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Contents INTRODUCTION

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UNIT 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

UNIT 4: The English Civil War

Chapter 1: The young Henry VIII

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Chapter 1: James I and the Gunpowder Plot 42

Chapter 2: The Reformation

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Chapter 2: Charles I and Parliament

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Chapter 3: Henry’s ‘Great Matter’

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Chapter 3: The outbreak of war

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Chapter 4: The English Reformation

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Chapter 4: Fighting the English Civil War

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Chapter 5: Henry VIII and Edward VI

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Chapter 5: Trial and execution

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Knowledge organiser

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UNIT 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

UNIT 2: The age of encounters Chapter 1: The Italian Renaissance

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Chapter 2: Print, gunpowder and astronomy

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Chapter 3: Global exploration

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Chapter 4: Christopher Columbus

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Chapter 5: The ‘New World’

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Chapter 1: Cromwell’s Commonwealth

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Chapter 2: The Restoration

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Chapter 3: Restoration England

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Chapter 4: The Great Fire of London

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Chapter 5: The Glorious Revolution

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UNIT 6: Georgian Britain

UNIT 3: The later Tudors Chapter 1: Mary I’s Counter-reformation

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Chapter 1: Creation of Great Britain

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Chapter 2: Elizabeth I

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Chapter 2: Parliamentary government

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Chapter 3: The Elizabethan Golden Age

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Chapter 3: Jacobite uprisings

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Chapter 4: The Spanish Armada

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Chapter 4: Georgian aristocracy

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Chapter 5: Rich and poor in Tudor England

Chapter 5: Poverty, violence and crime

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INDEX

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

The young Henry VIII When Henry VIII was crowned king in 1509, he was already the hero of Tudor England. He was tall and handsome, and a keen jouster, wrestler, archer, hunter and tennis player. Henry VIII was taught by some of the greatest philosophers of the age, and could write poetry, compose music and speak French and Latin fluently. The scholar Thomas More wrote a poem to celebrate Henry’s coronation, stating: “This day is the end of our slavery, the fount of liberty; the end of sadness, the beginning of joy”. High hopes rested on the young king’s shoulders. Henry was not meant to be king, but he became heir to the throne aged 10 when his older brother Arthur died unexpectedly in 1502. When his father Henry VII died, Henry VIII inherited the throne. Straight away, Henry married his dead brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was a pretty and intelligent Spanish princess six years his senior, and their marriage secured England’s alliance with Spain. Henry was 17-years-old when he became king. He ruled over a magnificent court, with continual entertainments and parties. Henry ordered regular jousting tournaments, which he often took part in himself. All of this jousting had a serious purpose, however: Henry VIII was training his noblemen for war. The new king dreamed of conquest, transforming England into a great European empire, ruling over Wales, Scotland, Ireland and France.

War with France Having allied with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, Henry invaded France in 1513. The English army captured two towns, and won a victory against the French at the Battle of the Spurs. Henry’s allies had changed their minds, however, and decided not to invade France. This left the English army unable to advance any further. Henry signed a peace treaty with France, securing new lands and an annual payment for England.

Portrait of Henry VIII, painted shortly after his coronation

Fact In 2004, a historian looking through an inventory of Henry VIII’s royal wardrobe made a surprising find: the king, who loved sport, owned a pair of leather football boots.

During the invasion of France, the Scottish King James IV (who was allied with France) took the opportunity to invade northern England with a large army of 60 000 men. With Henry absent, Queen Catherine organised England’s defence against the Scots. The Scottish army was soundly beaten at the Battle of Flodden with thousands killed, including the Scottish King James IV. Catherine organised for the Scottish king’s bloodstained tunic to be sent as a gift to Henry VIII in France.

The Field of the Cloth of Gold Victories over the French and Scottish in 1513 confirmed England’s position as a major European power. Henry VIII’s dream of empire was edging ever closer. But events took a bad turn in 1516 when France gained a new king, the warlike and shrewd Francis I. Henry’s Lord Chancellor, Thomas Wolsey (see box), persuaded Henry to make peace with France.

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Henry was reluctant to let go of his ambitions. To make the peace between England and France seem more honourable, Wolsey organised a magnificent celebration of peace. In June 1520, Henry VIII and Francis I met in France. For two weeks the young kings tried to outdo each other with displays of wealth and flamboyance. Henry and Francis even met each other in the wrestling ring, where Francis I won, much to Henry’s anger. Many of the tents in which the visitors stayed were made from cloth threaded with gold, so the event became known as the ‘Field of the Cloth of Gold’.

1.1

‘The Field of the Cloth of Gold’, painted for Henry VIII in 1545

Thomas Wolsey Masterminding Henry VIII’s early successes was a priest named Thomas Wolsey. The son of an Ipswich butcher, Wolsey rose from humble beginnings to become the most powerful man in England, aside from the king. In 1514 Wolsey became Archbishop of York. The following year, the Pope made him a Cardinal and Henry appointed him Lord Chancellor, the king’s chief advisor. Through sheer drive, Wolsey had gained complete control of English politics and the church. He worked tirelessly, organising the affairs of state so that Henry could enjoy himself. Whatever the king wanted, Wolsey would deliver. Wolsey became magnificently rich, and liked to show off his wealth, travelling through London each morning in a grand procession flanked by two silver crosses. He built himself a house beside the River Thames, which was grander and larger than any belonging to the king. Wolsey named it Hampton Court Palace. Many in Henry’s court were envious of Wolsey, resenting the fact that this ‘butcher’s boy’ had risen to such wealth and power. His enemies nicknamed him the ‘fat maggot’, and began to plot his downfall.

Check your understanding 1. Who was Henry VIII’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, previously married to? 2. What military successes did England enjoy in 1513? 3. Why did Cardinal Wolsey persuade Henry VIII to make peace with France? 4. What was the purpose of the Field of the Cloth of Gold celebrations in 1520? 5. What positions of power did Thomas Wolsey hold?

Chapter 1: The young Henry VIII

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

The Reformation At the start of the 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church was the single most powerful organisation in Western Europe. From the forests of Poland in the East, to the coast of Portugal in the West, this one religion held sway over millions of lives. At the head of the Catholic Church was the Pope, who lived in Rome and controlled a large swathe of central Italy. Catholics believed that the Pope was God’s representative on Earth, and he held enormous power. During the medieval period, popes called for crusades, started wars, and could make or break European royal families. However, by 1500, the Roman Catholic Church had developed a reputation for corruption.

Corruption The papacy had been taken over by wealthy, power-hungry popes who paid little attention to religion. Perhaps the most infamous was Pope Alexander VI, who was from a powerful Spanish family known as the Borgias. He threw all-night parties, stole money from the church, and had as many as ten children with his mistresses – even though the Pope, as a Catholic clergyman, was supposed to remain celibate. In order to raise money, the Catholic Church sold indulgences. An indulgence was a certificate personally signed by the Pope, which a Christian could buy to gain forgiveness for their sins. You could even buy indulgences for dead relatives, to shorten their time in purgatory. There was also a lively market for ‘holy relics’. Normally said to be body parts of saints or Jesus Christ, these relics were rarely genuine. Churches would buy and sell the fingernail of Jesus Christ, part of the tree from the Garden of Eden, or a vial of the Virgin Mary’s breast milk. Pilgrims would pay churches considerable amounts of money to see and touch these relics, believing they had divine powers.

Pope Alexander VI

Lastly, the Catholic Church was enormously wealthy. Even holy orders of nuns and monks, who were supposed to live a life of simplicity and poverty in monasteries and abbeys, could be found living in luxury. The Catholic clergy wore vestments made of finest silk and velvet, and Catholic churches were richly decorated, with gold altars, wall paintings, burning incense and stained glass windows.

Protestantism Some priests began to argue that the Catholic Church had strayed from the true word of Jesus Christ, and been turned rotten by wealth. Jesus Christ lived a life of simplicity and

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Money was raised to build St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican from the sale of indulgences.

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preached against greed, they argued, so should the Catholic Church not follow his example?

1.2.1

These priests attacked the Pope and the Catholic Church, giving sermons and writing short books explaining their beliefs. They were greatly aided by the newly invented printing press (see page 20), which allowed their books to spread throughout Europe. Due to their ‘protest’ against the authority of the Catholic Church, they were given the name ‘Protestants’. Protestantism was particularly powerful in Germany, Switzerland, Holland and Belgium, where priests such as John Calvin and Martin Luther (see box) gained large followings. They proposed a simpler form of Christianity, replacing ritual and superstition with the word of the Bible, and richly decorated church interiors with plain, whitewashed walls. Fundamental to Protestantism was the belief that all Christians should have their own relationship with God, formed through regular reading of the Bible. However, within Roman Catholicism the Bible could only be read in Greek, Hebrew or Latin, and all services were conducted in Latin. So, in secret, Protestants began translating the Bible into their own languages. This movement to reform Christianity spread across Europe and became known as ‘the Reformation’.

Fact Counting up all of the relics from a particular saint, one Protestant tract concluded that the saint must have had six arms, and 26 fingers.

Martin Luther Born in Germany, Martin Luther became a monk at the age of 22. In 1510 he visited Rome, and was appalled by the wealth and corruption that he saw there. In 1517 Luther wrote a list of arguments, known as the ’95 theses’, attacking church abuses, in particular the selling of indulgences. Luther nailed the 95 theses to the door of his church in Wittenberg, and this event is often said to have marked the start of the Reformation. In 1522, at a meeting known as the Diet of Worms, Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and an outlaw. On leaving the court, Luther was ambushed and kidnapped. However, his kidnapper was a German prince who offered Luther a hiding place at Wartburg Castle. In 1525, Luther married a former nun named Katharina von Bora who had abandoned her convent. Together they had six children. Luther also began to translate the Bible into German. He finished his German Bible in 1534, by which time much of Germany had converted to Protestantism. Modern illustration of Martin Luther and his 95 theses

Check your understanding 1. Why was Pope Alexander VI so infamous? 2. What was corrupt about the selling of indulgences? 3. How were Protestant churches different from Catholic churches? 4. Why did Protestants want to translate the Bible into their own languages? 5. What did Martin Luther do in 1517, which is said to have marked the start of the Reformation?

Chapter 2: The Reformation

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

Henry’s ‘Great Matter’ In 1522 Henry VIII invaded France again, only to be embarrassed when his ally, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, failed to turn up. When Henry tried to raise money for a second invasion in 1525, there were riots across England, so the invasion had to be called off. Henry’s hopes of conquering France were abandoned, and he was left humiliated and frustrated. Henry’s frustration off the battlefield was even more serious. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, was now 40 years old and had given him only one child who survived infancy – his daughter Mary. Henry desperately needed a male heir to continue the Tudor royal line, but by 1525 Catherine was unlikely to provide one.

Catherine of Aragon

By now, Henry had fallen in love with a younger, prettier woman called Anne Boleyn, who was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Catherine. Anne was highly educated, ambitious and flirtatious, teasing Henry that she would only make love to him if he took her as his wife. As part of the royal court, she was able to enrapture the king with her intelligence and wit. Before long, Henry was desperate to have Anne as his wife.

The ‘Great Matter’ In order to marry Anne, Henry first had to divorce Catherine. But this had to be approved by Pope Clement. Unfortunately for Henry, Catherine of Aragon’s nephew was the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He had recently captured Rome, taking Pope Clement as his prisoner. Charles ordered that on no account should Pope Clement allow Henry to divorce his aunt Catherine, and Clement obeyed. Henry was absolutely determined to gain a divorce, and called the issue his ‘Great Matter’. He claimed that he had solid, religious grounds to do so. The book of Leviticus in the Bible states if a man marries his brother’s widow, the couple will remain childless. Henry used this passage to argue

Anne Boleyn

Modern illustration of Catherine of Aragon pleading her case against divorce

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that his marriage to Catherine was never lawful in the first place, and God had cursed him by not providing a son. In 1527, Henry asked the Pope Clement to annul his marriage, but the Pope refused.

1.3.1

Wolsey’s fall Henry asked his Chancellor Thomas Wolsey to persuade the Pope to change his mind. However, even his supremely powerful Cardinal Wolsey failed to do so. Henry was furious, and Wolsey rapidly fell from favour. To try to win back the king, Wolsey gave him his magnificent Hampton Court Palace as a gift, but it was not enough. Wolsey was stripped of his job as Lord Chancellor in 1529, and fled to York. In 1530 he was ordered to stand trial on a trumped up charge of treason. During his journey from York back to London, Wolsey died a broken man. With his last words, Wolsey said: “Had I but served my God with but half the zeal as I served my king, He would not in mine age have left me naked to mine enemies.”

The break with Rome For six long years, Henry tried and failed to get his divorce, but then he had a new idea. Anne Boleyn was a keen reader of Martin Luther’s books. She, and many others, suggested to the king that if England were no longer a Catholic country, Henry would no longer need the Pope’s approval to divorce.

The Great Gatehouse at Hampton Court Palace

Henry did not like Protestant ideas. In 1521, he wrote a book entitled ‘Defence of the Seven Sacraments’, which attacked Luther’s ideas and defended the Pope. Henry had made it illegal to own Luther’s books. He even burnt suspected Protestants at the stake for being heretics. Henry VIII’s early defence of Catholicism earned him the title ‘Defender of the Faith’ from Pope Leo X. However, as Henry was desperate for a divorce, and furious with the Pope, he began to see some benefits in Protestant ideas. He also realised that if the head of the English Church was not the Pope, it could be him. In January 1533, Henry married Anne Boleyn in secret. The marriage was declared valid by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, two months later. Then, in November 1534, Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, one of the most important laws in English history. It confirmed England’s break with Rome, and created a new Church of England. From now on England no longer belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, and Henry VIII was the Supreme Head of the Church of England.

Fact Anne Boleyn had such a strong hold over the king’s affection that many myths grew up around her. Some said she had six fingers and that she was a witch.

Check your understanding 1. Why was Henry VIII so dissatisfied with his marriage to Catherine of Aragon by 1525? 2. What prevented Henry VIII from being able to divorce Catherine of Aragon, and marry Anne Boleyn? 3. On what grounds did Henry VIII claim that his first marriage was not lawful? 4. Why did leaving the Roman Catholic Church provide a solution to Henry VIII’s ‘Great Matter’? 5. What did the 1534 Act of Supremacy confirm?

Chapter 3: Henry’s ‘Great Matter’

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

The English Reformation To ensure full support for the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII ordered that all public figures and clergymen swear the Oath of Supremacy. This oath stated that Henry was the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Those who refused to swear were tried for treason and executed. A group of Carthusian monks who were loyal to the Pope were among those who refused. As punishment, they were dragged through the streets of London, then hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. The abbot’s arm was brought back to the abbey, and nailed to the door. The monk’s heads were placed on the spikes above London Bridge. The most famous figure to refuse was Henry’s great friend Sir Thomas More, who was one of the most celebrated writers and thinkers in England. More became Lord Chancellor after the downfall of Thomas Wolsey, but only lasted three years before stepping down in 1532. As a devout Roman Catholic, More could not accept Henry’s marriage to Anne. In 1534 he refused to swear the Oath of Supremacy, and was locked in a dark, damp prison cell for 17 months. Henry pleaded with More to swear the Oath, but his conscience would not allow him to change his mind. More was tried for treason and executed in 1535. On the scaffold, More said: “I die the king’s good servant, but God’s servant first”.

Thomas More, Lord Chancellor to Henry VIII until 1532

The Dissolution of the Monasteries With Thomas Wolsey dead, and Sir Thomas More executed, Henry needed a new chief minister. He chose Thomas Cromwell, who was born the son of a Putney blacksmith, but rose to become Chancellor of the Exchequer. Cromwell had led an exciting life, working as a mercenary, wool merchant, banker and lawyer along the way. A keen reader of Luther, Cromwell pushed for further Protestant reforms to the church. In particular, he proposed that all of England’s monasteries and abbeys should be closed down. Monasteries had a 1000 year history of providing education, prayer and charity to the people of England. But they were also accused of excessive wealth and corruption. Many of England’s 800 monasteries were enormously wealthy, owning magnificent treasures and a quarter of the land in England. If they were closed, Cromwell told Henry, this land and property would revert to the crown. Henry was in urgent need of money to fight more wars, so the dissolution of the monasteries began in 1536. The king’s men descended on the monasteries, stripping lead from their roofs, gold, silver and jewels from their altars, and selling their land to local landowners.

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Ruins of Whitby Abbey, in Yorkshire England

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Monks and nuns were given a small pension, and turned out onto the streets. Henry made himself enormously rich, increasing the crown’s income by around £150,000 a year (perhaps £80 million in today’s money). England’s monasteries, once so magnificent, were left to crumble – the haunting ruins of these ancient buildings can still be seen across England today.

1.4.1

The Pilgrimage of Grace For many in England, the destruction of England’s monasteries was a step too far. In autumn 1536, a group of angry Catholics gathered together in Yorkshire, led by a young nobleman named Robert Aske. He and his followers occupied York. They then invited the expelled nuns and monks to return to their monasteries and resume Catholic observance. Aske’s followers became known as the ‘Pilgrimage of Grace’, and their numbers swelled to around 35 000 men. Many were armed, and they planned to march on London. Henry VIII sent an army north to meet Aske and his rebel army. He promised that if they went home, they would be forgiven. However, Henry was growing increasingly cruel. A year later, when a much smaller rebellion took place, he took the opportunity to round up and kill 200 of those involved in Aske’s rebellion. In Cumberland, 70 villagers were hanged from trees in their villages in front of their families. Robert Aske was hanged in chains from York Castle, and left to die in agonising pain.

Banner carried during the Pilgrimage of Grace, showing the Holy Wounds of Jesus Christ

Tudor schools Before their dissolution, monasteries provided a basic education for boys from the surrounding area. To replace this service, wealthy businessmen and landowners established new ‘grammar schools’. Over 300 such schools were established during the 16th century, with a strong focus on teaching Latin grammar and promoting the new Protestant faith. Many were named after Henry VIII’s son, King Edward VI, and his daughter Queen Elizabeth I. The school day normally stretched from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m., and no girls were allowed to attend. The main subjects were Latin, religion, arithmetic and music. Boys would write with a quill pen, made from a trimmed feather. Misbehaving pupils would be beaten with a birch, or rapped over the knuckles with a wooden rod.

Check your understanding 1. What happened to those in England who refused to swear the Oath of Supremacy? 2. Who was Thomas Cromwell, and what were his religious views? 3. How did Henry VIII gain from the Dissolution of the Monasteries? 4. Why did Robert Aske begin the Pilgrimage of Grace? 5. Why did the Dissolution of the Monasteries lead to the creation of so many new schools in England?

Chapter 4: The English Reformation

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

Henry VIII and Edward VI Henry VIII’s marriage to Anne Boleyn did not last long. Her independent character, which had so delighted Henry when he first met her, infuriated him once she was his wife. Henry longed for a son, but when Anne gave birth in September 1533, the child was a girl. She was named Elizabeth after Henry’s mother. Henry was so disappointed not to have a male heir, however, he refused to attend his daughter Elizabeth’s christening.

Jane Seymour

Anne miscarried her next three children, and Henry’s dislike for her grew. After three years of marriage, Anne was charged with multiple cases of adultery and treason, though she was almost certainly innocent. In May 1536, Anne was executed, along with four of her accused lovers. One day later, Henry became engaged to his third wife, Jane Seymour. Henry adored Jane. She was mild-mannered and affectionate, and in 1537 she provided Henry with the son he had always desired. They named him Edward. Anne of Cleves

Jane died soon after Edward’s birth, and Henry went on to have three more wives but no more children. In 1540, he married Anne of Cleves, but there was little attraction between them: Henry said she looked like ‘a Flanders mare’. They divorced six months later. Later that year Henry married Catherine Howard, but she was accused of adultery and beheaded in 1541. Finally, in 1543 Henry married Catherine Parr, who acted as a stepmother to his three children, and outlived Henry.

Henry the tyrant Catherine Howard

During a jousting tournament at Greenwich Palace in 1536, Henry was crushed beneath his horse and suffered severe injuries. Unable to exercise, he grew enormously fat and developed a 54 inch waist, arthritis and painful ulcers. By the end of his life Henry was too overweight to walk, and had to be wheeled around his palace in a specially made machine. During this period, Henry turned against Protestant ideas, and put the English Reformation into reverse. In 1539, Parliament passed the Six Articles, reasserting Catholic doctrines such as celibate priests and transubstantiation. A year later, Henry beheaded his chief minister Thomas Cromwell for his Protestant sympathies, and for organising Henry’s failed marriage to Anne of Cleves.

Fact

Henry was becoming increasingly tyrannical, and between 1532–1540 he executed 330 people: Protestants were burnt at the stake for being heretics; Catholics were hanged, drawn and quartered for being traitors; and the king’s relatives were beheaded for being seen as rivals to the throne.

In 1532 Henry VIII passed a law ruling that murderers who used poison should be boiled to death.

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Catherine Parr

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On 28 January 1547, Henry died aged 55. His funeral was a full Catholic service, complete with incense and Latin chanting. By the end of his long and eventful reign, Henry had invaded France three times, married six different wives, executed a Lord Chancellor and a chief minister, amassed 55 royal palaces, founded the Royal Navy, made himself King of Ireland, and established the Church of England.

1.5.1

Edward VI Following his death, Henry’s only surviving son Edward became king. Edward was just nine years old. Known as the ‘boy king’ and the ‘godly imp’, Edward VI was very intelligent, and a far stronger believer in the Reformation than his father. Whilst Henry VIII had started the English Reformation, the Church of England remained Catholic throughout his reign. It simply did not recognise the authority of the Pope in Rome. Edward VI passed further Protestant reforms to the English Church: priests were allowed to marry; the Catholic Mass was abolished; and church services in English became compulsory. He also authorised the first prayer book in English, Thomas Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer. However, Edward was an unhealthy and weak child. Aged only 15, sores appeared across his body and he began to cough up blood. In 1553 Edward died, unmarried and childless. Henry VIII’s nightmare of an unstable throne with no certain heir had become a reality.

Portrait of Edward VI

The end of the old faith Once on the throne, Edward VI was advised by his uncle the Duke of Somerset and his strongly Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer. Any remaining Catholic features were rooted out of English churches. Altars, hanging crucifixes, shrines, rood screens and statues were burned, while stained glass windows were smashed and wall paintings whitewashed. Catholic rituals and ceremonies, such as Corpus Christi processions and ‘creeping to the cross’, were banned. To most of England’s poor, illiterate population, these colourful practices were fundamental to their belief, but from now on, they were deprived of the religion they knew and loved. Rosaries, holy water, relics and icons were all banned from the Church of England. The old faith of medieval England had gone, and in its place was a new religion based not on ritual and superstition, but on the word of the Bible.

Modern image of a wooden rosary

Check your understanding 1. On what grounds was Anne Boleyn executed in 1536? 2. Was Henry VIII’s marriage to Jane Seymour a success? 3. How did Henry VIII’s accident in 1536 change his appearance? 4. Why did Henry VIII execute his chief minister Thomas Cromwell in 1540? 5. How were Edward VI’s religious views different from those of his father?

Chapter 5: Henry VIII and Edward VI

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

Knowledge organiser 1520 The Field of the Cloth of Gold

1509 Henry VIII becomes King of England

1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 theses to his church door in Wittenberg

1513 Henry VIII’s first invasion of France

1521 Henry VIII writes ‘Defence of the Seven Sacraments’ attacking Martin Luther

Key vocabulary Act of Supremacy A law passed by Parliament which led to the creation of the Church of England Altar The table in a Christian church where the priest performs the Holy Communion Book of Common Prayer A book of prayers used for Church of England services and written in English Break with Rome England’s decision to leave the Roman Catholic Church in 1534 Cardinal A senior member of the Catholic Church, who wears a distinctive red cassock Catholicism One of the three major branches of Christianity, led from Rome by the Pope Celibate Choosing to remain unmarried and abstain from sex, usually for religious reasons Corruption The misuse of power for dishonest or immoral purposes Dissolution of the Monasteries The closure of all religious houses in England by Henry VIII Hampton Court A magnificent palace built by Thomas Wolsey, and later given as a gift to King Henry VIII Heretic Someone with beliefs that question or contradict the established church

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Holy Roman Empire A collection of central European states that developed during the medieval period Incense A substance made from tree resin, burnt in churches to create a strong sweet aroma Indulgence A forgiveness of one’s sins purchased from the medieval Catholic Church Lady-in-waiting A female member of the Royal Court, working as a personal assistant to the Queen Lord Chancellor The king’s most powerful advisor, also known as ‘keeper of the Great Seal’ Mass The central act of worship in the Catholic Church, when the Holy Communion is taken Mercenary A professional soldier who is paid to fight for foreign armies Oath of Supremacy An oath of allegiance to the monarch as supreme head of the Church of England Protestantism A form of Christianity which emerged during the 1500s in protest against Catholicism Reformation A movement to reform the Christian church which began with Martin Luther in Germany

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1536 The Dissolution of the Monasteries begins 1533 Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn

1547 Edward VI is crowned King

1536 (October) The Pilgrimage of Grace takes place

1536 (May) Anne Boleyn is executed 1534 The Act of Supremacy starts the English Reformation

1539 Parliament passes the Six Articles

Key people Key vocabulary Relic An object of religious significance, often the physical or personal remains of a saint Royal Court A collection of nobles and clergymen, known as courtiers, who advise the monarch Stained glass Decorative coloured glass, often found in the windows of churches and cathedrals Supreme Head of the Church of England The title granted to Henry VIII following the Act of Supremacy Transubstantiation The change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ during Communion Tudors The royal dynasty that ruled England from 1485 to 1603 Vestments Garments worn by Christian clergymen, colourful and richly decorated for Catholics

Anne Boleyn Henry VIII’s second wife, who was executed in 1536 for adultery Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII’s first wife and the daughter of the King and Queen of Spain Charles V Emperor who ruled Spain and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until 1556 Edward VI The only son of Henry VIII, he died aged fifteen and is known as the ‘Boy King’ Henry VIII King of England from 1509 to 1547 who had six wives and started the English Reformation Martin Luther A German monk and theologian who helped to start the Reformation Thomas Cromwell Henry VIII’s chief minister from 1532, and a strong Protestant Thomas More Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor from 1529, he was executed for his Catholicism Thomas Wolsey Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor from 1515 to 1529, and a very wealthy and powerful man

Knowledge organiser

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

The Anglo-Saxons The Romans ruled Britain for 400 years, until 410 AD, when the Roman army abandoned the country. A population of remaining Roman civilians and native Britons – also known as ‘Celts’ – were left to fend for themselves. Over the next 100 years, two tribes from northern Germany invaded Britain. Known as the Anglo-Saxons, they were fierce warriors who killed and enslaved the British population, and remaining Romans. The Anglo-Saxons took control of eastern and central England. Only Wales, Scotland and the West Country (Devon, Cornwall and Somerset) remained largely unaffected. Without the Roman army to defend against the Anglo-Saxon invaders, the culture and Christian religion of Roman society in Britain began to fade. Roman technologies such as glassmaking, road building and heated baths were lost. Unlike the Romans, the early Anglo-Saxons could not read or write, and did not have the technology to build cities or roads. There are no written records or buildings left from these early years of Anglo-Saxon rule for historians to study. For this reason, we know very little about what happened between the fifth and sixth centuries. This is one reason why some call this period the ‘Dark Ages’. Britain was a very different place compared with today. There was a population of perhaps one million people living scattered across the countryside in villages and houses made of wood and straw. Most Anglo-Saxons lived in villages and small farming communities, and large parts of Roman towns such as Londinium (London) and Camulodunum (Colchester) were left to ruin. Much of the countryside was covered in woodlands, where now extinct animals such as bears, wolves, wildcats and boar roamed. Other regions were covered in swamps and marshes. It was a mysterious land, where people told fantastic stories about dragons, wizards, monsters and giants.

Anglo-Saxon life The Anglo-Saxon diet consisted of simple foods such as oats, beans and bread, and meat on special occasions. They also brewed beer from barley. Many Anglo-Saxons had long fair hair and the men grew beards. They made clothes out of woollen cloth and animal skin. They loved jewellery, and could make beautiful objects out of gold and gems. Both men and women fastened their clothing with gold brooches, which were a sign of power and wealth. Most Anglo-Saxon men were farmers, but they were also warriors. In battle, they wore metal helmets and round wooden shields, and armed themselves with swords, throwing axes and 2-metre-long

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Recreation of an Anglo-Saxon village in West Stow, Suffolk, England

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spears. An Anglo-Saxon man rarely went anywhere without being armed, as the need for protection was constant. Recently, chains and shackles from the Anglo-Saxon period have been found, telling us that the Anglo-Saxons kept slaves. These slaves might have been captured Celts, or criminals sentenced to slavery as punishment.

1.1

Anglo-Saxon treasure As early Anglo-Saxons did not read or write, historians have very little evidence to learn more about the period. For this reason, the work of archaeologists is essential, and they have found some extraordinary Anglo-Saxon artefacts buried underground. The most magnificent remains were found by the archaeologist Basil Brown in 1939 at a burial mound called Sutton Hoo. Here, he found the possessions of an Anglo-Saxon king, which had been buried in a ship so that he could take them to the afterlife. The king’s possessions included: • a golden purse lid decorated with wild animals and scenes such as wolves eating men • two golden belt buckles (see top right) • shoulder clasps for fastening clothing or armour decorated with wild boar • weapons such as a shield, a sword and spear tips • a small harp called a lyre • silver plates and spoons that had been made in a far-off land called Byzantium (in modern day Turkey) • everyday objects, such as a feather cushion and combs made of antler horn. Replica of the Sutton Hoo helmet built by

The most famous find was a magnificent iron helmet with a the Royal Armories patterned facemask. It was intricately decorated with scenes of war, such as a warrior on a horse trampling a fallen enemy. The treasures are thought to have belonged to Rædwald, the ruler of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia who died in 624, but nobody knows for sure. Strangely, no body was ever found inside the burial mound. The second greatest collection of Anglo-Saxon treasures was found in a Staffordshire field in 2009. Using his metal detector, a man named Terry Herbert uncovered 3500 gold and silver items, valued at over £3 million. You can be sure that more hoards of Anglo-Saxon treasure are still lying beneath the ground across England, waiting to be found.

Check your understanding 1. Who invaded Britain after the Roman army abandoned the country in 410 AD? 2. What sort of communities did Anglo-Saxons live in? 3. What sort of weapons did Anglo-Saxons use? 4. Why do historians know very little about life in early Anglo-Saxon Britain? 5. What was the most famous object found at Sutton Hoo?

Chapter 1: The Anglo-Saxons

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon rule The Anglo-Saxon tribes who invaded Britain established a number of separate kingdoms across the country, each ruled by its own king. By the end of the seventh century the three most powerful kingdoms were Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, and rival kings often went to war against each other. Sometimes, one of the kings would become an ‘overlord’ with more power than all of the others. The king lived in a Great Hall, built out of wood and straw, and showed his power by wearing a lot of gold jewellery. Life could be very violent, and Anglo-Saxons had to give their lives to defend their king. If they proved themselves to be loyal and brave in battle, they were rewarded with gold bracelets.

Anglo-Saxon place names Many English place names come from old Anglo-Saxon words. For example, the word ‘England’ comes from ‘Anglo-land’. Today, the area where the Anglo-Saxons first settled in the east of England is called East Anglia, named after the Angles. Wessex, Essex and Sussex are named after the West, East and South Saxons. Also, Norfolk and Suffolk are named after the northern and southern people, or ‘folk’. The names for many English towns and cities still end in Anglo-Saxon words: ‘don’ means hill; ‘ton’ means house; ‘ham’ means village; ‘wich’ means farm; and ‘ing’ means people.

Anglo-Saxon religion At first, the Anglo-Saxons were pagans, who believed in many different gods. Woden was the King of the Gods, but there was also Tiw the god of war, Freya the goddess of love and fertility, and Thor the god of thunder. The days of the week are still named after these gods today: Tiw became Tuesday, Woden became Wednesday, Thor became Thursday, and Freya became Friday. This pagan religion started to change when Pope Gregory in Rome sent a monk named Augustine to travel all the way to Britain, and convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity. Augustine landed on the south coast of England in 597 with a group of around 40 monks. Here, Augustine met Ethelbert, the King of Kent. Ethelbert’s wife, a princess from France called Bertha, was already a Christian. Under Bertha and Augustine’s influence Ethelbert became the first AngloSaxon king to convert to Christianity.

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Modern illustration of Saint Augustine meeting Ethelbert and Bertha

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In 635, a monk called Aidan brought Christianity to Northumbria from Ireland. Aidan founded a monastery on a remote island called Lindisfarne, which became known as Holy Island. Kent and Northumbria became the centres of Christianity in England, from which this new religion eventually spread throughout the whole country. Today, we still have an Archbishop of Canterbury (in Kent) and an Archbishop of York (in what was Northumbria). Pope Gregory made Augustine the first Archbishop of Canterbury.

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The written word Christianity brought writing and study to England. Anglo-Saxon monks, who lived in monasteries built of stone, often dedicating their lives to study. They wrote magnificent manuscripts and bibles by hand on vellum – a material made from the skin of lambs or calves. The most precious of these manuscripts were decorated with such bright colours that they were called ‘illuminations’. This is because they appear to be lit up. The most valuable historical source from this period was provided by a Northumbrian monk called Bede. When Bede was 7 years old, he was sent to be brought up in a monastery beside the river Tyne. Bede became a monk and decided to write down all of the stories about the Anglo-Saxon tribes and kings, which had been passed down through Page from the Lindisfarne Gospels, an illuminated the generations in poem and song. In 731, Bede finished manuscript from the early eighth century his great book, and called it The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. It was the first ever book of English history. Fact Without it, we would know almost nothing about the early Anglo-Saxons. Bede’s history was so well thought of that he became known as the Pope Gregory advised ‘Venerable’ Bede, meaning respected. Augustine to adapt Christianity to the AngloKing Offa Saxons’ pagan festivals. One of the most famous Anglo-Saxon overlords was King Offa, who The term Easter comes ruled Mercia between 757 and 796. Offa overpowered his rival kings, from ‘Eostre’, the name beheading those who rebelled against him. of an Anglo-Saxon goddess of rebirth. To prevent the Welsh from invading his kingdom of Mercia, King Offa built Christmas is celebrated a 149-mile-long earthwork between England and Wales, stretching from at around the time of the sea to sea. It was known as ‘Offa’s Dyke’, and can still be seen running winter solstice, when the along the Welsh–English border today. Anglo-Saxons celebrated their own festival called ‘Yule’.

Check your understanding 1. How was England divided up during the early Anglo-Saxon period? 2. Which counties in England are named after the south, east and west Saxons? 3. How did four days of the week gain their names in the English language? 4. Why are Canterbury and York the two centres of English Christianity today? 5. Why is there more evidence about Anglo-Saxon life during the period after Christianity arrived?

Chapter 2: Anglo-Saxon rule

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

The Vikings In January 793, a band of warriors attacked the Christian monastery on the Holy Island of Lindisfarne in Northumbria. They arrived from the sea in ships with dragons’ heads carved onto the bows, heavily armed with metal helmets, armour and twohanded axes. The warriors broke into the monastery, drowning the older monks in the sea and taking the younger monks as slaves. They then stole Lindisfarne’s treasures, and sailed away. For the next three centuries, Anglo-Saxon England was subject to repeated waves of attacks from these warriors. In particular, Christian monasteries, famous for their gold and precious treasures, were targeted. Who were these people? The Anglo-Saxons called them wolves of the sea, pagan people, Norsemen, Danes and stinging hornets. Today, they are better known as the Vikings.

A reconstruction of a Viking longboat Reconstruction of a Viking longboat

The Vikings The Vikings came from the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. They were skilled at building ships that used both oars and sails, and could therefore travel great distances by river and sea. Called longboats, these ships were a remarkable technology. They could hold up to 200 Viking warriors and sailed west as far as Canada, and east as far as Russia. Some Vikings were traders, who brought spices, silks, wine and jewellery from distant lands. Others were raiders, who preferred killing and stealing to buying and selling. Viking warriors could be a terrifying sight: they wore animal skins, had tattoos, and some even filed their teeth to look more frightening in battle. Often, Anglo-Saxons would pay Viking invaders huge sums of money, known as the ‘danegeld’, in return for the Vikings leaving them alone. Once the danegeld had been paid, however, the Vikings sometimes returned and attacked anyway. There were few more terrifying sights for a coastal Anglo-Saxon town than the dragon head of a longboat looming into view. After the attack on Lindisfarne, a scholar named Alcuin of York wrote to the King of Northumbria: “Lo, it is nearly 350 years that we and our fathers have inhabited this most lovely land, and never before has such a terror appeared as we have now suffered from a pagan race. Behold the church of St Cuthbert spattered with the blood of the priests of God, despoiled of all its ornaments.”

Viking settlement At first, Vikings were content with hit-and-run raids on English coastal towns. However, in 865, the Vikings assembled a force to settle in England, known as the ‘Great Heathen Army’. It was led by the three sons of a Viking king named Ragnar Lodbrok. They were called Halfdan

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Viking sword

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1.3.1

Valhalla One reason why Vikings fought so fiercely was because of their belief that if they died in battle they would be taken to the glorious Viking heaven of Valhalla. This was a Great Hall ruled by Odin, the King of the Gods. Vikings believed that Odin’s female spirits, called Valkyries, carried warriors from the battlefield to Valhalla, where their wounds would be healed. In the evening, the warriors would feast on an enormous wild boar, which would be brought back to life each day. They would drink from a goat whose udders provided an unlimited supply of mead (beer). By day, the Viking would train to fight for Odin in a final battle of the gods, known as ‘Ragnarok’.

Fact In one 11th-century Viking saga, a savage method for killing an Anglo-Saxon King of Northumbria was recorded. Known as the ‘Blood Eagle’, it involved ripping the victim’s lungs out of his body and draping them over his shoulders to resemble an eagle’s folded wings.

Modern illustration of Odin, King of the Gods

Ragnarsson, Ivar the Boneless, and Ubba. Nobody knows how large the army was, but estimates range from 1000 to 6000. The three brothers captured the city of York in 867, and used it as a base to spread their power throughout northern England. Known as ‘Jorvik’ to the Vikings, York became a thriving centre of overseas trade under Viking rule, and home to perhaps 15 000 people. Modern archaeological digs in York have found leather shoes, iron padlocks, coloured glass beads and ice skates made out of horse bone. In 869, the Great Heathen Army advanced south, and attacked Edmund, the Anglo-Saxon King of East Anglia. He was captured by the Vikings, and refused to renounce his belief in Christianity. In return, a band of Vikings tied him to a tree and fired arrows at him until he, according to legend, ‘bristled with them like a hedgehog’. The Vikings’ progress through Britain would have been violent, but they also assimilated and inter-married with the existing Anglo-Saxon population.

Check your understanding 1. Why did Viking raiders target Christian monasteries? 2. Why was the longboat so important to the Vikings? 3. How large was the Great Heathen Army? 4. What did Vikings believe awaited them if they died in battle? 5. What city became the centre of Viking power in England?

Chapter 3: The Vikings

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

Alfred the Great Alfred was born the youngest of five sons to the King of Wessex. By the age of 23, his four brothers had all died, and in 871 Alfred became king. King Alfred was immediately thrown into the long running war between Wessex and the Viking Great Heathen Army, who had by now settled throughout much of England. During his first year as king, Alfred fought nine battles defending Wessex against the Vikings. He finally negotiated a truce: in return for a large danegeld payment, the Vikings agreed not to attack Wessex for 5 years. However, a new Viking leader named King Guthrum wanted to take Wessex for himself. In 878, Guthrum’s Viking army attacked King Alfred in Chippenham while he was celebrating Twelfth Night, the last day of Christmas. Alfred and his men were caught by surprise. Many were slaughtered, but Alfred and a small band of men escaped and fled west towards the marshes of Somerset. Here they hid from Guthrum’s army, and began to organise their counter-attack. Alfred knew the marshes well. He set up camp on Athelney, an island of high and dry land surrounded by swamp, from which he organised hit-and-run attacks on the Viking camps. He also began to raise a new army from the surrounding counties, which assembled at an ancient meeting point called Egbert’s Stone in May 878. From there, they marched to meet Guthrum’s Viking army at the Battle of Edington, where Alfred defeated the Vikings.

Statue of King Alfred built in the old Wessex capital of Winchester to celebrate the 1000 year anniversary of his death

Guthrum was captured at Edington. However, instead of killing Guthrum, Alfred forced him to be baptised and convert to Christianity. Alfred even made himself Guthrum’s godfather! Alfred and Guthrum agreed to divide England by a diagonal line from the mouth of the River Mersey in the north-west, to the mouth of the Thames in the south-east. The Vikings ruled land north of this line, and it was called the Danelaw.

Alfred as king As a young boy, Alfred travelled to Rome with his father. Here he was inspired to be a great king, like a Roman Emperor. Having won his kingdom back from the Vikings, Alfred set about achieving this vision. He built a series of around 30 fortress towns throughout Wessex known as burhs (or boroughs). In London, Alfred rebuilt the city walls that had fallen into ruin since the time of the Romans. Alfred also organised the fyrd: a part-time Anglo-Saxon army which could be called up to fight at times of war. Most importantly, he established a naval force, which sailed around the country protecting it from further attacks from Viking longships.

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This gold and enamel jewel was found in 1693 near Athelney. Around the edge of the gold frame is written in Old English, ‘Alfred ordered me to be made’. It is known as the ‘Alfred Jewel’.

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When Alfred was a young boy, his mother encouraged him to read and memorise a book of Old English poetry. At the age of 40, Alfred asked a Welsh bishop called Asser to teach him to read and write Latin. Asser later wrote a biography of Alfred, and recorded “from his cradle, he was filled with the love of wisdom above all things”.

1.4.1

Having learnt Latin, Alfred was able to translate important books – particularly about Christianity – into Old English, helping to spread Christianity amongst his people. This was a remarkable achievement, and England would have to wait another 200 years before it was again ruled by a king who could read and write. Alfred also oversaw the writing of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle – an enormous history book which kept a record of every important event that happened in England until 1154. In 899, Alfred died. King Alfred’s rule laid the foundation on which his descendants would build the unified Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of England. He remains the only king in English history to be remembered as ‘the Great’.

Alfred and the cakes According to a popular legend, while Alfred was hiding in the Somerset marshes, a peasant woman gave him shelter. She was unaware that he was her king, and ordered him to watch some cakes as they cooked by the fire. Alfred had just lost his kingdom to Guthrum’s Viking army, and was hiding for his life. He was so distracted trying to work out how he could defeat the Vikings and reclaim his kingdom, he allowed the cakes to burn. When the peasant woman returned, she was furious with Alfred. ‘You happily eat all my food, but when I give you the job of looking after it, you let it burn!’ she shouted. Alfred could have told her he was the king, but he did not, and simply apologised for his mistake.

Fact

Modern illustration of Alfred and the peasant woman

Although Alfred was successful on the battlefield, he was not physically strong. Alfred suffered from an illness throughout his life, which some historians believe was Crohn’s disease. This illness often left Alfred feeling frail and depressed.

Check your understanding 1. What Anglo-Saxon kingdom did Alfred rule? 2. On what day did Guthrum’s army first attack Alfred in 878? 3. What agreement did Alfred come to with Guthrum after the Battle of Edington? 4. What did Alfred do to ensure that Wessex remained safe from future Viking attacks? 5. Why did Alfred want to learn to read and write in Latin?

Chapter 4: Alfred the Great

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

The Anglo-Saxon Golden Age Following King Alfred’s death in 899, it fell to his son King Edward the Elder to continue the fight against the Vikings. Edward was greatly helped by his older sister, Æthelflæd, who, at the age of 15, had been sent by their father Alfred to marry the Lord of Mercia. Æthelflæd was famed for her intelligence and strength, and with her husband she won much of Mercia back from the Vikings. When her husband died in 911, Æthelflæd continued to rule Mercia on her own as the ‘Lady of Mercia’, leading her army into battle. Just like her father, Æthelflæd built fortress burhs on land won back from the Vikings, in places such as Chester, Stafford, Warwick and Tamworth. King Edward was so impressed by his tough older sister Æthelflaed that he sent his own son, Æthelstan, to be brought up by her. Though he is not much talked about today, some historians say Æthelstan should be remembered as the first King of England. Northumbria remained as an outpost of Viking power when he became king, centred around the Viking capital of Jorvik. Æthelstan slowly asserted Anglo-Saxon power over Northumbria, and in 937 he won a great victory at the Battle of Brunanburh, against an enormous Scottish, Viking and Northumbrian army. The Anglo-Saxon chronicle recorded, “Never was there more slaughter on this island, never yet as many people killed before this with sword’s edge: never according to those who tell us from books, old wisemen, since from the east Angles and Saxons came up over the broad sea.” This victory confirmed Æthelstan’s rule of all England. During his reign, Æthelstan had new coins minted for his kingdom, on which he gave himself the title Rex Anglorum, meaning ‘King of the English’. For the first time since the Roman conquest, England could be described as a single unified country.

Peace and prosperity For the next 50 years, England experienced unprecedented peace, and grew increasingly wealthy. Kings ruled alongside the Witan, a collection of Anglo-Saxon noblemen and senior members of the church summoned by the king to offer him advice and discuss important issues. This ensured that the king’s decisions had the support of the people he ruled. Anglo-Saxon England also developed a single currency, a legal code written in Old English and a centralised government. Anglo-Saxon government sent out royal charters to every corner of the kingdom. The country was divided into individual counties, known as shires,

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Anglo-Saxon silver penny from the late 10th or early 11th century

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each ruled by an Anglo-Saxon earl. Shires were in turn divided into ‘hundreds’, which in theory covered enough land to support 100 households. The borders of some of these shires remain unchanged today as England’s counties.

1.5.1

Return of the Vikings In 990, Viking invaders once again began harassing England’s coastline. England’s king at the time was Æthelred the Unready. Unlike his predecessors, Æthelred was a poor leader and unable to unify his earls to repel the Viking invaders. Æthelred repeatedly paid off the Viking invaders with danegeld, but it never took long before the Vikings returned asking for even larger sums. The year Æthelred died in 1016, England’s throne passed to a Viking king named Canute (see box). This toing and froing of England’s throne between Anglo-Saxon and Viking kings would be put to an end once and for all by the arrival of a new force in Northern Europe – the Normans.

Fact Someone who ran a shire on behalf of his earl was known as a ‘shire reeve’, giving us our modern word ‘sheriff’.

King Canute During his 19-year rule of England, King Canute (sometimes spelled Cnut) was a thoughtful and popular king. Though a Viking from Denmark, he signalled that he wanted to rule England as an English king. Most Anglo-Saxon earls were allowed to keep their land, and Canute paid off his own Viking army with one of the largest danegelds ever raised, £90 000, to ensure that they returned to Denmark and left England in peace. Overseas, Canute’s empire steadily grew: he gained Denmark in 1019, Norway in 1028, and some parts of Sweden. In the most famous story from his reign, a courtier who was trying to win favour with the king told Canute that he even had control of the seas. Canute did not approve of such flattery, and demanded that his throne be taken to the seashore. Here, Canute sat and ordered the tide not to advance. The waves ignored him and drenched his feet. In response, King Canute told his courtiers: “Let the world know that the power of kings is empty and worthless compared with the majesty of God.”

Modern illustration of King Canute failing to halt the advancing tide

Check your understanding 1. Why did King Edward send his son to be brought up by his aunt Æthelflæd? 2. Why was the Battle of Brunanburh such an important victory for the Anglo-Saxons? 3. What was significant about the reign of Alfred’s grandson Æthelstan? 4. What role did the Witan play in the government of England? 5. What did King Canute do to win the favour of the Anglo-Saxon people he ruled?

Chapter 5: The Anglo-Saxon Golden Age

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

Knowledge organiser 731 The Venerable Bede completes The Ecclesiastical History of the English People

400–600 The Roman army leaves Britain

410 The Angles and Saxons arrive in England from Germany

597 Augustine arrives in England to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity

793 The Vikings attack the monastery on Lindisfarne

Key vocabulary AD Used to record historical dates as number of years after Christ’s birth: Anno Domini Anglo-Saxon Chronicle A contemporary history of England, begun during the reign of Alfred the Great Anglo-Saxons Two Germanic tribes who invaded England from Germany, between 400 and 600 AD Archaeologist Someone who examines objects and locations from the past, often through excavation Archbishop of Canterbury The most senior bishop in the English Church, and leader of the Church of England Blood eagle A notorious Viking method for killing their enemies Burh A fortified town which ruled a local area Celts The dominant population in Britain until the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons Century A period of one hundred years, often used to describe different historical periods Danegeld Large sums of money given to Vikings to prevent further invasions Danelaw English territory given over to Viking rule Dark Ages A term sometimes used to describe the years that followed the fall of the Roman Empire

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Earl A noble title, developed during the AngloSaxon period to describe the ruler of a county Empire A group of countries or states presided over by a single ruler Fyrd Part time Anglo-Saxon army which could be called to fight at times of war Golden age A period of flourishing in the history of a nation or an art form Great Heathen Army A large force of Viking warriors who invaded England during the ninth century Illumination Richly decorated religious manuscript from the medieval period Jorvik The centre of Viking power in England, on the site of modern day York Latin A classical language spoken by the Romans, and used by the Catholic Church Longboat A Viking ship, which combined both sails and oars Mercia Anglo-Saxon kingdom in central England, covering what is today called the Midlands

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865 The invasion of the ‘Great Heathen Army’

878 Alfred the Great defeats the ‘Great Heathen Army’ at the Battle of Edington

937 Æthelstan’s victory at the Battle of Brunanburh confirms Anglo-Saxon rule of all England

871 Alfred the Great is crowned King of Wessex

1016 The Viking ruler Canute becomes King of England

899 Alfred the Great dies

Key vocabulary Monk A man who dedicates his entire life to God, and lives outside of normal society Native A person born in or historically associated with a particular country or region Pagan Someone who believes in many different gods Shire Individual county, meaning ‘area of control’ in Old English Sutton Hoo The site of an Anglo-Saxon ship burial from the seventh century AD Valhalla The heaven for Viking warriors Vellum A writing material made from the skin of sheep or calves, before the invention of paper Vikings Seafaring people from Scandinavia who raided and traded across Europe and Russia Wessex Anglo-Saxon kingdom stretching across southern England Witan A collection of Anglo-Saxon noblemen and senior clergymen who advised the king

Key people Æthelflæd The ‘lady of the Mercians’ who helped expel the Vikings from England Æthelstan Grandson of Alfred the Great, who unified England as one country Alfred the Great The Anglo-Saxon King of Wessex who defeated the Great Heathen Army Augustine A monk sent from Rome who converted the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury Bede An English monk who wrote the first history of England Canute Viking King of England, who famously could not hold back the tide Guthrum Viking king who was defeated by Alfred and given the Danelaw to rule King Offa King of Mercia who built a 149-milelong earthwork between England and Wales

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: The Anglo-Saxons 1. In what year did the Roman army abandon Britain? 2. What was the dominant population of Britain before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons? 3. What country did the Anglo-Saxons come from? 4. What major skill did the Romans have, but the AngloSaxons lacked, which means there is little evidence from this period? 5. What term is sometimes used to describe the years that followed the fall of the Roman Empire? 6. In what sort of communities did the early Anglo-Saxons choose to live? 7. What object, which signified power and wealth, did the Anglo-Saxons use to fasten their clothing? 8. Which Anglo-Saxon ship burial site from the seventh century was found in 1939? 9. What was the most famous object to be found in this seventh-century ship burial? 10. What do you call someone who examines objects and locations from the past, often through excavation?

Chapter 2: Anglo-Saxon rule 1. Name three of the kingdoms that made up Anglo-Saxon Britain? 2. Which two counties in England are named after the Anglo-Saxon for northern and southern ‘people’? 3. What term is used to describe someone who believes in many different gods? 4. From where do four of the English days of the week, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, get their names? 5. Who converted the Anglo-Saxon King of Kent to Christianity and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury? 6. What country did the monk Aiden, who brought Christianity to Northumbria, come from? 7. What are the richly decorated religious manuscripts from the medieval period called? 8. What material, made from the skin of sheep and calves, was used for manuscripts before the invention of paper? 9. Which English monk completed the first history of England in 731? 10. Which king of Mercia built a 149-mile long earthwork between England and Wales?

Chapter 3: The Vikings 1. Where did one of the first recorded Viking attacks on English soil take place in 793? 2. What type of buildings did Viking raiders target for their gold and treasures? 3. What part of Europe did the Vikings originally come from? 4. What name is given to the Viking ships that combined oars and sails?

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5. How far east and west did Vikings travel? 6. What was a large sum of money, given to Vikings to prevent further invasions, called? 7. What large Viking force invaded and settled in England from 865 onwards? 8. What did Viking warriors name their heaven? 9. What city was the centre of Viking power in England? 10. What Viking method for killing their enemies involved ripping out the victim’s lungs?

Chapter 4: Alfred the Great 1. Of which Anglo-Saxon kingdom did Alfred the Great become king in 871 AD? 2. Which Viking king did Alfred defend his kingdom against, and eventually defeat? 3. When Alfred went into hiding in Somerset, what was the landscape like? 4. At what battle did Alfred the Great defeat the ‘Great Heathen Army’? 5. What name was given to the territory given over to Viking rule by Alfred? 6. What were the fortified towns that Alfred built across Wessex called? 7. What part-time Anglo-Saxon army, called to fight at times of war, did Alfred organise? 8. What language did Alfred learn at around the age of 40? 9. What contemporary record of English history began during Alfred’s reign? 10. In what year did Alfred the Great die?

Chapter 5: The Anglo-Saxon Golden Age 1. Which of Alfred the Great’s children helped to win Mercia back from the Vikings? 2. After the death of her husband, what name was given to Alfred the Great’s daughter? 3. Which Anglo-Saxon king unified England as a single country? 4. Victory at what battle in 937 confirmed Anglo-Saxon rule of all England? 5. What name was given to the collection of Anglo-Saxon noblemen and senior clergymen who advised the king? 6. What did Anglo-Saxon kings send throughout their kingdom to ensure their rule was followed? 7. What were the individual counties that the AngloSaxons divided England into called? 8. What noble title did the Anglo-Saxons use to describe the ruler of a county? 9. Which Viking king of England was famously unable to hold back the tide? 10. How much money did this Viking king pay to ensure that his own army returned to Denmark?

Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

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William Collins’ dream of knowledge for all began with the publication of his first book in 1819. A self-educated mill worker, he not only enriched millions of lives, but also founded a flourishing publishing house. Today, staying true to this spirit, Collins books are packed with inspiration, innovation and practical expertise. They place you at the centre of a world of possibility and give you exactly what you need to explore it. Collins. Freedom to teach Published by Collins An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers The News Building 1 London Bridge Street London SE1 9GF Text © Robert Peal 2016 Design © HarperCollinsPublishers 2016 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-00-819526-7 Robert Peal asserts his moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher. This book is sold subject to the conditions that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the Publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. HarperCollins does not warrant that any website mentioned in this title will be provided uninterrupted, that any website will be error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the website or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or bugs. For full terms and conditions please refer to the site terms provided on the website. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Publisher: Katie Sergeant Editor: Hannah Dove Author: Robert Peal Fact-checker: Barbara Hibbert Copy-editor: Sally Clifford Image researcher: Alison Prior Proof-reader: Ros and Chris Davies Cover designer: Angela English Cover image: robertharding/Alamy Production controller: Rachel Weaver Typesetter: QBS Printed and bound by Martins, UK Acknowledgments Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publishers will gladly receive any information enabling them to rectify any error or omission at the first opportunity. The publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: (t = top, b = bottom, c = centre, l = left, r = right) Cover & p1 robertharding/Alamy; p2 Joana Kruse/Alamy; p3t World History Archive/Alamy; p3b Flik47/ Shutterstock.com; p4 World History Archive/Alamy; p5 Heritage Image Partnership Ltd/Alamy; p6t Maurice Crooks/Alamy; p6b INTERFOTO/Alamy; p7 North Wind Pictures Archives/Alamy; p8t Awe Inspiring Images/ Shutterstock.com; p8b World History Archive/Alamy; p9 Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Alamy; p10 Heritage Image Partnership Ltd/Alamy; p11 The Print Collector/Alamy

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Unit 2: Norman England

Saxon, Norman or Viking? In 1042, the English throne was restored to an Anglo-Saxon king named Edward the Confessor. King Edward’s rule depended upon the support of Godwin, the Earl of Wessex. Godwin was the wealthiest and most powerful nobleman in England, and his daughter Edith was married to the king. King Edward became known as ‘the Confessor’ because he was very religious. He focused much of his attention on building a large abbey in Westminster, ignoring his other duties as king. On Christmas Day 1065, Edward ate an enormous feast. He took to his bed the following day feeling ill, and two weeks later on 5 January 1066 he died. Edward and Edith did not have any children so England was thrown into confusion. Three different men claimed the English throne and each was willing to fight to the death for their claim to be king.

Harold Godwinson Harold was the son of Godwin, the Earl of Wessex. After the death of his father, he was England’s most powerful earl, and his family controlled much of the country. He was tall, good looking, an excellent fighter and popular among the Anglo-Saxon nobles. Harold’s sister Edith was married to the king, making him Edward the Confessor’s brother-in-law. He did not, however, have a blood-claim to the throne. Harold claimed that on his deathbed Edward had chosen him as his successor. The day after Edward died, Harold was crowned Extract from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting Harold Godwinson King Harold II at Westminster Abbey. Most of the Witan were pleased to have an Anglo-Saxon as king, but some worried that Harold was simply an ambitious nobleman with no right to be king. In April 1066, a burning comet was seen in the night sky. Was it a bad omen, showing God’s anger that England was now ruled by a king with no royal blood?

William, Duke of Normandy A distant cousin of Edward the Confessor, William was one of the most feared warriors in Europe. He was born the illegitimate son of the Duke of Normandy and a tanner’s daughter, earning him the nickname ‘William the Bastard’. Despite this, he became the Duke of Normandy after his father’s death in 1035. As duke, William conquered much of northern France and gained a reputation for both bravery and ruthlessness. William claimed that in 1051 King Edward the Confessor (who at the time had fallen out with the Godwin family) had promised him the English throne. In the spring of 1066, William was sent a banner blessed by the

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Extract from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting William, Duke of Normandy

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Pope, showing the Pope’s support for his claim to the throne. William also claimed that Harold Godwinson had sworn an oath of loyalty to him in 1064, and therefore supported his claim. Much confusion surrounds this event. It seems that Harold had been shipwrecked off the French coast, and was taken prisoner by William. Harold later claimed that his oath of loyalty to William was invalid, as he had only sworn it to gain his freedom.

Harald Hardrada Harald Hardrada (meaning ‘hard ruler’) was a powerful Viking King of Norway, who had fought across Europe and Asia. He vowed to add England to his Scandinavian Empire, claiming that England still belonged to the Vikings as it had during the days of King Canute. Hardrada had a very useful ally: Harold Godwinson’s hot-headed younger brother Tostig. Harold and Tostig had fallen out bitterly in 1065 when Harold stripped his brother of his earldom in Northumbria for being a bad ruler, and sent him into exile. Tostig was now willing to betray his brother and fight for Hardrada’s Vikings.

21.1 Fact Once, when the Duke of Normandy was laying siege to Alençon Castle in France, the inhabitants taunted him about his mother’s lowly status. Having taken the castle, William had his revenge by cutting off the hands and feet of every inhabitant.

Battle of Stamford Bridge In September, King Harold’s army was stationed in the south of England preparing for an invasion from the Normans. However, he received the shocking news that Hardrada and Tostig had invaded England’s north-east coast, and taken control of the old Viking capital, York. Harold marched his army north to meet the Vikings, covering 180 miles in just four days. This caught the Viking army completely by surprise, and the two armies met at a location called Stamford Bridge on 25 September. Many Vikings did not even have time to put on their armour, and Harold’s army destroyed them, killing both Hardrada and Tostig. Of an invasion fleet of around 300 ships, fewer than 30 ships were needed to take what remained of the Viking army back to Norway. According to a Saxon legend, a great Viking fighter held off the English attack on the bridge, so that they could not finish off the retreating Viking army. Nobody could kill this fearsome Viking, until an English soldier had the clever idea of floating under the bridge and thrusting his spear into the Viking’s foot. Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, the site of the battle today, where an 18th-century bridge now stands

Check your understanding 1. Why was the death of Edward the Confessor met with such confusion? 2. What was Harold Godwinson’s claim to the English throne? 3. What was William of Normandy’s claim to the English throne? 4. What was Harald Hardrada’s claim to the English throne? 5. How did Harold Godwinson defeat Hardrada’s Viking army?

Chapter 1: Saxon, Norman or Viking?

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Unit 2: Norman England

The Battle of Hastings Harold’s victory at Stamford Bridge was an astonishing success. However, while Harold’s army was celebrating, a messenger arrived with dreadful news from the south. On 28 September, just 3 days after the Battle of Stamford Bridge, William, Duke of Normandy had landed on the south-east coast of England with his invasion force. Since August, William had been camped on the French coast ready to invade, but the winds had not been in his favour, and by the end of September it seemed he had missed his chance. Harold even called in his navy, which had been guarding the English Channel, thinking that a Norman invasion would be delayed until the following year. But all of a sudden the winds changed and William was able to sail across the Channel unchallenged. William’s Norman army numbered 10 000 men, with 3000 heavily Ruins of Battle Abbey. The abbey was built by William the Conqueror on the armoured Norman knights on horseback: the tanks of medieval site of the Battle of Hastings. Europe. As William stepped off his boat, he tripped and fell on the beach. His troops looked worried at this bad omen, but as he rose William picked up two fists full of sand and declared “Look how easily I take this land!”

Fact

Harold’s army marches south The Norman army marched 10 miles inland to Hastings, where they quickly built a wooden castle, and prepared for Harold to attack. With wounds still fresh from battle, Harold’s army began a 200-mile trek from Stamford Bridge to the south coast. They stopped in London, where many of Harold’s advisers begged him to rest and rebuild his forces before attacking the Norman army. However, Harold wanted to surprise William just as he had surprised Hardrada’s Viking army. After a week gaining reinforcements, Harold resumed his march south. At 9 a.m. on 14 October, the two armies met 10 miles outside Hastings. Harold had left many of his best soldiers in the north, but kept the core of his army: 3000 fearsome huscarls – the King’s professional soldiers and bodyguard. The rest of the army consisted of the fyrd, around 5000 parttime soldiers, some armed with little more than a pike.

The Bayeux Tapestry is 70 metres long, and tells the entire story of William of Normandy’s conquest of England. It is one of medieval Europe’s most important artefacts. Bishop Odo, William’s half-brother, commissioned the tapestry during the 1070s as a gift to his brother.

Extract from the Bayeux Tapestry

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The battle Arriving at the battlefield, Harold’s army took the high ground on top of Senlac Hill, and formed a long defensive ‘shield wall’ of troops chanting ‘ut, ut!’ (‘out, out!’).

21.2.1

This was an excellent start for the Saxons: the Norman knights could not break through the wall as their horses lost speed galloping uphill, and the Norman archers were ineffective when they fired their arrows upwards. Harold’s army stood its ground, taking great swings at the Norman knights with their axes. At one point, a rumour spread across the battlefield that William, Duke of Normandy was dead. But then William removed his helmet and called out to his troops that he was still alive. After hours of struggling to break through the Saxon shield wall, the Normans called a retreat. Harold’s army was overjoyed and broke out of their formation to chase and kill off the retreating Norman soldiers. However, the Modern illustration of the death of King Harold retreat had been a trick: William ordered it to tempt the Saxon soldiers away from the high ground and to break their shield wall. The Normans now regrouped, and picked off the disorganised Saxon soldiers. King Harold was killed, but to this day there is no agreement about how this happened (see box). Without their king, most of the Saxon soldiers fled the battlefield, but Harold’s huscarls – who were sworn to protect the king – fought to the death. The brutal battle lasted 6 hours and William was victorious. Having defeated Harold’s army, William could spread his power throughout England. William, Duke of Normandy was now ‘William the Conqueror’, and the history of England had been changed forever.

The death of King Harold There remains much disagreement among historians over how Harold died. The first account of the battle, written by the Bishop of Amiens, states that four knights were sent to find Harold on the battlefield and kill him. One knight knocked him to the floor, while two others beheaded and disembowelled the Saxon king. However, in later accounts Harold was said to have been struck in the eye with an arrow, and this is what the Bayeux tapestry appears to show beneath the words ‘Harold Rex Interfectus Est’ (King Harold is killed).

Check your understanding 1. What stroke of luck did William, Duke of Normandy enjoy at the end of September? 2. Why did Harold Godwinson hurry into fighting the Norman army? 3. Who had the stronger army at the start of the Battle of Hastings: the Normans or the Saxons? 4. How did the Norman army’s false retreat give them the chance to win the battle? 5. What story does the Bayeux Tapestry tell?

Chapter 2: The Battle of Hastings

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Unit 2: Norman England

The Norman Conquest On Christmas Day 1066, 2 months after he defeated Harold, William was crowned King William I of England at Westminster Abbey. The Norman knights guarding the coronation were fearful of a popular rebellion, and mistook cheers from inside the Abbey as a revolt. In response, they burnt the surrounding houses, and killed any Englishmen too slow to flee. It was a violent beginning to a violent reign. Following his victory against King Harold at Hastings, William’s approach to conquering England was brutally effective. Wherever resistance or rebellion occurred, his heavily armoured knights descended on the Anglo-Saxon communities, burning down villages and slaughtering the inhabitants. Within a few years, England’s two million Anglo-Saxons inhabitants were living under the military occupation of just 20 000 Norman invaders.

Norman nobles

Silver English penny of William the Conqueror

Before invading England, William promised the Norman knights who fought for him that they would be richly rewarded with English land. The Anglo-Saxon noblemen, many of whom died on the battlefield at Hastings, had their land seized from their families and given to Norman knights. William established a royal court consisting of French noblemen, and a new ruling class with French names, such as Beaufort, Neville and Sinclair, spread across the country. Wherever they were granted land, Norman nobles built large defensive structures with a French name: ‘castle’. At first, these were simple ‘motteand-bailey castles’ which were quick and easy to build: a ditch would be dug and the earth would create an artificial hill, on top of which a wooden tower would be built. Gradually, these were replaced with stronger, stone castles – stern buildings which symbolised a foreign, occupying force.

The Harrying of the North Many Anglo-Saxons rebelled against Norman rule. In the north-east of England, the local population twice rose up against their new lords. On the second occasion in 1069, the northern rebels took Durham Castle, murdered its Norman earl, Robert de Commines, and slaughtered most of his garrison. The rebels then took York and proclaimed Edward the Confessor’s AngloSaxon nephew, Edgar the Ætheling, to be the rightful King of England. William was furious. He vowed to make an example of the northern rebels. His army marched north, and burnt to the ground every village

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between York and Durham. Farm animals were slaughtered, crops were destroyed, and the fields were laced with salt so that no more food could be grown. Much of the population was killed, and whole areas of the north-east became uninhabited wastelands. One estimate suggested 100 000 people starved to death, and while this was probably an exaggeration, England’s north-east remained sparsely populated for centuries to come.

21.3.1

The Harrying of the North showed William the Conqueror at his most ruthless. The Norman chronicler Orderic Vitalis wrote, “I have often praised William before, but I cannot for this act, which caused both the innocent and the guilty alike to die by slow starvation… Such brutal slaughter cannot go unpunished”.

Hereward the Wake

Modern illustration of the Harrying of the North

The east of England had long been a stronghold of Anglo-Saxon power, and it was here the final rebellion against Norman rule occurred in 1070. The land surrounding a town called Ely was made up of marshes and rivers, and often covered in mist. Here, an Anglo-Saxon noble named Hereward the Wake and his band of outlaws would ambush Norman knights, kill them, and disappear into the mist. Hereward’s stand against the Normans came to an end when William arrived outside Ely, and built a 2-mile wooden causeway across the marshes. Norman knights rode into the town, and the Saxon rebels were killed, imprisoned, blinded or had their arms chopped off. Hereward escaped, and some claimed that William had spared his life on purpose as he admired his bravery. Hereward’s heroic deeds, along with his sword known as ‘Brainbiter’, quickly passed into popular legend, but such stories were a small comfort for Saxons living under Norman rule.

Fact

Norman rule Few Anglo-Saxon nobles survived William’s invasion, and those that did were forced to swear an oath of loyalty to their new king. A favourite trick of William’s was to demand a noble’s son as a hostage, to make sure that the noble stayed loyal. At first, William suggested that he might learn English, but soon it became clear he would not. French became the language of government, business and the royal court, and England entered a new era under the rule of William and his Norman descendents.

After the Norman Conquest, many French words entered the English language, such as castle, battle, punishment, judge, colour and fruit.

Check your understanding 1. Why did William the Conqueror’s coronation end in violence? 2. What happened to the land belonging to England’s Anglo-Saxon noblemen? 3. What did William the Conqueror do to punish the rebels who rose up against him in the north-east? 4. How did William the Conqueror finally defeat Hereward the Wake? 5. What was one of the tactics William used to ensure loyalty from the Anglo-Saxon nobility?

Chapter 3: The Norman Conquest

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Unit 2: Norman England

The feudal system Under the control of William and his Norman knights, English society was transformed, and a rigid social structure developed. The higher up you were, the more land, wealth and power you held. The lower down you were, the poorer and less free you became. English society had a clear hierarchy, shaped like a pyramid: the few at the top were the strongest, and the many at the bottom were the weakest, owing their duty and service to those above them. Anyone below you was your ‘vassal’, and anyone above you was your ‘lord’. This social structure was called the feudal system.

The king Right at the top of the feudal system was the king. It was believed that the king was appointed by God, and only those with royal blood, who were descended from William the Conqueror, could sit on the throne. The king was answerable only to God, and all who lived in his kingdom were his subjects. However, the king still needed loyal friends to rule different parts of his kingdom on his behalf.

The barons For this reason, the king granted land to his barons, around 200 of the most powerful knights in the country. In return for their land, the king’s barons had to pay homage to him and swear an oath of fealty. This meant that if ever there was a war, the barons had to fight on behalf of their king. In the centre of their vast stretches of land, barons built fortified castles to keep them safe from enemy attacks. Some had the noble title of ‘Earl’, and their titles and lands were hereditary, meaning that they passed down from the father to his eldest son.

Illustration of King William I

At the same level of power as the barons were the bishops and archbishops of the medieval Church. The church was extremely powerful, and owned much of England’s land. Its bishops enjoyed huge wealth and influence and were part of the ruling class.

The knights In order to fight for their king, barons needed their own armies. So, they divided their own land into smaller areas led by their knights. Each baron had around 20 knights. A knight would swear an oath of fealty to his baron, and gain a number of manor houses or smaller castles in return.

The peasants Below the knights were the peasants, who made up the great majority of medieval society. Many were bound to work the land of their lord until the day they died. Some peasants were not allowed to marry or leave

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Illustration of a Norman Knight

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home without their lord’s permission. A lord would grant his peasants a small area of land to farm, and they had to work his land in return. The difference between a kind and a cruel lord could mean the difference between happiness and misery for a medieval vassal.

21.4.1

The Domesday book Two years before he died, William the Conqueror ordered that a survey should be written detailing the possessions of every single settlement in England. As king, William wanted to know precisely what this new country of his contained. Once he knew what the English people owned, he could tax them accordingly to pay for his armies and castles. For 2 years, Norman commissioners were sent the length and breadth of England, with the order that not a single cow nor pig should escape their notice. They visited 13 418 different towns and villages, and wrote down two million words. The official name of the record was ‘The King’s Roll’, but it became more commonly known as the ‘Domesday Book’. ‘Doomsday’ is another name for the Day of Judgment, when Christians believe that Jesus Christ will return to the earth and pass judgment on both the living and the dead. The Anglo-Saxons chose this nickname with a sarcastic sense of humour, as they disliked a foreign king forcing them to declare everything they owned so that he could pass judgment on them. Today, the Domesday Book provides us with a fascinating picture of what England was like at the end of the 11th century, right down to the last fishpond and beehive. We hear the nicknames of English peasants, such as Alwin the Rat and Ralph the Haunted. In 1085, Birmingham, which is England’s second largest city today, was a small village with just nine families, and two ploughs.

Fact Over 70 English forests became Royal hunting grounds. If a peasant was found hunting there, he could be punished by blinding or mutilation. Some peasants were even made to wear deer skin and be hunted themselves!

Modern illustration of the writing of the Domesday book

Check your understanding 1. What was the shape of medieval English society? 2. In return for being granted land, what did barons do for the king? 3. What powers did a medieval lord have over the peasants who worked his land? 4. Why did William the Conqueror commission the Domesday Book to be written? 5. How did the Domesday Book earn its nickname?

Chapter 4: The feudal system

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Unit 2: Norman England

The Norman monarchs Towards the end of his life, William the Conqueror grew very fat, but this did not stop him from going on military campaigns. In 1087, while laying siege to the town of Mantes in northern France, William’s horse stood on some hot stones and reared up. The king was impaled on the pommel of his saddle, and he died 6 weeks later. As seemed to be the tradition for Norman Kings, William did not get on well with each of his three sons. He ruled an empire stretching across England and Normandy, and by right, all his land should have passed to his eldest son Robert. However, William disliked Robert – he even nicknamed him ‘Curthose’ or ‘stubby legs’. So, William gave Normandy to his eldest son Robert, England to his middle son William, and £5000 to his youngest son Henry. This would prove to be a grave mistake.

William, Rufus and Henry I

Fact Having grown fat in his old age, William was too large for his stone coffin at his funeral. When the attendants tried to force his body inside the coffin his body burst. The mourners fled as a putrid smell spread through the church.

William II was an unpleasant king. Nicknamed ‘Rufus’ for his red hair, he was angry and short-tempered, and offended the church through his open disdain for religion. On a summer’s day in August 1100, William was hunting in the New Forest with his close friend Walter Tirel. Tirel was known for being a good archer, but when shooting at a stag, he missed and hit William II straight in the chest. The king dropped to the floor and died instantly. Tirel fled the scene, travelling to France where he died later that year in exile. William’s younger brother Henry, who was also at the hunt, acted quickly. On hearing the news of his brother’s death he rode to Winchester and 3 days later was crowned Henry I. For centuries, historians have wondered whether the death of William II was an accident, or a deliberate plot. In 1106, Henry I captured his eldest brother Robert on the battlefield in Normandy. He seized Robert’s French land and imprisoned him in Cardiff Castle for the last 30 years of his life. Through imprisoning one older brother and (perhaps) killing another, in just 6 years the youngest son of William the Conqueror had gone from ruling nothing, to ruling over the whole of his father’s empire. Henry I ruled England for 35 peaceful years. Henry I married a princess named Matilda, who was descended from the Anglo-Saxon House of Wessex. Together, they had one son named William but he died on board the White Ship in 1120 (see box).

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Modern illustration of the sinking of the White Ship

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21.5.1

The White Ship On a cold November evening, Henry I and his 17-year-old son William were due to sail for England from the Norman port of Barfleur. Henry I left early, but William and his friends chose to stay behind getting drunk and finally left around midnight. The young men were on a newly built vessel named the White Ship, and they challenged their crew to overtake the king’s ship. The White Ship’s crew had also been drinking. As the vessel left the port, it struck a rock off the Normandy coast. The boat sank, killing Henry I’s only son and heir, along with many other Anglo-Norman nobles.

The Anarchy With no son as heir, Henry I’s death in 1135 threw England into conflict. Two cousins both claimed the throne: Henry’s daughter the Empress Matilda, who had been married to a German Emperor, and Henry’s nephew Stephen. Stephen was a friendly, well-liked figure among the Anglo-Norman nobility, whereas Empress Matilda was seen as distant and arrogant. More importantly, few Norman lords were prepared to be ruled by a woman. While Matilda was in France, Stephen was crowned King of England in December 1135. Stephen and Matilda’s rival claims threw England into a 19-year civil war, in which law and order completely broke down. Great areas of the country had no royal authority, leaving the people at the mercy of cruel barons, who used the civil war as an excuse to terrorise their vassals. For this reason, the period is remembered as ‘The Anarchy’. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives a vivid account of these dreadful years, describing people being forced into labour, imprisoned and tortured. It ends: “To till the ground was to plough the sea; the earth bare no corn, for the lands were all laid waste by such deeds; and men said openly that Christ and his saints were asleep.”

14th-century illustration of Empress Matilda

Check your understanding 1. How did William the Conqueror split his empire between his three sons when he died? 2. What were the suspicious circumstances surrounding William II’s death? 3. Which of William the Conqueror’s three sons eventually ended up ruling England? 4. Why did the sinking of the White Ship in 1120 throw England into a state of confusion? 5. Why was the civil war between Stephen and Matilda so unpleasant for the English population?

Chapter 5: The Norman monarchs

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Unit 2: Norman England

Knowledge organiser 1051 Edward the Confessor promises the English throne to William, Duke of Normandy

1064 Harold Godwinson swears an oath of loyalty to William, Duke of Normandy

1066 (Oct) The Battle of Hastings

1066 (Sep) The Battle of Stamford Bridge

1066 (Dec) William I crowned King of England

Key vocabulary Anarchy A state of disorder caused by a lack of law or authority Anglo-Norman The ruling class in England after 1066, composed of Normans who had settled in England Baron The highest rank of medieval society, ruling land directly on behalf of the king Bayeux Tapestry A 70-metre long embroidered cloth depicting William of Normandy’s conquest of England Bishop A Christian clergyman with authority over a large number of priests and churches Civil war A war between two sides from the same nation Conquest Taking control of a place or people through military force Disembowel To cut someone open, and remove their internal organs Domesday Book A book commissioned by William the Conqueror detailing the possessions of every settlement in England

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Exile Being forced to live outside your native country, typically for political reasons Fealty A pledge of loyalty from a feudal vassal to their lord Feudal system The structure of medieval society, where land was exchanged for service and loyalty Heir A person set to inherit property or a title, often used to mean next in line to the throne Hereditary Passed through a family, from parents to their children Hierarchy A form of social organisation where people are ranked according to status or power Huscarls The professional bodyguard of AngloSaxon kings Illegitimate Not recognised as lawful, once used to describe someone born of unmarried parents Knight Soldiers on horseback who belonged to the nobility Lord A general term for a medieval landholder, or a member of the peerage today Monarch A royal head of state, can be a king, queen or emperor

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1106 Henry I becomes King of England and Normandy

1069 The Harrying of the North

1135 The start of ‘the Anarchy’

1088 Death of William the Conqueror

1086 William the Conqueror commissions the Domesday Book

1100 Death of William Rufus in the New Forest

1120 The sinking of the White Ship

Key vocabulary

Key people

Motte-and-bailey castle A simple fortification with an artificial hill and a defensive courtyard Noble Member of the nobility, with land and titles that passes through the generations Normans People from a region in northern France, who were descended from Viking invaders Oath A solemn promise, often said to be witnessed by God Omen An event that is thought to foretell the future, perhaps as a message from the Gods Peasant The lowest member of medieval society, usually a farm labourer Royal blood Possessed by those who are blood relatives of a ruling monarch Royal court A collection of nobles and clergymen, known as courtiers, who advise the monarch Subject A member of a country or territory under the rule of a monarch Vassal Anyone who was below you in medieval society, and had to call you ‘my lord’

Edward the Confessor An Anglo-Saxon King of England whose death triggered the Norman invasion Empress Matilda The daughter of Henry I, who fought for the English throne during ‘The Anarchy’ Harald Hardrada A fierce Viking warrior, who made a claim for the English throne in 1066 Harold Godwinson The last Anglo-Saxon King of England, who led the Saxons at the Battle of Hastings Henry I The youngest son of William the Conqueror who became King after the death of his brother William II Hereward the Wake A legendary Saxon rebel who held out against the Norman invaders in Ely William, Duke of Normandy A French duke who conquered England in 1066 William II The middle son of William the Conqueror, he was nicknamed ‘Rufus’ due to his red hair

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: Saxon, Norman or Viking? 1. Which Anglo-Saxon king died in 1066 with no clear heir? 2. Which Anglo-Saxon earl was crowned following the death of the king? 3. This claimant to the throne was Earl of what area of England? 4. William was Duke of what area in northern France? 5. What did William say happened in 1051, which lay at the root of his claim? 6. Who sent a banner to William showing support for his cause? 7. Which Viking king of Norway also claimed the English throne? 8. Who betrayed Harold Godwinson by joining the Vikings? 9. For how long did the Anglo-Saxon army march to meet the Vikings, once they had invaded north east England? 10. At what battle did the Anglo-Saxons defeat the Vikings in September 1066?

Chapter 2: The Battle of Hastings 1. In what month and year did the Battle of Hastings take place? 2. What suddenly changed at the end of September, allowing William’s Norman army to invade? 3. What were William’s heavily armoured soldiers on horseback called? 4. What were Harold’s force of 3 000 professional soldiers and bodyguard called? 5. What 70-metre-long embroidered cloth depicted the Norman Conquest of England? 6. On top of what did Harold’s army position themselves at the start of the battle? 7. What did Harold’s army form, which the Normans found difficult to break through? 8. What did the Normans carry out, to tempt the Saxons away from their high ground? 9. How did Harold Godwinson die, according to the Bayeux Tapestry? 10. How did Harold Godwinson die according to the first account of the battle?

Chapter 3: The Norman Conquest 1. When was William the Conqueror crowned King of England? 2. Where was William the Conqueror crowned King of England? 3. What type of castles did Norman nobles first build on their newly acquired English land? 4. What collection of nobles and clergymen would advise the king?

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5. What event took place in 1069, following an AngloSaxon rebellion in Durham? 6. How many people are claimed to have starved to death following this event? 7. Which Anglo-Saxon noble led a last stand against Norman power in East Anglia? 8. In what town did he base his rebellion? 9. According to legend, what was the name of his sword? 10. What did William force all surviving Anglo-Saxon nobles to do?

Chapter 4: The feudal system 1. What form of social organisation ranks people according to status or power? 2. What did you call anyone below you in the feudal system? 3. Which rank came just below the king in the feudal system, and ruled land on his behalf? 4. Roughly how many people of this rank existed in medieval England? 5. What did this rank of people have to do for the king, in return for being granted land? 6. What term describes a title that is passed through a family, from parents to their children? 7. What pledge of loyalty would a vassal have to swear to their lord? 8. What rank, usually a farm labourer, was at the bottom of medieval society? 9. What vitally important book did William the Conqueror commission in 1086? 10. For what primary purpose did William the Conqueror have this book written?

Chapter 5: The Norman monarchs 1. Who became King of England after the death of William the Conqueror in 1088? 2. Where did this king die? 3. Who killed him with a stray arrow? 4. Who became King of England from 1100 to 1135? 5. Which of his brothers did the new King of England defeat and imprison in 1106? 6. What area of land, formerly ruled by his father, did victory in 1106 give him? 7. What boat sank in 1120, killing the king’s heir and many Anglo-Norman nobles? 8. Who became King of England in 1135? 9. Who also claimed the throne, leading to a 19-year civil war? 10. What name is used to describe the lawlessness and disorder of this civil war?

Unit 2: Norman England

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William Collins’ dream of knowledge for all began with the publication of his first book in 1819. A self-educated mill worker, he not only enriched millions of lives, but also founded a flourishing publishing house. Today, staying true to this spirit, Collins books are packed with inspiration, innovation and practical expertise. They place you at the centre of a world of possibility and give you exactly what you need to explore it. Collins. Freedom to teach Published by Collins An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers The News Building 1 London Bridge Street London SE1 9GF Text © Robert Peal 2016 Design © HarperCollinsPublishers 2016 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-00-819527-4 Robert Peal asserts his moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher. This book is sold subject to the conditions that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the Publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. HarperCollins does not warrant that any website mentioned in this title will be provided uninterrupted, that any website will be error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the website or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or bugs. For full terms and conditions please refer to the site terms provided on the website. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Publisher: Katie Sergeant Editor: Hannah Dove Author: Robert Peal Fact-checker: Barbara Hibbert Copy-editor: Sally Clifford Image researcher: Alison Prior Proof-reader: Ros and Chris Davies Cover designer: Angela English Cover image: robertharding/Alamy Production controller: Rachel Weaver Typesetter: QBS Printed and bound by Martins, UK Acknowledgments Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publishers will gladly receive any information enabling them to rectify any error or omission at the first opportunity. The publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: (t = top, b = bottom, c = centre, l = left, r = right) Cover & p1 robertharding/Alamy; p2t World History Archive/Alamy; p2b Hemis/Alamy; p3 Paul Hawkett/Alamy; p4t Ian Dagnall Commercial Collection/Alamy; p4b Musée de la Tapisserie, Bayeux, France/Bridgeman Images; p5 Heritage Image Partnership Ltd/Alamy; p6 Heritage Image Partnership Ltd/Alamy; p7 Private Collection/© Look and Learn/Bridgeman Images; p8t FALKENSTEINFOTO/Alamy; p8b f8 archive/Alamy; p9 The Print Collector/ Alamy; p10 Private Collection/© Look and Learn/Bridgeman Images; p11 Cotton Nero D VIII fol.7 Queen Matilda holding a charter, from the St. Alban’s Chronicle (vellum), English School, (14th century) British Library, London, UK/Bridgeman Images; p12 A.C.Jones/Shutterstock.com; p13 PAINTING/Alamy

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Unit 3: Medieval life

The medieval village Today, the proportion of England’s population who farm the land is 1 per cent. During the medieval period, 90 per cent of the population worked the land. Life for a medieval peasant was tough: the average age of death was 30 years old, and 40 was considered to be old. Peasants lived in a village, normally with around 25 households. The ultimate authority within a village was the lord, and at the centre of the village stood his manor. The lord could be anyone high up in the feudal system, such as a knight, the Archbishop of Canterbury, or even the king. Some lords owned multiple manors so a steward would look after the manor on his behalf.

Farming the land The manor was surrounded by fields, which were then divided into long thin strips, wide enough for an ox to pull a plough up one side, and down the other. The lord gave each peasant a number of strips to farm for themselves, but in return they had to spend around 3 days each week farming the lord’s land, known as the demesne. Peasants had to pay all sorts of different taxes to their lord, such as the wood-penny, the foddercorn and the bodel silver. One tax, called the heriot, stated that when a peasant died, they had to give their best animal to the lord. In addition, one tenth of all of their farm produce had to be given to the Church each year, a payment called the tithe.

Map of a medieval village

The peasant’s life moved with the seasons. In the early spring, land was ploughed with an ox to turn over the earth, providing fresh soil for crops. In this soil, the peasant sowed their seeds. By late summer, the crops were ready to harvest. The villagers would wait for a few days of sunny weather to dry the crops, before harvesting them as quickly as possible. All other jobs stopped during the harvest and the whole village, men, women and children, took part. They reaped the crops with a large blade called a ‘scythe’, and bundled them into ‘sheaves’. Peasants also had to harvest the lord’s fields, something known as ‘boon-time’. Through the autumn, the crops were threshed to separate the edible seed from the chaff. The seed could then be cooked, or ground to make flour for bread. Every year, peasants would struggle to harvest enough food to feed themselves until the next spring. If they suffered a bad harvest, they would simply starve.

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Life of a medieval peasant

31.1

Today, it is hard for us to imagine the conditions in which peasants lived. The poorest peasant families inhabited one small, single room hut. This was made out of wood and straw, with walls made from wattle and daub. The family all slept together on one straw mattress. The huts had no windows and a hole in the ceiling instead of a chimney, so the smoke from the fire filled the room. Farm animals such as cows and sheep would also be kept in the hut to provide heat during the winter. Imagine the smell! Outside the hut peasants kept a small plot of land, known as a croft, where they grew vegetables, and kept bees, chickens, geese and sheep. Breakfast would usually consist of bread and weak beer, and lunch would be the same, perhaps with some cheese. Beer was drunk throughout the day by adults and children, as water was often too dirty to drink. For their main meal, peasants ate a stew of vegetables and grains called ‘pottage’. Meat would rarely be eaten, because animals were too valuable as a source of milk, eggs and textiles. The one building made of durable stone, aside from the manor, would normally be the church. As they were built of stone, many medieval churches still stand at the centre of English villages today. Around 20 days a year were religious holy days, or ‘holidays’. Sometimes not much religious worship would actually take place. On holy days, the lord of the manor would provide a feast and entertainments, and the whole village celebrated together. If the peasants were lucky, the lord would provide meat and ale.

Illustration from a medieval manuscript showing a lazy ploughman (top right) and a hard working peasant sowing seeds (bottom right)

There were some other jobs available to peasants aside from farming. Peasants could appoint a reeve, who represented them in discussions with the lord. The constable was in charge of arresting criminals and organising the law courts, and the miller ran the lord’s flourmill. The names of these jobs, along with other medieval jobs such as Smith, Fowler, Cooper and Haywood, remain common surnames today.

Fact The measurement of an ‘acre’ originally meant the area of land that one ox could plough in a day.

Check your understanding 1. How did the proportion of people in medieval England who farmed the land differ from today? 2. What did peasants have to do in return for being given strips of land by their lord? 3. When would medieval peasants harvest their crops? 4. Why did peasants keep live farm animals inside their homes? 5. What would usually happen during a medieval holy day?

Chapter 1: The medieval village

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Unit 3: Medieval life

The medieval castle Medieval England was often in a state of war. Kings fought other kings. Barons fought other barons. Sometimes, barons would unite and fight their own king. Due to this instability, English kings and barons needed strong, welldefended castles in which their families and armies could seek protection. The castle was the ultimate symbol of power in the medieval world. At first, these were simple motte-and-bailey castles, which were easy to build. A ditch would be dug, and the soil from the ground would be used to create an artificial hill called a ‘motte’. On top of this motte a wooden tower would be built. Beneath the motte would be a small courtyard called a ‘bailey’. When the castle was attacked, the inhabitants of the bailey could seek shelter in the tower. Motteand-bailey castles were quick and cheap to build. However, the wood would soon begin to rot, and could easily be burnt down. So, the early wooden castles were replaced with larger, stronger stone castles.

Ruins of a motte-and-bailey castle near Elgin Moray in Scotland

Defending a castle The chief aim of castle design was to make it impossible for enemies to enter. During the medieval period, a number of clever ideas were developed to improve a castle’s defences. • Curtain Walls: An outer wall around the castle, often up to 12 metres thick. • Moat: A ditch dug to prevent attackers and their siege weapons from reaching the wall. • Gatehouse: The gateway to enter the castle was a weak point for attack, so it would be heavily defended, often with its own towers on either side. • Murderholes: Gaps in the roof of the gatehouse through which invading soldiers could be pelted with stones, waste materials and boiling water. • Drawbridge: A bridge from the gatehouse over the moat. This could be lifted up when the castle was attacked. • Arrow slits: Long, thin windows just wide enough to fire an arrow out of, but not large enough to climb through. • Crenellations: These regular gaps running along the top of a castle wall, like teeth, allowed defenders to fire arrows at attackers, but quickly take cover again. • Keep: A large stone building at the heart of the castle with enormous thick walls and small slit windows. It was strongly defended, and the last refuge for the castle’s inhabitants if the walls were breached.

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Whittington Castle in Shropshire, England

Unit 3: Medieval life

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Attacking a castle

31.2.1

Each new technology developed for defending castles would be matched by a new technology developed for attack. For attackers, the main aim was to create a hole in the castle wall, called a breach, through which their army could enter. • Mangonel: A large catapult that used twisted animal hair as an elasticised spring to fire rocks at the castle walls. • Trebuchet: A more advanced catapult, this used a counterweight and sling, and could hurl large rocks great distances with a strong force – perfect for creating a breach. • Battering ram: Made from a large tree trunk, and given a metal tip, this was used to batter down castle doors. It was sometimes hung from a frame on wheels, and covered with a roof for protection. • Siege tower: Also known as a belfry, this was a large wooden tower with ladders inside that could be wheeled up to a castle wall, and used to climb up and over. • Undermining: This involved digging a tunnel beneath a castle wall and lighting a fire. The fire would cause the tunnel to collapse and the castle walls to fall in, creating a breach. • Siege: If all else failed, an army would simply surround a castle allowing nobody to come in or out. The inhabitants would slowly starve to death, until they surrendered.

Developments in castle building Castle designs kept on improving. Missiles from catapults could knock a hole in flat walls, but would glance off curved walls, so round towers were developed. During the Crusades, returning European knights built ‘concentric castles’, based on those they had seen in Byzantium and the Islamic world. Concentric castles had two or more curtain walls, which meant archers defending the inner curtain wall could fire at the enemy army as they attacked the outer curtain wall.

Modern illustration of a trebuchet

Fact Trebuchets also fired rotting animals that could spread disease into castles. If an inhabitant from the castle was captured trying to escape, a trebuchet might even fire him back inside!

Castle technology became highly advanced during the medieval period. The original defensive function of castles, however, began to fade over the centuries. Noblemen became more concerned with living in houses that were comfortable and visually appealing, rather than well defended. The role of castles was finally ended by the arrival of a new invention from China: gunpowder. With this new technology, cannons could be used to blow apart a castle’s stone defences. By the 15th century, the medieval castle was becoming obsolete.

Aerial view of a concentric castle

Check your understanding 1. What were the advantages and disadvantages of a motte-and-bailey castle? 2. What was the chief aim of a castle’s design? 3. What was the main aim for an army attacking a castle? 4. How would a siege ensure that an enemy army could eventually take a castle? 5. Where did European knights learn about the technology for concentric castles?

Chapter 2: The medieval castle

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Unit 3: Medieval life

The medieval knight Medieval England was ruled by a warrior class of knights. These were heavily armed fighters on horseback, whose fearsome cavalry charges at a standing enemy could win or lose a battle. The number of knights in England peaked during the reign of Henry II, who had around 6000 at his service.

Becoming a knight At the age of seven, boys of noble birth were sent to live with another noble family, perhaps an uncle or close friend. Here, they served in the lord’s household as a page. In return, a page would be trained in activities such as horse riding, sword fighting and the rules of ‘courtly’ manners, known as chivalry (see box). Having reached the age of 14, a page moved on to being a squire. A squire was a personal servant to a knight: the word comes from the French word ‘écuyer’ meaning ‘shield-holder’. The squire followed his knight into battle, and performed essential tasks such as preparing his food, readying his horse, and – most importantly – helping him put on his suit of armour. In return, the squire received intensive training. This involved physical exercise to prepare him for the battlefield, such as wrestling, weight lifting, sword fighting and acrobatics. It also Reenactment of a medieval jousting tournament included learning chivalric behaviour, such as talking politely to a noble lady or dining at a feast. If the squire fulfilled all of his tasks, he became a knight at around the age of 21. Becoming a knight involved a ceremony called ‘dubbing’. The squire knelt on one knee in front of his lord, who tapped him on the shoulder with the flat of his sword. He would then arise a knight. Some knights went through longer ceremonies, intended to symbolise different chivalric virtues.

Armour and fighting After such intense preparation, knights were highly valued on the battlefield. No expense was spared in ensuring a knight’s armour kept him alive. It would take up to an hour for a squire to dress his knight for battle. First, he put on his aketon, or overshirt, a leather-padded garment filled with feathers to cushion blows. Then, he put on a long chain-mail coat, which provided protection for the upper body. After that, he put on the coat of armour, a heavy suit made from overlapping sheets of metal. Lastly, he put on the colourful surcoat, and fastened it with a leather belt.

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Fact One dubbing ceremony involved taking a bath to wash away sin, then wearing a purple cloak to symbolise blood, black stockings to symbolise death, and a white belt to symbolise purity.

Unit 3: Medieval life

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The coat of armour had to be extremely well designed to provide both complete coverage and freedom of movement. It included many rivets, pivots and hinges, which had to be regularly greased by the squire so that they did not become stiff. The glove, known as the gauntlet, was particularly complicated, with small individual plates allowing each finger to move freely.

31.3.1

The knight went into battle armed with a long lance to use in a cavalry charge. Having dropped his lance, the knight fought with a sword, a mace, a two-handed axe or a poleaxe. It was very difficult to kill a knight on the battlefield, but not impossible. Archers were effective, and the ‘bodkin’ arrowhead was designed to pierce armour. In addition, short stabbing swords could be thrust through the gaps in a suit of armour.

Chivalry The ideal medieval knight combined brave fighting on the battlefield with ‘courtly manners’ off it. This code of behaviour became known as chivalry, from the French word ‘chevalier’ meaning horseman. Knights would have to swear an oath of chivalry, promising to be brave, truthful, godly, gentle, faithful and fearless. In particular, knights were expected to defend the honour of women and children. One act of chivalry was to demand a duel with a knight who had offended your honour. This could be done by throwing your armoured glove on the floor, an act known as ‘throwing down the gauntlet’.

Modern illustration of a Knight’s coat of armour

Heraldic crests It was very difficult to identify a knight in a full suit of armour on the battlefield. For this reason, colourful ‘surcoats’ were developed. The surcoat was decorated with a heraldic crest, which could also be found on their shield and horse. On a heraldic crest, different colours and objects had all sorts of different meanings. This system was known as ‘heraldry’. It became so complicated that professional ‘heralds’ were employed to tell the difference between crests.

Check your understanding 1. What jobs did a squire perform for a knight? 2. What was the final stage that a squire went through before becoming a knight? 3. What weapons could be used to penetrate a knight’s coat of armour? 4. What sort of values and behaviour were encouraged by the idea of chivalry? 5. For what purpose were heraldic crests first developed?

Chapter 3: The medieval knight

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Unit 3: Medieval life

The medieval Church Almost every person in medieval England was a Christian. Some people were more religious than others, but everyone believed in God, the Bible, heaven and hell. The head of the Christian Church was the Pope, who was believed to be God’s representative on earth. The Pope normally lived in Rome, but his power spread across Western Europe. He could start wars, appoint churchmen in foreign countries, and even end a king’s reign through expelling him from the Christian Church. Some members of the clergy claimed that they only had to answer to the authority of the Pope, and were therefore independent of the king’s power. Clergymen could be tried in their own church courts, which gave more lenient sentences – something known as ‘Benefit of Clergy’. Medieval kings such as Henry II and John I had fierce power struggles with the Pope over this matter.

Power of the Church It is hard to overstate the importance of the Church in medieval English society. In many ways the Church was medieval society. It owned one third of the land, and through its monasteries and abbeys provided education, hospitals, theatrical performances, historical records and welfare for the poor. Monasteries and abbeys were religious houses in which monks and nuns lived and worked. In these religious houses, monks and nuns were meant to escape the corruption of the outside world and lead lives of perfect holiness. There were many different religious orders for monks, such as the Benedictines who cared for the ill and were renowned for their learning; and the Carthusians who lived solitary lives of fasting and prayer. Monks were easy to recognise. They wore a plain woollen robe called a ‘habit’, and had a distinctive haircut called a ‘tonsure’, which was supposed to represent Christ’s crown of thorns. Religious houses boomed during the medieval period. In 1066, there were around 50 monasteries and nunneries in England, but by 1300 there were 900, housing around 17 500 monks and nuns. These buildings were like small towns, with monks working in farms and workshops, and providing shelter and services for the outside community. Some monasteries were more beautiful and more richly decorated than royal palaces, but they were all destroyed during the 1500s. Today, all we can see are their ruins. We can, however, visit medieval cathedrals, of which 17 still stand. In every medieval village, the parish church was at the centre of community life. It held church services but also acted as a hall for feasts, plays and entertainment during religious holy days.

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Modern illustration of a monk writing pages of the bible by hand

Unit 3: Medieval life

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Popular religion

31.4.1

Most people who lived during the medieval period could not read, so popular religion was vivid, dramatic and colourful. The Mass was performed in Latin, and would have sounded like a mysterious chant to a peasant. However, they could learn about Christianity through stained glass windows and wall paintings in churches and cathedrals. For those who sinned on earth, suffering of unspeakable cruelty awaited them in purgatory and hell. Paintings in churches, known as ‘Doom Paintings’, showed what would happen in grim detail. The devil and his demons torture sinners: they are skinned, eaten, burnt, boiled alive, placed in chains, and poked with spikes. Medieval Christianity was rich in ceremony and ritual. Religious holidays, such Easter or All Hallows’ Eve, each had their own traditions. These could include processions, fasting, performances of Bible stories, or strange rituals such as ‘creeping to the cross’.

Pilgrimage A pilgrimage was a journey to a place of religious significance. The most important pilgrimage location in England was the tomb of Thomas Becket in Canterbury, but wealthier pilgrims would travel to locations abroad, such as Rome or Jerusalem. These journeys, especially overseas, were very dangerous and could take years to complete. Pilgrims had to travel in big groups to avoid being attacked, and pack large amounts of supplies to survive the journey. Some pilgrims undertook these journeys to gain forgiveness for their sins, others hoped to have a disease or disability cured, and some just wanted to gain good fortune in life. At pilgrimage sites, ‘relics’ containing body parts of saints could be prayed to, as they were believed to have miraculous powers. The most famous English medieval poem, The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, tells the story of around 20 pilgrims travelling from Southwark to Canterbury. The pilgrims are of all sorts: rich, poor, religious, sinful, male and female.

Fact When the tower of Lincoln Cathedral was completed in 1300, it was the tallest building in the world – taller even than the Great Pyramid in Egypt.

Illustration of the Canterbury pilgrims

Check your understanding 1. What powers did the medieval Pope have? 2. What services did monasteries and abbeys provide for their local community? 3. Why did popular religion need to be so vivid, dramatic and colourful during the medieval period? 4. What fate did medieval people believe awaited those who sinned on earth? 5. Why did the people of medieval England go on pilgrimage?

Chapter 4: The medieval Church

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Unit 3: Medieval life

Crime and punishment The punishment of criminals in medieval England closely followed the structure of feudal society. If a peasant committed a petty crime such as theft, drunkenness or brawling, they were tried by their lord in a local manorial court. No lawyers were used, and cases normally took around 15 minutes. Crimes committed by more important vassals, such as knights, were tried by their local baron in a ‘court of honour’. Medieval law and order functioned without a police force. Sometimes, a village would appoint a part-time constable to make arrests, break up fights and keep the keys to the stocks. However, most people lived in small villages where everyone knew each other, so normally the community could police itself.

Trial by ordeal If it could not be decided whether the defendant was innocent or guilty in a medieval trial, he or she could submit to ‘trial by ordeal’. An ordeal was a painful test, where it was believed that God would decide the verdict. In trial by boiling water the defendant plunged his or her arm into a pan of boiling water to retrieve a stone. The arm was then wrapped in bandages, and inspected a week later. If the wound had healed, it was believed that God must have intervened to prove the defendant’s innocence. If the wound had festered, the defendant was guilty. Similarly, trial by hot iron involved holding a burning hot iron in your hands and walking a short distance. Trial by water was particularly horrible. The defendant would be thrown in a village pond: if he floated, then it was believed the water ‘rejected’ him, making him guilty. If he sank, then he was innocent – but by then he was probably dead from drowning anyway!

Punishments

Modern illustration of trial by boiling water

If a defendant was found guilty, an array of imaginatively cruel punishments awaited. Execution was given for significant crimes: rape, murder, or theft worth over a shilling. Lesser crimes were still brutally punished: • Mutilation: Cutting off a body part. Often, the part was one relevant to the crime. A thief could have his hand cut off, and someone who spread false rumours might lose an ear. • Branding: This was the burning of a criminal’s skin with hot iron to form a permanent scar. The burn could be a particular shape, such as an ‘M’ for ‘Malefactor’, meaning evildoer.

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• Stocks: Petty criminals were often placed in the stocks: wooden boards which locked a criminal in place by their feet or by their arms. Stocks were normally placed in a town square, so townspeople could taunt and throw rotten food at the criminal.

31.5.1

• Ducking stool: A wooden chair attached to a lever, used to submerge a criminal under water. It was often used against women for adultery, prostitution or arguing with their family and neighbours (a crime known as ‘scolding’). These punishments were all designed to humiliate the criminal, and give them a sense of shame. The punishments were often performed in front of a crowd, ensuring that other people were discouraged from committing the same crimes.

Old stocks in Eyam village, England

Henry II and Common Law Medieval courts were inconsistent in the punishments they gave and could often make wrong judgments. However, this situation began to change during the reign of Henry II, who reformed the English legal system during his reign from 1154 to 1189. Henry introduced the concept of trial by jury, where 12 people who did not know the defendant were selected to decide upon their guilt. This practice is still fundamental to the English and American legal systems today. In addition, Henry appointed judges to travel the country, administering the ‘King’s law’ for important cases. The King’s law tended to be fairer and more consistent than the decision of a baron or lord. In addition, the Pope outlawed trial by ordeal in 1215. Through these measures, the concept of English Common Law emerged during the reign of Henry II: this was the expectation that penalties for particular crimes should be ‘common’ throughout the country, to achieve fairness and consistency.

Modern illustration of a manorial court

Avoiding punishment If you were clever, you could find ways to avoid punishment in medieval England. In some monasteries it was impossible to make an arrest, so a criminal could take refuge there and remain safe for life. A criminal could also demonstrate they were a churchman by reciting Psalm 51 by heart in Latin. This would allow them to receive a more lenient sentence in a church court through the Benefit of Clergy.

Check your understanding 1. Where would a peasant be tried if they had committed a crime? 2. During a trial by ordeal, who was believed to reveal the guilt or innocence of the accused? 3. Why were punishments such as the stocks, or the ducking stool carried out in public? 4. Which king reformed the English legal system, and introduced trial by jury? 5. What is meant by ‘English Common Law’?

Chapter 5: Crime and punishment

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Unit 3: Medieval life

Knowledge organiser Key vocabulary Armour Metal covering worn by knights to protect themselves in battle Benefit of Clergy The privilege enjoyed by clergymen to be tried in church courts Breach A gap in a wall or line of defence, made by an attacking army Cathedral A large and impressive church that contains the seat of a bishop Catholicism One of the three major branches of Christianity, led from Rome, by the Pope Chain-mail A form of armour consisting of small interlocking metal rings Chivalry A code of behaviour for medieval knights, emphasising bravery and good manners Clergy Officials of the Christian Church, ordained to lead church services Common Law The expectation that penalties for crimes should be ‘common’ throughout the country Concentric castle A castle with rings of two or more curtain walls Crenellations Gaps running along the top of the wall of a medieval castle Doom Painting A painting showing people being sent to Heaven or Hell on the Day of Judgment Croft An area of land surrounding a peasant’s dwelling, used to grow crops or keep livestock Demesne Land kept by a lord, which peasants were obliged to farm on his behalf Duel A fight, often to the death, between two people that is used to settle an argument Ducking stool A wooden chair attached to a lever, used to submerge a criminal under water Gauntlet An armoured glove, and the origin of the saying ‘throw down the gauntlet’ Heraldic crest A symbol or design to show the identity of a knight on the battlefield Keep A large stone building at the heart of a medieval castle

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Manor The house at the centre of a medieval lord’s lands Moat A ditch dug to prevent attackers from reaching the wall of a castle Monastery A building housing a religious community of monks or nuns Nun A woman who dedicates her entire life to God, and lives outside of normal society Pilgrimage A religious journey, typically taken to a shrine or a site of religious importance Pope Leader of the Catholic Church, he lives in Rome and is believed to be God’s representative on earth Pottage A stew of vegetables and grains, eaten by peasants for their main meal Purgatory A stage before heaven, where the dead are purged of any remaining sins Relic An object of religious significance, often the physical or personal remains of a saint Siege Surrounding an enemy castle allowing nobody to go in or come out Siege tower A large wooden tower that could be used to climb up and over castle walls Squire The personal servant to a knight, normally aged between 14 and 21 years Stocks A punishment for petty criminals, where wooden boards locked a criminal in place Strip farming The division of large fields into many narrow strips worked by different peasants Superstition The belief in supernatural powers, in place of rational explanation Tithe A medieval tax, paying one tenth of all farm produce to the Church Tonsure The hairstyle of a medieval monk, supposed to represent Christ’s crown of thorns Trebuchet An advanced form of catapult, using a counterweight and a sling Trial by jury A trial where 12 people consider the evidence and decide on the verdict

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Belgian illustration of the July harvest from the early 16th century

Key vocabulary Trial by ordeal A trial according to a painful test, where the will of God was believed to decide the verdict Undermining Digging beneath a castle wall, and lighting a ďŹ re which causes the walls to fall in Wattle and daub Woven sticks, covered in a mixture of mud, clay, animal dung and horsehair

Key people Geoffrey Chaucer The greatest English poet of the medieval period, and author of the Canterbury Tales

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: The medieval village 1. What proportion of people worked the land as peasants during the medieval period? 2. What was the average age of death for a medieval peasant? 3. What house stood at the centre of a medieval lord’s lands? 4. What form of farming divided large fields into sections to be worked by different peasants? 5. What was the lord’s land, which had to be worked by peasants each week called? 6. What medieval tax involved paying one tenth of all farm produce to the church? 7. What event would occur in the late summer, and involve the work of the entire village? 8. What stew, made out of vegetables and grains, was eaten by peasants as their main meal? 9. What is the name of the area of land, surrounding their huts, on which peasants could grow crops or keep livestock? 10. What material, made out of woven sticks and mud, was used to build a peasant’s hut?

Chapter 2: The medieval castle 1. From what material were the first motte and bailey castles mainly built? 2. What was the ditch dug to prevent attackers from reaching the walls of a castle called? 3. What were the gaps running along the top of the wall of a medieval castle called? 4. What large stone building lay at the heart of a medieval castle? 5. What was a gap in a wall or a line of defence, made by an army attacking a castle, called? 6. What advanced form of catapult used a counterweight and a sling to fire large missiles? 7. What was the practice of surrounding a castle and allowing nobody to come in or out called? 8. What practice involved digging beneath a castle wall, and lighting a fire which causes the walls to fall in? 9. What form of castle had rings of two or more curtain walls to improve its defence? 10. What new technology led to the castle becoming obsolete towards the end of the medieval period?

Chapter 3: The medieval knight 1. What distinguished a knight from other soldiers on the medieval battlefield? 2. How many knights did Henry II have at his service, during their peak in numbers? 3. What code of behaviour for medieval knights emphasised bravery and good manners? 4. What was a personal servant to a knight, normally aged between 14 and 21, called?

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5. What name was given to the ceremony that saw a young man become a knight? 6. What form of armour consisted of small interlocking metal rings? 7. What colourful piece of clothing would a night wear over his suit of armour? 8. What piece of clothing might a knight throw to the ground if his honour had been offended? 9. What was a fight, often to the death, between two people used to settle an argument called? 10. What was the symbol or design to show the identity of a knight on the battlefield called?

Chapter 4: The medieval Church 1. Who led the (Catholic) Christian church during the medieval period, usually from Rome? 2. What privilege was enjoyed by clergymen, meaning they could stand trial in church courts? 3. What proportion of the land did the Church own in medieval England? 4. What was a building housing a religious community of monks or nuns called? 5. What is a large and impressive church that contains the seat of a bishop called? 6. What were most medieval people unable to do, which meant medieval Christianity was vivid and dramatic? 7. What paintings showed people being sent to Heaven or tortured in Hell on the Day of Judgement? 8. Which medieval English poet wrote the Canterbury Tales? 9. What was a religious journey, typically taken to a shrine or a site of religious importance, called? 10. What is an object of religious significance, often the physical or personal remains of a saint, called?

Chapter 5: Crime and punishment 1. Where would a peasant, who had committed a petty crime such as theft, be tried? 2. Where would a more important vassal, such as a knight, be tried by their local baron? 3. What sort of trial involved a painful test, where will of God was believed to decide the verdict? 4. Give an example of this sort of trial? 5. What was a wooden chair attached to a lever, used to submerge a criminal under water, called? 6. What form of punishment for petty criminals used wooden boards to lock a criminal in place? 7. Which king significant reformed the English legal system from 1154 onwards? 8. What form of trial allows 12 people to consider the evidence and decide on the verdict? 9. What expectation states that penalties for crimes should be consistent throughout the country? 10. Who outlawed trial by ordeal in 1215?

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Unit 4: Medieval kingship

Henry II (1154–1189) Henry II was short and stout, with freckles and red hair. He had a fiery temper, enormous reserves of energy, and a fierce personality that was both his making, and his downfall. Henry II’s mother was the Empress Matilda, who had fought Stephen I for the English throne during the Anarchy. Towards the end of this civil war, Matilda had agreed to allow Stephen to rule, provided her son Henry succeed Stephen as king. So in 1154, Henry was crowned king. After nineteen years of brutal war, Henry II was determined to restore peace and order to the battered Kingdom of England. As well as ruling England and Normandy, Henry II gained Anjou through his father, the Count of Anjou, and Aquitaine through his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, a remarkably powerful queen (see pages 10–11). Henry II was a great fighter on the battlefield, and expanded his kingdom even further. He conquered Brittany, and won back land lost to Scotland and Wales during the reign of King Stephen. Henry’s territory was known as the ‘Angevin Empire’. It stretched from the border with Scotland in the north to the Pyrenees in the south of France.

The murder of Thomas Becket Thomas Becket was a clever young lawyer, whom Henry II made Lord Chancellor in 1155. Henry and Becket became great friends, and they enjoyed hunting and drinking together. Henry even sent his son to be brought up in Becket’s household. It was often said that Becket and the king were ‘but one heart and one mind’. Henry II wanted to gain control over the English church, which often ignored him in favour of the Pope. In particular, churchmen guilty of crimes could claim ‘benefit of clergy’, allowing them to avoid trial in the King’s courts. Henry II wanted this to change. In 1162 Henry persuaded his loyal friend Thomas Becket to become Archbishop of Canterbury and carry out his reforms to the church. However, once Becket became Archbishop, he became intensely religious. He stopped drinking and took to wearing an uncomfortable shirt made of animal hair to show his godliness. Instead of standing up for Henry II, Becket refused to take orders from him. Instead of defending the crown, Becket defended the church. Henry was furious at this betrayal.

17th-century depiction of King Henry II

Fact As ruler of the Angevin Empire, Henry II controlled more of France than the King of France himself.

When the king wanted his son Henry crowned King of England early to ensure a peaceful succession, Becket refused. And when the king tried to force Becket to obey him, Becket went behind his back and won the support of the Pope. Matters became serious when Becket lost his temper in the King’s court, and called Henry’s illegitimate brother a ‘bastard’. Becket had to go into exile in France for 4 years.

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On his return to England in 1170, Becket tried to excommunicate bishops who had been loyal to the king. This was the last straw for Henry, and tradition says he shouted “will nobody rid me of this turbulent priest?” Whatever he actually said, four knights overheard the king, and interpreted his outburst as an order.

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The four knights travelled to Canterbury Cathedral, where they found Thomas Becket preparing for an evening service. They asked Becket to leave the church, but he refused. A struggle broke out: one knight swung his sword at Becket and chopped off part of his skull. The Archbishop fell to the ground and, according to a witness, his brains spilled out over the cathedral floor. The people of England were appalled. Thomas Becket quickly became a Christian martyr, Canterbury became a site of pilgrimage, and in 1173 the Pope made Becket a saint. Henry II realised he had made a great mistake in causing the death of his once great friend, and needed to seek forgiveness. In 1174, he walked to Canterbury in bare feet and a hair shirt, and once there, the king was whipped by the monks and bishops of Canterbury before spending the night sleeping beside Becket’s shrine. It must have been a very unusual sight for the king’s subjects.

Henry’s last days Henry II’s reign, which had started so well, ended in sadness. Three of Henry II’s eldest sons were angry that he would not share control of the Angevin Empire, and along with their mother Queen Eleanor, they led an uprising against his rule. The revolt failed, and Henry II threw Eleanor in prison. Henry II never properly made peace with his sons and they continued to rebel against his rule. Deserted by his family Henry II died in 1189, supposedly of a broken heart.

Illustration of the murder of Thomas Becket from an illuminated manuscript

Canterbury Cathedral, England

Check your understanding 1. Why was it said that Henry II and Thomas Becket were ‘but one heart and one mind’? 2. How did Becket change when he became Archbishop of Canterbury? 3. What was the final straw which caused Becket to go into exile in France for 4 years? 4. How did Henry II cause four knights to travel to Canterbury and kill Thomas Becket? 5. What did Henry II do in response to Thomas Becket’s death?

Chapter 1: Henry II (1154–1189)

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Unit 4: Medieval kingship

King John (1199–1216) When Henry II died in 1189, he had two surviving sons. Richard, the elder, was crowned king. He was hugely popular, and known as ‘Richard the Lionheart’ for his bravery on the battlefield. As soon as Richard was crowned king, he went on a crusade to the Holy Land. With his brother away, John tried to steal Richard’s crown and become King of England. Upon his return from his crusade, Richard was imprisoned by Duke Leopold of Austria. John was asked to pay his brother’s ransom but refused. He even told the English people that Richard had been killed on his crusade. In 1194, Richard returned to England, and in a show of mercy he forgave his brother John for betraying him.

John as king

Illustration of King John

Five years later, Richard I died while fighting in France, so John became king. King John’s nephew, Arthur, also had a claim to the throne, so John captured Arthur and imprisoned him in a castle in France. The young prince was never seen again: some claimed John tied Arthur to a stone and drowned him in the River Seine. Like his father, John had fierce arguments with the church. He was extremely stubborn, and disagreed with the Pope about who should be the next Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1209 the Pope excommunicated John and ordered an ‘interdict’, meaning that no English church could hold services, marry couples, baptise children or bury dead bodies. For five years, English churches were locked to worshippers, and the people were furious. Because they were unable to go to church, they feared they would go straight to Hell.

Military losses The King of France was keen to get his hands on John’s territories in France. Whilst his brother Richard had won startling victories defending this land, King John nearly lost it all. In a series of defeats, John lost Brittany, Anjou and most embarrassingly his family’s ancestral homeland of Normandy. By 1204, he had lost one third of his entire kingdom, and had earned the nickname John ‘Softsword’ and ‘Lackland’ for his unsuccessful record on the battlefield. In 1214, King John assembled a large army to win back his land in France, but experienced a crushing defeat at the Battle of Bouvines. The English barons were not happy. They had paid enormous taxes for John to raise his army, but he kept on losing. In addition, King John ruled England as a cruel tyrant. In 1203, King John took 22 knights who had supported Arthur’s claim to the throne, locked them in a dungeon in

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The ruins of Corfe Castle in Dorset, England

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Corfe Castle, and left them to starve. When John fell out with his court favourite, William de Braose, he invaded William’s lands, drove him into exile in Ireland, and starved his wife and son to death.

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Magna Carta and civil war In 1215, the barons marched to London to meet King John, and demand that he change his ways. They met him at a meadow beside the Thames called Runnymede, and confronted him with a list of demands. These included not raising tax without the barons’ permission; not imprisoning people without a fair trial (a principle known as Habeas Corpus); and not trying to control the English church. John signed the paper by royal seal, and it became known as ‘Magna Carta’, Latin for the ‘Great Charter’. True to his character, no sooner had John signed Magna Carta, he claimed it was invalid. The barons were furious, marched to London, and declared that John no longer rule as king. By the autumn of 1215 England was engulfed in civil war, and King John spent a year laying siege to the castles of rebellious barons around England. In October 1216 he was campaigning in East Anglia, where one evening he feasted on peaches and cider. He went to bed suffering an upset stomach, and died during the night. The civil war was over, and few mourned the death of this stubborn and selfish king. The monks particularly disliked him, caricaturing him in their books as lazy and luxury loving, gloating over his gold and jewels and staying in bed until midday. However, King John’s reign did leave a lasting legacy in the form of the Magna Carta. Future monarchs were expected to vow that they would never rule as a tyrant by reconfirming the agreement made between King John and his barons. Magna Carta has become a foundational document for English political rights and freedoms.

Fact After King John’s death, one monk wrote: “Hell is a foul place, but will be made fouler by the presence of King John.” Modern illustration of King John signing the Magna Carta

Check your understanding 1. What is King John believed to have done to his nephew Arthur, and why? 2. Why were the people of England so angry about the interdict of 1209? 3. How did King John treat those he disliked, or who betrayed him? 4. What are some of the promises included in Magna Carta? 5. How did the Magna Carta have a lasting legacy following the death of King John?

Chapter 2: King John (1199–1216)

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Unit 4: Medieval kingship

Edward I (1272–1307) Edward I’s father, Henry III, spent much of his reign fighting with his barons. For this reason Edward was raised on the battlefield. At the age of 24, he won a great victory for his father at the Battle of Evesham. Edward was set for more adventures, and embarked on a crusade to the Holy Land. While in the city of Acre in 1272, an assassin tried to kill him in his bedroom. Edward killed the assassin, but was stabbed with a poisoned dagger and very nearly died. Later that year he received news that his father Henry III was dead. Edward’s adventure was over, and the crusader prince returned home to become King of England. Standing 6 feet 2 inches, King Edward was known by his troops as ‘Longshanks’, meaning ‘long legs’. After the unhappy reigns of his father Henry III, and his grandfather King John, the charismatic Edward I was welcomed by the English people. He had good looks, a booming voice, and a loving marriage to his Spanish Queen Eleanor of Castile, who bore him 16 children.

Illustration of King Edward I

Conquest of Wales However, Edward I could also be horribly cruel. His father had lost land to Wales and Scotland, and they were becoming troublesome neighbours. During his coronation, Edward I removed his crown and claimed that he would not wear it again until he had recovered the lands his father lost. Since the Norman invasion, Wales had been ruled by princes, who were expected to pay homage to the King of England. However, a Welsh prince named Llywelyn ap Gruffyd had taken control of the whole of the country, and named himself Prince of Wales. Prince Llywelyn did not attend Edward’s coronation in 1272, and refused to pay homage to the new king. For Edward I, this meant war. King Edward invaded Wales and defeated Llywelyn in 1277, stripping him of his power but sparing his life. War broke out again in 1282. This time Llywelyn was killed in battle, his head was carried to London on a lanceman’s pike, and kept on a spike at the Tower of London for 15 years. Llywelyn’s brother Dafydd carried on fighting, but was captured by Edward’s forces a few months later. He was sentenced for high treason, and a horrible new death was used for his execution. Dafydd was dragged through the streets by a horse, hanged until almost dead, disembowelled with his entrails burnt in front of him, and then cut into four pieces which were sent around England. This gruesome execution became known as being ‘hanged, drawn and quartered’. By 1283, Edward had conquered Wales, and he set about building a series of enormous castles across the country. He also made his eldest son and heir ‘Prince of Wales’, a practice that continues to this day.

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Harlech Castle, built by Edward I after his conquest of Wales

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Conquest of Scotland

41.3.1

Edward then turned his attention towards Scotland where the king, John Balliol, was also refusing to pay him homage. In 1296, Edward declared himself King of both England and Scotland, and took his army north to invade. The brutality of Edward’s army towards the Scots was infamous. Edward I took just 21 days to conquer the country, slaughtering the Scottish rebels and earning his nickname the ‘Hammer of the Scots’. King John Balliol was stripped of his crown. Edward took the ancient Stone of Destiny, on which Scottish kings had been crowned for 400 years, from Scotland and placed it underneath his throne in Westminster Abbey. However, Edward was quickly running out of money, and did not have the funds to keep control of his newly conquered Scotland. Rebellions broke out, led by a charismatic Scottish leader called William Wallace. Wallace was captured in 1305 and hanged, drawn and quartered. The following year, a nobleman called Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland, so Edward led yet another army north to defeat the Scots. He died during the march. Scotland remained independent from England for another 400 years.

William Wallace statue in Aberdeen, Scotland

The model Parliament

Fact

To raise money for his campaigns in Scotland and Wales, Edward called for Parliament to meet in Westminster in 1295. Two elected representatives from each county were to attend, along with all England’s bishops and noblemen. As Edward’s request stated, “What touches all should be approved of all”. This was the first time a king had sought the agreement of his people before taxing them, and Edward I’s Parliament became the model for all future kings.

Robert the Bruce decided to fight back against Edward I after his own sister, Mary Bruce, was hung outside her castle walls in a wooden cage by English soldiers.

Today’s Houses of Parliament, London, England

Check your understanding 1. Why did Edward I decide to invade Wales? 2. What did Edward I do to punish Dafydd ap Gruffyd? 3. How did Edward I earn the nickname the ‘Hammer of the Scots’? 4. Why did Edward I fail to bring Scotland under English control? 5. Why did Edward I call for Parliament to meet in 1295?

Chapter 3: Edward I (1272–1307)

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Unit 4: Medieval kingship

Henry V (1413–1422) Henry V’s father Henry IV was an unpopular king, who spent much of his reign putting down rebellions. He died from a terrible skin condition, which was possibly leprosy. Henry V was crowned king in 1413, and worked hard to win the support of the English people. He restored titles, castles and lands to nobles who had opposed his father. To meet his subjects and make sure his laws were being kept, Henry V travelled the country in a grand procession. Unusually for a medieval king, Henry V learned to read and write in English, which greatly aided royal administration. He was also the first King of England to conduct his court in English, not French.

War in France During Henry V’s reign, the ‘Hundred Years War’ was being fought between England and France. England lost almost all of its land in France, and its only remaining territory was the port town of Calais.

Portrait of King Henry V

However, during this period, France was ruled by a mad king called Charles VI, and was engulfed in civil war. Henry V spied a perfect opportunity to gain back land in France. He presented his plan to Parliament, and its members gave their full support to an invasion, doubling taxes to pay for it. In August 1415, Henry V crossed the English Channel with 12 000 men, and successfully took the French port of Harfleur after a one month siege.

Agincourt: the impossible victory

Fact The mad King Charles VI of France believed he was made out of glass, and feared that he might smash at any point.

After his victory at Harfleur, things turned against Henry V. Some of his army had been killed during the siege of Harfleur, and many were sent home suffering from a disease called dysentery. With what was left of his army, Henry decided to march from Harfleur to Calais where they could spend the winter. They were met with appalling weather, and for almost a month, Henry’s 8000 men trudged through constant rain with very few supplies. They were cold, weak, wounded and hungry. Then came some terrible news: an army of 12 000 heavily armed French solders was waiting for them on the road to Calais. The two armies met on a narrow strip of high ground between two forests. The English soldiers arrived first, and they established their defensive line the night before the battle by digging two metre sharpened wooden stakes – called palings – into the ground. Henry positioned his men-at-arms behind the palings, and the English and Welsh longbowmen hid in the forests on either side. And there, Henry’s weak and outnumbered army waited for the French attack.

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The battle began on the morning of 25 October, St Crispin’s Day. The enormous French army advanced with 9000 men-at-arms. However, they did not realise how wet the ground was, and funnelled by the forests on either side, many got stuck in the mud. At this point, the English archers rained a storm of arrows down on the sitting target of French soldiers. Once they had run out of arrows, the English soldiers charged out of the forest and from behind their palings attacking the French with axes and swords. Henry V led the charge, and was knocked off his horse, but continued to fight.

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The French were massacred: around 5000 are thought to have died, compared with only 1600 Englishmen. The Battle of Agincourt is still remembered today as one of the greatest victories in English military history.

Victory in France Henry V won a series of victories in France following the Battle of Agincourt. By 1420, Henry V was closing in on the capital city Paris. At this point he could have won the French throne by force, but instead Henry V signed the Treaty of Troyes with the mad King Charles.

Modern illustration of English archers at the Battle of Agincourt

The treaty agreed that Henry V would marry Charles’ daughter Catharine, and on Charles’ death Henry V would become King of France. However, in 1422 Henry V died of dysentery while on campaign. Had he lived just one month more, Henry V would have outlived Charles VI, and become King of both England and France.

Longbowmen Two metres in length, longbows could fire with great range and frequency. They played a pivotal role in England’s victories over the French during the Hundred Years War. One king, Edward III, made it compulsory for all Englishmen between the ages of 15 and 60 to practice archery on Sundays and holy days. He even banned sports such as football and hockey which might distract men from their archery practice.

Modern reenactment of a medieval longbowman

Check your understanding 1. What did Henry V learn to do, which was unusual for an English king during this period? 2. What gave Henry V the perfect opportunity to invade France in 1415? 3. In what condition was Henry V’s English army before the Battle of Agincourt? 4. Why were English longbowmen crucial to the English victory at Agincourt? 5. Why was Henry V never able to claim his title as King of both England and France?

Chapter 4: Henry V (1413–1422)

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Unit 4: Medieval kingship

Medieval queens During the medieval period, it was seen as unnatural for a woman to hold political power. Women were expected to be meek and gentle, and power was intimately related to physical prowess. Some medieval queens, however, were exceptions to this general rule. These remarkable individuals rose above the expectations set by their gender, and wielded considerable power over medieval England.

Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine was the eldest child of the Duke of Aquitaine – an enormous territory stretching across the south-west of France. When her father died, Eleanor inherited his lands. Attractive, well-educated and enormously wealthy, the fifteen-year-old Eleanor became the most sought after bride in medieval Europe. Before long, she was married to King Louis VII of France. Louis VII, who was slowwitted and lacked charm, was not a good match for the high-spirited and intelligent Eleanor. In 1147, Louis VII joined the Second Crusade, and Eleanor insisted on accompanying her husband to the Holy Land. Once they arrived in the Holy Land, however, Eleanor questioned Louis’s decision-making and refused to accompany him south towards Jerusalem. Louis was enraged by his wife’s disobedience, and they divorced in 1152. Eight weeks after her divorce, Eleanor shocked medieval Europe by marrying the heir to the English throne, Henry Duke of Normandy. When her new husband was crowned Henry II in 1154 (see pages 2–3), Eleanor became Queen of England. This marriage was more successful, and together they had five sons. As the years went on, Eleanor and her strongwilled husband Henry II began to quarrel. In 1168 Eleanor left England for France, to rule her ancestral homeland of Aquitaine on Henry II’s behalf. Here she developed a glamorous court, which was celebrated in poems and songs across Europe for its displays of chivalry. In 1174, however, Eleanor was arrested for helping to plot a revolt against Henry II’s rule, and imprisoned for fifteen years. But Queen Eleanor’s political career was not over. When Henry II died in 1189, Eleanor’s favourite son, Richard I, became king. One of his first acts was to order the release of his

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Effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine in Fontevraud Abbey, France

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67-year-old mother from prison. When Richard left England to fight in the third crusade, Queen Eleanor ruled England on his behalf as his regent.

41.5.1

Richard I died in 1199, and Eleanor transferred her loyalty to her youngest son King John (see pages 4–5). Queen Eleanor spent the last years of her life travelling through France and Spain negotiating alliances on his behalf. When Eleanor died in 1204 at the age of 82, she was one of the most powerful figures, male or female, in all of Europe.

Isabella of France Isabella of France was just twelve years old when she married Edward II (son of Edward I, see pages 6–7) in 1308. Unfortunately for Isabella, her new husband was already in love with a male courtier named Piers Gaveston. Edward II and Gaveston adored each other, though nobody today knows for sure whether their relationship was physical. In 1312, a group of barons captured Piers Gaveston and had him executed. After Gaveston’s death, Edward II and Isabella’s relationship improved, and they had four children. Edward came to admire his wife’s intelligence and judgment, and relied on her advice. But before long Edward II gained a new favourite called Hugh Despenser. Despenser was a greedy and sinister nobleman, much hated by the rest of England’s barons. Queen Isabella despised him. In 1325, Edward II sent his wife Isabella to her homeland of France to negotiate a treaty on his behalf. Once in France, Isabella fell in love with an English knight named Roger Mortimer. Together, they began to organise a rebellion against Edward II. Isabella and Mortimer raised an army and invaded England in September 1326. They captured Hugh Despenser, and had him hanged, drawn and quartered. Edward II was arrested and imprisoned in Berkeley Castle – making Isabella the only queen in English history to depose her own husband. If the rumours that later emerged are to be believed, Edward II died a horrific death. Isabella made her 14-year-old son Edward III king, but ruled on his behalf alongside her lover Mortimer. Once Edward III grew older, however, he had Mortimer executed and his mother imprisoned. But Isabella slowly won back her son’s favour, and lived in freedom for almost thirty more years, dying at the age of 63. Isabella’s ability to wield political power earned her both hatred and respect in England, where she was nicknamed the ‘She Wolf of France’.

15th-century illustration, showing Queen Isabella leading her army at Hereford

Fact At Edward II’s coronation feast, the king chose not to sit beside his new Queen Isabella, but instead sat next to his favourite courtier Piers Gaveston. Isabella was humiliated by her husband’s behaviour, and her family were outraged.

Check your understanding 1. Why were women unlikely to hold political power during the medieval period? 2. In what ways was Eleanor’s marriage to Henry II more successful than her marriage to Louis VII? 3. How did Eleanor wield power during the reigns of her sons, Richard I and King John? 4. Which two male courtiers became Edward II’s favourites, and what happened to each of them? 5. What did Isabella of France do which makes her unique amongst English queens?

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Unit 4: Medieval kingship

Knowledge organiser 1154 Henry II is crowned King of England

1199 King John is crowned King of England after the death of his brother Richard 1272 Edward I returns 1215 The barons from his crusade to be force King John to crowned King of England sign the Magna Carta

1170 Henry II accidently orders the murder of Thomas Becket

1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine dies

1283 Edward I conquers Wales and executes Daffyd ap Gruffyd

Key vocabulary Angevin Empire An Empire ruled by Henry II, stretching from Scotland to the Pyrenees Aquitaine Large medieval Duchy covering south-west France, ruled by Queen Eleanor Calais French port town, which for two centuries was an English territory Depose To suddenly or forcefully remove a monarch from power Dysentery An infection of the intestines that causes severe diarrhoea Excommunication Expulsion from the Catholic Church by the Pope Habeas Corpus The principle that no person should be imprisoned without first having a fair trial Hanged, drawn and quartered A gruesome execution, often used against those who commit treason Homage The practice of giving an annual payment to your Lord to show that you are their vassal Hundred Years War A long conflict between England and France beginning in the 14th century

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Interdict A law ruled by the Pope which temporarily shuts down the church in a country or area Jousting Medieval sport, fought by two mounted knights charging at each other armed with lances Longbow A six foot bow, used to great effect by the English during the late medieval period Magna Carta A series of promises that King John made to limit his power, meaning ‘the Great Charter’ Man-at-arms A heavily armed medieval soldier on horseback, but not necessarily a feudal knight Martyr A person who is killed for their beliefs, often religious Palings A barrier made from pointed wooden or metal poles to defend against cavalry charges Parliament A collection of people representing all of England, who approve or refuse laws Prince of Wales A title granted since the reign of Edward I to the heir to the English throne

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1305 Edward I executes the rebel Scottish leader William Wallace 1326 Isabella of France deposes Edward II

1415 Henry V wins the Battle of Agincourt

1308 Isabella of France marries Edward II

1413 Henry V is crowned King of England

Key people

Key vocabulary Regent Someone who is appointed to rule on behalf of a monarch, when the monarch is too young, infirm or absent to rule Stone of Destiny A large block of sandstone historically used for the coronation of Scottish monarchs Treason A crime against your own people, nation, or monarch Tyrant A ruler who refuses to share their power, and governs in a cruel and oppressive way

Edward I English king known as the ‘Hammer of the Scots’ Eleanor of Aquitaine Wife of Henry II and one of the most powerful women in medieval Europe Henry II English king who accidently orders the murder of his own Archbishop of Canterbury Henry V English king who won the Battle of Agincourt Isabella of France English queen who deposed her own husband, Edward II King John English king seen as a tyrant who is forced to sign the Magna Carta Llywelyn ap Gruffyd The last Princes of Wales, prior to its conquest by Edward I. Thomas Becket A medieval Archbishop of Canterbury who was killed for his opposition to the king William Wallace A rebel knight who led the resistance to Edward I’s conquest of Scotland

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: Henry II (1154–1189) 1. What period in English history did Henry II’s reign directly follow? 2. What area of land in France did Henry II gain through his marriage to Eleanor? 3. What name was given to the Empire that Henry II ruled? 4. What position did Henry II give to his friend Thomas Becket in 1162? 5. What did Thomas Becket wear to show how religious he was? 6. What offence caused Thomas Becket to go into exile in France for 4 years? 7. In what year was Thomas Becket murdered? 8. Where was Thomas Becket murdered? 9. What is a person who is killed for their beliefs, often religious, called? 10. What did Henry II order the monks and bishops of Canterbury do to him in 1174?

Chapter 2: King John (1199–1216) 1. From whom did John try to steal the English throne whilst he was fighting a crusade? 2. Who did King John imprison, and possibly kill, for being a rival to the throne? 3. What term describes expulsion from the Catholic Church by the Pope, as happened to King John in 1209? 4. What did the Pope order in 1209, which caused English churches to close for 5 years? 5. What nickname did King John gain for his defeats on the battlefield? 6. What is a ruler who refuses to share their power, and governs in a cruel and oppressive way, called? 7. What series of promises meaning ‘the Great Charter’, did the Barons force King John to sign? 8. In what year did John sign this series of promises? 9. Where was this series of promises signed? 10. What group of people in particular wrote negative accounts of King John following his death?

Chapter 3: Edward I (1272–1307) 1. Where was Edward I when he received news that his father, Henry III, was dead? 2. What nickname was given to Edward I due to his height? 3. What were Welsh princes expected to pay to the English king to show they were his vassal? 4. Which Prince of Wales did not attend Edward I’s coronation, and resisted his authority? 5. What horrible new execution did the brother of the last Prince of Wales suffer? 6. What title did Edward I grant to his son and heir, in a practice that continues to this day?

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7. What nickname was Edward I given due to his brutality towards the Scots? 8. What did Edward I take from Scotland, and place underneath his throne in Westminster Abbey? 9. Which Scottish rebel leader did Edward I capture and execute in 1305? 10. What collection of people did Edward I call in 1295 to approve taxes for his military campaigns?

Chapter 4: Henry V (1413–1422) 1. What did Henry V learn to do, which greatly aided royal administration? 2. What conflict between England and France was being fought during Henry V’s reign? 3. What was happening in France during Henry V’s reign, which gave him the opportunity to invade? 4. In what year did Henry V invade France? 5. What disease were Henry V’s men suffering from following the siege of Harfleur? 6. What was the name of Henry V’s greatest battlefield victory against France? 7. How many French soldiers did the English face at this battle? 8. What did the English make out of sharpened wooden stakes, to defend against French cavalry charges? 9. Which part of the English army fired on the French army once they were trapped? 10. What did the Treaty of Troyes state would happen when King Charles VI of France died?

Chapter 5: Medieval queens 1. The king of which country did Eleanor of Aquitaine marry first? 2. On what journey did Eleanor of Aquitaine accompany her first husband? 3. Who did Eleanor marry following the end of her first marriage? 4. How many sons did Eleanor of Aquitaine have with her second husband? 5. What role did Eleanor of Aquitaine play when Richard I was on a crusade? 6. For whom did Eleanor of Aquitaine travel France and Spain negotiating alliances? 7. With whom was Edward II already in love when he married Isabella of France? 8. In what year did Isabella of France invade England from France? 9. Isabella of France is the only queen in English history to have done what? 10. What nickname did Isabella of France gain for her ability to wield political power?

Unit 4: Medieval kingship

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William Collins’ dream of knowledge for all began with the publication of his first book in 1819. A self-educated mill worker, he not only enriched millions of lives, but also founded a flourishing publishing house. Today, staying true to this spirit, Collins books are packed with inspiration, innovation and practical expertise. They place you at the centre of a world of possibility and give you exactly what you need to explore it. Collins. Freedom to teach Published by Collins An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers The News Building 1 London Bridge Street London SE1 9GF Text © Robert Peal 2016 Design © HarperCollinsPublishers 2016 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-00-819529-8 Robert Peal asserts his moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher. This book is sold subject to the conditions that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the Publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. HarperCollins does not warrant that any website mentioned in this title will be provided uninterrupted, that any website will be error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the website or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or bugs. For full terms and conditions please refer to the site terms provided on the website. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Publisher: Katie Sergeant Editor: Hannah Dove Author: Robert Peal Fact-checker: Barbara Hibbert Copy-editor: Sally Clifford Image researcher: Alison Prior Proof-reader: Ros and Chris Davies Cover designer: Angela English Cover image: robertharding/Alamy Production controller: Rachel Weaver Typesetter: QBS Printed and bound by Martins, UK Acknowledgments Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publishers will gladly receive any information enabling them to rectify any error or omission at the first opportunity. The publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: (t = top, b = bottom, c = centre, l = left, r = right) Cover & p1 robertharding/Alamy; p2 World History Archive/Alamy; p3t Everett - Art/Shutterstock.com; p3b Pawel Kowalczyk/Shutterstock.com; p4t GL Archive/Alamy; p4b David Evison/Shutterstock.com; p5 GL Archive/Alamy; p6t Art Directors & TRIP/Alamy; p6b Gail Johnson/Shutterstock.com; p7t douglasmack/Shutterstock.com; p7b skyearth/Shutterstock.com; p8 World History Archive/Alamy; p9t Private Collection/©Look and Learn/ Bridgeman Images; p9b Holmes Garden Photos/Alamy; p10 BRIAN HARRIS/Alamy; p11 Everett Collection Historical/Alamy

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Unit 5: The Crusades

The Islamic world The religion of Islam began around 610, when Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad received his first divine revelation from the angel Gabriel. Muhammad lived in a trading post on the Western side of the Arabian Peninsula called Mecca. By the time of his death in 632, Muhammad’s Islamic rule controlled the entire peninsula. Under the rule of Muhammad’s successors, Islam continued to spread with extraordinary speed through both invasion and conversion. Muslim forces had conquered Syria by 638, Persia by 651, and Spain by 711. The world had never seen such an electrifying combination of religious and military force, and by 750, the Islamic Empire extended from Spain’s Atlantic coast in the West, to the edge of India in the East.

The caliphate This Islamic Empire was known as the caliphate. It was a single state, and one ruler called the ‘caliph’ had authority over both religious and political life. For its first one hundred years, the different caliphs managed to retain some central control over the caliphate, but Islam’s ongoing expansion made it increasingly difficult to rule. This was made worse during the 10th century when a split emerged between two different forms of Islam, Sunni and Shia. This split can be traced back to 661, when fourth caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib (Muhammad’s son in law) was assassinated while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa. Ali’s supporters belonged to the Shia branch of Islam, and they believed that the caliphate should be hereditary and pass through Muhammad’s family. However, power passed to the Sunni branch, who believed that the role of caliph should not necessarily be reserved for direct descendants of the prophet. The Sunni Umayyad Caliphate ruled the Islamic world from the city of Damascus until 750. In that year, the Umayyads were replaced by the Abbasids, who were also Sunni. The Abbasids founded a new city called Baghdad to be the centre of their caliphate. During the Abbasid Caliphate, a powerful new Shia dynasty developed in Egypt, called the Fatimids. The Fatimids were named after Muhammad’s daughter Fatima, the wife of Ali ibn Abi Talib, from whom they claimed to be descended. Meanwhile, the grandson of one of the defeated Umayyad caliphs had escaped to Spain, where he established an independent Islamic territory in Europe, called Al-Andalus.

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The Great Mosque of Damascus, built during the Umayyad Caliphate

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Islamic culture Covering three continents, the Islamic world of the medieval period gained its wealth and power through trade. Islamic markets, known as bazaars, traded goods from across the known world: carpets and tapestries from Persia; spices from India; silks and porcelain from China; animal furs from central Asia; amber from the Baltic; and gold, ivory and ostrich feathers from West Africa. Jews, Christians and a host of other religions were usually allowed to live and worship in peace under Islamic rule, provided they paid tax to their Muslim overlords. The common Arabic language allowed ideas to spread easily, and a well-educated population of scholars thrived. Urban centres such as Cordoba in Spain, Damascus in Syria, and Baghdad in Iraq became great centres of civilisation and intellectual progress. The Abassid caliph al-Ma’mun created a library in Baghdad, known as the ‘House of Wisdom’, where Muslim scholars kept alive the classical texts of Ancient Greece and Rome by translating them into Arabic. The House of Wisdom became an unrivalled centre for the study of mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and philosophy.

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Mosaic of the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, Iran

Traditional carpet shop in Iran

Byzantine Empire Situated between the Islamic world and Christian Europe was a civilisation known as Byzantium. During the fourth century the Roman Empire divided, with Rome as the capital of the western half, and Byzantium (later Constantinople) as the capital of the eastern half. After the fall of Rome in 476, the Byzantine Empire survived for another 1000 years. The Byzantines called themselves ‘Romans’, spoke Greek, and had as their capital the walled city of Constantinople (modern day Istanbul). They were Christians who belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church, and did not recognise the authority of the Catholic Pope. European visitors to Constantinople spoke of its magnificent buildings. Most spectacular of all was the church of Hagia Sofia, which remained the largest cathedral in the world for 1000 years after it was built. When the French crusader knight Geoffroi de Villehardouin laid eyes on Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, he recorded he “never thought that there could be so rich and powerful a place on earth”.

Fact By the year 1000, Baghdad was home to around 500 000 people. It had running water, beautiful gardens, and schools of law. By contrast, London was a small muddy town, with around 10 000 inhabitants.

Check your understanding 1. How far had the Islamic Empire spread by 750? 2. Why did it become difficult to rule the caliphate as a unified state with a single leader? 3. Why did a split emerge between the Sunni and the Shia branches of Islam? 4. What was the ‘House of Wisdom’ in Baghdad? 5. How did the Byzantine Empire develop from the Roman Empire?

Chapter 1: The Islamic world

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Unit 5: The Crusades

The First Crusade The area surrounding the ancient city of Jerusalem is sometimes called the ‘Holy Land’, and is a place of major religious importance for three world religions. For Christians, Jerusalem is the home of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where Jesus is believed to have been buried and resurrected; for Muslims, it is the home of the Dome of the Rock, where the Prophet Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven; and for Jews, it is the home of the Wailing Wall, the last surviving part of King Solomon’s temple. In 638, Jerusalem was conquered by the expanding Islamic Empire. Jerusalem came to be ruled by the Fatimids, who were tolerant of other religions, and for centuries they allowed Christians and Jews to live in the city, and visit as pilgrims. However, this changed in 1079 when a Muslim force known as the Seljuk Turks seized control of Jerusalem. The Seljuks, who were Sunni Muslims, originated from central Asia and were fierce warriors famed for their horseback archers. Christians feared that they were not welcome as pilgrims to Jerusalem now that it was under Seljuk rule, and could no longer visit the site of Jesus’ resurrection.

The Dome of the Rock

Pope Urban II More worrying still, Seljuk power was spreading through Asia Minor and threatening the great Christian city of Constantinople. This led the Byzantine Emperor Alexios Komnenos to ask for help from his Christian brothers in Western Europe. In response, Pope Urban II made one of the most important speeches in medieval history on 27 November 1095. In the French town of Clermont, Urban II addressed a gathering of important bishops and noblemen. He called on the knights of Europe to form a great army that would travel east, defend Constantinople, defeat the Seljuk Turks, and conquer the Holy Land for the Christians. For those who took part, Urban II promised forgiveness of all previous sins and a guaranteed place in heaven. In doing so, he created a powerful idea: holy war. Ecstatic listeners who were inspired by Pope Urban II’s call tore their clothing into crosses and sewed them onto their tunics. To fight in the Crusades became known as ‘to take the cross’.

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The Wailing Wall

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre

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The First Crusade

5.2

An army of perhaps 60 000 men, women and children was assembled from across Europe. It was the largest force Europe had seen since the days of the Roman Empire. Around one in ten were knights, the rest being a travelling city of foot soldiers, cooks, craftsmen, servants, and family members. This force was led by a group of noblemen from France, Germany and Italy. They included an ageing knight called Raymond of Toulouse who claimed that his eye had been gouged out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and Robert Duke of Normandy, the eldest son of William the Conqueror. Another was Bohemond of Taranto, a giant of a man from Southern Italy, and one of the most feared knights in Europe at the time. In August 1096, the crusaders began their march into the unknown territory of Asia Minor, stopping first at Constantinople where the Emperor Alexios Kommenos gave them food and supplies. In June 1097, they took the holy city Nicaea, and returned it to Byzantine rule. In June 1098, after an eight-month siege they captured the fortified city of Antioch. Marching through endless miles of hot, dry terrain towards the Holy Land, the crusaders quickly ran out of food and water, and survived by looting nearby villages.

Fact During the long winter of 1098, starving crusaders trapped in the city of Antioch ate seeds from horse manure to survive. Crusaders in the nearby city of Maarat were said to have resorted to cannibalism.

Siege of Jerusalem After three years and 3000 miles of gruelling warfare, the crusaders finally reached Jerusalem on 7 June 1099. Starvation, casualties, and desertion had depleted their army to 15 000 men, and 1300 knights. They camped outside the walls of Jerusalem for a month to regain their strength and build siege engines. One knight, named Godfrey of Bouillon, built a 20 metre tall siege tower. Godfrey took his tower to the less defended northern walls of the city, and on 15 July he broke through the Muslim defences. The crusaders flooded into the city. Once inside Jerusalem, the crusaders massacred the Muslim and Jewish population, killing, torturing and burning alive an estimated 10 000 men, women and children. It was reported that blood ran through the streets up to their ankles, and six months later the city still reeked of death and decay. This butchery by the crusader knights shocked the Muslim world. Modern illustration of the siege of Jerusalem

Check your understanding 1. Why is Jerusalem a place of major importance for three world religions? 2. What did the Pope promise to Christian knights who agreed to take part in the First Crusade? 3. Who led the First Crusade? 4. Why did the crusaders resort to looting as they made their way towards Jerusalem? 5. How did the crusaders behave once they had broken into Jerusalem?

Chapter 2: The First Crusade

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Unit 5: The Crusades

Crusader states During their progress through the Holy Land, the crusaders established a network of ‘crusader states’ ruled by European knights. Godfrey of Bouillon became the first ruler of Jerusalem, but refused to be crowned. However, when he died in 1100, his power-hungry brother was crowned King Baldwin I of Jerusalem. To the north, Bohemond of Taranto became the Prince of Antioch, after refusing to hand the city back to the Byzantines. Baldwin I’s cousin became the Count of Edessa. The crusaders captured important coastal towns such as Tripoli and Acre, ensuring that a steady supply of reinforcements and pilgrims could travel from Europe, across the Mediterranean, and to the Holy Land by sea. They built castles to establish control over their new territories, such as the enormous Krak des Chevaliers in Syria. Krak des Chevaliers, a crusader castle in Syria

The Second Crusade One reason for the extraordinary success of the First Crusade was the infighting between different branches of Islam. However, during the 1100s the Muslim response to the Christian invaders became more unified, as they launched a holy war of their own: a Jihad. In 1144, Muslim forces captured the northernmost crusader state, Edessa. In response, Pope Eugenius III called on the knights of Europe to go on a Second Crusade. Two European kings, Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, took the cross and assembled a force of 50 000 men. However, having arrived in the Holy Land they decided to ignore Edessa and attack the larger and wealthier city of Damascus. The Siege of Damascus lasted just three days, before the crusader army withdrew. The crusaders returned to Europe humiliated and empty-handed.

The Third Crusade After the failure of the Second Crusade, a celebrated leader named Salah al-Din (known in the West as Saladin) rose to power, uniting much of the Muslim world. In 1187, he destroyed almost the entire crusader army at the Battle of Hattin, and took the city of Jerusalem. Saladin captured 50 more crusader strongholds between 1187 and 1189, including the port city of Acre. News of Jerusalem’s fall shocked Europe, and a fresh crusade was called for. Setting off in 1191, the Third Crusade was led by King Richard I of England (known as the ‘Lionheart’), King Frederick Barbarossa of Germany

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Statue of Richard the Lionheart outside the Houses Of Parliament in Westminster, London, England

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(meaning ‘red beard’), and King Phillip II of France. Barbarossa died before reaching the Holy Land after drowning during a river crossing in Anatolia. Richard conquered the island of Cyprus on the way to the Holy Land, and arrived in June 1191. Here, he found King Phillip, the remainder of the German army, and the survivors of the Battle of Hattin laying siege to Acre. Under the leadership of Richard, the crusaders forced Saladin to surrender Acre on 12 July 1191. As part of the peace negotiations, Saladin promised to return to the crusaders a relic believed to be part of the Cross of Christ, which had been captured at Hattin. Saladin delayed in fulfilling the agreement. So, Richard marched 2600 Muslim soldiers outside of Acre’s city walls and executed them in full sight of Saladin and his army. Having won the Siege of Acre, Richard took full control of the crusader force. He marched on Jerusalem, and by January 1192 was just 12 miles from the city. By now however, Richard was ill, his soldiers were exhausted, and the weather was dreadful. Doubting his ability to take the city, Richard decided to turn back towards Acre. Though fierce rivals, Richard and Saladin grew to respect each other’s military ability, and their exhausted armies agreed to a truce in the summer of 1192. Jerusalem remained in Muslim hands, but the crusaders were allowed to keep the valuable strip of coastal land around Acre. In addition, Christians were given full permission to visit Jerusalem on pilgrimage.

51.3.1 Fact Richard the Lionheart decided to conquer Cyprus after his sister and fiancée were shipwrecked on the island, and imprisoned by its Byzantine ruler Isaac Komnenos. Richard imprisoned Isaac, freed his fiancée, and married her on the island.

Saladin the Merciful Born to a Kurdish family in Northern Iraq, Saladin grew up to be a great military leader and was made Sultan of Egypt in 1171. Though a fierce warrior, Saladin was respected for showing mercy towards his enemies. Having conquered Jerusalem, Saladin ordered that his men should not kill civilians or loot their possessions. Enemy knights were given the chance to buy their freedom, or be sold as slaves. During a battle at Jaffa, Richard the Lionheart’s horse was killed beneath him, and Saladin responded by sending him a new horse. When Richard was suffering from a terrible fever during the summer of 1192, Saladin sent him peaches and sherbet cooled with snow from nearby mountains to help him recover. Saladin intended to visit Mecca on a pilgrimage at the end of the Third Crusade, but he died of a fever in 1193.

Modern Depiction of Saladin from 16th-century France

Check your understanding 1. What did the Crusader knights establish having conquered Jerusalem? 2. Why did the Second Crusade end in failure? 3. Why did Richard the Lionheart decide against laying siege to Jerusalem in 1192? 4. What was agreed in the 1192 peace between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin? 5. How did Saladin gain his reputation for being merciful?

Chapter 3: Crusader states

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Unit 5: The Crusades

Life as a crusader knight By promising knights that crusading would allow them to fight and kill, but still be rewarded with eternity in heaven, Pope Urban II created a powerful new movement in Christianity. Religious language and imagery were constantly used to recruit knights for the Crusades. Preachers such as the monk Bernard of Clairvaux travelled Europe whipping crowds into a religious frenzy. He told them “The earth trembles and is shaken because the King of Heaven has lost his land, the land where once he walked.” However, religion was not the sole motivation. As the crusader states grew, some knights saw the Crusades as an opportunity to gain fame. Stories of great crusader knights, such as Godfrey of Bouillon and Richard the Lionheart, inspired other knights to seek glory in the Holy Land. For peasants, crusades offered the chance to escape grinding poverty and the control of their feudal overlords.

Fact After Saladin conquered Jerusalem in 1187, settlers in the East sent their Christian brothers in Europe a picture of a Muslim warrior, whose horse was defecating on the Holy Sepulchre.

Fighting a Crusade Going on a Crusade was expensive. A knight had to pay for himself, but also for weapons, armour, equipment and food, not to mention a small entourage of foot soldiers and servants. One historian estimates that going on crusade cost four times the annual income of a poor knight. Very few knights would return home from a crusade wealthier than when they left. That is, if they returned home at all. The survival rate for crusaders was not good. One in three of the knights who left for the First Crusade died, through battle, starvation or disease. Hunger was a constant companion for crusaders, who often had to resort to eating horses, dogs and rats to survive. Once knights reached the Holy Land, they faced diseases such as dysentery, malaria and cholera. The weather was another problem: the scorching heat of the summer reached unbearable temperatures for knights in a European suit of armour, while rain and snow caused armour to rust during the winter.

Life in the Holy Land For knights who settled in the Crusader Kingdoms, life could be pleasant. European settlers often adopted the lifestyles of eastern Muslims, who they called ‘Saracens’ (an old Greek word for ‘Arab’). They washed regularly, ate Middle Eastern food, and wore turbans. Arabic houses, with courtyards, fountains, and glass windows, were far more luxurious than their draughty castles back home in Europe. Fulcher of Chartres, the priest to King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, recorded that European settlers in the Holy Land married local women and adopted

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Window depicting a Knight Templar

Unit 5: The Crusades

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local languages. He wrote, “We who were westerners have now been made easterners. He who was a Roman or a Frank is now a Galilaean, or an inhabitant of Palestine…”. A bewildering array of different races and religions lived in the Holy Land: Armenians, Greeks, Arabs and Jews. European settlers ruled over them all, and even the lowliest European peasant had more legal rights than the Eastern population. There was some interaction between the Christians and Muslims, particularly through trade, but the majority of Muslims were forced to live as peasants.

Military orders During the Crusades, a new concept within Christianity developed: the warrior-monk. These were religious orders that lived together, and took vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. However, they were also fighters, feared for their discipline and devotion.

51.4.1 Fact Love affairs between Christians and Muslims could be cruelly punished in crusader states: according to a law established in 1120, women would have their nose cut off, and men would be castrated.

One of the best known were the Knights Templar, who were formed in 1120 to protect Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land, and were given a royal palace at the al-Aqsa mosque on Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The Templar answered to no king, but instead elected a ‘Grand Master’. The Templar grew long beards, held initiation ceremonies, and were not allowed to leave the field of battle while the Templar banner remained standing. Due to their great popularity the Templar were granted a number of castles and territories to rule and became very wealthy. Others grew jealous and suspicious of their power. In 1312 the Pope ordered the Templar to disband. Another elite order of crusader knights was the Knights Hospitaller. After crusaders were driven from the Holy Land, the Knights Hospitaller moved to Cyprus, then Rhodes, and continued as a religious and military order on the island of Malta until 1798.

Window depicting a Knight Hospitaller

Check your understanding 1. How much has one historian estimated it cost a poor knight to go on crusade? 2. Why was the armour of European knights unsuited to fighting in a crusade? 3. In what ways did European crusaders adopt ‘Eastern’ ways once they settled in the Holy Land? 4. What was the social status of Muslims living under Christian rule in the Holy Land? 5. What were the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller?

Chapter 4: Life as a crusader knight

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Unit 5: The Crusades

The end of the Crusades Fewer than 10 years had passed since Richard the Lionheart’s retreat from Jerusalem, before Pope Innocent III was calling for yet another crusade. In 1201, the great maritime republic of Venice was asked to construct a fleet of 200 ships for a fourth crusade, but by June 1202 the crusader force had still not raised the money to pay them. However, a solution was at hand. A Byzantine prince named Alexios Angelos was living in exile in Europe, after his uncle had blinded his father and seized Constantinople. Alexios asked the crusaders to help him take back his father’s throne. In return, Alexios promised to pay the crusaders the money they required to complete their journey to the Holy Land.

The Fourth Crusade In April 1203, the crusaders set sail for Constantinople. They mounted the supposedly impregnable sea walls of Constantinople using ships fitted with specially designed siege towers, and took the city. Alexios was proclaimed Emperor. Once made Emperor, however, Alexios was unable to raise the money he promised the crusaders, and relations grew bitter. In early 1204, Alexios was overthrown by his own people and strangled to death. With Alexios dead, 20 000 impatient crusaders were left camping outside Constantinople with no chance of gaining the money they had been promised. So, they took Constantinople by force.

Surviving portion of the walls of Constantinople, in modern day Istanbul, Turkey

In April 1204, the crusaders broke into Constantinople, subjecting its population to three days of violence and plunder. The greatest Christian city on earth was destroyed, and stripped of its treasures and relics, including what were believed to be Jesus’ Crown of Thorns, and the head of John the Baptist. Happy with their plunder, the crusaders decided not to bother carrying on to Jerusalem, and went home to Europe.

The end of the Crusades There were further Crusades during the thirteenth Century, often focused on taking the Muslim power base of Egypt, before progressing to Jerusalem. However, the concept of ‘crusading’ had changed. It was increasingly used to justify wars against non-Christians not just in the Holy Land, but across Europe and North Africa.

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Fact In 1212, thousands of youngsters left their families in France and Germany and embarked on what became known as the ‘Children’s Crusade’. Accounts suggest the youngsters set sail for the Holy Land, but were captured and sold into slavery in North Africa.

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Christian possessions in the Holy Land gradually shrank until all that was left was the port of Acre. On 18 March 1291, Acre fell to a thunderous attack from a new force of Muslim warriors known as the Mamluks. The Mamluks were originally from central Asia, and had already taken control of Egypt. Some of the Christian population escaped by sea, others were sold into slavery. Captured Crusader knights from the Hospitaller and Templar orders were promised mercy, but then taken outside Acre’s city walls and executed.

51.5.1

Impact of the Crusades The Crusades transformed life in Europe. Pilgrims from Europe arrived in the Holy Land by the boatload, to see Biblical history with their own eyes: Bethlehem, Nazareth, Galilee and the River Jordan. Visiting Europeans learnt from the cultural and intellectual wealth of the Islamic world. Soap, mirrors, and magnifying glass all came to Europe via the Islamic world, as did our modern numerals (1, 2, 3…) and algebra, which comes from the Arabic word ‘al-jebr’. A stringed instrument called the lute, and the board game chess, also came to Europe from the Middle East. So too did many texts from Ancient Greece and Rome which had been translated into Arabic.

Today, Christian pilgrims still travel to the River Jordan in the Holy Land to be baptised

Despite the fighting between Christian and Muslim armies, trade between Europe and the Middle East thrived during the Crusades. Italian city-states, such as Venice and Genoa, grew extremely wealthy and established their own quarters in the coastal ports of Tripoli and Acre. Through these ports, goods were traded from as far afield as India and China. Sugar cane, olive oil, lemons, apricots and dates all became popular in Europe. Even Saladin forged close trading links with Italians from Pisa, who sold him European timber to build his ships. Due to the Crusades, Jews who had lived among Christians in Europe for centuries, were increasingly attacked for being enemies of Christ, similar to Muslims. As knights marched through France and Germany to the First Crusade, they massacred thousands of Jews in the Rhineland. Because of rising levels of anti-Semitism, Jewish people were expelled from Germany during the 1100s, England in 1290, and France in 1306. The Crusades had given birth to a harder, more intolerant, form of Christianity in Europe.

Check your understanding 1. What deal did the crusaders strike with the Byzantine prince Alexios during the Fourth Crusade? 2. Why did the crusaders turn against Alexios and sack Constantinople in 1204? 3. What event marked the end of the Crusades, and when did it take place? 4. What ideas and technologies did crusaders bring back to Europe from the Islamic world? 5. What effect did the Crusades have on the lives of Jews living in Europe?

Chapter 5: The end of the Crusades

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Unit 5: The Crusades

Knowledge organiser 632 The Prophet Muhammad dies, having established the Islamic religion

750 The Abbasid Caliphate replaces the Umayyad, moving the capital from Damascus to Baghdad

661 Ali ibn Abi Talib is assassinated leading to the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims

Key vocabulary Acre Important crusader port city, and their last stronghold in the Holy Land Anti-Semitism The prejudice against and persecution of Jews as an ethnic group Asia Minor A peninsula with the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the north Byzantium A Greek speaking offshoot of the Roman Empire, with Constantinople as its capital city Caliphate An Islamic Empire, ruled by a religious leader known as the Caliph Constantinople The capital of the Byzantine Empire, and modern day Istanbul Crusade A religiously inspired war, the word comes from the Latin ‘crux’ meaning ‘cross’ Crusader State New feudal states that were created in the Holy Land by European knights Dome of the Rock Islamic shrine where Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern form of Christianity, followed by the Byzantines Holy Land An area of religious significance for three faiths on the Mediterranean’s eastern shore

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Holy Sepulchre Site of Christian pilgrimage, where the body of Jesus Christ is believed to be buried House of Wisdom A great library founded by the Abassid caliph al-Mamun in Baghdad Islam A major world religion, begun by the Prophet Muhammad around 610 Jerusalem Historic city, of major religious importance for Christianity, Islam and Judaism Jews An ethnic and religious group, belonging to the ancient religion of Judaism Jihad An Islamic term meaning ‘struggle’, often used to describe a holy war Knights Hospitaller An elite order of Crusader knights, originally formed to run a hospital for pilgrims Knights Templar An elite order of Crusader knights, named after the Temple Mount in Jerusalem Mamluks An Islamic dynasty formed by slavesoldiers which conquered Acre in 1291 Mecca Birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad and Islam’s most important site of pilgrimage Saracen Term used by crusaders to describe Muslim soldiers, taken from the Greek word for Arab

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1144 The Second Crusade ends in defeat after a failed attack on the city of Damascus

1192 The Third Crusade ends with peace between Richard I and Saladin

1095 Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade

1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem, creating the Kingdom of Jerusalem 1079 Seljuk Turks seized control of Jerusalem from the Fatimids

1212 The so-called ‘Children’s Crusade’ leaves Europe for the Holy Land

1204 The Fourth Crusade ends with the sacking of Constantinople

1187 Saladin captures Jerusalem, having defeated the crusader force at the Battle of Hattin

1291 The last crusader stronghold of Acre falls to Mamluk invaders, ending the Crusades

Key people

Key vocabulary Seljuk Turks A Sunni Muslim tribe who conquered Jerusalem in 1079 Shia Minority branch within Islam, which holds that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the rightful Caliph Sultan The Arabic title for a ruler or emperor Sunni The largest branch of Islam, which opposed Ali ibn Abi Talib as Caliph

Alexios Angelos Byzantine Emperor who invited the Fourth Crusade to invade Constantinople Baldwin I The first Christian King of Jerusalem Godfrey of Bouillon Crusader knight who led the siege of Jerusalem and became its first Christian ruler Prophet Muhammad A merchant from Mecca who founded the Islamic religion Richard I English king and brother of King John, known as ‘the Lionheart’ Saladin Muslim warrior, who captured Jerusalem from the crusaders in 1187 Urban II The Pope who began the First Crusade with a speech in Clermont

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: The Islamic world 1. In what city did the Prophet Muhammad live? 2. In what year did the Prophet Muhammad die? 3. What term is used to describe an Islamic Empire, with power over both religious and political life? 4. What two different forms of Islam emerged during the 10th century? 5. What was the capital city of the powerful Abbasid Caliphate, which ruled from 750? 6. What did the Abassid caliph al-Ma’mun found in Baghdad? 7. What did much of the Islamic world have in common, allowing ideas to spread easily? 8. Which Greek-speaking empire was situated between the Islamic world and Christian Europe? 9. What was the capital city of this empire? 10. What religion did the inhabitants of this empire belong to?

Chapter 2: The First Crusade 1. What name is often given to the area of religious significance surrounding Jerusalem? 2. What church is built on the site where Jesus is believed to have been buried and resurrected? 3. What shrine is built on the site where Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven? 4. Which Sunni Muslim tribe conquered Jerusalem in 1079? 5. Which Pope began the First Crusade with his speech at Clermont? 6. What did the Pope promise to medieval knights who took part in his crusade? 7. How many men, women and children departed for the First Crusade? 8. Through which stretch of land did the First Crusade travel, between Constantinople and Jerusalem? 9. In what year did the First Crusade capture Jerusalem? 10. Which crusader knight broke through the walls of Jerusalem?

Chapter 3: Crusader states 1. What Islamic term meaning ‘struggle’ is often used to describe a holy war? 2. Which crusader state was captured in 1144, prompting the Second Crusade? 3. The kings of which two countries led the Second Crusade? 4. Which city did the knights of the Second Crusade attack, but fail to take?

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5. Which Muslim leader captured Jerusalem from the crusaders in 1187? 6. Which English king ended up leading the Third Crusade? 7. When did the Third Crusade end? 8. The crusaders kept control of which coastal town, and its surrounding land, after the Third Crusade? 9. What were Christians given permission to do, following the Third Crusade? 10. What did the Muslim leader of the Third Crusade give the English king whilst he was suffering from a fever?

Chapter 4: Life as a crusader knight 1. How many times their annual income might a poor knight have to have paid to go on crusade? 2. What proportion of knights who left for the First Crusade died? 3. Name one disease a crusader knight risked facing? 4. What term did crusaders use to describe Muslim soldiers, taken from the Greek for ‘Arab’? 5. What punishment did men who had love affairs with Muslim women face, according to a law of 1120? 6. Which military order of crusader knights was named after Temple Mount in Jerusalem? 7. Who ruled this military order? 8. Who, jealous of their power, ordered this military order to disband in 1312? 9. Which military order of crusader knights was originally formed to run a hospital for pilgrims? 10. Where did this military order move after they were driven from the Holy Land?

Chapter 5: The end of the Crusades 1. Who agreed to fund the Fourth Crusade’s journey to the Holy Land, in return for their help? 2. What city did the crusaders sack during the Fourth Crusade? 3. In what year did the Fourth Crusade take place? 4. What unusual crusade took place in 1212? 5. In what year did the final crusader stronghold of Acre fall? 6. Which Islamic dynasty, formed by slave-soldiers, took Acre from the crusaders? 7. Which board game came to Europe via the Middle East during the crusades? 8. What instrument came to Europe via the Middle East during the crusades? 9. What common mathematical term, used in English, comes from Arabic? 10. What form of religious persecution worsened in Europe during the crusades?

Unit 5: The Crusades

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William Collins’ dream of knowledge for all began with the publication of his first book in 1819. A self-educated mill worker, he not only enriched millions of lives, but also founded a flourishing publishing house. Today, staying true to this spirit, Collins books are packed with inspiration, innovation and practical expertise. They place you at the centre of a world of possibility and give you exactly what you need to explore it. Collins. Freedom to teach Published by Collins An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers The News Building 1 London Bridge Street London SE1 9GF Text © Robert Peal 2016 Design © HarperCollinsPublishers 2016 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-00-819530-4 Robert Peal asserts his moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher. This book is sold subject to the conditions that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the Publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. HarperCollins does not warrant that any website mentioned in this title will be provided uninterrupted, that any website will be error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the website or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or bugs. For full terms and conditions please refer to the site terms provided on the website. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Publisher: Katie Sergeant Editor: Hannah Dove Author: Robert Peal Fact-checker: Barbara Hibbert Copy-editor: Sally Clifford Image researcher: Alison Prior Proof-reader: Ros and Chris Davies Cover designer: Angela English Cover image: robertharding/Alamy Production controller: Rachel Weaver Typesetter: QBS Printed and bound by Martins, UK Acknowledgments Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publishers will gladly receive any information enabling them to rectify any error or omission at the first opportunity. The publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: (t = top, b = bottom, c = centre, l = left, r = right) Cover & p1 robertharding/Alamy; p2 Orhan Cam/Shutterstock.com; p3t Nicola Messana Photos/Shutterstock.com; p3b Alexander Mazurkev/Shutterstock.com; p4t Mikhail Markovskiy/Shutterstock.com; p4c Victor Lauer/ Shutterstock.com; p4b Aleksander Todorovic/Shutterstock.com; p5 Private Collection/© Look and Learn/ Bridgeman Images; p6t Anton_Ivanov/Shutterstock.com; p6b Tony Baggett/Shutterstock.com; p7 bilwissedition Ltd. & Co. KG/Alamy; p8 ASP Religion/Alamy; p9 ASP Religion/Alamy; p10 dinomischail/Shutterstock.com; p11 Robert Hoetink/Shutterstock.com

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Unit 6: Late medieval England

The Black Death During the 1340s, stories started to arrive in Europe of a dreadful disease ravaging the populations of far off lands in India and China. Such stories were common, but this one happened to be true. The Black Death first hit European trading towns, such as Venice, in 1347. The first recorded deaths in England occurred in June 1348 at the port town of Melcombe Regis in Dorset. Within two years, this horrifying disease had killed between one third and half of England’s population.

The pestilence We now call this plague the ‘Black Death’, but people in medieval England would have called it the ‘Pestilence’ or the ‘Great Mortality’. The first symptoms were large swellings known as ‘buboes’, which appeared in victims’ armpits and between their legs and were said to resemble an onion. The buboes then spread across the body, followed by blue or black blotches. Sufferers then started to vomit and spit blood, suffer from seizures, and their breath turned foul and stinking. After two to three days of horrific suffering, they would be dead. Occasionally, the buboes would burst, emitting a rancid smelling pus. However, this was a good sign, as it often meant the body was fighting back against the disease, and might overpower it. Named after the buboes, which were its first symptom, this variant of the disease is now known as the ‘bubonic plague’. There was also a more lethal variant called the ‘pneumonic plague’, which was spread through the breath. This version of the plague attacked the lungs, giving sufferers a fever, and leading them to choke to death with a bloody froth bubbling at the mouth.

Modern illustration of a town turning away visitors during the Black Death

Explanations for the plague Today, we know that the bubonic plague was caused by bacteria, which was spread by fleas living on black rats. The rats would have lived on merchant ships, and run to shore across rigging ropes attaching a ship to the harbour. However, during the medieval period, people had no understanding of what was causing great swathes of their population to die. The explanations that people did devise show the power of religion and superstition in the medieval mind. Most people believed the plague was punishment sent down by God, who had been angered by greed and sin on earth. Others believed that it was caused by an alignment of stars

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and planets. In Europe, some claimed that the Jews who lived among the Christian population were poisoning their wells, leading to mass killings of Jewish communities in Germany and France. Some even thought that poisonous air, known as ‘miasma’, was spreading the disease.

6.1

Treatments With no understanding of what was causing the disease, ideas for treatments were equally far-fetched. Remedies included drinking vinegar, avoiding moist food, bleeding, and taking medicine made out of anything from crushed jewels to insects. Some believed that they could sweat out the disease, so sat between two raging fires, or wrapped themselves in furs to induce sweating. Medicine in medieval Europe was very basic. Doctors would place a frog on the buboes in an attempt to absorb the poison, or even a severed pigeon head. Some doctors came to realise that bursting the buboes could cause the illness to stop, and became increasingly skilled at doing this with a small lance to allow the pus to seep out. However, sufferers kept on dying. The countryside was littered with corpses in the fields and on the roadside. Whole communities became ghost towns almost overnight. The plague was particularly bad in large towns and cities, where corpses were thrown into mass graves, often little more than ditches with a thin layer of earth to cover the dead. The Scots realised the English people were in distress, and invaded England in 1350. However, the Scottish soldiers soon caught the plague themselves, and when they retreated north of the border, they spread the plague to Scotland. Not even the clergy or royal family were safe from the plague. Three Archbishops of Canterbury died in quick succession, and King Edward III’s daughter died while travelling to meet her new husband in Spain.

Fact A recently excavated mass grave near the Tower of London revealed plague sufferers buried five deep.

Flagellants During the Black Death, a religious sect called ‘flagellants’ took to travelling England in procession, whipping themselves in punishment for their sins. Their reasoning was that if they punished themselves, God would not see the need to punish them also with the plague. Needless to say, their method was not successful.

Illustration showing a procession of flagellants

Check your understanding 1. What proportion of England’s population was killed by the Black Death? 2. What were the symptoms of the bubonic plague? 3. What was the most common explanation for the Black Death? 4. How were dead bodies dealt with in towns and cities during the Black Death? 5. Why did flagellants think that whipping themselves would save them from the Black Death?

Chapter 1: The Black Death

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Unit 6: Late medieval England

The Peasants’ Revolt By 1351, the worst of the Black Death was over in England. In some historians’ estimates, it had killed around two million people. Having lost such a large proportion of the country’s population, landowners found it increasingly difficult to find enough peasants to work their land. Peasants knew that their services were in high demand, and started moving from farm to farm asking for higher wages. Edward III tried to stop this in 1351 with the Statute of Labourers, which fixed peasant wages at the pre-Black Death levels. However, peasants and landowners alike paid little attention to the law.

Class conflict Enterprising peasants with money to spare were able to buy up the land and empty houses belonging to plague victims for rock bottom prices. This new class of landowners became known as yeomen, meaning a peasant with up to 100 acres of farmland. Yeoman farmers threatened the feudal hierarchy, and the status of its traditional landlords. Some survivors of the plague also turned against the authority of the Catholic Church, which had been powerless to explain or prevent the Black Death. Power was slowly moving to the people, and the nobles were not happy. In 1363, the Sumptuary Laws were passed, laying out in detail what different classes were allowed to wear. Gold cloth and purple silk was reserved for the royal family; lords could wear fur and precious stones; and knights could wear fur-trimmed cloaks. Peasants were banned from wearing anything except plain cloth costing less than 12 pence a length.

Wat Tyler’s rebellion Tensions between the lords and the people came to a head in 1381. At this time the 14-year-old king named Richard II was sat on the throne. He left much of the government of England to his uncle John of Gaunt, an unpopular nobleman with little concern for the common people. To help pay for the Hundred Years War against France, John of Gaunt established the Poll Tax. This was a one off tax of 4p to be paid by all adults over the age of 14 (poll means head, so it was literally a tax ‘per head’ on the English people). As the same price was to be paid by all people, rich or poor, the Poll Tax was deeply unpopular among England’s peasants.

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Fifteenth century manuscript depicting the meeting of Wat Tyler and John Ball in 1381

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On 30 May 1381, a royal official arrived in the Essex town of Brentwood to collect the new tax. The Essex peasants refused to pay, killing the official’s clerks and sending him fleeing back to London. Within three days the whole county of Essex was in open rebellion against the king, and thousands of Essex peasants decided to march on London.

6.2

At the same time, a yeoman named Wat Tyler organised around 4000 peasants to march on London from the nearby county of Kent. Armed with bows, clubs and axes, the rebels reached London on 13 June. Here a radical preacher, John Ball, rallied them with a speech, in which he asked: “When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman?” Once inside London, the rebels stormed Newgate and Westminster prisons, and burned John of Gaunt’s sumptuous Savoy Palace to the ground. One of the most unpopular figures in the King’s government was the Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon Sudbury. The peasants executed him on Tower Hill alongside the Lord High Treasurer Sir Robert Hales, and their heads were placed on spikes and paraded around London.

Great Coxwell Barn, Oxfordshire. Medieval peasants were expected to pay tax to the Church and their landlord in ‘tithe barns’ such as this

Richard’s response To bring an end to this chaos, Richard II agreed to meet the rebels outside London at a place called Smithfield on Saturday 15 June 1381. Their leader, Wat Tyler, rode out to negotiate with Richard. Accounts vary as to what happened next. Some say Tyler attacked Richard’s men, others that he rudely spat on the ground. Either way, a struggle ensued during which Tyler was run through with a sword and killed. Richard seized the initiative, and promised to agree to the peasants’ demands so long as they returned to their towns and villages. They duly did so, but the king had little intention of keeping his promise. Richard II went back on every concession he had made to the rebels, and 200 of their leaders were tracked down and hanged. The Peasants’ Revolt may have been a failure, but feudal England had been challenged. Over the next two centuries, England’s peasants gradually became freemen, and were no longer tied to working for their feudal lords.

Fact The king’s mother Princess Joan was known as the ‘Fair Maid of Kent’, and was famous for her beauty. When the rebels found her, one of them demanded she kiss him. Joan was said to have fainted in shock.

Check your understanding 1. How did the government respond to the growing wealth and power of medieval peasants? 2. Why was the Poll Tax so unpopular among medieval peasants? 3. What parts of England did the peasants who took place in the revolt come from? 4. What did the peasants do once they reached London? 5. How did Wat Tyler die?

Chapter 2: The Peasants’ Revolt

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Unit 6: Late medieval England

The Wars of the Roses Crowned in 1423, Henry VI was England’s youngest ever king at just nine months old. For the first 16 years of his life, a royal council governed England on his behalf. When Henry VI came of age, he fell well short of the great expectations set by his father Henry V, the hero of Agincourt. England had been steadily losing its French territories to a newly powerful French king, Charles VII. When England lost Normandy, the 18-year-old Henry VI was expected to fulfil his duty and lead the English army into war. Instead, he sent his cousin to do the job. Henry VI hated the idea of war, and was the first medieval king never to lead his army on the battlefield. He preferred books and churches to swords and armour. Many of Henry VI’s noblemen believed their king was, quite simply, a coward. By 1450, England’s French empire was once again reduced to the small port town of Calais. That year, a rebellion broke out in London, with three days of open fighting in the streets led by a rebel named Jack Cade. The rebels dragged a former minister of the king from the Tower of London and beheaded him.

Illustration depicting the Lancastrian King Henry VI

To make matters worse, in 1453 King Henry VI suffered the first of many bouts of madness. For a year he was completely unresponsive to anything around him, and the king had to be cared for like a new-born child.

The Yorkist threat Henry VI was clearly incapable of ruling, so power passed to a group of powerful noblemen. Chief among them was the King’s cousin, a wealthy nobleman called Richard, Duke of York. Henry VI’s French wife, Margaret of Anjou, however, despised the overly powerful Duke of York. Queen Margaret was a formidable leader, and she began to organise the opposition to the Duke of York. This led to two rival factions forming in the mad king’s court. The followers of the Duke of York, known as the ‘House of York’, were on one side. The supporters of the king led by Queen Margaret, known as the ‘House of Lancaster’, were on the other. Though they did not use them at the time, the two sides are today identified by two roses – a white rose for the Yorkists, and a red rose for the Lancastrians.

Symbol of the red Lancaster rose

Symbol of the white York rose

Outbreak of war In 1459, Margaret declared the Duke of York a traitor, and war broke out between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. The Wars of

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the Roses had begun. Queen Margaret took control of the Lancastrian forces, and quickly gained the upper hand, defeating the Duke of York at the battle of Wakefield in December 1460. The Duke was cornered on the battlefield by Lancastrian troops, and beheaded. Margaret ordered that his head should be placed on a spike outside the gates of the city of York, and adorned with a paper crown.

Fact

Queen Margaret’s success did not last. The people of London refused to allow her into their city, and Margaret had to withdraw to the North of England. Meanwhile, with Richard the Duke of York now dead, his son Edward took on the leadership of the House of York. Aged only 18, he was everything that the mad King Henry VI was not. Standing 6 feet 4 inches, Edward of York was a proven warrior on the battlefield, and a charismatic leader.

Henry VI was present at the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461, but the mad king spent the battle singing to himself while sitting under a tree.

6.3

In March 1461, he was crowned King Edward IV of England. To confirm his rule, Edward IV marched north to finish off the Lancastrians, and won a victory at the brutal Battle of Towton on 29 March. Henry VI and Queen Margaret fled into exile in Scotland and Edward IV secured his place as the first Yorkist King of England.

Battle of Towton Today it is largely forgotten, but the Battle of Towton is probably the single bloodiest battle ever fought on British soil. The Yorkist and the Lancastrian forces each numbered around 50 000 men, and they faced each other on a freezing cold morning in March. Already brutalised by two years of fighting, ideas of chivalry had disappeared in England. An extreme level of bloodlust marked the battle. Skulls found at the site were covered with more than 20 wounds, suggesting that soldiers mutilated the dead bodies of their enemies. By the end of the day, 8000 Lancastrians lay dead, alongside 5000 Yorkists, and the snow-covered field was stained red with blood.

Modern illustration of the Battle of Towton

Check your understanding 1. In what way was Henry VI different from his father, Henry V? 2. Why did many nobles, such as the Duke of York, believe Henry VI was incapable of ruling England? 3. Who led the House of Lancaster at the beginning of the Wars of the Roses? 4. Who was crowned as the first Yorkist King of England in March 1461? 5. What can be learnt about the Battle of Towton from the skeletons that have been found on the site?

Chapter 3: The Wars of the Roses

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Unit 6: Late medieval England

Yorkist rule Aside from a short exile in France, Edward IV ruled England from 1461 to 1483. Overshadowed by the chaos of the wars that surrounded him, Edward IV is sometimes called England’s ‘forgotten king’. As king, Edward was popular and charming, and brought a brief spell of prosperity to England. His power depended upon the support of his allies, and chief among them was the Earl of Warwick. Warwick groomed Edward to be king from an early age and was the true power behind the throne. One French visitor recalled at the time, “England has two kings, Warwick, and another whose name I have forgotten”.

The Kingmaker Edward IV wanted to break free from the control of Warwick. A romantic at heart, in 1464 he secretly married his true love, a commoner named Elizabeth Woodville. Such a marriage was unheard of for a king, who was expected to form a tactical alliance by marrying into another royal family. When the Earl of Warwick found out about Edward’s marriage, he was furious. In 1469, Warwick switched sides to the House of Lancaster. A year later he invaded England with Queen Margaret, who had been living in exile in France. Edward IV fled to Flanders and Warwick made Henry VI king once more, earning his nickname, ‘The Kingmaker’. However, Henry VI’s second reign lasted for only a year. In 1471 at the Battle of Barnet, Edward IV defeated the Lancastrian army and the Earl of Warwick was killed. Henry VI died in prison, most likely murdered by Edward’s soldiers.

Fact George Duke of Clarence was Edward IV’s brother. He started the Wars of the Roses fighting for his brother but then betrayed him to fight for Henry VI and Warwick in 1469. George then switched back to Edward’s side in 1471. Finally, George was killed for treason in 1478. He was allegedly drowned in a barrel of Malmsey wine.

For twelve more years, Edward IV ruled England in relative peace. However, in 1483 he caught a cold while fishing, and a few days later died aged just 40 years old.

The princes in the Tower The death of Edward IV led to one last chapter in the Wars of the Roses. Edward IV had two young sons, aged 12 and 9, who were in Ludlow when their father died. The eldest, named Edward, was due to become King Edward V. His uncle, Richard the Duke of Gloucester, was chosen to rule as a protector on the young king’s behalf. Richard met the princes as they travelled from Ludlow to London, but when they arrived in the capital he imprisoned them in the Tower of London. Richard claimed it was for their own safety, but it soon turned out that the greatest threat to the princes’ safety was Richard himself. Richard declared the marriage between his older brother Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville invalid, ruling out Edward V’s claim to the throne. He then had himself crowned King Richard III.

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King Richard III, uncle to the princes in the Tower

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6.4

The Tower of London where the young princes were imprisoned

Richard III has long been remembered as the greatest villain of this period. In Shakespeare’s play Richard III (written in 1592), he is depicted as an ugly hunchback with a withered arm, though how far this depiction is true is a source of debate. What is known is that once placed in the Tower, the princes were never seen again. In the years that followed a story emerged that Richard ordered the princes to be suffocated in their beds, smothered with pillows while they slept. In 1674, labourers working at the Tower of London found a wooden chest hidden beneath a staircase containing two skeletons. They were of two children, one slightly older than the other. The skeletons were pronounced to belong to the two dead princes, and were reinterred at Westminster Abbey. In 1933, the tomb was reopened so that modern forensic methods could finally put the mystery to rest. Professor W. Wright concluded that, on examination of their teeth, the skeletons did belong to two boys, aged around eleven and thirteen. What is more, he believed a red mark on the facial bones indicated a bloodstain – something commonly caused by suffocation. Back in the summer of 1483, rumours quickly started to spread across England that Richard III had killed the princes. Even in the savage context of the Wars of the Roses, killing Modern illustration of the princes in the Tower your own brother’s sons was a step too far. This perhaps of London explains why so few Englishmen rallied to Richard’s cause when, two years later, war with the House of Lancaster resumed.

Check your understanding 1. What role did the Earl of Warwick play when Edward IV became king? 2. Why were Edward VI’s subjects, in particular Warwick, so shocked by his marriage? 3. On what basis did Richard III make himself King of England in place of his nephew Edward V? 4. How did Shakespeare depict Richard III in his play, written a century after Richard’s death? 5. What did the findings of Professor W. Wright appear to show in 1933?

Chapter 4: Yorkist rule

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Unit 6: Late medieval England

The Battle of Bosworth Field By the end of the Wars of the Roses, tracing the rightful claim to the throne in England’s tangled royal family was no easy task. In 1485, an unlikely new claimant to the throne emerged. Brought up in a windswept corner of south-west Wales, Henry Tudor’s claim to the throne was tenuous. His Welsh grandfather was a servant to Henry V named Owain ap Maredudd ap Tewdwr. He miraculously married the widowed wife of Henry V in 1432, and anglicised his name to Owen Tudor. Henry Tudor was a member of the House of Lancaster, and a man of great self-belief. He had spent the last 14 years of his life exiled in France, preparing his bid for the English throne. Henry was greatly helped by his formidable mother Margaret Beaufort. Margaret was the great-great-granddaughter of Edward III, and married Henry’s father at the age of 12. And even that was her second marriage! At the age of 13 Margaret gave birth to Henry Tudor, by which time she was already a widow.

Henry Tudor’s mother, Margaret Beaufort

Margaret went on to marry twice more. She was a skilful political operator, moving her support between the Houses of Lancaster and York when it suited her and her beloved son best, waiting for the best moment for Henry to strike. On 1 August 1485, Henry Tudor landed on the coast of his homeland of Wales, and marched towards England. With a force of just 1000 mostly French soldiers, Henry hoped to gather troops along the way. However, the response of the war weary nation was not good. As Henry reached the English midlands for his showdown with King Richard III, his forces numbered just 5000 men.

Bosworth Field Richard III set up camp on 21 August, securing the high ground at a location known as Bosworth Field. His Yorkist army numbered perhaps 10 000 men, and he also had the help of cannon fire, a recent technological advance in medieval warfare. Outnumbered, and poorly positioned at the foot of the hill in a marshy bog, there was little reason to expect Henry Tudor’s Lancastrian forces to win. Richard III led a Yorkist cavalry charge against the Lancastrian forces, but one of Henry’s French pikemen knocked Richard III off his horse. According to Shakespeare’s retelling of the battle, Richard cried out at this moment: “A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse!”.

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Modern illustration of the Battle of Bosworth Field

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It was around this time that Lord Stanley, who was Margaret Beaufort’s fourth husband, chose to tip the balance of the battle. Stanley had 3000 men, but had so far watched the battle unfold from the sidelines. As the battle started to turn against Richard, Lord Stanley sent in his soldiers to seal the victory for Henry. All sources agreed that Richard III died heroically, fighting off his attackers until he was cornered, overpowered, and killed. According to legend, Lord Stanley found Richard III’s gold crown in a thorn bush, fished it out, and placed it on Henry Tudor’s head. Meanwhile, the dead King Richard III was stripped naked and slung on the back of a horse. He was buried in an unmarked grave at Greyfriars church in Leicester, only to be rediscovered some 500 years later (see box).

6.5 Fact To symbolise his union of the two houses, Henry created the Tudor Rose: the white rose of York sitting within the red rose of Lancaster.

Tudor dynasty After his victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field, Henry Tudor became King Henry VII of England. He ruled in close partnership with his mother Margaret Beaufort. Margaret helped to arrange for Henry VII to marry Elizabeth of York, the daughter of Edward IV, and elder sister to the murdered princes in the tower. This well-judged marriage united the Houses of York and Lancaster, finally ending their 30-year feud. There were rebellions against the new king, but Henry VII saw off his enemies and secured a lasting peace for England. Henry VII’s new royal dynasty, the Tudors, would lead England into a great period of change. For this reason, Henry VII’s reign (which ended with his death in 1509) is commonly seen as marking the end of the medieval period in English history.

The king of the car park To this day, Richard III has his sympathisers. They claim he was a decent and honest king, whose reputation was later smeared by Tudor writers such as William Shakespeare. Such sympathisers were overjoyed when, in September 2012, archaeologists found what was believed to be Richard III’s skeleton beneath a car park in Leicester. Half a century after his death in battle, Richard III was finally given a king’s funeral and burial at Leicester Cathedral in March 2015.

Tented site of the dig for Richard III’s body under a car park in Leicester

Check your understanding 1. What was Henry Tudor’s claim to the throne? 2. Who helped Henry Tudor prepare his bid for the English throne? 3. What happened to Richard III during his cavalry charge against the Lancastrians? 4. What was sensible about Henry VII’s decision to marry Elizabeth of York? 5. Who do sympathisers of Richard III believe is responsible for his bad reputation in English history?

Chapter 5: The Battle of Bosworth Field

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Unit 6: Late medieval England

Knowledge organiser 1348 The Black Death hits England

1381 The Peasants’ Revolt

Key vocabulary Black Death A plague that devastated medieval Europe in the fourteenth century Buboes Onion shaped swellings that were usually the first symptom of the Black Death Bubonic plague The most common variant of the plague, named after the swellings on victims’ bodies Dynasty A succession of powerful people from the same family Flagellant Member of a religious sect who whipped themselves in punishment for their sins Lancastrian A supporter of King Henry VI, or members of his family, during the Wars of the Roses Miasma The theory that disease is caused by the spreading smell of a poisonous cloud of ‘bad air’ Peasants’ Revolt A major uprising across England that took place thirty years after the Black Death Pestilence Another term for disease, and one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Pikemen Soldiers who carried 12-foot-long, steel headed pikes, used to stop cavalry charges Pneumonic plague An even more lethal variant of the plague, which attacks the lungs

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Poll Tax A flat rate tax paid by all adults, literally meaning ‘per head’ of the English people Protector A nobleman ruling on the behalf of a young monarch until they come of age Savoy Palace John of Gaunt’s sumptuous medieval home, destroyed during the Peasants’ Revolt Statute of Labourers A 1351 law which fixed the maximum wage for peasants at pre-Black Death levels Sumptuary Laws Rules explaining what clothing different ranks within the feudal system could wear The Kingmaker A nickname given to the Earl of Warwick during the Wars of the Roses Tudor Rose A white rose of York sitting within the red rose of Lancaster, symbolising union Tudors The royal dynasty that ruled England from 1485 to 1603 Wars of the Roses A series of wars between the houses of York and Lancaster lasting for thirty years Yeomen A new class in late medieval England: commoners who farmed their own land Yorkist A supporter of the Duke of York, and later his sons, during the Wars of the Roses

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1460 The Duke of York is defeated at the Battle of Wakefield, and killed 1461 Edward IV is crowned King of England 1453 King Henry VI goes mad

1471 Edward IV wins back his throne at the Battle of Barnet, and Henry VI dies

1459 War breaks out between the House of Lancaster and the House of York

1470 Warwick the Kingmaker placed Henry VI back on the throne

1485 Henry Tudor wins the Battle of Bosworth and is crowned King Henry VII

1483 King Richard III seizes the English throne following the death of his brother

1461 The Yorkists defeat the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton

Key people Edward IV Son of the Duke of York, he was the first Yorkist King during the Wars of the Roses Elizabeth of York The elder sister of the murdered princes in the tower, who married Henry Tudor Elizabeth Woodville The wife of Edward IV, who controversially did not come from a noble family Henry Tudor The last Lancastrian claimant to the throne, who started a new dynasty in 1485 Henry VI The mad Lancastrian King at the start of the Wars of the Roses John of Gaunt The powerful uncle of Richard II who ruled on his behalf Margaret Beaufort The mother of Henry VI, who played a central role in his bid for the throne Margaret of Anjou The French wife of Henry VI, who took charge of the House of Lancaster Richard III The youngest brother of Edward IV, who seized the English throne from his nephews The Earl of Warwick A powerful nobleman who helped both Henry VI and Edward IV take the throne Wat Tyler Leader of the Peasants’ Revolt, thought to have been a yeoman from Kent

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: The Black Death 1. What proportion of England’s population is thought to have died during the Black Death? 2. In what year did the Black Death arrive in England? 3. What swellings were usually the first symptom of the Black Death? 4. What variant of the plague was named after the swellings on victims’ bodies? 5. What more lethal variant of the plague attacked the lungs of its victims? 6. The plague was probably spread by what insect, living on what animal? 7. The plague was most commonly explained as a punishment from whom? 8. What theory suggested the plague was caused by a spreading cloud of ‘bad air’? 9. Which country invaded England in 1350, seeing that it was suffering from the plague? 10. What religious sect whipped themselves in punishment for their sins to avoid the plague?

Chapter 2: The Peasants’ Revolt 1. What 1351 law attempted to fix the maximum wage for peasants at pre-Black Death levels? 2. What effect did the plague have on land and house prices in England? 3. What new class of commoners who farmed their own land arose in late medieval England? 4. What 1363 law established the clothing that different ranks in society could wear? 5. Which powerful nobleman ruled on behalf of his nephew, Richard II, at this time? 6. What flat rate tax paid by all adults helped to spark the Peasants’ Revolt? 7. In what two counties did the Peasants’ Revolt begin? 8. Who led the Peasants’ Revolt? 9. What leading member of the church, named Simon Sudbury, did the peasants execute? 10. How many participants in the Peasants’ Revolt did Richard II execute in retaliation?

Chapter 3: Wars of the Roses 1. Henry VI was the first medieval king not to do what? 2. What happened to Henry VI in 1453, which made him incapable of ruling his country? 3. Which nobleman ruled England on Henry VI’s behalf? 4. Which side came to be represented by a red rose during the Wars of the Roses? 5. Which side came to be represented by a white rose during the Wars of the Roses?

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6. Who led the supporters of King Henry VI during the early stages of the Wars of the Roses? 7. What setback occurred following the Queen’s victory at Wakefield in December 1460? 8. Who was crowned King of England in 1461? 9. What brutal battle confirmed the new king’s rule in 1461? 10. What record does the Battle of Towton hold?

Chapter 4: Yorkist rule 1. Which powerful nobleman secured support of Edward IV’s reign? 2. What was this powerful nobleman’s nickname? 3. Who did Edward IV marry in 1464? 4. Why was Edward IV’s marriage controversial? 5. How did Edward IV die? 6. Who was next in line to the throne following the death of Edward IV? 7. Who seized the throne following the death of Edward IV? 8. Where were Edward IV’s two sons imprisoned? 9. Who wrote a play about these events in 1592? 10. What was found in the building of the prince’s imprisonment by labourers in 1674?

Chapter 5: The Battle of Bosworth Field 1. Who did Henry Tudor’s grandfather, Owen Tudor, marry? 2. What ‘House’ did Henry Tudor belong to during the Wars of the Roses? 3. Who was Henry Tudor’s mother? 4. Which English king was Henry Tudor’s mother descended from? 5. In what year did Henry Tudor invade England to claim the throne? 6. Who knocked Richard III off his horse during his cavalry charge? 7. Who intervened to tip the balance of the battle in Henry Tudor’s favour? 8. Who did Henry VII marry having become king? 9. What symbol was developed to represent the new ruling dynasty of England? 10. In which city was Richard III found buried beneath a car park in 2012?

Unit 6: Late Medieval England

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

The young Henry VIII When Henry VIII was crowned king in 1509, he was already the hero of Tudor England. He was tall and handsome, and a keen jouster, wrestler, archer, hunter and tennis player. Henry VIII was taught by some of the greatest philosophers of the age, and could write poetry, compose music and speak French and Latin fluently. The scholar Thomas More wrote a poem to celebrate Henry’s coronation, stating: “This day is the end of our slavery, the fount of liberty; the end of sadness, the beginning of joy”. High hopes rested on the young king’s shoulders. Henry was not meant to be king, but he became heir to the throne aged 10 when his older brother Arthur died unexpectedly in 1502. When his father Henry VII died, Henry VIII inherited the throne. Straight away, Henry married his dead brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was a pretty and intelligent Spanish princess six years his senior, and their marriage secured England’s alliance with Spain. Henry was 17-years-old when he became king. He ruled over a magnificent court, with continual entertainments and parties. Henry ordered regular jousting tournaments, which he often took part in himself. All of this jousting had a serious purpose, however: Henry VIII was training his noblemen for war. The new king dreamed of conquest, transforming England into a great European empire, ruling over Wales, Scotland, Ireland and France.

War with France Having allied with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, Henry invaded France in 1513. The English army captured two towns, and won a victory against the French at the Battle of the Spurs. Henry’s allies had changed their minds, however, and decided not to invade France. This left the English army unable to advance any further. Henry signed a peace treaty with France, securing new lands and an annual payment for England.

Portrait of Henry VIII, painted shortly after his coronation

Fact In 2004, a historian looking through an inventory of Henry VIII’s royal wardrobe made a surprising find: the king, who loved sport, owned a pair of leather football boots.

During the invasion of France, the Scottish King James IV (who was allied with France) took the opportunity to invade northern England with a large army of 60 000 men. With Henry absent, Queen Catherine organised England’s defence against the Scots. The Scottish army was soundly beaten at the Battle of Flodden with thousands killed, including the Scottish King James IV. Catherine organised for the Scottish king’s bloodstained tunic to be sent as a gift to Henry VIII in France.

The Field of the Cloth of Gold Victories over the French and Scottish in 1513 confirmed England’s position as a major European power. Henry VIII’s dream of empire was edging ever closer. But events took a bad turn in 1516 when France gained a new king, the warlike and shrewd Francis I. Henry’s Lord Chancellor, Thomas Wolsey (see box), persuaded Henry to make peace with France.

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Henry was reluctant to let go of his ambitions. To make the peace between England and France seem more honourable, Wolsey organised a magnificent celebration of peace. In June 1520, Henry VIII and Francis I met in France. For two weeks the young kings tried to outdo each other with displays of wealth and flamboyance. Henry and Francis even met each other in the wrestling ring, where Francis I won, much to Henry’s anger. Many of the tents in which the visitors stayed were made from cloth threaded with gold, so the event became known as the ‘Field of the Cloth of Gold’.

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‘The Field of the Cloth of Gold’, painted for Henry VIII in 1545

Thomas Wolsey Masterminding Henry VIII’s early successes was a priest named Thomas Wolsey. The son of an Ipswich butcher, Wolsey rose from humble beginnings to become the most powerful man in England, aside from the king. In 1514 Wolsey became Archbishop of York. The following year, the Pope made him a Cardinal and Henry appointed him Lord Chancellor, the king’s chief advisor. Through sheer drive, Wolsey had gained complete control of English politics and the church. He worked tirelessly, organising the affairs of state so that Henry could enjoy himself. Whatever the king wanted, Wolsey would deliver. Wolsey became magnificently rich, and liked to show off his wealth, travelling through London each morning in a grand procession flanked by two silver crosses. He built himself a house beside the River Thames, which was grander and larger than any belonging to the king. Wolsey named it Hampton Court Palace. Many in Henry’s court were envious of Wolsey, resenting the fact that this ‘butcher’s boy’ had risen to such wealth and power. His enemies nicknamed him the ‘fat maggot’, and began to plot his downfall.

Check your understanding 1. Who was Henry VIII’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, previously married to? 2. What military successes did England enjoy in 1513? 3. Why did Cardinal Wolsey persuade Henry VIII to make peace with France? 4. What was the purpose of the Field of the Cloth of Gold celebrations in 1520? 5. What positions of power did Thomas Wolsey hold?

Chapter 1: The young Henry VIII

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

The Reformation At the start of the 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church was the single most powerful organisation in Western Europe. From the forests of Poland in the East, to the coast of Portugal in the West, this one religion held sway over millions of lives. At the head of the Catholic Church was the Pope, who lived in Rome and controlled a large swathe of central Italy. Catholics believed that the Pope was God’s representative on Earth, and he held enormous power. During the medieval period, popes called for crusades, started wars, and could make or break European royal families. However, by 1500, the Roman Catholic Church had developed a reputation for corruption.

Corruption The papacy had been taken over by wealthy, power-hungry popes who paid little attention to religion. Perhaps the most infamous was Pope Alexander VI, who was from a powerful Spanish family known as the Borgias. He threw all-night parties, stole money from the church, and had as many as ten children with his mistresses – even though the Pope, as a Catholic clergyman, was supposed to remain celibate. In order to raise money, the Catholic Church sold indulgences. An indulgence was a certificate personally signed by the Pope, which a Christian could buy to gain forgiveness for their sins. You could even buy indulgences for dead relatives, to shorten their time in purgatory. There was also a lively market for ‘holy relics’. Normally said to be body parts of saints or Jesus Christ, these relics were rarely genuine. Churches would buy and sell the fingernail of Jesus Christ, part of the tree from the Garden of Eden, or a vial of the Virgin Mary’s breast milk. Pilgrims would pay churches considerable amounts of money to see and touch these relics, believing they had divine powers.

Pope Alexander VI

Lastly, the Catholic Church was enormously wealthy. Even holy orders of nuns and monks, who were supposed to live a life of simplicity and poverty in monasteries and abbeys, could be found living in luxury. The Catholic clergy wore vestments made of finest silk and velvet, and Catholic churches were richly decorated, with gold altars, wall paintings, burning incense and stained glass windows.

Protestantism Some priests began to argue that the Catholic Church had strayed from the true word of Jesus Christ, and been turned rotten by wealth. Jesus Christ lived a life of simplicity and

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Money was raised to build St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican from the sale of indulgences.

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preached against greed, they argued, so should the Catholic Church not follow his example?

1.2.1

These priests attacked the Pope and the Catholic Church, giving sermons and writing short books explaining their beliefs. They were greatly aided by the newly invented printing press, which allowed their books to spread throughout Europe. Due to their ‘protest’ against the authority of the Catholic Church, they were given the name ‘Protestants’. Protestantism was particularly powerful in Germany, Switzerland, Holland and Belgium, where priests such as John Calvin and Martin Luther (see box) gained large followings. They proposed a simpler form of Christianity, replacing ritual and superstition with the word of the Bible, and richly decorated church interiors with plain, whitewashed walls. Fundamental to Protestantism was the belief that all Christians should have their own relationship with God, formed through regular reading of the Bible. However, within Roman Catholicism the Bible could only be read in Greek, Hebrew or Latin, and all services were conducted in Latin. So, in secret, Protestants began translating the Bible into their own languages. This movement to reform Christianity spread across Europe and became known as ‘the Reformation’.

Fact Counting up all of the relics from a particular saint, one Protestant tract concluded that the saint must have had six arms, and 26 fingers.

Martin Luther Born in Germany, Martin Luther became a monk at the age of 22. In 1510 he visited Rome, and was appalled by the wealth and corruption that he saw there. In 1517 Luther wrote a list of arguments, known as the ’95 theses’, attacking church abuses, in particular the selling of indulgences. Luther nailed the 95 theses to the door of his church in Wittenberg, and this event is often said to have marked the start of the Reformation. In 1522, at a meeting known as the Diet of Worms, Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and an outlaw. On leaving the court, Luther was ambushed and kidnapped. However, his kidnapper was a German prince who offered Luther a hiding place at Wartburg Castle. In 1525, Luther married a former nun named Katharina von Bora who had abandoned her convent. Together they had six children. Luther also began to translate the Bible into German. He finished his German Bible in 1534, by which time much of Germany had converted to Protestantism. Modern illustration of Martin Luther and his 95 theses

Check your understanding 1. Why was Pope Alexander VI so infamous? 2. What was corrupt about the selling of indulgences? 3. How were Protestant churches different from Catholic churches? 4. Why did Protestants want to translate the Bible into their own languages? 5. What did Martin Luther do in 1517, which is said to have marked the start of the Reformation?

Chapter 2: The Reformation

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

Henry’s ‘Great Matter’ In 1522 Henry VIII invaded France again, only to be embarrassed when his ally, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, failed to turn up. When Henry tried to raise money for a second invasion in 1525, there were riots across England, so the invasion had to be called off. Henry’s hopes of conquering France were abandoned, and he was left humiliated and frustrated. Henry’s frustration off the battlefield was even more serious. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, was now 40 years old and had given him only one child who survived infancy – his daughter Mary. Henry desperately needed a male heir to continue the Tudor royal line, but by 1525 Catherine was unlikely to provide one.

Catherine of Aragon

By now, Henry had fallen in love with a younger, prettier woman called Anne Boleyn, who was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Catherine. Anne was highly educated, ambitious and flirtatious, teasing Henry that she would only make love to him if he took her as his wife. As part of the royal court, she was able to enrapture the king with her intelligence and wit. Before long, Henry was desperate to have Anne as his wife.

The ‘Great Matter’ In order to marry Anne, Henry first had to divorce Catherine. But this had to be approved by Pope Clement. Unfortunately for Henry, Catherine of Aragon’s nephew was the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He had recently captured Rome, taking Pope Clement as his prisoner. Charles ordered that on no account should Pope Clement allow Henry to divorce his aunt Catherine, and Clement obeyed. Henry was absolutely determined to gain a divorce, and called the issue his ‘Great Matter’. He claimed that he had solid, religious grounds to do so. The book of Leviticus in the Bible states if a man marries his brother’s widow, the couple will remain childless. Henry used this passage to argue

Anne Boleyn

Modern illustration of Catherine of Aragon pleading her case against divorce

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that his marriage to Catherine was never lawful in the first place, and God had cursed him by not providing a son. In 1527, Henry asked the Pope Clement to annul his marriage, but the Pope refused.

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Wolsey’s fall Henry asked his Chancellor Thomas Wolsey to persuade the Pope to change his mind. However, even his supremely powerful Cardinal Wolsey failed to do so. Henry was furious, and Wolsey rapidly fell from favour. To try to win back the king, Wolsey gave him his magnificent Hampton Court Palace as a gift, but it was not enough. Wolsey was stripped of his job as Lord Chancellor in 1529, and fled to York. In 1530 he was ordered to stand trial on a trumped up charge of treason. During his journey from York back to London, Wolsey died a broken man. With his last words, Wolsey said: “Had I but served my God with but half the zeal as I served my king, He would not in mine age have left me naked to mine enemies.”

The break with Rome For six long years, Henry tried and failed to get his divorce, but then he had a new idea. Anne Boleyn was a keen reader of Martin Luther’s books. She, and many others, suggested to the king that if England were no longer a Catholic country, Henry would no longer need the Pope’s approval to divorce.

The Great Gatehouse at Hampton Court Palace

Henry did not like Protestant ideas. In 1521, he wrote a book entitled ‘Defence of the Seven Sacraments’, which attacked Luther’s ideas and defended the Pope. Henry had made it illegal to own Luther’s books. He even burnt suspected Protestants at the stake for being heretics. Henry VIII’s early defence of Catholicism earned him the title ‘Defender of the Faith’ from Pope Leo X. However, as Henry was desperate for a divorce, and furious with the Pope, he began to see some benefits in Protestant ideas. He also realised that if the head of the English Church was not the Pope, it could be him. In January 1533, Henry married Anne Boleyn in secret. The marriage was declared valid by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, two months later. Then, in November 1534, Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, one of the most important laws in English history. It confirmed England’s break with Rome, and created a new Church of England. From now on England no longer belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, and Henry VIII was the Supreme Head of the Church of England.

Fact Anne Boleyn had such a strong hold over the king’s affection that many myths grew up around her. Some said she had six fingers and that she was a witch.

Check your understanding 1. Why was Henry VIII so dissatisfied with his marriage to Catherine of Aragon by 1525? 2. What prevented Henry VIII from being able to divorce Catherine of Aragon, and marry Anne Boleyn? 3. On what grounds did Henry VIII claim that his first marriage was not lawful? 4. Why did leaving the Roman Catholic Church provide a solution to Henry VIII’s ‘Great Matter’? 5. What did the 1534 Act of Supremacy confirm?

Chapter 3: Henry’s ‘Great Matter’

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

The English Reformation To ensure full support for the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII ordered that all public figures and clergymen swear the Oath of Supremacy. This oath stated that Henry was the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Those who refused to swear were tried for treason and executed. A group of Carthusian monks who were loyal to the Pope were among those who refused. As punishment, they were dragged through the streets of London, then hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. The abbot’s arm was brought back to the abbey, and nailed to the door. The monk’s heads were placed on the spikes above London Bridge. The most famous figure to refuse was Henry’s great friend Sir Thomas More, who was one of the most celebrated writers and thinkers in England. More became Lord Chancellor after the downfall of Thomas Wolsey, but only lasted three years before stepping down in 1532. As a devout Roman Catholic, More could not accept Henry’s marriage to Anne. In 1534 he refused to swear the Oath of Supremacy, and was locked in a dark, damp prison cell for 17 months. Henry pleaded with More to swear the Oath, but his conscience would not allow him to change his mind. More was tried for treason and executed in 1535. On the scaffold, More said: “I die the king’s good servant, but God’s servant first”.

Thomas More, Lord Chancellor to Henry VIII until 1532

The Dissolution of the Monasteries With Thomas Wolsey dead, and Sir Thomas More executed, Henry needed a new chief minister. He chose Thomas Cromwell, who was born the son of a Putney blacksmith, but rose to become Chancellor of the Exchequer. Cromwell had led an exciting life, working as a mercenary, wool merchant, banker and lawyer along the way. A keen reader of Luther, Cromwell pushed for further Protestant reforms to the church. In particular, he proposed that all of England’s monasteries and abbeys should be closed down. Monasteries had a 1000 year history of providing education, prayer and charity to the people of England. But they were also accused of excessive wealth and corruption. Many of England’s 800 monasteries were enormously wealthy, owning magnificent treasures and a quarter of the land in England. If they were closed, Cromwell told Henry, this land and property would revert to the crown. Henry was in urgent need of money to fight more wars, so the dissolution of the monasteries began in 1536. The king’s men descended on the monasteries, stripping lead from their roofs, gold, silver and jewels from their altars, and selling their land to local landowners.

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Ruins of Whitby Abbey, in Yorkshire England

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Monks and nuns were given a small pension, and turned out onto the streets. Henry made himself enormously rich, increasing the crown’s income by around £150,000 a year (perhaps £80 million in today’s money). England’s monasteries, once so magnificent, were left to crumble – the haunting ruins of these ancient buildings can still be seen across England today.

1.4.1

The Pilgrimage of Grace For many in England, the destruction of England’s monasteries was a step too far. In autumn 1536, a group of angry Catholics gathered together in Yorkshire, led by a young nobleman named Robert Aske. He and his followers occupied York. They then invited the expelled nuns and monks to return to their monasteries and resume Catholic observance. Aske’s followers became known as the ‘Pilgrimage of Grace’, and their numbers swelled to around 35 000 men. Many were armed, and they planned to march on London. Henry VIII sent an army north to meet Aske and his rebel army. He promised that if they went home, they would be forgiven. However, Henry was growing increasingly cruel. A year later, when a much smaller rebellion took place, he took the opportunity to round up and kill 200 of those involved in Aske’s rebellion. In Cumberland, 70 villagers were hanged from trees in their villages in front of their families. Robert Aske was hanged in chains from York Castle, and left to die in agonising pain.

Banner carried during the Pilgrimage of Grace, showing the Holy Wounds of Jesus Christ

Tudor schools Before their dissolution, monasteries provided a basic education for boys from the surrounding area. To replace this service, wealthy businessmen and landowners established new ‘grammar schools’. Over 300 such schools were established during the 16th century, with a strong focus on teaching Latin grammar and promoting the new Protestant faith. Many were named after Henry VIII’s son, King Edward VI, and his daughter Queen Elizabeth I. The school day normally stretched from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m., and no girls were allowed to attend. The main subjects were Latin, religion, arithmetic and music. Boys would write with a quill pen, made from a trimmed feather. Misbehaving pupils would be beaten with a birch, or rapped over the knuckles with a wooden rod.

Check your understanding 1. What happened to those in England who refused to swear the Oath of Supremacy? 2. Who was Thomas Cromwell, and what were his religious views? 3. How did Henry VIII gain from the Dissolution of the Monasteries? 4. Why did Robert Aske begin the Pilgrimage of Grace? 5. Why did the Dissolution of the Monasteries lead to the creation of so many new schools in England?

Chapter 4: The English Reformation

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

Henry VIII and Edward VI Henry VIII’s marriage to Anne Boleyn did not last long. Her independent character, which had so delighted Henry when he first met her, infuriated him once she was his wife. Henry longed for a son, but when Anne gave birth in September 1533, the child was a girl. She was named Elizabeth after Henry’s mother. Henry was so disappointed not to have a male heir, however, he refused to attend his daughter Elizabeth’s christening.

Jane Seymour

Anne miscarried her next three children, and Henry’s dislike for her grew. After three years of marriage, Anne was charged with multiple cases of adultery and treason, though she was almost certainly innocent. In May 1536, Anne was executed, along with four of her accused lovers. One day later, Henry became engaged to his third wife, Jane Seymour. Henry adored Jane. She was mild-mannered and affectionate, and in 1537 she provided Henry with the son he had always desired. They named him Edward. Anne of Cleves

Jane died soon after Edward’s birth, and Henry went on to have three more wives but no more children. In 1540, he married Anne of Cleves, but there was little attraction between them: Henry said she looked like ‘a Flanders mare’. They divorced six months later. Later that year Henry married Catherine Howard, but she was accused of adultery and beheaded in 1541. Finally, in 1543 Henry married Catherine Parr, who acted as a stepmother to his three children, and outlived Henry.

Henry the tyrant Catherine Howard

During a jousting tournament at Greenwich Palace in 1536, Henry was crushed beneath his horse and suffered severe injuries. Unable to exercise, he grew enormously fat and developed a 54 inch waist, arthritis and painful ulcers. By the end of his life Henry was too overweight to walk, and had to be wheeled around his palace in a specially made machine. During this period, Henry turned against Protestant ideas, and put the English Reformation into reverse. In 1539, Parliament passed the Six Articles, reasserting Catholic doctrines such as celibate priests and transubstantiation. A year later, Henry beheaded his chief minister Thomas Cromwell for his Protestant sympathies, and for organising Henry’s failed marriage to Anne of Cleves.

Fact

Henry was becoming increasingly tyrannical, and between 1532–1540 he executed 330 people: Protestants were burnt at the stake for being heretics; Catholics were hanged, drawn and quartered for being traitors; and the king’s relatives were beheaded for being seen as rivals to the throne.

In 1532 Henry VIII passed a law ruling that murderers who used poison should be boiled to death.

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Catherine Parr

Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

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On 28 January 1547, Henry died aged 55. His funeral was a full Catholic service, complete with incense and Latin chanting. By the end of his long and eventful reign, Henry had invaded France three times, married six different wives, executed a Lord Chancellor and a chief minister, amassed 55 royal palaces, founded the Royal Navy, made himself King of Ireland, and established the Church of England.

1.5.1

Edward VI Following his death, Henry’s only surviving son Edward became king. Edward was just nine years old. Known as the ‘boy king’ and the ‘godly imp’, Edward VI was very intelligent, and a far stronger believer in the Reformation than his father. Whilst Henry VIII had started the English Reformation, the Church of England remained Catholic throughout his reign. It simply did not recognise the authority of the Pope in Rome. Edward VI passed further Protestant reforms to the English Church: priests were allowed to marry; the Catholic Mass was abolished; and church services in English became compulsory. He also authorised the first prayer book in English, Thomas Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer. However, Edward was an unhealthy and weak child. Aged only 15, sores appeared across his body and he began to cough up blood. In 1553 Edward died, unmarried and childless. Henry VIII’s nightmare of an unstable throne with no certain heir had become a reality.

Portrait of Edward VI

The end of the old faith Once on the throne, Edward VI was advised by his uncle the Duke of Somerset and his strongly Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer. Any remaining Catholic features were rooted out of English churches. Altars, hanging crucifixes, shrines, rood screens and statues were burned, while stained glass windows were smashed and wall paintings whitewashed. Catholic rituals and ceremonies, such as Corpus Christi processions and ‘creeping to the cross’, were banned. To most of England’s poor, illiterate population, these colourful practices were fundamental to their belief, but from now on, they were deprived of the religion they knew and loved. Rosaries, holy water, relics and icons were all banned from the Church of England. The old faith of medieval England had gone, and in its place was a new religion based not on ritual and superstition, but on the word of the Bible.

Modern image of a wooden rosary

Check your understanding 1. On what grounds was Anne Boleyn executed in 1536? 2. Was Henry VIII’s marriage to Jane Seymour a success? 3. How did Henry VIII’s accident in 1536 change his appearance? 4. Why did Henry VIII execute his chief minister Thomas Cromwell in 1540? 5. How were Edward VI’s religious views different from those of his father?

Chapter 5: Henry VIII and Edward VI

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Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

Knowledge organiser 1520 The Field of the Cloth of Gold

1509 Henry VIII becomes King of England

1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 theses to his church door in Wittenberg

1513 Henry VIII’s first invasion of France

1521 Henry VIII writes ‘Defence of the Seven Sacraments’ attacking Martin Luther

Key vocabulary Act of Supremacy A law passed by Parliament which led to the creation of the Church of England Altar The table in a Christian church where the priest performs the Holy Communion Book of Common Prayer A book of prayers used for Church of England services and written in English Break with Rome England’s decision to leave the Roman Catholic Church in 1534 Cardinal A senior member of the Catholic Church, who wears a distinctive red cassock Catholicism One of the three major branches of Christianity, led from Rome by the Pope Celibate Choosing to remain unmarried and abstain from sex, usually for religious reasons Corruption The misuse of power for dishonest or immoral purposes Dissolution of the Monasteries The closure of all religious houses in England by Henry VIII Hampton Court A magnificent palace built by Thomas Wolsey, and later given as a gift to King Henry VIII Heretic Someone with beliefs that question or contradict the established church

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Holy Roman Empire A collection of central European states that developed during the medieval period Incense A substance made from tree resin, burnt in churches to create a strong sweet aroma Indulgence A forgiveness of one’s sins purchased from the medieval Catholic Church Lady-in-waiting A female member of the Royal Court, working as a personal assistant to the Queen Lord Chancellor The king’s most powerful advisor, also known as ‘keeper of the Great Seal’ Mass The central act of worship in the Catholic Church, when the Holy Communion is taken Mercenary A professional soldier who is paid to fight for foreign armies Oath of Supremacy An oath of allegiance to the monarch as supreme head of the Church of England Protestantism A form of Christianity which emerged during the 1500s in protest against Catholicism Reformation A movement to reform the Christian church which began with Martin Luther in Germany

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1536 The Dissolution of the Monasteries begins 1533 Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn

1547 Edward VI is crowned King

1536 (October) The Pilgrimage of Grace takes place

1536 (May) Anne Boleyn is executed 1534 The Act of Supremacy starts the English Reformation

1539 Parliament passes the Six Articles

Key people Key vocabulary Relic An object of religious significance, often the physical or personal remains of a saint Royal Court A collection of nobles and clergymen, known as courtiers, who advise the monarch Stained glass Decorative coloured glass, often found in the windows of churches and cathedrals Supreme Head of the Church of England The title granted to Henry VIII following the Act of Supremacy Transubstantiation The change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ during Communion Tudors The royal dynasty that ruled England from 1485 to 1603 Vestments Garments worn by Christian clergymen, colourful and richly decorated for Catholics

Anne Boleyn Henry VIII’s second wife, who was executed in 1536 for adultery Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII’s first wife and the daughter of the King and Queen of Spain Charles V Emperor who ruled Spain and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until 1556 Edward VI The only son of Henry VIII, he died aged fifteen and is known as the ‘Boy King’ Henry VIII King of England from 1509 to 1547 who had six wives and started the English Reformation Martin Luther A German monk and theologian who helped to start the Reformation Thomas Cromwell Henry VIII’s chief minister from 1532, and a strong Protestant Thomas More Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor from 1529, he was executed for his Catholicism Thomas Wolsey Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor from 1515 to 1529, and a very wealthy and powerful man

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: The young Henry VIII 1. In what year did Henry VIII become king? 2. What was the name of Henry VIII’s first wife? 3. Who had Henry VIII’s first wife previously been married to? 4. What country did Henry VIII invade in 1513? 5. England defeated an army from which country at the Battle of Flodden in 1513? 6. Who was Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor from 1515 to 1529? 7. What position did Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor hold which allowed him to wear a distinctive red cassock? 8. What magnificent palace did Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor build beside the River Thames? 9. What peace conference did Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor organise in 1520? 10. At what sport did the French King Francis I beat Henry VIII in 1520?

Chapter 2: The Reformation 1. What city was the centre of medieval Catholicism? 2. What name was given to the forgiveness of one’s sins purchased from the Catholic Church? 3. What name is given to an object of religious significance, often the physical or personal remains of a saint? 4. In what language were Catholic church services conducted, and Catholic bibles normally written? 5. Which monk and theologian is often credited with starting the Reformation? 6. What country was this monk and theologian from? 7. In what year did he nail his ‘theses’ to the door of his church in Wittenberg? 8. How many ‘theses’ did he nail to the door of his church? 9. What was the new form of Christianity which emerged during the 1500s called? 10. What invention greatly helped the spread of this new form of Christianity?

Chapter 3: Henry’s ‘Great Matter’ 1. What did Henry VIII fail to do in 1522 and 1525? 2. What was Catherine of Aragon unlikely to provide Henry VIII with by 1525? 3. Who did Henry VIII have to gain permission from to divorce Catherine of Aragon? 4. Who did Henry VIII attack in his 1521work the ‘Defence of the Seven Sacraments’? 5. Who was the Holy Roman Emperor, and Catherine of Aragon’s cousin, at this time? 6. For what reason did Henry VIII claim that his marriage to Catherine of Aragon had never been lawful?

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7. Who was Henry VIII’s second wife? 8. In what year did Henry VIII marry his second wife? 9. What law was passed by Parliament in 1534, leading to the creation of the Church of England? 10. What term is used for England’s decision to leave the Roman Catholic Church in 1534?

Chapter 4: The English Reformation 1. What oath did Henry VIII force people to swear after 1534? 2. Which of his Lord Chancellors did Henry VIII execute in 1535? 3. Who was Henry VIII’s strongly Protestant chief minister from 1532? 4. What term is used to describe closure of all religious houses in England by Henry VIII? 5. Who gained the land and wealth of the monasteries after they were closed? 6. After the monasteries were closed, who had to be turned out onto the streets? 7. What rebellion against Henry VIII’s religious reforms took place in October 1536? 8. Which young noble led this rebellion? 9. How was the leader of this rebellion killed? 10. What were established to provide education for young boys after the monasteries were closed?

Chapter 5: Henry VIII and Edward VI 1. For what crime was Anne Boleyn executed in May 1536? 2. Which of Henry VIII’s six wives gave him his only son to survive childbirth? 3. What was the name of Henry VIII’s last wife? 4. An injury playing what sport in 1536 caused Henry VIII to gain weight in later life? 5. What 1539 Act of Parliament moved the Church of England back towards Catholic practices? 6. Which country did King Henry VIII make himself king of during his reign? 7. In what year did Edward VI become king? 8. What book of prayers did Edward VI introduce for Church of England services? 9. Who was Edward VI’s strongly Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury? 10. How old was Edward VI when he died?

Unit 1: Henry VIII and the Reformation

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William Collins’ dream of knowledge for all began with the publication of his first book in 1819. A self-educated mill worker, he not only enriched millions of lives, but also founded a flourishing publishing house. Today, staying true to this spirit, Collins books are packed with inspiration, innovation and practical expertise. They place you at the centre of a world of possibility and give you exactly what you need to explore it. Collins. Freedom to teach Published by Collins An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers The News Building 1 London Bridge Street London SE1 9GF Text © Robert Peal 2016 Design © HarperCollinsPublishers 2016 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-00-819532-8 Robert Peal asserts his moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher. This book is sold subject to the conditions that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the Publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. HarperCollins does not warrant that any website mentioned in this title will be provided uninterrupted, that any website will be error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the website or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or bugs. For full terms and conditions please refer to the site terms provided on the website. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Publisher: Katie Sergeant Editor: Hannah Dove Author: Robert Peal Fact-checker: Barbara Hibbert Copy-editor: Sally Clifford Image researcher: Alison Prior Proof-reader: Ros and Chris Davies Cover designer: Angela English Cover image: © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Production controller: Rachel Weaver Typesetter: QBS Printed and bound by Martins, UK Acknowledgments Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publishers will gladly receive any information enabling them to rectify any error or omission at the first opportunity. The publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: (t = top, b = bottom, c = centre, l = left, r = right) Cover & p1 © Victoria and Albert Museum, London; p2 Heritage Image Partnership Ltd/Alamy; p3t GL Archive/ Alamy; p3b Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Alamy; p4t FALKENSTEINFOTO/Alamy; p4b Ignatius Tan/ Shutterstock; p5 imageBROKER/Alamy; p6t Mary Evans Picture Library/Alamy; p6c IanDagnall Computing/Alamy; p6b GL Archive/Alamy; p7 Ian Shaw/Alamy; p8t Portrait of Sir Thomas More (1478–1535) (oil on panel), Holbein the Younger, Hans (1497/8–1543) (after)/National Portrait Gallery, London, UK/Bridgeman Images; p8b Loop Images Ltd/Alamy; p9 Badge of the Five Wounds of Christ (embroidered textile), English School, (16th century)/ His Grace The Duke of Norfolk, Arundel Castle/Bridgeman Images; p10 Antiques & Collectables/Alamy; p11 ACTIVE MUSEUM/Alamy; p11 Photology1971/Shutterstock

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Unit 3: The later Tudors

Mary I’s Counter-reformation During Edward VI’s reign, his older sister Mary clung to her Roman Catholic faith. She still attended Catholic mass in her private chapel even though it had been ruled illegal by her brother. When Edward told Mary off for this during a Christmas family dinner, she broke down in tears asking Edward to kill her before he forced her to give up her Catholic faith. On his deathbed, Edward VI ruled that his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey should be his heir. However, the great majority of England’s population thought that their rightful Queen was Edward’s half-sister Mary, and an army of around 20 000 men gathered to support her. After just nine days, Lady Jane Grey gave up her claim to the throne, and Mary became queen in July 1553. Lady Jane Grey was locked in the Tower of London, forever to be remembered as the ‘nine-days queen’.

Portrait of Mary I

Marriage and rebellion After Henry VIII had divorced Mary’s mother Catherine of Aragon, the 17-year-old Mary was ignored by her father and banned from seeing her mother. To make matters worse, Anne Boleyn soon gave Mary a prettier, cleverer, Protestant half-sister called Elizabeth. As Mary became more bitter and resentful, her attachment to Catholicism grew. To prevent Elizabeth from succeeding her as Queen, Mary desperately needed to produce an heir. Mary intended to marry Philip II of Spain, the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Philip was determined to defend the Catholic faith against the spread of Protestantism – a movement known as the counter-reformation. A Catholic Spaniard was set to become king of England, and for many this was too much to bear. A knight called Sir Thomas Wyatt led a rebellion against Mary, but was defeated and captured in February 1554. Mary responded brutally: 120 rebels were hanged, and their bodies left to rot on the gallows in their home villages as a warning to others. Mary imprisoned her sister Elizabeth in the Tower of London, and executed her cousin Lady Jane Grey.

Portrait of Philip II of Spain

The Wyatt rebellion was a turning point in Mary’s religious policy. In July 1554 she married Phillip, and confident that she would have an heir, Mary set about achieving a wholesale return of Catholicism to England.

‘Bloody’ Mary Twenty years of religious reforms were put into reverse: churches were ordered to celebrate Mass and hold services in Latin; The Book of Common Prayer was outlawed; and priests who had married were forced to give up their wives. In November 1554, the heresy laws returned, and Protestants were once again burned at the stake.

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English monarchs had used burning at the stake to punish heretics since the 1400s, but none used it quite as much as Mary. It was an agonisingly slow death, during which victims could feel, see and smell their flesh burn right before their eyes, suffering up to an hour of torturous pain before they died. Some witnesses reported seeing victims’ blood boiling and steam bursting through the veins of their bodies.

31.1

In all, Mary had 283 Protestants burned at the stake, including 56 women, in five years. The most famous victim was Thomas Cranmer, the former Archbishop of Canterbury. Cranmer was England’s leading Protestant and had masterminded Henry VIII’s divorce from Mary’s mother, Catherine of Aragon. This had made Mary’s teenage years a misery. Even though Cranmer renounced his Protestant faith six times, Mary still had him burned. Mary suffered a number of miscarriages, and failed to have a child. Her husband Philip abandoned her and returned to Spain. On 17 November 1558, Mary died. To her Catholic supporters, she was remembered as ‘Mary the Pious’, but to her Protestant opponents she would always be remembered as ‘Bloody’ Mary.

Illustration of William Sautre being burned at the stake for heresy

Foxe’s Book of Martyrs

Fact

John Foxe was a Protestant cleric who fled to Switzerland during Mary’s reign. He wrote a bestselling account of the period in 1563. It was a powerful work of Protestant propaganda, which helped to establish Mary’s reputation as ‘Bloody’.

In the last year of her life, Mary had a pain and a large lump in her stomach. She was convinced it was a child, but it was in fact the tumour that killed her.

The book tells in vivid detail how each Protestant martyr died. One account describes the burning at the stake of two bishops, Latimer and Ridley. Friends of the two bishops tied bags Execution of the Duke of gunpowder around their necks to ensure a of Suffolk, from Foxe’s quick death, but the wet wood burned too slowly. book Latimer was heard calling out to his dying friend, ‘We shall this day light such a candle as I trust shall never be put out.’

Check your understanding 1. How were Mary I’s religious views different from those of her half-brother Edward VI? 2. Why did the Wyatt rebellion take place in 1554? 3. Why did Mary I’s religious policy become more pro-Catholic, and anti-Protestant, from July 1554 onwards? 4. Why was being ‘burned at the stake’ such an agonising death? 5. What religious viewpoint was Foxe’s Book of Martyrs written to support?

Chapter 1: Mary I’s Counter-reformation

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Unit 3: The later Tudors

Elizabeth I In 1558, the throne passed to Mary’s steely and independentminded half-sister, Elizabeth I. She made a series of thoughtful decisions that would ensure the stability of her 44-year reign. The most pressing issue facing Elizabeth was England’s religion. In her lifetime, England had moved away from Catholicism and then back again under her father, much further towards Protestantism under her brother, and then back to Catholicism under her sister. When Elizabeth came to the throne, England was split between those Protestants who wanted to see the Reformation taken further, and those who still had a deep affection for Catholic ceremonies and rituals. Elizabeth’s religious policy, known as the ‘Elizabethan Religious Settlement’, was a masterstroke of compromise. Elizabeth established a Church of England that was Protestant in doctrine, but Catholic in appearance. Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer returned, services were conducted in English, Catholic ceremonies and rituals were banned, and priests were allowed to marry. However, bishops were retained, priests could wear traditional vestments, and church decorations such as stained glass windows were permitted.

Coronation portrait of Elizabeth I

At first, Catholics were not forced to convert to Protestantism. Attendance at Protestant services on Sunday was compulsory, but the punishment for not attending was kept low: a fine of 12 pence. Elizabeth was willing to turn a blind eye to Catholics who worshipped in private. As her advisor Sir Francis Bacon explained, she was not interested in creating ‘windows into men’s souls’.

Marriage The next challenge was marriage. Elizabeth’s Protestant advisors, such as her loyal Secretary of State William Cecil, were desperate for Elizabeth to marry and produce an heir. An endless supply of English noblemen and European princes wanted Elizabeth’s hand in marriage, but none was quite right. Marrying a European royal such as Philip II of Spain or Prince Eric XIV of Sweden would have made England overly attached to a foreign power. Marrying an Englishman such as Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, would have caused jealousy and conflict at home. Though none of her advisors agreed with her, Elizabeth believed that she could serve England best by providing a long period of stability but no heir. Elizabeth’s stubborn determination won out. As she told her court favourite Robert Dudley: “I will have here but one mistress and no master”.

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Unit 3: The later Tudors

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Mary Queen of Scots

31.2.1

In 1570, the Pope issued a Papal Bull against the ‘pretended Queen of England’, declaring Elizabeth to be a heretic. It ordered English Catholics not to follow their queen, or risk being expelled from the Catholic Church. Some English Catholics were driven to plot to kill the Queen, assured that this was the right path in the eyes of God. Elizabeth’s government was thrown into panic. The greatest threat to Elizabeth was her Catholic younger cousin, Mary Queen of Scots (not to be confused with her half-sister Mary I). In 1568, Mary Queen of Scots was expelled from Scotland, and sought protection in England. Elizabeth was duty bound to offer shelter to her cousin, but Elizabeth also knew that some Catholics intended to kill her and place Mary Queen of Scots on the throne. So, for years Elizabeth imprisoned her cousin Mary in various stately homes and castles across England. Elizabeth’s government uncovered numerous Catholic plots to kill the queen, including one involving her own court doctor! After years of trying, Elizabeth’s chief spymaster Francis Walsingham finally found the evidence he needed to implicate Mary. She had been communicating with a Catholic named Sir Anthony Babington who planned to assassinate Elizabeth I. They used coded letters, smuggled in and out of her prison in a waterproof case at the bottom of barrels, which Walsingham’s spies managed to decode. In 1587, after 19 years of imprisonment, Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded. As more and more plots against her life were uncovered, Elizabeth became increasingly intolerant towards Catholics. Fines for non-attendance at church increased, and in 1585 being a Catholic priest in England was made a crime punishable by death. In all, 180 Catholics were killed during Elizabeth’s reign.

Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots

Fact In many stately homes today, you can still see ‘priest holes’, where Catholic families would hide visiting priests, sometimes for days on end.

Francis Walsingham Walsingham was Queen Elizabeth’s chief ‘spymaster’, and had a network of spies across Europe. Walsingham would torture captured Catholics for further information. The Catholic priest Edmund Campion had iron spikes driven under his finger and toenails, and was placed on the rack. A Catholic from York named Margaret Clitherow was tortured by having a door put on top of her, and heavier and heavier weights were placed on the door until she died.

Check your understanding 1. What aspects of Catholicism did the Protestant Church of England retain under Elizabeth I? 2. Why did Elizabeth I believe neither a foreign nor an English husband would be suitable for her? 3. Why did the 1570 Papal Bull cause Elizabeth I’s life to be in further danger? 4. What led to Mary Queen of Scots finally being sentenced to death in 1587? 5. How did Elizabeth I’s treatment of Catholics in England change over the course of her reign?

Chapter 2: Elizabeth I

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Unit 3: The later Tudors

The Elizabethan Golden Age Due to Elizabeth I’s wise decision making, England enjoyed an unprecedented period of peace and stability during her reign. Art, trade and culture all flourished in England, and this period is sometimes termed the ‘Elizabethan Golden Age’. Religious plays had been a strong part of the Catholic Church, but they were banned during the English Reformation. As a result, secular theatre became increasingly popular. Wealthy nobles would hire troupes of travelling actors to provide them with entertainment.

The theatre In 1576, London gained its first public theatre. Built in the London suburb of Shoreditch and called The Theatre, it lay safely outside the city of London, where theatre had been banned. Theatre was very different during the Elizabethan period, with drinks and food sold in the stalls, and plenty of interaction between the actors and the audience. Rowdy audiences would cheer, boo and pelt poor performers with food. Elizabeth I enjoyed the theatre, and the best performances in London’s public theatres would be transferred to perform at the royal court. There were many famous playwrights of this period, but none more so than William Shakespeare. Between 1590 and 1613, he wrote 38 plays including comedies such as Much Ado About Nothing and A Midsummer Night’s Dream, tragedies such as Hamlet and Macbeth, and histories such as Henry V and Richard III. Little is known about Shakespeare’s life, but he is thought to have gone to a grammar school in Stratford-Upon-Avon, before going to London to work as an actor. Many phrases that we still use today originated with Shakespeare, such as ‘vanished into thin air’, ‘tongue-tied’ and ‘the game is up’.

One of the few surviving portraits of William Shakespeare

The Elizabethan court The Queen’s favourite noblemen and advisors together made up the royal court. They would stay together in the Queen’s various palaces, and enjoy glittering entertainments, such as plays, dancing, jousting, hunting, banqueting and concerts. Elizabeth I liked to surround herself with brilliant and handsome young men, such as Sir Walter Raleigh. Raleigh was a dashing soldier, who had fought for the Protestants in France (known as Huguenots) during the Wars of Religion. He was 6 foot tall, had dark curly hair, and wore a pearl earring in one ear. In 1578, he sailed to the Americas, and returned with a collection of presents for the Queen, including two Native Americans and some potatoes. Raleigh also returned with tobacco, and made smoking a fashionable pastime in Elizabeth’s Court. Sir Walter Raleigh entranced Elizabeth with his charm, and many suspected Elizabeth was in love with him. When

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Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh

Unit 3: The later Tudors

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Elizabeth discovered that Raleigh had secretly married, she flew into a jealous rage and threw him in jail.

31.3.1

During the summer, Elizabeth would embark on her magnificent ‘Royal progresses’, being hosted by members of her royal court across England. Favourites who wanted to impress the Queen spared no expense entertaining her at their stately homes, such as William Cecil’s Burghley House.

Gloriana By 1601, Queen Elizabeth was growing old. She was called to Parliament that year, as many of its members were angry with the high taxes needed to pay for war with Ireland. Elizabeth quelled their anger by delivering what became known as her Golden Speech. It concluded: “And though you have had, and may have, many mightier and wiser princes sitting in this seat, yet you never had, nor shall have, any that will love you better.” Aware that it was probably the last time they would hear their queen speak, the Members of Parliament lined up to kiss Elizabeth’s hand as they left, many in tears. Two years later, Elizabeth died. After decades of religious conflict, she brought peace to England. Today, Elizabeth is remembered as one of England’s greatest rulers.

Illustration of Queen Elizabeth I in procession with her courtiers

Sir Francis Drake

Fact

Francis Drake was the greatest explorer of Elizabethan England. A tough young sailor from Devon, Drake worked for Queen Elizabeth as a ‘privateer’, raiding Spanish galleons and trade ports in the Americas and returning to England with their cargo.

In one famous story, Sir Walter Raleigh saved Elizabeth I from walking through a muddy puddle by throwing down his cape so that she could walk over it.

In an epic journey from 1577 to 1580, Drake became the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe on his ship the Golden Hind. Having sailed through the treacherous Magellan Strait, Drake captured an unprotected Spanish galleon full of gold off the coast of Peru. When he returned from his voyage, Drake moored the Golden Hind in Deptford, and invited the Queen to join him for dinner on board. Elizabeth knighted Francis Drake on board the deck of his own ship.

Check your understanding 1. Why did the theatre become increasingly popular during Elizabeth I’s reign? 2. How was the theatre different during the Tudor period compared with the theatre today? 3. What were Queen Elizabeth’s ‘progresses’? 4. In what ways were Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Drake similar? 5. What did Elizabeth I tell the Members of Parliament during her Golden Speech?

Chapter 3: The Elizabethan Golden Age

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Unit 3: The later Tudors

The Spanish Armada During Elizabeth I’s reign, Philip II of Spain was the most powerful king in Europe. He was a leading defender of Catholicism in the European Wars of Religion. As a devout Catholic, Philip II had many reasons to dislike England. He had briefly been King of England until the death of Mary I. Philip courted Elizabeth I as his next wife, but Elizabeth rejected Philip’s advances. Elizabeth gave English support to Protestant armies fighting in Europe, and she openly ordered English privateers such as Francis Drake to attack and rob Spanish ships of their precious cargo whilst returning from the Americas. When Elizabeth executed Mary Queen of Scots in 1587, this seemed to guarantee a Protestant future for England. Philip II knew he would have to act fast if England was to return to the old faith.

The Armada Philip set about building the largest naval invasion force Europe had ever seen. On 28 May 1588, it set sail from Lisbon for England. Named the ‘Spanish Armada’, Philip’s force consisted of 130 large ships known as ‘galleons’, 8000 sailors and 18 000 soldiers. However, it had one crucial weakness: the commander of the fleet, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, had little sailing experience. He even suffered from sea-sickness. In Holland, the Spanish had a crack-force of 30 000 experienced soldiers under the command of the Duke of Parma. Philip’s plan was for the Armada to sail to France where he would meet the Duke of Parma’s army, and then invade England. The English navy, under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Drake, numbered 200 ships. Though more numerous, their ships were smaller, and had much less gun-power. After weeks of waiting, the Spanish Armada was sighted off the coast of Cornwall on 19 July. A series of hilltop bonfires called ‘signalling towers’ were lit. This spread the news towards London and across the south coast: England was under attack. That evening, the Spanish approached the English fleet moored in Portsmouth. With the wind blowing into the harbour, the English were vulnerable to attack, and the Spanish had their best chance of a quick and easy victory. However, Medina Sidonia wanted to stick to his orders to meet the Duke of Parma in France first, so he sailed straight past the English fleet.

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Painting of English and Spanish ships during the Armada, completed shortly after the event

Unit 3: The later Tudors

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For a week, the English chased the Spanish up the channel, engaging in a few skirmishes. Then, on the 27 July, the Spanish anchored off Calais to pick up their reinforcements. To their shock, the Duke of Parma had not yet arrived. His army of 30 000 men was nowhere to be seen.

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English victory The following evening, on the 28 July, the English devised a tactical masterstroke. They filled eight ships with gunpowder and tar, creating ‘hellburners’. In the middle of the night, these were set on a course for the Spanish ships anchored at Calais. The Spanish commanders awoke to see the burning ships speeding towards them, and panicked. They cut their anchors and were scattered along the channel. Modern illustration of the English hellburners As a consequence, the Spanish lost their powerful ‘crescent’ formation, and were easy to attack. On the 7 August, the two sides met at the Battle of Gravelines, where the smaller English ships sailed rings around the larger Spanish galleons, sinking five and damaging many more.

At this point, Medina Sidonia made a serious navigational error, and the Armada was blown north towards Scotland. They then had to sail past Scotland and down the west coast of Ireland to safety, but were caught in treacherous storms. Around 60 Spanish ships were wrecked on the Scottish and Irish coasts, and 11 000 Spanish soldiers died. It is sometimes claimed that people living on the west coast of Ireland today are descended from Spanish sailors who were shipwrecked during the Armada.

Tilbury speech The day after the Battle of Gravelines, Elizabeth I visited her troops who were stationed at Tilbury and awaiting the invasion. Dressed in a silver suit of armour, Elizabeth delivered the most famous speech of her reign. In it she declared: “I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king – and of a King of England too.” Little did Elizabeth know, the English Royal Navy had already defeated the Spanish Armada. Had they not, Philip II may well have deposed Elizabeth I, and returned England to Catholicism. The history of England could have been very different indeed.

Fact A year before the Armada, Francis Drake made a first strike on the Spanish fleet harboured in the Spanish port of Cadiz. Drake took them by surprise, sank 30 ships and set fire to the city. He boasted that he had ‘singed the King of Spain’s beard’.

Check your understanding 1. Why did Philip II of Spain want to invade England? 2. Why was it such a mistake for Medina Sidonia not to attack on the evening of 19th July? 3. Why did the English send ‘hellburners’ sailing towards the Spanish ships moored in Calais? 4. What happened to the Spanish Armada following the Battle of Gravelines? 5. What message did Elizabeth I deliver to the troops in her Tilbury Speech?

Chapter 4: The Spanish Armada

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Unit 3: The later Tudors

Rich and poor in Tudor England By the time the Tudors came to power, some of England’s most powerful noble families had died out during the Wars of the Roses. Fewer noblemen meant fewer challenges to the monarchy, and the Tudor monarchs made sure that the nobility remained small and easily managed for the rest of their reigns. When the Catholic Duke of Norfolk was executed in 1572 for treason, there were no more dukes left in England. By 1600, there was one marquess, 18 earls, two viscounts and 37 barons, making up a class of just 58 noblemen in the whole country. Most significantly, starting with the reign of Henry VII, it was illegal for noblemen to keep private armies. Many swapped their now unnecessary castles for stately homes. Tudor noblemen were still great landowners, but their days as an elite military class were over.

The gentry The real ruling class of Tudor England was the gentry. Numbering around 15 000 families, members of the gentry were landowners without noble titles. Like the nobility, they made enough money from renting their land to tenant farmers to pursue lives of leisure. The gentry had the time to read and socialise, and called themselves ‘gentlemen’. The decreasing power of the nobility during the Tudor period made it surprisingly easy for bright men of humble birth to rise to the top of society, as can be seen in the careers of Thomas Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell. Called ‘new men’, many of these upwardly Painting of a fair in Bermondsey, near London, from 1569 mobile Tudors benefited from the Dissolution of the Monasteries. It allowed them to buy church land cheaply and become landowning gentlemen. The division between the landed wealthy and the working poor were as clear as ever in Tudor England. The medieval Sumptuary Laws remained in place, so only a nobleman could wear gold or silver cloth, and only a lord could wear red or blue velvet. At the other end of the scale, the Wool Cap Act of 1571 stated that all working people over the age of seven had to wear a wool cap on Sundays or holy days. For the wealthy, fashions in Tudor England were always changing. During the reign of Henry VIII, men wore bulging sleeves and shoulder pads to make their upper body look powerful, along with enlarged codpieces to emphasise their masculinity. Men’s fashion became more refined during the reign of Elizabeth I. Men began to wear short padded trousers called

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Painting of the diplomat Sir Henry Unton, with a rather large ruff

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hose, and a buttoned up jacket known as a doublet. From the 1560s onwards, any self-respecting lady or gentleman had to wear a ruff: an elaborate lace collar encircling the neck, which – as the playwright Ben Johnson observed – created the impression of a head on a plate.

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Life for the poor The population of England grew rapidly during this period, almost doubling from 2.4 million in 1520 to 4.1 million in 1600. This meant there were often not enough jobs to go round, so mass unemployment was common. To make matters worse, England’s monasteries – which for centuries had cared for the poor during times of hardship – no longer existed. As a result, travelling beggars called vagrants became a common sight in Tudor towns, and people in Tudor England often spoke of an Tudor woodcut showing a vagrant being whipped through increase in crime. At first, Tudor governments the streets responded harshly. Begging was made illegal for everyone except the disabled or elderly. Able-bodied vagrants caught begging would have a large hole burnt through their right ear with a hot iron. If they reoffended, vagrants could be imprisoned or even executed. The government did gradually begin to take more responsibility for the poor. From 1563 onwards, the ‘Poor Laws’ were passed, requiring parishes to collect taxes from the local population, to provide help for the poor. The Tudors made a clear distinction between two different types of poor. The ‘deserving’ poor, who were unable to work through old age, disability or the lack of jobs, were believed to deserve help. Whereas it was believed the ‘undeserving’ poor were simply idle, and deserved nothing.

Tudor football Sport was very popular in Tudor England, in particular football. Aside from being played with a leather ball, there were few similarities with the modern game. Tudor football was often played between villages, with no boundaries to the pitch, and no limit to the number of players on each side. Players could pick up and run with the ball. Fights, broken bones, and even deaths were common.

Fact Elizabeth I was no exception to the Tudor love of fashion. An inventory of the royal wardrobe in 1600 recorded that she owned 269 gowns, 96 cloaks, and 99 robes.

Check your understanding 1. Why was the nobility weaker during the Tudor period, than in the medieval period? 2. Why were landowners such as the nobility and gentry able to pursue lives of leisure? 3. How did men’s fashions change from the reign of Henry VIII, to the reign of Elizabeth I? 4. Why was vagrancy such a problem during the 16th century? 5. What was the difference, according to the Poor Laws, between the deserving and the undeserving poor?

Chapter 5: Rich and poor in Tudor England

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Unit 3: The later Tudors

Knowledge organiser 1553 Mary I is crowned Queen of England

1558 Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England 1570 The Pope issues a Papal Bull against Elizabeth I

1554 Mary I marries Philip II of Spain

1563 The first of the Elizabethan Poor Laws is passed

1576 The Theatre, England’s first public theatre, is built in Shoreditch

Key vocabulary Armada Fleet of warships, often used to describe Spanish force sent to invade England in 1588 Babington Plot A foiled plot to kill Elizabeth I, which resulted in Mary Queen of Scots’ execution Burning at the stake A slow and painful execution, usually reserved for religious heretics Counter-reformation Catholic fight back against the spread of Protestantism in Europe Deserving poor Category developed by the Tudors for those amongst the poor in genuine need of help Doublet and hose A buttoned up jacket and short padded trousers worn during the Tudor period Elizabethan Religious Settlement A compromise agreement returning England to Protestantism but allowing Catholics to worship in secret Foxe’s Book of Martyrs A work of Protestant propaganda against Mary I, published in 1563 Galleon A large sailing ship, particularly from Spain Gentleman Someone who earns enough money from land and investments not to work for a living Gentry Class of wealthy landowners without noble titles, positioned just below the nobility

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Gloriana A name given to Elizabeth towards the end of her reign, from the Latin for ‘glorious’ Golden Age A period of flourishing in the history of a nation or an art form Golden Hind Sir Francis Drake’s ship, on which he completed his circumnavigation of the world Hellburner A ship filled with explosives, set alight, abandoned and sailed towards the enemy Martyr A person who is killed for their beliefs, often religious New men Upwardly mobile men of the Tudor period, who benefitted from the weakening nobility Papal Bull A formal and important announcement, issued by the Pope Poor Laws Laws passed during the Tudor period, making local parishes raise money to help the poor Privateer A private sailor or pirate, authorised by their government to attack enemy ships Propaganda A piece of art or information used to promote a particular cause or point of view Rack Torture device used slowly to stretch a person’s body until all their joints dislocate

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1580 Sir Francis Drake completes his circumnavigation of the world

1588 The Spanish Armada sets sail for England

1587 Mary Queen of Scots is executed

1601 Elizabeth I delivers her ‘Golden Speech’ to Parliament

1590 Shakespeare’s first play, Henry VI: Part I, is performed

1603 Death of Elizabeth I

Key people

Key vocabulary Royal Progress A summer journey taken by a monarch, visiting the stately homes of court favourites Ruff An elaborate lace collar encircling the neck, fashionable during the Elizabethan period Stately home A large country house at the centre of a gentleman or a noble’s estate Vagrant A person with no job, who travels from place to place begging Wars of Religion A series of European wars fought between Protestants and Catholics from 1524 to 1648

Duke of Medina Sidonia Commander of the Spanish Armada, who suffered from seasickness Elizabeth I Queen from 1558 to 1603, and remembered as one of England’s greatest monarchs Francis Walsingham Principal Secretary and ‘spymaster’ to Elizabeth I Lady Jane Grey Cousin of Edward VI, known as the ‘nine day Queen’ for her very brief reign Mary I Queen who led England’s counterreformation, and earned the epithet ‘Bloody’ Mary Queen of Scots Elizabeth I’s Catholic cousin and the most significant threat to her reign Philip II of Spain King of Spain, who for a time was the husband of Mary I and King of England Francis Drake Sailor and privateer, and the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe Walter Raleigh English sailor and explorer, and a noted favourite of Queen Elizabeth I William Shakespeare Celebrated English playwright who worked during the Tudor and Stuart periods

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: Mary I’s Counter-reformation 1. Which cousin of Edward VI was known as the ‘nine day Queen’? 2. In what year was Mary I crowned Queen of England? 3. Who was Mary I’s mother? 4. Which family member did Mary I imprison in the Tower of London after the 1554 Wyatt rebellion? 5. Which King of Spain was, for a short time, the husband of Mary I and King of England? 6. What do you call someone with beliefs that question the established church, such as Protestants during the reign of Mary I? 7. What slow and painful execution did Mary I use for punishing Protestants? 8. In total, how many Protestants did Mary I kill during her reign? 9. Which former Archbishop of Canterbury did Mary I execute? 10. What work of Protestant propaganda against Mary I was published in 1563?

Chapter 2: Elizabeth I 1. In what year was Elizabeth I crowned Queen of England? 2. What compromise agreement reached by Elizabeth I settled the future direction of the Church of England? 3. What rank of churchman did Elizabeth I keep as part of the Church of England? 4. What did the Pope issue against Elizabeth I in 1570? 5. Which of Elizabeth I’s cousins posed the most significant threat to her reign? 6. Who was the Principal Secretary and ‘spymaster’ to Elizabeth I? 7. Which foiled plot to kill Elizabeth I resulted in her cousin’s execution in 1587? 8. For what religious crime did Elizabeth I introduce the death penalty towards the end of her reign? 9. In all, how many Catholics were killed during Elizabeth’s reign? 10. What popular torture device slowly stretched a person’s body until all their joints dislocated?

Chapter 3: The Elizabethan Golden Age 1. What was the name of London’s first public theatre, built in Shoreditch in 1576? 2. Which celebrated English playwright staged his first play in 1590? 3. How many plays did this celebrated English playwright write? 4. Which of Queen Elizabeth’s favourites allowed her to use his cape to cross a puddle?

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5. What pastime did this favourite of Queen Elizabeth’s introduce to the royal court? 6. What were Queen Elizabeth’s summer journeys to visit her court favourites called? 7. What Latin name was given to Elizabeth towards the end of her reign? 8. What do you call a private sailor or pirate, authorised by their government to attack enemy ships? 9. Who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe? 10. What was the name of the ship on which he circumnavigated the globe?

Chapter 4: The Spanish Armada 1. In what year did the Spanish Armada set sail for England? 2. Which King of Spain ordered the Spanish Armada? 3. What event in 1587 seemed to guarantee a Protestant future for England, and prompted Spain to act? 4. How many galleons did the Spanish Armada contain? 5. Who was the commander of the Spanish Armada? 6. Where were the English moored when the Spanish missed their best chance of victory? 7. Why did the Spanish Armada sail to Calais before attacking the English? 8. What do you call the English ships that were filled with explosives, set alight, and sailed towards the Armada? 9. How many Spanish galleons were shipwrecked off the coast of Scotland and Ireland? 10. Where did Elizabeth I give her famous speech following the Battle of Gravelines?

Chapter 5: Rich and poor in Tudor England 1. How many noblemen were there in England by 1600? 2. Starting with the reign of Henry VII, what became illegal for noblemen to keep? 3. What class of wealthy landowners without noble titles were positioned just below the nobility? 4. Which upwardly mobile class during the Tudor period benefitted from the weakening nobility? 5. What popular Elizabethan outfit consisted of a buttoned up jacket and short padded trousers? 6. What elaborate lace collar, encircling the neck, was fashionable during the Elizabethan period? 7. The rapid growth of what during the 16th century made unemployment common? 8. What term was used to describe a person with no job, who travelled from place to place begging? 9. How would able-bodied people caught begging be punished? 10. What laws passed from 1563 onwards required local parishes to raise money for those in need?

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Unit 4: The English Civil War

James I and the Gunpowder Plot Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 leaving no direct heir to the throne. Her successor was to be found in Scotland, where the Protestant James VI was king. James VI was the great-great-grandson of the first Tudor king, Henry VII, and the son of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1603, the 36-year-old King of Scotland became James I of England. His coronation in London united England and Scotland under the same monarch, but they were still two separate countries, with two separate Parliaments. James did not keep the Tudor name, but instead he used the name of his Scottish royal family: Stuart. The Stuarts would rule England for one hundred turbulent, wartorn years.

James’s religion People did not know what religious policy James I would pursue. His mother Mary was a Catholic martyr, but Mary had been imprisoned when James was just one-year-old. James was then brought up as a strict Protestant by his tutors. When James I came to the throne, English Catholics hoped that their new king would pursue a policy of religious toleration for Catholics. James’s advisors, in particular his strongly Protestant Secretary of State Robert Cecil, made sure this was not the case.

Fact A significant landmark of James’s reign was his authorisation of the King James Bible, which translated both the Old and the New Testament into English. Completed in 1611, it remains the most widely published book in the English language to this day.

Elizabeth I’s anti-Catholic laws stayed in place: Catholic priests could be executed; dying Catholics could not be offered last rites; Catholics could not go to university; and Catholics who avoided Protestant church on Sundays would be fined £20 – an enormous sum of money at the time. By 1605, some English Catholics were desperate. They believed that only extreme action could ever return England to the old faith.

The Gunpowder Plot If it had been successful, the Gunpowder Plot would have been the most destructive terrorist attack in English history. Robert Catesby masterminded the plot, assembling a group of 12 Catholic plotters. The group included a battle-hardened soldier from York called Guy Fawkes. For 10 years Fawkes had fought as a mercenary for the Spanish Catholics against Dutch Protestants in the Wars of Religion, so was given responsibility for the explosives.

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Contemporary engraving of the gunpowder plotters

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Another plotter rented a cellar beneath the Houses of Parliament from a government official. Guy Fawkes packed the cellar with 36 barrels of gunpowder. The plan was to light the fuse on the morning of 5 November 1605. This was the same day as the state opening of Parliament, and the royal family, the royal court, and both houses of Parliament would all have been present. The explosion would have killed off most of England’s ruling class, after which the plotters planned to put James I’s daughter Princess Elizabeth on the throne as a puppet queen.

41.1

The letter However, one of the plotters, named Francis Tresham, was worried that his brother-inlaw Lord Monteagle would be at the state opening of Parliament. Tresham sent Lord Monteagle an anonymous letter telling him to think up an excuse not to attend Parliament that day, hinting that those who did attend “shall receive a terrible blow this Parliament and yet they shall not see who hurts them”. On receiving the letter on 26 October, Lord Monteagle was suspicious, and immediately took it to Robert Cecil. Cecil waited until the morning of 5 November to act, when he sent the king’s troops to search the cellars below Parliament.

Copy of the letter sent from Tresham to his brother-in-law Lord Monteagle

Here, Guy Fawkes was caught red-handed preparing to light the gunpowder fuse. Fawkes was seized, and tortured on the rack. After four days of agonising pain he confessed to his crime, and gave away the names of his fellow plotters. They were quickly tracked down by the king’s men to a stately home in Staffordshire. Some were shot and killed whilst resisting arrest, and the surviving plotters were brought back to London where they were tried for treason. The plotters were hanged, drawn and quartered, with their hearts and intestines removed and burnt in front of them. Their heads were placed on spikes by London Bridge. After such a close brush with death, any policy of toleration for Catholics in England was unthinkable for Parliament and the king. Anti-Catholic laws were strengthened. When Members of Parliament finally met, they instituted a ‘public thanksgiving to almighty God every year on the fifth day of November’. This annual event took the form of bonfires, on which effigies of Guy Fawkes were burnt, giving birth to the English tradition of Bonfire Night.

Modern illustration of Guy Fawkes in the cellar below Parliament

Check your understanding 1. Why were England and Scotland ruled by the same king following the death of Elizabeth I? 2. Why were English Catholics particularly frustrated by James I’s religious policy? 3. Why did the Gunpowder Plotters choose 5 November as the date to blow up Parliament? 4. How did Robert Cecil come to find out about the Gunpowder Plot? 5. What were the consequences, in terms of religious policy, of the Gunpowder Plot?

Chapter 1: James I and the Gunpowder Plot

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Unit 4: The English Civil War

Charles I and Parliament Since at least the days of Magna Carta, most English monarchs had accepted that they should share power with the people they ruled. Coming from Scotland, however, the Stuart kings thought differently. The Stuarts believed that because God was all-powerful, their family must have been chosen to rule England directly by God. To question them, therefore was to question God. This belief was called the ‘Divine Right of Kings’. King of Scotland, James I wrote a book called The True Law of Free Monarchies, which explained: “Kings are called Gods; they are appointed by God and answerable only to God”.

Charles I James I’s son Charles was a shy and sickly child, who only learned to walk and talk at the age of four, and suffered from a stammer that would stay with him his entire life. He was crowned Charles I after the death of his father in 1625, and showed a fatal combination of bad judgement and stubbornness. The early years of Charles I’s reign were a catalogue of errors. In order to make peace with France, he married the daughter of the King of France, a Catholic named Henrietta Maria. War with France continued anyway, and many of England’s Protestant population were now furious their king was married to a foreign Catholic. Some even suspected Charles was a secret Catholic, who planned for the old faith to creep back into the Church of England. These suspicions increased when he appointed William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633. Laud brought many aspects of Catholic services back into the Church of England, and sent inspectors to parishes across the country who would fine any priests not following his reforms. This disturbed the overwhelmingly Protestant people of England: it has been estimated that by this time 97 percent of England’s population were Protestant, as were 88 percent of the nobility and gentry. Most concerned by Charles’s sympathy for Catholicism were England’s Puritans (see box). Many Puritans sat in Parliament, where they repeatedly questioned Charles I’s policies and tried to limit his power. By 1629, Charles was sick of Parliament questioning his divine right to rule. So, from 1629 until 1640 Charles ruled without calling Parliament once, a period known as the ‘eleven-years tyranny’. Charles wanted to be like the absolutist monarchs of Europe, such as the powerful Catholic Kings of France, Louis XIII and XIV.

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Engraving of Charles I illustrating the Divine Right of Kings

Fact To demonstrate their divine power, Stuart kings continued a medieval practice known as ‘touching for the king’s evil’. This involved touching people with a skin disease called scrofula in order to heal them.

Charles I and his Catholic wife Henrietta Maria

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Without Parliament, however, Charles had no means of raising new taxes. He found a clever way around this problem. There was an old tax called ‘ship money’, which was used to tax towns by the coast and build up the navy when England was under threat of invasion (such as during the Spanish Armada). Charles did not need Parliament’s permission to raise ship money so, even though England was at peace, he extended it to all parts of the country. Soon, ship money was making Charles £200 000 a year, and he spent the money on anything but ships: in particular his fine clothing, new palaces and enormous art collection.

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In 1637 John Hampden, a wealthy landowner and Member of Parliament (MP), was imprisoned for refusing to pay ship money, and became a hero for Parliament’s cause. Those who criticised Charles I could be called before his own personal court, the Star Chamber. When a Puritan lawyer called William Prynne published a book in 1632 which implied the king’s dances were immoral, he was put on trial before the Star Chamber. Prynne was imprisoned for life, and had his face branded and both his ears chopped off. Charles I, some believed, was becoming a tyrant.

Puritans During the 1600s, a radical form of Protestantism became popular in England. Its followers tried to live lives that were as godly and ‘pure’ as possible, so became known as ‘Puritans’. Puritans wanted a world of strict Christianity, a ‘heaven on earth’ with no sin or wickedness. They wore simple black clothing, as they believed that jewellery, make up and colourful clothing were sinful. Activities such as gambling, drunkenness, dancing, music, theatre and sport were also frowned upon, and on Sundays no activity Portrait of a Puritan family from the 1640s by the Dutch artist Frans Hals was allowed except for reading the Bible and going to church. Puritans did not believe the English Reformation had done enough to change the Church of England, and had a fierce dislike of Catholicism. Because they were hard working, and did not spend much money, many Puritans became successful merchants and farmers. As they grew wealthier, Puritans gained more political power.

Check your understanding 1. What was meant by ‘the Divine Right of Kings’? 2. What was misjudged about Charles I’s decision to marry Henrietta Maria? 3. Why was the period between 1629 and 1640 known as the ‘eleven-years tyranny’? 4. Why was Charles I’s decision to collect taxation through ship money so controversial? 5. Why were England’s Puritans gaining power during the Stuart period?

Chapter 2: Charles I and Parliament

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Unit 4: The English Civil War

The outbreak of war From 1637 onwards, a series of events sent England tumbling towards civil war. It began with troubles north of the border, in Scotland. The Reformation had been particularly strong in Scotland, where a form of Protestantism known as Presbyterianism had taken hold. From 1560, committees of clergymen and laymen ran the Church of Scotland, with no royally appointed bishops. James I and Charles I did manage to reintroduce some bishops to Scotland, but they did not have the power of English bishops. To increase Charles I’s power over the Church of Scotland, Archbishop Laud devised a new prayer book for Scotland, with some aspects of Catholic services. When Laud’s prayer book was first used at St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh in 1637, the Scottish congregation rioted. They threw wooden stools at the clergy, and accused them of ‘popery’. Soon, there was an open rebellion against Charles I throughout Scotland, known as the Bishops’ War. In 1640, a Scottish army marched across the border and occupied England as far south as Yorkshire.

The Long Parliament Charles I urgently needed to raise an army and end the Bishops’ War. However, for an army, he needed to raise new taxes, and to raise new taxes he needed Parliament. Charles recalled Parliament in April 1640, but dissolved it three weeks later after it refused to raise the money he needed for the Bishops’ War. In September, Charles called Parliament again. This Parliament would remain in session, on and off, for the next 20 years. It became known as the ‘Long Parliament’. Charles only expected Parliament to meet and approve new taxes. After 11 years of being ignored, however, Members of Parliament had a long list of demands for the king. They wanted to meet every three years; they wanted an end to ship money; and they did not want the king to have the power to dissolve Parliament without their permission. Some Puritan Members of the Long Parliament, such as the lawyer John Pym, went even further. They asked for Bishops to be removed from the Church of England; all of Henrietta Maria’s Catholic friends to be expelled from court; and for the tutors of Charles I’s son – the future King of England – to be chosen by them. Parliament also wanted to punish some of Charles’s closest advisors. Archbishop Laud was accused of treason, and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Another of the king’s

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Contemporary engraving of the execution of the Earl of Strafford

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favourites, the Earl of Strafford, was accused of negotiating with an army in Ireland to invade England and suppress opposition to the king. Parliament sentenced Strafford to death for treason, and forced Charles I to sign his friend’s death warrant.

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Arguments raged for another year, but neither Parliament nor the king would give in. Urged on by his queen Henrietta Maria, Charles decided on 4 January 1642 to show his strength by arresting, in person, the five most troublesome Members of Parliament, including John Pym and John Hampden. It was a catastrophic error of judgement. Charles marched into Parliament, sat in the Speaker’s Chair, and read out their names. However, the MPs had been tipped off in advance, and escaped down the River Thames. Charles looked round Parliament in despair, and observed, “I see all my birds have flown”. The failed arrest of the five members was a disaster for Charles. It made him seem both weak and tyrannical. Over the following days, the people of London became increasingly agitated, building barricades, collecting weapons, and attacking the houses of suspected Catholics.

Victorian painting of the failed arrest of the five Members of Parliament

War Charles decided it was no longer safe for his family to stay in London. On 10 January 1642, he fled for York. Parliament was effectively left in charge of the country. In March, Parliament passed the ‘Militia Ordinance’ stating that the army was under their control. War, it seemed, was inevitable. Different parts of England started to declare for either the ‘Royalist’ or the ‘Parliamentarian’ side. On 22 August, Charles I raised the King’s standard in Nottingham – showing his intention to fight Parliament. The English Civil War had begun. Civil wars are uniquely horrific events. Towns and families are split apart, pitching fathers against sons, brothers against brothers, and friends against friends. One in four English men fought at some point during the English Civil War. Around 11 000 houses were burned or demolished, including historic stately houses such as Basing House and Corfe Castle. 150 towns saw serious damage, and an estimated 5 percent of England’s population died due to war or disease – a higher proportion than died during the First World War.

Fact In 1641, Charles I travelled to Scotland to make peace with the leaders of the Bishops’ War. Whilst there, he played a round of a popular Scottish sport called golf.

Check your understanding 1. What caused the Bishops’ War to start in Scotland? 2. Why did the Bishops’ War force Charles I to recall Parliament? 3. What sort of demands did Members of Parliament make once Parliament had been recalled? 4. Why was his attempt to arrest the five Members of Parliament such a catastrophe for Charles I? 5. What event marked the beginning of the English Civil War?

Chapter 3: The outbreak of war

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Unit 4: The English Civil War

Fighting the English Civil War Having fled the city in January 1642, Charles I’s primary objective at the beginning of the English Civil War was to retake London. There were three major battles. The first conflict was at the Battle of Edgehill, just outside Warwickshire, in October 1642. The outcome of the battle was indecisive. When Charles I’s weary army attempted to take London, it was repelled by local citizen militias called trainbands at Turnham Green. The next major battle was at Marston Moor near York in July 1644. The war had been going the Royalists’ way for two years, but at the Battle of Marston Moor the Parliamentarians won their first major victory against Charles. Prince Rupert’s cavalry was routed – as Oliver Cromwell said, “God made them as stubble to our swords”. After Marston Moor, the Parliamentarians gained control of northern England. A year later in July 1645 the Parliamentarians delivered a killer blow to the Royalists at the Battle of Naseby near Leicester. Almost the entire Royalist army was killed or captured, and Parliament’s troops seized the king’s baggage train. Here, they found £100 000 in jewels and treasure, and the king’s private correspondence.

Painting of Prince Rupert, the archetypal cavalier

Published later that year, Charles’s letters showed he had been negotiating with Irish and French armies to invade England and put him back on the throne. In return, Charles had promised to repeal anti-Catholic laws. The king’s enemies used this as evidence that Charles was planning treason against his own people, and they began to refer to him as ‘Charles Stuart, that man of Blood’. After Naseby, Parliament seized the Royalist headquarters at Oxford. Charles I was left defeated and disgraced.

Cavalier The Royalists, who fought for the king, were mostly recruited from the nobility, some Catholics, and people from the countryside. The Royalist cavalrymen were often of noble birth, and liked to have long hair and expensive clothing. They went into battle wearing knee high boots with high heels, colourful decorated tunics, soft leather gloves, shirts with ruffled cuffs, and beaver hats with ostrich feather plumes. Like the knights of medieval Europe, Royalist cavalrymen saw themselves as romantic figures. They were nicknamed ‘Cavaliers’ after the Spanish word ‘caballero’, meaning horseman. The archetypal cavalier was Prince Rupert, a nephew of Charles I’s who travelled from Germany to England aged only 23 to command the Royalist cavalry.

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Fact Prince Rupert would take with him to battle his pet dog, a poodle called Boye, who some Roundheads believed had magical powers. Boye was captured and killed at the Battle of Marston Moor.

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Prince Rupert was a flamboyant character. On the battlefield, he was a brave and skilled commander, but could get carried away. At the Battle of Edgehill, he chased the retreating Parliamentarian forces too far and lost his chance to win a real victory. At the Battle of Marston Moor, he was still having a dinner party with his officers when the Parliamentarians attacked.

41.4.1

Roundhead The Parliamentarian soldiers were nicknamed ‘Roundheads’, due to the shaved heads of some of Parliament’s supporters. Parliamentarians were mostly recruited from minor gentry or people living in towns, many of whom were Puritans. They had a more disciplined approach to war than the Cavaliers. Whilst the Cavaliers spent the first winter of the war throwing expensive parties, the Parliamentarians trained their army. In 1645, a Puritan cavalry general called Oliver Cromwell set about creating a full-time Parliamentarian army. Called the ‘New Model Army’, they were strictly disciplined and devoted to Parliament’s cause. Drinking and swearing were forbidden, and deserting was punished with public floggings. They were a professional army, with red uniforms, simple practical clothing, and metal armour. Cromwell’s cavalry forces were so formidable, they were nicknamed the ‘Ironsides’. Most importantly, the New Model Army believed they were fighting in a holy war. They would sing hymns marching into battle, and read from the Bible or listen to sermons that inspired them to fight. Promotion in the New Model Army was gained not through wealth or high-birth, but through merit. As Cromwell said:

Modern illustration of Parliamentarian soldiers

“I would rather have a plain russet-coated captain that knows what he fights for, and loves what he knows, than that which you call a gentleman and is nothing else”.

Political radicals During the turmoil of the Civil War, some people developed political ideas that were surprisingly radical for the 17th century. One group argued for equal legal and political rights for all men. They were called the ‘Levellers’, as they wanted to level out the hierarchy of Stuart society. Another group, called the ‘Diggers’, established a religious community in Surrey with common ownership of all land and possessions.

Check your understanding 1. What was Charles I’s main objective at the beginning of the English Civil War? 2. Why was Charles I left disgraced after the Battle of Naseby? 3. What was the character of Prince Rupert? 4. How did the approach of the Parliamentarian army differ from that of the Cavaliers? 5. How did the religious beliefs of the New Model Army influence their behaviour?

Chapter 4: Fighting the English Civil War

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Unit 4: The English Civil War

Trial and execution After his defeat at the Battle of Naseby, Charles I surrendered to the Scots in April 1646. He believed the Scots would treat him better as a prisoner than Parliament would. This marked the end of the first Civil War. In June, Parliament met with Charles I in Newcastle to discuss a peace settlement. Parliament put forward a set of demands, known as the Newcastle Propositions (see box), but Charles saw the demands as an insult. He refused them outright. The Scots soon tired of holding Charles I as a prisoner, and sold him to Parliament for £400 000 in February 1647. The king was now Parliament’s prisoner, but still they were unable to agree on a settlement. In November 1647, Charles I escaped from his prison in Hampton Court and rode south to the Isle of Wight. This sparked a second Civil War, and Royalist uprisings took place in Kent, Essex, Yorkshire, Wales and Cornwall. In addition, Charles I had secretly been negotiating with a Scottish army, who invaded England in support of the king. By September 1648, Parliament had won the second Civil War with a bloody three-day battle at Preston. By now, the most extreme opponents to the king were not in Parliament, but in the army. The New Model Army had grown too large and powerful for Parliament to control, and when Parliament ordered the army to disband in 1646, it refused. Led by the Oliver Cromwell, the army began to argue that more radical action against Charles I was needed.

The Newcastle Propositions Some of the demands were: •

The Church of England should no longer have bishops

Royalist estates be handed over to Parliament

Parliament should remain in control of the army for 20 years

Parliament should choose membership of the king’s government

Trial On 5 December, 1648, Parliament voted to continue negotiations with the king, but the army had other ideas. The following day a soldier called Colonel Pride invaded Parliament, arresting 45 Members of Parliament for supporting the king, and expelling a further 186 for supporting further negotiations. ‘Pride’s Purge’, as it became known, was a crucial turning point. Now just 200 strong opponents of Charles II remained as Members of Parliament, and many were ready to try him for treason. When Cromwell

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Rapier, a lightweight sword used during the English Civil war

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was told that it was legally impossible to try a king, he replied “I tell you we will cut off his head with his crown upon it!”.

41.5.1

The trial of Charles I began on 20 January, 1649, in Westminster Hall. Parliament was renamed the High Court of Justice, and Charles was tried for being “A tyrant, traitor, murderer and a public and implacable enemy to the commonwealth of England”. The prosecution argued that Charles had begun the Civil War against his own people, and was therefore responsible for all of the death and destruction that followed. They also accused him of treason for conspiring with France and Ireland to invade England on his behalf. Charles refused to answer the charges. He argued that because treason is defined as a crime against the king, it is impossible to try a king for treason. Even if Charles had Contemporary painting of the execution of Charles I by an unknown artist defended himself, the verdict was not in question after Pride’s Purge. The remaining MPs appointed 135 commissioners to act as judges, but even then only 59 signed Charles Fact I’s death warrant. The others stayed away through fear or disapproval. The chief judge at the trial of Charles I, John Execution Bradshaw, was so worried Charles was led to the executioner’s block on 30 January 1649. The about the threat to his execution took place outside Banqueting House, a beautifully ornate life that he wore a beaver part of the Palace of Whitehall built by Charles and his father James. The hat lined with steel and a day was bitterly cold, and Charles asked to wear two shirts, so that he suit of armour beneath his did not appear to be shivering with fear. Before his execution Charles clothes. declared, “I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible crown”. With one strike of the axe, his head was chopped off. There was a deathly silence, before soldiers began to disperse the spectators in order to avoid a riot. Many members of the crowd dipped their handkerchiefs in the king’s blood, believing that it would have divine powers. The crowd could not quite believe what they had seen. Due to the army’s radicalisation, Charles I had been executed against the will of the great majority of England’s population. It was as if England had become a republic by accident.

Judge Bradshaw’s steel-lined hat

Check your understanding 1. Why did Charles I refuse to agree to the Newcastle Propositions? 2. Why were Parliamentarians quickly losing patience with Charles I by September 1648? 3. On what grounds did Parliament try Charles I for treason in 1649? 4. Why did Charles I refuse to answer any of the charges during his trial? 5. What was the response of the London crowd to the execution of Charles I?

Chapter 5: Trial and execution

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Unit 4: The English Civil War

Knowledge organiser 1603 James I becomes King of England

1611 Publication 1629 The start of the King of the ‘elevenJames Bible years tyranny’

1605 The Gunpowder Plot almost destroys Parliament

1625 Charles I becomes King of England

1637 Archbishop Laud introduces his prayer book to Scotland

1640 Charles I recalls Parliament to pay for the Bishops’ War

Key vocabulary Absolutist A ruler who has absolute power over his or her people Banqueting House Ornate building in the Palace of Whitehall outside which Charles I was executed Bishops’ War An uprising against Charles I’s religious reforms which began in Scotland Cavalier The nickname for Royalist cavalrymen during the English Civil War Civil War A war between two sides from the same nation Divine Right of Kings The theory that a monarch is appointed by God and should have absolute power Levellers A radical group during the Civil War who demanded equal legal and political rights Long Parliament A Parliament which met, on and off, from 1640–1660 Member of Parliament Someone elected to sit in the House of Commons, often abbreviated to ‘MP’ Militia Ordinance A law by which the English Parliament took control of the army from Charles I

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Newcastle Propositions A series of demands devised by Parliament in 1646, and rejected by Charles I New Model Army A full-time, professional army formed by Oliver Cromwell during the Civil War Parliament A collection of people representing all of England, who approve or refuse laws Parliamentarians Those who are loyal to Parliament, often during a dispute with the king Presbyterian A strong form of Protestantism that took root in Scotland following the Reformation Pride’s Purge The expulsion of all but the most radical Members of Parliament in December 1648 Puritan A group of radical Protestants who wore plain clothing and tried to live without sin Religious toleration A policy of allowing many different religions to exist within one state or country Roundhead The nickname for Parliamentarian soldiers during the English Civil War Royalists Those who are loyal to the king, often during a dispute with Parliament

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1642 (August) The English Civil War breaks out 1646 Charles I surrenders to the Scots 1649 Trial and execution of Charles I

1645 The Battle of Naseby

1648 Parliament wins the Second Civil War

Key vocabulary

Key people

Ship money A tax imposed on coastal towns to pay for their defence from naval attack Star Chamber The English monarch’s personal court, which did not have to give defendants a fair trial State Opening of Parliament The ceremony where England’s monarch opens a session of Parliament Stuarts The royal dynasty ruling England from 1603 to 1714 The eleven-years tyranny A period from 1629 during which Charles I ruled without calling Parliament Touching for the king’s evil The healing touch of a king for those who suffer from skin disease Trainbands The City of London’s volunteer militia, who fought for Parliament during the Civil War Treason A crime against your own people, nation, or monarch

Charles I The second Stuart King of England, executed by Parliament following the Civil War Guy Fawkes A leading member of the Gunpowder Plot, given responsibility to guard the explosives Henrietta Maria Queen to Charles I, she was a Catholic and from France James I First Stuart King of England, and son of Mary Queen of Scots John Hampden Member of Parliament, who was tried and imprisoned for not paying ship money John Pym Puritan Member of Parliament, and major opponent to Charles I before the Civil War Prince Rupert Charles I’s German nephew, appointed commander of the Royalist cavalry aged only 23 William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury who reintroduced some Catholic practices into church services

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: James I and the Gunpowder Plot 1. The coronation of James I in 1603 led to a ‘union of the crowns’ between which countries? 2. Which royal dynasty ruled England from 1603 to 1714? 3. What landmark book did King James I authorise for publication in 1611? 4. Who was James I’s mother? 5. What religion did the gunpowder plotters belong to? 6. In what year did the Gunpowder Plot take place? 7. During what event on the 5th November did the plotters intend to strike? 8. What led to the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot by the Secretary of State Robert Cecil? 9. How were the surviving gunpowder plotters killed? 10. What direction did James I’s religious policy take following the Gunpowder Plot?

Chapter 2: Charles I and Parliament 1. What theory claims the monarch is appointed by God and should have absolute power? 2. In what year was Charles I crowned King of England? 3. What practice did Charles I pursue, supposedly to heal skin diseases? 4. Who was Charles I’s French Catholic wife? 5. Which Archbishop of Canterbury started to reintroduce Catholic practices into the Church of England? 6. What period began in 1629, during which Charles I ruled without calling Parliament? 7. What tax did Charles I use to raise money without the permission of Parliament? 8. Which Member of Parliament was imprisoned in 1637 for refusing to pay ship money? 9. What personal court did Charles I use to prevent having to give defendants a fair trial? 10. Which radical Protestants during this period wore plain clothing and tried to live without sin?

Chapter 3: The outbreak of war 1. What did Archbishop Laud introduce to Scotland in 1637, sparking an uprising against Charles I? 2. What name was given to the uprising against Charles I’s religious reforms in Scotland? 3. Why did Charles I urgently need to recall Parliament after the uprising in Scotland? 4. Which puritan Member of Parliament led the most radical demands to limit Charles I’s power? 5. Who did the puritan Members of Parliament want to expel from the royal court? 6. What event signalled Charles I’s loss of power, leading him to flee London?

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7. In what year did the English civil war break out? 8. What name was given to those who fought for Parliament during the Civil War? 9. What name was given to those who fought for Charles I during the Civil War? 10. What percentage of England’s population is believed to have died due to the English Civil War?

Chapter 4: Fighting the English Civil War 1. What was Charles I’s primary object at the beginning of the English Civil War? 2. At what battle did Parliament win a major victory against the Royalists in 1645? 3. What act of treason did the publication of Charles I’s correspondence reveal? 4. Where were the Royalist headquarters during the English Civil War? 5. What nickname was given to Royalist cavalrymen during the English Civil War? 6. Who was Charles I’s German nephew, appointed to command the Royalist cavalry aged only 23? 7. At what battle was the Royalist cavalry commander having a dinner party when the Parliamentarians attacked? 8. What nickname was given to Parliamentarian soldiers during the English Civil War? 9. What full-time, professional army did Oliver Cromwell form during the Civil War? 10. What religion did many members of Parliament’s army belong to?

Chapter 5: Trial and execution 1. Who did Charles I surrender to in 1646, believing they would treat him fairly? 2. What demands did Parliament devise in 1646, and Charles I reject? 3. What demand did Parliament make in 1646 concerning the Church of England? 4. What organisation called for more action against the king than Parliament was willing to consider? 5. For how much money did the Scots sell Charles I to Parliament in February 1647? 6. What did Charles Is escape from prison in Hampton Court Palace lead to in 1648? 7. What event saw all but the most radical Members of Parliament expelled in December 1648? 8. How many MPs signed Charles I’s death warrant? 9. In what year was Charles I executed? 10. What ornate building in the Palace of Whitehall was Charles I executed outside?

Unit 4: The English Civil War

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Unit 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

Cromwell’s Commonwealth The execution of Charles I astonished the people of England who, for the first time in their history, were not ruled by a monarch. Instead, England was ruled by 140 Members of Parliament, nicknamed the ‘Rump Parliament’, as only the most radical members had been allowed to remain following Pride’s Purge. England was declared a ‘Commonwealth’ on 16 May 1649, meaning it would be ruled in the common interest of the people. Three days later, the House of Lords was abolished. Many thought that they lived in a ‘world turned upside-down’.

Ireland and Scotland The Royalist cause still had strong support in Scotland and Ireland, and Parliament was afraid that England’s neighbours could help Charles I’s son (also named Charles) win back the crown. So, in 1649 they sent their best general, Oliver Cromwell, to defeat the Irish rebels. Ireland was still a Catholic country. The only Protestants in Ireland were descended from Scottish and English settlers sent to Ireland by Elizabeth I and James I. These Protestant settlers had seized land from the native population, and mostly lived in the northern province of Ulster. Irish Catholics strongly disliked the Protestant settlers, and in 1641 there was an uprising against the Protestants known as the ‘Portadown Massacre’. Eight years later, Oliver Cromwell was out to seek revenge. Cromwell’s treatment of the Irish Catholics was merciless. In the town of Drogheda, his troops killed 3500 civilians. Another 1500 civilians were killed in cold blood in Wexford. Worse still, Cromwell forced the Irish from their land, and those who resisted were sent to work as slaves on the Caribbean island of Barbados. Perhaps 200 000 Irish people died due to famine and war caused by Cromwell, and he is still remembered with hatred in many parts of Ireland today. Cromwell saw things differently. He returned from his Irish campaign in 1650, and reported to Parliament “I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgement of God upon these barbarous wretches”. A year later, Cromwell was sent to put down a rebellion in Scotland, where Royalists planned to invade England and put Charles I’s son on the throne. Cromwell defeated the Scottish force twice, once at Dunbar in Scotland in 1650, and again at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. However, the young Charles managed to escape to France.

Lord Protector Cromwell returned to England a war hero with 30 victories and no defeats on the battlefield. Cromwell believed in ‘Godly Providence’, meaning that everything on earth happened due to God’s will. It was easy for Cromwell to believe that God wanted him to win battles.

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Contemporary print of Oliver Cromwell, accusing him of assuming the powers of a king

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He also believed that it was God’s wish for him to rule England. So, in 1653 Cromwell dismissed Parliament and made himself ‘Lord Protector’. Many urged him to become King Oliver, but Cromwell could not bring himself to do so. As Lord Protector, Cromwell still wore his simple black clothing and grey woollen socks.

5.1

In 1655, Cromwell appointed 11 Major-Generals to rule over the different regions of Britain, and used them to impose his Puritan beliefs. He banned theatre, dancing and pubs. On Sunday, it became illegal to go to buy or sell goods, or take part in sports such as bowling, horseracing and football. Cromwell even banned Christmas celebrations, as he saw them as an excuse for drunkenness and gluttony. For the first and only time in English history, the country was under a military dictatorship.

Cromwell’s death In 1658 Oliver Cromwell, the simple farmer who rose to be king in all but name, died. His son Richard became Lord Protector, but Richard Cromwell was a weak ruler without the stern authority of his father. He was nicknamed ‘Tumbledown Dick’, and after less than a year, he stepped down under pressure from the army. Oliver Cromwell’s attempt to turn England into a Commonwealth was coming to an end.

Death mask of Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell was a member of the minor gentry from Huntingdon, near Cambridge. As a young man he appears to have suffered from severe depression, and he only recovered after converting to Puritanism during the late 1620s. Cromwell became intensely religious, and was elected to Parliament in 1628. He was descended from the sister of Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII’s chief minister who dissolved the monasteries. Clearly, Protestantism ran in the Cromwell family’s blood.

Fact

Cromwell was a straightforward man, and not very good looking. Famously, he had warts on his face and a big nose. When his portrait was being painted, Cromwell is believed to have told the painter to depict him ‘warts and all’.

Cromwell did have a genuine belief in the freedom of worship. For this reason in 1655, Jews were allowed back into England for the first time since Edward I banished them in 1290.

Check your understanding 1. Why did Parliament send their army to Ireland and Scotland after the end of the English Civil War? 2. What were the religious beliefs of the people in Ireland during this period? 3. Why is Oliver Cromwell still remembered with hatred in Ireland today? 4. What did Cromwell do to Parliament in 1653? 5. Once he became Lord Protector, what did Cromwell do to impose his Puritan beliefs?

Chapter 1: Cromwell’s Commonwealth

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Unit 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

The Restoration It was clear England’s Commonwealth experiment had failed under the rule of Tumbledown Dick. So, in 1660 the first elections in almost 20 years were held, and Parliament began negotiations with Charles I’s son. The younger Charles was living in exile in Holland. Straightaway, he showed more willingness to compromise than his father. He issued a series of promises for what he would do as king, known as the Declaration of Breda. Charles promised religious toleration; rule alongside Parliament; and, most importantly, to take no revenge on those Parliamentarians who fought during the Civil War. After 20 years of bloody conflict, Charles II’s Declaration offered England a chance to wipe the slate clean, and Parliament was happy to agree. On 29 May 1660, the king was welcomed into London by ecstatic crowds. The writer John Evelyn recorded in his diary, “With a triumph of above 20 000 horse and foot, brandishing their swords and shouting with inexpressible joy; the ways strewed with flowers, the bells ringing, the streets hung with tapestry, fountains running wine… I stood in the Strand and beheld it, and blessed God”. The English monarchy had been restored, so this period has become known as the ‘Restoration’. Once king, the only revenge Charles II took was to execute the 59 regicides who signed his father’s death warrant.

The Merry Monarch Charles II did not care much about religion, and had an enormous thirst for enjoying life. He was nicknamed the ‘Merry Monarch’. Charles II wore magnificent clothes with a wig of long curly black hair, and particularly enjoyed drinking, gambling, and dancing. He is known to have fathered at least 14 children with women who were not his wife. Once, when Charles II was introduced to an audience as ‘Father of the English People’, he joked that he had at least fathered a great number of them.

Coronation portrait of Charles II

Fact The regicides who had already died, including Oliver Cromwell, were exhumed, and had their corpses beheaded and their heads placed on spikes at Tyburn.

Charles was witty and charming. However, he was notoriously untrustworthy and lacked principles. As his friend, the drunken poet Lord Rochester wrote: “We have a pretty witty king, Whose word no man relies on; He never said a foolish thing, Nor ever did a wise one.”

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Painting of Charles II dancing with his sister Mary at a ball whilst in exile in Holland

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As his reign continued, Charles II became less popular. His wild lifestyle and unsuccessful war against the Dutch caused high taxation. Charles II’s financial situation became worse after London was hit by the plague in 1665, and the Great Fire in 1666. In 1667, England was humiliated when the Dutch navy sailed up the Medway and attacked the unsuspecting English navy, destroying half their ships and stealing the Royal Charles – England’s greatest warship. However, nothing was quite so controversial as Charles II’s approach to religion.

5.2

Religion Charles II’s French mother, Henrietta Maria, was a devout Catholic, and in 1668 his brother James, Duke of York secretly converted to Catholicism. In 1670, Charles II made a secret agreement with the French King Louis XIV promising to convert to Catholicism and to tolerate Catholics living in England. In return, Louis XIV paid Charles II 2 million livres every year. Known as the Treaty of Dover, Charles kept his agreement a secret for many years, as there was a strong anti-Catholic feeling amongst the English people. After the English Civil War, enforcing conformity to the Church of England was seen as the only way of avoiding future conflict. In 1673, Parliament passed the Test Act, making allegiance to the Protestant Church of England compulsory for clergymen, teachers, and all those in government office. The king’s own brother, James, Duke of York, had to step down as Lord High Admiral. When Charles II died in 1685, he took the last rites of a Catholic. England was yet again faced with the same problem that dogged it for over a century. The dead monarch had no legitimate heir, and the next in line to the throne was a Catholic – his brother James.

Charles II’s younger brother, James, Duke of York

Charles II’s escape The young Charles II was no stranger to adventure. After his defeat at the Battle of Worcester in 1651, he spent a night hiding in an oak tree. Disguised as a servant and calling himself Will Jackson, Charles travelled through England hunted by Parliament’s troops and with a price of £1000 on his head. After six weeks he reached the coast, and sailed for France. Along the way ordinary people offered Charles II shelter, and this experience was said to have given him a rare ability to connect with his subjects.

Check your understanding 1. Why was Parliament happy to agree to Charles II returning to England as king in 1660? 2. How did Charles II deal with those who had fought for Parliament during the Civil War? 3. How would you describe the character of Charles II? 4. Why did Charles II keep his 1670 agreement with Louis XIV of France a secret? 5. Why was England faced with such a great problem after the death of Charles II in 1685?

Chapter 2: The Restoration

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Unit 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

Restoration England After 10 years of Puritan rule, the English people welcomed the merry monarch Charles II. It was as if a grey cloud had been lifted from national life, allowing the sun to shine back in. Alehouses, maypoles and Christmas celebrations all returned. Sunday sports were played, churches had music and choirs, local fairs were held, and theatres reopened. For the first time in English history, women were allowed to act on stage. Fashions changed as well, as people once again wore colourful clothes, with lace, frills, silk and ribbons. Led by the king, a new fashion for wigs took off, and they became increasingly extravagant over the next 100 years. The Restoration is now remembered as a time of fun and frivolity.

Scientific revolution In 1662, King Charles II gave a Royal Charter to a group of scientists, giving birth to the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. A great interest in science had developed in England during the 17th century. This was due in part to the Renaissance, but also to the Reformation, which encouraged people to move away from superstition and towards rational thought. One member of the Royal Society was Robert Hooke, who built a compact microscope and was able to produce detailed drawings of insects, such as the flea. Earlier in the century, the English scientist William Harvey used a series of experiments to prove that blood circulates through the body, instead of being continually produced and consumed like fuel.

Robert Hooke’s drawing of a flea, completed using his newly invented microscope in 1664

But the most important scientist of the period was, without doubt, Sir Isaac Newton. So the story goes, Newton was sitting under a tree when an apple fell on his head. This led him to wonder what forced the apple downwards, and the answer was gravity. Newton realised that all objects attract each other, depending on their mass and distance. This explains not only why an apple falls to the floor, but also why planets orbit the sun. Newton explained the laws of gravity, and much more, in a book entitled Principia Mathematica and published in 1687. It is often described as the most important book in the history of science. Newton was the first English scientist to be knighted, but he remained very modest. He compared himself to a boy playing with pebbles on the seashore, aware that “the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me”.

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Sir Isaac Newton

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The Great Plague

51.3.1

In 1665, the plague returned to England, and spread like wildfire through London where human, animal and food waste was often left rotting in the narrow, crowded streets. Hygiene was nonexistent, especially for the poor, and 68 000 people died in a single year. Those who could afford it fled the city, and King Charles II took his royal court to Oxford. Just like the attack of the plague during the Black Death of 1348, people had no idea why they were dying. The most popular theory was that plague spread through bad air, known as ‘miasma’. Plague doctors visited patients in an outfit designed to protect them from miasma. It consisted of a heavy waxed overcoat, glass goggles, a wooden cane for touching victims, and a ‘beak’ stuffed with scented substances such as dried flowers – designed to mask the bad air. To prevent the spread of miasma, the mayor of London ordered that all dead bodies be collected and buried out of town, and the house in which they died be locked up and have a red cross painted on the door. Early each morning, body collectors roamed the streets of London ringing their bells and shouting, ‘bring out your dead’. These measures had some positive effect in limiting the deaths, but it took a more destructive force to finally wipe out the plague: fire.

German print from the 16th century of a doctor treating a plague victim

Nell Gwyn If one person summed up Restoration England, it was Charles II’s mistress Nell Gwyn. An orange seller and actress from Covent Garden, she was a most unsuitable mistress for the king. However, Charles was entranced by her looks and wit. He took Nell Gwyn from the streets of Covent Garden to his royal palace, and had two children with her. The English people loved ‘pretty, witty Nelly’. On one occasion, Charles’s coach was attacked by an angry mob, who accused Nell of being a ‘Catholic whore’. She leaned out of the window and reassured them, ‘I am the Protestant whore’. When Charles II died, he asked on his deathbed ‘Let not poor Nelly starve’. She was provided with an annual pension of £1500 for the rest of her life.

Check your understanding 1. How did life for normal English people change during the Restoration? 2. What other movements inspired England’s scientific revolution during the 17th century? 3. What was Sir Isaac Newton’s theory of gravity able to explain? 4. How was the response to the Great Plague different from the response to the Black Death in 1348? 5. Why was Nell Gwyn seen as an unsuitable mistress for the king?

Chapter 3: Restoration England

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Unit 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

The Great Fire of London The summer of 1666 was long and hot. By the time September came, London’s medieval houses, which were made out of wood and straw, were tinder-box dry. The king’s baker, Thomas Farynor, lived not far from London Bridge on Pudding Lane. On 2 September, he left his ovens on overnight cooking biscuits for the Royal Navy, and awoke to the smell of burning. Thomas escaped by jumping out of his window, but his bakery was soon engulfed in flames. Thanks to a warm wind, the fire quickly spread to the riverside. Here, the warehouses of the London docks were full of flammable goods such as tallow, oil, timber and coal. Contemporary painting of the Great Fire, looking west across the Thames. St Paul’s Once these caught light, the fire Cathedral can be seen engulfed in flames in the distance. was unstoppable. Soon, the flames were raging through London so quickly that people saw flying pigeons burned in the air.

Stopping the fire It was left to the Mayor of London, Sir Thomas Bloodworth, to work out how to stop the fire. During the 17th century, there were no firemen or fire engines, and only the most basic water pumps and hoses. Teams of people lined up alongside the Thames passing leather buckets of water towards the flames. Even Charles II and his brother James took part in the fight. However, it made little difference and for three days, London was ablaze. The fire was so bright that at night an orange glow could be seen on the horizon 50 miles away in Oxford. The only solution to the fire was to create ‘firebreaks’. To do this, rows of houses had to be pulled down with fire hooks or blown up with gunpowder, to create a barrier over which the fire could not pass. Many Londoners objected to having their houses or businesses, which had so far survived the flames, deliberately destroyed. However, the King overruled their objections, and the fire finally stopped on 7 September. In all, the Great Fire claimed 13 200 houses, along with 87 churches, 44 merchant guildhalls, and all of the commercial buildings of the City of London. The medieval heart of England’s capital was completely destroyed.

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Rebuilding London

51.4.1

100 000 Londoners were left homeless by the fire and forced to live in tents outside the city. There was much speculation about how the fire began. Many rumours spread about Catholic plotters. A mad French watchmaker named Robert Hubert even admitted to starting the fire on the orders of the Pope, and was executed. After the fire, Charles II set about the task of rebuilding London. To prevent another fire, it was firmly stated that buildings should only be constructed from brick or stone. The most talented architect of the day, Sir Christopher Wren, was tasked with designing a gleaming new London with wide streets, sewers and stone houses. At the centre of this new city was Wren’s masterpiece: St Paul’s Cathedral. St Paul’s Cathedral, London, England

Pepys’ diary Much can be learnt about life during the Restoration from a government official who worked in the Royal Navy named Samuel Pepys, who kept a wonderfully detailed diary from 1660 to 1669. It provides us with a unique insight into 17th century life. Pepys was a sociable fellow, with connections at the royal court. He chatted to King Charles II on board the Royal Charles, the ship that brought him from Holland to England in 1660, and recorded: “…it made me weep to hear the stories he told of his difficulties he passed through”. Pepys was in London during the Great Fire, and took care to bury his most prized possession in his garden: a block of Parmesan cheese. On 3 September, he described seeing the crowds of people flee the city: “Lord! to see how the streets and the highways are crowded with people running and riding, and getting of carts at any rate to fetch away things. I am eased at my heart to have my treasure so well secured.” The next day he wrote, “Only now and then walking into the garden, and saw how horridly the sky looks, all on a fire in the night.” Pepys recorded how, as he walked towards central London during the fire, the road felt hot beneath his feet.

Samuel Pepys

Fact Because the Great Fire took place in 1666, and the Great Plague attacked London the previous year, many believed that the four horsemen of the apocalypse were being sent to England as it was the ‘year of the devil’.

Check your understanding 1. Why was London particularly vulnerable to fire at the end of the summer of 1666? 2. How did firebreaks stop the spread of the Great Fire? 3. What group of people were initially blamed for starting the Great Fire of London? 4. What rules did Christopher Wren have to follow when charged with rebuilding London after the fire? 5. Why is Samuel Pepys such an important guide for historians into life in 17th century England?

Chapter 4: The Great Fire of London

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Unit 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

The Glorious Revolution Despite having many children, Charles II died with no legitimate heir. This meant that his Catholic brother James II became king in 1685. Many in England had feared this event. In 1679, a group in Parliament even tried to pass a bill excluding James II from the throne, but it was defeated in the House of Lords. A keen believer in the divine right of kings, James II dismissed Parliament the year that he was crowned. Opponents to James II devised a new plan. The Duke of Monmouth was an illegitimate son of Charles II, and he was also a respected military commander and staunch Protestant. In 1685, Monmouth declared himself king and began a rebellion against James II in the West Country. James II’s army easily defeated Monmouth’s unimpressive force of 3000 men, and his response was savage.

James II, England’s last Catholic monarch

Monmouth pleaded for forgiveness and promised to convert to Catholicism, but he was executed. Of his supporters, 850 were sent to the West Indies to work as slaves, and 480 were executed. Their severed heads were pickled in jars of vinegar and sent around England, as a warning to those who would still consider rebelling against their new king.

James II’s reign James II then began suspending the Test Acts, allowing Catholics back into public office. Protestant clergymen who criticised James II were tried for treason. James and his second wife, an Italian Catholic called Mary of Modena, had been married for 15 years and were childless. But then in June 1688, Mary gave birth to a son, also called James. This startling news all but guaranteed a Catholic future for the English throne. England’s leading Protestants knew they had to act. Previously, James II had been married to an Englishwoman, Anne Hyde. With her, he had had two daughters, and the eldest – Mary – was third in line to the throne. She was married to the Dutch prince William of Orange, who also happened to be a grandson of Charles I, and Mary’s first cousin. William and Mary were both staunch Protestants. On 30 June 1688, a group of seven leading English politicians wrote to William of Orange imploring him to invade England, and rid them of their Catholic king.

The Glorious Revolution In the autumn of 1688, William of Orange began assembling an enormous invasion force of 463 ships and 40 000 troops in Holland. On 5 November they landed off the coast of Devon. James II was outraged: his own daughter and son-in-law had invaded England to seize his crown. But James doubted whether he could rely on the support of the English people, so he decided not to fight. Increasingly

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The Duke of Monmouth

Fact Many Protestants refused to believe that James II’s son with Mary of Modena was real. A rumour spread that he was a miller’s son, smuggled into the royal bed in a long-handled warming pan.

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distraught, James II suffered a mental breakdown, and on 11 December he fled the Palace of Whitehall for exile in France. As he sailed from his palace, he threw the Great Seal of England into the Thames. Six weeks later, on 13 February 1689, William and Mary were crowned joint King and Queen of England.

51.5.1

Some historians claim it was an invasion, others claim it was a liberation, but all agree the events of 1688 changed England forever. This event later became known as the ‘Glorious Revolution’. It was a ‘Revolution’ because the people of England had ejected a Catholic absolutist as king, and replaced him with a Protestant king who was willing to rule with Parliament. It was ‘Glorious’ because not a single drop of blood was shed in the process. To secure the support of Parliament, William and Mary signed an agreement in 1689 called painting of William III’s invasion force leaving Holland for the Bill of Rights. This was a landmark Contemporary England on 19th October, 1688 document in securing legal and political rights for the people of England. Like Magna Carta before it, the Bill of Rights constrained the power of the English monarch. James II did not give up his claim to the English throne, and launched a rebellion from Ireland. He was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, and went into exile with his wife and son in France, and then Rome. After 40 years of absolutism, civil war, regicide, dictatorship, restoration, and invasion, Parliament finally had their rights established in law. An absolute monarch would never again rule England.

The Bill of Rights Some clauses of the Bill of Rights included: •

No Catholic could sit on the English throne

Members of Parliament should have freedom of speech within Parliament (a principle known as Parliamentary prerogative)

No taxes could be imposed on the people without the agreement of Parliament

The king should not have a standing army during peacetime without the agreement of Parliament

The king could not create or suspend laws without the agreement of Parliament

Check your understanding 1. Once made king, how did James II try to rule as an ‘absolute monarch’? 2. Who were William and Mary, and what was their claim to the throne? 3. Why is William and Mary’s invasion known as the Glorious Revolution? 4. How did the Bill of Rights ensure the power of Parliament was established in law? 5. What became of James II following the Glorious Revolution?

Chapter 5: The Glorious Revolution

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Unit 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

Knowledge organiser 1649 England is declared a Commonwealth

1653 Oliver Cromwell becomes ‘Lord Protector’

1651 The future Charles II is defeated at the Battle of Worcester

1660 Charles II is crowned King, beginning the Restoration

1658 Death of Oliver Cromwell

Key vocabulary Commonwealth The period when England ceased to be a monarchy, and was at first ruled by Parliament Declaration of Breda A series of promises made by Charles II prior to his restoration as king Exile Being forced to live outside your native country, typically for political reasons Firebreaks A manmade gap in combustible material used to prevent the further spread of fire Glorious Revolution The peaceful rejection of James II as king, and replacement by William and Mary Godly Providence A belief that events are governed by the direct intervention of God in the world Great Seal A seal used to show the monarch’s approval of important state documents Illegitimate Not recognised as lawful, once used to describe someone born of unmarried parents Lord Protector The title given to Oliver Cromwell as head of the English state and the Church of England

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Merry Monarch Nickname given to Charles II due to his wit, lack of seriousness, and fun-loving lifestyle Miasma The theory that disease is caused by the spreading smell of a poisonous cloud of ‘bad air’ Military Dictatorship A form of government where the military hold sole power over the state Plague The most common variant is Bubonic plague, named after the swellings on victims’ bodies Rational thought The idea that reasoning, not superstition, should be the source of human knowledge Regicide The deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for doing so Restoration The return of the monarchy to England with Charles II’s coronation in 1660 Royal Society A group founded in 1660 for the advancement of scientific knowledge Rump Parliament The remaining members of the Parliament after it was purged before Charles I’s trial

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1666 The Great Fire of London

1687 Isaac Newton publishes the Principia Mathematica

1670 Charles II agrees to the secret Treaty of Dover with France

1665 The Great Plague hits London

1689 The Bill of Rights is signed

1688 The Glorious Revolution 1685 (February) James II becomes King of England

Key people

Key vocabulary Scientific Revolution The emergence of modern scientific methods during the 17th and 18th centuries St Paul’s Cathedral Historic London Cathedral, destroyed during and rebuilt after the Great Fire Superstition The belief in supernatural powers, in place of rational explanation Test Act A law requiring all those who held public office to be Protestants The Bill of Rights A document establishing Parliament’s rights and limitations to the Monarch’s power Treaty of Dover A secret treaty in which Charles II promised Louis XIV he would convert to Catholicism

Charles II The King of England following the Restoration Duke of Monmouth Illegitimate son of Charles II who led a rebellion against James II and was executed James II The brother of Charles II, who was forced to abdicate after three years of absolutist rule Nell Gwyn Charles II’s mistress rose from being an actress to being a member of the royal court Oliver Cromwell A Parliamentary cavalry general, who became Lord Protector of England Samuel Pepys Official in the Royal Navy during the reign of Charles II, who kept a famous diary Sir Christopher Wren Architect who rebuilt St Paul’s Cathedral following the Great Fire of London Sir Isaac Newton A great scientist, often said to be the founder of modern physics William and Mary Joint monarchs from 1688: one a Dutch prince, the other a daughter of James II

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: Cromwell’s Commonwealth 1. What nickname was given to the remaining members of the Parliament after Charles I’s trial? 2. What was the dominant religion in Ireland during this period? 3. Where did Cromwell send the Irish Catholics who resisted his orders to work as slaves? 4. How many Irish people are thought to have died due to the famine and war caused by Cromwell? 5. Where did Cromwell defeat a Scottish force led by Charles I’s son in 1651? 6. What term is given to Cromwell’s belief that events were governed by the direct intervention of God? 7. What title was given to Oliver Cromwell as head of the English state in 1653? 8. What style of government did Cromwell pursue through his 11 Major-Generals? 9. Who became Lord Protector following Oliver Cromwell’s death? 10. How did Cromwell reportedly ask to be painted for his portrait?

Chapter 2: The Restoration 1. What declaration did Charles II make prior to his restoration as king? 2. In what year did Charles II’s restoration take place? 3. Who were the only Parliamentarians on whom Charles II took revenge? 4. What nickname was Charles II given due to his lack of seriousness and fun-loving lifestyle? 5. How many illegitimate children was Charles II known to have fathered? 6. Who humiliated Charles II in 1667 by stealing his greatest warship? 7. What secret treaty did Charles II agree with Louis XIV in 1670? 8. What law did Parliament pass in 1673 requiring all who held public office to be Protestants? 9. Who became king after the death of Charles II in 1685? 10. Why were so many English people concerned about having James II as king?

Chapter 3: Restoration England 1. What form of headgear became popular in England following the Restoration? 2. What organisation was founded in 1660 for the advancement of scientific knowledge? 3. What did the scientist Robert Hooke build in order to produce detailed drawings of insects? 4. Which English scientist demonstrated that blood circulates the body?

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5. Which English scientist published Principia Mathematica in 1687? 6. What term is used to describe the emergence of modern scientific methods during the 17th and 18th centuries? 7. What spread through London in 1665 causing 68,000 deaths? 8. What theory was used to explain the spread of disease during this period? 9. What did the Mayor of London order people to do with dead bodies to prevent the further spread of this disease? 10. Which of Charles II’s mistresses rose from being an actress to become a member of the Royal Court?

Chapter 4: The Great Fire of London 1. 2. 3. 4.

In what year did the Great Fire of London take place? On what street did the Great Fire begin? What was Thomas Farynor’s job? What manmade gaps were made by demolishing London’s buildings to prevent the spread of the fire? 5. How many Londoners were left homeless by the Great Fire of London? 6. On which group of people was the Great Fire of London initially blamed? 7. Which architect was charged with rebuilding London following the Great Fire? 8. What was the most important building to be destroyed, and rebuilt, following the Great Fire? 9. Which official in the Royal Navy kept a famous diary during the reign of Charles II? 10. What did this diarist bury in his garden when he first saw the Great Fire taking place?

Chapter 5: The Glorious Revolution 1. What did James II do with the heads of the rebels who took part in the Monmouth rebellion? 2. What laws did James II suspend having become king? 3. What event in 1688 all but guaranteed a Catholic future for the English throne? 4. What relation was the future Mary II to James II? 5. To whom was the future Mary II married? 6. How many Dutch troops landed on the English coast in November 1688? 7. What did James II throw into the Thames as he fled London into exile? 8. What document did William and Mary sign in 1689, establishing Parliament’s rights? 9. Name two ways in which the monarch’s power was limited by this document signed in 1689? 10. Where did James II launch a rebellion to try to regain the throne in 1690?

Unit 5: Commonwealth and Restoration

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Unit 2: The age of encounters

The Italian Renaissance Compared with the scholars of the Islamic world, and the scientific advances of the Song dynasty in China, Europe was not at the forefront of advancing human knowledge during the medieval period. This situation began to change during the 15th century. Starting in Italy, Europeans took a new interest in the cultural achievements of their classical forebears – the Ancient Greeks and Romans. While much classical writing had been forgotten within medieval Europe, it was kept alive by the scholars of the Islamic world and the Byzantine Empire. Due to the increased contact with the Islamic world during the Crusades, and the fall of Constantinople in 1453 (see box), classical drama, poetry, science, mythology, philosophy and political thought began to find its way back into Europe. This led to a period of extraordinary artistic and cultural flourishing in Europe known as ‘the Renaissance’, meaning ‘rebirth’ in French.

‘The School of Athens’, painted by Raphael in 1509, depicts the greatest thinkers of the classical world

Fall of Constantinople The Byzantine Empire never recovered from Constantinople’s humiliating sacking by a Venetian-led army during the Fourth Crusade. This sent the city into a spiral of decline. By 1453, what was once the greatest Christian city on earth was surrounded by 100 000 Turkish troops under the command of a brilliant but ruthless Turkish sultan called Mehmed II. On Tuesday 29th May, Mehmed’s troops poured into the city, killing its inhabitants, looting its churches, and turning the Hagia Sofia into a mosque. This led many of Constantinople’s artists, priests and scholars to flee for safety in Europe. These refugees brought with them to Europe the books and ideas of Ancient Greece and Rome. Thus, the rebirth of classical civilisation in medieval Europe was spurred by its dying gasps in Constantinople.

Italian city states While feudal monarchs ruled most of medieval Europe, a small number of Italian cities were different. These were independent city states, which governed themselves and their surrounding area, and were able to develop a distinctive character of their own. As urban centres, the Italian city states were home to Europe’s most successful trade guilds, craftsmen, merchants and bankers – making them extremely wealthy. The city state’s most powerful figures demonstrated their importance by becoming patrons of the arts, sponsoring the work of painters, architects and writers.

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View of Florence, and its famous domed cathedral

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It is often said the Renaissance began in the city state of Florence, which had grown wealthy during the medieval period through banking and the wool trade. As a republic, Florence was ruled by a collection of powerful families. The most powerful of these were the Medici, who supported the artist Michelangelo and the great Renaissance figure Leonardo da Vinci (see box). The dome of Florence Cathedral is one of the earliest examples of Renaissance architecture. It was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, and inspired in part by the Pantheon in Rome. Another important Renaissance city was the Republic of Venice, which dominated Mediterranean trade routes and was the most prosperous city in Europe. A third Renaissance city was Milan. Though not a republic, Milan’s ruling family, the Sforzas, transformed it into an artistic and cultural centre to rival Florence and Venice. In Rome, many more ancient statues and buildings were being uncovered. These inspired Renaissance sculptors and architects to copy their styles. This can be seen in the Corinthian columns at St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican, and statues such as Michelangelo’s masterpiece David, completed in 1504.

Leonardo da Vinci There were many great Renaissance philosophers, mathematicians, artists and inventers, but one man was all those things and more. His name was Leonardo da Vinci.

21.1

Fact Brunelleschi also developed the technique for creating perspective in artworks by using a vanishing point. Thanks to the use of perspective, Renaissance art is noticeably different to the flatter appearance of medieval paintings.

Born the illegitimate son of a poor farm girl in 1452, Leonardo began working for the Medici in Florence during his twenties. Aged 31 he moved to work for Ludovico Sforza in Milan. There he completed his masterpiece in 1499, a painting of the Last Supper on the refectory wall of the convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie’. Leonardo was also a great scientist and inventor, though many of his inventions were never made. His notebooks still exist today, and contain designs for a bicycle, helicopter, parachute and even a solar panel! They also reveal his obsessive struggle to find the fundamental patterns and rules that define human life, leading to his famous drawing of the perfectly proportioned ‘Vitruvian Man’. It is sometimes difficult to believe that all of Leonardo’s achievements and interests belonged to just one man.

Completed by Raphael in 1504, this painting is an early example of perspective in Renaissance art.

Check your understanding 1. The rebirth of what cultural activities was said to have started the Renaissance in medieval Europe? 2. How did the fall of Constantinople and the Crusades help spur the European Renaissance? 3. Why were Italian city states so wealthy? 4. How did the artistic technique devised by Filippo Brunelleschi change Renaissance painting? 5. What were some of Leonardo da Vinci’s accomplishments?

Chapter 1: The Italian Renaissance

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Unit 2: The age of encounters

Print, gunpowder and astronomy Under the influence of the Renaissance, scholars increasingly broadened their concerns away from religious learning, and towards the study of mankind. A new term emerged to describe this development: humanism. This change was helped by the growth of universities. The first European university was founded in the Italian city of Bologna in 1088, and universities in Oxford, Paris and Salamanca soon followed. By 1400, there were 53 universities in Europe, where students could study subjects such as law, philosophy, medicine and mathematics.

Printing Press In medieval Europe, it took a monk up to three years to produce one handwritten Bible. For this reason, books were hugely expensive, and only the very wealthy or the very religious had access to them. That was until Johannes Gutenberg, a metalworker from the German town of Mainz, started experimenting with printed text. The technology of printing with blocks of carved wood had arrived in Europe from China, but woodblock printing was time consuming and inefficient. Gutenberg’s idea was to create equally sized individual letters out of metal that could be arranged and rearranged in a wooden frame to make whole pages of words, a technology known as ‘movable-type printing’. Gutenberg would then cover the metal type blocks with ink, and press onto them a sheet of paper, and then another, and then another. In 1455, Gutenberg’s printing press produced its first run of Bibles: 180 copies, each with 1286 pages. This started a revolution. By 1500, there were over 1000 printing presses in Western Europe, producing large numbers of books on religion, medicine, history, poetry, astronomy, and Latin grammar, sold at prices that many more than just the wealthy could afford. New ideas could now spread to many more people at an unprecedented speed. It is no coincidence that the Reformation began just half a century after Gutenberg’s revolutionary invention.

Replica of an early printing press

Gunpowder Gunpowder was invented in China, and first arrived in Europe during the 14th century. During the siege of Constantinople in 1453, the Turkish Sultan Mehmed II employed a Hungarian engineer named Orban to build the largest cannon the world had ever seen. Measuring 29-foot-long and nicknamed ‘The Imperial’, it took a team of 60 oxen to haul Orban’s cannon towards Constantinople. Once in position, ‘The Imperial’ fired stones weighing half a tonne towards

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the famous city walls of Constantinople. These walls had protected the Byzantines from invasion for a 1000 years, but after sustained cannon bombardment, they crumbled.

21.2.1

By the 16th century, gunpowder had conclusively spelled the end of medieval warfare. Faced with canon bombardment, even Europe’s most feared castles were defenceless. Armed with a handgun, a lowly foot soldier could shoot dead a knight in shining armour. In 1620, the English scientist Francis Bacon wrote: “Printing, gunpowder and the compass: these three have changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world”.

Astronomy

Surviving portion of the walls of Constantinople,

During the Renaissance, the ideas of the Greek astronomer in modern day Istanbul Ptolemy were rediscovered. Ptolemy suggested that the heavenly bodies (sun, moon, planets, and stars) revolved around the earth, something known as a ‘geocentric’ theory of space. The Roman Catholic Church welcomed Ptolemy’s theory, as it placed God and the earth at the centre of the universe. However, a number of astronomers observed that the movement of the planets in the night sky was irregular, and they did not appear to orbit the earth. In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus published a book called The Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs. In this book, Copernicus proposed a ‘heliocentric’ theory, where the earth and the planets orbit the sun. The Catholic Church saw this as heresy, and banned Copernicus’s book. But his troubling idea would not go away. Galileo Galilei was a mathematics professor from Florence with an interest in astronomy. In 1609, he developed a new technology to observe the night sky: the telescope. Galileo openly supported Copernicus’s heliocentric theory of the universe in his university lectures. In 1616 he was summoned to Rome where he was forced to deny his beliefs. Galileo was a committed Christian, so he agreed, but he could not sustain the lie. In 1632, he published Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems. This book mocked the arguments of the Catholic Church, and explained Copernicus’s heliocentric theory. Now a frail old man, Galileo was once again summoned to Rome. This time, he was threatened with torture, and after a series of interrogations, Galileo denied that the earth revolved around the sun. For his remaining years, Galileo lived under house arrest, and died in 1642.

Galileo Galilei

Fact The Catholic Church only formally ended their opposition to a heliocentric view of the universe in 1835.

Check your understanding 1. The growth of which institutions helped the spread of ‘humanism’ in medieval society? 2. Why did the invention of the printing press make books cheaper, and more efficient to produce? 3. Why did the invention of the printing press play an important role in the Reformation? 4. How did the use of gunpowder in Europe spell the end of medieval warfare? 5. What did astronomers observe, which made them propose a heliocentric theory of space?

Chapter 2: Print, gunpowder and astronomy

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Unit 2: The age of encounters

Global exploration In medieval Europe, merchants could buy silk, spices and porcelain from faraway lands such as India and China. But merchants almost never visited these countries. Goods from India and China were carried overland for thousands of miles along the ‘Silk Road’. This was not an actual road. Instead, it was a general route across central Asia, through the Islamic world, through Asia Minor to Constantinople, across the Mediterranean to Italy, and from there to the rest of Europe. The journey took years, during which time goods would have been bought and sold by merchants perhaps a dozen times, each time rising in price. By the time it arrived in Northern Europe, Chinese silk could be worn by only the wealthiest members of the nobility, and black pepper from India was an untold luxury. If a European merchant wanted to trade directly with India or China, they faced a perilous overland journey lasting years. For this reason, few ever attempted it.

Large parts of the Silk Road crossed through deserts, so camel trains were used to transport goods.

Marco Polo One exception to this was Marco Polo, the son of a Venetian jewel merchant. Aged just seventeen, Marco Polo set off with his father and uncle in 1271 on a mission to meet the Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan in his new capital city of Beijing. They were given a blessing from the Pope to convert Kublai Khan to Christianity. Twenty-five years later, Marco Polo and his father returned to Venice. In 1298 Marco Polo published an account of his travels entitled Description of the World. The book captivated medieval Europe, and became a medieval bestseller. It told the extraordinary story of Marco Polo’s journey to Beijing, his work as a military advisor to Kublai Khan, and his return to Europe escorting a Mongol princess to Persia. It also detailed the wealth of riches and luxuries to be found in China. Ever since its publication, however, people have wondered how much truth there is to Marco Polo’s fantastical adventures. Some parts are clearly made up, such as his account of Prester John, a mythical Christian king who never actually existed. As for the considerable time he spent in China, Polo accurately records their use of paper money and coal for fuel, but neglects to mention anything about chopsticks, Chinese characters for writing, or the Great Wall of China. In contemporary sources from all of the locations in China that Marco Polo claims to have visited, there is no single mention of a European advisor to Kublai Khan.

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Venetian explorer Marco Polo

Fact On his deathbed, Marco Polo’s friends begged him to admit that his book was fiction, but he replied: ‘I have not told half of what I saw.’

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Sailing to India

21.3.1

True or not, it was clear from Marco Polo’s stories that a great prize lay in wait for the first European merchant to establish a trading route with East Asia by sea. However, a large obstacle lay in the way: Africa. Navigation had slowly been improving during the medieval period, with the magnetic compass being used from the 13th century onwards. This, and the rediscovery of a description of world geography by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy, inspired an increased interest in sea exploration amongst Europeans. The keenest medieval explorers were the Portuguese. Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese sailors travelled further and further down the west coast of Africa. None, however, was able to round the treacherous Cape of Good Hope at the tip of the African Continent, and sail on to India. None, that was, until the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who was chosen to lead an expedition to India in 1497. On 8 July his fleet of four ships and 170 men left Lisbon. Almost one year later, he landed at Calicut in India, where they met the local king and exchanged European goods for a selection of Indian spices. After a horrendous journey home through the Indian monsoon, da Gama landed in Lisbon on 10 July 1499. Only 54 of his men had survived, but that did not matter to da Gama; he had become the first European to successfully sail to, and trade with, India. In the years that followed, Portuguese sailors established a permanent trading post in Calicut, and terrorised the Muslim merchants who had previously dominated Indian Ocean trade. A new age of trade, colonies and empire was being born in Europe.

Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama

Sir John Mandeville In 1371, a book was published containing the account of an English explorer called John Mandeville. He reported discovering a tribe who lived off the smell of apples, headless people with faces on their chests, and people with feet so large they used them as shade from the sun. The book was a bestseller, but Mandeville never existed, and his work was an elaborate hoax.

Check your understanding 1. Why were goods from China and India so expensive during the medieval period? 2. What story did Marco Polo’s book Description of the World tell? 3. What obstacle prevented European merchants from sailing to East Asia? 4. Which country provided the keenest explorers in medieval Europe? 5. What historic feat did Vasco da Gama achieve in 1499?

Chapter 3: Global exploration

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Unit 2: The age of encounters

Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was an Italian sailor from Genoa with one big idea: finding an alternative route to East Asia. Contrary to popular myth, it was commonly understood in medieval Europe that the world was round. By this logic, Columbus believed the Indian Ocean could be reached by avoiding the Cape of Good Hope, and sailing due west across the Atlantic. Known as the ‘western passage’, Columbus needed funding for his bold idea. He lived in Portugal, but the Portuguese King João II refused to back his voyage, as did the rulers of France, Venice, Genoa and England. Support finally came from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, who gave Columbus the money he required for a crew and three ships.

Sea crossing On 6 September 1492, Columbus set sail from the Canary Islands with 96 men, led by his flagship the Santa Maria. Imagine the terror and excitement they must have felt, setting sail across the vast expanse of the Atlantic Ocean and into the unknown.

Statue of Christopher Columbus in Barcelona, Spain

Using the writings of Ptolemy as a guide, Columbus calculated that Japan lay just 2400 miles away, and would take four weeks to reach. In fact, Japan was 7000 miles away from Europe, and a whole unknown continent lay in between. Four weeks into the journey, Columbus and his men still had not seen land, and they were running out of fresh water. The crew were growing impatient, so Columbus agreed to continue sailing for four more days before turning home. Two days later, a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana sighted land.

Arrival in America On 12 October, Columbus landed on the small Caribbean island of Guanahani. There, he found a peaceful native people called the Taíno, who did not wear clothes, and spent their lives farming, fishing, and smoking rolled up leaves of a then unknown plant called tobacco. Columbus sailed on to the nearby island of Hispaniola, where he found native people wearing small items of gold jewellery. Columbus left 39 men on Hispaniola, and set sail back for Spain bringing with him evidence of his discovery to show Ferdinand and Isabella: gold jewellery, chilli peppers, sweet potatoes, parrots, and nine captured natives. Columbus’s stories of a new land, and his hopes of finding greater reserves of gold, entranced the Spanish court. Having claimed that it was he, and not Rodrigo de Triana, who

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Contemporary engraving of Christopher Columbus landing at Hispaniola in 1492

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first sighted land, Columbus was rewarded with a pension of 10 000 silver pieces for every year until his death.

21.4.1

With the support of Pope Alexander VI, Ferdinand and Isabella claimed ownership of all lands discovered across the Atlantic. The Portuguese King João II insisted that Spain should share the spoils, so in 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed. This extraordinary agreement drew a line down the globe running 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. Anything west of the line belonged to Spain, anything east of the line belonged to Portugal. To this day, most of South America speaks Spanish, aside from an eastern bulge jutting out into the Atlantic called Brazil, which speaks Portuguese.

Columbus’s legacy In later life, Columbus became increasingly religious, and he took to dressing as a monk. Columbus refused to believe that the Bible could have failed to mention an entire continent, so he was never willing to accept that he had discovered a new land. Right up until his death in 1506, Columbus insisted that he had simply found the outer islands of East Modern illustration of Columbus’s flagship the Santa Maria Asia. Columbus’s mistake can still be heard in the language we use today: a string of Caribbean islands are known as the ‘West Indies’, and native Americans are commonly referred to as ‘Indians’. Those explorers who followed Columbus would often describe the Americas as ‘virgin’ territory, meaning an untouched and uninhabited wilderness. This was only true because the native population had no immunity to diseases carried by the Europeans. The arrival of European settlers in the Americas caused an unintended genocide of catastrophic proportions. Historians estimate that 90 percent of the native American population at the time of the European arrival died from new diseases such as measles, smallpox, malaria, and tuberculosis – perhaps 75 million in total. As for the Taíno, the Caribbean people who Columbus first encountered, within 18 years 99 percent of their population had perished. All that survives of them is a handful of words from their native language that are still in use today: canoe, hammock and barbecue.

Fact Columbus was not the first European to reach America. Historians now agree that the Vikings got there nearly 500 years previously, but they never established permanent settlements.

Check your understanding 1. What route did Christopher Columbus believe he could take to sail to East Asia? 2. What did Columbus find when he landed on the island of Guanahani? 3. What was decided between Spain and Portugal by the Treaty of Tordesillas? 4. How is the error Columbus made when he discovered America reflected in words we use today? 5. Why did so many of the native people of the Americas die after Europeans made first contact?

Chapter 4: Christopher Columbus

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Unit 2: The age of encounters

The ‘New World’ Columbus’s journey across the Atlantic blew the world wide open. Soon a constant stream of explorers was sailing from Portugal and Spain to explore these lands further. In 1502, an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who was working for the Portuguese sailed south along the coast of Brazil to the tip of Patagonia. Vespucci concluded that this was no outlying Asian island, but a whole new continent. When he returned to Lisbon in the spring of 1503, Vespucci wrote a letter to his friend, a member of the Medici family in Florence. Vespucci explained that Columbus was wrong, and that the land across the Atlantic was a ‘New World’.

Fact Before long, the Latin version of Amerigo Vespucci’s forename was being written onto maps to describe this New World: Americus, or America.

The conquistadors From 1516, Spain’s ruler Charles V authorised further exploration of the American mainland, and his Spanish explorers became known as conquistadors. In 1519, a conquistador named Hernán Cortes sailed from Cuba with 600 men, 16 horses and 14 cannon to explore the American mainland. Cortes arrived in Mexico, ruled at the time by the great Aztec Empire. Their capital was Tenochtitlán, a magnificent city of 200 000 inhabitants, built on an island in the middle of a lake. The Aztec emperor Montezuma had no reason to fear Cortes’ piffling force, so he invited them into his city. Here, Cortes found enormous, unimaginable stockpiles of gold.

Ruined pyramids built by a native Mexican civilisation before the arrival of European settlers.

Relations between the Aztecs and the Spanish soured, and Montezuma was killed. Cortes fled the city, and returned in April 1521 with a much larger invasion force. Though the Aztecs were fearsome warriors, they were still a Stone Age civilisation. Cortes’s army had steel swords, handguns and cannon, whilst the Aztecs had arrows, slings, and clubs made with sharpened volcanic stone. Cortes defeated the Aztecs, destroyed Tenochtitlán, and built a new, European style city in its place. A similar story occurred when a Spanish conquistador called Francisco Pizarro landed in Peru, then ruled by another great civilisation, the Inca Empire. This time, European diseases had reached the native population before the Europeans themselves, and the Incas were ravaged by smallpox. In one of the most famously uneven battles in human history, Pizarro managed to defeat an Inca force of 80 000 with just 168 men, thanks to the panic and confusion caused by his cannon and galloping horses. The Incan emperor agreed to buy off the Spanish with rooms full of gold and silver.

Global trade In the age of global exploration, Spain had won the lottery. Before long, a continual supply of gold and silver was flowing from their South American

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Ruins of Machu Picchu, a citadel built by the Incas on a mountain ridge, abandoned around the time of the Spanish Conquest.

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colonies to the Spanish crown. As well as precious metals, the discovery of the New World brought new foods such as tomatoes, potatoes, chocolate, peanuts and vanilla, and new luxuries such as tobacco.

21.5.1

In countries where the local population was harder to subdue, the Spanish and Portuguese established coastal trading stations instead of colonies. Known as factories, these spread along the coasts of West and East Africa, India, China, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines (named after Mary I’s husband King Philip II of Spain). Portugal and Spain would dominate overseas trade for most of the 16th century, building the world’s first truly global empires. Map of the world, created in France in 1566

Ferdinand Magellan In September 1519, a Portuguese sailor working for the Spanish set sail with five ships and 265 men for Indonesia, then known as the Spice Islands. Ferdinand Magellan plotted an audacious route heading west not east, intending to be the first European to sail around the tip of South America. Magellan sailed towards Patagonia, where he claimed to encounter a race of giants, twice the size of Europeans. He then found a narrow channel leading to the other side of the continent. Freezing cold and beset with storms, the Magellan Strait, as it became known, is a dangerous route to sail. One ship sank, and another turned back. But after 38 days, Magellan and his men came out the other side, reaching an enormous ocean, which seemed calm in comparison. So they called it the Pacific, meaning ‘peaceful’. In March 1521, Magellan and his men reached the Philippines, where a local chieftain asked them to help him in a war against a rival tribe. Magellan agreed, but was killed by poisoned arrows during the battle. In September 1522, a single ship from Magellan’s original expedition finally returned to Spain, with just 18 surviving men on board. However, they had earned their place in history as the first crew to circumnavigate the world.

Check your understanding 1. How did America gain its name? 2. How did the Pacific Ocean gain its name? 3. What advantages did Hernán Cortes and his conquistadors have when fighting the Aztecs? 4. Why were the Inca already weakened by the Europeans before Pizarro arrived in Peru? 5. What sort of goods, which are common in Europe today, originated in the New World?

Chapter 5: The ‘New World’

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Unit 2: The age of encounters

Knowledge organiser 1498 Leonardo da Vinci completes ‘the Last Supper’ 1453 The fall of Constantinople

1492 Christopher Columbus crosses the Atlantic and lands in America

1455 The Gutenberg bible is printed in Mainz

1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas 1499 Vasco da Gama returns from his voyage to India

Key vocabulary Astronomy The science of studying extraterrestrial objects, and the universe Aztec Native American civilisation who ruled much of what is today called Mexico Bombardment To attack continuously a place with missiles until it gives way Cape of Good Hope The southern tip of Africa, notorious for its stormy weather and rough seas Circumnavigate To sail around something, often used to mean sailing around the world City state A political system where a single city governs itself and its surrounding territories Classical Relating to the art, culture or history of Ancient Greece and Rome Colony A country or area under the political control of a foreign country Conquistadors Spanish soldiers who led the conquest of the Americas Empire A group of countries or states presided over by a single ruler Florence Italian city state and banking centre where the Renaissance was said to have begun

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Geocentric A system in astronomy where the earth is at the centre of the universe Heliocentric A system in astronomy where the sun is at the centre of the universe, or solar system Humanism A system of thought which concentrates on the human realm, often in place of religion Inca Native American civilisation who ruled much of what is today called Peru Movable-type printing A system of printing that uses and rearranges individual letters and punctuation Native A person born in, or historically associated with, a particular country or region New World Term given to North and South America following Columbus’s voyage in 1492 Patagonia Region at the southern tip of the South American continent Patron Someone who gives financial support to a person or institution, most often an artist Perspective A method in art of depicting threedimensional objects, often using a vanishing point Printing Press A revolutionary invention, first created by Johannes Gutenberg around 1455

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1503 Amerigo Vespucci sails the length of South America, concluding it is a ‘New World’

1521 The fall of Tenochtitlan to Hernán Cortés

1504 Michelangelo completes his masterpiece ‘David’

1609 Galileo becomes the first astronomer to use a telescope

1522 Magellan’s crew complete the first ever circumnavigation of the world

1632 Galileo publishes Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems

Key people

Key vocabulary Renaissance Literally meaning ‘rebirth’, a period of cultural flourishing in late medieval Europe Republic A state where the ruler is not a monarch, but comes from amongst the people Revolution A change which means that nothing will ever be the same again Silk road An ancient overground trade route which linked East Asia with the west Taíno The native people of the Caribbean, wiped out by European diseases Treaty of Tordesillas A treaty that divided the new world between Spain and Portugal Venice City in northern Italy that dominated Mediterranean trade during the medieval period

Christopher Columbus Explorer who crossed the Atlantic and claimed the land he encountered for Spain Filippo Brunelleschi Renaissance architect and artist who pioneered the use of perspective Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer who supported a heliocentric theory of the universe Hernán Cortes Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs Johannes Gutenberg German publisher who introduced movable-type printing to Europe Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance genius who painted the Last Supper Marco Polo Italian explorer who wrote a bestselling medieval book about his journey to China Mehmed II Turkish sultan who conquered Constantinople Vasco da Gama The first European to establish an overseas trading route with India

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: The Italian Renaissance 1. Which part of the world kept classical writing alive during the medieval period? 2. What does ‘Renaissance’ mean in French? 3. In what year was the Fall of Constantinople? 4. Which Turkish sultan conquered Constantinople? 5. What do you call a political system where a single city governs itself, such as medieval Venice? 6. In which Italian city was the Renaissance said to have begun? 7. What do you call a state where the ruler is not a monarch, but comes from amongst the people? 8. What artistic method depicts three-dimensional objects on a flat surface, often using a vanishing point? 9. Which Renaissance genius painted the Last Supper? 10. In what city did this Renaissance genius spend much of his later career, and paint the Last Supper?

Chapter 2: Print, gunpowder and astronomy 1. The first European example of what was founded in Bologna in 1088? 2. What system of thought concentrates on the human realm, often in place of religion? 3. In what year was the first bible produced in Europe using a printing press? 4. Which German publisher built Europe’s first printing press? 5. What system of printing uses and rearranges blocks of individual letters and punctuation? 6. A 29-foot-long canon nicknamed ‘The Imperial’ was used to lay siege to which city? 7. What did the Catholic Church believe lay at the centre of the universe? 8. What system in astronomy places the sun at the centre of the universe, or solar system? 9. Which Italian astronomer deduced that the earth revolves around the sun, by observing the orbit of the planets? 10. How was this Italian astronomer punished by the Catholic Church after 1632?

Chapter 3: Global exploration 1. What ancient over-ground trade route linked East Asia with the west? 2. What happened to products traded from East Asia to Europe, each time they changed hands? 3. Which 13th century Italian explorer wrote a bestselling book about his journey to China? 4. Who did this Italian explorer claim to have worked for during his time in China?

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5. What significant structure did this Italian explorer fail to mention in his account of China? 6. Which country produced the keenest medieval explorers? 7. What is the name of the southern tip of Africa, notorious for its stormy weather and rough seas? 8. Which European explorer established Europe’s first overseas trading route with India? 9. What goods did this European explorer return to Lisbon with after reaching India? 10. Where in India did Portugal establish a permanent trading post?

Chapter 4: Christopher Columbus 1. In what year did Christopher Columbus cross the Atlantic and land in America? 2. What Italian city was Christopher Columbus originally from? 3. The king and queen of what country supported Columbus’s journey across the Atlantic? 4. When he set sail across the Atlantic, what continent was Columbus trying to reach? 5. What was Columbus’s flagship called? 6. Which native people of the Caribbean did Columbus first encounter? 7. Name two items which Columbus brought back with him to show Ferdinand and Isabella? 8. What treaty divided the new world between Spain and Portugal? 9. What mistaken belief did Columbus hold onto until his death in 1506? 10. What percentage of the Native American population are estimated to have died due to European diseases?

Chapter 5: The ‘New World’ 1. The continent of America was named after which Italian explorer? 2. What were the Spanish soldiers who led the conquest of the Americas called? 3. Which Spanish conquistador led the conquest of Mexico? 4. Which Native American civilisation ruled much of what is today called Mexico? 5. In what year did the city of Tenochtitlan fall to the Spanish? 6. What European disease had already weakened the Inca civilisation before the conquistadors fought them? 7. What is a country or area under the political control of a foreign country called? 8. What is a group of countries or states presided over by a single ruler called? 9. Who was the first sailor to circumnavigate the world in 1522? 10. What sea was named during the 1522 circumnavigation of the world, meaning ‘peaceful’?

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Unit 6: Georgian Britain

Creation of Great Britain William and Mary, who became joint king and queen following the Glorious Revolution, were succeeded by Mary’s sister Anne in 1702. Queen Anne was England’s last Stuart monarch. Anne’s life was cursed with bad luck. She suffered from a horrible illness called gout, and not one of her 18 children survived long enough to succeed her. Anne had seven miscarriages, six stillbirths, and five children who died young. Despite all of these troubles, she was a wise and important queen, and it was during her reign that the nation of Great Britain was created.

The creation of Great Britain Parliament was very worried about Queen Anne’s lack of children. Her Catholic half-brother James Stuart, son of James II, had been brought up in France and believed that he should be king of England. He had the support of the powerful kings of France and Spain. To avoid another civil war, the English Parliament had passed the Act of Settlement in 1701, declaring that when Anne died, the crown would pass to her nearest Protestant relative. Most people in England were happy with the settlement, but the Scottish people were not. Since 1603 the same monarch had ruled Scotland and England, but they had remained two separate countries, with two separate parliaments.

Statue of Queen Anne, beside St Paul’s Cathedral, London, England

The Scots were furious that they were not consulted about who would succeed Queen Anne. Many in Scotland liked the idea of being ruled by James Stuart. The Stuart family was originally from Scotland, and a number of powerful Scottish families were still Catholics. So, in 1703 the Scottish Parliament declared that when Queen Anne died, they would choose their own monarch. This would have broken the 100-year union between the English and Scottish crowns. The English were very worried about this development. They proposed to Scotland that their two countries should become one, sharing one monarch, with one Parliament based in Westminster. At first the Scots disliked this idea: the English writer Daniel Defoe travelled to Scotland and reported: “for every Scot in favour there is 99 against”. However, the Scottish people had recently invested £500 000 (half the nation’s available capital) in an adventurous plan to establish a Scottish colony in Central America, known as the Darien Scheme. It was a terrible failure, and very nearly bankrupted the country. Therefore, the English

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Parliament was able to win round the Scottish leaders with some very generous bribes. The Scottish Parliament agreed to vote itself into nonexistence. On 1 May 1707, the Act of Union was passed. The Scottish poet Robert Burns later wrote of the Act, “We’re bought and sold for English gold, such a parcel of rogues in a nation!” The first article of the Act of Union declared “That the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland shall upon the first day of May… be united into one Kingdom by the name of Great Britain.” The Act also described the flag that this new country would use, combining the diagonal white cross of St Andrew, and the red cross of St George. This new national flag was nicknamed the ‘Union Jack’.

6.1 Fact George I was famous for his temper. While he was Elector of Hanover, he had found out his wife was unfaithful, so he locked her in a tower for the rest of her life.

The Hanoverian succession Queen Anne had been ill for many years, and died in 1714. Her doctor wrote, “I believe sleep was never more welcome to a weary traveller than death was to her”. So, Parliament set about searching Europe for Anne’s closest surviving Protestant relative to be her successor. The answer was found in the shape of Georg Ludwig, the 54-year-old ruler of a small German state called Hanover. He just happened to be the great-grandson of James I. Georg Ludwig arrived in London on 18 September with a procession of 260 horse-drawn carriages, and was crowned George I of Great Britain a month later. Britain now had a new royal family, known as the Hanoverians. For many people, it was a strange sight. There were 57 Catholic descendents of the Stuarts across Europe with a better claim to the English throne than George I. Before being plucked from obscurity to become King, George I had only visited England once in his life. He spoke no English and took very little interest in the country, preferring to spend his time playing cards, visiting Germany, and entertaining his two mistresses. They were nicknamed the elephant and the maypole because one was very fat, and the other was very thin.

Painting of George I, who went from ruling a small German state to becoming King of Great Britain in 1714

Check your understanding 1. Why were many people in Scotland opposed to the Act of Settlement? 2. Why did the English Parliament propose in 1703 that England and Scotland become one country? 3. How did the English Parliament manage to win round the Scots into supporting the Act of Union? 4. Why did George I become king in 1714 when 57 people across Europe had a better claim to the throne? 5. Where had George I ruled before he was crowned King of Great Britain?

Chapter 1: Creation of Great Britain

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Unit 6: Georgian Britain

Parliamentary government Although George I was king, he knew almost nothing about how to rule Britain. For this reason he relied on his ministers, normally Members of Parliament, to make decisions on his behalf. After an unhappy century of absolutist monarchs causing disagreements and wars, this new situation suited Parliament very nicely. From now on, the monarch reigned but ministers ruled.

The first Prime Minister Robert Walpole was a wealthy farmer from Norfolk and a Member of Parliament. He weighed 20 stone, loved drinking and eating, and had ambitions to become the most powerful politician in Britain. Walpole’s political career took off after an economic crash called the South Sea Bubble (see box). Walpole was made Paymaster General and successfully restored Britain’s economy, becoming George I’s favourite minister as a result.

Britain’s first Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole

Walpole was not an honest man. He would bribe other politicians to get his way. As a young man he even spent six months imprisoned in the Tower of London for corruption! One of his favourite sayings was that “all men have their price”. However, Walpole was a popular figure and good at his job. In 1721, Walpole was given three of the key jobs in British politics: First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. This made him the most important minister in the King’s Government, so people would refer to him as the ‘prime’ 10 Downing Street, London, England minister. The king gave him a house in London to live in, and selected number 10 on a new development near Parliament called ‘Downing Street’. Walpole recommended that the house should Fact forever remain the property of whoever held his position. To this day the Prime Minister of Great Britain lives at number 10 Downing Street. In 1755 George II visited Hanover and considered Parliamentary government not returning to Britain In 1727 King George I died, and his son George II became king. George II because he was so spoke a bit more English, but with a heavy German accent. He thought angry at the growing Walpole had become too powerful as Prime Minister, and tried to replace power of Parliament. He him. However, Walpole promised George II that, if he was kept as Prime complained, “Ministers Minister, he would increase the king’s allowance. Since the Glorious are the kings in this Revolution, Parliament controlled the monarch’s annual allowance – country, I am nothing something known as the ‘power of the purse’. So, George II decided to let there.” Walpole keep his job.

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As Prime Minister, Walpole had two ambitions: to stay out of any foreign wars, and to keep taxes low. He succeeded, and Britain grew wealthy as her foreign trade flourished. Walpole once boasted to Queen Caroline, the wife of George II, “Madam, there are 50 000 men slain this year in Europe, and not one Englishman”.

6.2

During the 20 years that Walpole was in power, he established ‘parliamentary government’ in Great Britain. In theory the king could choose his government ministers, but in reality he could only choose those with the support of the most powerful party in Parliament. Parliament was, as it still is today, split into two ‘Houses’: the Commons and the Lords. Seats in the House of Commons went to Painting of the Prime Minister addressing the House of Commons, from the end Members of Parliament elected by of the eighteenth century the British public, though only a small minority of wealthy men had the vote. Most seats in the House of Lords passed down through generations of noble families along with hereditary titles, which were – in order of importance – Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. By this time, two rival political parties had developed in Parliament, each with different ideas about how England should be governed. One party wanted to limit the power of the king and allow greater tolerance for religious groups. They were nicknamed ‘Whigs’—an old Scottish insult for Presbyterian rebels. The other group wanted to protect the power of the king and the Church of England. They were nicknamed ‘Tories’—an old Irish word for a Catholic outlaw.

The South Sea Bubble The South Sea Bubble was one of the greatest economic disasters in British history. Exclusive rights to trade with Spanish colonies in South America were granted to the South Sea Company, and company shares became highly sought after. Over the spring of 1720, its share price increased by ten times, but then the bubble burst and the share price came crashing down. Thousands of normal citizens who had invested in the company were made bankrupt overnight, company directors fled the country, and a spate of suicides took place. One government minister, Lord Stanhope, even died of a stroke during an angry debate in Parliament.

Check your understanding: 1. How did Robert Walpole become George I’s favourite minister? 2. How was the role of Prime Minster established during Walpole’s time in power? 3. How did the system of parliamentary government, established by Walpole, function? 4. Why did George II consider not returning from Hanover when he visited in 1755? 5. What caused the South Sea Bubble to take place?

Chapter 2: Parliamentary government

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Unit 6: Georgian Britain

Jacobite uprisings Most people in Britain were by now happy with their new German kings, but a small group retained a passionate belief that the Stuart royal family should still be governing Britain. These people called themselves ‘Jacobites’, a name taken from the Latin word for ‘James’. They formed secret societies across England and Scotland, and plotted to overthrow the Hanoverian kings. In 1715, a small Jacobite rebellion failed to place James II’s son, James Stuart, on the throne. But they kept on plotting – waiting for the right moment to act.

Bonnie Prince Charlie By 1745 the British army was busy fighting the French in Europe, so the Jacobites spotted a chance. Support for the Stuart claim to the throne was strongest in the mountains and moors of the Scottish Highlands. Ancient ‘clans’ ruled this part of Scotland, and each clan was led by a ‘chief’. The clansmen were mostly poor Catholic farmers, but they were also fierce warriors who believed the 1707 Act of Union had robbed Scotland of its independence. The Jacobites found a new hope in James Stuart’s eldest son, Charles Edward Stuart, who was a charismatic and brave soldier. He was also very good looking, so his Highland supporters named him ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’ – ‘Bonnie’ meaning good-looking in Scotland. Prince Charlie landed in Scotland in July 1745, and the Highland clans rushed to welcome him. They raised enough men to take Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland, and routed the small British army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans. The Highlanders wore Scottish tartan and caps with white cockades, and armed themselves with traditional Scottish swords called claymores. With these soldiers, Prince Charlie won a series of victories in Scotland, and by November his 6000 men were marching south towards London. With most of his army fighting in France, King George II was terrified. He even loaded a boat on the Thames with treasure so that he could make an easy escape if Prince Charlie’s army arrived in London.

Painting of Bonnie Prince Charlie with two clan chiefs, completed in 1892

Prince Charlie expected that England’s Jacobites, who for years had held underground meetings and identified each other through secret symbols, would rush to his support when he invaded England. When the moment came, however, most were not brave enough to risk their lives. Prince Charlie marched as far south as Derby, but his soldiers grew disheartened about the lack of support from the English people. On 5 December 1745, the Jacobite army began its retreat back to the Scottish Highlands.

The Battle of Culloden By now, George II had raised an army led by his son the Duke of Cumberland and put a price of £30 000 on Prince Charlie’s head.

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Cumberland’s red-coated soldiers shadowed the retreating Jacobites to the Highlands of Scotland, where they met for a final battle at Culloden Moor in April 1746. Cumberland defeated the Jacobite army in less than an hour, tearing them apart with his cannons and cavalry. Bonnie Prince Charlie escaped from the battlefield, and for weeks he hid in the moors of Scotland. According to legend, he was found by a young woman named Flora MacDonald who planned his escape. MacDonald disguised Prince Charlie as her Irish maid, and he took a boat to the Isle of Skye, and from there he escaped to France. Prince Charlie lived the rest of his life in exile in Italy. The Stuart cause was dead, and the Hanoverians were safely established as Britain’s royal family. Culloden remains the last ever battle to be fought on British soil.

6.3 Fact Prince Charlie died in Rome on 31 January 1788 the anniversary of his great-greatgrandfather Charles I’s execution in 1649.

Contemporary painting of the Battle of Culloden

Suppression of the Highlands The British Government wanted to make sure that no Jacobite rising could ever happen again. Cumberland hunted down and killed all of the remaining Jacobite soldiers with such savagery that he became known as ‘the Butcher’. The British Government did not stop there. They made it illegal for Highlanders to wear their traditional dress of tartan and kilts, or to own weapons. The right of the chiefs to rule their own clans was abolished, and many Highland farmers were forced to move to the Scottish lowlands, or emigrate to America. A large barracks named Fort George was built outside Inverness so that the British army could keep a watchful eye on their troublesome fellow countrymen north of the border. From now on, the Scottish Highlands were firmly under the control of the British Government.

Memorial to the Jacobites, at Glenfinnan, Highlands, Scotland

Check your understanding: 1. Why did Jacobites oppose the Hanoverian kings? 2. Why did many of Scotland’s highland clans support Bonnie Prince Charlie? 3. Why did Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreat back to Scotland in December 1745? 4. What happened at the Battle of Culloden? 5. How did the British government ensure that no Jacobite rising could ever happen again in Scotland?

Chapter 3: Jacobite uprisings

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Unit 6: Georgian Britain

Georgian aristocracy Parliamentary government in Georgian Britain may have weakened the power of the monarch, but power did not move to the people. Instead, power became increasingly concentrated in the hands of Britain’s nobility, leading many historians to call the 18th century the ‘Age of Aristocracy’. There were 173 peers in the House of Lords in 1700, and the great majority of government ministers came from this closed circle of titled landowners. England’s first 10 Prime Ministers included three dukes, one marquess, two earls, and two who became earls during their lifetime. Powerful families such as the Temples dominated English politics: Earl Temple and all four of his brothers served as members of Parliament, with one – George Grenville – becoming Prime Minister. Meanwhile, their sister Hester married William Pitt, who later became Prime Minister and the Earl of Chatham, and whose son, Pitt the Younger, also served as Prime Minister. When a peer had no sons to inherit his title, it would become extinct, so the king regularly had to create new peerages. However, breaking into this class from a humble background was almost impossible: of the 229 peerages created between 1700 and 1800, only 23 had no previous connection with the aristocracy. Though they sat in the House of Lords, the aristocracy still held influence over elections to the House of Commons. MPs in the Commons were often related by birth or marriage to the aristocracy, and in 1715, 224 of the 558 members of the House of Commons were the sons of MPs. The Georgian aristocracy grew increasingly wealthy during this period, often acquiring more land from the gentry, whose wealth was in decline. Aristocratic stately homes, such as Castle Howard and Blenheim Palace, remain some of the most extravagant buildings in Britain. Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire, home to the 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (who became Prime Minister in 1765), is Britain’s largest stately home, with over 300 rooms.

Painting of Mr and Mrs Andrews, a wealthy couple from the landed gentry, completed in 1750

Fact A powerful Whig politician, Charles James Fox, inherited one of the largest fortunes in Georgian England, but he loved to gamble. Fox went bankrupt twice, had his furniture confiscated by bailiffs, and by the time of his death had gambled away £200 000 – perhaps £18 million in today’s money.

Wentworth Castle in Yorkshire, England

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Leisure and entertainment

6.4

The Georgian aristocracy and gentry certainly knew how to enjoy themselves. Horseracing, card games, hunting, theatre, the opera, and – most notably – gambling were all popular amongst the Georgian elite. They drank and gambled at exclusive London clubs such as Brooks’ and White’s, and visited fashionable holiday towns such as Brighton and Bath, which are still famous for their fine Georgian architecture. For half of the year, from January to June, Parliament was in session, so the aristocracy decamped from their country estates to their smart London townhouses. Known as the ‘season’, this period was accompanied by a whirl of glamorous parties and events. A collection of fields to the west of London where the May Fair took place each year, had recently been developed by its owner Sir Thomas Grosvenor into townhouses. This new development became known as Mayfair, and at its centre lay Grosvenor Square, the most fashionable address in London.

Scene from ‘Marriage à la mode’, a series of paintings by William Hogarth satirising aristocratic life

Having the right tastes in fashion and art was very important to the Georgian aristocracy, and they often acted as patrons to young writers and artists. For the sons of Britain’s aristocracy, the best way to finish their education was to undertake a ‘Grand Tour’ of Europe. Lasting around two years, young aristocratic men on a Grand Tour learned about the culture and history of Europe – in particular Italy. While travelling, these young aristocrats bought artefacts from Ancient Rome, fashionable European clothes, and paintings by celebrated artists, such as the Venetian painter Canaletto. However, many young aristocrats set free in Europe took a different path, spending their money on drinking, gambling and womanising instead.

Samuel Johnson The son of a poor bookseller from Lichfield, Samuel Johnson worked his way to the University of Oxford and onwards to becoming one of the greatest writers in the English language. He was famously ugly, and had lots of nervous tics. However, because he was so witty and intelligent, his company was highly sought after by the Georgian aristocracy, in particular his lifelong friend and biographer James Boswell. After 10 years of work, Johnson published one of the first English language dictionaries in 1755. It contained the definitions for 40 000 words. These included some amusing entries. Johnson defined ‘dull’ as “Not exhilarating; not delightful; as, to make dictionaries is dull work”.

Check your understanding 1. How many aristocratic peers were there in England at the beginning of the 18th century? 2. How did the aristocracy still have power over the House of Commons? 3. Why did the aristocracy spend half of the year in London, and half of the year in their stately homes? 4. What would young aristocrats do while they undertook the Grand Tour? 5. What achievement is Samuel Johnson best remembered for?

Chapter 4: Georgian aristocracy

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Unit 6: Georgian Britain

Poverty, violence and crime While the power and wealth of Georgian Britain flowed to the aristocracy, many in Britain’s towns and cities lived lives of poverty, violence and crime. Some of the worst poverty was to be found in London, where people moved to find work, but sudden joblessness could make them destitute. The poorest families lived in single, unfurnished rooms, with no running water or sanitation. For those who could not afford a room, vagrancy was the only alternative. It was not uncommon to find dead bodies on the streets of major cities, particularly on cold winter mornings. In 1753, a writer called Henry Fielding described the streets of London as “oppressed with hunger, cold, nakedness and filth… There is not a street that does not swarm all day with beggars, and all night with thieves”. Many of the poor drowned their sorrows with a newly popular drink called gin. Cheap and strong, it was said that in 1730s London there was a shop selling gin for every 11 people. George II’s Vice-Chamberlain observed “the whole town of London swarmed with drunken William Hogarth’s print ‘Gin Lane’, showing the social people from morning till night.” Gin was blamed for a consequences of gin addiction amongst the Georgian poor host of social problems, from violence and robberies to murders, irreligion and child mortality. This can be seen in the vivid print Gin Lane, created by William Hogarth in 1751 (see box). Whenever Parliament tried to control the trade of gin with licensing acts, the people of London would riot. In 1736, Parliament introduced an annual £50 licence which shopkeepers had to buy in order to sell gin. In response, angry crowds spread through London chanting “No gin, no king!”. The 1751 Gin Act succeeded in placing a tax on the drink, and began a decline in gin’s popularity.

Law and order Georgian Britain could be a strikingly violent place. The right to bear arms was enshrined in the 1689 Bill of Rights, so that the Protestant population could arm themselves against the Catholic threat. Members of the aristocracy commonly carried swords, and pistols were easy to purchase. As the century went on, these weapons were increasingly used for violent crime. There was no organised police force in Georgian Britain. While smaller towns and villages were able to govern themselves, in the growing towns and cities violent crime became a severe problem. Criminals would break

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Fact Even dead bodies would be stolen in Georgian England. ‘Body snatchers’ robbed newly dug graves, and sold the corpses to trainee doctors and anatomists who used them for dissections.

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into houses, rob passers-by on the streets, and steal cargo from ships. Crime waves often followed the end of foreign wars, when industry would slump due to the army no longer needing supplies, and soldiers would return home unable to find jobs.

6.5

For criminals facing trial, Georgian prisons were frequently likened to hell on earth. Many prisons were run as private, profit-making organisations, so prisoners were kept in horrific conditions to keep costs low. Human waste lined the floors of overcrowded and windowless cells, which were freezing cold in the winter and unbearably hot in the summer. Newgate was the most notorious of all London’s prisons. During the 18th century, Newgate suffered repeated outbreaks of typhus, a fatal disease spread by lice. Prisoners would often escape by breaking through the floor of their cells and exiting through the sewer. Platform and gallows at Newgate Prison, Old Bailey, City of London, 1783

Highwaymen

The 18th century saw an increase in highwaymen: armed robbers on horseback who attacked people travelling in stagecoaches along dark, empty roads. The use of cheques only became common during the second half of the century, so people often had to carry large sums of money in person. Travellers came to dread the sound of galloping hooves and pistol shots, followed by the infamous cry “Stand and Deliver! Your money or your life!” The most well known highwayman was Dick Turpin. Today he is remembered as a dashing hero, but in reality he was a convicted murderer who terrorised the roads of Essex until he was hanged at York in 1739.

Grave and headstone of Dick Turpin

William Hogarth Perhaps the greatest artist of Georgian Britain was William Hogarth. His father was an impoverished Latin teacher, and Hogarth spent his childhood drawing caricatures of London street life. He came to specialise in satirical cartoons, often criticising the moral failings of Georgian society, such as its addiction to gin. Hogarth’s works liked to tell a story. His series of paintings known as A Rake’s Progress follows the son of a wealthy merchant who wastes all of his money on fine clothes, women and gambling, before becoming bankrupt and being sent to a mental asylum.

Check your understanding 1. In cities such as London, what sort of conditions did the poorest in society have to live in? 2. What happened when Parliament tried to control the sale of gin during the 18th century? 3. Why was crime particularly serious during the Georgian period following the end of foreign wars? 4. Why did 18th century highwaymen target people who were travelling? 5. What were conditions like in 18th century prisons?

Chapter 5: Poverty, violence and crime

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Unit 6: Georgian Britain

Knowledge organiser 1701 Parliament passes the Act of Settlement

1702 Queen Anne is crowned

1707 Parliament passes the Act of Union

1721 Robert Walpole becomes the first ‘Prime Minister’ of Great Britain

1714 The Hanoverian Succession

1727 George II is crowned

Key vocabulary 10 Downing Street Traditional home of the English Prime Minister since the reign of George I Act of Settlement A law passed in 1701 ensuring that a Protestant would succeed Queen Anne Act of Union A law which united England and Scotland in 1707, and created Great Britain Aristocracy The government of a country by an elite class, often with hereditary titles Clan Ancient family from the Highlands of Scotland Claymore A traditional Scottish sword Darien Scheme A failed attempt by the Scottish government to establish a Caribbean trading colony Fort George A large British barracks built in the Scottish Highlands following Jacobite defeat Gout An illness caused by heavy eating or drinking, which causes joints to become swollen Grand Tour Journey taken by upper class young men to experience the art and culture of Europe Great Britain A name given to the island comprising England, Wales and Scotland Hanoverians A royal dynasty that ruled England from 1714 until 1837 Highlands A sparsely populated area of northern Scotland known for its mountainous landscape

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Highwaymen Armed robbers on horseback who attacked people travelling in stagecoaches House of Commons The ‘lower house’ in Parliament, where seats go to MPs elected by the people House of Lords The ‘upper house’ in Parliament, where seats are inherited by members of the peerage Jacobite Supporters of the Stuart claim to the throne, following the exile of James II Minister A politician with a central role within the nation’s government Parliamentary government A political system where ministers must be chosen from the most powerful party in Parliament Peer A member of the House of Lords who, for most of English history, were from the nobility Prime Minister The most senior post in the British government, first held by Sir Robert Walpole Satirical Using humour to criticise human failings, often in the context of politics Season A six-month period when Parliament was in session and the aristocracy came to London Share A portion of a company that can be bought, bringing with it a portion of the profits

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1739 The highwayman Dick Turpin is hanged in York

1751 Parliament pass the Gin Act

1746 The Battle of Culloden

1745 Bonnie Prince Charlie leads a Jacobite uprising

1755 Samuel Johnson publishes his dictionary of the English language

Key people

Key vocabulary Stagecoach A horse drawn carriage used for long distance travel Suppression A dominant political power limiting the freedom and activity of a group of people Tartan Traditional patterned cloth of Scotland, often used to make kilts The South Sea Bubble An economic disaster caused by the sudden drop in share price of a colonial trading company Tories A political party which originally formed to protect the power of the king Union Jack Nickname for the national flag of Great Britain Whigs A political party which originally formed to limit the power of the king

Bonnie Prince Charlie The last Stuart claimant to Britain’s throne, and leader of a failed rebellion in 1745 Dick Turpin Legendary 18th century highwayman from Essex Duke of Cumberland Son of George II, nicknamed ‘the Butcher’ for his suppression of the Highlands George I The first Hanoverian King of England, previously a minor German prince Queen Anne The last Stuart monarch, who created the union between England and Scotland Robert Walpole A major Georgian statesman, generally seen as Britain’s first Prime Minister Samuel Johnson Famous Georgian writer, author of one of the first dictionaries of the English language William Hogarth English satirical artist, his best known works are ‘Gin Lane’ and ‘A Rake’s Progress’.

Knowledge organiser

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Quiz questions Chapter 1: Creation of Great Britain 1. How many children did Queen Anne have, all of whom did not survive childhood? 2. Who was threatening to claim the English throne, due to Queen Anne’s lack of children? 3. What law was passed in 1701 to ensure that a Protestant would succeed Queen Anne? 4. Which country was furious with the 1701 law, and declared that they would choose their own monarch? 5. What failed attempt to establish a Caribbean trading colony left the country almost bankrupt? 6. In what year was the Act of Union passed? 7. Who became king of England in 1714? 8. How many times had this new king previously visited England prior to 1714? 9. How many Catholics had a better claim to the throne than the man who became king in 1714? 10. What name is given to the royal dynasty that ruled England from 1714 until 1837?

Chapter 2: Parliamentary government 1. Which Georgian statesman is generally seen as Britain’s first Prime Minister? 2. What economic disaster occurred in 1720? 3. Where did Britain’s first Prime Minister spend six months as a young man? 4. What did George I give Britain’s first Prime Minister, which remains part of the position today? 5. Who succeeded George I in 1727? 6. Aside from keeping taxes low, what was Britain’s first Prime Minister’s main ambition? 7. How was the king’s power to choose his government ministers constrained? 8. What names are given to the two ‘Houses’ of the British Parliament? 9. How were members of the ‘lower’ House of Parliament chosen? 10. What two rival political parties had emerged by this time?

Chapter 3: Jacobite uprising 1. 2. 3. 4.

Where did the term ‘Jacobite’ come from? Which royal dynasty did the Jacobites support? In what year did the last Jacobite uprising begin? Where in Britain was the support for the Jacobite cause the strongest? 5. What nickname was given to the Jacobite leader Charles Edward Stuart? 6. What English town did the Jacobite army reach, before turning back towards Scotland? 7. Where was the Jacobite army defeated in 1746?

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8. Who defeated the Jacobites, and earned the nickname ‘the Butcher’? 9. What term is given to the British response to the Jacobite rising in Scotland? 10. What did the British build outside Inverness to ensure that no more rebellions could take place again?

Chapter 4: Georgian aristocracy 1. What term is sometimes given to the 18th century due to the power of the nobility? 2. Which class was in the decline during the 18th century, compared with the aristocracy? 3. What were members of the House of Lords, almost always from the nobility, called? 4. Which stately home, built by the 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, is the largest in Britain? 5. In which two fashionable London clubs did the aristocracy like to drink and gamble? 6. In which fashionable Georgian holiday town can Georgian architecture still be seen today? 7. What was the six-month period when Parliament was in session and the aristocracy came to London called? 8. What were the journeys taken by upper class young men to experience the art and culture of Europe called? 9. Which famous Georgian writer published one of the first dictionaries of the English language in 1755? 10. How many word definitions did his dictionary contain?

Chapter 5: Poverty, violence and crime 1. What drink became increasingly popular amongst the poor during the 18th century? 2. In what year did Parliament pass an act to tax the sale of this drink? 3. Which artist gained fame for his depictions of poverty and alcohol addiction in Georgian London? 4. What series of paintings following the son of a wealthy merchant who ends up in a mental asylum did he create? 5. What term is given to the use of humour to criticise human failings – common in Georgian art? 6. The end of what would often cause crime waves in Georgian Britain? 7. What right, enshrined in the Bill of Rights, contributed to the crime of this period? 8. What was the most notorious London prison during this period? 9. What form of transport did highwaymen target on empty roads at night? 10. Which well-known Georgian highwayman was hanged in York in 1739?

Unit 6: Georgian Britain

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Contents INTRODUCTION

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UNIT 1: Anglo-Saxon England

UNIT 4: Medieval kingship

Chapter 1: The Anglo-Saxons

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Chapter 1: Henry II (1154–1189)

Chapter 2: Anglo-Saxon rule

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Chapter 2: King John (1199–1216) 44

42

Chapter 3: The Vikings

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Chapter 3: Edward I (1272–1307)

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Chapter 4: Alfred the Great

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Chapter 4: Henry V (1413–1422)

48

Chapter 5: The Anglo-Saxon Golden Age

Chapter 5: Medieval queens

50

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Knowledge organiser

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Knowledge organiser

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UNIT 2: Norman England

UNIT 5: The Crusades

Chapter 1: Saxon, Norman or Viking?

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Chapter 2: The Battle of Hastings

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Chapter 3: The Norman Conquest

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Chapter 4: The feudal system

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Chapter 5: The Norman monarchs 26 Knowledge organiser

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Chapter 1: The Islamic world

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Chapter 2: The First Crusade

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Chapter 3: Crusader states

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Chapter 4: Life as a crusader knight

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Chapter 5: The end of the Crusades

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Knowledge organiser

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UNIT 6: Late medieval England

UNIT 3: Medieval life Chapter 1: The medieval village

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Chapter 1: The Black Death

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Chapter 2: The medieval castle

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Chapter 2: The Peasants’ Revolt

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Chapter 3: The medieval knight

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Chapter 3: The Wars of the Roses

70

Chapter 4: The medieval Church

36

Chapter 4: Yorkist rule

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Chapter 5: The Battle of Bosworth Field

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Knowledge organiser

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Chapter 5: Crime and punishment 38 Knowledge organiser

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INDEX

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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Introduction

“What I have always loved best about the history of the world is that it is true. That all the extraordinary things we read were no less real than you and I are today. What is more, what did happen is often far more exciting and amazing than anything we could invent.” Ernst Gombrich, A Little History of the World Book 1 of Knowing History begins with the departure of the Roman army from Britain in 410 AD, and ends with the death of Henry VII in 1509. On this 1000-year journey, you will be transported to periods in the past that are both frightening and fascinating: Viking invasions, medieval castles, the reigns of England’s earliest kings and queens, and the Crusades to the Holy Land. You will learn how England first came to exist as a country, only to be conquered and ruled by a class of French knights. You will learn how medieval society developed, but was transformed by the Black Death. And you will learn how the people of medieval England believed with complete commitment in God, yet were still capable of extraordinary cruelty – sometimes, even, in God’s name. You will be able to visit the ruined castles and medieval churches that scatter the country, and understand why they were built. The words that you hear around you fill with new meaning: pilgrims and peasants, monarchs and martyrs. And you will find inspiration in the lives lived by amazing individuals, such as Alfred the Great, Saladin, and Eleanor of Aquitaine. The world today is as it is because of what has happened in the past. In studying history you may even start to see events in the present mirroring events in the past. As it is often said, history does not repeat itself, but it does sometimes rhyme. Robert Peal, author of Knowing History

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KS3 History Book 1

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

The Anglo-Saxons The Romans ruled Britain for 400 years, until 410 AD, when the Roman army abandoned the country. A population of remaining Roman civilians and native Britons – also known as ‘Celts’ – were left to fend for themselves. Over the next 100 years, two tribes from northern Germany invaded Britain. Known as the Anglo-Saxons, they were fierce warriors who killed and enslaved the British population, and remaining Romans. The Anglo-Saxons took control of eastern and central England. Only Wales, Scotland and the West Country (Devon, Cornwall and Somerset) remained largely unaffected. Without the Roman army to defend against the Anglo-Saxon invaders, the culture and Christian religion of Roman society in Britain began to fade. Roman technologies such as glassmaking, road building and heated baths were lost. Unlike the Romans, the early Anglo-Saxons could not read or write, and did not have the technology to build cities or roads. There are no written records or buildings left from these early years of Anglo-Saxon rule for historians to study. For this reason, we know very little about what happened between the fifth and sixth centuries. This is one reason why some call this period the ‘Dark Ages’. Britain was a very different place compared with today. There was a population of perhaps one million people living scattered across the countryside in villages and houses made of wood and straw. Most Anglo-Saxons lived in villages and small farming communities, and large parts of Roman towns such as Londinium (London) and Camulodunum (Colchester) were left to ruin. Much of the countryside was covered in woodlands, where now extinct animals such as bears, wolves, wildcats and boar roamed. Other regions were covered in swamps and marshes. It was a mysterious land, where people told fantastic stories about dragons, wizards, monsters and giants.

Anglo-Saxon life The Anglo-Saxon diet consisted of simple foods such as oats, beans and bread, and meat on special occasions. They also brewed beer from barley. Many Anglo-Saxons had long fair hair and the men grew beards. They made clothes out of woollen cloth and animal skin. They loved jewellery, and could make beautiful objects out of gold and gems. Both men and women fastened their clothing with gold brooches, which were a sign of power and wealth. Most Anglo-Saxon men were farmers, but they were also warriors. In battle, they wore metal helmets and round wooden shields, and armed themselves with swords, throwing axes and 2-metre-long

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Recreation of an Anglo-Saxon village in West Stow, Suffolk, England

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spears. An Anglo-Saxon man rarely went anywhere without being armed, as the need for protection was constant. Recently, chains and shackles from the Anglo-Saxon period have been found, telling us that the Anglo-Saxons kept slaves. These slaves might have been captured Celts, or criminals sentenced to slavery as punishment.

1.1

Anglo-Saxon treasure As early Anglo-Saxons did not read or write, historians have very little evidence to learn more about the period. For this reason, the work of archaeologists is essential, and they have found some extraordinary Anglo-Saxon artefacts buried underground. The most magnificent remains were found by the archaeologist Basil Brown in 1939 at a burial mound called Sutton Hoo. Here, he found the possessions of an Anglo-Saxon king, which had been buried in a ship so that he could take them to the afterlife. The king’s possessions included: • a golden purse lid decorated with wild animals and scenes such as wolves eating men • two golden belt buckles (see top right) • shoulder clasps for fastening clothing or armour decorated with wild boar • weapons such as a shield, a sword and spear tips • a small harp called a lyre • silver plates and spoons that had been made in a far-off land called Byzantium (in modern day Turkey) • everyday objects, such as a feather cushion and combs made of antler horn. Replica of the Sutton Hoo helmet built by

The most famous find was a magnificent iron helmet with a the Royal Armories patterned facemask. It was intricately decorated with scenes of war, such as a warrior on a horse trampling a fallen enemy. The treasures are thought to have belonged to Rædwald, the ruler of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia who died in 624, but nobody knows for sure. Strangely, no body was ever found inside the burial mound. The second greatest collection of Anglo-Saxon treasures was found in a Staffordshire field in 2009. Using his metal detector, a man named Terry Herbert uncovered 3500 gold and silver items, valued at over £3 million. You can be sure that more hoards of Anglo-Saxon treasure are still lying beneath the ground across England, waiting to be found.

Check your understanding 1. Who invaded Britain after the Roman army abandoned the country in 410 AD? 2. What sort of communities did Anglo-Saxons live in? 3. What sort of weapons did Anglo-Saxons use? 4. Why do historians know very little about life in early Anglo-Saxon Britain? 5. What was the most famous object found at Sutton Hoo?

Chapter 1: The Anglo-Saxons

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon rule The Anglo-Saxon tribes who invaded Britain established a number of separate kingdoms across the country, each ruled by its own king. By the end of the seventh century the three most powerful kingdoms were Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, and rival kings often went to war against each other. Sometimes, one of the kings would become an ‘overlord’ with more power than all of the others. The king lived in a Great Hall, built out of wood and straw, and showed his power by wearing a lot of gold jewellery. Life could be very violent, and Anglo-Saxons had to give their lives to defend their king. If they proved themselves to be loyal and brave in battle, they were rewarded with gold bracelets.

Anglo-Saxon place names Many English place names come from old Anglo-Saxon words. For example, the word ‘England’ comes from ‘Anglo-land’. Today, the area where the Anglo-Saxons first settled in the east of England is called East Anglia, named after the Angles. Wessex, Essex and Sussex are named after the West, East and South Saxons. Also, Norfolk and Suffolk are named after the northern and southern people, or ‘folk’. The names for many English towns and cities still end in Anglo-Saxon words: ‘don’ means hill; ‘ton’ means house; ‘ham’ means village; ‘wich’ means farm; and ‘ing’ means people.

Anglo-Saxon religion At first, the Anglo-Saxons were pagans, who believed in many different gods. Woden was the King of the Gods, but there was also Tiw the god of war, Freya the goddess of love and fertility, and Thor the god of thunder. The days of the week are still named after these gods today: Tiw became Tuesday, Woden became Wednesday, Thor became Thursday, and Freya became Friday. This pagan religion started to change when Pope Gregory in Rome sent a monk named Augustine to travel all the way to Britain, and convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity. Augustine landed on the south coast of England in 597 with a group of around 40 monks. Here, Augustine met Ethelbert, the King of Kent. Ethelbert’s wife, a princess from France called Bertha, was already a Christian. Under Bertha and Augustine’s influence Ethelbert became the first AngloSaxon king to convert to Christianity.

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Modern illustration of Saint Augustine meeting Ethelbert and Bertha

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In 635, a monk called Aidan brought Christianity to Northumbria from Ireland. Aidan founded a monastery on a remote island called Lindisfarne, which became known as Holy Island. Kent and Northumbria became the centres of Christianity in England, from which this new religion eventually spread throughout the whole country. Today, we still have an Archbishop of Canterbury (in Kent) and an Archbishop of York (in what was Northumbria). Pope Gregory made Augustine the first Archbishop of Canterbury.

1.2.1

The written word Christianity brought writing and study to England. Anglo-Saxon monks, who lived in monasteries built of stone, often dedicating their lives to study. They wrote magnificent manuscripts and bibles by hand on vellum – a material made from the skin of lambs or calves. The most precious of these manuscripts were decorated with such bright colours that they were called ‘illuminations’. This is because they appear to be lit up. The most valuable historical source from this period was provided by a Northumbrian monk called Bede. When Bede was 7 years old, he was sent to be brought up in a monastery beside the river Tyne. Bede became a monk and decided to write down all of the stories about the Anglo-Saxon tribes and kings, which had been passed down through Page from the Lindisfarne Gospels, an illuminated the generations in poem and song. In 731, Bede finished manuscript from the early eighth century his great book, and called it The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. It was the first ever book of English history. Fact Without it, we would know almost nothing about the early Anglo-Saxons. Bede’s history was so well thought of that he became known as the Pope Gregory advised ‘Venerable’ Bede, meaning respected. Augustine to adapt Christianity to the AngloKing Offa Saxons’ pagan festivals. One of the most famous Anglo-Saxon overlords was King Offa, who The term Easter comes ruled Mercia between 757 and 796. Offa overpowered his rival kings, from ‘Eostre’, the name beheading those who rebelled against him. of an Anglo-Saxon goddess of rebirth. To prevent the Welsh from invading his kingdom of Mercia, King Offa built Christmas is celebrated a 149-mile-long earthwork between England and Wales, stretching from at around the time of the sea to sea. It was known as ‘Offa’s Dyke’, and can still be seen running winter solstice, when the along the Welsh–English border today. Anglo-Saxons celebrated their own festival called ‘Yule’.

Check your understanding 1. How was England divided up during the early Anglo-Saxon period? 2. Which counties in England are named after the south, east and west Saxons? 3. How did four days of the week gain their names in the English language? 4. Why are Canterbury and York the two centres of English Christianity today? 5. Why is there more evidence about Anglo-Saxon life during the period after Christianity arrived?

Chapter 2: Anglo-Saxon rule

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

The Vikings In January 793, a band of warriors attacked the Christian monastery on the Holy Island of Lindisfarne in Northumbria. They arrived from the sea in ships with dragons’ heads carved onto the bows, heavily armed with metal helmets, armour and twohanded axes. The warriors broke into the monastery, drowning the older monks in the sea and taking the younger monks as slaves. They then stole Lindisfarne’s treasures, and sailed away. For the next three centuries, Anglo-Saxon England was subject to repeated waves of attacks from these warriors. In particular, Christian monasteries, famous for their gold and precious treasures, were targeted. Who were these people? The Anglo-Saxons called them wolves of the sea, pagan people, Norsemen, Danes and stinging hornets. Today, they are better known as the Vikings.

A reconstruction of a Viking longboat Reconstruction of a Viking longboat

The Vikings The Vikings came from the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. They were skilled at building ships that used both oars and sails, and could therefore travel great distances by river and sea. Called longboats, these ships were a remarkable technology. They could hold up to 200 Viking warriors and sailed west as far as Canada, and east as far as Russia. Some Vikings were traders, who brought spices, silks, wine and jewellery from distant lands. Others were raiders, who preferred killing and stealing to buying and selling. Viking warriors could be a terrifying sight: they wore animal skins, had tattoos, and some even filed their teeth to look more frightening in battle. Often, Anglo-Saxons would pay Viking invaders huge sums of money, known as the ‘danegeld’, in return for the Vikings leaving them alone. Once the danegeld had been paid, however, the Vikings sometimes returned and attacked anyway. There were few more terrifying sights for a coastal Anglo-Saxon town than the dragon head of a longboat looming into view. After the attack on Lindisfarne, a scholar named Alcuin of York wrote to the King of Northumbria: “Lo, it is nearly 350 years that we and our fathers have inhabited this most lovely land, and never before has such a terror appeared as we have now suffered from a pagan race. Behold the church of St Cuthbert spattered with the blood of the priests of God, despoiled of all its ornaments.”

Viking settlement At first, Vikings were content with hit-and-run raids on English coastal towns. However, in 865, the Vikings assembled a force to settle in England, known as the ‘Great Heathen Army’. It was led by the three sons of a Viking king named Ragnar Lodbrok. They were called Halfdan

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Viking sword

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1.3.1

Valhalla One reason why Vikings fought so fiercely was because of their belief that if they died in battle they would be taken to the glorious Viking heaven of Valhalla. This was a Great Hall ruled by Odin, the King of the Gods. Vikings believed that Odin’s female spirits, called Valkyries, carried warriors from the battlefield to Valhalla, where their wounds would be healed. In the evening, the warriors would feast on an enormous wild boar, which would be brought back to life each day. They would drink from a goat whose udders provided an unlimited supply of mead (beer). By day, the Viking would train to fight for Odin in a final battle of the gods, known as ‘Ragnarok’.

Fact In one 11th-century Viking saga, a savage method for killing an Anglo-Saxon King of Northumbria was recorded. Known as the ‘Blood Eagle’, it involved ripping the victim’s lungs out of his body and draping them over his shoulders to resemble an eagle’s folded wings.

Modern illustration of Odin, King of the Gods

Ragnarsson, Ivar the Boneless, and Ubba. Nobody knows how large the army was, but estimates range from 1000 to 6000. The three brothers captured the city of York in 867, and used it as a base to spread their power throughout northern England. Known as ‘Jorvik’ to the Vikings, York became a thriving centre of overseas trade under Viking rule, and home to perhaps 15 000 people. Modern archaeological digs in York have found leather shoes, iron padlocks, coloured glass beads and ice skates made out of horse bone. In 869, the Great Heathen Army advanced south, and attacked Edmund, the Anglo-Saxon King of East Anglia. He was captured by the Vikings, and refused to renounce his belief in Christianity. In return, a band of Vikings tied him to a tree and fired arrows at him until he, according to legend, ‘bristled with them like a hedgehog’. The Vikings’ progress through Britain would have been violent, but they also assimilated and inter-married with the existing Anglo-Saxon population.

Check your understanding 1. Why did Viking raiders target Christian monasteries? 2. Why was the longboat so important to the Vikings? 3. How large was the Great Heathen Army? 4. What did Vikings believe awaited them if they died in battle? 5. What city became the centre of Viking power in England?

Chapter 3: The Vikings

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

Alfred the Great Alfred was born the youngest of five sons to the King of Wessex. By the age of 23, his four brothers had all died, and in 871 Alfred became king. King Alfred was immediately thrown into the long running war between Wessex and the Viking Great Heathen Army, who had by now settled throughout much of England. During his first year as king, Alfred fought nine battles defending Wessex against the Vikings. He finally negotiated a truce: in return for a large danegeld payment, the Vikings agreed not to attack Wessex for 5 years. However, a new Viking leader named King Guthrum wanted to take Wessex for himself. In 878, Guthrum’s Viking army attacked King Alfred in Chippenham while he was celebrating Twelfth Night, the last day of Christmas. Alfred and his men were caught by surprise. Many were slaughtered, but Alfred and a small band of men escaped and fled west towards the marshes of Somerset. Here they hid from Guthrum’s army, and began to organise their counter-attack. Alfred knew the marshes well. He set up camp on Athelney, an island of high and dry land surrounded by swamp, from which he organised hit-and-run attacks on the Viking camps. He also began to raise a new army from the surrounding counties, which assembled at an ancient meeting point called Egbert’s Stone in May 878. From there, they marched to meet Guthrum’s Viking army at the Battle of Edington, where Alfred defeated the Vikings.

Statue of King Alfred built in the old Wessex capital of Winchester to celebrate the 1000 year anniversary of his death

Guthrum was captured at Edington. However, instead of killing Guthrum, Alfred forced him to be baptised and convert to Christianity. Alfred even made himself Guthrum’s godfather! Alfred and Guthrum agreed to divide England by a diagonal line from the mouth of the River Mersey in the north-west, to the mouth of the Thames in the south-east. The Vikings ruled land north of this line, and it was called the Danelaw.

Alfred as king As a young boy, Alfred travelled to Rome with his father. Here he was inspired to be a great king, like a Roman Emperor. Having won his kingdom back from the Vikings, Alfred set about achieving this vision. He built a series of around 30 fortress towns throughout Wessex known as burhs (or boroughs). In London, Alfred rebuilt the city walls that had fallen into ruin since the time of the Romans. Alfred also organised the fyrd: a part-time Anglo-Saxon army which could be called up to fight at times of war. Most importantly, he established a naval force, which sailed around the country protecting it from further attacks from Viking longships.

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This gold and enamel jewel was found in 1693 near Athelney. Around the edge of the gold frame is written in Old English, ‘Alfred ordered me to be made’. It is known as the ‘Alfred Jewel’.

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When Alfred was a young boy, his mother encouraged him to read and memorise a book of Old English poetry. At the age of 40, Alfred asked a Welsh bishop called Asser to teach him to read and write Latin. Asser later wrote a biography of Alfred, and recorded “from his cradle, he was filled with the love of wisdom above all things”.

1.4.1

Having learnt Latin, Alfred was able to translate important books – particularly about Christianity – into Old English, helping to spread Christianity amongst his people. This was a remarkable achievement, and England would have to wait another 200 years before it was again ruled by a king who could read and write. Alfred also oversaw the writing of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle – an enormous history book which kept a record of every important event that happened in England until 1154. In 899, Alfred died. King Alfred’s rule laid the foundation on which his descendants would build the unified Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of England. He remains the only king in English history to be remembered as ‘the Great’.

Alfred and the cakes According to a popular legend, while Alfred was hiding in the Somerset marshes, a peasant woman gave him shelter. She was unaware that he was her king, and ordered him to watch some cakes as they cooked by the fire. Alfred had just lost his kingdom to Guthrum’s Viking army, and was hiding for his life. He was so distracted trying to work out how he could defeat the Vikings and reclaim his kingdom, he allowed the cakes to burn. When the peasant woman returned, she was furious with Alfred. ‘You happily eat all my food, but when I give you the job of looking after it, you let it burn!’ she shouted. Alfred could have told her he was the king, but he did not, and simply apologised for his mistake.

Fact

Modern illustration of Alfred and the peasant woman

Although Alfred was successful on the battlefield, he was not physically strong. Alfred suffered from an illness throughout his life, which some historians believe was Crohn’s disease. This illness often left Alfred feeling frail and depressed.

Check your understanding 1. What Anglo-Saxon kingdom did Alfred rule? 2. On what day did Guthrum’s army first attack Alfred in 878? 3. What agreement did Alfred come to with Guthrum after the Battle of Edington? 4. What did Alfred do to ensure that Wessex remained safe from future Viking attacks? 5. Why did Alfred want to learn to read and write in Latin?

Chapter 4: Alfred the Great

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

The Anglo-Saxon Golden Age Following King Alfred’s death in 899, it fell to his son King Edward the Elder to continue the fight against the Vikings. Edward was greatly helped by his older sister, Æthelflæd, who, at the age of 15, had been sent by their father Alfred to marry the Lord of Mercia. Æthelflæd was famed for her intelligence and strength, and with her husband she won much of Mercia back from the Vikings. When her husband died in 911, Æthelflæd continued to rule Mercia on her own as the ‘Lady of Mercia’, leading her army into battle. Just like her father, Æthelflæd built fortress burhs on land won back from the Vikings, in places such as Chester, Stafford, Warwick and Tamworth. King Edward was so impressed by his tough older sister Æthelflaed that he sent his own son, Æthelstan, to be brought up by her. Though he is not much talked about today, some historians say Æthelstan should be remembered as the first King of England. Northumbria remained as an outpost of Viking power when he became king, centred around the Viking capital of Jorvik. Æthelstan slowly asserted Anglo-Saxon power over Northumbria, and in 937 he won a great victory at the Battle of Brunanburh, against an enormous Scottish, Viking and Northumbrian army. The Anglo-Saxon chronicle recorded, “Never was there more slaughter on this island, never yet as many people killed before this with sword’s edge: never according to those who tell us from books, old wisemen, since from the east Angles and Saxons came up over the broad sea.” This victory confirmed Æthelstan’s rule of all England. During his reign, Æthelstan had new coins minted for his kingdom, on which he gave himself the title Rex Anglorum, meaning ‘King of the English’. For the first time since the Roman conquest, England could be described as a single unified country.

Peace and prosperity For the next 50 years, England experienced unprecedented peace, and grew increasingly wealthy. Kings ruled alongside the Witan, a collection of Anglo-Saxon noblemen and senior members of the church summoned by the king to offer him advice and discuss important issues. This ensured that the king’s decisions had the support of the people he ruled. Anglo-Saxon England also developed a single currency, a legal code written in Old English and a centralised government. Anglo-Saxon government sent out royal charters to every corner of the kingdom. The country was divided into individual counties, known as shires,

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Anglo-Saxon silver penny from the late 10th or early 11th century

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each ruled by an Anglo-Saxon earl. Shires were in turn divided into ‘hundreds’, which in theory covered enough land to support 100 households. The borders of some of these shires remain unchanged today as England’s counties.

1.5.1

Return of the Vikings In 990, Viking invaders once again began harassing England’s coastline. England’s king at the time was Æthelred the Unready. Unlike his predecessors, Æthelred was a poor leader and unable to unify his earls to repel the Viking invaders. Æthelred repeatedly paid off the Viking invaders with danegeld, but it never took long before the Vikings returned asking for even larger sums. The year Æthelred died in 1016, England’s throne passed to a Viking king named Canute (see box). This toing and froing of England’s throne between Anglo-Saxon and Viking kings would be put to an end once and for all by the arrival of a new force in Northern Europe – the Normans.

Fact Someone who ran a shire on behalf of his earl was known as a ‘shire reeve’, giving us our modern word ‘sheriff’.

King Canute During his 19-year rule of England, King Canute (sometimes spelled Cnut) was a thoughtful and popular king. Though a Viking from Denmark, he signalled that he wanted to rule England as an English king. Most Anglo-Saxon earls were allowed to keep their land, and Canute paid off his own Viking army with one of the largest danegelds ever raised, £90 000, to ensure that they returned to Denmark and left England in peace. Overseas, Canute’s empire steadily grew: he gained Denmark in 1019, Norway in 1028, and some parts of Sweden. In the most famous story from his reign, a courtier who was trying to win favour with the king told Canute that he even had control of the seas. Canute did not approve of such flattery, and demanded that his throne be taken to the seashore. Here, Canute sat and ordered the tide not to advance. The waves ignored him and drenched his feet. In response, King Canute told his courtiers: “Let the world know that the power of kings is empty and worthless compared with the majesty of God.”

Modern illustration of King Canute failing to halt the advancing tide

Check your understanding 1. Why did King Edward send his son to be brought up by his aunt Æthelflæd? 2. Why was the Battle of Brunanburh such an important victory for the Anglo-Saxons? 3. What was significant about the reign of Alfred’s grandson Æthelstan? 4. What role did the Witan play in the government of England? 5. What did King Canute do to win the favour of the Anglo-Saxon people he ruled?

Chapter 5: The Anglo-Saxon Golden Age

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Unit 1: Anglo-Saxon England

Knowledge organiser 731 The Venerable Bede completes The Ecclesiastical History of the English People

400–600 The Roman army leaves Britain

410 The Angles and Saxons arrive in England from Germany

597 Augustine arrives in England to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity

793 The Vikings attack the monastery on Lindisfarne

Key vocabulary AD Used to record historical dates as number of years after Christ’s birth: Anno Domini Anglo-Saxon Chronicle A contemporary history of England, begun during the reign of Alfred the Great Anglo-Saxons Two Germanic tribes who invaded England from Germany, between 400 and 600 AD Archaeologist Someone who examines objects and locations from the past, often through excavation Archbishop of Canterbury The most senior bishop in the English Church, and leader of the Church of England Blood eagle A notorious Viking method for killing their enemies Burh A fortified town which ruled a local area Celts The dominant population in Britain until the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons Century A period of one hundred years, often used to describe different historical periods Danegeld Large sums of money given to Vikings to prevent further invasions Danelaw English territory given over to Viking rule Dark Ages A term sometimes used to describe the years that followed the fall of the Roman Empire

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Earl A noble title, developed during the AngloSaxon period to describe the ruler of a county Empire A group of countries or states presided over by a single ruler Fyrd Part time Anglo-Saxon army which could be called to fight at times of war Golden age A period of flourishing in the history of a nation or an art form Great Heathen Army A large force of Viking warriors who invaded England during the ninth century Illumination Richly decorated religious manuscript from the medieval period Jorvik The centre of Viking power in England, on the site of modern day York Latin A classical language spoken by the Romans, and used by the Catholic Church Longboat A Viking ship, which combined both sails and oars Mercia Anglo-Saxon kingdom in central England, covering what is today called the Midlands

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865 The invasion of the ‘Great Heathen Army’

878 Alfred the Great defeats the ‘Great Heathen Army’ at the Battle of Edington

937 Æthelstan’s victory at the Battle of Brunanburh confirms Anglo-Saxon rule of all England

871 Alfred the Great is crowned King of Wessex

1016 The Viking ruler Canute becomes King of England

899 Alfred the Great dies

Key vocabulary Monk A man who dedicates his entire life to God, and lives outside of normal society Native A person born in or historically associated with a particular country or region Pagan Someone who believes in many different gods Shire Individual county, meaning ‘area of control’ in Old English Sutton Hoo The site of an Anglo-Saxon ship burial from the seventh century AD Valhalla The heaven for Viking warriors Vellum A writing material made from the skin of sheep or calves, before the invention of paper Vikings Seafaring people from Scandinavia who raided and traded across Europe and Russia Wessex Anglo-Saxon kingdom stretching across southern England Witan A collection of Anglo-Saxon noblemen and senior clergymen who advised the king

Key people Æthelflæd The ‘lady of the Mercians’ who helped expel the Vikings from England Æthelstan Grandson of Alfred the Great, who unified England as one country Alfred the Great The Anglo-Saxon King of Wessex who defeated the Great Heathen Army Augustine A monk sent from Rome who converted the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury Bede An English monk who wrote the first history of England Canute Viking King of England, who famously could not hold back the tide Guthrum Viking king who was defeated by Alfred and given the Danelaw to rule King Offa King of Mercia who built a 149-milelong earthwork between England and Wales

Knowledge organiser

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Knowing History  
Knowing History