1420 Ogden Street · Suite 103 Denver, CO 80218
COLORADO’S MOST ENDANGERED PLACES Issue No. 16
P 303.893.4260 F 303.893.4333
COLORADO’S MOST ENDANGERED PLACES in this issue Featured Sites Map
BOARD OF DIRECTORS & STAFF Colorado Preservation Board of Directors
Homesteading Resources of Escalante Canyon
Rebecca Goodwin, Chair of the Board, La Junta
Elizabeth (Liz) Hallas, Secretary, Golden Ron Thompson, Vice Chair, Greeley Dave Lively, Vice Chair, Grand Lake Karen J. Jonas, Treasurer, Denver
James “Jim” Isgar (The Honorable), Denver Julie Johnson, Denver Mike Metcalf, Eagle Greg Movesian, Denver Robert E. Musgraves, Denver Cynthia Neely, Georgetown Pat Pascoe (The Honorable), Denver Marie Patterson, Greenwood Village Dominick Sekich, Denver Arianthé C. Stettner, Steamboat Springs Linda Towle, Cortez
Kennedy/Mancos Grain Elevator
Sundial Plaza/Cranmer Park
Previous Listing Status
How You Can Help
Board Members & Staff
Colorado Preservation Staff Jane Daniels, Executive Director Michelle Chichester, Survey Coordinator Nicole Moore, Conference Manager Rachel Parris, Endangered Places Program Coordinator Colorado’s Most Endangered Places List 2013 Published Annually • Issue No. 16 Funded, in part, by:
Photo Credits: All photos taken from the site nomination packets, and used with permission by the photographer. Front cover photo: Kit Carson Memorial Chapel, Fort Lyon
A signature initiative of
For more information visit: www.coloradopreservation.org/programs/endangered-places
of Escalante Canyon 3 Hotchkiss Barn 4 Kennedy/Mancos Grain Elevator 5 Sundial Plaza/Cranmer Park
Teller Manitou Springs
John Martin Res
70 Arriba Hugo
Aurora Lakewood Denver Englewood Littleton Greenwood Village
Lafayette Broomfield Brighton Broomfield Northglenn 72
Fremont sR ansa
1 Fort Lyon 2 Homesteading Resources
Central City Georgetown
Hot Sulphur Springs
Buena Vista Chaffee
Blue Mesa Res
Garfield Rifle R. Colorado
COLORADO’S MOST ENDANGERED PLACES 2013
tte R h Pla Sout
OUR MISSION Founded in 1984, Colorado Preservation, Inc. promotes historic preservation in our State by providing information, education, training, expertise, and advocacy. We achieve this mission by partnering with historic property owners, non-profit organizations, educators, and local governments throughout the Rocky Mountain Region.
Our signature initiatives include the annual Dana Crawford and State Honor Awards Dinner, which honors excellence in heritage stewardship; Colorado’s Most Endangered Places List, and the annual Saving Places Preservation Conference. In addition, we support surveying and documenting cultural resources, assist communities, other non-profit organizations and individuals with grant and preservation program management. We also undertake rehabilitation and adaptive use projects to ensure that Colorado continues to build its future with historic places.
HOW CAN I HELP SAVE
COLORADO’S MOST ENDANGERED PLACES?
Become an Endangered Places Sponsor!
Go online to: www.ColoradoPreservation.org/get-involved to contribute today!
For more information on sponsorship opportunities, contact Rachel Parris at (303) 893-4260.
OR Send in a check to:
Colorado’s Most Endangered Places Program Colorado Preservation, Inc. 1420 Ogden Street, Suite 103 Denver, CO 80218
Nominate a threatened historic site to the Colorado’s Most Endangered Places List!
Nomination forms will be available at www.coloradopreservation.org in June
If you have any questions regarding the nomination process, contact Rachel Parris at (303) 893-4260.
Become a member of Colorado Preservation, Inc.!
Join our team by becoming a member at www.coloradopreservation.org/get-involved/become-a-member/
If you have any questions regarding membership, contact Michelle Chichester at (303) 893-4260.
FOUNDED IN 1984,
with a mission to promote and advance Historic Preservation throughout the State of Colorado, Colorado Preservation, Inc. is Colorado’s only private grassroots non-profit, statewide historic preservation organization. Once again it is time to present the sites nominated and selected for the 2013 List of Colorado’s Most Endangered Places. 2013 marks the16th annual Colorado’s Most Endangered Places List, a signature initiative of Colorado Preservation, Inc. Out of the total of the 91 sites have been listed, 32 sites are in the SAVED! category, including 3 sites that were added in 2012. Five that were previously classified as Alert were moved to Progress status, and only 5 have been lost. The purpose of this list is to raise awareness of and build support for significant historic sites in Colorado that are in danger of being lost. Each year we become aware of sites across the state that we did not realize were threatened, furthering our education of the history of Colorado and these historic places. Without the generous support of hundreds of people across the state, Colorado Preservation, Inc. would not be able to advance our mission. We would like to offer a sincere thanks to our partners: the State Historical Fund, the National Park Service, and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, with notable assistance from the U.S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and Government agencies across the state. Without your support the production of the list, as well as subsequent site progress, would not have been possible. I would like to encourage you to learn more about the Colorado’s Most Endangered Places Program by visiting our website, coloradopreservation.org.
ENDANGERED PLACES PROGRAM COORDINATOR
or reach us at: 303.893.4260 (phone) or 303.893.4333 (fax)
BENT COUNTY, LAS ANIMAS
FORT LYON IS LOCATED
along the Historic Santa Fe Trail, and
was completed by the Army in 1867, with the period of significance extending to 1956. Old Fort Lyon was notable as the staging post used by Colonel John Chivington in 1864. He led an attack by the Third Colorado Cavalry and other forces on friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho camps that became known as the Sand Creek Massacre. Key organizing elements of the site are the central Parade Ground, the Gate Road, Northeast (or Cemetery) Road, and the Arkansas River. The National Register Historic District is a 327 acre parcel, and the character-defining features of the historic district as a whole are the: Main Entrance, Parade Ground, Officer’s Row, Medical and Administrative Buildings (on the Parade Ground), Residential Areas, Utility Area, Wastewater Treatment Area, Recreational Facilities, West Farm, Road System, Agricultural and Irrigation Components. The history of Fort Lyon can be separated into 3 periods beginning with the Army Period (1868-1888) when the Fort was laid out in the tradition of a late nineteenth-century western military fort. Next was the Navy Period (1907-1922) when the Fort was used as a tuberculosis treatment facility, then the Early VA Period (1922-1956) when the Fort was maintained as a tuberculosis treatment facility, and later changed to be a residential care facility for veterans with neuro-psychiatric needs. The historic preservation issues at Fort Lyon are the result of decades of changing economics at the local, state, and federal levels. The economic and population decline throughout Southeastern Colorado is perhaps the largest reason to repurpose the site in order to facilitate job growth. In addition to the problems associated with changing economics, Fort Lyon also exemplifies preservation issues involved with temporary abandonment, and the detrimental effects due to natural and extreme weather causing the deterioration of the historic structures. The Fort is an important part of the area’s early history and demonstrative of the opening up of the West. The Colorado Department of Corrections has vacated the entire facility and the Fort’s future is uncertain. Ideally, a new owner and use will be found for the facility that highlights the importance of the site and maintains the overall integrity of the entire Fort Lyons complex.
OF ESCALANTE CANYON
DELTA COUNTY, DELTA
CAPTAIN SMITH’S CABIN Located on the Captain Smith’s Cabin property are two cabins in fair condition, as well as a root cellar. Built in 1911, the main cabin is a one-story, one-room building with stone walls. Captain Smith chose a huge fin of rock for site of his cabin, half of it buried in talus. The slab of rock makes up the fourth wall of the main cabin. Smith dug out a level floor, and squared up stones for the three other walls. A tombstone cutter by trade, he carved niches for his guns and used rock shelves as his bed. A small “kiva” like area is located in the northwest corner of the building,that was assumed to be used as an area to dry meat. All four walls of the cabin are random coursed, rough cut sandstone, finished with an adobe mortar and stucco. The steeply pitched, front gabled roof and the gabled ends are finished in wood shingles, and there is a wood framed door opening on the west side, and a small wood framed window opening on the south side.
These three Homesteading Sites of Escalante Canyon are all unique to the canyon area, not only for their manner of construction, but for the historical elements attached to them. All three of the following present themselves as community resources in which local citizens can relate to their history.
The construction is very unique to Escalante Canyon, which is known more for its traditional log cabin construction than carved sandstone structures. Because his cabin was so small, Smith built a “bunkhouse” for his guests; for many years the guest cabin provided a welcome stopover for those traveling in this remote area. There is even a secret room dug into the earth behind the cabin! Unfortunately, vandalism and deterioration of Captain Smith’s Cabin have increased. Major cracks in the exterior wall continue to expand, the doors and windows are missing, the interior walls have begun to crumble, leaving piles of rubble, and the cedar roof needs to be replaced.
HOMESTEADING RESOURCES OF ESCALANTE CANYON (CONT’D) WALKER HOMESTEAD
WATERWHEEL AND GUNNISON RIVER TRACT
The Walker Stone Cabin was built by homesteader Harry Walker
The Waterwheel is constructed out of steel and has 30 buckets that
and his sons in 1911. The stone cottage is modest at about
have the capacity to deliver one cubic
30’x 27’. Constructed out of stone, the cabin consists of a single-
foot of water to irrigated fields of crops.
story, double piled, side-gabled house in the American folk or
The structure uses corrugated tin for the
vernacular tradition. The Walker Cabin is situated in a flood plain
paddles on the wheel and as a liner to the
terrace in a grove of cottonwood trees.
water trough. Car mufflers are welded to
Walker and his four sons came to the area in two covered wagons, long after pioneering by prairie schooner was passé, and when railroads were the typical mode of transportation. At the time that the cabin was constructed, the County Bridge across the Gunnison River did not exist. The only access into the canyon was via a long and difficult wagon road across a rugged terrain. Until the sons of Walker built stone cabins of their own, as many
the frame of the wheel, and serve as water jugs for lifting water from the Gunnison River into the aforementioned trough. From the elevated trough, water runs onto the slope of a hill beside the river. There is even faint evidence of an earthen ditch contouring the steep slope beside the river. The Waterwheel was built in approximately 1933 to be used for irrigation during high water.
as eleven Walker children and grandchildren lived in the cabin; in
It may be the only water wheel left on the Gunnison River. Built by
addition, one room was usually occupied by the Escalante Canyon
Nelson J. Heater, date unknown, the current waterwheel replaces
rural school teacher.
a wooden water wheel that is assumed to have been built around
The stone mortared cottage is significant because it possesses work done by a mason, and is not a typical homestead built in the canyon. Virtually intact, the Walker Cabin and the two buildings located on the Smith property are the only buildings within the canyon known to survive from the period. The Walker Homestead has experienced severe vandalism over the years. Large stones from the fireplace have been removed, the kitchen cupboards and shelves have been destroyed, and the interior and exterior doors and windows
1911. The waterwheel is representative of the early farming history of the Delta County pioneers using irrigation water directly from the Gunnison River and the ingenuity that it took to develop it. This represents a significant engineering feat. The Waterwheel uses the flow of the Gunnison River to lift water up and out, dumping it into a trough that is located twenty-two feet above the level of the river! Due to a lack of maintenance, natural deterioration is taking a toll on this structure. Damage to the paddles has occurred, and rusting and weathering is evident throughout the entirety of the structure.
no longer exist. There are large settling
The Homesteading Sites of Escalante Canyon have experienced
cracks visible in the walls and the cedar
severe deterioration due to a lack of maintenance, the elements,
shingle roof has deteriorated allowing
and vandalism. It is hopeful that through a land transfer between the
leakage to damage the interior plaster.
Colorado Division of Wildlife and the Bureau of Land Management a full restoration of these resources can be achieved.
DELTA COUNTY, HOTCHKISS
THE HOTCHKISS BARN
is a unique 19th century eclectic masonry
barn. The Hotchkiss Barn is the oldest major building in the North Fork Valley surrounding the Town of Hotchkiss and reflects the agricultural nature of the area. It was built by Enos T. Hotchkiss who led a group of settlers into the area during August 1881, and who was instrumental in founding the town that bears his name. The site is still currently a working ranch and is managed by a 3rd generation Hotchkiss family member. As a result, the barn has seen continuous use since its completion date of 1886. The barn itself is unique because of its twelve inch thick walls of brick, which equates to about 100,000 bricks, and its transverse timber frame structure. These bricks, made close to the site beginning in 1885, gave birth to a masonry industry that provided bricks for several other prominent buildings nearby. The timber columns were hand hewn, and then joined with rough sawn beams and braces using pegged mortise tenon joints, representing a construction style unique to the 19th century. In 2010, a microburst left the building with Âź of its roof demolished and its brick walls in a shattered condition. There is a large hole at the southwest end that leaves the remainder of the building susceptible to further damage from rain, wind and snowstorms. The wythes of the remaining brick walls have separated and are in danger of collapse. The Hotchkiss Barn is the oldest major building in the North Fork Valley surrounding the Town of Hotchkiss, and provides a visual connection to the original homesteaders of the area. A restoration for the Barn would hopefully allow for public access and a variety of community events including barn dances that were historically held in the space in the late 1880s.
MONTEZUMA COUNTY, MANCOS
Grain Elevator was built in 1934, by Grady
Clampitt. Mr. Clampitt and Mr. Luellen, a bordering farmer, grew dryland wheat in fields bordering Mesa Verde National Park on the southeast side; those same fields are used to grow dryland wheat today, and it is the only wheat grown in the Valley at this time. The structure is a square stacked wood silo with a pitched metal roof, and sits on a poured concrete foundation, with a small barn addition attached. There is a large basement filled with rocks that serves to provide ballast for the silo. The Elevator was put in use upon completion and remained in use for an indeterminate number of years following Mr. Clampittâ€™s retirement. With the farm no longer in use the Kennedy/Mancos Grain Elevator is currently being used as a storage unit for family belongings. However, the family would ultimately like to come up with a new use for the grain elevator, in order to educate the public on the history of agriculture in the area. The Elevator is in a prominent location highly visible from Highway 160, and is considered a landmark. Although agriculture still plays a large role in the economy of the Mancos Valley, there are few structures indicating the historic heritage of farming that once made the Valley famous. Today ranching and irrigated hay production have replaced dryland grain crop. The Elevator is a statement of the determination of the agricultural community in place at the time it was built. Few examples of this particular unique workmanship are in place anywhere in Montezuma County today. The Kennedy/ Mancos Grain Elevator exemplifies some of the issues facing grain elevators across the State, in particular, those located in the Western region where grain production and farming resources are rare. Unfortunately, the Grain Elevator is deteriorating due to a missing roof, and drainage issues causing portions of the iconic stacked plank construction to fail.
DENVER COUNTY, DENVER
SUNDIAL PLAZA/CRANMER PARK
THE LAND FOR CRANMER PARK was acquired in 1908, with the first recorded reference to any site development occurring in 1923, when construction began on the terrazzo terrace. At the time the park was named Mountain View Park, given that the platform offers an excellent view of the Front Rage. Mountain profiles were etched in the terrazzo creating a mosaic panorama of Colorado’s mountain range, which mimic the breathtaking view. Inscriptions etched in the panorama detail historic landmarks from Pikes Peak and Long’s Peak, The terrazzo construction as well as the park’s notable flower beds were funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Installed in 1941, the sundial was carved from quartzite stone quarried in Lyons, Colorado. Its design was based on an ancient Chinese sundial. Unfortunately, the original sundial was bombed by dynamite by vandals in 1965. The destructive incident prompted a community-wide effort to reconstruct a replica of the sundial, led by city officials, members of the Junior Chamber of Commerce, residents, and business leaders and installed in 1966. Its current condition can be best described as disrepair to the point of destruction. There are crumbling flagstones, missing stones, broken and cracked etchings in the tablets, and broken mosaic stones in the etched Mountain View panoramas. The sundial, the most distinct feature of the plaza, is stained and showing the ill-effects of time and weather. In addition, according to historic construction records, the Sundial Plaza was built on rubble and as a result, has no firm foundation. This is causing the plaza to buckle and sag in areas, seriously affecting the flagstone and mortar of the plaza. The repairs that have been made so far to the plaza have been executed as a result of safety concerns, and due to the quick nature of the repairs they have been done in an insensitive manner to the historic fabric. Despite the condition of Cranmer Park/Sundial Plaza there is a large amount of community and local support. The Cranmer Park/Hilltop Civic Association, a non-profit, volunteer neighborhood association made up of residents of the area, has begun fundraising in order to help restore the site.
PAST LIST DESIGNATIONS & STATUS Saved
Beaumont Home (2004), Pueblo County Bradford Perley House (2002), Jefferson County Chimney Rock (2008), Archuleta County City Ditch (2003), Douglas, Arapahoe, and Denver Counties Civic Center (2007), Denver County Cripple Creek (1998), Teller County Daniels Schoolhouse (2006), Weld County (Newly Saved!) Downtown Greeley (2000), Weld County Durango Power House (2001), La Plata County Emma Store (2000), Pitkin County (Newly Saved!) Evans School (2000), Denver County Georgetown School (2006), Clear Creek County Grandview Terrace Neighborhood (1999), Boulder County Grant Avenue Church & Community Center (2002), Denver County Hanger 61 (2005), Denver County Hanging Flume (1999), Montrose County Hutchinson Homestead & Ranch (2003), Chaffee County (Newly Saved!) Lewis Mill (1998), San Miguel County Lime Kilns (2001), Pitkin County Manitou Springs Spa (2000), El Paso County Original Gold Hill Townsite (2000), Boulder County Pillars of P.O.W. Camp 202 (2005), Weld County Preston Farm (1998), Larimer County Red Mountain Mining District (1999), Ouray and San Miguel Counties Redstone Castle (2004), Pitkin County Rialto Theatre (2008), Alamosa County Rock Creek Stage Stop (2000), Routt County San Rafael Church (2001), Conejos County Satank Bridge (2003), Garfield County Shield Rock Art Site (2001), Rio Blanco County Studzinski Block (2008), Pueblo County Toltec Hotel (1998), Las Animas County
Fruita Bridge (2002), Mesa County Goodnight Barn (2002), Pueblo County Grand Junction Depot (2010), Mesa County Greeley, Salt Lake and Pacific RR Grade-Stout Branch (2009), Larimer County Handy Chapel (2011), Mesa County Historic Eastside Neighborhood (2012), Pueblo County (Moved From Alert to Progress!) Historic I-70 Mountain Corridor Communities (2005), Clear Creek County Hugo Roundhouse (2002), Lincoln County InterLaken Resort (2001), Lake County Leadville Mining District (1998), Lake County Lizzy Knight’s Cabin (2012), Rural Dolores County (Moved from Alert to Progress!) McElmo Creek Flume (2011), Montezuma County Moffat Road/Hill Road (2012), Rural Boulder, Grand, and Gilpin Counties (Moved from Alert to Progress!) Native American Arboreal Wickiup & Teepee Sites (2003), Statewide Outbuildings of Lake City (2010), Hinsdale County Paris Mill (2004), Park County Ralston Cemetery (2011), Jefferson County Riverside Cemetery (2008), Denver and Adams Counties Silver Dollar Saloon (2008), Teller County Sixteenth Street Mall (2009), Denver County Snowstorm Gold Dredge (2001), Park County Soldiers & Sailors Home (2005), Rio Grande County Stranges Grocery (2001), Mesa County Sullivan Gateway (2012), Denver County (Moved from Alert to Progress!) Windsor Mill (2002), Weld County
Progress Alta Lakes (2000), San Miguel County Amache Internment Camp (2001), Prowers County Arkansas Valley Fairground Adobe Stables (2007), Otero County Bent County High School (2004), Bent County Brown’s Sheep Camp (2010), Las Animas County Central City (1998), Gilpin County Colona School & Grange (2006), Ouray County Colorado Capitol Dome (2010), Denver County Colorado Fuel & Iron Plant-Museum (1999), Pueblo County Commodore Mining District (2006), Mineral County Como Depot (2006), Park County Crossan’s Market (2012), Routt County (Moved from Alert to Progress!) Denver & Rio Grande Antonito Depot (2007), Conejos County El Corazon de Trinidad (2000), Las Animas County Elkhorn Lodge (2010), Larimer County Fourth Street Commercial District, Saguache (2009), Saguache County
Alert Black Hawk (1998), Gilpin County Colorado Fuel & Iron Plant-Industrial Plant (1999), Pueblo County Central Platoon School (2012), Morgan County Craig Depot (2008), Moffat County Dearfield Farming Colony (1999), Weld County Foxton Post Office (2002), Jefferson County Gianella Building (2004), Las Animas County Hispanic Cultural Landscapes of the Purgatoire River Valley (1998), Las Animas County McLaughlin Building (2007), Pueblo County Santa Fe Trail & Southeast Heritage Region (2007), Baca, Bent, Las Animas & Otero Counties Union Pacific Pumphouse (2005), Cheyenne County Walsen Power Plant (2009), Huerfano County Willowcroft Manor & Farm (2010), Arapahoe County
Lost Christian Science Church (1998), Teller County Currigan Exhibition Hall (2000), Denver County Columbian Elementary School (2004), Bent County Given Institute (2011), Pitkin County Kit Carson Hotel (2003), Otero County
SPONSORS & DONORS Colorado Preservation, Inc. gratefully acknowledges the following for their generous support in 2012. Sponsors:
Donors Smokey Anderson Aramark Mesa Verde Aspen Skiing Company Bacon Handmade Neckware Bent’s Old Fort Boettcher Mansion Boulder Philharmonic Orchestra Box Canyon Lodge & Hot Springs Brewer’s Association Canyon Wind Cellars Central City Opera Ninki Carroll Chautauqua Cherokee Ranch & Castle The Cherry Cricket Christian & Sons, Inc. City of Colorado Springs Dene Clark Colorado Department of Transportation Colorado Lamb Council Colorado Railroad Museum Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Colorado Symphony Cortez Cultural Center Creative Conservation Collective Creede Repertory Theatre Crested Butte Nordic Center Crow Canyon Archaeological Center Cruze’s Swings & Things Culinary Connectors Denver B-Cycle Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad Patrick Eidman Elkhorn Lodge & Guest Ranch Enstrom Candies Fairmont Heritage Foundation Fairplay-Valiton Hotel Fancy Tiger Jovonne Fitzgerald Friends of the Dome Frontier Airlines GH Phipps Construction Company
The Governor’s Residence Grand Adventures Friday Green Hammond’s Candy Jim Havey Havey Productions Haystack Mountain Goat Dairy High Country News Historic Georgetown Loop Railroad HistoriCorps History Colorado Hotel Jerome Eliot Hoyt Huerfano County Historical Society Hyatt Regency Kit Carson County Carousel Association Lackawanna Heritage Valley James Loewen Maggiano’s Little Italy Mesa Verde Museum Association New Belgium Brewing Arnold Palmer Rachel Parris Pat Pascoe Phelps & Associates Picket Wire Canyonlands Pinon Canyon Expansion Opposition Coalition Point 6 Ann Pritzlaff R + D Wine Shop ReBarn Redstone Castle Royal Gorge Bridge & Park Savory Spice Shop Harold Shatsoff Sky Venture Colorado Steamboat Resorts Condominium Arianthé C. Stettner Tarryall River Ranch Ruth & Vernon Taylor Foundation Watkins Stained Glass Studio White Fence Farms The Vineyard