Chartered

3,600

24,000

2,800 2,400 2,000 1,600 1,200 800

20,000

400

16,000

nd

a

ta

U ga

U ga

M al

nd

a

ta M al

ha na

an iL Sr

N

So

G

ka

us yp r

ut h

C

is t

Af r ic

an

d

Pa k

Ze al

an

de sh

ew

Ba

ng

M al

la

ay sia

ng Ko on g H

12,000

a

0

8,000 4,000

Ba rb ud a

An

tig

U

ua

an d

Bo tsw an a

U

ga nd a

al ta M

ha na G

Sr i

La nk a

s C

yp ru

a ric Af h So ut

N

ew

Pa kis

ta n

Ze al an d

h Ba ng

al a

la de s

ys ia

Ko ng H

M

C

on g

an ad a

str al ia

nit ed

Ki

Au

ng

do m

0

Figure 13 Total number of members by membership category

45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0

Total number of members compared with total number of registered architects

da

an

d

Ba r

bu

a tsw an Bo tig ua

U

ga

nd

a

al ta M

na G

ha

s ru yp C

Sr

iL

an

ka

n ist a Pa k

h

Af

ric

a

d ut So

N

ew

Ze al an

sh de la

Ba

ng

ay sia M

Ko g on H

al

ng

a ad C an

str al ia Au

Figure 14

An

U

nit

ed

Ki

ng do

m

0

Registered Architects 2016

The chart illustrates the way in which some institutes are maximising their membership by retaining/attracting graduates, affiliates, students, retirees and overseas members.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

Total Members 2016

33


7.1.6 MEMBERSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS Region

Country

UIA

CAA

ACE

UMAR

ARCASIA

SAARCH

AUA

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y

N N N N

N N N N

N N N N

N N N N

N Y Y Y

None None ICOMOS, DoCoMoMo None

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y N Y Y

N N N N N

N N N N N

Y Y Y Y Y

Y N N Y Y

N N N N N

None None None None None

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

N

None

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

None

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Y Y Y

Y Y Y

Y Y Y

Y Y N

N N N

N N N

N N N

None EFAP, ECCE None

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Y Y

N N

N N

Y N

N N

N N

None None

Pacific

Other

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS UIA CAA ACE UMAR ARCASIA SAARCH

: International Union of Architects : Commonwelath Association of Architects : Architects Council of Europe : Union of Mediterranean Architects : Architects Registration Council of Asia : South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation of Architects

AUA ICOMOS EFAP ECCE DoCoMoMo

: African Union of Architects : International Council on Monuments and sites : European Forum for Architectural Policies : European Council of Civil Engineers : International Committee for Documentation and Conservation of buildings, sites and neighbourhoods of the Modern Movement

7.1.7 MEMBERSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS Region

Country

Organised Student Design Competitions

Frequency (per year)

Satisfactory response

Reason

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N N N Y

n/a n/a n/a 1

n/a n/a n/a Y

n/a n/a n/a n/a

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Hong Kong Malaysia

N N N Y

n/a n/a 10-15 n/a

n/a n/a n/a N

Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y

4 1

Y -

n/a n/a n/a 1. Insufficient number of participants n/a 2. Always the same students participate 3. Insufficient support from the faculty and lecturers -

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

N

n/a

n/a

n/a

N

n/a

n/a

n/a

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Y N Y

1 n/a 4

Y n/a -

n/a -

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

2 -

N Y

Low Participation -

This table shows the way in which student competitions are being used to stimulate engagement with younger members of the profession. The RIBA’s annual ‘Presidents Medal’ dates back to 1836 and attracts entries from around the world. In 2017 the CAA co-hosted a student charrette with the RIBA on the theme of the Sustainable Development Goals and the new Urban Agenda. The charrette included students from 11 nations of the Commonwealth

34

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

35


7.2 THE PROFESSION

7.2.1 REGULATION OF THE PROFESSION Region

Country

Regulation Law

Regulator

Mutual Recognition Agreements

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa

Architect’s Registration Council Architects Registration Council The South African Council for the Architectural Profession (SACAP) Architects Registration Board

None None None

Uganda

Act of Parliament Architect Act 1969 (N.L.C.D 357) The Act for the Architectural Profession Act 44 of 2000 Architects Registration Act, Cap 269

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia

Dhaka Imarat Nirman Bidhimala Architects Registration Ordinance Architects Act 1967

Rajuk & CDA Architects Registration Board, HKSAR The Board of Architects Malaysia

Pakistan

PCATP Ordinance IX of 1983

Sri Lanka

Amended Act of Parliament 1976

Asia

None

None None ASEAN Architect MRA, signatory to APEC Architect Project Pakistan Council of Architects and Town None Planners (PCATP) Extraordinary Government Gazette None notification of Regulation of SLIA

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America

Antigua & Barbuda Architects

Ministry of Legal Affairs

Registration Act Individual acts and regulations of each province or territory

See individual act by province or territory USA, Mexico, Australia and New Zealand (APEC)

Europe

Technical Chamber of Cyprus (ETEK) Periti Warranting Board

EU EU

United Kingdom

Law 224/1990 Periti Act - Chapter. 390 of the Laws of Malta Architects Act 1997

Architects Registration Board (ARB)

EU,EEA

Australia New Zealand

Architects Act Registered Architects Act 2005

Architects Registration Board New Zealand Registered Architects Board

PAM, SIA, NZIA, RAIC, AIA Australia, APEC, USA

Pacific

Cyprus Malta

EU

In recent years, Botswana and Fiji have both reviewed their registration acts. The CAA has drawn upon the experience of its member organisations to provide advice thereby helping to share best practice.

7.2.2 REGULATION GOVERNING SUPPLANTING AND ADVERTISING Region

Country

Reg against Supplanting?

Is supplanting a problem?

Is advertising allowed?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y N Y

Y N Y

Y N

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

‘Silent’ Y Y -

N Y Y -

‘Silent’ Y N -

Y

Y

N

Y

N

Y

Y Y

N Y

N Y

Y Y

N N

Y -

Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda and Canada America Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Pacific Australia New Zealand

When the matter of supplanting was raised in the CAA’s survey of 198528 Australia reported that this issue gave rise to the greatest number of complaints, but this has since become the subject of regulation and is now less problematic. Interestingly, however, it appears to remain a problem in several other countries despite the regulations prohibiting it.

28 The last known survey was undertaken in 1985 by Alan Wild from the School of Architecture in Auckland, New Zealand.

36

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.2.3 NUMBER OF REGISTERED ARCHITECTS AND GRADUATES IN EACH COUNTRY Region

Country

Registered Architects (2014)

Registered Architects (2015)

Registered Architects (2015)

Annual Growth Rate (%)

Registered Architects per 1000 population

Architects29

Africa

Graduate

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

389 3,349 167

433 N 174

10.9% 5.9% 3.2%

0.042 0.017 0.067 0.004

484 623 51

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

3,072 4,759 1,008

3,262 5,150 1,078

96 484 3,772 17830 3,089 3,367 2,05931 3,367 1,155

4.6% 4.6% 8.4% 6.8%

0.019 0.458 0.458 0.029 0.054

160

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

23

23

24

2.1%

0.235

20

-

-

9,626

-

0.263

3,616

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

1,700 830 35,157

1,845 874 36,678

2,111 958 38,258

10.8% 7.2% 4.2%

1.789 2.182 0.580

200 51 900

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

11,090 -

13,000 -

13,000 1,846

7.9% -

0.532 0.390

1,300 574

Note: With regard to the number of registered architects shown for Malta and Cyprus it should be noted that the numbers for Malta include those of Warrant holders as a ‘Perit’, which is a combined profession for Architects and Civil Engineers. Holders of the Warrant graduate from the University as Architects and Civil Engineers. The law is in the process of revision and Warrant holders will, in future, be classified as ‘Perit (Architect)’ and ‘Perit (Civil Engineer)’. Both Warrant holders can undertake work as an architect or as a civil engineer and it will be up to the individual to regulate in which area they practice so long as he is professional competent in that area. In Cyprus, the numbers include both architects and civil engineers. It is understood that most of the architects in Uganda (population circa 40m and urbanising at over 4% per annum) operate from the capital, Kampala.

29 A graduate is defined as anyone who has passed a bachelor or master’s degree in architecture but has not yet sat their professional practice exam. 30 Uganda notes there are many unregistered and unregulated persons practicing and doing the work of an architect, which results in sub-standard work. So, yes, Uganda has 178 practicing architects, but there are another undocumented diploma holders, graduates, etc delivering work. 31 Obtained from Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM), the Board of Architects Malaysia. 2018 figures.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

37


1.789

Cyprus

0.580

United Kingdom Australia

0.532 0.458

Hong Kong

0.390

New Zealand Canada

0.263

Antigua and Barbuda

0.235

South Africa

0.067

Malaysia

0.062

Sri Lanka

0.054

Botswana

0.042

Pakistan

0.029

Bangladesh

0.019

Ghana

0.017

Uganda

Africa Asia Caribbean and America Europe Oceania (Pacific)

2.182

Malta

0.004

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

Registered Architects per 1000 population

Figure 15 Ratio of Architects per 1,000 population

Setting aside the anomalies created by the combination of architects and engineers in Cyprus and Malta (see note accompanying 7.2.3), these ratios evidence the critical lack of capacity in a number of Commonwealth countries which are rapidly urbanising and are among the most vulnerable. 12%

Registered Architects Annual Growth Rate (%)

10.9%

10.8%

10%

8.4%

8%

7.9% 7.2%

6.8%

6%

5.9%

4.6%

4.2%

4%

3.2%

2%

2.1%

a ud Ba d an

ua tig

nit

rb

nd ga U

Ki

a

m

Ko g on

h ut

ng do

ng

a H

ed

An

Annual growth in the number of registered architects

U

Figure 16

So

Sr

iL

an

Af ric

ka

ta al M

Au

str al

ia

n Pa k

ist a

s ru yp C

G

ha

na

0%

While all respondents report growth in the number of registered architects, it should be noted that the rates of growth are insufficient to achieve the sort of ratio’s (ie: architects/1,000 head of population) to be found OECD countries and other measures will be required. A recent survey by the Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP) suggests that similar issues affect the planning profession in a number of Commonwealth countries.

38

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


40,000

2014 2015 2016

38,000 36,000 34,000 32,000

Number of Registered Architects

30,000 28,000 26,000 24,000 22,000 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000

6,000 4,000 2,000

Ba rb ud a d

ua An

tig

U

nit

N

an

Bo tsw an a

U ga nd a

ha na G

M al ta

La nk a Sr i

Ze al an d

ys ia

ew

C

M al a

yp ru s

h ad es

Ba ng l

Ko ng H

So

ut h

on g

Af

ric a

an Pa kis t

an ad a C

Au str al ia

ed

Ki

ng do m

0

Figure 17 Number of registered architects, 2014-2016

12

Total Members Registered Architects

11 10 9

Annual Growth Rate (%)

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ay sia al M

Ki ng do m

U ga nd a

La nk a Sr i

Af ric a

So ut h

ew N

Pa kis ta n

Ze al an d

ta al M

Ko ng

H on g

G ha na

C yp ru s

C an ad a

Bo tsw an a

Ba ng la de sh

Au str al ia

Figure 18

U nit ed

An tig ua

an d

-1

Ba rb ud a

0

Comparison between the growth rate of membership and registered architects (%)

Institutes which fail to convert registered architects as members are progressively losing market share and will need to work harder to demonstrate the value of membership.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

39


44

Cyprus

41

Sri Lanka Malta Canada

36

64

35

65

33

67

Hong Kong

32

68

26

74

Australia

23

77

New Zealand

22

78

South Africa

21

79

Antigua and Barbuda

20

80

Uganda

19

81

Malaysia

19

81

7

Botswana

0%

Female

59

Pakistan

United Kingdom

Male

56

93 10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Figure 19 Ratio of female to male architects 32 In 2015, Nottingham University reports the ratio of female to male first year students as being 69! 33 http://www.ace-cae.eu/fileadmin/New_Upload/7._ Publications/Sector_Study/2016/2016_EN_FN_070217_ new.pdf 34 http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-stratigakosmissing-women-architects-20160421-story.html

The issue of gender balance has been a subject of considerable interest in recent years with a continuing trend of more women leaving the profession than men over their lifetime even though the number of women studying architecture has increased in many places32. It is noted that the ratios for the UK and Australia are relatively low and may be accounted for by the relatively high cost of childcare and reduced family support. It is interesting to compare these figures with similar surveys undertaken in Europe33 and the US34 where the female ratios are 38% and 18% respectively.

7.2.4 LEGAL FORMS OF ASSOCIATION PERMITTED IN EACH COUNTRY Region

Country

Partnership Architectural Practices Allowed

Limited Liability Companies Allowed

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa

Y Y

N Y

Uganda

Y

Y

No response Sole Practitioners Sole Practitioner, Close Corporation, Incorporated Company, Business Trust -

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y

Sole Practitioners Sole Practitioners Sole Practitioners Sole Practitioners Sole Practitioners

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America

Y

Y

Sole Practitioners

Y

Y

Sole Practitioners, Partnership of Corporations, Joint venture Partnerships

Europe

Cyprus Malta

Y Y

Y N

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Sole Practitioners A limited liability company can offer architect.ural services provided the professional is identified Sole Practitioner, PLC, LLP, LC

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Y Y

Sole Practitioners Sole Practitioners, Joint Venture, Alliance

Asia

Pacific

40

Other forms

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Other Employment Central Government or Public Agencies Private Salaried Architects Private Partners or Directors

100 90 80 70

%

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Antigua and Barbuda

Australia

Malta

New Zealand

Sri Lanka

United Kingdom

Figure 20 Fields of employment

Only a handful of respondents were able to answer this question and the wide variety of responses received suggests that this data should be treated with caution. 100

Not Working (Other Reasoons) Unemployment Part-Time Full-Time

90 80 70

%

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Sri Lanka

Figure 21

Malta

Australia

United Kingdom

Antigua and Barbuda

Employment Status

Only a handful of respondents were able to answer this question and the wide variety of responses received suggests that this data should be treated with caution.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

41


7.2.5 AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARIES (in currencies selected by the respondent) Region

Country

Sole Practitioners

Architects in Partnership

Principals in Partnership

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda (Shilling)

Asia

Private Practice Architects in Architects in Central Salaried Local Authorities Government

Ush 54,000,000

Ush 72,000,000

Ush 108,000,000

Ush 36,000,000

Ush 72,000,000

Ush 72,000,000

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan (GBP) Sri Lanka

£20,000 -

£40,000 -

£65,000 -

£10,000 -

£6,000 -

£6,000 -

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda (Dollar) Canada

$72,355

$72,355

$125,898

$23,153

$24,311

$23,443

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cyprus Malta (Euro) United Kingdom(GBP)

€25,000 £36,651

€57,500 -

€57,500 £55,500

€21,300 £40,000

€28,950 £42,000

€28,950 £56,500

Pacific

Australia (GBP) New Zealand (Dollar)

-

£49,000 $101,000

£101,000 $120,000

£46,000 $82,000

$70,000

$82,000

Note: Ghana, Botswana, South Africa, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Canada and Cyprus did not provide any data.

While many respondents provided responses in local currency, Australia and Pakistan both gave figures in GBP.

7.2.5a AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARIES (converted to GBP and adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity35) Region

Country

Sole Practitioners

Architects in Partnership

Principles in Partnership

Africa

Private Practice Architects in Architects in Central Salaried Local Authorities Government

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

£40,425

£53,900

£80,850

£26,950

£53,900

£53,900

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

£20,000 -

£40,000 -

£65,000 -

£10,000 -

£6,000 -

£6,000 -

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

£26,083

£26,083

£45,384

£8,346

£8,764

£8,451

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

£27,957 £36,651

£64,301 -

£64,301 £55,500

£23,819 £40,000

£32,374 £42,000

£32,374 £56,500

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

-

£49,000 £42,412

£101,000 £50,390

£46,000 £34,433

£29,394

£34,433

Note: Ghana, Botswana, South Africa, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Canada and Cyprus did not provide any data.

35 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ICPEXT/Resources/ICP_2011.html

42

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


£120,000

Uganda Pakistan Antigua and Barbuda Malta United Kingdom Australia New Zealand

£100,000

£80,000

£60,000

£40,000

£20,000

£0 Sole Practitioners

Architects in Partnership

Principles in Partnership

Private Practice Salaried

Architects in Local Authorities

Architects in Central Government

Figure 22 Annual salaries for different grades adjusted for purchasing power parity

7.2.6 LICENSING REQUIREMENTS Region

Country

Practicing licence required?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y Y Y Y

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Caribbean and America Europe

Pacific

Registration body

Graduate training required

Period of training (years)

Architects Registration Council (ARC) Architects Registration Council South African Council for the Architectural Profession (SACAP) The Regulatory body, Architects Registration Board

Y Y Y Y

2 2 2

Y Y Y Y Y

Institute of Architects Bangladesh Architects Registration Board The Board of Architects Malaysia Pakistan Council of architects and Town Planners (PCATP) Architects Registration Board (ARB)

Y Y Y Y Y

2

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

N

Antigua & Barbuda Architects Registration Board

Y

-

Y

Provincially self-regulating professional associations

Y

2

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Y Y Y

Technical Chamber of Cyprus (ETEK) The Minister on the recommendation of the Warranting Board Architects Registration Board (ARB)

Y Y Y

1 1 2

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Registration Boards in each territory/state New Zealand Registration Architects Board (NZRAB)

Y Y

3,300 hours experience 2-3

It is interesting to note the Institute of Architects Bangladesh also serves as the registration body. In all other cases, the registration authority is a separate entity from the membership body.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

43


7.2.7 BUILDING PERMIT REQUIREMENTS Region

Country

Architect required for construction work?

Building permits required for construction work?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N N N Y

Y Y Y -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

N N N Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America

N

Y

Varies; based on occupancy type and size

Y

Y Y N

Y Y Y

Architect or Registered Building Practitioner N

Y

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

While the title ‘architect’ is protected and a building permit is required in the majority of countries, it is noted that an architect is only required for construction projects in a minority of countries. Anecdotal evidence suggests that enforcement of building code is weak in a number of countries and this may be partly due to the fact that, in most Commonwealth countries, there is no requirement for a qualified professional to prepare the building permit application or undertake routine site inspections.

N

7.2.8 USE OF MANDATORY FEE SCALES Region

Country

Recommended Schedule of Fees for Architect Services

Obligation to Respect this Schedule

Africa

Schedule Issuing Authority

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y Y Y Y

Y Y N Y

ARC Ministry of Works and Housing SACAP -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y N Y Y Y

N n/a Y N N

IAB n/a The Board of Architects Malaysia PCATP -

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Y

N

ABIA

Y

N

RAIC

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

N Y N

n/a N n/a

n/a Code of Organisation and Civil Procedure n/a

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

N N

n/a n/a

n/a n/a

While many countries still appear to be operating recommended fee scales, it is noted that only Botswana, Ghana and Uganda are obliged to use them. The use of recommended fee scales was banned in Australia and the UK in the 1980’s as they were deemed as being anti-competitive.

44

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.2.9 TYPE OF FEE AGREEMENTS PERMITTED Region

Country

Percentage of Contract Value

Lump Sump

Hourly Charge

No Charge Agreed (‘At Risk’)

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y Y -

Y Y -

Y Y -

Y -

Bangladesh Hong Kong

Y Y

Y Y

N Y

N N

Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y

Y Y

N N

Y N

Floor Area Basis GMP, New Engineering Contract (NEC), similar forms with conditions to allow adjustment of fee Floor Area Basis

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Y

Y

Y

N

Upset limit, combination

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Y Y Y

Y Y Y

Y Y Y

N N N

Fee Tender for Government Projects -

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Y Y

Y Y

N -

Asia

Other Methods

Negotiated price -

-

7.2.10 PROFESSIONAL INDEMNITY INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS Region

Country

Mandatory Professional Indemnity Insurance Period of Liability and Regulation

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y N N -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

N Required on project and client basis N N N

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

N (but encouraged) Y

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

N N Y

15 years, regulated in the Civil Codes of the Laws of Malta 6 years for ordinary contracts, 12 years for secured contracts

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y N

Regulated by State based legislation. The period of liability varies 7 - 10 years

ARC in process of generating standard requirements 5 years Determined by services agreement and civil law Varies by province

Professional indemnity insurance is intended to protect all parties in the event of failure yet is only required by 27% of respondents. It is understood that Ghana and Malta are in the process of implementation a programme of mandatory insurance. It should be noted that both the RIBA (UK) and RAIA (Australia) offer insurance products to their members thereby creating both a benefit for members and an income stream for the institute.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

45


7.3 EDUCATION AND TRAINING

7.3.1 NUMBER AND TYPES OF SCHOOLS OF ARCHITECTURE Region

Country

Total Schools

Schools/m population

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

1 2 £42.79 9 4

0.44 0.07 0.16 0.10

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

30 6 24 33 2

0.18 £236.17 0.82 £236.17 0.76 0.17 0.09

0

0.00

12

0.33

4 1 46

3.42 2.29 0.70

18 3

0.75 0.64

Caribbean Antigua and and America Barbuda Canada Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Pacific Australia New Zealand

While no benchmarks exist regarding the number of schools of architecture per head of population, it will be noted that the average for developed economies such as the Australia, Hong Kong and Australia is around 0.70 schools per million head of population. It is interesting to compare this with figures from other, especially those from countries which are rapidly urbanising as this highlights the urgent need to find alternative means by which to accelerate capacity development. While not captured by the survey responses, it is known that issues also exist regarding the lack of consistency of education standards among certain Commonwealth countries. The CAA helps to support education standards by means of its of its validation process36.

36 http://www.comarchitect.org/schools/

United Kingdom

46 33

Pakistan

30

Bangladesh

24

Malaysia

18

Australia

12

Canada

9

South Africa

6

Hong Kong Uganda

4

Cyprus

4 3

New Zealand Sri Lanka

2

Ghana

2

Botswana 1 Malta 1 Antigua and Barbuda

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Figure 23 Number of architecture schools

46

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


50 United Kingdom

45

Total Schools of Architecture

40 35 Pakistan Bangladesh

30 25

Malaysia

20 Australia

15 Canada

10 5

South Africa Hong Kong

Cyprus Sri Lanka New Zealand Malta Botswana 0 Antigua 0 20 and Barbuda

Uganda Ghana

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Population (Millions)

Figure 24 Total number of schools of architecture v population (trend line represents the average number of schools/million population for OECD countries, ie Australia, Canada, New Zealand and UK).

Countries to the left of trend have more schools than average. Countries to the right have fewer schools than average.

7.3.2 RECIPROCAL EDUCATION AGREEMENTS Region

Country

International Reciprocal Countries with Reciprocal Agreements Education Agreements

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N Y Y N

n/a £40.00 Michigan State University, internships n/a

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

N Y N N N

n/a £15.11 Australia, New Zealand, China PRC n/a n/a n/a

Y

CARICOM Countries

N

n/a

N N Y

n/a n/a ERASMUS; SOCRATES; LEONARDO programmes, typically with EU countries

Y Y

New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore Varies across schools

Caribbean Antigua and and America Barbuda Canada Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

Over 50% of respondent’s report having no reciprocal arrangements with other countries thereby limiting opportunities for students to gain broader experience in an increasingly globalised profession. While students can of course apply independently to study overseas, the cost of tuition is often prohibitively expensive and can only be afforded by the wealthy.

47


7.3.3 NATIONAL VALIDATION AUTHORITY Region

Country

Validation Authority

Africa

Botswana Ghana

No current validation authority National Accreditation Board (NAB) and Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) The South African Council for the Architectural Profession (SACAP) and the CAA National Council of Higher Education and CAA

South Africa Uganda Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan

Sri Lanka Caribbean Antigua and and America Barbuda Canada Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Pacific

Australia New Zealand

It is noted that Botswana does not currently have a validation body. Antigua and Barbuda did not provide a response to this question.

Institute of Architects Bangladesh (IAB) The Hong Kong Institute of Architects and Architects Registration Board Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM), the Board of Architects Malaysia Higher Education Commission (HEC) and the Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners (PCATP) Sri Lanka Institute of Architects (SLIA) Canadian Architectural Certification Board Ministry of Education and Culture Assessed by external examiner, institution, and at national level Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Australian Institute of Architects ((R)AIA); Architects Accreditation Council of Australia Australia and New Zealand Architecture Programme Accreditation

7.3.4 CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS Region

Country

Mandatory Hours Required (per CPD Regulator CPD year)

Consequences of not meeting Minimum Requirements

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y N Y Y

20 -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia

Y Y Y

Pakistan Sri Lanka

N N

25 10 points: professionals 5 points: graduates -

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America

N

-

Y

Varies by province

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

N N Y

35

Soon to be Kamra tal-Periti ARB and RIBA

Pacific

Australia

Y

20

New Zealand

Y

1000 points every 5 years

Relevant State/Territory Board In breach of Code of Professional Conduct of Architects New Zealand Registered Extension of time; review (face to face); Suspension Architects Board

ARC No issuance of Practice Licence SACAP Given time to rectify, thereafter deregistration Architects Registration Board The individual does not get to practice the next year IAB HKIA LAM: the Board of Architects Malaysia -

Membership will be terminated Unable to register and obtain licence -

Provincial associations

Possible finding of professional misconduct and suspension of license Warnings and suspension

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is important if architects are to keep abreast of current practice in terms of design, technology contract law etc. yet only 60% of respondents consider CPD to be a mandatory requirement and this may be due in part to the ability of the Institute to deliver a CPD programme. It is noted that Malta is in the process of developing its mandatory CPD requirements. 48

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.4 THE MARKET

7.4.1 CONSTRUCTION MARKET SIZE (converted to GBP and adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity37) Region

Country

Africa

Botswana Ghana

£1,078 -

£1,185 -

10.0% -

South Africa Uganda

£13,960 -

£13,398 -

-4.03% -

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

£6,873 £7,371 £13,398

£8,092 -

9.78% -

-

-

-

£18,569

£18,801

1.25%

£1,089 £150,259 £84,659 -

£1,198 £153,565

9.96% 2.20%

-

-

Asia

Current Size of Construction Market (GBP million, PPP)

Caribbean Antigua and and America Barbuda Canada Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Pacific Australia New Zealand

Forecast Size of Construction Market (GBP million, PPP)

With the exception of South Africa, most regions are predicting a positive outlook and are forecasting an increase in construction activity. The UK predicts only modest growth and is likely to be subject to uncertainties surrounding Brexit for some time.

Forecast Growth (%)

37 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ICPEXT/Resources/ ICP_2011.html

Note: The above figures were supplied by respondents in a variety of different currencies and from a variety of different sources. They have all been expressed in GBP and factored for purchasing power parity for comparison purposes.

It is interesting to note the relative size of the Australian market bearing in mind the fact that its population is less than half that of the UK.

Botswana

Botswana

South Africa South Africa

Honk Kong Pakistan

Honk Kong

Sri Lanka Pakistan

Canada

£2

0,

00

0

0 00

0 00

8, £1

0 00

6, £1

0

4,

00

£1

£1

Canada

2,

00

0

0

0,

,0 0

0

£1

£8

0

,0 0 £6

,0 0 £4

,0 0 £2

£0

0

Malta

Sri Lanka

Malta

United Kingdom Current Size PPP (GBP million) Forcast Size PPP (GBP million)

Australia

£0

£20,000

£40,000

£60,000

£80,000

£100,000

£120,000

£140,000

£160,000

Figure 25 Current and forecast construction market size

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

49


7.4.2 CHANGE IN THE MARKET FOR ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES Region

Country

Change in demand for architectural services from previous year

Change in demand for architectural services from previous 5 Years

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Increase Increase -

Increase Increase -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Increase Increase Increase

Increase Increase Increase

-

-

-

-

Increase No Change No Change

Increase Increase Increase

No Change Increase

Increase Increase

Caribbean Antigua and and America Barbuda Canada Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Pacific

Australia New Zealand

The majority of respondents appear to indicate a recovery from the global financial crisis of 2008, but with Australia, Malta and the UK indicating a somewhat stagnant market over the past 12 months.

7.4.3 RECENT EVENTS AFFECTING THE LOCAL MARKET FOR ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES Region

Country

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa

Y Y

Uganda

-

Bangladesh Hong Kong

Y Y

Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka Caribbean Antigua and and America Barbuda Canada Europe Cyprus Malta

Y Y

A slow-down in the real estate market The government undertook to consider and implement a number of positive measures after 1st July 2017 China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) n/a Downturn in economy; global financial crisis

N

n/a

Y Y

The bail-out of the two major Banks and the economy Government policies favouring increasing foreign highincome residents and liberalised planning policies which boost demand for residential accommodation and offices Brexit

Asia

Pacific

50

Impacted?

United Kingdom

Y

Australia

Y

New Zealand

Y

Event World recession has slowed expenditure Overall growth in SA economy stalled over past 2-3 years due to instability and political and policy uncertainty ‘Not known’

The responses to this question reveal the impact of a range of external influences on the market for architectural services, ranging from extreme weather events to political uncertainty and the global financial crisis. It is interesting to note the response from Pakistan regarding the influence of China’s ‘One belt, one road’ initiative as this is likely to affect a number of other countries.

Banks changing lending criteria for foreign investors; recent federal/state government changes to address housing affordability; improved investment in commercial building and housing markets Earthquakes, Flooding, Storm events, Heavy housing shortage

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.5 ARCHITECTURE AND GOVERNMENT CONTEXT

7.5.1 GOVERNMENT ENGAGEMENT WITH THE PROFESSION Region

Country

Government Ministry responsible for architecture

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Ministry of Infrastructure and Housing Ministry of Works and Housing The Department of Public Works Ministry of Works and Transport

Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y

Y N Y Y

N N N N

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Ministry of Housing and Public Works Development Bureau, HKSAR Ministry of Works Malaysia Ministry of Housing and Works Ministry of Housing and Construction

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y N Y N

N N N N Y

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America

Ministry of Legal Affairs

N

N

Y

N

Profession is regulated by each provincial legislature; generally regulated by Attorney General of each province

Y

Y

N

N

Europe

Y

Y

Y

N

Malta United Kingdom

Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of Transport, Communications, and Works Ministry for Transport and Infrastructure DCLG; DBEIS; DCMS

Y Y

Y Y

N N

N N

Australia New Zealand

Minister for Cities Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

Y Y

Y Y

Y N

Y N

Pacific

Cyprus

Does government Does the Government/ Government/ consult the institute advise Chief Chief profession on the government Architect? Resilience architectural on architectural Officer? matters? matters?

Responses to this question appear to suggest a reasonable level of engagement between member institutes and their host governments yet only 56% report there being a Government Architect and only 13% report there being a Chief Resilience Officer. 7.5.2 PUBLIC SECTOR PROCUREMENT Region

Country

Direct invitation

Fee tender

Design competition

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y Y Y N

Y N Y Y

N Y Y -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Rarely Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y

Y

Y

N

Caribbean Antigua and and America Barbuda Canada Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Pacific Australia New Zealand

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

Y

Y

Rarely

N Y Y

Y Y Y

Y Y Y

Y Y

Y Y

Y Y

Anecdotal evidence suggests that public sector procurement in many parts of the Commonwealth is still based on lowest cost rather than best value and that small to medium sized enterprises (SME’s) often struggle to complete for public sector projects.

51


7.5.3 PUBLIC SECTOR DESIGN COMPETITIONS Region

Country

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa

N Y Y

GIA SAIA

Y Y

Y Y

Uganda

N

-

-

-

Bangladesh

Y

-

Y

Y

Hong Kong

Y

N

Y

Malaysia Pakistan

N Y

No single recognised body but government and public organisations do sometimes hold competitions. PCATP

Y

Y

Sri Lanka

Y

None

Y

Y

Money and 1st Prize is Project Commission HKIA pursues full design and supervision of the project. For ideas competitions, only monetary prizes are available. Cash prize and design and supervision of project Money and/or Project Commission

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

N

-

-

-

-

Rarely

Asia

Caribbean and America Europe

Pacific

Design Recognised Organising Body competition

Competition Participation Fee

Always Type of Prize a Prize Awarded Money Money and full design and supervision of the project -

-

-

-

Cyprus Malta

Y Y

None None

N N

Y N

United Kingdom

Y

RIBA

N

Y

Money and/or Project Commission Money and Project Design Commission and Supervision Dependent on Work and Negotiations

-

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Australian Institute of Architects Yes

N Y

Y N

Money and/or Project Commission -

7.5.4 PLANNING LEGISLATION Region

Country

Mandatory CPD

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Act of Parliament, Development Control Code Land use and Spatial Planning Act (Act 952) National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act; Act 103 Ministry of Lands, Housing & Urban Development - Physical Planning Act of Parliament

2013 2016 1997 2010

N Y Y Y

N N Y N

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong

B.C. Act Town Planning Ordinance (The Laws of Hong Kong, Chapter 131) and associated Regulations Town and Country Planning Act 1976 After the 18th Amendment (Devolution of powers) planning has become a provincial subject. Presently the Punjab Government has enacted the planning legislation Town and Country Planning Ordinance; Housing and Town Improvement Ordinance; Urban Development Authority Act Antigua & Barbuda Parliament; AN ACT

1952 2007

Y Y

Y Y

1976 2014

Y

Y

1978

Y

Y

1977

Y

N

Information not available UK Planning Legislation Building Permits Act 1998; Structure Plan 1990; Development Planning Act 2016 National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF)

n/a 1976 2016 2012

n/a N N Y

n/a N N N

Planning legislation at local council, regional, to state to national level. Resource Management Act

Varies 1991

Y N

Y N

Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

52

Legislation Fit for Implemented Date purpose? effectively?

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.5.5 BUILDING CODE Region

Country

Origin of legislation

Legislation date

Fit for purpose?

Implemented effectively?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Building Control Code no data SA National Standards 10400 Under development by the Ministry of Works and Transport

1982 2008 -

N Y Y -

N N Y -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

B.C. Act Buildings Ordinance no data Pakistan Building Codes -

1952 2017 1984 2007 -

Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y N -

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America

OECS Building Code

1977

Y

N

Varies based on jurisdiction

-

-

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Colonial Legislation Code of Police Laws; Regulation Act 2011 Building Regulations

1959 2011 1984

N Y Y

N N Y

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

National Construction Code New Zealand Building Act

2016 2004

Y N

Y N

National Building Code, Provincial Building Codes and Municipal Building Codes

30% of respondents do not consider their planning legislation to be fit for purpose and nearly 60% do not consider it is being implemented effectively. Similarly, it is concerning that over 20% of respondents do not consider their building code to be fit for purpose and over 50% do not consider it is being implemented effectively.

7.5.6 HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION Region

Country

Effective H&S standards developed?

Standards adequately implemented?

On-site H&S officers required?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Y Y Y Y

N N Y N

Y N Y -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

N Y N Y

N N N N

N Y N N

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

N

-

N

Falls under provincial jurisdiction

-

Y

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Y Y Y

Y N Y

Y Y Y

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Y -

In some cases Y

20% of respondents confirm the lack of effective health and safety legislation while over 50% confirm that legislation either doesn’t exist or is not being implemented effectively.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

53


7.5.7 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Region

Country

Has the government set SDG Targets?

Is there an effective SDG implementation plan?

Is there a body responsible for SDG delivery?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N N Y N

N N Y -

N N -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y Y

Y Y N

Y N Y

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

N Y N

N N

N Y

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

N N

N -

N -

The Sustainable Development Goals were agreed upon at the United Nations by 193 countries in September 2015 and comprise a series of voluntary commitments to help end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for everyone. It is disappointing, therefore, to discover that over 40% of respondents have not set national targets, almost 70% lack an effective implementation plan and over 80% have yet to designate a body with responsibility for delivery. 7.5.8 RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICIES Region

Country

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N N Y N

No data Neutral Agree Mildly Agree

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong

N Y

Agree

Malaysia

Y

Agree

Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y

Agree -

Y

Agree

Being Developed

Y

Agree

National Building Code, National Energy Code for Buildings, provincial building codes, ASHRAE 90.1

Y Significant progress made Y

Mildly Agree Agree Mildly Agree

European Union Regulations No obligation for Energy Performance Certificate Building Regulations, Part L

N38 N

Agree No data

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Effective renewable The architectural profession is Energy efficiency regulations energy policies developed? conversant with the principles of energy efficient design? Under Development None SANS 204, SANS 10400-XA None Cap. 610 Buildings Energy Efficiency Ordinance/Cap. 123M Building (Energy Efficiency) Regulation / OTTV under Buildings Ordinance Malaysian Standard MS1525 Energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential buildings. Code of practice Pakistan Energy Code 2010 Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority Act, No. 35 (2007)

National Construction Code Nil

40% of respondents report that their governments have not developed renewable energy or energy efficiency policies while just over 45% claim that the architectural profession in their country is conversant with energy efficient design. The zero-energy buildings (ZEB) concept regards buildings whose net energy consumption is roughly equal to renewable energy generated or elsewhere39. With the European Parliament Energy Performance of Buildings Directive40 requiring all new buildings to be nearly zero-energy by the end of 2020 (public buildings by 2018) and Canada putting in place some highly visible initiatives such as the ecoENERGY Innovation Initiative launched by Prime Minister Harper in 201341. 38 Australia notes that while there has been a considerable amount of discussion about the subject of renewable energy, clearly defined policies remain an ongoing subject of national political debate 39 A Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings� US Department of Energy, September 2015. http://energy.http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/;ELX_SESSI ONID=FZMjThLLzfxmmMCQGp2Y1s2d3TjwtD8QS3pqd khXZbwqGwlgY9K N!2064651424?uri=CELEX: 40 32010L0031 41 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-energy_building #Canada

54

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.5.9 OTHER GOVERNMENT POLICIES Region

Country

Inclusive Design Standards

Anti-Bribery and Corruption Legislation

Sustainable Design and Construction Standards

National Construction Strategy

National BIM Strategy

Smart Cities Strategy

Africa

Asia

City Disaster Resilience Management Strategy Plans

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N Y N

Y N Y N

N Y N

Y Y N

N N N N

N N N

N Y N

N Y N

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

N Y Y N N

Y Y Y Y Y

N Y Y N

N Y N N

N Y N N

N Y Y Y

N Y Y N

N Y Y Y

Caribbean Antigua and and Barbuda Canada America

N

Y

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Under provincial jurisdiction

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

Y

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

N N Y

N Y Y

N N N

N N Y

N N Y

N N Y

N N N

Y Y Y

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y N

Y Y

Y -

Y N

N N

N N

N Y

Y Y

While 80% of respondents report that their governments have established Anti-Bribery and Corruption Legislation, 67% of respondents report that their governments have yet to develop Inclusive Design Standards, Sustainable Design and Construction Standards, a National Construction Strategy or a Smart Cities Strategy. 73% of respondents report that their governments have developed Disaster Management Plans while an equivalent number report that their governments have not developed a City Resilience Strategy. Only 13% of respondents report that their governments have developed a National BIM Strategy.

7.5.10 COP21 CLIMATE CHANGE LEGISLATION Region

Country

Developed COP21 targets?

Effective COP21 implementation plan?

Body responsible for COP21 delivery?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N N Y N

N N Y -

N N N -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y N

Y Y -

N N -

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Y

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

N Y Y

N N

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y Y

Y N42 Y N

N -

Despite all Commonwealth countries having signed, if not ratified, the Paris Climate Change Agreement43 only a third of respondents report that their governments have developed targets while only 40% report their governments having developed an effective implementation plan and only one country (Canada) reporting having assigned a body with responsibility for monitoring progress.

42 The UK noted that: “through the Climate Change Act, the UK Government created the National Adaptation Plan which assesses the risks to climate change, sets out a strategy to address them and encourages key organisations to do the same. In 2015 the Committee on Climate Change (UK Government’s climate change scrutiny body) concluded that while the programme sets out a number of broad objectives and a summary of relevant policies, and a long list of actions to prepare the country to climate change, it is not strategic and focused enough. A clearer sense of priorities, backed by measurable objectives and comprehensive plans and policies are required to achieve meaningful change.” 43 http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9444.php

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

55


7.5.11 EMBRACING THE NEW URBAN AGENDA Region

Country

Embraced the NUA?

Effective NUA implementation plan?

Body responsible for delivery of the NUA?

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

N Y N

N N -

N N -

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Y Y Y

Y Y Y

Y N Y

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

N

N

N

Y

Y

N

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Y N N

N N N

N N N

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Y N

N -

N -

44 http://habitat3.org/the-new-urban-agenda/ 45 http://habitat3.org/

56

The New Urban Agenda (NUA)44 was launched at Habitat III45 in Quito, Ecuador, in 2016. Its aim is to respond to Goal 11 of the Sustainable Development Goals to make cities safe, inclusive resilient and sustainable. The New Urban Agenda provides a framework for achieving sustainable urban development. Less than 50% of respondents report that their governments have embraced the New Urban Agenda while only a quarter report having an effective implementation plan and only 2 respondents report having a body responsible for delivery of the NUA.

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


7.6 CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

The survey concluded with a section inviting respondents to highlight any issues which are affecting the profession in their country. The phrasing of the questions is intentionally more open and the responses therefore more subjective; the intention being to allow respondents to identify areas requiring further attention. Respondents were invited to score each question on the basis of the following scale and to annotate their responses where appropriate: +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3

Strongly Agree Agree Mildly Agree Neutral Mildly Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Region

Country

Africa

Botswana Ghana South Africa Uganda

Agree Neutral Agree

Agree Neutral Agree

Agree Mildly Agree -

Neutral Disagree Agree

Strongly Agree Mildly Agree Agree

Strongly Agree Agree Agree

Agree Mildly Agree Agree

Asia

Bangladesh Hong Kong Malaysia Pakistan Sri Lanka

Disagree Agree Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree Agree Mildly Agree

Neutral Agree Agree

Agree Agree Strongly Agree

Agree Agree Mildly Agree

Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree

Agree Agree Mildly Agree

Caribbean and America Europe

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Neutral

Agree

Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Neutral

Mildly Disagree

Neutral

Neutral

Mildly Disagree

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Mildly Disagree Mildly Disagree Neutral

Neutral Mildly Agree Agree

Strongly Agree Neutral -

Strongly Agree Mildly Disagree Agree

Strongly Agree Mildly Disagree -

Agree Agree Agree

Mildly Disagree Mildly Disagree -

Pacific

Australia New Zealand

Mildly Disagree Mildly Agree

Mildly Disagree Mildly Agree

Neutral Mildly Agree

Agree Mildly Disagree

Mildly Agree Disagree

Mildly Agree Mildly Disagree

Disagree Disagree

0.08 Neutral

0.69 Below Mildly Agree

1.18 Above Mildly Agree

0.85 Below Mildly Agree

1.17 Above Mildly Agree

1.77 Below Agree

0.42 Above Neutral

Average

“There has “There has “There has been an been an been an improvement improvement improvement in terms of in terms of in term of working hours wages over the staff working over the past past 10 years” conditions 10 years” over the past 10 years”

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

“The role of “The role of “You are “The role of architect as architect as optimistic architect as a worthwhile a positive about the a position profession to contributor to future of the of authority pursue has the community profession in on site has improved in has improved in your country” improved the eyes of the the eyes of the over the past public over the public over the 20 years” past 20 years” past 20 years”

57


Ghana

Ghana

South Africa

South Africa Uganda

Uganda Hong Kong

Hong Kong Pakistan

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda Canada

Canada

Cyprus

Cyprus

Malta

Malta United Kingdom

United Kingdom

Australia

Australia New Zealand

-3

-2

-1

0

1

New Zealand 2

3

-3

“There has been an improvement in terms of working hours over the past 10 years”

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

“There has been an improvement in terms of wages over the past 10 years”

Ghana

Ghana

South Africa

South Africa

Hong Kong

Uganda Pakistan

Hong Kong

Sri Lanka

Pakistan

Antigua and Barbuda

Sri Lanka

Canada

Antigua and Barbuda Cyprus

Canada

Malta

Cyprus

Australia

Malta

New Zealand

United Kingdom Australia New Zealand

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

“There has been an improvement in terms of staff working conditions over the past 10 years”

58

3

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

“The role of architect as a worthwhile profession to pursue has improved in the eyes of the public over the past 20 years”

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Ghana

Ghana

South Africa

South Africa Uganda

Uganda

Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Pakistan

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda

Canada

Canada Cyprus

Cyprus

Malta

Malta Australia

United Kingdom

New Zealand

Australia New Zealand

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

“The role of the architect as a positive contributor to the community has improved in the eyes of the public over the past 20 years”

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

“You are optimistic about the future of the profession in your country”

Ghana South Africa Uganda Hong Kong Pakistan Sri Lanka Antigua and Barbuda Canada Cyprus Malta Australia New Zealand

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

“The role of architect as a position of authority on site has improved over the past 20 years”

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

59


7.6.2 ASSOCIATED COMMENTS Challenges and Opportunities What are the most important challenges Lack of respect for the profession, Lack of effective implementation of the laws relating to the built environment and the profession. facing the built environment in your Housing affordability, integrated design of sustainable urban environments, undervaluing of public owned land and country today? cultural assets Corruption. Urban sprawl/Lack of public transport. Lack of planning. Enforcement of laws in the built environment laws. Lack of land, housing, labour. The country needs a complete re-evaluation of spatial planning processes, with a long-term vision, and a political long-term commitment to achieve the vision. Transport issues are probably the most serious at the moment. Resilience to natural disasters, warm dry homes. Building control under the authority of non-professionals. Lack of Building control implementation. South Africa is a diverse country with vast differences in standards of living. There is rapid urbanisation in most of the existing major centres, while many of the new developments occurring in new-town areas, leaving the older CBD’s to deteriorate. Limited government and municipal spending of infrastructural development and maintenance are problematic. Housing shortages remain a problem with social housing mostly being designed by Engineers. Sound and Air pollution, sustainable building design, environmental friendly energy services generated within the project. Outdated laws to govern the built environment. The market is majorly dominated by foreign firms. Physical planning has not been a government priority. Sustainability; Climate Change adaptation and resilience; Reducing Carbon emissions; High quality and affordable housing delivery; ageing infrastructure; Brexit; ageing population. What are the most important challenges Lack of respect for the profession. Lack of respect Relevance, inability for the to construct profession. a coherent narrative regarding its value to the community. facing the architectural profession in your country today? Lack of respect Raising the standard for theofprofession. design. Lack procurement BOT of respect formethod the profession. / Fee tendering government project procurement / lack of professional fee scales. Lack of local respect construction for the profession. technology. Lack of respect Insufficient opportunities for the profession. for young practices or architects. Achieving quality in the face of strong development pressures, without appropriate regulation. Preserving a role for the small local practice architect in the face of global firms with overwhelming resources. Lack in Role of projects, respect for professional the profession. liability, procurement of architectural services. Lack of building respect for control the profession. implementation. The Architectural Profession in South Africa is under threat of implosion. This is due to our Council for the Architectural Profession grouping Professional Architects, Senior Technologists, Technologists, Draughtspersons and Interior Designers under one Act, and then failing to implement the Identification of Work Framework. The Public have little cognisance of any differences in registration categories, but rather see value in a Council Registration Number. Implementation of Design and Built projects as a main procurement system. Foreign Architects practicing here violating the UIA declarations on cross boarder practices. Still a lot of corruption Poor enforcement of the existing regulations The schedule of fees is not on course. Brexit; adapting to digital design in construction. What are the most important challenges No architectural institution in the country, cost of education abroad. The ideological battle between an educational model that concerns itself with the lowest common denominator, facing the architectural education in and one which fosters and promotes excellence. your country today? Raising the standard of design. Unemployment. Practitioners require a PhD to teach in the Architecture Schools thus students miss out on certain practical aspects. Increasing demand for more University Grants Committee (UGC) funded places. Extend Study Subsidy Scheme for Designated Professions/Sectors (SSSDP) places to other tertiary institutions.

60

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Significant changes have been implemented in recent years. Biggest challenge is the ability to manoeuvre the route between the need to preserve traditional forms and landscapes and the desire to modernise. The profession is still struggling to integrate the increasing component of technology, and hence the technical competence of the professional. with the ever-valid design vocation of architecture. Access given high fees. Lack of trained faculty staff. Reduced funding for universities, the institutional viability requirement to increase student numbers, and an emphasis on staff research outputs, are seeing an increasing burden being placed on Academics, and consequently a reduction in staff-student contact time. The relevance of certain existing course offerings are being questioned in regard colonial undertones and Africanism. Para professionals are trying to establish their selves as fully qualified professionals. High student to teacher ratio (very few lecturers). Poorly funded/equipped schools of architecture. Making stronger and clearer connections between academic education and the professional context (primary recommendation of the RIBA Education review). There has been an improvement in the profession in terms of working hours over the past ten years.

Illegal practice of architecture. Moderately, yes, despite the efforts of the peak professional body. Surveys indicate that despite the attention drawn to the issues, the pressure on practices to meet project-related deadlines only increases. Architects are required to work harder and longer hours, often without pay. Working conditions in practice have remained largely unchanged. The culture of practice requires long hours and commitment. There are more jobs in our sector now than there were in the past ten years. More job opportunity in this area of the Asia region means more work. More control from client and government means more administration work. Extensive use of computer / instant communication means quicker response times. Pressure to work for longer hours has become higher not lower. Use of Computer aided drafting and presentation tools has almost replaced the time consuming manual work. The status quo has largely remained. Professionals’ working hours has not greatly increased.

There has been an improvement in the profession in terms of wages over the past ten years.

Working hours have stayed relatively the same over the past 4 years. According to the Fees Bureau Employment Earnings surveys 2016; 2014; 2013; 2012, the Average (mean) working hours per weeks were (base = full-time architects): 2016 = 37 hours 2014 = 38 hours 2013 = 36.9 hours excl. overtime; 43.5 hours incl. overtime 2012 = 38 hours Flat construction Industry for the past 10 years. Numerically yes, but if the wage factors in both inflation as well as increases in costs of living, the actual wage for most architects is either static or effectively decreased over the past decade. Wages relative to other technical professionals have declined. Although there is a reported shortage of architects, fees are declining, and market forces are distorted by public sector procurement obsessed with imposing unfair contractual conditions. There is more awareness among the public on what architects are to be charging and architects are conferring more with one another on fees, facilitated by focused social media groupings. GDP increases in Hong Kong. In real terms there have been improvements in wages for architectural professionals, although not commensurate with increasing levels of responsibility. Principle of Supply and demand. Other than following inflationary creep, the status quo has remained. However there has been progress in equity for women. The position of Architecture has not improved in this country. There has been an improvement over the last 5 years. According to the Fees Bureau Employment Earnings surveys 2016; 2014; 2013; 2012, Earnings by Field of Employment (median) were: 2016 = 45,000 GBP; 2015 = 42,000 GBP; 2015-2016 change of median +7.1 2014 = 42,000 GBP 2013 = 40,000 GBP; 2013-2014 change of median +5.0 2012 = 41,100 GBP 2011 = 40,000 GBP; 2011-2012 change of median +2.8

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

61


There has been an improvement in the profession in terms of wages over the past ten years.

Flat construction Industry for the past 10 years. Numerically yes, but if the wage factors in both inflation as well as increases in costs of living, the actual wage for most architects is either static or effectively decreased over the past decade. Wages relative to other technical professionals have declined. Although there is a reported shortage of architects, fees are declining, and market forces are distorted by public sector procurement obsessed with imposing unfair contractual conditions. There is more awareness among the public on what architects are to be charging and architects are conferring more with one another on fees, facilitated by focused social media groupings. GDP increases in Hong Kong. In real terms there have been improvements in wages for architectural professionals, although not commensurate with increasing levels of responsibility. Principle of Supply and demand. Other than following inflationary creep, the status quo has remained. However there has been progress in equity for women. The position of Architecture has not improved in this country. There has been an improvement over the last 5 years. According to the Fees Bureau Employment Earnings surveys 2016; 2014; 2013; 2012, Earnings by Field of Employment (median) were: 2016 = 45,000 GBP; 2015 = 42,000 GBP; 2015-2016 change of median +7.1 2014 = 42,000 GBP 2013 = 40,000 GBP; 2013-2014 change of median +5.0 2012 = 41,100 GBP 2011 = 40,000 GBP; 2011-2012 change of median +2.8

There has been an improvement in the profession in terms of staff working conditions over the past ten years.

Better office environment, slight increase in salary. Increased attention has been drawn to the quality of the workplace, but arguably this is only in response to increased working hours and effective reduced pay. That said, certain protections have been introduced, in the form of the Architects Award as well as an increased attention to the treatment of internships. There is more awareness than before. Working environment in Hong Kong are generally good. Overall conditions of work have scarcely changed. Change necessitated by introduction of Computers and other hardware. Our new Employment Act has been in place for 2 decades. It seeks to give rights to employees in a balanced and fair manner. Staff working conditions have improved.

Some people think architects are unnecessary, expensive. The role of architect as a worthwhile profession to pursue has improved in the Largely through the proliferation of lifestyle-related programs that portray the benefits of designed environment. eyes of the public over the past 20 years. In particular, programs such as Grand Designs have achieved a great deal in terms of raising the profile of the architect in designing spaces for people. Further evidence of the increased profile of the profession can be seen in the expanded intake in architectural schools over this period, as well the total number of architecture schools in Australia. Architects’ incomes have not kept pace with the economy. Clients demands for faster project delivery, improved quality and reduced fees result in downward pressure on personnel. Non-enforcement of procurement standards causes jobs to slip through the hand of architects. Architects will always be in demand Architect’s degrees are required Being an Architect is a promising career. In our society, the profession of architect is still considered to be one worth pursuing; but the overall status within society has declined. Number of Architectural schools has risen from 3 to 35 in the last 20 years. While there remains some glamorisation of the profession through movies, the public now give less value to the skills of an Architect, perhaps due to a wealth of TV shows on design, building and refurbishment. Everyone is now an architect! Especially in the last 5 years there had been improvement in the workload, and engagement with awareness programmes and CSR projects.

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


There has been a slight increase in the number of students studying architecture at Part 1 and Part 2 (RIBA Validated courses). According to the RIBA Education Statistics 2015/16 Report, the data for the past 5 years were: 2015/16 = 15,523 2014/15 = 15,453 2013/14 = 14,878 2012/13 = 14,936 2011/12 = 14,161 The number of Students passing examinations (validated courses only) were: 2014/15: Part 1=2,925; Part 2=1,914; Part 3=1,309 2013/14: Part 1=3,209; Part 2=1,620; Part 3=1,166 2012/13: Part 1=2,853; Part 2=1,683; Part 3=994 The role of architect as a positive contributor to the community has improved in the eyes of the public over the past 20 years.

2011/12: Part 1=2,860; Part 2=1,587; Part 3=1,005 Traditionally, the average home owner would request drawings solely done by the contractors. Today, approximately 40% to 45% of the work is been done by architects. As 35.4.1 above, but perhaps slightly less in terms of the public sphere. The commissioning of architects in public projects is not so generous, and the understanding of and appreciation for large practice is less well developed. It is easy to understand the role of single design author in a small project, but much harder to understand the complexity of multiple equally-talented authors in large project that includes a significantly more complex set of stakeholders. Unchanged. Few works that sought the professional services of architects has yielded positive outcome. • • •

• •

Architects have a significant role in improving the well-being of communities by being involved with nonprofit organizations. Architects can raise public awareness of critical social and environmental issues. Architects and architectural firms have an enormous opportunity to use their expertise to help local architects’ professional institute; in return, we can receive valuable insights about how to improve our management practice and even our design. Architects tend to think of ourselves as being responsive to clients’ needs. There is no better way of learning to understand what those needs are than by being involved with their professional institute. Local professional institute operates with the same challenges as regular businesses. Architects are encouraged to develop a comprehensive sustainability program for community development. Many large firms organize and coordinate volunteering services to the communities.

Architects are blamed by society for the poor quality of our urban spaces; modern design is associated with or equated to poor quality, and ugliness. 20 years ago, Graduating Architects only 70, now this figure stands at approx. over 500. There is a sense that an Architect has mostly been a positive contributor to the community. However, while there remains some glamorisation of the profession through movies, the public now give less value to the skills of an Architect, perhaps due to a wealth of TV shows on design, building and refurbishment. Everyone is now an architect! Architects’ involvement in the public sector has not improved a lot. There has been no research undertaken that would enable us to comment on whether the role of architects as a positive contributor to the community has improved in the eyes of the public over the past 20 years. However, the RIBA undertook a survey in 2016 on client satisfaction levels (Client & Architect - What Clients think of Architects). The survey received responses from 958 clients (a third were private domestic clients; a third were contractors; a third were commercial clients). Are you optimistic about the future of the profession in your country?

Due to the implementation of planning laws and the advent of technology, the local population is becoming more sophisticated in building designs. At the level of the practitioner, yes. At the level of the architecture schools, yes. At the level of the profession, not yet, not until we have a clear sense of purpose. There are many extremely well-educated architects in Australia; and there is no lack of local talent. The issue is a strategic one which for some decades has placed the value of architects on a downward trajectory, which accompanied by a weak sense of consensus and a strange inability to clearly articulate what it is that they do leads the profession ever more quickly to a destiny of permanent irrelevance to the majority of the population. There are too many cooks and not enough who understand what they are doing. Cautiously optimistic. There is a growing recognition of the role that architects have to play in addressing some of the key questions confronting our society - described simplistically by the triad of an increasing population, with less space, and greater pressure on resources. As ever, the greatest obstacle to our success is perhaps the profession itself.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

63


Regulation the profession has given architects the power to develop their own professions. A lot of possibilities remain unexplored. Current engagements with the government clearly shows a vacuum with respect to our role in nation building and so far, the responses have been positive. Hong Kong is part of the booming economy of greater China. Hong Kong 2030+ also shows the blueprint of Hong Kong in the future where there will be more housing provision, more new towns and more work opportunity. Greater awareness by an increasing faction of young architects to address environmental and sustainability issues. Presently, the Architects are concentrated in 3 or 4 major cities. The small cities and towns provide a vast opportunity in future. The role of the Architect is changing and if our education and roles within the built environment adapt to focus our skills, the Architect will remain a needed and respected professional. Profession is now gradually getting recognized. The number of architects on the Register (Source: ARB) has steadily grown for the past 10 years. At the end of 2016 there were 38,258 architects on the Register, compared with 36,678 at the end of 2015. This 4% increase is similar to the previous year’s growth: 2016 = 38,258 2015 = 36,678 2014 = 35,157 2013 = 34,266 2012 = 34,074 2011 = 33.456 2010 = 33,065 2009 = 32,939 2008 = 32,716 2007 = 32,221 The 2017 AJ 100 Analysis shows that while confidence levels have fallen, most AJ100 practices are nevertheless expecting to grow. The role of architect as a position of authority on site has improved over the past 20 years

Project owners are becoming more concern about budget controls and quality of construction. The role of the architect on site continues to decrease. This is a pattern that is consistent from the mid-1970s but is also increasingly the case in current procurement methodologies, and with respect to the apportionment of risk. The rise in the influence of para-professionals has forced architects away from the project decision-making centres. Project management firms are mediating the relationship between the architect and client, to the detriment of the architect. There is more awareness among members in the body of architects and also with other stakeholders. Architects usually control a project and the leader of construction sites from start to finish and work with a number of construction professionals. They have broad scope of works ranging from: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

discuss the ideas, objectives, requirements and budget of a project and in some cases, help to select a site consult with other professionals about design assess the needs of the building and its users and advise the client on the practicality of their project prepare and present feasibility reports and design proposals to the client assess the impact on the local environment use IT in design and project management, specifically using computer-aided design software keep within financial budgets and deadlines produce detailed workings, drawings and specifications specify the nature and quality of materials required prepare tender applications and presentations negotiate with contractors and other professionals prepare applications for planning and building control departments draw up tender documents for contracts project manage and help to coordinate the work of contractors control a project from start to finish carry out regular site visits to check on progress and ensure that the project is running on time and to budget resolve problems and issues that arise during construction ensure that the environmental impact of the project is managed.

Position of architect on site is still strong but is not as strong as it was in the past. In majority of the building projects Architect is in charge/Head of the team. Responses in this regard may vary, but while the advent of the Project Manager took hold in the 80s and 90s, Architects have reclaimed this space and are recognised for their contract management abilities. Still the architects’ role has not been established at site.

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Can you suggest ways the CAA could help your region?

Advocate, apply pressure to governments to implement policies to enhance the profession Provide Scholarships for needy but brilliant students. Promote internship programs among member countries. Organise competitions within the sub regions to solve peculiar problems in the society and help to secure funding for them. Create an Architecture of place, design solutions that would have a socio-cultural connection that indigenes or end users can relate to. Support of HKIA in joining Canberra Accord as full signatory status. Perhaps to publicise the role of good architecture in urban design. Provide faculty training through exchange program between South Asian countries. Provide assistance in students exchange programs between Architectural institutions of member countries. Support for our Institute in terms of reinforcing our relevance as the mouthpiece for Architects in the Region, through engagement with government. CAA should help regularize cross-boarded practices as there are many architects and Para professionals without getting proper professional architectural qualifications practicing here disregarding the laws and trying to creep into the practice of architecture. Lobby government to enforce the schedule of fees on behalf of the architects.

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

65


APPENDICES APPENDIX I, THE COMMONWEALTH IN NUMBERS (SEE KEY FOR SOURCES OF INFORMATION) Region

Country

Africa

Botswana Cameroon Ghana Kenya Lesotho Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Seychelles Sierra Leone South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia

581,730 466,050 238,533 581,834 30,355 118,484 2,040 799,380 825,118 923,768 25,314 455 71,740 1,220,813 17,364 883,749 241,551 752,612

2,292,000 24,054,000 28,834,000 49,700,000 2,233,000 16,823,910 1,267,000 29,669,000 2,534,000 190,886,000 12,208,000 95,000 7,557,000 56,639,000 1,367,000 57,310,000 42,863,000 15,933,883

1.55% 2.56% 2.17% 1.69% 0.28% 3.31% 0.59% 2.46% 1.95% 2.43% 2.45% 0.77% 2.38% 0.99% 1.08% 2.75% 3.20% 2.93%

3.94 51.61 120.88 85.42 73.56 141.99 621.08 37.12 3.07 206.64 482.26 208.79 105.34 46.39 78.73 64.85 177.45 22.71

58.0% 55.5% 55.3% 26.5% 28.4% 16.6% 39.4% 32.8% 48.6% 49.4% 30.7% 54.5% 40.7% 65.8% 21.3% 33.0% 16.8% 41.8%

1.38% 2.50% 3.50% 3.40% 3.50% 3.07% 4.00% 4.15% 3.50% 2.85% 5.20% 4.02% 0.90% 0.07% 4.10% 3.36% 2.90% 3.63% 3.80% 4.30% 4.20% 5.59% 1.40% 1.02% 2.90% 2.72% 1.40% 1.33% 1.70% 1.41% 4.20% 5.00% 4.40% 5.30% 2.30% 4.35%

Asia

Bangladesh Brunei Darussalam India Malaysia Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka

143,998 4,765 3,287,240 330,803 803,940 719 65,610

164,670,000 429,000 1,339,180,000 31,624,000 197,016,000 5,699,000 21,302,000

1.04% 1.57% 1.17% 1.37% 1.43% 1.82% 0.76%

1,143.56 90.03 407.39 95.60 245.06 7,908.79 324.68

35.8% 77.8% 33.5% 76.0% 39.7% 100.00% 18.5%

3.19% 3.50% 2.60% 1.52% 2.40% 2.28% 3.00% 2.19% 3.00% 2.77% 1.20% 1.50% 0.50% 1.11%

Caribbean and

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Dominica Grenada Guyana Jamaica Saint Lucia St Kitts and Nevis St Vincent and The Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago

442 13,940 430 22,965 9,984,670 739 344 214,999 10,991 617 270 389 5,155

102,000 395,000 286,000 375,000 36,613,000 74,000 108,000 778,000 2,890,000 179,000 55,000 110,000 1,369,000

1.21% 0.81% 0.28% 1.80% 0.73% 0.18% 0.44% 0.32% 0.68% 0.32% 0.73% -0.25% -0.20%

203.77 28.34 665.12 16.33 3.67 100.14 313.95 3.62 262,94 290.11 203.70 282.78 265.57

23.0% 83.0% 31.4% 43.7% 82.2% 70.1% 35.7% 28.8% 55.3% 18.6% 32.3% 51.2% 8.3%

-0.38% 0.90% 1.40% 1.21% 1.50% 0.40% 3.10% 1.93% 1.00% 1.16% 0.20% 0.85% 0.30% 0.44% 0.00% 0.91% 0.90% 0.93% 1.40% 1.01% 1.40% 1.42% 1.30% 0.70% -83.00% 2.90%

5,896 315 242,910

1,180,000 439,000 66,013,000

1.32% 0.26% 0.52%

200.14 1,393.65 271.76

66.8% 95.6% 83.1%

0.84% 1.30% 0.46% 0.32% 0.50% 0.82%

7,692,024 18,333 726 21 270,467 462,840 2,831 28,370 720 26 12,190

24,446,000 906,000 116,000 13,000 4,736,000 8,251,000 196,000 611,000 108,000 11,000 276,000

1.03% 0.60% 1.13% 0.53% 0.79% 1.71% 0.60% 1.94% -0.50% 0.85% 1.85%

3.18 49.42 159.78 619.05 17.51 17.83 69.53 21.54 150.00 423.08 22.64

89.7% 54.5% 44.6% 100.0% 86.4% 13.1% 18.8% 23.2% 23.9% 61.5% 26.8%

1.37% 1.47% 1.60% 1.18% 1.80% 1.90% 0.62% ND 1.05% 1.98% 1.90% 2.42% 1.70% 0.06% 4.10% 3.79% 1.60% 1.30% 1.30% 1.71% 4,10% 3.23%

Americas

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Pacific

Australia Fiji Kiribati Nauru New Zealand Papua New Guinea Samoa Soloman Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Area (sqkm)

Population

Population Growth Rate

Density (sqkm)

Urbanisation (%)

Urban Growth (%) (%)

Description

Units

Source

Commonwealth Region Country Area Population Population Density Urbanisation Rate of Urban Growth

Text Text Million sq/km Number Pop/sqkm Percentage Percentage

http://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries http://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_and_dependencies_by_area https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_population https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_territories_by_population_density https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization_by_country https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization_by_country

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


GDP

GNI per capita (PPP) ($int)

HDI

CRI

Climate Losses (PPP) ($M)

Fragility States Index

Transparency

$35,381 $78.447 $112,268 $141,779 $6,030 $19,608 $24,723 $32,528 $24,430 $1,010,804 $21,139 $2,492 $10,124 $685,452 $10,374 $139,380 $69,994 $60,508

$16,680 $3,540 $4,150 $3,120 $3,340 $1,140 $20,990 $1,190 $10,380 $5,740 $1,860 $28,380 $1,320 $12,830 $8,310 $2,740 $1,790 $3,850

0.698 0.512 0.579 0.548 0.497 0.445 0.777 0.416 0.628 0.514 0.483 0.772 0.413 0.666 0.531 0.521 0.483 0.586

141.50 133.83 103.17 81.17 118.83 79.00 103.67 43.33 69.50 112.00 111.67 159.33 121.83 83.33 107.83 103.50 87.33 130.17

$12.793 $11.741 $31.816 $92.910 $17.700 $56.973 $26.302 $94.401 $26.114 $101.519 $8.042 $0.854 $0.620 $459.542 $22.085 $64.591 $56.835 $22.395

63.8 95.6 69.7 96.4 81.7 88.0 41.7 89.0 70.4 101.6 90.8 59.4 89.3 72.3 88.8 80.3 96.0 87.8

61 25 40 28 42 31 50 25 51 27 55 ND 30 43 ND 36 26 37

$540,894 $30,381 $8,067,710 $800,542 $937,932 $456,676 $242,080

$3,790 $83,010 $6,490 $26,900 $5,560 $85,020 $12,200

0.570 0.856 0.609 0.779 0.538 0.912 0.757

25.00 168.33 37.50 94.00 30.50 171.83 64.33

$2,283.378 $0.349 $11,335.170 $271.755 $3,823.175 $2.822 $234.431

89.1 61.6 77.9 65.4 98.9 32.5 86.6

28 62 40 47 33 84 38

$2,122 $8,1168 $4,774 $2,879 $1,563,501 $747 $1,413 $5,619 $23,568 $2,138 $1,341 $1,165 $41,583

$22,090 $21,640 $17,180 $7,930 $44,020 $10,620 $13,720 $7,800 $8,450 $12,030 $25,640 $11,380 $31,770

0.783 0.790 0.785 0.715 0.913 0.724 0.750 0.636 0.719 0.729 0.752 0.720 0.717

74.50 ND 144.00 47.17 97.00 42.00 40.33 101.00 63.50 60.67 62.00 63.33 153.83

$15.553 ND $3.697 $56.838 $46.023 $78.734 $33.684 $155.505 $16.740 $36.208 $11.168 $2.304

54.8 52.4 49.6 65.5 22.6 69.0 61.5 71.3 65.2 ND ND ND 56.7

ND 65 68 ND 82 57 52 38 44 55 ND 58 41

$26,681 $15,618 $2,574,939

$32,200 $35,710 $41,640

0.850 0.839 0.907

95.50 152.17 66.17

$15.729 $2.904 $1,522.434

62.6 38.6 33.2

57 56 82

$1,071,584 $7,592 $224 $169 $165,518 $31,356 $1,154 $1,242 $571 $38 $772

$45,210 $8,710 $3,050 $17,510 $37,190 $4,140 $6,230 $2,140 $5,780 $5,920 $3,040

0.935 0.727 0.590 0.704 0.914 0.505 0.702 0.506 0.717 0.772 0.594

52.00 47.33 112.83 ND 83.50 64.83 77.50 73.67 58.00 115.00 54.67

$2,203.885 $57.356 $10.685 ND $301.123 $35.991 $8.583 $5.457 $6.729 $2.668 $16.049

22.3 76.9 ND ND 22.6 86.4 67.1 84.8 ND ND ND

77 ND ND ND 89 29 ND 39 ND ND ND

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Gross National Income (GNI) Human Development Index (HDI) Climate Risk Index (CRI) Losses Fragility Index Transparency. Corruption Perceptions Index

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

$Million $ per capita Score Score $Million Score Score

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GNI_(PPP)_per_capita http://hdr.undp.org/en/data https://germanwatch.org/en/download/16411.pdf https://germanwatch.org/en/download/16411.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Fragile_States_Indexw https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_Perceptions_Index

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APPENDIX II, BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONS IN THE COMMONWEALTH Country

Architectural Institute

Engineering Institute

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Darussalam Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda Saint Lucia Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka St Kitts and Nevis St Vincent and The Grenadines Swaziland Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia Zimbabwe

The Antigua & Barbuda Institute of Architects Australian Institute of Architects Institute of Bahamian Architects Institute of Architects Bangladesh Barbados Institute of Architects Association of Professional Architects of Belize Architects Association of Botswana Pertubuhan Ukur Jurutera Dan Arkitek Ordre National Des Architectes du Cameroun Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Cyprus Civil Engineers and Architects Association Dominica Society of Architects Fiji Association of Architects Ghana Institute of Architects Grenada Society of Architects Guyana Institute of Architects Indian Institute of Architects Jamaican Institute of Architects Architectural Association of Kenya Unable to locate an institute Lesotho Association of Construction Industry Consultants Malawi Institute of Architects Malaysian Institute of Architects Kamra Tal-Periti, Malta Mauritius Association of Architects Unable to locate an institute Namibia Institute of Architects Unable to locate an institute New Zealand Institute of Architects Nigerian Institute of Architects Institute of Architects Pakistan Papua New Guinea Institute of Architects Institute of Architects Rwanda St Lucia Institute of Architects Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Sierra Leone Institute of Architects Singapore Institute of Architects Unable to locate an institute South African Institute of Architects Sri Lanka Institute of Architects St.Kitts-Nevis Institute of Architects St Vincent & the Grenadines Institute of Architects Swaziland Association of Architects, Engineers and Surveyors Architects Association of Tanzania Unable to locate an institute Trinidad and Tobago Institute of Architects Unable to locate an institute Uganda Society of Architects Royal Institute of British Architects Unable to locate an institute Zambia Institute of Architects Institute of Architects in Zimbabwe

Unable to locate an institute Engineers Australia Professional Engineers Board The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh Unable to locate an institute Association of professional engineers of Belize Pula Institute of Town Planners Pertubuhan Ukur Cameroon Society of Engineers The Engineering Insitute of Canada Cyrprus Civil Engineers and Architects Association Unable to locate an institute The Fiji Institution of Engineers Ghana Institution of Engineers Unable to locate an institute Guyana Association of Professional Engineers Institution of Engineers India Jamaica Insitution of Engineers The Institution of Engineers of Kenya Unable to locate an institute Lesotho Association of Engineers Malawi Institution of Engineers The Institution of Engineers Malaysia The Malta Group of Professional Engineering Institution Institution of Engineers Mauritius Unable to locate an institute Engineering Council of Namibia Unable to locate an institute Engineering New Zealand Nigerian Institution of Engineers The Institution of Engineers, Pakistan Institution of Engineers, Papua New Guinea Institution of Engineers Rwanda Association of Professional Engineers of St. Lucia Institution of Professional Engineers Samoa Unable to locate an institute Sierra Leone Institution of Engineers Institution of Engineers Singapore Unable to locate an institute Institute of Professional Engineering Technologists The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka St. Kitts/Nevis Association of Professional Engineers Unable to locate an institute Swaziland Association of Engineers, Architects & surveyors Institution of Engineers Tanzania South Pacific Engineers Association The Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago Unable to locate an institute Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers Institution of Civil Engineers South Pacific Engineers Association The Engineering Institution of Zambia Zimbabwe Instition of Engineers

53 Commonwelath Countries

44 Architectural Institutes

42 Engineering Institutes

46 Information compiled with the assistance of CAA, CEC, CAP and CASLE

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Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


Town Planning Institute

Surveying Institute

Unable to locate an institute Planning Institute of Australia Unable to locate an institute Bangladesh Institute of Planners Barbados Town Planning Society Belize Association of Planners Unable to locate an institute Town and Country Planning Dept, Ministry of Development Unable to locate an institute Canadian Institute of Planners Cyprus Association of Town Planners Planners Association of Dominica Unable to locate an institute Ghana Institute of Planners Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Institute of Town Planners India Jamaican Institute of Planners Kenya Institute of Planners Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Malawi Institute of Physical Planners Malaysian Institute of Planners Malta Chamber of Planners Town Planning Association of Mauritius Unable to locate an institute Namibia Council of Town and Regional Planners Unable to locate an institute New Zealand Planning Institute Nigerian Institute of Town Planners Institute of Planners Pakistan Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Saint Lucia Institute of Land Use Planners Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Singapore Institute of Planners Unable to locate an institute South African Planning Institute Institute of Town Planners Sri Lanka Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Unable to locate an institute Tanzania Association of Planners Unable to locate an institute Trinidad and Tobago Society of Planners Unable to locate an institute Uganda Institute of Physical Planners Royal Town Planning Institute Unable to locate an institute Zambia Institute of Planners Unable to locate an institute

Unknown Unknown Bahamas Association of Quantity Surveyors Unknown Unknown Unknown Botswana Institute of Development Professions Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Fiji Institute of Surveors Ghana Institution of Surveyors Unknown Unknown Unknown Jamaican Institute of Quantity Surveyor Institution of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya Unknown Unknown Surveyors Institute of Malawi Royal Institution of Surveyors Malaysia Land Surveyors of Malta Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown New Zealand Instituite of Surveyors Nigerian Institution of Quantity Surveyors Unknown Unknown Unknown Institute of Surveyors of Saint Lucia Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Institution of Quantity Surveyors Sri Lanka Unknown Unknown Unknown Institution of Survyors Tanzania Unknown Institution of Surveyors of Trinidad and Tobago Unknown Institution of Surveyors of Uganda The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Unknown Institution of Surveyors Zambia Real Estate Institute of Zimbabwe

29 Planning Institutes

19 Quantity Surveying Institutes

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

46

69


Caribbean and Americas

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Dominica Grenada Guyana Jamaica Saint Lucia St Kitts and Nevis St Vincent and The Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago

116 54 127 61 81

58.1 69.7 55.6 69.0 65.9

78 76 17

66.0 66.0 78.0

91 74

64.7 66.6

CCA survey respondent?

Goal 17, Partnerships for the Goals

Goal 16, Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

Goal 15, Life on Land

Goal 14, Life Below Water

Goal 13, Climate Action

Goal 12, Responsible Consumption and Production

Goal 11, Sustainable Cities and Communities

Goal 10, Reduced inequalities

120 56.2

Goal 9, Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

Bangladesh Brunei Darussalam India Malaysia Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka

Asia

Goal 8, Decent work and Economic Growth

47.1 61.2 55.0 52.1 52.9 51.1 56.1

Goal 7, Affordable and Clean Energy

149 108 124 131 129 134 121

Goal 6, Clean water and Sanitation

58.3 52.4 59.9 54.9 53.0 48.0 62.1 49.2 59.3 48.6 55.0

Goal 5, Gender Equality

113 130 109 125 128 147 103 143 111 145 123

Goal 4, Quality Education

Botswana Cameroon Ghana Kenya Lesotho Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Seychelles Sierra Leone South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Goal 3, Good health and well-being

SDG Index, Score

Africa

Goal 2, Zero Hunger

Country

Goal 1, No Poverty

Region

SDG Index, Rank

APPENDIX III, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDEX FOR THE COUNTRIES OF THE COMMONWELATH PRODUCED BY THE UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS NETWORK (UNSDSN)47

Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Y

59

69.1

Europe

Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

50 22 16

70.6 77.0 78.3

Pacific

Australia Fiji Kiribati Nauru New Zealand Papua New Guinea Samoa Soloman Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Hong Kong

26

75.9

Y Y Y Y

20

77.6

Y

47 http://www.sdgindex.org/

Highest distance from SDG achievement Some distance from SDG achievement Approaching SDG achievement SDG achievement

70

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation


INDEX

1 Introduction

04

7.4

2

Executive Summary

07

7.4.1 Construction market size

49

3

Commonwealth Context

12

7.4.2 Change in the demand for architectural services

50

4

Principal Findings

18

7.4.3 Recent events affecting the local market for architectural services

50

5

Next Steps

27

6

Survey Method

28

7.5

51

7

Survey Results

7.5.1 Government engagement with the profession

51

29

7.5.2 Public sector procurement

51

The Association/Chamber/Institute

30

7.5.3 Public sector design competitions

52

7.1.1 Details of the National Association/Chamber/Institute

29

7.5.4 Planning legislation

52

7.1.2 Organisation of the National

30

7.5.5 Building code

53

7.5.6 Health and safety legislation

53

7.5.7 Sustainable development goals

54

7.5.8 Renewable energy and energy efficiency policies

54

7.5.9 Other government policies

55

7.5.10 Climate change legislation

55

7.5.11 Embracing the New Urban Agenda

56

7.6

57

7.1

Association/Chamber/Institute

30

7.1.3 Membership numbers and growth rates

31

7.1.4 Membership numbers by category of membership

31

7.1.5 Membership fees by category of membership

32

7.1.6 Membership of international and regional associations

34

7.1.7 Use of Student Competitions

34

7.2

The Profession

36

7.2.1 Regulation of the profession

36

7.2.2 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising

36

7.2.3 Number of registered architects and graduates in each country

37

7.2.4 Legal forms of association permitted in each country

40

7.2.5 Average annual salaries

42

7.2.6 Licensing requirements

43

7.2.7 Building permit requirements

44

7.2.8 Use of mandatory fee scales

44

7.2.9 Types of fee agreements permitted

45

7.2.10 Professional indemnity insurance requirements

45

7.3

46

Educating and Training

7.3.1 Number and types of schools of architecture

46

7.3.2 Reciprocal education agreements

47

7.3.3 National validation authority

48

7.3.4 Requirements for Continuing Professional Development

48

Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

The Market

Architecture and Government Context

Challenges and Opportunities

49

7.6.1 Summary responses 7.6.2 Associated comments

57

Appendix

66

I

Commonwealth facts and figures

66

II

Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

68

III

UN Sustainable Development Goals Index

70

61

71


www.comarchitect.org

72

Planning for Rapid Urbanisation

CAA Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth  

The Commonwealth Association of Architects, Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth

CAA Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth  

The Commonwealth Association of Architects, Survey of the Architectural Profession in the Commonwealth