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e g e Coll

&COok magazine

{the lineup}

plum pudding

& the atom

tomatoes

the fair food movement

artichokes

food from scratch

berries more mug cakes!

//food

meets

academia


Table of contents

In Every Issue

letter from the editor, 4 verry berry mug cakes, 6 seasonal Tunes to Cook By, 33

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Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


An Academic Endeavor

a Fulbright celebrates Italian food, 12 two profs, one chef: The importance of food in the classroom, 20 take a harvard final exam, 26 science, meet pudding, plum pudding, 28 copper & Eggs. 32 Alternative spring break: Tomatoes, 34

A Good Way to Eat

cheesecake in a jiffy, 9 college food blog: Scratch food, 14 Quest: decent airport grub, 42 Making a Difference southern universities rally for a cause, 38 get involved, 46

Food & Culture Unite Thomas Jefferson’s Garden

5


Call to

action

food deserves to be taken seriously in the academic community, starting now Do we as a society take food seriously as an academic subject? Our sixth issue takes a stab at answering this question. Certainly our foodrelated problems warrant a serious tone: 66 percent of U.S. adults are overweight or obese, childhood obesity has tripled since 1980, & one in 8 people are underfed in the world. As our national & global food problems build, we at C&C are becoming increasingly aware that something has to be done -- & we think educating able-minded, motivated young people to address these problems is a pretty good idea. Food effects us in so many ways -- it is a pleasure to dice it, season it, & sculpt it into memorable meals, it is necessary to sustain life, & it seems to be gaining (limited) popularity within the academic community. Newly developed food-focused classes like Harvard’s “Science & Cooking: From Haute Cuisine to Soft Matter Science” & The George Washington University’s “The World on a Plate: How Food Shapes Civilization” (p.20) have extensive waiting lists for a reason -- there is significant interest amongst our generation. For what is arguably the first time, college students care equally about how something got to their plate & what is on the plate. This issue still has fun favorites like creative mug cakes (p.6 ), tales from a novice cook running his own college food blog (p.14) & the benefits of a copper bowl when making eggs. We put together a guide for scouting out the best airport grub (p.42) & took a trip down to Florida to learn more about the people who grow our nation’s tomatoes (p.34). Just for kicks, we also put together our own microwaveable recipe for plum pudding, inspired by the guy who discovered the atom (p.28). I’d love to hear your thoughts on the development of food studies. Do you wish you could major or minor in something food-related? (A much-deserved shout out to the Nutrition majors out there!)

6

Warm wishes,

Audrey Scagnelli Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com

Is C&C on your campus yet?

In this IssuE: florida state university union college the George Washington University oregon state university University of Pennsylvania university of indiana university of washington University of wisconsinStevens Point washington university in st. louis


the team Audrey Scagnelli ben besse Hao Huang lauren reay Rachel Johnson Lindsay Huth Gianna balasco molly feder allison casey christina oriel

Founder & editor in chief Business manager website developer social media director editorial Designer designer designer staff writer staff writer staff writer

our contributors

ellen amaral krystal bonner chelsea goldinger iana feliciano Kaitlyn Luckow chelsea mcconnell

Want to join the team? Shoot us an email:

info@collegeandcook.com

audrey oldenkamp rosalind reynolds emanuel storch JJ Tizou kathryn walker

enty v e S oolsnting h c S & Cou

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y r r blast be desserts in berry petite cups by the mug

cake girls Spring is here! Celebrate with these tempting treats, loaded with berries & cherries.These three recipes are the perfect way to indulge a little on a spring afternoon & welcome in the warm weather. Have some friends over or whip one of these up just for yourself - however you make them, we know you’ll be craving seconds! Wishing you shady trees & a warm breeze,

Molly & Allison

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Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


As always, we measure our recipes in easyto-find shot glasses, but in case you’d like to stick with standard measurements, each “shot” equals three tablespoons!

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no-bake

lemon blueberry Cheesecake This is one of our favorite recipes yet -- the lemon adds a fresh pop of flavor, while the blueberries (frozen are fine) add natural sweetness. We made ours in a wine glass - who says they’re just for drinking? Cook Time: 5 minutes plus 1 hour Yield: 1 serving You’ll Need: 1 Graham cracker, crushed 1/3 Shot (1 tbsp.) butter 2 shakes cinnamon (optional) 2 shots (6 tbsp.) cream cheese 1 splash (1/2 tsp.) lemon juice 1 splash (1/2 tsp.) vanilla 2/3 shot of powdered sugar 1/3 shot (1 tbsp.) white sugar Put butter in a microwave-safe bowl & microwave for 20 seconds or until melted. Mix crushed graham crackers & cinnamon with butter & add mixture to the bottom of a glass or mug. In a separate bowl mix the cream cheese, lemon juice, vanilla, & sugars until the mixture is fluffy. Fold in blueberries & add completed cream cheese mixture on top of the pressed graham cracker crust. Refrigerate for at least an hour & it’s ready to eat!

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Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


An average crunchy granola bar gets a major facelift in this four ingredient dessert that doubles as breakfast. It takes just a few minutes to assemble, & is a great way to start your day or finish a meal. Cook Time: 4 minutes Yield: 1 serving

blackberry

Crisp

You’ll Need: 3 shots (9 tbsp.) berries 1 shot (3 tbsp.) sugar 3 Shakes of cinnamon 1 Cinnamon-flavored Crunchy Granola Bar, crushed Mix cinnamon & sugar in a bowl & toss with blackberries. Place coated berries in the bottom of a mug. Top berry mixture with crushed granola bar & microwave for 1 minute. Let cool & dig in!

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2-minute

cherry Bread Pudding This bread pudding tastes every bit as good as versions fresh from the oven. Our recipe spotlights cherries, but we think blackberries would work well too. Enjoy! Cook Time: 5 minutes Yield: 1 serving You’ll Need: ½ shot (1 ½ tbsp.) brown sugar 1 ½ shots (3 ½ tbsp.) milk 1 egg 1 ½ slices of bread 1 shot (3 tbsp.) dried cherries 1 splash (1/2 tsp.) of vanilla (optional) 2 shakes of cinnamon (optional)

Cut bread into cubes by slicing the bread into 3 or 4 horizontal strips & 3 or 4 vertical strips. In a separate bowl mix the milk, egg, sugar, vanilla, & cinnamon. Whisk well to ensure the egg is fully incorporated. Put bread cubes into either a microwave safe bowl or a shallow mug. Pour liquid mixture over the bread & mix until bread is completely covered. Add cherries & stir lightly. Put your mixture into the microwave for 2 minutes & you will have your very own homemade bread pudding!

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Le Tavole Accademiche

B Y KRYS TAL B O N N ER P HOTOS BY KRI STEN M A RT I N

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{the academic tables}


U

niversity of Pennsylvania & Penn Appétit alum Kristen Martin received a Fullbright grant to complete her Masters degree in “Food Culture: Media, Representation, & High Quality Food” at the University of Gastronomic Sciences in Bra, Italy. Penn Appétit catches up with her here. PENN APPÉTIT: How did you get interested in food studies?

pleasure in food, & Americans have more anxiety about eating.

KRISTEN MARTIN: I’ve always loved to eat, and I’ve been interested in food since I was a child. I grew up in an Italian-American family, & there is a great sense of carrying on traditions in the kitchen. I got interested in food studies when I read Michael Pollan’s book The Omnivore's Dilemma for my freshman Penn Reading Project. It got me thinking about food culture, specifically American food culture & our lack thereof. Then the fall semester of my junior year, I went abroad to Italy & lived with a host family there. That is when I really experienced what Italian food culture is: How much they appreciate food & how much they love to talk about food. People are very proud of their regional food cultures & products. I was really taken by that.

PA: How is the Masters program structured?

PA: What are you studying with your Fulbright? KM: The grant is linked to the Slow Food movement, which was started in 1989 by Carlo Petrini...& aims to fight against fast food and consumerism and reshape [food’s] value. I’m most interested in comparing Italian & American food cultures. Italians have this kind of innate knowledge of what is good to eat, & it’s because they have these regional dishes that they value very highly. Like, if you’re a child growing up in the Piedmont region of Italy, it’s really common to eat a dish called bagna caude, which is basically full of anchovies & garlic. It’s nothing that an American child would eat, but if you’re a Piedmontese child, it’s totally normal to accept these flavors & understand that it’s part of your food culture. In America, we’re all drawn to these processed foods, & everything is based on convenience, low price, & health claims.... I think Italians value

KM: It’s basically a multidisciplinary survey of all different topics. There are some courses that fall under communications—food writing, food publishing, food television, marketing. Then there are classes that fall under representation, & those are more like philosophy courses.... We also get first-hand experience with high quality products in tasting classes. Then there are other courses about culture & sociology...like anthropology of food, social history of food, food & popular culture. Then, once a month, we also have a study trip where we spend a week in a specific region of Italy or Europe & visit producers in that region. PA: Tell me about one of the study trips. KM: We went to this really interesting farm in Veneto called Nonno Andrea where they make radicchio rosso di treviso. It’s an IGP, which in English means a “protected geographical indication,” & you can only call it radicchio rosso if you grow it in the Treviso province. We got to see pretty much every step of the growing process, & then at the end, we had a tasting of all different dishes made with radicchio.... PA: What about the tasting classes? KM: We did a beer tasting that was six hours, & we tasted 20 different beers. We had an olive oil tasting too, & there’s…a really bizarre way that you’re supposed to taste olive oil where you put a little in your mouth and then you close your teeth & draw in air. PA: It sounds like you do a lot of

penn appétit

eating with the program. KM: There’s a lot of eating, especially on study trips. They feed you so much food, because at every restaurant [you visit]... they want to make sure...you try everything. Everyone in the program also likes to cook their regional dishes for everyone else—it’s really international. There are 28 people in the program, & we come from countries like Puerto Rico, India, & Korea. Some of the people in the program are trained chefs, so that’s really nice. They also just opened up a new school cafeteria called “Le Tavole Accademiche,” which in English means “The Academic Tables,” where they invite a new famous chef to cook every week. The chefs are supposed to minimize food waste & have the cost be less than five euro per meal. So we’ve had Davide Scabin, who’s a two-Michelin-star Italian chef, working at our school cafeteria. That is wild. PA: What are some great dishes you’ve been introduced to? KM: In Piedmont, one of the most popular pastas is agnolotti dal plin, which is basically small ravioli stuffed with braised meat. It’s so delicious. Usually it’s done with brown butter, sage, & cheese on top, so that’s lovely. & then there’s a kind of salami they make in Veneto called soppressa. It’s a very delicate flavor, compared to most salami; the texture is softer. PA: Has the program changed how you view food? KM: I think of eating more as a cultural experience now. Traveling to different parts of Italy, the first thing that I want to do is taste what the regional product is. I think that you can’t really understand how people live in a place until you eat their food.

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SCRATCH

food made simple

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Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


words & photos by Emanuel Storch

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SCRATCH

che om r.c ck l b out Em .tum d o o anuel’s f college food blog at scratch

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Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


food made simple While studying abroad in Israel last year, I embraced my passion for cooking. There was no arranged dinner plan for the students, so I decided to create my own. I ventured to the open-air market in Tel Aviv, Shuk HaCarmel, on a weekly basis to purchase fresh ingredients. I then prepared meals using just my dorm room toaster oven & hot plate. I soon began documenting my daily meals, which led to the start of my college blog. These recipes are a sampling of what I like to cook, enjoy! Grilled artichokes make for a great springtime dish. They’re really not difficult to make & are exceptionally delicious. If you don’t have a grill, it’s ok! Just roast them under the broiler in your oven.

Grilled Artichokes You’ll Need:

4 Globe Artichokes Olive Oil

Salt & Pepper Juice of 1 Lemon

1. Cut off the sharp points of artichoke leaves with regular scissors. 2. Cut artichoke in half. 3. Scoop out the center along with the needles with a regular teaspoon. 4. Steam artichokes until leaves can be pulled off easily (you can make a makeshift steamer by using a metal colander). 5. Grill artichoke face down for 5-10 minutes. 6. Drizzle olive oil, salt, pepper, & lemon juice over your grilled artichokes.

Garlic Aioli: You’ll Need:

6 tbsp Mayo Juice of 1 Lemon 2 tbsp Olive Oil

5 cloves Minced Garlic Salt & Pepper

Place ingredients in a blender or food processor for 2 minutes, spoon into serving bowl & enjoy with ‘chokes.

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food made easy This recipe is for an Israeli dish called shakshuka & is great for sharing! It’s a spicy tomato sauce with poached egg on top, commonly served with pita bread. Shakshuka is extremely popular in Israel as well as other Middle Eastern countries. I make all of my dishes from scratch, so let’s start with a few ripe tomatoes!

Shakshuka You’ll Need:

¼ Cup of Olive Oil 1 Large Sweet Onion, chopped 5 Garlic Cloves, minced 6-8 Ripe Tomatoes, chopped

1 Bell Pepper, sliced 6 Large Eggs, yolks intact Salt & Pepper Scallion to garnish, chopped

Pour oil into a heated pan Add chopped onions & sauté with a pinch of salt and pepper. Add the minced garlic to the pan. Stir for 30 sec. Stir in chopped tomatoes & bell pepper; add salt & pepper to taste. Once the sauce starts to thicken, smooth the surface with a wooden spoon, & crack the eggs on top. Cover the pan to cook the egg. Once the eggs are cooked, it’s ready to serve. Add chopped scallion for garnish & serve with pita or laffa bread.

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Emanuel Storch is a first-year student at Union College in Schenectady, NY, whose goal is to teach students that a college diet does not have to consist of frozen pizza & ramen noodles. He tries to inspire students to eat healthfully by showing them ways to cook & prepare meals in-between busy schedules.

Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


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d l u o h s y h w s e i t i s r e v i un d o o f e k ta ? y l s u o i r se nelli g a c S drey u asco A l a y b B nna words a i G s by n o i t a illustr


Two Professors & One Noteworthy Chef weigh in on

the future of food in academia,

& they have a lot to say.

Photo credit: University of Michigan

Name: Professor Catherine Badgley Course Name: Food, Land & Society School: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Department: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Catherine Badgley has been active in the food world for decades. She & Dr. Ivette Perfecto began teaching “Food, Land & Society” in 1998 as a field course at the University of Michigan. The course brought students to local farms, urban gardens & supply stores to examine first-hand what makes up a food system. They have since transitioned to a lecture course with occasional all-day Saturday field trips. Currently there are 25 students enrolled, who examine the scientific, socio-economic, & historical aspects of modern agriculture & the food system while submitting weekly writing assignments.

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able food systems group from five different colleges to submit a proposal. They won, & received funding to hire five new faculty members, all experts in sustainable food systems. She considers the win “a sign that people from many different places within the university are recognizing how important this is as an educational topic as well as one that integrates well with academic & professional goals.” Still, student & faculty interest in food studies does not mean Food Studies majors will be popping up in the near future. However, there may be room within the academic community in a smaller capacity. “Because universities tend to be cautious in establishing new majors, typically they start out as minors. Our first step here would be designing an academic minor.”

Badgley notes, “We were very deliberate in making it not just a science course even though [Perfecto] & I are natural scientists, because that’s not all there is to the food system. The politics & the cultural connections are a big part of what the food system is all about.” Badgley credits the growing societal interest in food to the availability of information, not“Food, Land & Society” has continued for ing that folks interested in food have successfully over two decades due to student interest -- the worked to educate the public. “Today there are class attracts students from all sorts of back- many, many more books & articles & online regrounds, from science majors to those study- sources about different aspects of the food system.” ing the social sciences to undeclared majors. Additionally, she thinks the new generaBadgley feels there is a lot of support in recent years tion of college students are “broadly edufor the academic study of food. A recent universi- cated in environmental issues, & with those ty-wide challenge called for interdisciplinary aca- issues typically food is a part of the topic.” demic proposals, which led Badgley & a sustainSpring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


Fun Fact: Alice Julier, the Director of Food Studies at Chatham University, defines food studies as “An interdisciplinary field, where food scholarship examines accessibility, cultural & social justice along with distribution & food safety.”

Photo credit: Jason Varney

Name: Chef Jose Andrés Course Name: The World on a Plate: How Food Shapes Civilization School: The George Washington University, Washington D.C. Department: Teaching & Learning Collaborative

Chef Jose Andres made headlines when he announced he would teach “The World on a Plate: How Food Shapes Civilization” at the George Washington University. The 1.5-credit course, which celebrated its inaugural class in January, brought together the movers & shakers of the food world for a star-studded lecture series. The impressive lineup included Harold McGee, author of “On Food and Cooking,” Andrew Zimmern of the Travel Channel’s “Bizarre Foods,” Ellen Gustafson, co-founder of FEED Projects LLC, & Cook’s Illustrated founder Christopher Kimball. Andres taught some of the classes, while University professors & speakers spoke at others with Dr. Paula Cuello acting as the course manager. The once a week class touched on a wide array of subjects, including food security, molecular gastronomy, childhood obesity, public health & more. The Spanish chef hoped to engage his 230 students, noting, “We are not just teaching -- we are trying to bring students together to be a part of the solution.” The final assignment asked students to create an action plan for a project that uses food to effect change. The top submissions (in the form of a video) recieved signed cookbooks & a customized meal at the one of the chef ’s restaurants. Andres is pleased with his first semester of teach-

ing, but has hopes for more. “One of the dreams we have is to build a food institute. I hope George Washington [University] will one day have a center where research studies on different food issues & the connections between them will be a breakthrough.” No doubt, the chef is an advocate for the study of food as an academic subject. Andres is fascinated by the extensive role food plays within a span of issues, including “job creation, health, economic issues” & more, noting, “Sometimes food & politics are unbelievably connected.” The politically active chef has called to level the playing field for all involved in the food industry, & has weighed in on the Farm Bill. A James Beard Awardwinner, the chef owns ThinkFoodGroup, which is behind acclaimed restaurants across the country such as Jaleo, & Oyamel.


Photo credit: Rose Lincoln, Harvard Gazette

Name: Professor Michael Brenner Course Name: Science & Cooking: From Haute Cuisine to Soft Matter Science School: Harvard College, Cambridge, MA Department: School of Engineering & Applied Sciences

Michael Brenner is behind one of the most exciting (& popular) college classes in the United States -- & it’s a science class (!). For those of you who are natural pros at science & math, my hat’s off to you. For the rest of us, however, a class like this is a godsend. Is it any “easier” than a more traditional chemistry class? Not at all (if you’re looking for proof, skim the final exam on the next page).

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Brenner developed Harvard’s groundbreaking “Science & Cooking: From Haute Cuisine to Soft Matter Science” alongside colleague David Weitz & world- renowned chef Ferran Adrià. A few years ago Adrià’s visit to Harvard prompted its creation -- at first Brenner, not a “foodie,” was puzzled, noting that food “is not a mainstream research area for the point of view of academia.” As he looked more closely, Brenner was sold on the idea of teaching food as science, quoting French physicist Nicholas Kurti; “I think it is a sad reflection on our civilization that while we can & do measure the temperature in the atmosphere of Venus we do not know what goes on inside our soufflés.” Over time, Brenner has found the subject to be excellent for teaching. “The students engage in it in a way that I’ve never seen people engage in science before.” No doubth, “Science & Cooking” is applicable to everyday life -- after all, everyone has to eat. Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com

“I cannot emphasize this enough: I did not know the depth of interest in the subject by college students.” Brenner was shocked when hundreds flocked to take the class (of the 700 who registered, 43% made it into the class the first year). At the end of each lab, students get to eat their experiments, be they soufflés, fruit gelées or chocolate molten cake. The final project has inspired some incredible creations: from peanuts for people with peanut allergies to un-meltable chocolate. At the end of the year the class spotlights student projects with a capstone “edible science fair,” where the creativity is boundless. Salivating yet? There is good news: the course will be available online on edX in October for those interested. Better yet, it is free! All you need is a kitchen & you’ll be well on your way to acing that exam. Nestle ® Toll-house Chocolate Chip Cookies Recipe: *Assume all ingredients are starting from room temperature which is supplied on the equation sheet. Ingredients ·2 1⁄4 cups all-purpose flour [87 g carbohydrates; 16 g proteins per cup] 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter, softened [184 g fat; 37 g water per cup of butter]

3⁄4 cup [151 g] granulated sugar 3⁄4 cup [151 g] packed brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 large eggs [6 g fat; 6 g protein per egg] 1 (12 ounce) package NESTLE® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels [108g fat; 192 g carbohydrate; 24 g protein per package] Directions 1.PREHEAT oven to 375 degrees F.

2.COMBINE flour, baking soda and salt in small bowl. Beat butter, granulated sugar, brown sugar and vanilla extract in large mixer bowl until creamy. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition. Gradually beat in flour mixture. Stir in morsels. Drop by rounded tablespoon onto ungreased baking sheets. 3.BAKE for 10 minutes. Cool on baking sheets for 2 minutes; remove to wire racks to cool.


Try your hand at Science & Cooking’s Final Exam!

o

Final Exam

SPU 27—Science and Cooking

Science of the Physical Universe 27 Science and Cooking: From Haute Cuisine to Soft Matter Science Appetizer [12 questions, 5 points each]

60

Main Course [3 questions, 10 points each]

30

Dessert [8 questions, 5 points each]

40

*Non-science majors made up 80% of the class, & the average grade on this exam was a 90%!

Total [130 points] 130

Appetizer: [5 points each] . The following questions are inspired by events in lecture. Please answer them in one or two concise sentences water 1.In the first class, we started by vaporizing water on a hot pan. What is the molecular origin of why turns into a gas when it is fried on a hot pan? Specify the types of bonds that are broken.

optimal 3. Joan Roca is a master of sous vide cooking and discussed many of his recipes in class, such as the for a long way to cook fish. If a piece of fish in a sealed plastic bag is placed in a gently boiling pot of water method for this use not Roca does Why reach? time, what temperature will the interior of the fish eventually cooking fish? Main Course [10 points each] inspired by Several of Ferran Adria’s and Jose Andres’ chefs come to Boston to open a restaurant to serve dishes work: your show and the course. Please answer the following numerical questions about each recipe liquid which 1. A more modern way to create a foam is to use an immersion blender partially submerged in a to add need you do grams) (in lecithin much How contains a small amount of lecithin to stabilize the foam. of weight r molecula average the to your recipe to stabilize a foam with 106 bubbles of radius 10-4m? [Note: egg yolk lecithin is 825 g/mol, and one molecule takes up an area of 1 nm2 ; 1nm=10-9m.] Dessert [5 points each] on the Bill Yosses and Enric Rovira decide to collaborate to make the perfect chocolate chip cookie, building class. in famous recipe for Nestle ® Toll-house Chocolate Chip cookies that we discussed the first day 1. Taking into account all of ingredients in the chocolate chips, calculate the total energy content chocolate chips. Express your answer in Joules.

of the

undeterred, 2. The next morning you wake up with a stomach ache, possibly from tasting the raw batter. But, Now the you decide to remake the recipe into pancakes. Instead of butter, you decide to use 2 cups of milk. Is the did. milk the than y differentl flows batter is a liquid and it flows; however, you notice that the batter t. argumen r molecula viscosity of the batter greater or less than that of plain milk? Explain why with a

(Good news: The answers are on the next page)

the mo2.We next showed that an egg undergoes a different transformation and becomes a solid. What is pan? hot a lecular origin of why an egg becomes a solid when it is fried on


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Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com

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Appetizer: 1. A: Thermal energy causes the molecules to move faster, eventually breaking hydrogen bonds (b/w H and O) and converting into kinetic energy as the molecules escape the surface of the liquid and enter the vapor phase. 2. A: Heat denatures the ovalbumin proteins in the egg, causing them to individually unfold and then to coagulate with each other, forming a solid. 3. A: After enough time, the entire fish will come to thermal equilibrium with the gently boiling water at 100 degrees Celsius. This is not ideal, because the target temperatures (protein denaturation temperatures) for fish occur well below 100 degrees Celsius. A constant temperature bath allows a chef to precisely control the temperature of his food, though it does take longer because the external temperature is the same as our target temperature; the heat transfer law tells use that (technically) we can never reach this external temperature, but this is just because our law is an approximation. Practicably, we reach this temperature after several tau.

Main Course: 1. A. To calculate how much lecithin we need, we first need to find the total surface area of 10^6 bubbles, each of radius 10^-4 m: Total surface area = # of bubbles * 4Ď€R^2 / bubble = 10^6 bubbles * 4Ď€ (10^-4

m)2 / bubble = 0.126 m^2. Each molecule of lecithin has a footprint of 1 nm^2 = 1^-18 m^2, so we need 0.126 m2 / 1^-18 m^2 = 1.26 x 10^17 molecules of lecithin to cover all the bubbles. To convert to grams: molar mass of lecithin * 1/NA * # molecules of lecithin = 825 g / mol * 1 mol / 6.02 x 10^23 molecules * 1.26 x 10^17 molecules = 1.7 x 10^-4 grams of lecithin.

Dessert: 1. A: 972 Cal Fat: 108g x 9 Cal/g = Carb: 192g x 4 Cal/g = 768 Cal Protein: 24g x 4 Cal/g = 96 Cal Total: 1836 Cal OR 108x9+(192+24)x4=108 x 9+216 x 4=1836 Cal Unit Conversion: 1836 Cal x 4.18 kJ/Cal = 7674 kJ Answer: 8000 kJ, 8,000,000 J, (7,700 kJ or 7,700,000 J is OK) 2. The batter does not flow as easily / flows more slowly than the milk, so the viscosity of the batter is greater than that of the milk. This is because of the presence of thickeners in the batter (primarily long starch molecules from the flour, as well as smaller contributions from the sugar and other ingredients), which tangle with one another to impede the flow of the liquid, thereby increasing the viscosity over that of the plain milk.

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when a SCIENCE MO 30

Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


ODEL becomes dessert ted ec f r e p g n i d d u p plum

31


By Audrey Oldenkamp & Chelsea McConnell

o

electrons

o

possitively r matte charged

What in the world is plum pudding? This is what I asked myself in chemistry class when I first heard about J.J. Thompson’s plum pudding model in our discussion of the atom. Sure, I’d heard of rice pudding, banana pudding, & the classic chocolate & vanilla varieties, but never of this specific British dessert. Subsequently our study of the atom continued, & my confusion concerning why the entire class had never heard of or tried this dessert was dismissed.

J.J. Thompson is credited with the discovery of the electron through his work with cathode rays, & must have had a thing for British sweets. In his experiments, cathode rays were deflected by electrically charged plates & magnets which indicated the presence of bodies that are smaller than atoms. Thompson was able to estimate the charge of these bodies -- which are known as electrons -& soon developed his plum pudding model of the atom. In this model, the negatively charged electrons, the “plums,” are enclosed by the positively charged “pudding.” This model was later disproved, but is nonetheless an instrumental step in the development of the atomic model. Additionally, Thompson won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1906, for this & other discoveries. (He’s also acknowledged for his development of the mass spectrograph, a device used to determine the molecular formula & structure of a compound. Thompson’s colleagues continued the development of this instrument which in turn

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led to the discovery of isotopes.) After placing my inquiries about British desserts on the back burner, I later learned that plum pudding is actually very similar to dense bread pudding, something I had not yet sampled when initially learning about Thompson’s model. It can be thought of as a steamed cake with plums strewn throughout. So instead of visualizing wet, gloppy pudding from a box, I should have been picturing delicious custard-like cake filled with nuts, fruit, & spices. Therefore, in honor of J.J. Thompson & his contributions to the scientific community, we decided to satisfy our chemistry curiosity by making a college-friendly, microwavable version of plum pudding. I’ve recently been enjoying recipes for microwave cakes & desserts due to their simplicity & size & this recipe fits these criteria perfectly. It can easily be modified to share with friends & chemistry enthusiasts alike.


sweet plum walnut pudding (steamed cake) with lemon sauce

pudding ingredients recipe 1 egg (beaten) 1 Tbs water 2 Tbs butter (softened) ¼ cup sugar ¼ cup applesauce ¼ tsp vanilla ¼ tsp lemon juice ¼ cup flour ¼ tsp cinnamon ½ tsp baking soda 1/16 tsp allspice (half of 1/8 tsp) 1/16 tsp salt (half of 1/8 tsp) 2 Tbs (1/8 cup) walnuts (coarsely chopped) ¼ cup dried pitted plums or prunes (About 7 prunes, cut into ¼’’ pieces)

Grease 2-10oz custard cups with butter. In a small bowl beat together egg & water. In a different bowl, beat butter & sugar. Add half of the egg mixture. (Reserve remaining egg mixture for lemon sauce recipe below.) Add apple sauce, vanilla, & lemon juice & stir until combined. Add flour, cinnamon, baking soda, salt & allspice. Blend well. Stir in the chopped walnuts & prune pieces. Spoon into two custard cups. Cover with plastic wrap & microwave on medium high for 5 minutes. (Tested with a1100W microwave for 5min at 60% power). Let pudding sit covered for 5 minutes. Remove plastic wrap & drizzle lemon sauce on top (or loosen with a knife & remove from custard cup & serve on a plate with lemon sauce drizzle).

lemon sauce ingredients recipe 2 Tbs butter ¼ cup sugar 1 Tbs lemon juice

Melt butter in a glass liquid measuring cup on high for about 30 seconds in microwave. Whisk in the sugar, lemon juice & half of the remaining egg/water mixture (quarter of an egg). You will have quarter of an egg left which is not needed for the recipe. Whisk sauce well & microwave for 1:30-2min on high. Make sure to stop the microwave & stir sauce every 45 seconds. When lightly thickened, drizzle on plum pudding. Yield: 2-10oz custard cups of pudding with lemon sauce. Serves 2 people. Serve warm. Substitutions: Allspice may be substituted with cinnamon. Prunes may be substituted with raisins or other dried fruit.

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penn appétit

N2

N C Cu

COPPER & EGG WHITES

CH 3

AN UNDENIABLE CHEMISTRY

B Y RO S AL I N D R E Y N O LD S PH OTO B Y I A NA FE LIC IA N O

When whipping egg whites, be sure to do so in a copper bowl. This advice dates back to 18th century France & remains a rule of thumb for pastry chefs today. Such ancient wisdom may seem outdated, or even ridiculous, especially when a good copper bowl can cost over $100, far more than its enamel or stainless steel counterparts. Why, then, does the practice of using copper continue? The answer lies in the chemistry of the molecules that form egg white foam, as explained by Harold McGee in On Food and Cooking, his acclaimed kitchen science book. When egg whites are beaten, their proteins denature, or break

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apart. They then re-coagulate to form a thin film that supports the foam. If over-beaten or left to stand for too long, the egg whites will collapse & begin to drain liquid—a mistake that would ruin an otherwise elegant soufflé. Copper ions, or Cu 2+, solve this problem. By binding to conalbumin, one of the major proteins in egg whites, copper helps stabilize the foam structure. The stabilization occurs because Cu 2+, a positive ion, attracts negatively charged portions of conalbumin, holding them together and forcing the entire protein to maintain its shape. The copper-conalbumin complex is less likely to denature under the force of being beaten

or after being left to stand. The added stability means that egg whites beaten in copper bowls take nearly twice as long to form peaks than those beaten in glass vessels. Once stiff, the copper-conalbumin complex also retains its shape & drains much less liquid if left to stand than egg white proteins alone. Restaurants in particular benefit from this science: By beating egg whites in copper bowls, they gain more time & flexibility to complete a table’s order, without compromising the texture of the dish. While the 18th century French chefs may not have known it, it turns out their egg white wisdom was based on a cornerstone of real chemistry.

CH 3


ix M g in k o o C Our y B k o o C o t s e n u T d e k c i p d Han Oriel

ina Words by Christ

Spring is in the air & we can list all of the reasons why we adore this season -- the fresh produce, outdoor dining, & of course, school winding down & transitioning into summer vacation. With every C&C issue, we bring you another compilation of tracks we currently have on repeat, especially while in the kitchen. Head over to 8tracks & listen for yourself! (We dare you not to move around & tap your feet while cooking…)

“Day Dreams” By Midi Matilda

q

o en t List tracks e thes e! or &m

This song is instantly catchy with its airy synths & piano notes, making it the perfect background music for whatever you’re doing at the moment… which could be day dreaming about the nearing summer season.

a “entertainment” by phoenix

The upbeat pop sound combined with simple, soft lyrics will inspire some creativity into your culinary endeavors. As soon as the song is over, you’ll be itching to press the repeat button.

“lose yourself to dance” by daft punk

With the clapping drums and guitar hook, this track gives off a 70s, disco vibe that will make you tap your feet or start dancing. Like the title suggests, you could easily lose yourself to dance, but be careful -- you don’t want to get too enthralled.

“let’s go home” by best coast

An upbeat melody that encapsulates feelings of homesickness & excitement to end school & enjoy the sunny weather.

“always spring” by i’m from barcelona

The mix of instruments help energize this track & get to the heart of what spring is all about. It’ll lift your spirits & put you in a bubbly mood.

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t a one tomato

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Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


it

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Fighting for Change one tomato at a time words by Allison Casey

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Photo credit JJ Tiziou. JJ is a photographer specializing in portraiture & movement documentation. He covered the 2013 March for Rights, Respect & Fair Food with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers & their allies in its entirety. You can check out his website at www.jjtiziou.net. Spring 2013 | collegeandcook.com


I was left with a deeper respect for the people who spend tireless days working to keep their own families -- & everyone else -- fed.” This spring break, I participated in an Alternative Break that ventured to Immokalee, Florida with 23 other students & staff from my university. Immokalee, a unique community made up of migrant farmworkers, is responsible for a third of the country’s tomatoes (so you’ve probably had a few Immokalee tomatoes in your day). When fundraising for the trip, a lot of people questioned whether there was a real need for service in Florida -but the average Immokalee family makes just $10,000 annually. We not only did service work with the children of migrant workers, but we were immersed in the culture of this migrant community. We watched the sun rise from the parking lot where men waited to be bussed them to the fields. We toured the farms themselves, & met with countless non-profits invested in improving this community. I expected to spend the week learning about the issues facing migrant farmworkers in Florida’s tomato fields (& I definitely did that), but I also came away with a much greater sense of where the food I eat comes from & the amount of work that goes into every single thing I take a bite of. I was left with a deeper respect for the people who spend tire-

less days working to keep their own families -- & everyone else -- fed. In recent years, working conditions in the fields of Immokalee have improved greatly, with a lot of help from the Coalition of Immokalee Workers. The CIW has been sending their list of demands to large national corporations who rely on Immokalee tomatoes, asking them to join in to the CIW’s New Day movement. We had the opportunity to participate in one of their energetic marches asking a grocery chain in Florida for a penny more per pound of tomatoes to go to the farmworkers. Corporations that sign on to this agreement promise to ensure basic work rights at farms they buy produce from, ensuring bathroom breaks, occasional shade from the Florida sun, & are free of sexual harassment & physical abuse in the fields. The good news is that many wellloved chains have risen to the challenge to protect the rights of Florida’s workers; you can buy guilt-free tomatoes at Trader Joes, Whole Foods, Chipotle, Subway, the Sodexo-run dining halls on many college campuses, & at many other chains which have become a part of the fair food movement.

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Philanthropy & the

southern university


Washington D.C.’s

taste of the south

AUBURN UNIVERSITY | UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA | UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA | UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY | UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE | MISSISSIPPI STATE SOCIETY | OLD MISS ALUMNI ASSOCIATION | UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-COLUMBIA | CLEMSON UNIVERSITY | UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA | SEWANEE: THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH | UNIVERSITY OF MEMPHIS | UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE AT CHATTANOOGA | VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY | TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY | TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY words by Audrey Scagnelli photos by Matt Torrenzano

Washington D.C. is a city known for manya-charity event, but Taste of the South stands out from the crowd. “TOTS,” as it is often referred to, was founded in 1982 by a group of southerners living in the District, & is organized by a group of 44 hardworking committee members. Since its inception the annual event has grown by leaps & bounds, but continues to donate its proceeds to Southern-based charities. This year, TOTS raised nearly half a million dollars (!), which was split amongst 14 charities (one from each participating state). The event would not be possible without support from southern institutions -- C&C was delighted to learn 16 universities across the South donate everything from bumper stickers to dairy & meat products for the event. Leslie Shedd, an Executive Member of the Taste of the South Committee, noted, “It’s an event that honors Southern Culture, & our universities want to be involved. It’s also a way to honor our universities.” The event is an opportunity for schools to give back & celebrate their agriculture programs. While many universities supplied free swag for the event, four donated campus-made food products. The University of Missouri-

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Columbia’s Tiger Stripe Ice Cream was a hit of the night. Missouri’s original ice cream flavor, “Tiger Stripe”, evoked pride in Mizzou grads in attendance, as the goldcolored French vanilla rippled with dark Dutch chocolate flavor was invented right on campus. (For the ice cream aficionados out there, Missouri has a rich history with ice cream dating back to the 1920’s. Their on-campus dairy plant-turned-ice cream pilot plant, Buck’s Ice Cream Parlor, is still serving scoops today.) Additionally, Texas A&M donated scores of its Texas Aggie Brand Beef Jerky, which has been made on campus since the 1980’s. The smoky treats weren’t the only Texas meat enjoyed -- Texas Tech also donated ribeye steak, blueberry sausage patties & hoagies. Texas Tech’s Meat Science & Muscle Biology instruction began in 1933, & in 2005 the university began to market its Raider Red Meats, operated by the Department of Animal & Food Sciences. Justin Cryang, who works for Texas A&M in D.C., & serves on the Taste of the South Committee, noted “It’s a great event for all the universities participating.” According to Cryang, the meat was shipped raw & cooked to the specifications of the universities.


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Taking Off

Many students attend college out-o have to fly home every break. Tha time! We all know the time betw take off can be long & miserabl to mention tricky when it com to finding decent food. Our guide’s got you covered.


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By Kaitlyn Luckow 45


When you go to the airport, you often run into one of two problems: One,

you don’t have any food to eat for hours (especially when you have a long flight ahead of you!). Two, because you know that hunger is a possibility, you eat at every given opportunity. Neither option is healthy by any means, so I sent myself on a mission: find healthy & tasty airplane/airport food. Does it even exist? I was worried vacuum sealed sandwiches & McDonalds would be my only options. The good news is that finding decent airport grub is possible & it can even be an enjoyable culinary experience -- it all depends on which airport you find yourself traveling in. Who knew? On the particular day I was seeking decent food, I flew from Milwaukee to Dallas to San Francisco. In Milwaukee, I lunched at one of the very few Milwaukee Airport options -- the delightful & local Alterra Coffee, which is based just outside of the city. There’s a definite Wisconsin flavor to the menu -- it’s loaded with cheesy-good options. For example, my grilled cheese sandwich with cheddar, pepper jack & chipotle sauce was served on homemade sourdough bread. The coffee there is strong & black, perfect for any day, but especially travel days. In fact, everywhere I went there was a distinct regional flavor in the airports; a pleasant surprise. Dallas was filled with barbecue & meat. San Francisco offered organic options & sushi. It’s fun to think a regional culinary experience is possible even if you never leave the city’s airport. It’s time to stop dreading the long & starving days at the airport & start enjoying the possibilities of uncovering culinary gold. Keep an open mind -- your best meal yet could be in an airport!

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tips FOR good travel eating: 1. Stay Hydrated This doesn’t mean wasting money on bottled water at the airport! It’s impossible to get cheap water there, so bring your own (empty) water bottle! There’s plenty of free water in the airport compliments of the water fountains. Take full advantage. 2. Bring Energy Bars There’s no guarantee that you’ll have time to eat at the airport, especially if you have a connecting flight. Sometimes only a minute separates you from one plane to the next. If you don’t have time to eat at the airport, it might be hours before you’re near food again. Energy bars are vital- they don’t taste bad, won’t break in your luggage, & they’re filling. 3. TSA Guidelines Aren’t Scary Some people are weary of packing food due to TSA guidelines. There are just a few rules, including: All food must be wrapped or in a container (excluding fruits); If you’re traveling with foodie gifts, it’s advised to keep them in checked luggage; (Don’t bring anything too weird like a cake or pizza, that’s just hard to travel with -- but if it’s for the love of the food, c’e la vie!) 4. Order the Right Drink You may not get free food on the plane, but you do still get a complimentary beverage, so choose wisely. My pick? Ginger ale. If you’re wary about flying, alcohol is not the way to go. Sure, it might make you a little more excited about flying, but it’s not going to help your motion sickness/ weariness at all. Try out my pick -- ginger naturally soothes an upset stomach. 5. Put That Prepackaged Sandwich Down! Are you really going to pay $7 for a squished sandwich with questionable ingredients? It may seem like a “healthy” option, but I will guarantee you that it’s just drenched in mayonnaise to hide any strange flavors that might exist in it. It’s healthier & about the same price to get a fresh sandwich at an airport deli. Or better yet, make one at home & take it for the ride!

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College & Cook Magazine, Spring 2013