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CAMBRIDGE

IGCSE ENGLISH ®

REVISED EDITION Series editor: Julia Burchell

Authors: Claire Austin-Macrae, Julia Burchell, Nigel Carlisle, Mike Gould and Ian Kirby

Complete coverage of the Cambridge First Language English syllabuses 0500 and 0522


Contents Introduction

4

Lesson plans SECTION 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

Building Key Skills Key reading skills Key technical skills Key writing skills

6 24 40

SECTION 2 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7

Applying Key Skills in Examinations Summary questions Comprehension and writer’s effects questions Extended response and directed writing questions Composition questions

70 78 90 98

SECTION 3 Applying Key Skills in Written Coursework Chapter 8 Approaching written coursework

110

SECTION 4 Speaking and Listening Chapter 9 Approaching speaking and listening

120

SECTION 5 Exam Practice Chapter 10 Practice exam-style papers and advice

144

Worksheets Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 10

Key reading skills Key technical skills Key writing skills Summary questions Comprehension and writer’s effects questions Extended response and directed writing questions Composition questions Approaching written coursework Practice exam-style papers and advice

150 161 176 195 200 208 213 222 233

Appendices Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Appendix 8

Summary questions: exam focus Writer’s effects questions: exam focus Extended response and directed writing questions: exam focus Composition questions: exam focus Written coursework focus Speaking and listening: exam focus Speaking and listening: coursework focus Two-year scheme of work

279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286


Introduction Welcome to the Collins Cambridge IGCSE English Teacher Guide. Our popular first edition has been fully updated to support the teaching of the syllabus for first examination in 2015. We hope it will provide invaluable support to teachers worldwide, as they prepare students for the freedom, challenge and enrichment offered by the Cambridge IGCSE in First Language English (syllabuses 0500 and 0522).

Using the Student Book The Student Book is structured so that it builds the fundamental skills that underpin IGCSE success before explaining the specific blend of skills necessary to tackle each type of examination question and coursework assignment, and offering opportunities to practise and consolidate these tasks. The book opens with three chapters that systematically cover the basic Reading and Writing skills required by all IGCSE English students. These are divided into:

• • •

Chapter 1: Key reading skills Chapter 2: Key technical skills Chapter 3: Key writing skills.

It then focuses on each of the question types set in the exam:

• • • •

Chapter 4: Summary questions Chapter 5: Comprehension and writer’s effects questions Chapter 6: Extended response and directed writing questions Chapter 7: Composition questions.

It then moves on to cover each written coursework assignment and the requirements of the Speaking and Listening exam and coursework tasks:

• •

Chapter 8: Approaching written coursework Chapter 9: Approaching speaking and listening components.

The book closes, in Chapter 10, with resources for exam practice. These can be used in stages as each exam question type is covered, or could be set together as a ‘mock’ examination to provide a formative assessment opportunity. In our opinion, the best way to approach the course would be to work through Chapters 1, 2 and 3 early in the course, or even before it begins. This said, it would be perfectly acceptable – desirable even – to mix and match content from all three chapters rather than work through each in isolation. Alternatively, it would be possible to work through Chapter 1 and then tackle the summary and writer’s effects questions chapters (4 and 5). However, it is not advisable to use the extended response and directed writing, composition or coursework chapters (6–8) until students are familiar with the skills introduced in Chapters 2 and 3. The exam tasks in Chapters 6–8 require a blend of skills with which students need to be confident before tackling these tasks. Please see the suggested Two-year scheme of work on pp. 286–7 of this Guide.

Features of the Student Book The book offers lively approaches to exciting texts and ensures that students have access to a wide range of fiction and non-fiction. Standards are exemplified throughout: for example, by shorter sample responses demonstrating clearly the differences between Band 3 and Band 1 and by the longer 4 • Introduction

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sample responses at the key boundaries of Band 4/3 and 2/1 in the Exam-style questions and sample responses and Coursework-style responses sections that end each chapter. The Top tips given will allow students to see the examiner’s viewpoint, and the Checklists for success summaries will help to consolidate students’ learning.

C

E

Core and/or Extended content is clearly signalled by these icons at the start of each lesson. Further regular differentiation points and peer- and self-assessment opportunities are provided by the Sound progress (aiming for Grade C) and Excellent progress (aiming for Grade A) boxes at the end of lessons, and by the Check your progress pages at the end of each chapter.

Using the Teacher Guide Each two-page (or occasionally four-page) section in the Student Book is intended to provide work for one lesson, or occasionally two lessons, and is supported in the Teacher Guide by a two-page lesson plan, plus worksheet(s) and Power Points (PPTs). The Teacher Guide is designed to help you with the following.

Planning

• •

Key references to the specification are listed at the start of each lesson plan, with the Assessment objectives and links to Examination papers and Coursework assignments identified so that the wider application of learning is clear. Detailed, ready-to-use lesson plans offer all you need to teach: these are divided into sections that match the Student Book – Exploring skills, Building skills, Developing skills and Applying skills – ensuring progression and pace as well as opportunities for consolidation. Often, the Developing Skills section focuses on the extra skills needed for the higher grades. Worksheets and PowerPoint slides (PPTs) supplement and extend activities in the Student Book and are itemised in each lesson plan, meaning that timeconsuming preparation is kept to a minimum.

Differentiation

• •

Each lesson plan begins with Learning outcomes differentiated by grade.

Worksheets and PPTs offer additional activities to suit a range of learning styles and abilities.

Towards A/A* advice at the end of each lesson plan (apart from those aimed specifically at Core-level students) gives a specific tip or activity suggestion for students aiming for the highest grades.

Further differentiation opportunities are provided in the Extra support and Extra challenge boxes, ensuring all students are stimulated.

Assessment

A complete suite of exam-style practice papers is provided in Chapter 10, as well as marking guidance, sample answers and detailed analysis of how marks could be allocated. Video clips of series editor, Julia Burchell, advise students on how to tackle the most challenging exam questions.

Peer- and self-assessment is regularly used to help students understand how to progress towards their target grade.

Appendices 1–7 can be used as revision aids, as they provide a brief summary of the major exam question types and coursework assignments.

Our resources are designed to enhance performance so that candidates can work towards IGCSE grades they can be proud of. We hope you enjoy using them. Julia Burchell Series Editor © HarperCollins Publishers 2013

Introduction • 5


1

Locating information: skimming

Assessment objectives AO1 Reading R1

Demonstrate understanding of explicit meanings

IGCSE examination

• • •

Paper 1 all questions Paper 2 all questions Component 4 Coursework portfolio (Assignment 3)

Differentiated learning outcomes

Resources

All students must be able to gain some understanding of a text and select sections of a text that are relevant to questions (Grade E/D).

Student Book: pp. 8–9

Most students should gain a good understanding of a text, make relevant annotations and be able to find appropriate information in a text (Grade D/C).

PPT: 1.1a–d

Some students could quickly understand the focus of a text, make precise annotations and select a full range of the most appropriate information from a text (Grade B/A).

Exploring skills As a class, read through this section of the Student Book and ensure that the class understand the term ‘skimming’. Copy and complete the table for the longer skimming exercise in Q1. Take feedback as a class. Responses will include:

• • • • • • • • PPT

Text type: a novel. Setting: Africa (Kgale Hill, Botswana) – strong sense of setting. Action: no action. Description: yes, lots of description. Character: Mma Ramotswe is introduced with some larger-than-life features. Attitude/message: one message is that she is a strong character. Purpose: to describe and entertain. What might happen next: expect a client/problem to be introduced; might get a sense that the agency is in trouble (the mention of assets and inventories).

As an extension, use PPT 1.1a–b to develop the skill of skimming with some quick pair challenges. After each activity, discuss how easy it is to gain a quick understanding and why some information seems more important than other details. In PPT 1.1a, students should note the aunt’s age and old-fashioned ways. In PPT 1.1b, they should pick up on the writer’s attitude towards London, the range of things to do, sighting David Beckham and the pros and cons of city travel.

Key reading skills

Chapter 1

Building skills Read through this section with the class. For Q2, ask students to work in groups of four. Test the effectiveness of their skimming by reading out questions (a), (b) and (c) one by one, with the students pointing to the relevant area of text as quickly as they can. If students are finding the tasks so far quite difficult, repeat them using the opening paragraphs of any novel and get them to complete the same table. Then ask them three text-specific questions about where information is located. This could be done as a small group, with one group member challenging the others to find certain information from the text. 6 • Lesson 1

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Developing skills Read this section of the Student Book and complete Q3. For the first paragraph, ideas might include: describing the agency; introducing Mma Ramotswe; who and what. For the second paragraph, ideas might include: the surroundings (vegetation); the view from the door.

PPT

Students complete Q4 in pairs, deciding what information is held in the different sentences of each paragraph. You can display the text of the passage from Student Book p. 8 using PPT 1.1c–d. To aid this discussion PPT 1.1d is already annotated to show where information on ‘vegetation’ can be found in the second paragraph.

Applying skills For Q5, ask students to write up answers to questions (a), (b) and (c) from Q2 of the ‘Building skills’ section, as if for Question 1 on the Core exam paper. Remind them of the importance of putting the ideas into their own words and of using appropriate quotations as evidence. Give extra support by helping students to find relevant sections again or appropriate quotations. Help could also be given with sentence starters, such as: Some of the vegetation looks quite big and harmful... or The phrase ‘great white thorns’ makes the vegetation sound... Give extra challenge by encouraging students to be detailed yet concise. Remind them that it is good practice to refer to any relevant techniques, such as the effect of using adjectives or metaphor. Class feedback might include:

Vegetation – big, harmful looking acacia trees (‘great white thorns’); the trees look unusual because, in contrast, their leaves seem pretty (‘so delicate’); it seems dry rather than lush (‘scrub bush’).

• •

Staff – one member of staff (‘her secretary’). Mma Ramotswe – unique (‘only lady detective’, or ‘no inventory...’); polite, generous or down to earth (she brews tea for her own secretary); clever or skilful (‘human intuition and intelligence’, or ‘in abundance’).

After feeding back as a class, invite students to share their work in pairs and – using the Checklist for success on Student Book p. 9 – to assess how well they have done and what they need to do to improve.

Towards A/A*

Lesson 1 • 7

Key reading skills

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Chapter 1

To achieve the highest marks for reading, students need to skim texts for quick understanding. They should quickly find the most appropriate information for the question being asked. They also need to do this in order to quickly select the ‘best’ quotations that will allow them to analyse the effects of a writer’s language choices. Encourage students to practise the skill of skimming on a regular basis in order to sharpen their abilities.


2

Locating information: scanning

Assessment objectives AO1 Reading R1

Demonstrate understanding of explicit meanings

R2

Demonstrate understanding of implicit meanings and attitudes

IGCSE examination

• • •

Paper 1 all questions Paper 2 all questions Component 4 Coursework portfolio (Assignment 3)

Differentiated learning outcomes

Resources

All students must select different sections of a text in order to show their understanding (Grade E/D).

Most students should select a range of relevant information from a text that displays a good understanding (Grade D/C).

• •

Some students could quickly select a full range of the most appropriate information, suggesting insight into a text (Grade B/A).

Student Book: pp. 10–13 Worksheet: 1.2 Locating information: scanning

Exploring skills As a class, read through the opening sections on Student Book p. 10 and ensure that students understand the term ‘scanning’. In pairs complete Q1. Take feedback, eliciting the following answers: 1G, 2D, 3F, 4A, 5B, 6C, 7E. In each case discuss the features that matched the text type and what made them easy to scan for. Ask the students if they can think of any other real-life situations where they have used scanning skills (such as reading a bus timetable, finding out what time a television programme starts, searching for something on Google, checking food labels for an allergy-causing ingredient).

Building skills Read through Q2 with the class on how to unpick a question and scan for appropriate information. For Q3, hand out Worksheet 1.2 and ask students to discuss the extract from Q & A in pairs and then complete the table. Give extra support by asking students questions that help them to explore the different phrases in the table. For example:

Key reading skills

Chapter 1

• • • • • • •

Why isn’t artificial light as nice as ‘natural light’? Why would you want ‘ventilation’? What do you think of when you imagine ‘corrugated metal’? What does the adverb ‘violently’ add to the roof image? What would a train ‘passing overhead’ be like? What do you need ‘running water’ for? What does it mean by ‘no sanitation’ and how would this affect the house?

Give extra challenge by encouraging students to consider the connotations (implied meanings) of specific words. This is getting them to consider how and why, not just what. Take feedback on the extract as a class, focusing on the unpleasant words that students found and how other phrases implied something unpleasant.

8 • Lesson 2

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Developing skills As a class, read this section and complete Q4, discussing with students what they can tell about migrants from the whole sentence given. Explain the importance of using context to gain full understanding of certain meanings. Responses might include:

• •

‘destitute’ shows they are poor and suggests homelessness

• • •

‘jostle’ suggests there are lots of migrants

‘from all over the country’ suggests migrants move away from their home towns, presumably for economic reasons ‘their own handful’ suggests they are grateful for what they can get ‘slum’ suggests they are in extreme poverty and have to put up with a lot of hardship.

As an extension, ask students to scan the extract to select the ‘best’ word or phrase to describe the following things. Encourage students to explain their choices by thinking about how the language suggests or enhances meaning. For example:

• • • •

not having much room (‘cramped’, ‘million ... packed’, ‘squabbles over inches’) the surrounding landscape (‘swampy urban wasteland’) suggestions of aggression (‘jostle’, ‘squabbles’, ‘turn deadly’) lack of self-esteem (‘live like animals’, ‘die like insects’).

Applying skills Ask students to use the extract from Q & A to complete Q5: ‘How does the writer suggest that life is not easy for the narrator?’ Give extra support by reminding students to use the information they have already gathered. Help students with sentence starters, such as: The writer suggests life is not easy for the narrator by describing a lack of hygiene... or The phrase, ‘no sanitation’ implies that life would not be easy because... Give extra challenge by encouraging students to be detailed yet concise, grouping their ideas and considering the connotations of the words that they select and their context. Advise them to refer to specific techniques, such as use of adjectives or simile. Feed back as a class, taking examples of the points that they identified, the phrases that students selected, and how the choice of language within their phrases conveys that life is not easy. Responses might include:

• •

the state of the house (as already explored in Q3)

• • •

the local area (‘packed ... swampy urban wasteland’)

the narrator’s lack of money (emphasised by the short sentence) and people’s desperation (‘inches of space ... bucket of water’) his feeling of being unvalued (the simile, ‘live like animals’) the sense of danger (the simile ‘die like insects’, and the reference to ‘daily squabbles ... which at times turn deadly’).

To achieve the highest marks for reading, students need to scan texts and quickly find the most appropriate information for the question being asked. They also need to do this in order to select quickly the ‘best’ quotations that will allow them to analyse the effects of a writer’s language choices. Encourage students to practise this skill with a variety of forms of writing that they encounter, such as newspapers, leaflets, or their favourite magazine.

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Lesson 2 • 9

Key reading skills

Towards A/A*

Chapter 1

After feedback, ask pairs to share their work and – using the Checklist for success on Student Book p. 13 – to assess how well they have done.

Cambridge IGCSE English Teacher Guide  
Cambridge IGCSE English Teacher Guide