Nanotectonica [draft]

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nanotectonica

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nanotectonica design research

Jonas Coersmeier Brooklyn, NY 2020 Pratt Institute School of Architecture


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Introduction Summary

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Historical Grounds Micrographia Propaganda in Artform Esquisses Decoratives Early Ecology and Biotechnik Drawing the Nervous System Growth, Form and Structuralism New Landscape in Art and Science Natural and Lightweight Structures Synergetics and Fullerenes Experiments in Structure Anatomy of Form Artificial Life Synthetic Plants Geometry of Roughness

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Nanographia

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Design Research SEM Lab Taxonomy Physiology Natural Probes Design Drawings Models Artifacts Fabrication Installation

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Addendum SEM Index References Bibliography People

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table of contents

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Introduction NANOTECTONICA is the encompassing term for our design-based research into the structures, aesthetics and design ramifications of the Nanoscale, which originated as project-based investigations within our architectural practice around 2000, and then developed into a series of academic seminars beginning in 2007.¹ The present publication deriving from this work, Nanotectonica, was conceived as both a textbook and a visual catalog formalizing our research and documenting our production over the past decade. As such, Nanotectonica serves as both an in-class reference following the seminars’ structures and a means of rendering our work accessible to audiences beyond those of the design disciplines. I write this as 2020 turns into 2021, just one year after the nanoscale, infectious agent now known as COVID-19 emerged to cause the greatest global pandemic in recent memory, when excess deaths due to the agent reached 10,000 per day, and mass-vaccinations to counter the agent finally exceeded one million per day - though exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere.² Instead of underscoring our shared, physiological vulnerabilities, the continuing pandemic has come to mark an unprecedented convergence of social, political, and ecological crises on a global scale, especially as contrasting vaccination maps and environmental vulnerability indices reveal our shared, systemic inequities. Indeed, the pandemic has exposed even the most subtle injustices of our built world, thereby challenging the design disciplines to, firstly, come to terms with their complicity in these injustices, and secondly, to reverse them with urgency. For any response to crises of such magnitudes to stand a chance of reversing some of these injustices, it needs to explicitly address the intricate, usually unseen mechanisms and relationships driving the crises. This entails critical considerations of the default, extractivist mode underlying any and every interaction between hu-

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Figure 1: The virions of coronaviruses

Figure 2: The corona of the sun during an eclipse

man beings and natural resources. Fundamentally, crises at global scales expose our instrumentalized idea of nature as an inadequate concept that only serves to obstruct efforts towards equity and inclusion along all ecological vectors, whether human and/or non-human, and whether nature and/or technology. In particular, the Coronavirus driving the global pandemic dramatically marks the convergence of nature and technology, as its emergence (animal-human), proliferation (humanhuman), and management (distancing, quarantine, and newly derived mRNA vaccines) pointedly refute even long-standing dichotomies between nature and technology. Coronaviruses have characteristic club-shaped spikes that project from their surface, which in electron micrographs create an image reminiscent of the solar corona, from which their name derives.³ The solar corona is an aura of plasma extending millions of kilometers from the Sun, while the spikes of the SARS COVID-2 virus are surface normals extending

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some 20 nanometer from the virion membrane. These spikes, which the virus uses to infiltrate cellular membranes, can only be seen under an electron microscope. (Optical microscopes can only resolve objects larger than 200 nanometer, or half the wavelength of visible light.) The poetic reference to the stellar effect, manifested in the naming of the deadly virus, seemingly affirms our desire for coherence across vastly different scales. Or, perhaps, it reminds us that size does indeed matter. Size Matters Our fascination with both Universality and the scale variance of physical objects has driven our design-based research into the Nanoscale. That is, we believe the desire to unify the seemingly disparate domains of quantum mechanics and general relativity should be perceived as an engine for innovation. Gravitational force is all powerful at the top of the scales, while it is insignificant at the Bottom.4 Instead, electromagnetic forces govern nanoscale interactions. The “theory of the big” sees the universe as fundamentally smooth and curved, like the stellar aura of plasmas or galactic halos, while the “theory of the small” sees the universe as essentially striated, lumpy and sharp-edged, like the club-shaped spikes projecting from the Coronavirus. Despite over a century of work, a unified quantum-gravity theory remains under construction.5 The big and small are still dancing. Design Research Our studies venture out into science and theory as they explore the idea of the smallest. They consider the smallest hypothetical body, brick, cell, point particle, and raise the problem of explaining objects exclusively in these terms – a form of

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reductionism often associated with microscopy. The studies also review dualism as a persistent yet inadequate model for describing the entanglements of nature, culture, mind and body, and how some contemporary thought turns to matter for less binary perspectives. Furthermore, they discuss the critique of classical hylomorphism, the concept of being as a compound of matter and form, and compare it with models of becoming and individuation. While striving to promote cognition through theoretical discourse, our studies are ultimately directed towards basic questions of design. How do things form, and what as designers do we have to do with it? Do we breed, seed and cultivate, or do we plan and construct? Do we collaborate with and ascribe design intelligence to machine and material, or do we simply use tools and devices to author? Design research here refers to three linked modes of inquiry: The first invests in the concept of design itself. It discusses the problem of the ‘creative act’ in its relation to media and methods (including the questions above), and offers a design methodology as testing ground for this discourse. The second engages in project-based research production. This includes historical references [see Historical Grounds] and cross disciplinary sources for cognitive and material models in support of a specific design agenda. The third entails original research production, the work with the Electron Microscope [see Nanographia and SEM lab], which simultaneously is the most concrete and speculative form of research here: concrete as it borrows its technical routine and device from the ‘natural sciences’ and produces tangible (visible) results; speculative as it turns away from objectifying and recording nature and instead proposes the multi-dimensional and interactive operations (the blind folded dance) with the electron beam as a model for the moment of design. As such it offers answers to disciplinary questions posed in the first mode, the concept of design.

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Blind Probing It may seem strange to use the microscope, an instrument often associated with atomism and mechanism, as the analog for an integrated and speculative model of design. The work on the electron microscope, however, provides access not just to the world of subvisible structures, but through its unique operating procedure to the obscure moment of design innovation. It can help externalize and thus prepare for theorizing this moment. When referred to as the ‘creative act’ this moment is often associated with the author’s inner domain and thus deemed too particular for investigation. Instead, the discussion tends to shift towards processes, means and methods of design. Nanotectonica, however, seeks to address the actual moment of design innovation as part of its first mode of inquiry, the concept of design. For technical context: Since electrons have a shorter wavelength than visible light, electron microscopes can detect smaller objects than optical microscopes. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images a sample by probing it with a focused beam of electrons that scans across its surface; the sample emits secondary electrons which carry information about the properties of the specimen surface. This information gets recorded and mapped into images that represent the surface morphology of the sample. Unlike other types of electron microscopes, the SEM has a significant depth of field, which allows it to produce three-dimensional representations reminiscent of those achieved in photography. In the absence of light, secondary electron shadows sculpt spatial effects, rendered in grayscale pixel fields. We describe the work on the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a blindfolded dance. Like in dance, the sequence of operation is multidimensional and interactive involving movement in space and time-based responsive maneuvers.

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The process is blind in two respects: Firstly, it happens in the dark; light does not enter the scene, but an electron beam like a white cane scans the probe space. Secondly, the exploration is conducted without an overview or perceptual reference to the specimen. In a process of constant reorientation, local scans only gradually assemble a sense of object gestalt. The specimen is staged in a dark vacuum chamber, electrically grounded, accessible through mediated contact only, yet in constant exchange with the operator. The SEM operator not only observes the specimen, but transforms it in the act of blind probing. Microscopists speak of “beam damage” when they refer to the effects of electron beam bombardment on the specimen and thus the creation of artifact. Similarly, physicists speak of the ”observer effect” in quantum mechanics, when the act of observation itself affects experimental findings. Beam damage is considered a side effect of the electron microscope’s imaging function. In order to minimize this effect, the operator works swiftly across an area of interest, as any persistent electron gaze would destroy the specimen. Constantly zooming, panning and sharpening the electron beam, she enters a state of focused distraction, rather than one of contemplation.6 The operator quickly develops an intuitive understanding that there is no object irrespective of her. In probing the elusive specimen, she simultaneously explores and creates new space of possible structures. The boundaries between empirical investigation and material speculation start to dissolve. In Nanotectonica the Scanning Electron Microscope does not embody the purely analytical routine of the scientific method. Instead, it operates as a model for design, both as a conceptual model for the moment of design innovation, as well as a practice model for speculative design sensibility. The former refers to the non-deterministic character of the blind search. In this model the search is conducted in a

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vast space of design potential, that comprises immanent yet unrealized forms and ideas. The search is not indiscriminate, as design intention structures the space, nor is it globally directed, as the intention acts like the electron beam locally and in real time.7 The latter model is a design trainer and refers to the actual work on the scanning electron microscope. As part of the Nanotectonica seminar, we conduct electron microscopy laboratory sessions, during which architecture students gain first-hand experience in operating the SEM [see SEM Lab]. While the work on the machine is initiated by the desire to explore sub-visible structure and to produce images of a particular aesthetic quality, it serves as a training exercise that helps develop a light touch for design speculation. Complementing the work in the studio, which practices design in the long form, the work in the SEM-lab induces an instantaneous flow of mediate interaction with material, a state of focused distraction conducive to design. SEM Aesthetics In addition, Nanotectonica embraces the SEM as a prolific machine for aesthetic production. The aesthetics of the SEM are based in part on the device’s particular ability to produce spatial effects in the absence of light and shadow. While other types of electron microscopes generate flat images that evoke a sense of abstraction, SEM-based images hold an intrinsic quality of realism. Ever so close to black and white photography, these grayscale images often render smooth gradients into blurred fields and produce a kind of detached, moody atmosphere. In some instances, however, they feature sharp-edge, high-contrast depictions of the specimen and evoke the strange illuminant effect also common in astrophotography. Highlights are blown out by secondary electrons rather than solar radiation from unearthly horizons. In either case, there is an uncanny quality to these images, which momentarily suspends the association with photography.

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The representational qualities of the SEM visuals enhance the inherent strangeness of the subvisible object. Nanoforms are less familiar to us simply because we see them less often and never directly. The inherent formal strangeness however could be a function of the different forces at work. Morphologies of the subvisible are less subject to gravitational force than those of the visible world. Electromagnetic force produces different forms. SEM representation plays with the familiar and unfamiliar describing an alien world in visually familiar terms. In New Landscape in Art and Science, Gyorgy Kepes describes how the gross world of regular sense perception can be connected to the subtle world by scientific instruments, and he establishes a relationship between images produced by these devices and those of contemporary abstract art. Images produced by the SEM often suggest just this relationship to artistic expression, possibly to a form of sublime realism. Nature View Nanotectonica studies concepts of nature and how they have changed since the advent of modern science, when humans started to abstract nature as something separate from themselves, an objectifiable domain ‘out there’. It discusses how this abstraction ushered in an epoch in which humans became the primary cause of permanent planetary change. Anthropo for “man,” and cene for “new”, the term anthropocene was introduced twenty years ago to identify the current geological age. Whether or not the term deserves a place in stratigraphic time, it is welcome in the context of this design research, as it questions the idea of a ‘natural environment’ and in consequence that of a ‘built environment’ as its counterpart. From a disciplinary perspective it exposes the human-centric agenda behind the model of built versus natural.

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Advancements in engineering and instrument development in the seventeenth century, especially those of the super (-human) sensory apparatus, the microscope and telescope, helped define the nascent scientific method, and with it the dissociative and exteriorizing concepts of nature. The microscope and the field of microscopy as it was established by Robert Hooke, Anton van Leeuwenhoek and others significantly expanded the world of direct human perception, and with it the role procedure-driven and observational methods play in early modern science. The microscope profoundly shaped the conception of science as an objectifying mode of inquiry that is based in a mechanistic and human-centric view of the world. In this view nature is considered an empirical field for investigation. The early microscopists put forth popular science publications that described the novel optical instruments and the natural objects they were constructed to observe. These publications sparked excitement about the prosthetic extension of human reach into the celestial and micro worlds and about the structures extracted from them. Written in highly accessible language and larded with illustrations, the publications exerted an immense influence over a growing audience. Representational techniques from detail-attentive genres in both the arts and engineering were used, such as anatomical illustrations, portrait drawings and scaled technical drawings. Via new reproduction and publication techniques they were distributed widely and easily carried the implicit message: We are discovering an alien world that serves us wonders and delight, and we will conquer and control it. Micrographia, published in 1665, stands as an example of such a seminal popular science book and the influence early science had on shaping mechanistic anthropocentrism. Its author, Robert Hooke, acted as both the engineer that helped define the new scientific method, as well as the artist that visualized its objectifying

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Figure 3: Looping Silk Paths - Scanning electromicrograph showing the tip of the cremaster post of a monarch butterfly chrysalid embedded in the silk pad.

view of nature. Four hundred years into the anthropocene, concepts of nature need to radically change again, not only to adapt to human-made ecological realities, but to address the unfolding climate catastrophe from within. We cannot address the crisis from the outside, as we are responsible for it – we are the crisis. The engineering and design disciplines have a particular responsibility in this transformation, not only for the immediate effect their work has on the environment, but also for the instrumental role they have played in forming the human-centric world view in the first place. Beginnings One beginning of Nanotectonica can be found in the project-based research our practice conducted for a series of speculative design proposals that explore the idea of artificial natures as architectural contexts, Green Plaza (2001), Memorial Cloud (2003) and New Silk Road (2006).8 ‘Green Plaza’ proposes a synthesis of genetically engineered flora and fauna for the dense infrastructural hub of Queen’s Plaza, New York. Memorial Cloud defines an upside down landscape over Ground Zero, a structure based on closest packing cell formations found in molecular crystal lattices. New Silk Road most directly informed the method and research interests developed in Nanotectonica over the following decade and beyond. In this project we identified structural similarity between the looping paths spun by the silkworm at subvisible scale and the paths of the ancient Chinese trade route visible on a global map. Through drawing we analyzed electron microscopy scans (Figure 3) of silk structures and derived from the study a simple substitution system, the silk code, which generates self-similar looping geometries at various scales. These geometries inform the organizational and structural

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substrate of the proposed synthetic landscape. The artificial nature theme of these early projects established an ongoing interest in concepts of nature as a field of inquiry for the design research [see Nature view]. In an academic context the exploration began in 2007 with, firstly, securing the loan of a Scanning Electron Microscope from the Hitachi Corporation to The Pratt Institute, School of Architecture and, secondly, in 2008 collaborating on a research and design project with the Interdisciplinary Nanotechnology Institute of the University of Kassel, Germany. The early electron microscopy work at Pratt was conducted with a desktop SEM set up in close proximity to the design studio, while the SEM work in Kassel was conducted at the designated institute and its laboratories. The design research in Germany culminated in an installation titled “Nanotectonica” (2009) in the gallery of the University of Kassel’s Department of Experimental Design. Since then, Nanotectonica has been offered as a design research seminar at Pratt Institute every spring semester, first in the Undergraduate Architecture program, and since 2013 in Graduate Architecture (GAUD). Various Nanotectonica installations have been on display at Pratt’s Higgins Hall including the 2010 ACADIA exhibition “Life:Information”. The work on the SEM is conducted with Pratt at external laboratories, supported by institutional and industry sponsors. Laboratories include LPI Inc. New York, Cornell University’s Center for Materials Research, and the New York Structural Biology Center. The convergence of nanotechnology with contemporary design tools, first tested in the project described above, points to a design research and production method, as well as to the pedagogical structure of the course Nanotectonica [see Design Research]. Significantly, this convergence is not limited to cataloging the phenotypical expressions of natural structures and their physiological performanes [see Physiology]. Rather, it is deployed to reconstruct, and thereby decipher, the

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form-building principles of such structures. Natural Structures here are not limited to carbon based systems that originate outside of the human world. It refers to all structures that have undergone an optimization process. Optimization here refers to a large set of conditions including: becoming better at transmitting forces or information (structural), more resourceful (ecological), more elegant (aesthetic). These natural structures may be the product of a design process, or a current state of a design process, by an engineer, designer, planner, plumber or computer scientist, breeding living algorithms, infrastructures or buildings. We consider all structures natural that support life on the planet. We first explored the convergence of nanotechnology and contemporary design tools at a time when the idea of generative architecture re-emerged in the context of digital technologies. We refer to this moment as the algorithmic project in architecture, and we discuss it critically in this design research. It is argued that the search for generative design methods, along with the critique of compositional and allegedly more deterministic methods, had been part of architectural discourse since the early twentieth century.9 Since the advent of the algorithmic project at the end of the past century, architectural effects of the generative method have been widely privileged over compositional qualities, and the two have been considered incompatible. Compositional qualities have been associated with a higher degree of direct, top down engagement by the designer, operating at the level of design expression, while generative qualities have been seen as the result of operations at the scripted substrate of the design engine. Nanotectonica is disrupting these categories and offers an integrated model for design.

Jonas Coersmeier New York City, Winter 2020

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Summary Nanotectonica examines the relationship between ‘natural’ and architectural systems through the convergence of nanotechnology and contemporary design tools. A design research and production project that studies structures and organizations at multiple scales, it utilizes computational design and fabrication techniques to grow, construct and build novel material systems, intricate assemblies, and architectural artifacts. Nanotectonica discusses changing concepts of Nature as they pertain to ecological thinking and building, and the architectural mandate in the midst of a global climate crisis. It points at the problem of distinguishing nature from technology, investigates a new understanding of living systems, in both human-made ecological realities and artificial life (AL) scenarios, and offers an integrated reading of the term ‘natural structures’. The design research employs nanotechnology, specifically the scanning electron microscope (SEM,) and digital tools of analysis for a deeper understanding of carbon-based and algorithmic structures at various scales. The investigation is not limited to the phenotypic expressions of such structures, but seeks to decipher and invent their organizing and form-building principles. While the SEM is used as an instrument for the analysis of sub-visible structures, it also serves as a model for a speculative design method, ‘blind probing’, which operates outside of the duality of the generative and determinative routines. The study refers to a lineage of naturalists, microscopists, engineers and thinkers that have explored the microworld and addressed the concept of the smallest.

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It critically discusses ideas of bionics and biomimicry, and rejects scientific and design methods that idealize and reduce nature to an empirical field for investigation. Nanotectonica aims to communicate a sense of urgency for overcoming a human-centric view of the world that has legitimized the exploitation of our planet and led to near social and ecological collapse.

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Historical Grounds Nanotectonica conjoins theory and method of design. The research examines concepts of nature and models for design, and discusses the problem of their relationship to technology, and to each other. It also practices methods of research and design production [see Design Research]. Concepts and methods are critically discussed in the context of historical precedents and along a lineage of artists, scientists and engineers, who have pioneered ecological thinking and building. A quick run-through: Robert Hooke shaped the nascent field of modern science by building microscopes and visualizing the minute bodies he observed [Micrographia]. Ernst Haeckel discovered species of the micro-world, idealized his findings in illustration and introduced the larger public to evolutionary theory as well as his own sinister version of Darwinism [Propaganda in Artform]. Rene Binet translated Haeckel’s art forms to Art Nouveau architecture and decoration [Esquisses Decoratives]. Raoul France promoted the integration of biological processes with technology and laid ecological ground in periodicals on life in the micro-world and in the soil [Early Ecology and Biotechnik]. The work of Hooke, Haeckel and Francé raises the problem of representation as it relates to the dissemination of particular views of nature. The aesthetic discussion addresses the detached, decontextualized specimen drawing and the analytical autopsy drawing as models for architectural representation. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, like Hooke and Haeckel, drew structures related to what he saw through the microscope, often in the form of analytical studies of synaptic connections whose functional implications led him to develop the Neuron Doctrine [Drawing the Nervous System]. D’Arcy Thompson’s drawings of topological transformation promote physical laws as determinants of biological form and structure, an alternative model to natural selection in species development [Growth, Form and Structuralism]. Associating these modes of representation in biology to drawing conventions in architecture, Cajal’s work combines the functional diagram with the detail section, while Thompson uses the diagram as an operational drawing.

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Gyorgy Kepes re-established the relationship between scientific investigation and artistic expression on the cusp of the digital revolution by correlating scientific imaging with contemporary abstract art [New Landscape in Art and Science]. Frei Otto devised open taxonomies for ‘natural structures’ and included in this category procedurally optimized engineering systems for which he built analog computation models [Natural Models and Lightweight Structures]. Buckminster Fuller developed – along with his part-to-whole concept of energy and synergy – a geometrical system of tetrahedron and octahedrons. It became the basis for the geodesic dome, which, as was later discovered, resembled the molecular structure of the fullerene [Synergetics and Fullerenes]. He related his studies on tension networks to radiolaria in order to understand the properties of ‘skeletal’ structures. Robert Le Ricolais like Haeckel, studied radiolaria, and like Fuller, was interested in the tensional integrity of such natural structures, which inspired his tensegrity models and space frame structures [Experiments in Structure]. Anne Griswold Tyng related morphology and geometry, specifically the study of platonic form to human consciousness, and wrote extensively on gender issues in architecture [Anatomy of Form]. Christopher Langton defined Artificial Life as ‘life as it could be’ and attempted to expand the field of biology beyond carbon based organisms to include human initiated living systems and synthetic natures [Artificial Life]. Aristid Lindenmayer developed a formal system for rewriting strings of symbols that describe the developmental processes of plant structures and their behaviors [Synthetic Plants]. Stephen Wolfram ran cellular automata to show that computation must be explored experimentally, and that we could compute the physical universe if we only had enough CPU power [New Kind of Science]. Benoit Mandelbrot developed a theory of self-similarity in natural systems and coined the term “fractal” [Geometry of Roughness].

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Micrographia

Robert Hooke, England 1665 In 1665 Robert Hooke opened up the world of sub-visible structures to the general reading public. With Micrographia: or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses he published the first significant work on microscopy, and triggered public curiosity for the wonders of the microworld that lasts to this day. The immediate impact the publication had on its large audience is in part ascribed to Hooke’s accessible writing style and the detailed illustrations through which he shared his observations. Micrographia elevated objects that might have otherwise been dismissed as too trivial or repulsive for deeper exploration (edge of a razor, point of a needle; urine, lice and fleas) to a level of aesthetic wonder by comparing their structures at micro scale to their known expression at visible scale. Beyond its popular success in communicating the power of the microscope, Micrographia is also considered a foundational work of modern optical physics, and it has made significant contributions to the instrumental development of the microscope. Robert Hooke devised a compound microscope and illumination systems, which allowed him to study, in more detail than ever before, organisms such as insects, sponges, bryozoans, forams, and bird feathers. He famously coined the term ‘cell’ as it is used in biology today, when he observed the micro-structures of cork and other plants that reminded him of the arrangement of cells in a monastery. In Micrographia Hooke also analyzed microscopic fossils and described their organic origin, which led him to become an early proponent of biological evolution. Figure 1 (top): Drawings of a Microscope devised by Hooke. Figure 2 (bottom): Cell structure drawings.

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Next to Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke is considered the most versatile 17th century English scientist; he was not only a pioneer in microscopy, but also as an astronomer, biologist, inventor, mapmaker and architect. After the Great Fire of London in1666, Hooke became one of the city surveyors appointed to help the city in its rebuilding process, inspecting and mapping the ruins and developing new building regulations. In his map of the fire damage to London (Figure 6) he adds below the commissioned survey


plan his own vision for the city, a Cartesian grid system made up of similar-sized blocks. “Descartes is the author to whom Hooke most frequently refers in Micrographia, and the Principia Philosophiae is the work he cites most often.”1 The microscope and the field of microscopy as it was established by Robert Hooke, Anton van Leeuwenhoek and others in the seventeenth century, significantly expanded the world of direct human perception, and with it the role procedure-driven and observational methods play in early modern science. It is argued that the microscope profoundly shaped the conception of science as an objectifying mode of inquiry that is based in an atomistic, mechanistic and human-centric view of the world, which considers nature as an empirical field for investigation.2 [see Nature View]

Suggested readings: Hooke, Robert. Micrographia or some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies made by magnifying glasses. [With Observations and Inquiries thereupon.] Lawrence R. Griffing (2020). “The lost portrait of Robert Hooke?”. Journal of Microscopy. 278 (3): 114–122. doi:10.1111/jmi.12828. PMID 31497878. Chapman, Alan (1996). “England’s Leonardo: Robert Hooke (1635–1703) and the art of experiment in Restoration England”. Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. 67: 239–275. Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Howard Gest, “The discovery of microorganisms by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Fellows of The Royal Society”, Notes Rec R Soc Lond, 2004 May;58(2):187–201.

Figure 3 (top): Scheme XXXV of Micrographia Figure 4 (bottom): Scheme XXXIV of Micrographia.

O’Connor, J J & Robertson, E F (August 2002). “Hooke biography”. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St. Andrews, Scotland. Archived from the original on 16 July 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010. Wilson, Catherine. The Invisible World, Early modern philosophy and the invention of the microscope. Princeton University Press 1995.

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Propaganda in Artform Ernst Haeckel, Germany 1899

Physician, zoologist and artist Ernst Haeckel discovered numerous species and coined key terms in biology. His many illustrated publications have been highly influential in art and popular culture, and they are credited for having prepared the wide acceptance of Darwinism as a biological theory during the early 20th century in Germany. Haeckel’s drawings describe the morphology of species in terms of platonic geometry; and they stylize, often idealize, the natural structures he discovered. His highly popular taxonomy diagrams and species illustrations helped disseminate his particular ideology. He derived from his version of evolutionary theory a general critique of dualism, and declared monism as the link between religion and science. Ernst Haeckel also propagated a form of social Darwinism. His phrase “politics is applied biology” has been used to justify racism, which casts a shadow over his achievements as a scientist and illustrator. It also stands as a reminder of the dangers of totalizing ideas and forms of representation.

Figure 1 (top): Cover of Art Forms in Nature Figure 2 (bottom): Cyrotoidea, Radiolaria illustration by Haeckel

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While Haeckel’s taxonomic work has made significant contributions to the field of biology, his work on evolutionary theories has been largely debunked. For example, Haeckel is well known for his idealized illustrations in support of “recapitulation theory”3, which claims that the embryonic development of animals resembles the successive adult stages of its species evolution. Today this idea is sufficiently disproved and considered part of “biological mythology”. The prevailing idealistic philosophy (Hegel et al.) of the time played an important role in Haeckel’s belief in the progressive perfection of embryonic growth.


Haeckel used his stunning illustration work as propaganda to advertise his very particular worldviews. In the 1860’s he received breakthrough recognition by describing and illustrating a variety of new species of radiolarian. Yet it has been argued that Haeckel’s artistic representations reveal his non-Darwinian approach. Darwin emphasized the variability of organisms, the very material of evolutionary adaptation and development; while Haeckel showed no interest in variable traits.4 Haeckel’s most widely distributed publication Art Forms in Nature inspired and provoked artists such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky and Max Ernst, and impacted the Jugendstil movement at the beginning of the twentieth century. The publication consisted of obsessively detailed illustrations of maritime species and other animals, staged as decontextualized artifacts. Haeckel intended to evoke a deep affection for nature in his readers, which he believed could only be inspired by vivid illustration. His specimen drawings are not exact anatomical depictions, but idealized artistic interpretations. He rendered the perfect versions of the natural structures he discovered – ornate, speckless and geometrically coherent. He aimed at revealing a certain morphological essence of each creature he discussed, a kind of a prototype state of a mathematical order. He was convinced that to depict the wonders of nature accurately was not only to discover “the laws of their origin and evolution but also to press into the secret parts of their beauty by sketching and painting.”5 Ernst Haeckel was famous for his idealized representations and classifications of natural structures and became a towering presence as an evolutionary theorist at the turn of the century.

Figure 3: Geometric analysis, morphological study of plants

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Suggested readings: Hawkins, Mike (1997). Social Darwinism in European and American Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 140. “Ernst Haeckel” (biography), UC Berkeley, 2004, webpage: BerkeleyEdu-Haeckel Kutschera, Ulrich; Levit, Georgy S.; Hossfeld, Uwe (1 May 2019). “Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919): The German Darwin and his impact on modern biology”. Theory in Biosciences. 138 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1007/s12064-01900276-4. ISSN 1611-7530. PMID 30799517. David, Brody (2002). Ernst Haeckel and the Microbial Baroque. Cabinet Magazine, Issue 7. Watts, E., Levit, G.S. & Hossfeld, U. Ernst Haeckel’s contribution to Evo-Devo and scientific debate: a re-evaluation of Haeckel’s controversial illustrations in US textbooks in response to creationist accusations. Theory Biosci. 138, 9–29 (2019). Haeckel, Ernst. Art Forms In Nature. (reprint of 1904.) Prestel Pub, 2004. Richards, Robert J. (2009) The Tragic Sense of Ernst Haeckel: His Scientific and Artistic Struggles. Ernst Haeckel, The Riddle of the Universe (New York: Harper & Bros., 1900) Christoph Kockerbeck, Ernst Haeckels ‘Kunstformen der Natur’ und ihr Einfluß auf die deutsche bildende Kunst der Jahrhundertwende (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1986). Haeckel, Wanderbilder [p. 3 of the unnumbered pages]. Peter Bowler, The Non-Darwinian Revolution: Reinterpreting a Historical Myth (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988), 83 Figure 4 (top): Plate sketch by E. Haeckel Figure 5 (bottom): Art Forms in Nature illustration plate draft

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Figure 6: Keimesgeschichte des Antlitzes Figure 7: ‘Ueber die Arbeitstheilung’in Natur und Menschenleben.’ First book pages. (‘About the Division of Labor in Nature and Human Life’)

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Esquisses Decoratives René Binet, Paris 1904

Esquisses Décoratives is a portfolio of architectural details and decorative items designed by René Binet. An expression of French Art Nouveau style the publication features intricately rendered drawings of various industrial design pieces including furniture, jewelry, ceramics and wallpaper (Figure 1). Binet’s work is an early example of the influence Ernst Haeckel has had on representations of nature in art, design and architecture throughout the 20th century. Esquisses Décoratives is directly based on Haeckel’s Art Forms in Nature and resembles the precedent publication in several ways. The highly stylized form of specimen illustrations introduced by Haeckel is continued in Binet’s drawings of artifacts. In many cases the detached, solitaire appearance of natural objects in one work is mirrored by the decontextualized presentation of design objects in the other. The composition of the individual drawings on the folio pages is distinctly arranged in both cases, so that natural and decorative objects appear staged. The most striking similarity however lies in the morphological continuity between the natural specimen and the artifacts depicted in these publications. Binet makes direct use of the formal repertoire and the geometric syntax laid out by Haeckel, and in many cases he refers to the same species discussed in the taxonomic illustrations, chiefly radiolaria. Binet has made no secret of this affinity. In a letter to Haeckel discussing Esquisses Décoratives he writes:

Figure 1 (top): Cover of Esquisses Decoratives Figure 2 (bottom): Monument gate at the entry of the exposition on the Place de la Concorde

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The book that I will be publishing will clearly demonstrate the high value of your works, and it will assist those, who do not know very much about the history of these infinitely small creatures, to understand the significance of artistic forms.6 The art critic Gustave Geffroy, who wrote the preface to Esquisses Décoratives, argues that Binet’s fascination with Haeckel’s work is not simply based on an aesthetic alliance, but that the architect’s work embodies Haeckel’s particular version of evolutionary theory.


Rene Binet was a prominent architect and painter of the Art Nouveau. Trained as an architect under Victor Laloux at the École des Beaux-Arts, he constructed various magasins du printemps (department stores) in Paris. His most significant built work however, was the main entry for the 1900 Paris Exposition on the Place de la Concorde. The monumental gateway that housed the many ticket offices for the exhibition was inspired by various motifs from flora and fauna. The overall form and structural part of the building with its particular arch-dome hybrid is arguably derived from Haeckel’s radiolaria. These tiny sea creatures also occur on a smaller scale in the building at the level of surface ornamentation. Although the radiolaria took center stage as inspiration, various other creatures and animal parts were depicted in the rather eclectic design, among them shells and flowers, cells of a beehive, vertebrae of a dinosaur and peacocks. In addition, the structure incorporated commissioned sculptures of human figures, many representing common themes of world fairs such as labor, progress and national identity. A main feature of the design was the use of electrical light that achieved particularly immersive effects. Electricity was a prominent theme for the structure, narrated both through lighting effects as well as in symbolic sculptural representations. The sometimes heroic and sometimes esoteric discussion of electricity in Binet’s gateway design has been linked to Ernst Haeckel’s particular theory of electricity as the originating and continuing force of life.7 The gateway marked the moment of entry to the world fair as a fantastic and strange experience. It presented a large variety of symbolic imagery that did not form a coherent message, but rather a multiplicity of sometimes conflicting ideas. In particular, the structure expressed diverging concepts of nature. On the one hand it adopted a rather rational position within the emerging discourse on evolutionary theory, depicting nature motives of evolving organisms; on the other hand it expressed a more mystical and pseudo-religious view of nature, expressed in exotic and idiosyncratic motifs. Here

Figure 3 (top): Chapiteau, Esquisses Decoratives, 1896. Figure 4 (bottom): Clou, Esquisses Decoratives, 1896.

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a parallel can be drawn to the conflicting forces in Ernst Haeckel’s theories. Haeckel was possibly the most influential proponent of evolutionary theory claiming secular objectivity in his visual and textual arguments for this scientific approach. However, he developed a particular branch of the theory, and derived from it a general critique of dualism. He declared monism as the link between religion and science and founded the Monist League, a religious society. [see Propaganda in Artform] Suggested readings: ‘René Binet – Esquisses Décoratives & the Protozoic Façade of Porte Monumentale’ posted on May 25th, 2013. Lydwine Saulnier-Pernuit et Sylvie Ballester-Radet (dir.), René Binet, 1866-1911, un architecte de la Belle Époque, Sens, éd. Musées de Sens, 2005, 140 p. [catalogue de l’exposition des Musées de Sens du 3 juillet au 2 octobre 2005]. Binet, René, & Geffroy, Gustave. (1900). Esquisses décoratives. Librairie centrale des beaux-arts. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5479/sil.702168.39088009903998 Olaf Breidbach, Robert Proctor. Rene Binet: From Nature to Form. Prestel, 2007. 379133784X, 9783791337845 Proctor, R. W. (2009). A World of Things in Emergence and Growth: René Binet’s Porte Monumentale at the 1900 Paris Exposition. In C. O’Mahony (Ed.), Symbolist Objects: Materiality and Subjectivity at the Fin-deSiècle (pp. 220-244). Rivendale Press. Gustave Geffroy, preface to René Binet, Esquisses décoratives (Paris: Librairie Centrale des Beaux-Arts, [n. d.]), pp. 6-7 Figure 5 (top): Brique, Esquisses Decoratives, 1896. Figure 6 (bottom): Voussure et Arc. Esquisses Decoratives, 1896.

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Eric Hobsbawm, ‘Mass-Producing Traditions: Europe, 1870-1914’, in Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (ed.), The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. 263-307 (304).


Figure 7 (top): Radiolaria studies

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Early Ecology and Biotechnik Raoul Heinrich Francé, Vienna 1923

Raoul Francé was a microbiologist, botanist and prolific author of natural philosophy. He was also the editor of various popular science magazines, including Mikrokosmos the periodical of the German Mycological Society which he founded in 1906. France introduced the idea of Biotechnik, which describes living systems in terms of technological mechanisms, and biological processes as models for engineering systems. Today Francé is considered the founder of Bionics, the field that refers to just this flow of concepts from biology to engineering and vice versa. Francé’s wife Annie Francé-Harrar, also a well-known biologist and author, worked throughout the years by his side and continued parts of his scientific work after he passed in 1943. Francé’s ideas of integrating natural and technological systems have been illustrated in various of his books, including Die Technischen Leistungen der Pflanzen (The Technical Achievements of Plants) in which he draws direct parallels between natural structures and machines [Figure 3]. As part of his Biotechnik concept, France argues that all processes in the world employ a combination of seven Grundformen or basic technical forms: Crystal, sphere, plane, rod, ribbon, screw and cone. He referred to processes of both the human and natural world, including architecture, machine elements, crystallography, chemistry, geography, astronomy, and art- every technique in the world’. 8

Figure 1 (top) : Die technischen Leistungen der Pflanzen Figure 2: Die statischen und mechanischen leistungen der pflanzenzellen, Die Technischen Leistungen der Pflanzen, R. H. France Leipzig, 1919.

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Francé is also considered a pioneer of modern ecological thought. With his idea of Biotechnik he aimed at providing a model for human beings to live in harmony with nature. His concepts helped shape public awareness of the inherent value of all living things, their codependencies as well as their interactions with non living entities. In his publication “Doctrine of Life”, he worked out a blueprint for the way by which human civilization could be allowed to grow without destroying the planet. The theory was popularized in 1923 as a method of creative activity called “biocentric constructivism”. This biocentric theory had a profound impact on early modernist culture. In Bioconstructivisms Detlef Mertens describes the specific ways in which it has influenced mid-1920s


artists and architects, particularly those associate with ‘international constructivism’, Lazar el Lissitzky, Kurt Schitters, Hannes Meyer, Werner Graef, Hans Richter, and Mies Van der Rohe.9 Suggested readings: Oliver Botar. The Biocentric Bauhaus. The Routledge Companion to Biology in Art and Architecture. 2017 Taylor and Francis Group. Charissa N Terranova and Meredith Tromble, The Routledge Companion to Biology in Art and Architecture.2017 Taylor and Francis Group. Detlef Mertens. Bioconstructivisms. University of Pennsylvania, ScholarlyCommons, Department of City and Regional Planning (2004). Raoul H. France, “Die sieben technischen Grundformen der Natur.” Das Kunstblatt 8, (January 1923): 5-11. Excerpt from France, Die Pflanze als Erfinder. For Mertins’ take on Mies and France, see Detlef Mertins, Mies (London and New York: Phaidon Press, 2013) 108-111, 329-331. Moholy-Nagy, The New Vision. 60-61. Quoted in Laws, “Die Wirken,” 15. On the Gropius and Moholy connections, see 76-77. Raoul H. France. Die technischen Leistungen der Pflanzen. Veit & Company. Leipzig,1919. Raoul H. France. Die Pflanze als Erfinder. Stuttgart 1920 Raoul H. France. Bios. Die Gesetze der Welt. (Grundlagen einer objektiven Philosophie IV-V. Teil). Stuttgart und Heidelberg 1921 Raoul H. France. Der Organismus. München 1928

Figure 3 (top): Der Bildungswerk der Kleinwelt Figure 4 (bottom): Der Bildungswerk der Kleinwelt

Raoul H. France. Naturbilder. Wien 1932 Klaus Henkel: Die Renaissance des Raoul Heinrich Francé. Mikrokosmos, 86 (1): 3-16, 1997 René von Romain Roth, Raoul H. Francé And The Doctrine Of Life. AuthorHouse (2000)

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Drawing the Nervous System Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spain 1852

Santiago Ramón y Cajal is known as the father of modern neuroscience and a Nobel prize-winning pathologist. His main accomplishment is the Neuron Doctrine which explains the appendage that enables neurons to make precise synaptic connections with other neurons (Figure 1). Cajal became “recognized because of his uncanny sense of the functional implications of his work.”10 A sense that as an artist let him propose theories and depict them based on what he saw through the microscope combining scientific knowledge and research of the brain’s microscopic structure. The precise representation pushed the study of neuroscience forward through detailing the seemingly endless interconnected brain cells.11

Figure 1 (top): Neuroscience sketch, The Cajal Institute Figure 2 (bottom): Neurologic Sketch, The Cajal Institute

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After graduating from the University of Zaragoza, he moved to Barcelona. This is where Cajal adopted the Golgi method of silver-staining in 1887 and when he developed all of his most important research of the brain. This method greatly enhanced the ability to study nerve cells, by modifying the Golgi method improving its capabilities. (Figure 2)To Cajal, the Golgi method was the most important invention in which he stated so poetically, ”Could the dream of such a technique truly become a reality, in which the microscope becomes a scalpel and histology a fine tool for anatomical dissection?... What an unexpected spectacle!”.12 Although, the method was not widely used within the scientific community at the time. With the new Golgi method Cajal turned his attention to the central nervous system, brain, and spinal Cord (Figure 3), making detailed drawings of neural material cover-


ing tissue samples from different parts of the brain. At the time, microphotography was not available, which meant that scientists would have to illustrate their findings as accurately as they perceived it, highlighting areas that they deemed “most important”. Decades can pass by with scientists seeing the same set of images, but if none of them accurately depict it, the discoveries go unnoticed. Cajal’s observations using the Golgi method were, in this case, the most accurate of the scientific community. He concluded that the brain was made up of individual cellular elements called neurons, unlike the previous belief that the nervous system was a continuous network or web of elements.13 Instead, he proposed that the nerve cells receive information from the dendrites carrying information into other nerve cells. With this he created the basis of how neural connections work, winning the Nobel prize in 1906, in which the electron microscope proved his findings and assumptions to be correct decades later. When Cajal drew accurate depictions of the nerve cells, he inferred connections not clearly seen in the microscope at the time, which helped propose his neural doctrine. His drawings were thoughtful depictions not of what is but of what matters and of his hypothesis. He first drew in pencil depicting everything he could see under the microscope in detail. Later; later, he fixed errors and meticulously inked the drawing. These were not merely sketches, but some of the most accurate depictions of the specimen and the brain still in use today. After drawing the hundreds of samples taken from the brain, he inferred the circuitry that makes up the neural network by putting moments of his illustrations together to conclude the more extensive connectivity at work.

Figure 3 (top): Neurology diagram, The Cajal Institute Figure 4 (bottom): Neurology diagram, The Cajal Institute

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At first, the illustrations look closer to a diagram used in architectural representation to describe global physiological functions. Cajal sliced sectional parts of the brain to see the neurons’ interconnectivity in the nervous system, much like a section in an architectural drawing that produces connections between programmatic elements. To Cajal, the most critical areas to illustrate were “the general form, the common properties and the essence of the specimen’s overall architecture”14. Furthermore, he embedded functional qualities into his drawings, like technical drawings illustrate electrical and plumbing connections through central points in the building’s systems. A technical drawing, in this case, is akin to the neuron with their dendrites reaching out to the next one relaying information to each other by creating the brain’s neural forest, which is the work he is most known for. Cajal’s illustrations are now in the Cajal Institute in Madrid, Spain, the most extensive collection of his work, with over 3,000 drawings cataloged after the second world war.15 These illustrations are still in use today at universities and institutions. Cajal’s scientific and illustrative practice questioned the problem of visualization, interpretation, and representation in scientific research16. However, it opened up a path towards a larger understanding of the world around us using science and the art of representation.

Figure 5 (top): Cortical Pyramidal cells of the brain. The Cajal Institute Figure 6 (bottom): Spinal cord and brain. The Cajal Institute

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Suggested readings: Santiago Ramón y Cajal: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906”. NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2020-06-25. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Recuerdos de mi Vida. Volume I, Madrid Imprenta y Librería de N. Moya, Madrid 1917, online at Instituto Cervantes Finger, Stanley (2000). “Chapter 13: Santiago Ramón y Cajal. From nerve nets to neuron doctrine”. Minds behind the brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 197–216. ISBN 0-19-508571-X. Newman, Eric A., Araque, Alfonso, Dubinsky, Janet M., Swanson, Larry W., King, Lyndel Saunders, Himmel, Eric. The beautiful brain: the drawings of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. New York. 17 January 2017. ISBN 978-14197-2227-1. OCLC 9389913 Llinás, R. The contribution of Santiago Ramon y Cajal to functional neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 4, 77–80 (2003). Fields, R. Douglas. Why the First Drawings of Neurons Were Defaced. September 2017. DeFelipe J. The dendritic spine story: an intriguing process of discovery. Front Neuroanat. 2015 Mar 5;9:14.

Figure 7 (top): Photomicrographs of Cajal’s original histological preparations housed at the Cajal Institute

Noë, Alva. The Art Of The Brain, On Exhibit. January, 2017. Schoonover, Carl. Portraits of The Mind: Visualizing the Brain from Antiquity to the 21st Century. Harry N. Abrams, 2010, ISBN 0810990334, 9780810990333

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Growth, Form, and Structuralism D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Scotland 1917

D’Arcy W. Thompson, a Scottish mathematical biologist, combined his expertise on natural history with mathematics in the early 1900’s drawing new perspectives into the evolutionary thoughts of his time. He promoted structuralism to dictate species form, reacting against the Darwinistic ideas taking hold of the scientific field. In1917 Thompson published his most influential work, On Growth and Form (Figure 1), where he explained the transformation between species and gave a scientific explanation on the non-evolutionary structures of life17. He presented mathematical principles that may succeed natural selection, showing that even life structures are found in inorganic nature18. Thompson believed that reducing the organic structures into mathematical principles would reveal that evolution goes through contingency instead of necessity in biology. This new new approach questioned the emphasis on the deterministic force of natural selection in the evolutionary processes.

Figure 1 (top): Skull transformations Figure 2 (bottom): Skull transformations

Thompson’s approach to comparing and analyzing the growth of organisms through physics and mathematics differed from zoology. Zoology analyzed organic forms by comparing each organisms’ anatomy, evolution, and phylogenetics. He instead developed theories for transformation from one species turning into another fully, not progressively 19. His book contained a chapter known to be the most influential, “On the Theory of Transformations, or the Comparison of Related Forms,” which shows how the species’ differences in form are geometrically represented20. He also explored ways in which the differences can be explained in simple mathematical transformations. Instead of analyzing the structure as a whole, he isolated a couple of factors and compared them on a logarithmic scale, discovering the ratio of the growth rates in different structures. Thompson’s approach to comparing and analyzing the growth of organisms through physics and mathematics differed from zoology. Zoology analyzed organic forms by comparing each organisms’ anatomy, evolution, and phylogenetics. He instead devel-

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oped theories for transformation from one species turning into another fully, not progressively 21.. His book contained a chapter known to be the most influential, “On the Theory of Transformations, or the Comparison of Related Forms,” which shows how the species’ differences in form are geometrically represented 22. He also explored ways in which the differences can be explained in simple mathematical transformations. Instead of analyzing the structure as a whole, he isolated a couple of factors and compared them on a logarithmic scale, discovering the ratio of the growth rates in different structures. Another example of the relationships he investigated were between mechanical and biological forms. As an example, he explored qualitative similarities between a Jellyfish and water droplets falling into a viscous fluid. Another correlation was the internal support in a bird’s hollow bones and the truss in engineering applications. He also related forms and mathematics through the Fibonacci sequence, exemplified in the structure of a shell (Figure 3). To demonstrate numerical relations, he created cartesian transformations that showed the variations in form between species that were related. As Thompson showed on a human skull, a chimpanzee, and a dog, the overlaid cartesian grid consistently deformed (Figure 2)23. Continuity and differential change were key to the sheet’s deformation, as one species could transform into any other species exclusively by deformation. What he touched uponwas that the key to adaptation lay in the transformation. If the sheets were continued into a pattern, a new species would be created 24. Because of the cartesian transformation’s unwieldiness, it hasn’t been used as often, but his method of analysis inspired other scientists. ‘Our essential task lies in the comparison of related forms rather than in the precise definition of each; and the deformation of a

Figure 3: Illustration of a sea shell.. Figure 4: Gastropoda pulmonata analysis

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complicated figure may be a phenomenon easy of comprehension, though the figure itself have to be left unanalysed and undefined’ 25- D’Arcy Thompson. Thompson’s theories of transformation have inspired thinkers, biologists, and mathematicians as well as architects and artists. And in a sense what I found strongly supports a core idea of Thompson’s: that the forms of organisms are not so much determined by evolution, as by what it’s possible for processes to produce. Thompson thought about physical processes and mathematical forms; 60-plus years later I was in a position to explore the more general space of computational processes. - Stephen Wolfram 26

Figure 5 (top): An approximation of a Christaller solution applied to an area of non-uniform population distribution, Bunge 1962. Figure 6 (bottom): Illustration of a sea shell with a mathematical diagram. D’arcy Thompson, On Growth and Form.

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Suggested readings: Thompson, D. W., 1992. On Growth and Form. Dover reprint of 1942 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1917). ISBN 0-48667135-6 Scholtz, G., Knötel, D. & Baum, D. D’Arcy W. Thompson’s Cartesian transformations: a critical evaluation. Zoomorphology 139, 293–308, 27 June 2020 Ball, P. In retrospect: On Growth and Form. Nature 494, 32–33 (2013). Arhat Abzhanov The old and new faces of morphology: the legacy of D’Arcy Thompson’s ‘theory of transformations’ and ‘laws of growth’ Development 2017 144: 4284-4297; doi: 10.1242/dev.137505 Caudwell, C and Jarron, M, 2010. D’Arcy Thompson and his Zoology Museum in Dundee. University of Dundee Museum Services. M. Kemp, Spirals of life: D’Arcy Thompson and Theodore Cook, with Leonardo and Durer in retrospect, Physis Riv. Internaz. Storia Sci. (NS) 32 (1) (1995) Richards, Oscar W. (1955). “D’Arcy W. Thompson’s mathematical transformation and the analysis of growth”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Smart, Steve. On growth and form 100. 31 March 2021. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Sir D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 17 Jun. 2020

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New Landscape in Art and Science Gyorgy Kepes, Hungary 1904

György Kepes was an artist, educator, theorist who studied the impact of emerging imaging technologies on visual culture. A pioneer of interdisciplinary collaboration Kepes developed a new model for creative practice that is equally invested in art and advanced technology. At the invitation of Bauhaus professor László Moholy-Nagy the Hungarian-born artist moved to Berlin in 1930 and then in 1937 emigrated to the US to teach at the New Bauhaus in Chicago. In 1967 Kepes founded the Center for Advanced Visual Studies (CAVS), an art-science research institute at MIT. His early work with the military on camouflage techniques had a lasting impact on his visual design pedagogy as well as on his position towards the military-industrial complex in Cold War America. The CAVS was at the center of the conflict during the antiwar movement of the late 1960s as students protested the institute’s involvement with defense contractors.

Figure 1 (top): Lichtenberg figures: A. R. von Hippel 1951 Photographic enlargement on particleboard Lent by Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries Figure 2 (bottom): Stroboscopic Photo, 1948, The Kepes Institute, Hungary

While there was a growing exchange of ideas amongst a number of science departments, he noticed very little discourse between the humanities and science faculties. Even when some people thought that art and science were unmixable entities, Kepes was convinced that there existed a symbiotic relationship between the two, which would only grow stronger when nourished. He believed the obvious world we know on gross levels of sight, sound taste and touch, could be connected with the subtle world revealed by scientific instruments and devices developed through technological progress. Seen together, aerial maps of river estuaries and road systems, or electron micrographs of crystals and the tree-like patterns of electrical discharge-figures are connected, although they are vastly different in place, origin and scale. He claimed that none of these similarities of forms are purely accidental, and that they are all patterns of energy-gathering and energy-distribution translated into similar processes, a theory

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he translated through the comparison of a vast array of scientific images, among them microscopic minerals, cell structures, and electric discharges with works of art. By 1947, he furthered his explorations between art and science by assembling material for his book entitled “The New Landscape in Art and Science”. The content he gathered for the book consisted of a variety of black and white enlargements of scientific photographs, and the collection of this material evolved into his exhibition “The New Landscape in Art and Science” at the MIT Charles Hayden Memorial Library. In both the book and exhibition, he emphasized the extensive visual analogies between scientific photographs and abstract art. He turned away from the naturalistic representation of plant and animal life, and towards the visible processes of growth. His goal was to portray continuities between science and art in all possible forms of visual expression, dynamic as well as static. It can be argued that Kepes was also inspired by Thompson’s work, since both publications “The New Landscape” and “On Growth and Form” consisted mainly of scientific photographs framed with an artistic intention28. His undertaking was the recurrent topos of the European Modernist culture from the early 20th century of recognizing the similarities between abstract art and natural recurring forms, which he termed “naturamorphic analogy”. Such theories of the scientific image analogy had already taken place within the discourse of France and the nature-centric worldview of “Biocentrism”. Kepes aimed at enacting an interdisciplinary “ethic” that would lead to the “union of the arts and sciences”, an ambition he achieved in his book and exhibition The New Landscape in Art and Science.

Figure 3 (top): Lichtenberg figures: A. R. von Hippel 1951 Photographic enlargement on particleboard Lent by Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries Figure 4 (bottom): Caboderay oscilloscope displays of a problem being solved by a Digital Computer. MIT

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Suggested readings: Blakinger, John R. Gyorgy Kepes: Undreaming the Bauhaus. MIT Press. M.J.M. Bijvoet: Art As Inquiry Kepes, Gyorgy. The New Landscape in Art and Science. Rawsthorn, Alice (2015-03-18). “Gyorgy Kepes, Wizard of Light and Motion, Comes Back Into Focus”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-06-11. Oliver A I Botar. György Kepes’ “New Landscape” and the Aestheticization of Scientific Photography. The Pleasure of Light, 2010. Languages of vision: Gyorgy Kepes and the “new landscape” of art and science Finch, Elizabeth.City University of New York, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2005. 3187401. Anne Collins Goodyear. Gyorgy Kepes, Billy Klüver, and American Art of the 1960s: Defining Attitudes Toward Science and Technology. Published online by Cambridge University Press: 13 January 2005 Kepes, Language of Vision. Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1944. P196. Figure 5 (top): Cabode-ray oscilloscope displays of a problem being solved by a Digital Computer. MIT Press. Figure 6 (bottom): Aquilegia Radiograph: General Electric X-rays. The New Landscape in Art and Science

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Figure 7: Transverse section of wood: 250X 1951 Photographic enlargement on particleboard Lent by Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries

Figure 8: Transverse section of Osmanthus wood: 50X 1951 Photographic enlargement on particleboard Lent by Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries

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Natural Models

Frei Otto, Germany 1972 Frei Otto was an architect and structural engineer who made significant contributions to the research, development and construction of lightweight structures. He began his work on lightweight structures during WWII at a prisoner war camp in Chartres, by creating lightweight tent structures for shelter with the minimal amount of material available. This was one of the first and many uses to which he applied lightweight structures. He was particularly interested in the economical and ecological performance of these structures. Throughout his career Otto built complex physical models to test and optimize the performance of form-active structures, often tensile structures, but also shells and arching systems. Even though he had access to structural analysis software for many of his projects, the calculations of the structural geometry were generally derived from these form-finding models, which acted as physical computation machines. The iterative process of this form finding and optimization method is one of the four main aspects we consider in Frei Otto’s legacy; together with his studies of Natural Structures, his built work (for which he often acted as the structural engineer, rather than the architect), and his fundamental research of structure system classifications (see Taxonomies). Figure 1 (top): Mannheim Multihalle, 1975 Figure 2 (middle): Olympic Stadium, Munich, 1972 Figure 3 (bottom): Physical computation model for Munich Olympic Stadium

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In the 1960s Otto developed various forms of structure systems categorizations at The Institute for Lightweight Structures in Stuttgart. Some of these systems were conceived as schematic diagrams that address relations between structures in nature, art and


engineering. Other classifications define and put in relation highly specific parameters of structures, including load cases, form, material and modes of redirecting forces. His most rigorous and detailed explorations map and compare the performance of various structures - engineered and ‘natural’ - and establish an “economical” principle. He invents a new physical performance unit, the Bic, that puts an object’s mass and structural capacity in relation. In intricate charts and drawings various structures are mapped meticulously along Bic parameters. Characteristically, they all consist of living and nonliving, natural and engineered structure, and none of them claim to chart a complete set of structures or enclosed systems. Otto founded several institutes dedicated to the research and experimentation of lightweight structures such as the Institute for Lightweight Structures and the Special Research Unit 230 in Stuttgart. He was always interested in open and multidisciplinary collaborations, and it was in the “Biology and Building Research Group” at the Technical University of Berlin that he practiced his research along with biologists and microscopists (J.G. Helmcke et al.). Together with architects and structural engineers they applied systems of analysis for tents, grid shells, and other form-active structures to understand the performance of biological structures and forms. Otto defined as “Adaptable Architecture” those structures that allow changes within their physical lifetime. He also defined the optimization of used material and built mass as the “Lightweight Principle”.

Figure 4 - 5: Natural Structures, Special Research Unit 230 (SFB 230), Jean-Marie Delarue ‘Minimal Folding’ configurations’

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According to Otto, the building structures that we have been occupying for ten thousand years are still not entirely understood, nor were they put in relation. His matrices of principal systems and applied structures have open cells, which distinguishes them from other ‘completed’ classification systems and thus invite to fill in blank spots. We identify spots for nano-structures (subvisibilia) and extraterrestrial structures within the taxonomy. Otto’s work on natural constructions is part of a rational form-finding process following natural laws, and is also part of a larger vision directed at a peaceful and free society that exists in harmony with nature.

Suggested readings: Frei Otto, Bodo Rasch: Finding Form: Towards an Architecture of the Minimal, 1996, ISBN 3930698668 Philip Drew, “Frei Otto; Form and Structure”, 1976, ISBN 0258970537, ISBN 978-0258970539 Philip Drew, “Tensile Architecture”, 1979, ISBN 025897012X, ISBN 978-0258970126 Nicholas GoldsmithThe physical modeling legacy of Frei Otto First Published May 4, 2016 Research Article, https://doi.org/10.1177/0266351116642071 MöLler, Eberhard. Nungesser, Hans. Adaptable Architecture by Frei Otto – a case study on the future viability of his visions and some forward ideas. Proceedings of IASS Annual Symposia, IASS 2015 Amsterdam Symposium: Future Visions – Historical Spatial Structures, pp. 1-12(12). International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS) Figure 6 - 8: Classification of Structures, Institute for Lightweight structures, Stuttgart (IL21)

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Figure 9: BIC chart of structural performance, Institute for Lightweightstructures, Stuttgart (IL21)

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Synergetics and Fullerenes Buckminster Fuller, USA 1895

Although Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller was never an architect, his work had a profound impact on the profession for most of his life because of his inventive and futurist ideas. His inventions were achieved by scientific research applied to design. As an author and co-author to more than 50 books, he advocated the creation of a world design science to avert ecological catastrophe and promote resource conservation, notions that were a generation ahead of their time.30 He developed numerous inventions and concepts, which impacted the world of architecture and science. Fuller was the first pioneer of prefabricated housing to understand that cost-effectiveness in this field depended entirely on a drastic reduction in the weight of the product. His 1929 project for a steel, duralumin and plastic “Dymaxion House” was for years illustrated in newspapers and magazines as the prototype for the mass-production dwelling of the future.31

Figure 1 (top): Synergetics I, published in 1975 Figure 2 (bottom): Fullerene

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Fuller developed the concept of cumulative technical advantage called ‘synergy’, and it was also him who named the whole evolutionary process which it is part of as ‘ephemeralization’. The given definition of ‘synergy’ means the behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the behavior of their parts in isolation.32 He observes the behavior of entire or whole aggregate systems, which is independent of the behavior of any of their subcomponents, if taken separately from their whole. For him, the idea that the intractable limitations of nature would yield, one by one, to the power of the human mind, explained and justified the transformation of the 18th century craftsman’s priceless timepiece into the 20th century mass produced quartz watch. The studies of energy and sinergy are accomplices, but their differentiation lies in their relationship to the subfunctions of nature. Energy studies objects isolated from their whole complex, while synergy represents the integrated behaviors instead of all the differentiated behaviors of nature’s galaxy systems and galaxy of galaxies.33 Along these concept s he developed a vectorial geometrical system, based on a tetrahedron unit combined with octahedrons called ‘Energetic-Synergetic Geometry’, a form that generated an economic space-


filling structure which led him to design the geodesic dome. Fuller was particularly interested in this dome structure because of the strength it had relative to its weight, and its large volume within a small surface area. He developed, popularized, and envisioned it in all types of structures such as houses or museums, and eventually received the U.S. patent for it. Within the realm of chemistry, the serendipitous discovery of a third allotropic form in 1985, uncovered a fundamentally different structure of closed carbon cages, which were to become known as Fullerenes. The C60 model of the new molecule resembled the geodesic dome, with 60 points joining pentagons and hexagons. The stability of the Fullerene molecule was sourced by geodesic and electronic bonding factors, a closed cage structure. This new family of non-planar carbon compounds has generated immense interest within the scientific community in such a short period of time, with thousands of papers published about Fullerenes and Fullerene-based materials to date.

Suggested readings: Encyclopædia Britannica. (2007). “Fuller, R. Buckminster”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Sieden, Steven (2000). Buckminster Fuller’s Universe: His Life and Work. ISBN 978-0738203799. Martin Pawley. Buckminster Fuller. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York 1990.

Figure 3 (top): Dymaxion Projection of a World Map. Figure 4 (bottom): Geodesic Structures

Buckminsterfullerene, C. Sussex Fullerene Group. chm.bris.ac.uk Owen Priest. THE SCIENCE & ART OF FULLERENES Jun 12, 2009. Helix.northwestern.edu Richard Buckminster Fuller. Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking. Macmillan, 1982

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Experiments in Structures Robert Le Ricolais, France 1940

Robert Le Ricolais was an engineer fully inspired by nature, known as the “Father of Spatial Structures”. He began his career as a Hydraulics Engineer, but when he wrote an article in 1935 on “Composite sheets and their application to lightweight metallic structures” he earned recognition from the French Civil Engineering Society. Le Ricolais studied what is known as “corrugated iron”, and turned this undulation into a light structure by making clever use of the crossing undulations of two layers. He related their connectivity to a truss connectivity. In 1940 his work on three-dimensional network systems introduced many architects to the concept of “space frames”. Le Ricolais’ transdisciplinary vision and his contributions transcended the analytical mind of the engineer and the formal gestures of the architect, and gave place to a differentiated paradigm that celebrates conceptual design in structural studies.34 To observe, understand, invent, and experiment are some key applications of this tireless researcher.

Figure 1 (top): dome geometric analysis Figure 2 (bottom): Dome structural anaylisis

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Le Ricolais, like Buckmister Fuller, was interested in structural morphology defined by tensional integrity of natural structures.35 He related his studies on tension networks to radiolaria in order to understand the properties of ‘skeletal’ structures. “Radiolaria, the phenomenal vocabulary of shapes, belongs to this ancient era of creating, when highly geometrical structures prevailed. The reason for such an economy of matter is no doubt on the mysteries of Nature. Their strange and delicate structures are like scaffolding networks. The architecture of radiolaria suggests problems of major interest. They are triangular three-dimensional structures that respect the hexagonal grid framework and herald geodesics.”36 Ricolais stated that by observing the recurring phenomena in nature one can understand and solve the problem of form. His perception on the “nature” of objects, and vision for structures of the future was accompanied by research in mathematics, physics and engineering. The visions were not limited to individual selfstanding structures above or below the earth’s surface, but to the ways they can change the nature surrounding them.


A particular interest in his observations in nature was the art of the structure and form, and the positioning of holes, ‘all different in dimension and in distribution’. Le Ricolais focused his work on removing mass, with the resulting structures becoming an arrangement of space. A large part of his research manifested in his experimentation with physical models. This offered a new perspective on the potential of physical models as a conceptual device bearing figurative qualities and pertaining to the realm of generative design tools, beyond the in-scale literal representation confined in the scientific paradigm. Le Ricolais’ research practices became relevant in the contemporary debate seeking a differentiated structural design rationale in the academic discourse as well as in professional practice.37

Suggested readings: Christel Frapier, Les ingénieurs-conseils dans l’architecture en France, 1945-1975 : réseaux et internationalisation du savoir technique, 2011 (lire en ligne) René Motro Robert Le Ricolais (1894–1977) “Father of Spatial Structures”. International Journal of Space Structures Vol. 22 No. 4 2007 ‘Robert le Ricolais’s Tensegrity Models – ‘The Art of Structure is Where to Put the Holes’’, Dataisnature, 2014. M. Vrontissi. The physical model in the structural strudies of Robert Le Ricolais: “apparatus” or “hierogram”. Structures and Architecture, Taylor & Francis Group, London 2016.

Figure 3 (top): Automorphic tube Model, University of Pennsylvania Figure 4 (middle): Funicular Polygon of Revolution Pseudosphere model Figure 5 (bottom): Polyten Bridge model

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Anatomy of Form

Anne Griswold Tyng, USA 1950 Anne Griswold Tyng, was an architect who devoted her career to achieving a synthesis of geometric order and human consciousness within architecture. She got her undergraduate degree at Radcliffe College in 1942 and went on to study architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, as part of the school’s first class to admit women. After graduating and working for a couple of New York firms, she was hired by Kahn’s studio and in 1949 she became a licensed architect, the only woman accredited by the state of Pennsylvania that year. Later, she left Kahn’s studio, went back to UPenn to keep pursuing her Phd degree in architecture, and became a professor there for 27 years, where her courses were an extension of her writing and research focusing on geometric order and human scale in architecture.38

Figure 1 (top): Pascal Triangle and its diagonal summations. Figure 2 (middle): The Super Pythagorean Theorem. Figure 3 (bottom): Four poster house diagram

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Since the 1950s, when she worked closely with Louis I. Kahn and independently pioneered habitable space-frame architecture, Tyng applied natural and numeric systems to built forms of all scales, from urban plans to domestic spaces. Her work has pushed the spatial potential of architecture, and is still relevant to contemporary architects transforming complex geometry into new building forms. In 1965 she was one of the first women to receive a fellowship from the Graham Foundation Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts for her project “Anatomy of Form: The Divine Proportion in the Platonic Solids”. In her research she developed a theory of hierarchies of symmetry—symmetries within symmetries—and a search for architectural insight and revelation in the consistency and beauty of all underlying form.39 In her essay Urban Space Systems as Living Form she stated “The organic principles of asymmetry, of growth and proportion, the gradual intensification of form within the


building up of hierarchies within hierarchies, the inclusion of existing or ‘old’ forms in new forms, the interlacing of complexity within overall simplicity, the space system of a higher order which can correlate other space systems—all can provide new ways of binding the whole into a unity of moving growing form—a balanced creative image as tension between known and unknown for the spatial synthesis of collective life. “40 Her essays compiled her comprehensive statements about geometry. She believed that geometry functioned as a universal forming system in which natural and built forms are linked, as well as probability and perception. Tyng also wrote extensively on the subject of creative conflicts between men and women emphasizing her own transition from a muse to heroine in search of an independent visible identity.41 Suggested readings: Saffron, Inga (January 7, 2012). “Anne Tyng, 91, groundbreaking architect”. Philly.com. Retrieved January 8, 2012. Whitaker, William. “Anne Griswold Tyng: 1920–2011”. Domus. Retrieved October 26, 2020. Tyng, Anne Griswold, “Simultaneous Randomness And Order: The Fibonacci-Divine Proportion As A Universal Forming Principle.” (1975). Anne Tyng, A Life Chronology By: Ingrid Schaffner, Senior Curator, Institute of Contemporary Art Philadelphia & William Whitaker, Curator and Collections Manager, The Architectural Archives, University of Pennsylvania Anne Tyng. Urban Space Systems as Living Form, Architecture Canada 45 (nos. 11-12, and vol. 46, no. 1). Berkeley, Ellen Perry; McQuaid, Matilda. Architecture : a place for women. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989

Figure 4 (top): Proposed City Tower, Louis I. Kahn and Anne G. Tyng Associated Architects Figure 5 (bottom): Hypothesis of vertical growth of the geometric system

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Artificial Life

Christopher Langton, USA 1987 Christopher Langton coined the term Artificial Life in 1987 while working for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The novel field attempts to recreate “natural” biological phenomena in computers or “artificial” media and studies the technological implications of the “living” artifact’s creation. It dates back to the Egyptians and their use of a water clock that employed hydraulic technology. Artificial life attempts to identify the fundamentals of life itself by recreating life-like behavior on human-made systems. Langton classifies this as “life as it could be,” or “Art” + “Life” = Artificial Life, adding, Life made by Man rather than by Nature.42 we attempt to put together systems that behave like living organisms. Figure 1 (top): Level of behaviors Figure 2 (bottom): Relationship between genotype and phenotype

Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence can be explained in different methods and approaches. AL can be associated with Biology and a bottom-up approach, emerging from an evolutionary process. If evolution is applied correctly, intelligent systems can emerge. On the other hand, Artificial Intelligence can be associated with Psychology and a top-down approach, connecting it from a human model of intelligence. The two fields can also be explained by comparing linear and nonlinear systems. Artificial life is a linear mechanical system with straight paths and no internal or external deviation. In contrast, Artificial intelligence is nonlinear and can’t compose a system from individual studied parts into a whole. AI has focused firstly on the production of intelligent solutions, not so much on intelligent behavior; this method goes away from how intelligence is generated in natural systems. Therefore, the complex behavior created in AI comes from serial computer programming. In contrast, Artificial intelligence does use insights from biology to explore the complexity of the interactions between information systems and structures. However, it does not intend to explain life through new systems. Langton also explored examples of computational implementation of evolutionary processes, involving some from artificial and natural selection, “Life as it could be.” First, we need to identify what it means to be intelligent or respond to external factors based on proven solutions. In other words,

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when humans make decisions based on something learned or stored in a memory, like a database that responds to the environment, constantly updating. This cognition is what separates humans from machines. We eventually separated the machineness from the process, distinguishing between the material and the process responsible for the dynamic behavior. These were called formal specifications of abstract machines. Abstract machines are made up of an abstract control structure, a “program” with a sequence of simple actions. The programming language, cellular automaton, (Figure 5) “Lamgton’s ant” (Figure 4), among others, are various methods of the abstract machines. These methods lead us to the possibility that complex natural behaviors in life can be imputed in simple generators, which can be implemented in artificial life. Simply put, for artificial life, a set of functions define life, and it is “run” in platforms suitable to the set of functions, such as software that runs in different hardware. A theory derived from the use of Langton’s cellular automata was the “edge of chaos,” which falls within the theory of “complex adaptive systems”43. The “edge of chaos” hypothesis explains that the boundary between order and chaos is where complex systems can begin to emerge, as first seen in Langton’s cellular automata44. Some explorations have led to the idea that life, the brain, organisms, and cells also operate at the “edge of chaos”.

Figure 3 (top): Langton’s ant with 30 ants placed in the same starting location Figure 4 (bottom): Langton’s Ant

Langton believed that it is necessary to create a “nature” within the artificial world. An aspect of applying behavior generation in artificial life is the Genotype & Phenotype (Figure 2). The distinction is, genotype acts as a specification of machinery and the phenotype, the behavior of that machinery45. In other words, the genotype is a set of instructions of what makes an organism, and the phenotype is the resulting structure from the genotype’s commands.46 We are on the verge of synthesizing life artificially as our methods become more like us, and we are becoming more like our machines. Where will life go from here?47 Langton is aware AL could be beneficial, but it needs a delicacy in handling this new technology with the social implications it may bring.

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Suggested readings: Christopher G Langton (1998). Artificial life: an overview. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-62112-6. Mohan Matthen et al. (2007). Philosophy of biology. Elsevier, 2007. ISBN 0-444-51543-7. p. 585. Christopher G. Langton, ed. (1989). Artificial Life: The proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop on the synthesis and simulation of living systems, held September, 1987, in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Santa Fe Institute studies in the sciences of complexity. 6. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-09346-4. Michel Khalife and Yussef Shehadeh. Creation of Fractal Imagery Based on the Template of Langton’s Ant. \ Wolfram, 2018, Langton’s Ant, retrieved on April 6th 2018, Wolfram, S. A New Kind of Science. Champaign, IL: Wolfram Media, pp. 930-931, 2002. Sinapayen, Lana. Introduction to Artificial Life for People who Like AI. 25.NOV.2019 Bass, Thomas A.. The Predictors: How a Band of Maverick Physicists Used Chaos Theory to Trade Their Way to a Fortune on Wall Street. United States, Henry Holt and Company, 1999.

Figure 5 (top): Cellular Automata real set Figure 6 (bottom): Sonification studies of Cellular Automata by Fernando Lopez-Lezcano based on Stephen Wolfram’s New Kind of Science p.75

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Figure 7: An engraving of the Canard Digérateur, or “Digesting Duck” created by Jacques de Vaucanson in 1739

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Synthetic Plants

Aristid Lindenmayer, Hungary 1968 Aristid Lindenmayer first created l systems in 1968 to observe plant cell behavior and model plant growth processes in the development of multicellular organisms. A specific way of modeling gave way to a particular formal language, and within it, a formal grammar now called L Systems or Lindenmayer Systems (Figure 2)48. Formal languages, like L systems, contain “strings” of words taken from letters of a formal alphabet like A, B, C, for example. A formal grammar are sets of rules to produce within the formal language. These existed in mathematics and computer science before L Systems, now an essential part of formal language theory. It’s also classified as a parallel rewriting system because of its behavior when L Systems branch out into a tree-like structure by using a set of strings within the formal language49. The sets are used to create a tree-like structure in a computer environment, with different rules creating an other tree.

Figure 1 (top): Generations of the Koch curve Figure 2 (center): Example L-Systems Figure 3 (bottom): Manual L-Systems

Aristid Lindenmayer was a Hungarian biologist and botanist who taught at the University of Utrecht and headed the theoretical Biology Group. As a biologist, he worked with organic materials and bacteria, especially the algae cyanobacteria Anabaena catenula. While working with the algae, he proceeded by creating a formal description of the simple algae’s development and its neighboring relationships between cells. To form the language, he generated infinite sets of strings. Strings are a collection of rules that produce and expand every symbol into a larger string. The tree’s construction starts from an initial axiom and a mechanism that translates the string into a geometric structure of lines, each getting smaller as it generates. As L Systems are part of formal language theory, which is made of words, it comes with a one-dimensionality or linearity, but this isn’t what L Systems follows50. Instead, the power lies in the use of trees, and graphs, nonlinear objects to show the possibilities in modeling with the L Systems. Lindenmayer created the L System to be best used to provide a framework that can mathematically specify multiple biological hypotheses that can provide logical conclusions. However, the rulesets create assumptions about plants’ growth patterns. What

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needs to be noted is the system’s cellularity, which is the most basic part of the organisms that control local mechanisms51. This cellularity is used to represent larger plant modules repeated throughout the living organism. The rules of the L System are applied iteratively, starting from the beginning state. The power is in how many rules it can apply to each iteration simultaneously, which differentiates the L System from other formal languages (applying one rule per iteration}. When applying its rule sets, it is strict and context-free, only applying to individual symbols. Although, when a ruleset is applied to the individual symbol and its neighbor, it is a context-sensitive L System. However, if the system produces one for each symbol, the system is deterministic, usually context-free L Systems commonly named D0L Systems. If, instead of one iteration, there are more than one, it is said to be a stochastic L System52. There are many different classes of L systems, one of the simplest being the D0L system. In this case, all symbols are nonterminals, which means each can be rewritten by the system’s ruleset creating a single production per nonterminal. A | AB B | A The axiom of the sequence is A Then the sequence follows: A AB ABA ABAAB ABAABABA …

Figure 4 (top): L-Systems Figure 5 (center): L-Systems Figure 6 (bottom): L-Systems

In this sequence, each part is a set of strings, together making up the language. Meanwhile, each string’s length gets sequentially smaller provided by the growth function in the set language. As a tree form, it can be seen in Figure 7, starting with B as the axiom of the sequence.

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Each capital letter within the system has its own meaning. L is for parallel rewriting of nonterminals simultaneously. The 0 character means the information between letters or cells is zero-sided. The P means it’s propagating, never on the right side of the rule. D represents the system is deterministic, and there’s only one rule per configuration53. The capitals would be found in the name of the system; for instance, D0L Systems, as shown in the example above, are parallel writing, deterministic, and the information within cells is zero-sided.

Figure 7: Simplest class of LSystems, deterministic and context free Figure 8:“Fractal’’ weeds created from the use of a iterated function system in 3D

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Initially, L Systems were created to model living organic structures. However, it has been majorly applied to non-living specimens and applications like computer graphics depicting imaginary life forms, imaginary gardens, among others. L Systems are ultimately suitable to model artificial life because of their flexibility and simplicity towards rule changes. All these qualities made it possible to model parallelism, meaning parallels to actual life. Other similar models like cellular automata aren’t as flexible, so it’s not as easy to affect growth or create alterations within the species. Although, with L Systems, there’s still a lot of post-editing needed to model real specimens since the systems are still too simple54. In turn, some of these L Systems’ similar sidedness creates the perfect grounds to describe fractals with it. The L Systems makes it possible for people without a computer science background to manipulate to their advantage. In the case of architecture, could these be applied to architectural structure or form? Structural systems now with space trusses, among others, seem to be very close in sequence to an L System as a first example. Right now, the simplest forms architects can incorporate are mapping schemes and visualization. As the system is also suitable for parametric design, this can also be incorporated into facade design on architectural buildings or interventions. As algorithms can show great detail, as, the Digital Grotesque Grotto interior by using technological capabilities like 3D printing and robotic fabrication, architects can start minimizing the amount of material


used and still keep structural integrity. The L System creates an overall suitable environment to test out possibilities even outside of the computer science field. Suggested readings: Aristid Lindenmayer, “Mathematical models for cellular interaction in development.” J. Theoret. Biology, 18:280—315, 1968. Prusinkiewicz, Przemysław; Aristid Lindenmayer (1990). The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants (The Virtual Laboratory). Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97297-8. PRZEMYSŁAW PRUSINKIEWICZ & MARTIN DE BOER (1991) OBITUARY Aristid Lindenmayer (1925– 1989), International Journal Of General System, 18:4, 289-290, DOI: 10.1080/03081079108935153 Ochoa, Gabriela.”An Introduction to Lindenmayer Systems” (1998)

Figure 9: 2D iterations of L Systems using genetic algorithms, An introduction to Lindenmayer systems

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Geometry of Roughness Benoît Mandelbrot, 1982

Benoît B. Mandelbrot, a maverick mathematician who developed the field of fractal geometry and applied it to physics, biology, finance and many other fields55. Dr. Mandelbrot coined the term “fractal” to refer to a new class of mathematical shapes whose uneven contours could mimic the irregularities found in nature. In a seminal book, “The Fractal Geometry of Nature,” published in 1982, Dr. Mandelbrot defended mathematical objects that he said others had dismissed as “monstrous” and “pathological.” Using fractal geometry, he argued, the complex outlines of clouds and coastlines, once considered unmeasurable, could now “be approached in rigorous and vigorous quantitative fashion.”56 Figure 1(top): Fractal Systems Figure 2 (bottom): Mandelbrot Set

In the 1950s, Dr. Mandelbrot proposed a simple but radical way to quantify the crookedness of such an object by assigning it a “fractal dimension”, an insight that has proved useful well beyond the field of cartography.57 Over nearly seven decades, working with dozens of scientists, Dr. Mandelbrot contributed to the fields of geology, medicine, cosmology and engineering. He used the geometry of fractals to explain how galaxies cluster, how wheat prices change over time and how mammalian brains fold as they grow, among other phenomena. His influence has also been felt within the field of geometry, where he was one of the first to use computer graphics to study mathematical objects like the Mandelbrot set, which was named in his honor. The world we live in is not naturally smooth-edged and regularly shaped like the familiar cones, circles, spheres and straight lines of Euclid’s geometry: it is rough-edged, wrinkled, crinkled and irregular. “Fractals” was the name he applied to irregular mathematical shapes similar to those in nature, with structures that are self-similar over many scales, the same pattern being repeated over and over. Fractal geometry offers a systematic way of approaching phenomena that look more elaborate the more they are magnified, and the images it generates are themselves a source of great fascination.58

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In his view, the most important implication of this work was that very simple formulas could yield very complicated results: “What is science? We have all this mess around us. Things are totally incomprehensible. And then eventually we find simple laws, simple formulas. Fractal geometry is now being used in work with marine organisms, vegetative ecosystems, earthquake data, the behaviour of density-dependent populations, percolation and aggregation in oil research, and in the formation of lightning. The geometry is already being successfully applied in medical imaging, and the forms generated by the discipline are a source of pleasure in their own right, adding to our aesthetic awareness as we observe fractals everywhere in nature.59 Suggested readings: Mandelbrot, Benoit (2012). The Fractalist: Memoir of a Scientific Maverick, Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0307-38991-6.

v

Hoffman, Jascha (16 October 2010). “Benoît Mandelbrot, Mathematician, Dies at 85”. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2010. Lesmoir-Gordon, Nigel (17 October 2010). “Benoît Mandelbrot obituary”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 October 2010. Benoit Mandelbrot,The Fractal Geometry of Nature Hardcover – January 1, 1982.

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Nanographia Since electrons have a shorter wavelength than visible light, electron microscopes can detect smaller objects than optical microscopes. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images a sample by probing it with a focused beam of electrons that scans across its surface; the sample emits secondary electrons which carry information about the properties of the specimen surface. This information gets recorded and mapped into images that represent the surface morphology of the sample. Unlike other types of electron microscopes, the SEM has a significant depth of field, which allows it to produce three-dimensional representations reminiscent of those achieved in photography. In the absence of light, secondary electron shadows sculpt spatial effects, rendered in grayscale pixel fields. Nanotectonica embraces the SEM as a prolific machine for aesthetic production. The aesthetics of the SEM are based in part on the device’s particular ability to produce spatial effects in the absence of light and shadow. While other types of electron microscopes generate flat images that evoke a sense of abstraction, SEM-based images hold an intrinsic quality of realism. Ever so close to black and white photography, these grayscale images often render smooth gradients into blurred fields and produce a kind of detached, moody atmosphere. In some instances, however, they feature sharp-edge, high-contrast depictions of the specimen and evoke the strange illuminant effect also common in astrophotography. Highlights are blown out by secondary electrons rather than solar radiation from unearthly horizons. In either case, there is an uncanny quality to these images, which momentarily suspends the association with photography. The representational qualities of the SEM visuals enhance the inherent strangeness of the subvisible object. Nanoforms are less familiar to us simply because we see them less often and never directly. The inherent formal strangeness however could be a function of the different forces at work. SEM representation plays with the familiar and unfamiliar describing an alien world in visually familiar terms.

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Rad body skin 70

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Rad body joints


Stem Bamboo

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Feather Apple skin 72

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Air plant


Bean pod shell Bean pod skin

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Black mold Seed Broccoli Coleus 76

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Site plant


Venus fly Avoskin Vine Wood

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Crab Shell


Oyster Shell Crab Shell

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Crab Shell 80

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Blue Crab


Blue Crab

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Shrimp


Shrimp

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Shrimp Trilobyte 84

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Sea Weed


Shrimp Trilobyte Sea Weed Woodstem

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Woodstem


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Scallion Garlic Fish Tail

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Scallion Sesame Seed Tangerine Skin 96

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Insect


Sea Urchin

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Starfish Sea Urchin

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Shrimp Tail

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Sea Salt Fishscale Ant 102 nanotectonica

Seaweed


Fishscale Shrimp

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Coral


Coral

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Sea Urchin


Sea Urchin

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Sea Urchin


Sea Urchin

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Abalone Shell Sea Shell Coral 110

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Corn


Bug Corn Green Pepper Orange Kiwi

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Petunia Bud


Petunia Bud

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Seed Pollen 114

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Sea Urchin


Sea Urchin

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Sea Urchin


Fruit Fly

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Fruit Fly


Labellum

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Buche Diatomen Eiche 120

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Wecker Kuerbisken


Wecker Kuerbisken Orange Haut Amoeben Fischeier

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Mossporophyte Kreub Fuss Brain Kidney 122

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Lung


Wood Schimmelpilz Orange Fly Kidney

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Holz Dunkel 124

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Orange Haut


Motte Fluegel

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Motte Fleugel Vogelspinne Bein Aussen 126

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Tabak


Vogelspinne Bein Aussen

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Vogelspinne Bein Aussen 128

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Vogelspinne Bein Innen


Vogelspinne Bein Aussen Vogelspinne Bein Innen Hazelnut Holz

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Holz Leaf 130 nanotectonica

Peanutshell


Holz Peanut Skin

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Holz Coconut Fly 132

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Seed Parachute


Fishscale Star Sand Lilac Bud Ant Acorn

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Labellum


Labellum

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Labellum


Labellum

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Pomastone Shrimp Leg Spider Shell 138 nanotectonica

Tree Berry


Plant Rose Petal Rose Stem Rose Twig Nutshell

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Flower Acorn Wheat 140 nanotectonica

Nutshell


Wheat Rosebud

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Telegmush 142

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Villamushroom


Polydesma

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Branch Interior Instect Antenna Leaf Stoma 144 nanotectonica

No name


No name

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No name All Spice Malagueta Amaranth Grain Banana Skin Black Tea Leaf Butterfly Head Butterfly Abdomen Cactus Thorn 146 nanotectonica

Cecada Eye


Clove Cecada Wing Cecada Leg Daisy Petal Crab Skin Feather Eye Lash Fly Leg Root

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Jujube Kidney Bean Lotus Lotus Seedskin Meye Moth 148 nanotectonica

Mushroom


Wing Leaf Pearl Barley Rose Petal Rice Shrimp

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Shrimp Shiitake Black Mushroom Skin Wheat Wing Almond 150 nanotectonica

Bamboo


Bug Bug Eye Finger Nail Fly Wing Coconut Green Tea Leaf Gypsophila Stem Leaf

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Orange Peel Pumpkin Seed Sesame Seed Baby’s Breath Dry Peach Butterfly Wing 152

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Echinoid


Plant Seed Rose Petal Potato Skin Whitetopaz Rose Stem Cannabis Sativa Chile Skin Chile Seeds Cilantro

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Cilantro Cinnamon Skin Fly Insulation Foam 154

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Sea Wool Sponge


Wingjoint Butterfly Auricularia Grasshopper Human Skin Hemp Cannabis

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Human Skin Jewel Beetle Skin Lamb’s Ear Mushroom Oolong Tea Leaves Orange 156 nanotectonica

Pineapple


Sea Urchin Sand Fulgarate Rose Petal Anther

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Anther Chicken Heart Chili Pepper Skin 158 nanotectonica

Chinese Pepper


Chrysanthemum Cinammon Verum

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Mycelium Rigid Insulation 160 nanotectonica

Rose Petal


Garlic Skin

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Sand Dollar Tree Bark 162 nanotectonica

Truffle


Bismuth Brussel Sprout Truffle Amethyst

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Bismuth Garlic Skin Fungus 164 nanotectonica

Leaf


Oregano Petal

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Petal Pyrite Rice 166 nanotectonica

Tourmaline


Star Anise Mycelium Almond Tourmaline

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Design Research The convergence of nanotechnology with contemporary design and fabrication tools defines the design research and production method, as well as to the pedagogical structure of the course Nanotectonica. Significantly, this convergence is not limited to cataloging the phenotypical expressions of ‘natural’ systems and their physiological performances. Rather, it is deployed to reconstruct, and thereby decipher, the from-building principles of nano-scaled structures. Beyond the bionic, which idealizes living structures as resolved and completed systems, and beyond biomimicry, which strives to copy those systems in their full complexity, Nanotectonica is in search of procedurally optimized building methods and structural concepts employed in natural structures. In the context of the academic seminar students first work in the electron microscopy lab and experience the operating procedure of the SEM. Beyond the production of visual material, this initial phase serves as practice for developing a speculative design sensibility (see Introduction/Blind Probing). Based on the primary research material produced in the lab, students learn to sort natural systems at micro and nanoscale according to physiological, morphological and structural characteristics; and discuss them in open taxonomies (see 4.2 Taxonomy). They hone their ability to transpose the results of a two dimensional analytical drawing routine to the operative process of three-dimensional computational and physical modeling. The seminar provides a clearly structured sequence of design research and design production phases, and at the same time it critically discusses the idea of phasing itself and its value in the design process. Offering an open form of directed research, the seminar

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supports students in the development of their individual research agenda. The individual agenda may be invested in the concept of design itself, in which case the seminar encourages the reorganization or suspension of the given phases all together, as this would be conducive to such a mode of inquiry. However, in the case of project-based research, the given design phases are in many cases considered a welcome structure. The primary design research phases are Taxonomy, Physiology, Drawing Probes (drawing analysis), Operative Drawings, Design Drawings, Models, Artifacts, Production, Installation/Experience, and they form the structure for this chapter. The boundaries between design research and design production are considered liquid, and the idea that one necessarily follows the other is questioned. Design is considered a form of research, as well as a proof or test case for research production. Design research here refers to three linked modes of inquiry: Research into the concept of design itself, original research production through work with the Electron Microscope, and project-based research production in support of a specific design project. The following pages refer to design research of the third mode, project-based research production. Here the boundaries between design and material production are considered as liquid as those between research and design. Physical models act simultaneously as a) design engines, with design intelligence is ascribed to matter b) production prototypes, either as scaled test models or full scale mock-ups, and c) forms of design representation, often worked back into digital types of representation via photography, photogrammetry and texturing.

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SEM Lab In Nanotectonica the Scanning Electron Microscope does not embody the purely analytical routine of the scientific method. Instead, it operates as a model for design, both as a conceptual model for the moment of design innovation, as well as a practice model for speculative design sensibility. The former refers to the non-deterministic character of the blind search. In this model the search is conducted in a vast space of design potential, that comprises immanent yet unrealized forms and ideas. The search is not indiscriminate, as design intention structures the space, nor is it globally directed, as the intention acts like the electron beam locally and in real time. The latter model is a design trainer and refers to the actual work on the scanning electron microscope. As part of the Nanotectonica seminar, we conduct electron microscopy laboratory sessions, during which architecture students gain first-hand experience in operating the SEM. While the work on the machine is initiated by the desire to explore sub-visible structure and to produce images of a particular aesthetic quality, it serves as a training exercise that helps develop a light touch for design speculation. Complementing the work in the studio, which practices design in the long form, the work in the SEM-lab induces an instantaneous flow of mediate interaction with material, a state of focused distraction conducive to design. The SEM operator not only observes the specimen, but transforms it in the act of blind probing. Microscopists speak of “beam damage” when they refer to the effects of electron beam bombardment on the specimen and thus the creation of artifact. In order to minimize this effect, the operator works swiftly across an area of interest, as any persistent electron gaze would destroy the specimen. Constantly zooming, panning and sharpening the electron beam, she enters a state of focused distraction, rather than one of contemplation. The operator quickly develops an intuitive understanding that there is no object irrespective of her. In probing the elusive specimen, she simultaneously explores and creates new space of possible structures. The boundaries between empirical investigation and material speculation start to dissolve.

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Taxonomy We explore the innovative potential of open taxonomies in the design of structures and structure systems. The formation of taxonomies is considered a creative act in itself, as it directs the search within an infinite space of possible structures; it gives texture to this space and provides momentary orientation. We refer to taxonomies here not in the sense of standard biological classifications, but as systems of structural and architectural commonalities crystallized in the sorting of rich nanographic material. The associations formed in this process are unconstrained by established species’ relations, occasionally they run in parallel but often counter to them. Accordingly, the terms used in these taxonomies do not adhere to biological nomenclatures, but refer to architectural expression. Our approach to classification is taxonomy and not typology, even though typology is the disciplinary method associated with architecture, and taxonomy is considered a field of biology. While we study architectural and structural conditions, and not biological ones, our approach to classification is taxonomy and not typology. Taxonomy classifies according to observable and measurable characteristics, it has no idealized point of reference (datum). Typology on the other hand refers to concepts rather than empirical cases, to idealized constructs rather than objects of reality. The model of design we are developing relates to speculative realities more than it does to ideal types, so when explor-

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Figure 1: Taxonomy Analysis

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ing classification as a design method, it privileges the taxonomoteric approach over the typological one. In any case, all classification systems must be open. Closed classification systems do not hold much potential for design innovation as they refer to a finite set of ideas, in the case of architectural typology to a determinate canon of building types and design expression. They are self referential systems that assume an essence for the categories they establish. Items assigned to these categories are thus essentially confined; they cannot migrate or unfold across categories. In this way closed classification systems prevent the growth and dissemination of ideas. Open classifications on the other hand can stimulate speculation and the forming of ideas, as they suggest unrealized potential. Notably, we refer to the multiplicity of such systems, as we reject the notion that one classification system can serve as a generic sorting apparatus for all things that exist or could exist. We embrace the thought that there are infinite ways in which we can view the world, and thus we explore the design potential of one taxonomy in an infinite set of such systems. Open classifications are temporarily anchored at nodes of similarities shared among observable objects (here structures) within a given field of exploration. The suggestive moment (of design innovation) occurs, when pairings of such associations describe an immanent yet not realized object; this is when the blind probing focuses, the space of possible design ideas gains texture.

Figure 2: Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of 1871

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Figure 3: Ununpentium, Moscovium, Element 115


A model for such open system classification that stimulates innovation is Mendeleev’s periodic table. (fig) It first directed the search for naturally occurring elements that had not been discovered, and more recently has governed the quest for possible elements, those that can be synthesized. Mendeleev realised that the physical and chemical properties of elements were related to their atomic mass in a periodic way, and he arranged them in a matrix so that groups of elements with similar properties fell into shared columns. Significantly he left holes in the matrix, open cells to be occupied by elements that were not discovered, but that would or could exist (if his periodic law was true.) When Mendeleev published his periodic table in 1869, there were 59 elements on it and 33 open cells for missing elements. He predicted the specific properties of some and thus directed the search, accelerated the discovery of these elements, which was concluded during his lifetime. Since then synthetic elements have been created, those that were not predicted by Mendeleev, but that fit in the systematic of his periodic table. Encouraged by a system of open classification, scientists since create new elements by slamming existing ones into each other. (fig) As an analog to speculative design (in discussion) we consider this a form of directed blind probing. The periodic table serves as an example for the innovative potential of open taxonomies, and the related discussion of synthetic elements serves as a reference for the dissolving boundary between natural and human-made structures.

Figure 4: Frei Otto’s Lebende und nicht lebende Natur

Figure 5: Frei Otto’s BIC chart of structural performance

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Another example for open classifications can be found in Frei Otto’s work on the categorization of structure systems. According to Otto, the building structures and ‘natural structures’ that we have been occupying for ten thousand years are still not entirely understood, nor were they put in meaningful relations. His matrices of principal systems and applied structures have open cells, which distinguishes them from other closed, or completed classification systems, common in standard engineering manuals. They invite to fill in blank spots and thus direct the search for novel structures. In the 1960s Otto developed various forms of structure systems categorizations at The Institute for Lightweight Structures in Stuttgart. Some of these systems were conceived as schematic diagrams that address relations between structures in nature, art and engineering (fig) expressing cosmological interests in the origin and evolutionary relations. Other classifications define and put in relation highly specific parameters of structures, including load cases, form, material and modes of redirecting forces. His most rigorous and detailed explorations map and compare the performance of various structures - engineered and ‘natural’ and establish an “economical” principle. (fig) He invents a new physical performance unit, the Bic, that puts an object’s mass and structural capacity in relation. In intricate charts and drawings various structures are mapped meticulously along Bic parameters. Characteristically, they all consist of living and nonliving, natural and engineered structure, and none of them claim to chart a complete set of structures or enclosed systems.

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Figure 6: SP19 Taxonomy Figure 6: SP19 Taxonomy Photoghraph

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Figure 6: SP19-Nanotectonica_FranciscoMoreno-LeonardoMartinez_Taxonomy

Figure 7: SP19 Taxonomy



Figure 8 (full bleed): SP19 Taxonomy Figure 9 (bottom left): SP19 Taxonomy


Figure 11: SP12 Taxonomy Analysis

Figure 10: SP19 Taxonomy

Figure 12: SP18 Taxonomy_Draft

Figure 13: SP18 Taxonomy

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Figure 14 (left page): SP19 Taxonomy Figure 15 (top): SP19 Photograph Figure 16 (bottom left): SP19 Photograph Figure 17 (bottom right): SP19 Photograph

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Early Taxonomies Figure 18 (below): The first Nanotectonoca taxonomy chart was produced in our undergraduate design studio at Pratt Institute in 2007. The “SEMatrix” featured 25 specimen along five tectonic categories; each one recorded at three different magnifications and analyzed in a drawing and paper model. Figure 19 (right page): A more comprehensive “species taxonomy” was produced in our research seminar at University Kassel in 2008. The focus here was on cross-species tectonic families, with crossing lines in the chart identifying architectural commonalities that run counter to biological families. In both cases the chart is based on original Nanotectonica SEM material produced in our studio - either in the physical studio space at Pratt, with a desktop SEM, provided with generous support by Hitachi, or during semiweekly studio visits to Kassel University’s Interdisciplinary Nanotechnology Institute. In both cases the work was performed as a research studio collective. More recent examples of SEM Taxonomies (2010-2020) are based in part on ‘found’ SEM material from various sources, in addition to original Nano-

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Figure 20 (top): SP13 Taxonomy Figure 21 (bottom): SP13 Taxonomy

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Figure 22: SP12 Taxonomy

Figure 23: SP12 Taxonomy

Figure 25: SP13 Taxonomy Figure 26: SP15 Taxonomy Figure 27: SP14 Taxonomy Figure 28: SP18 Taxonomy

Figure 24: SP12 Taxonomy

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Figure 33: SP14 Taxonomy01 Figure 29 (top left): SP15 Taxonomy Figure 30 (bottom left): SP16 Taxonomy Figure 31 (top right): SP14 Taxonomy Figure 32 (bottom right): SP15 Taxonomy

Figure 34: SP14Taxonomy

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Figure 33 (top): SP13 Taxonomy Figure 34 (right): SP19 Taxonomy Photograph Figure 35 (bottom): SP19 Taxonomy Photograph

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Figure 36: SP12 Taxonomy


Figure 37: SP12 Taxonomy

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Physiology The subtitle of Robert Hooke’s 1665 Micrographia: Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses suggests that this first book dedicated to microscopic observations focuses in fact on the biological function of the bodily parts it depicts. The biological function is also the primary interest of the fields of bionics and biomimicry, as they directly link the performance of a designed object or system to a natural precedent. What does an organism do? how does it do it? and why does it look the way it does? The relation of a body’s function to its formal expression is the main interest of these studies. Consequently, the sole measure of success for design and engineering systems inspired by those studies is the proximity of their form and function to the physiology of the natural model. Beyond bionics, which idealizes living structures as resolved and completed systems, and beyond biomimicry, which strives to copy those systems in their full complexity, Nanotectonica is in search of form-building principles for novel architectural expression. It is not invested in creating design systems that match physiological performance models. Performance here relates to a larger set of design criteria that are not limited to those defined by biology or engineering. While this design research discusses structural, infrastructural, ecological and metabolic performance as they related to the primary functions of living and engineering systems, it is considerably interested in spatial and aesthetic performance that pertain to affect and sensory experience. Nanotectonica is not invested in physiology per se, but considers it one of several forms of cognition to be gained in the study of natural objects. It takes the analysis of biological function as an interstitial step in the proposed speculative design research.

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Figure 1: SU09 Physiology Analysis

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Figure 2: SP20 Physiology Analysis

Figure 3: SP18 Cactus Physiology Analysis

Figure 4: SP18 Spider Fiber Physiology Analysis

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Figure 5: SP15 Elastin, Collagen Physiology Analysis

Figure 6: SP20 Collagen Physiology Analysis

Figure 7: SP20 Collagen Physiology Analysis

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Figure 8: SP13 Sea Urchin and Sand Dollar Physiology Analysis

Figure 9: SP13 Sea Urchin Physiology Analysis

Figure 11(bottom left): SP14 Bee Physiology Analysis Figure 12 (bottom right): SP14 Bee Physiology Analysis

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Figure 10: SP13 Sand Dollar Physiology Analysis


Figure 13 (top): SP12 Bryozoa Physiology Figure 14 (right): SP12 Bryozoa Physiology

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Figure 15: SP17 Physiology Analysis

Figure 16: SP17 Physiology Analysis

Figure 17: SP15 Neuron Physiology Analysis

Figure 18: SP17 Neuron Physiology Analysis

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Figure 19: SP17 Neuron Physiology Analysis


Figure 20: SP20 Starfish Physiology Analysis

Figure 21: SP20 Snow Physiology Analysis

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Natural Probes (Analytical drawings) These drawings adhere to architectural drawing conventions, yet they lead explorations outside of architecture proper. They are neither natural science illustrations nor standard architectural drawings. They differ from architectural diagrams in that they investigate specific, observable phenomena rather than abstract models or symbolic conditions. They are employed to analyze and verify architectural effects in non-architectural objects. Probe drawings study geometric principles found in natural structures at various scales. They stay very close to the specimen and do not override the observed qualities by rationalizing them through familiar geometric systems. Instead they help discover, decipher and regenerate novel organizational logics. Many of these drawings operate on the local and global level of an observed specimen, exploring the relationships between its elements, formation and gestalt. They identify geometric principles of local neighboring conditions, their corridors of change and corresponding variations in global expression, as fields and objects. In a next step the tectonic languages developed with these drawings are tested outside of their specimen references.

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Figure 1: Two-Dimensional Image Sampling


Collision

Mergence

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Figure 2: FA07 Pseudotrachea Natural Probes

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Figure 3: FA07 Pseudotrachea Natural Probes

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Figure 4: Corydalidae Natural Probes

Figure 5: SP08 Sea Urchin Natural Probes.

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Figure 6: Antennae Natural Probe

Figure 7: SP08 Shrimp Natural Probes.

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Figure 8: SP10 Daisy Branch Natural Probes.

Figure 9: SP10 Branch Natural Probes.

Figure 10: SP10 Branch Natural Probes

Figure 11: SU11 Branch Natural Probes

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Figure 12: SU11 Branch Natural Probes


Figure 13: SP18 Ribbed Mussel Natural Probes

Figure 15: Ribbed Mussel Natural Probes

Figure 14: SP10 Branch Natural Probes

Figure 16: SU11 Branch Natural Probes

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Figure 17: SP16 Sand Dollar Natural Probes

Figure 18: SP13 Natural Probes

Figure 19: SP13 Field Condition Natural Probes

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Figure 20: SP13 Generative Natural Probes

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Figure 21: SP12 Bryozoa Natural Probes

Figure 22: SP12 Bryozoa Natural Probes

Figure 23: SP12 Asteriscus of Salmon Natural Probes

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Figure 24: SU09 Natural Probes

Figure 25: SU09 Natural Probes

Figure 26: SP10 Branching Triangle

Figure 27: SU08 Module Natural Probes

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Figure 28: SP15 Tropoelastin Natural Probes

Figure 29: SP15 Tropoelastin Natural Probes

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Figure 30: SP11 Natural Probes

Figure 31: Diatom Natural Probes

Figure 32: SP15 Anthozoa Natural Probes

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Figure 33: SP15 Anthozoa Natural Probes

Figure 34: SP15 Anthozoa Natural Probes

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Figure 36: SP14 Scale Natural Probes

Figure 35: SP15 Natural Probes

Figure 37: SP13 Growing Systems Natural Probes

Figure 38: SP17 Natural Probes

Figure 39: SP15 Recursive Tracing Probes

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Figure 40: SP17 Fruit Fly Natural Probes

Figure 41: SP15 Recursive Tracing Probes

Figure 42: SP17 Fruit Fly Natural Probes

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Figure 43: SP15 Mesocrystalline Probes

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Figure 44: SP15 Mesocrystalline Probes


Figure 45: SP17 Fractal Growth Probes

Figure 46: SP17 Fractal Growth Probes

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Figure 47: SP16 Natural Probes

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Figure 48: SP16 Natural Probes


Figure 49: SP13 Point Cloud of Molecule with Backbone

Figure 53: SP15 Neuron Probes

Figure 50: SP13 Escherichia coli Probes

Figure 51: SP13 Escherichia coli Probes

Figure 52: SP13 Escherichia coli Probes

Figure 54: SP15 Neuron Probes

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Design Drawings ...

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Figure 1: SP19 Design Drawings

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Figure 2: SP10 Natural Structure Design Drawings

Figure 4 (top): SP10 Design Drawings Figure 5 (left): SP10 Design Drawings Figure 6 (bottom): SP10 Design Drawings

Figure 3 (top): SU11 Parametric Transformation Drawings

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Figure 8: SP20 Design Drawings

Figure 7: SP10 Design Drawing

Figure 10: SP20 Design Drawings

Figure 9: SP20 Design Drawings

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Figure 11: SP12 Gyroid Design Drawings

Figure 12: SP13 Tessalated Systems Design Drawings

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Figure 13: SP13 Design Drawings

Figure 14: SP14 Thread Design Drawings

Figure 15: SP13 Unit Design Drawings

Figure 16: SP Design Drawings

Figure 17: SP16 Design Drawings

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Figure 19: SP14 Design Drawings

Figure 18: SP14 Design Drawings

Figure 20: WS09-SU09 Design Drawings

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Figure 21: SP14 Design Drawings

Figure 22: SP14 Design Drawings

Figure 23: SP14 Design Drawings

Figure 24: SP14 Design Drawings Figure 25: SP15 Design Drawings

Figure 26: FA10 Design Drawings

Figure 27: Elevation Design Drawings

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Figure 28: SP20 Fractal Design Drawing and Section

Figure 19: SP20 Section Design Drawing

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Figure 30: SP20 Fractal Design Drawing


Figure 31: SP19 Design Drawings

Figure 32: SP20 Fractal Design Drawings

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Models ...

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Figure 1: SP19 Specimen Model

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Figure 2 (left page, top): SP20 Fractal model with material studies Figure 4 (right page, top): SP19 Corner Artifact Model

Figure 3 (left page, bottom): SP20 Mandelbrot variations models Figure 5 (right page, bottom): SP19 Specimen Model

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Figure 6 (left): SP19 Graphic Texture Model Figure 7 (top): SP20 Mandelbulb Model Figure 8 (bottom): SP20 Mandelbrot Model

Figure 9 (top): SP19 Graphic Texture Figure 10 (bottom): JC Pixelworks

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Figure 11 (top): SP20 Model rendering on site Figure 12 (bottom): SP20 Algorithmic transformations models

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Figure 11 (top): SP20 Model Rendering Figure 12 (bottom): SP20 Algorithmic Transformation

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Artifacts ...

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Figure 1: SP18 Artifact

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Figure 2: SP17 Artifact

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Figure 3: SP19 Specimen Artifact

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Figure 4: SP16 Artifact

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Figure 5: SP19 Artifact

Figure 6: SP19 Artifact

Figure 7 (left): SP19 Neuron Artifact Figure 8 (top): SP19 Artifact

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Figure 9: SP13 Artifact sequence

Figure 10: SP17 Artifact sequence

Figure 11: SP17 Artifact variations

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Figure 12: SP17 Prototype

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Figure 13 (full page collection): Resin Structure

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Figure 14 (above): Shadow cast by cast glass (from 3d printed mold), mirrored photograph Figure 15 (right): Fibrous camouflage bust Figure 16 (far right): Fibrous material study

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Figure 17 (full page collection): Hand artifact

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Figure 18 - 19 (top): SP14 Human shell prototype Figure 20 (left): SP18 Hand cuff

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Figure 21- 29 (full spread) A form of urban tattoo, these engineered human cell growth formations address issues ot urban- and body identity

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Figure 30 (top): SP16 Artifact Figure 31 (bottom): SP16 Artifact

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Figure 32 (top): SP16 Artifact Figure 33 (right):

Figure 34 (top): SP16 Artifact Figure 35 (left): SP16 Artifact Figure 36 (bottom): SP17 Paper Model

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Figure 37 (top): SP17 Artifact

Figure 40 - 42: SP12 Seed artifact

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Figure 38 (top): SP17 Artifact Figure 39 (bottom): SP15 Rubber coated mesh


Figure 43: SP13 Artifact

Figure 44: SP14 Artifact

Figure 45 - 46: SP13 Artifact

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Figure 47: SP11 3D printed artifact Figure 48 - 51: SP13 3D printed artifact Figure 52: SP10 3D printed artifact

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Figure 53 - 55: SP11 3D printed artifact Figure 56 - 60: SP12 3D printed artifact

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Figure 61: SP17 Set of artifacts

Figure 62 - 63: WS08 Tectonics of an artifact

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Figure 64: SP19 Neuron artifact


Figure 65: WS08 Tectonics of an artifact

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Figure 66 - 68: SP19 Artifact Figure 69 (bottom left): SP17 Artifact Figure 70 - 71 (right page): SP19 Artifact

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Fabrication ...

Figure 1: SP13 Model

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Prototyping (left page) Figure 2 - 7 (top): Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system Parallel Finishing (l) Milling Path Graphic Figure 8 - 13 (bottom): Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements

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Phases of Fabrication (right page) Figure 14 - 18 (top row): CNC milling flip boards Figure 18 - 22 (second row): Glass fiber reinforcement Figure 22 - 26 (third row): Filling, sanding and finish Figure 26 - 28 (bototm left): CNC tool path geometry

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Prototyping (left page) Figure 29 (top): Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system Parallel Finishing (l) Milling Path Graphic Figure 30 - 35 (bottom): Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements

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Phases of Fabrication (right page) Figure 36 - 40 (top row): CNC milling flip boards Figure 41 - 45 (second row): Glass fiber reinforcement Figure 46 - 50 (third row): Filling, sanding and finish Figure 50 - 53 (bototm left): CNC tool path geometry

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Phases of fabrication (left page) Figure 54 (top): Full scale prototypes Figure 55 - 62: Vacuum form drip models Prototyping (right page): Figure 63 - Vacuum form drip colores prototypes

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Left page: Figure 64 (top): Assembly of laser cut parts Figure 65 - 66 (bottom): CNC cut foam pieces for molds Right page: Figure 67 - 74: Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds

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Left page: Figure 75 - 78 (top left): Hand sewn prototype Figure 79 - 80 (bottom): Plastic layered prototype Figure 81 - 82 (top right): Plaster casted artifact Figure 83: 3d printed model Figure 84: Wax embedded on mesh Right page: Figure 85: Plaster casted model

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Installations ...

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Figure 1: SP19 Corner detail

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Figure 2: Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel

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Figure 3 -5: Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel

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Figure 6 - 7: Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier, 2008/2009ctural

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Figure 8 - 10: - Installation

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Figure 11: SP14 Lightweight structure installation

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Figure 12: SP14 Lightweight structure installation

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Figure 13 - 17: SP13 Lightweight structure installation

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Figure 18 - 20: SP19 Corner intervention

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Figure 21: SP19 Corner Intervention

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Addendum


SEM Index Information about images in chapter Nanographia is found in this SEM index. It includes specimen name, magnification level, device and operators. The index follows the pages order, and indicates the image’s location on each page, starting with a letter for the column and a number for the row of the image.

D4 A

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Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Colin Burton Michael Archer Michael Archer Colin Burton Michael Archer

FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x600-3_5724549929_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x300-2_5725109952_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x400_5724546451_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x800-2_5725104514_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x600_5724548781_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x180_5724544323_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x1000_5725102422_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x800_5724540093_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x1800_5725099290_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_feather_x3000_5724541155_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_apple-skin_x1500-2_5722980592_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_apple-skin2_x1000-2_5722982114_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_air-plant_x100_3911769382_o.png FA07_Nanotectonica_air-plant_x400-2_5723057864_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_stem_x300_5724512513_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_stem2_x500_5724474375_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_air-plant_x1200-2_5722504133_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Alexander Chiarella Alexander Chiarella Borah Betts Borah Betts Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Borah Betts

FA07_Nanotectonica_been-section2_x60_5722663513_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_been-section_x120_5722658683_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_been-section_x500_5723213160_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_been-pod-fibers_x50_5722669695_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_been-pod-skin-and-fibre_x100_57265909_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_been-pod-fibre_x250_5723223810_o.gif

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

page 71 A1 B1-E3 A2 A3 A4 B4 C4 D4-E5 A5 B5 C5 D6 page 72 A1-C2 D1 E1 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4-E5 A5 B5 C5 page 73 A1 A2 A3 B1-E3 A4 A5

297


page 74 A1-E4 A5 B5 A6 B6 C5-E6

FA07_Nanotectonica_bellam2_x300_5722446585_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_bellam_x500-2_5722996326_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_bellam_x800_5722445303_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_bellam3_x300_5722447871_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_bellam_x2500-2_5722997762_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_bellam_x1000-2_5722444113_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Ashira Israel Ashira Israel Ashira Israel Ashira Israel Ashira Israel Ashira Israel

FA07_Nanotectonica_lima-bean_x300_5724554109_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_moss_x500-2_5722536625_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_lima-bean_x800_5725112106_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_moss_x1200-2_5722505263_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_moss_x600-2_5722506505_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_lima-bean_x1800_5724556157_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_radish_x1500-2_5727252273_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_borah-unt_x400_5722953372_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_radish-root-and-root-hair-joint_5723149728_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_seed2_x200-3_5727332503_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf_x60_5725063528_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf2_x300_5725064780_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf3_x800-3_5725065998_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf7_x1500-2_5725069066_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf8_x5000-2_5724512275_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf_x400-3_5727884102_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf2_x1000_5727884522_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf3_x800-4_5727331209_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf5_x250_5724510293_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_leaf6_x600-2_5724510693_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_coconut_x60_5722653897_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_coconut-shell_x250-3_5727257631_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_coconut-shell_x3000_5722652485_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_coconut-shell_x5000-3_5727259105_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_coconut-shell_x6000-3_5727811246_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Ryan Prat Borah Betts Ryan Prat Borah Betts Borah Betts Ryan Prat Michael Archer

FA07_Nanotectonica_black-mold_x5000-2_5722989278_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_black-mold3_x100-2_5722991806_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_black-mold2_x250-2_5722435597_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed5_x150_5724482517_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed6_x800-2_5724483819_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_broccoli_x30-2_5727006492_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_broccoli_x150-2_5726450923_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_broccoli_x800-2_5727008906_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed8_x400_5724484573_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed9_x1800_5724503955_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed-pod_x180-2_5724515781_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed-pod_x1000-2_5725074120_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_coleus_x600-3_5722403033_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Alexander Chiarella Alexander Chiarella Alexander Chiarella Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Josie Tse Josie Tse Josie Tse Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Alan

page 75 A1 B1 A2 B2 C1-E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 A6 B6 C6 D6 E6

Michael Archer Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

page 76 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3

298 nanotectonica

sem index


D3 E3 A4 B4 A5 B5 C4-E5

FA07_Nanotectonica_coleus_x600-4_5722961102_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_coleus_x1000-2_5722404461_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed-pod_x2000_5725076498_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_seed-pod_x80-2_5724514643_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_siteplant2_x600-2_5722540443_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_siteplant_x500-2_5722539103_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_siteplant_x600-2_5722537815_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Alan Alan Ryan Prat Ryan Prat Borah Betts Borah Betts Borah Betts

FA07_Nanotectonica_venus-fly_x400-2_5723040246_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_venus-fly_x150-2_5722488435_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_underavoskin2_x1000-2_5722977656_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_underavoskin_x2500-2_5722421101_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_venus-fly_x1000-2_5723041806_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_vine_x800_5722412301_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_wood_x1200-2_5722430161_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_underavoskin3_x1200-2_5722423907_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_vine_x1000-2_5722410841_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_wood2_x2500-2_5722431651_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_vine_x1200-2_5722416481_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_wood3_x1800-2_5722433125_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_sunflower_x600_5722956738_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Borah Betts Borah Betts Alexander Chiarella Alexander Chiarella Borah Betts Alexander Fang Alexander Chiarella Alexander Chiarella Alexander Fang Alexander Chiarella Alexander Fang Alexander Chiarella Alan

FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell_x1200-2_5723269880_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell_x300_5722718077_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell_x600_5723272488_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell_x1200-2_5723269880_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted-crab_x1200_3911034365_o.png FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted-crab_x4000_3911033591_o.png

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-claw-section-2_5724464445_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_oyster-shell_x120_5722999183_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell2_5725014256_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_oyster_x1800_5722720841_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_oyster_x500_5722722317_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-section3_5722813787_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-claw-section-imp_5724451717_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-concept_5725018604_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-concept-section_5724467829_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-claw_5725005992_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-origin_x1500_5722711749_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-origin_x1800_5722719269_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-origin_x1200_5722713011_o.gif FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted-crab_x2500_3911815498_o.png FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell_5724372087_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

page 77 A1-B2 C1-E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-C5 D4 E4 D5 E5 D6 page 78 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 79 A1 B1 A2 B2 C1-E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-C5 D4 D5 E4 E5

sem index 299


page 80 A1 B1 A2 B2 C1-E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-C5 D4 E4 D5 E5

FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x50_5722897481_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-torn-edge3_5724926330_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x120-2_5723441512_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-torn-edge_5724452839_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_crab-shell-torn-edge2_5724471337_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x250_5722915325_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x500_5723429698_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x18000-2_5722890557_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x15000_5723456780_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x18000_5723437444_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x800_5723462244_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x10000-2_5722908581_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x20000_5722900257_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x40000_5723446966_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x50000_5722871867_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x600_5722898819_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x400_5723444242_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x40000_5722877271_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x10000_5722879959_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x40000-2_5722916635_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x40000-2_5722912657_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x12000_5723464872_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x20000-2_5723451188_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x25000_3911019151_o.png FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x30000_5723440152_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x40000-3_5723428300_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x40000-3_3911801368_o.png FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x25000-3_5722904291_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_blue-crab_x60000_5722876013_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_spotted_x15000_5722883791_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x300_5723442649_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x500_scale-change_5724003658_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x800_scale-change_5723446647_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x15000_scale-change_572337293_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x800_3911817584_o.png FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x15000_layers_5723436107_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x250_typ_5724002234_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x600_5723741694_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x12000_5723999576_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x10000_5723438661_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x3002_5723451593_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer

page 81 A1-C2 D1 E1 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4-E5 A5 B5 page 82 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 83 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5

300 nanotectonica


E5

FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x10000-2_5723998166_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer

FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x20000_typ-2_5723439925_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x40000-2_5723480167_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x40000-3_3911036455_o.png FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x120_5726427849_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x1000_5726999154_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x10000_5724049984_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x12000_5724043402_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x15000_5724072224_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x18000-2_5723490697_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x25000_5724052524_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x250_5724350417_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x10000_5724903008_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x18000_5724337647_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x15000_5724894284_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x25000-2_5724897890_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed3_x180_5736042486_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed3_x250_5735492241_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed3_x500_5736042186_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed3_x1200_5736042588_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed3_x1200-2_5736042262_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x2500-2_5735492903_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x1200_5736043416_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x300_5735493043_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x30000-2_5723489489_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x40000-2_5723492063_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte_x50000-3_5724073462_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x600_5735493155_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x500_5736043784_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x30000_5724341171_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x30000-2_5724901712_o.jpg FA07_Nanotectonica_trilobyte2_x40000-2_5724907218_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x250_5735493869_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x100_5735497195_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x300_5736047140_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x1500_5736047694_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Michael Archer Michael Archer Michael Archer Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_shell_x250_4290674181_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_shell_x30_4290674179_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Jerome Jerome

SP08_Nanotectonica_shell_x1800_4290674182_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000

Jerome

page 84 A1-C2 D1 D2 E1 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 85 A1 B1-C2 D1-E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4-E5 A5 B5 C5 page 86 A1 A6 page 87 A1

sem index 301


page 88 A1 A6

SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x200_5736047542_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x60_5736047244_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x500_5736047636_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x180_5735497437_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_woodstem_x250_5735497575_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x1500_5735493781_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x3000_5735493935_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed2_x5000_5736043290_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed3_x500-2_5736041950_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fruit-fly_x60_5769863612_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fruit-fly_x800_5769324139_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fruit-fly_x1800_5769862566_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fruit-fly_x2500_5769862840_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fruit-fly_x5000_5769323873_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x200_5736035236_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x50_5736034942_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x800_5736035514_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x1500_5735484851_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x600_5735485197_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x50-2_5736034722_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x150_5735484955_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup

SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x100_5736039794_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x60_5736039372_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x80_5736040184_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x180-2_5735490267_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x120_5736039248_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x180-4_5736040672_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x180_5736039894_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x300_5735489189_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x300-2_5735490149_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x500-3_5736040772_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x50_5735490501_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin

page 89 A1 B6-C6 D6-E6 page 90 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3-E6

WonYup WonYup

page 91 A1 A2 B1-C2 D1-E2 A3-E6 page 92 A1-E4 A6 B6 C6 D6 E6 page 93 A1-E4 A6 B6 C6-E6 page 94 A1-E4

302 nanotectonica


A6 C6 D6 E6

SP08_Nanotectonica_fish-tail_x300_5735485615_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_garlic_x50_5735485719_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_garlic_x120_5736035870_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_garlic_x300_5736035970_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

WonYup Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x180-3_5735490583_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x150-2_5736040984_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x400_5735491251_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion2_x30_5735489055_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion_x60-2_5735491057_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_scallion2_x150_5735488845_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sesame_x100_5736044640_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sesame_x180_5736044784_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sesame_x600_5735495107_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sesame_x2500_5735495197_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sesame_x80_5735495383_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sesame_x400_5735495299_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x60-2_5736045968_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x100_5736045854_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x100-2_5735495963_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x250_5735496115_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x250-2_5735496333_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x100-3_5736046198_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x200_5736046276_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x500_5736046422_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin_x1000_5736046332_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin2_x80_5736046738_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_tangerine-skin2_x400_5735496845_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_insect3_x30_5769360269_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_insect3_x50_5769359111_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_insect3_x250_5769359717_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_insect3_x500_5769899686_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_insect3_x800_5769361191_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-urchin_x300_3970280518_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-urchin_x40_3970280430_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-urchin_x40_3970280430_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-urchin_x40_3970280430_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-urchin_x1800_3969509407_o.gif

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SP08_Nanotectonica_star2_x30_4291422234_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_starfish_x120_3970279908_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_star_x25_4290681335_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

page 95 A1-E4 D6 E6 page 96 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 97 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 E5 page 98 A1-E4 A5-B6 C5-E6

sem index 303


page 99 A1-E4 A5 B5 D5-E6

SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-urchin2_x30_3969508775_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_star_x150_4290682319_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_star_x500_4290681805_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-urchin2_x120_3969508857_o.gif

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x30_3970281026_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x40_3970280898_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x80_3969509783_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x80_3969509783_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x100_3970281222_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x80_3969509783_o.gif

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Jerome Jerome Jerome Jerome Jerome Jerome

SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x180_3970281358_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x300_3969509949_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x300_3969509949_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x300_3969509949_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x300-2_3969510123_o.gif SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp-tail_x800_3969510124_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Jerome Jerome Jerome Jerome Jerome Jerome

SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-salt_x50_5735491805_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-salt_x2500_5735491353_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale_x150_5736034320_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale_x500_5736034398_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale_x1500_5736034238_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale3_x30_5736033556_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale3_x80_5736033468_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale3_x200_5736033982_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale3_x300_5735483599_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale3_x2000_5735483701_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_ant_x120_5769344207_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_ant_x50_5769882668_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_ant_x180_5769882980_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_ant_x600_5769343217_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_ant_x400_5769344505_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_ant_x200_5769882406_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed_x400_5735494279_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed_x1500_5736043898_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed_x1200_5735494353_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_sea-weed_x800-3_5735491959_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup

SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale_x300_5735484469_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000

WonYup

page 100 A1-C3 D1-E2 D3 E3 A4-C5 D4-E5 page 101 A1-B2 A2 B2 A3-B4 C1-E3 C4-E5 page 102 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-C5 D4 E4 D5 E5

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

page 103 A1

304 nanotectonica


B1 A2 B2 A3 B3 A4-B5 C1-E3 C4-E5

SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale_x1000_5736034558_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale2_x600_5736034046_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_fishscale2_x1500_5736033858_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x40_5735495801_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x120_5735495661_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x2500_5736045546_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x180_5735495539_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x400_5736045226_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

WonYup WonYup WonYup Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x50-2_5735458549_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x50_5735457605_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x100_5736009684_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x250_5735459311_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x800_5736009372_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x80_5736009014_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup

SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x500_5736008710_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x150_5736009180_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x120_5736008156_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x180_5736008330_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x120-2_5736009464_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_coral_x300-2_5735459057_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup WonYup

SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x80_5735486069_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x30_5735487481_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x30-2_5736037758_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x40_5735487391_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x300_5736037088_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x120_5736036690_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x500_5735487095_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x800_5736037260_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x40-3_5735487799_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x40-2_5735487593_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x100_5735486389_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x150_5735486493_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-coral_x250_5736036794_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-red-coral_x30_5735488485_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin

page 104 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 105 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 106 A1-E4 A5 B5 D5-E6 page 107 A1-E4 A5-B6 D5 D6 page 108 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 109

sem index 305


A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-red-coral_x100_5735488643_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-red-coral_x500_5736038408_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-red-coral_x150_5735488027_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-red-coral_x150-2_5736038136_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-red-coral_x200_5735487909_o.jpg SP08_Nanotectonica_pacific-red-coral_x200-2_5736038256_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SU08_Nanotectonica_abalone-shell_x30_2589332548_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_abalone-shell_x60_2588499277_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_abalone-shell2_x100_2589332712_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_abalone-shell2_x300_2589334086_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_abalone-shell_x1000_2589333456_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shell2_x30_2588498773_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shell2_x60_2589332938_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shell2_x100_2589333912_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shell2_x300_2589333514_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shell2_x1000_2588498217_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_coral_x100_2588499517_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_coral_x300_2588499965_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_coral_x1000_2588497817_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_coral_x3000_2588498599_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_coral_x6000_2589332442_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_coral_x60_2589333822_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shell_x30_2589332494_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shell_x300_2588499133_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-shellက2589304618_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_corn5_x40_2608777262_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_corn_x100_2607946445_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_corn3_x150_2608777010_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SU08_Nanotectonica_bug_x40_2607946143_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_bug22607946245_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_bug2607946325_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_bug7_x120_2608780196_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_bug8_x500_2607949893_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_corn22608776924_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_corn4 2608777124_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_greenpepper3_x600_2608777514_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_greenpepper_x180_2607946979_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_kiwi_x30_2607947903_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_kiwi-seed_x60_2607947595_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_kiwi2_x120_2608778062_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_kiwi5_x150_2608779460_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_kiwi-seed2_x200_2607947255_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_kiwi-seed5_x600_2607947693_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_orange2_x120_2608778560_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_orange3_x600_2608778764_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_orange-seed2_x150_2608778362_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

page 110 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5 C4 D4 E4 C5 D5 D5 page 111 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4

306 nanotectonica

Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin Won Choi, Changyup Shin


D4-E5 A5 B5 C5

SU08_Nanotectonica_orange-seed_x30_2608778460_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_orange-fiber2_x30_2608779870_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_orange-fiber_x150_2608779780_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_orange-seed32607947975_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud4_x120_2604122647_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud7_x30_2604122909_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud2_x100_2604122511_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud9_x80_2604122985_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud5_x180_2604122689_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud182604123441_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud6_x120_2604122833_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud16_x30_2604952016_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud-stem_x80_2604951114_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud8_x500_2604122941_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_petunia-bud32604951310_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_plant2_x400_2608778972_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SU08_Nanotectonica_seeds23_x40_2604123797_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_seeds25_x50_2604952616_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_seeds22_x250_2604123753_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_seeds20_x150_2604952328_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_seeds26_x200_2604952676_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_seeds24_x400_2604952566_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_seeds192604952150_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_pollen13_x30_2604123173_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_pollen11_x120_2604951728_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_pollen12_x200_2604951762_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_pollen14_x300_2604123223_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_pollen102604123019_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink2_x30_2647856232_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink2_x100_2647049363_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink2_x300_2647799588_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink2_x800_2647846770_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink2 2647887422_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink_x30_2647793428_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink_x150_2646982975_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink_x300_2646948659_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink2647030771_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink 2647808510_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink3_x30_2646992133_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink3_x150_2646955089_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

page 112 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 113 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 114 A1-B2 C1 D1 E1 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 115 A1 B1

sem index 307


C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2-D3 E2 A3 B3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4-E5 A5 B5 C5

SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink3_x300_2647893698_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green_x400_2647874990_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green_x800_2646973715_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green2_x30_2647796558_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink4_x180_2647837164_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink4_x500_2646989143_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink4 2647783390_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink4_x80_2647033809_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink5_x200_2646970753_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink3 2647843594_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green2_x80_2646998763_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green2_x150_2647896834_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green2_x300_2647058567_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green2_x600_2647008451_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green22647036899_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green2 2647067841_o.jpg SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-green22646986075_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

SU08_Nanotectonica_sea-urch-pink32647021069_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000

WS08_Nanotectonica_fruchtfliege-bein 3029740861_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fruchtfliege-fluegel_x80_3029698183_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fruchtfliege-bein2_x18000_3030580540_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_fruchtfliege-auge3 3024574781_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fruchtfliege-auge_x180_3029692283_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fruchtfliege-auge2_x450-2_3030528936_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fruchtfliege-fluegel23030537672_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_noname3196487336.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_noname_x20000_3196487337.tif

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_labellum_x700_3029721499_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_labellum_x400_3030547674_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_labellum_x500_3030551830_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_labellum_3030561290_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_labellum_3030566502_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_labellum_3030571314_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_buche_x500_3081312905.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_buche_x300_3081312904.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_buche_x100_3081312903.tif

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

page 116 A1-E5 p. 55 A1-E5 A6 B6 page 117 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 118 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 119 A1-B2 C1 D1

308 nanotectonica


E1 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 A5 B5 C4 C5 D4-E5

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Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_noname_x100_3055840329.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_noname_x200_3196487336.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_wecker-kuerbiskern_x1500_3055850246_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_noname_x500_3196487337.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_wecker-kuerbiskernt_x100_3055840094_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wecker-kuerbiskern_x500_3055840952_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wecker-kuerbiskern_x3000_3055014203_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wecker-kuerbiskern_x50_3055005855_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wecker-kuerbiskern_x200_3055006111_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wecker-kuerbiskern-skin_x1000_3055841933.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_orange-haut_x400_3061828322_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_amoeben_x4500_3061826474_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_amoeben_x20_3060985689_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_amoeben_x20-2_3060985857_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_amoeben_x600_3060986429_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fischeier_x30_3060984991_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fischeier_x150_3061825078_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fischeier_x2500_3061825456_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fischeier_x13000_3061825872_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_mosssporophyte_x500_3052213493_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_krebs-fuss_x450_3060986903_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_krebs-fuss_x50_3060986725_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fly_x40_3081315575_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fly_x50_3082157064_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_brain_x40_3082153772_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_brain_x150_3081313377_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_brain_x400_3082154766_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_kidney_x200_3082151702_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_lung_x60_3081309727_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_lung_x200_3081309951_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

page 120 A1 B1 C1 D1-E2 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E4 C4 D4 E4 A4-B5 C5 D5 E5 page 121 A1-C2 D1 D2 E1 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5

sem index 309


C4-E5 WS08_Nanotectonica_lung_x110_3081309453_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x40_3122434515_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_schimmelpilz-orange_x150_3060987243_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_schimmelpilz-orange_x500_3060987125_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_schimmelpilz-orange_x1500_3061827146_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_schimmelpilz-orange_x4000_3060987339_.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_fly_x900_3082157268_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_kidney_x10000_3081311451_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x300-2_3123259564_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x1000_3123257970_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x3000_3122434063_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wood_x400_3082156158_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wood_x450_3081314525_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wood_x1100_3082155966_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_wood_x200_3082155512_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x50_3123260108_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x100_3123258318_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x300-3_3123259806_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x90-2_3123260360_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x300_3122433871_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz-dunkel_x1000-2_3123258122_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_orange-haut_x2000_3061828178_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_orange-haut_x13000_3061827908_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_orange-haut_x30000_3060987495_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x40_3122438661_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x40-2_3123263806_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x600-2_3122439527_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x6000_3123264738_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x15000_3123262914_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x100-2_3123262258_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x100_3122437371_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x1500_3122437127_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x5000_3123263644_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_motte-fluegel_x20000_3123261756_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein-aussen_x900_3122448721_jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_tabak_x90_3122441417_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_tabak_x200-2_3123265604_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_tabak_x450_3122440713_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_tabak_x700_3122441065_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_tabak_x1100-2_3122439767_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

page 122 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 AE-C5 D3 E3 D4-E5 page 123 A1-E3 D4 E4 A4-C5 D5 E5 page 124 A1-E3 A4 B4 A5 B5 C4-E5 page 125 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2

310

nanotectonica


A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

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Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x200_3122444113_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x800_3123283502_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x1800-3_3122443773_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x4000_3123272666_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x8000_3122448371_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x15000-2_3122443343_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x10000-2_3123282538_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x30000-2_3123270546_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x40_3123272464_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x150_3123268552_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x400_3123272560_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x1300_3123268404_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x4500_3123272776_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x10000_3122441793_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x25000-2_3123270108_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-2_3123271296_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-5_3122446159_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-4_3122445999_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-3_3122445861_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-6_3122446327_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-8_3122446633_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-9_3122446861_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x4500-2_3123281256_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x11000-2_3123267868_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x90_3123273938_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x350_3123270794_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x1100-2_3123267970_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x2500_3123269798_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x6000_3123273438_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x15000_3122443211_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x45000_3122447453_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

page 126 A1 B1 C1 D4 E4 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 A5 B4-C5 D4-E5 page 127 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3

sem index

311


C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

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Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne_x70_3122450531_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x50_3122447715_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x1120_3122442665_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x60_3123273276_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x130_3123268238_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x130-2_3122458167_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x1800-2_3122443575_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x1800-4_3122444001_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x2500-2_3123270214_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_vogelspinne-bein_x3500-8_3122446633_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_hazelnut_x40_3196487847_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_hazelnut_x100_3196486971_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_hazelnut_x110_3196487066.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_hazelnut_x500_3196486673_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_hazelnut_x500-2_3197330052_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x45_3196492127_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x60_3197336000_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x90_3197336660_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x200_3196492715_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x250_3196492825_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x700_3196492321_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x1300_3196492547_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_holz3_x40_3196491443_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz3_x100_3196491329_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz4_x40_3196491997_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz4_x180_3197335478_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz4_x450_3197335188_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_leaf_x110_3196493281_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_leaf_x1300_3196493439_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_leaf_x8000_3197336544_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_leaf_x20000_3197337226_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz4_x4500_3196491669_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_leaf_x180_3196493573_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

page 128 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3-E4 A4 B4 C4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 129 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3

312

nanotectonica


B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-C5 D4 E4 D5 E5

WS08_Nanotectonica_leaf_x250_3196493855_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x100_3197331468_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x500_3197331232_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x1100_3197331820_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x6000_3196488041_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x2500_3196488981_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x3500_3197332490_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x11000_3197331668_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutshell_x3000_3196489229_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x40-2_3196492121.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x40-4_3196492123.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x60_3197336010.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x100_3197336003.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x400-2_3196492831.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x150_3197336009.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x600_3196492833.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x80_3197336001.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x45_3196492126.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x110-2_3197336006.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutskin_x350_3196490017_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutskin_x1000_3197332910_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x300-2_3196492827.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x100-2_3197336004.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x130_3197336008.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutskin_x1800_3196490167_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutskin_x3000_3196490463_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutskin_x11000_3196489553_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutskin_x11000-2_3197333174_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_peanutskin_x7000_3197332776_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x110_3197336005.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x40-3_3196492122.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x350_3196492828.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x352_3196492829.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x400_3196492830.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x450_3196492832.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_holz_x1000_3196492322.tif WS08_Nanotectonica_coconut_x60_3234679104_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_coconut_x300_3233830013_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_coconut_x500_3233829561_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_coconut_x800_3233829743_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_coconut_x1500_3234679212_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_fly_x1500_3953449959_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_seed-parachute_x50_3234680958_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_seed-parachute_x350_3233831511_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_seed-parachute_x1300_3233831333_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_seed-parachute_x4500_3233830869_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz Dr. Wenzel Scholz

page 130 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 A5 B5 C4-E5 page 131 A1-C2 D1-E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

sem index

313


page 132 A1-B2 C1-E2 A3-B4 C3-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

FA09_Nanotectonica_fishscale_x1200_3953449113_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_star-sand_x250_3954235146_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_lilac-bud_x500_3954234232_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_noname_x300_3953447399_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_ant_x500_3954228220_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_lilac-bud_x60_3953453459_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_acorn_x300_3976971109_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_acorn_x600_3977734306_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_star-sand_x600_3953455963_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel

Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel

SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera4_x1500_3613792146_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera_x110_3613792558_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera10_x400_3612974159_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera3_x700_3612975179_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera15_x900_3613791002_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera20_x1000_361274095_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera_x2500_3613791074_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera_x3000_3613791980_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera_x2500_3613791200_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera_x3500_3612973991_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera_x3500_3612974415_o.jpg SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera_x5000_3613791416_o.jpg

Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000 Hitachi S-4000

U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel U. Kassel

FA09_Nanotectonica_pomastone_x30_3977756652_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_pomastone_x200_3977755484_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_pomastone_x1800_3976992067_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg_x30_3977024381_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg_x150_3977025429_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-muscle_x12000_3977010643_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-muscle_x30000_3977011695_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-section_x200_3977776400_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-section_x500_3977777508_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-section_x800_3977783948_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-section_x15000-2_3977016735_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Cabrera/Grishina Cabrera/Grishina

page 133 A1-E5 SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera16_x450_3613790912_o.jpg page 134 A1-E5 SU09_Nanotectonica_labellum-brachycera18_x900_3613790702_o.jpg page 135 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 136 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 137 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3

314

nanotectonica

Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan


B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5 C4-D5 E4 E5

FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-section_x18000_3977785056_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-section_x25000_3977781828_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_shrimpleg-section_x70000_3977782900_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_spider-shell_x30_3977792766_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_treeberrie_x50_3976980045_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_treeberrie_x250_3976978681_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_spider-shell_x1800_3977791688_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_spider-shell_x3000_3977793844_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Bernal/Chan Cabrera/Grishina Cabrera/Grishina Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan

FA09_Nanotectonica_plant2_x30_3976984075_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_plant2_x180_3976982729_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_plant2_x300_3977747692_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_plant2_x400_3977748898_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_plant2_x1000_3976981547_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosepetal_x1000_3976995383_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosepetal_x30_3976999925_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosepetal_x180_3976997653_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosepetal_x2500_3977761386_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosestem_x100_3977765868_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosestem_x300_3977006487_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosepetal_x800_3977763504_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosestem_x1000_3977766952_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosestem_x1200_3977005401_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosestem_x600_3977772254_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosepetal_x1500_3977758968_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_nutshell_x1200_3977735378_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosetwig_x100_4037866620_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosetwig_x100-2_4037866722_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosetwig_x250_4037116351_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_nutshell_x60_3977736414_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_seashell_x1800_3976977533_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Cabrera/Grishina Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Cabrera/Grishina Cabrera/Grishina

FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x150_4037860218_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_acorn_x100_4037113667_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_acorn_x200_4037864832_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_acorn_x400_4037865064_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x400_4037860976_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x800_4037110609_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_acorn_x1000-2_4037864510_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x1500_4037109727_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x3000_4037110073_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x200_4037109825_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x1000_4037109073_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x180_3977035053_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_nutshell_x4000_4037114863_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_nutshell_x100_4037865166_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_nutshell_x1000_4037865316_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x500_3977037053_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Cruz Wickesberg Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Liu Rivera Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Liu Rivera Cruz

page 138 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 D2-E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 139 A1-B2 C1 D1 E1 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5 C4 D4 E4

sem index

315


C5 FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x250_4037109917_o.jpg D5 FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x1200_4037109271_o.jpg E5 FA09_Nanotectonica_flower_x1200-2_4037109465_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg

FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x100-4_4037111339_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x400_4037112947_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x600_3977038095_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x800_3977803306_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x100_4037110813_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x100-2_4037110963_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x80_3977802166_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x180-2_3977795920_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x500_4037863676_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x1500_4037111913_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x500-2_4037864092_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x1500-4_4037862998_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x5000-2_4037863938_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x100-5_4037111579_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x300_4037112713_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x800-2_3977804350_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x5000_4037863808_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosebud_x1200_4037865806_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x600_4037864188_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_wheat_x1500-3_4037112187_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosebud_x3000_4037865928_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_rosebud_x3000_4037865928_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Cruz Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Cruz Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Cruz Wickesberg Liu Rivera Cruz Wickesberg Cruz Wickesberg Liu Rivera Liu Rivera

FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush2_x400_4037105377_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush2_x200_4037105137_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush_x100_4037106321_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush_x180_4037107115_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush_x1000_4037106777_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush_x3000_4037857960_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush2_x1800_4037855782_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush2_x6000_4037105563_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmush2_x10000_4037104715_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmushlone_x100_4037105791_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmushlone_x1000_4037856650_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_telegmushlone_x2500_4037856836_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom_x100_4037859060_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom_x200_4037859374_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom_x1500_4037108581_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom_x6000_4037859622_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom_x2000_4037108863_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom2_x100_4037858106_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom2_x300_4037858706_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom2_x1000_4037858364_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom2_x1500_4037858526_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan Bernal/Chan

page 140 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 A5 B4-C5 D4 E4 D5 E5 page 141 A1-B2 C1 D1 E1 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5

316

nanotectonica


E5 FA09_Nanotectonica_villamushroom2_x3000_4037108241_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000

Bernal/Chan

FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma2_x80_3954269622_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma_x1800_3954268530_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma_x80_3953489099_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma_x180-2_3953492013_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma_x1200_3953487957_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma4_x250-2_3954271378_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma3_x800_3953490429_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma4_x1500_3953490615_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma3_x1000_3954269978_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma_x180_3954268696_o.jpg FA09_Nanotectonica_polydesma2_x300_3954269424_o.jpg

Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000 Hitachi TM-1000

EAS EAS EAS EAS EAS EAS EAS EAS EAS EAS EAS

SP10_Nanotectonica_branch-interior_x100_4480032565_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_branch-interior_x400_4480032841_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_insect-antenna_x100_4480682218_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_insect-antenna_x200_4480682484_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_leaf-stoma_x200_4480031893_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname18_x200_4391227013_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname19_x1000_4391996940_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname17_x1500_4391994370_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_leaf-stoma_x400_4480681162_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_leaf-stoma_x800_4480681358_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname19_4469925049_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname21_4480678798_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname18_4480677342_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname17_4480676662_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname20_4470704806_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname27_4469925931_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname28_4469925813_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname29_4470705632_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname37_4480026167_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname39_4480024705_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname26_4469926093_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname24_4480679528_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname25_4480030701_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname40_4480024917_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname41_4480674114_o.jpg

xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

SP10_Nanotectonica_noname44_4480674590_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname43_4480025421_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname42_4480025237_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname46_4480675032_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname45_4480674810_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname48_4480026573_o.jpg

xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

page 142 A1 B1 A2 B2 C1-E3 A3-B4 A5 B5 C4-D5 E4 E5 page 143 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 144 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2

sem index

317


B2 C2-D3 E2 A3 B3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP10_Nanotectonica_noname47_4480675390_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname52_4480676484_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname49_4480675846_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname50_4480676094_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname51_4480676264_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname56_4391979130_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname57_4391980274_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname58_4391981574_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname59_4391982868_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname65_4391990016_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname55_4391977896_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname63_4391987584_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname66_4391990788_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname67_x100_4391991820_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname61_4391217495_o.jpg SP10_Nanotectonica_noname60_4391984208_o.jpg

xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton xotecton

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

xotecton xotecton Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

page 145 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5 C4 C5

SP10_Nanotectonica_noname69_x200_4391224466 SP10_Nanotectonica_noname68_x500_4391224465_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_allspice-malagueta_x75_5426325621_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_amaranth-grain_x1000_5426928566_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_allspice-malagueta_x200_5426930296_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_basil_5492264985_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_banana-skin_5492860476_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_banana-skin_5492860574_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_basil-seed_5492860644_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_allspice-malagueta_x500_5426930264_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_banana-skin_5492860184_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_banana-skin_5492860264_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_black-tea-leaf_x200_5426928486_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_black-tea-leaf_x500_5426323829_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_black-tea-leaf_x2000_5426928396_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_butterfly-head_x16_5426323323_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_butterfly-abodomen_x100_5426927716_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cecada-leg_x13_5426323567_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cactus-thorn_x2000_5426325171_o.jpg D4 SP11_Nanotectonica_cactus-thorn_x500_5426325145_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cecada-eye_x200_5426323295_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cecada-eye_x1000_5426323243_o.jpg

Philips XL30

page 146 A1 B1 C1 D1-E2 A2 B2 C2 A3

318

SP11_Nanotectonica_clove_x10_5426929980_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cecada-wing_x12_5426323401_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cecada-wing_x100_5426927992_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cecada-leg_x200_5426323463_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_daisy-petal_x500_5426325075_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_daisy-petal_x2000_5426325045_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_crab-skin_x2000_5426930110_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_clove_x50_5426325201_o.jpg

nanotectonica


B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP11_Nanotectonica_feather_5492265669_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_feather2_5492265439_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_cecada-leg_x500_5426323509_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_eyelash_5492864870_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_flyleg_5492865580_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_fly_5492865106_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_fly2_5492268909_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_fly3_5492269055_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_flywin3_5492863558_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_flywin_5492863434_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_go-root_x100_5426326139_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_go-root_x200_5426326091_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_go-root_x500_5426930756_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_go-root_x2000_5426326029_o.jpg

Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

Sean/Katie Sean/Katie

p. 147 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP11_Nanotectonica_jujube-inside_x100_5426323621_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_jujube-inside_x500_5426928242_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_jujube-inside_x2000_5426323709_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_jujube-skin_x500_5426323777_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_jujube-skin_x1000_5426323751_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_kidney-bean-inside_x100_5426325025_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_kidney-bean-inside_x500_5426929720_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_kidney-bean-inside_x2000_5426929678_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_lotus_5492265121_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_lotus_5492265121_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_lotus3_5492265549_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_lotus-seedskin_x200_5426928776_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_lotus-seedskin_x1000_5426324085_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_lotus-seedskin_x2000_5426928658_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_meye2_5492863690_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_meye_5492863834_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_moth4_5492863166_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_moth5_5492267085_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_moth_5492864278_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_moth2_5492864628_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_moth6_5492268449_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_mthor_5492864070_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_mthor2_5492268239_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_mushroom_x1000_5426930406_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_mushroom_x5000_5426325653_o.jpg

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

p. 148 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2

SP11_Nanotectonica_mwing2_5492267851_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_mwing_5492863952_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_onon-leaf-branching_x100_5426326231_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_onon-leaf-branching_x200_5426930930_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_onon-leaf-branching_x500_5426930904_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_onon-leaf-branching_x2000_5426326163_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_pearl-barley-inside_x500_5426929160_o.jpg

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C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP11_Nanotectonica_pearl-barley-inside_x2000_5426324397_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_pearl-barley-inside_x3000_5426929036_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_pearl-barley-skin_x16_5426324291_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_pearl-barley-skin_x100_5426324259_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_pearl-barley-skin_x500_5426324223_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_pearl-barley-skin_x1000_5426928828_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x500_5426929854_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x2000_5426929824_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose_5492266003_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose2_5492862336_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose3_5492862428_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose-petal3_5492861012_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose-petal2_5492264761_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rose-petal_5492860806_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rice_5492862556_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_rice2_5492862046_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x500-2_5426930696_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x2000_5426930648_o.jpg

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

SP11_Nanotectonica_shrimp_x500_5426325861_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_shiitakeblack-mushroom_x1000_542930228_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_shiitakeblack-mushroom_x500_5426930150_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_skin_5492268703_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat_x100_5426324681_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat_x500_5426929308_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat_x2000_5426929250_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat-texture2_x200_5426929498_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat-texture2_x500-2_5426929392_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat-texture2_x2000_5426324699_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wing2_5492266607_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wing3_5492266713_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_baby-breath_x250_barcorrec_6756483789_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat-texture2_x500_5426324907_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wheat-texture2_x2000-2_5426929580_o.jpg SP11_Nanotectonica_wing_5492862668_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_almond_x500_scalebar_6756482089_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_almond_x50_6756481675_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_almond_x250_6756482509_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_bamboo_x40_6756497557_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_bamboo_x100_6756498053_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_bamboo_x500_6756498535_o.jpg

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

SP12_Nanotectonica_bug_x1000_6756486469_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_bug_x1000-2_6756486919_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_bug_x2000_6756487277_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_bugeye_x1000_6756487695_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_finger-nail_x50_6756487923_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_bug_x40_6756486033_o.jpg

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Cornell Center Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

p. 149 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5 C4 D4 E4 C5 D5 E5

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

page 150 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2

320 nanotectonica

Sean/Katie Sean/Katie Sean/Katie Sean/Katie Sean/Katie


B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP12_Nanotectonica_fly-wing_x20_scalebar_6756489145_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_fly-wing_x100_6756489615_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_fly-wing_x250_6756490043_o.jpg WS08_Nanotectonica_coconut_x800_3233829743_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_greentea-leaf_x40_6756490505_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_greentea-leaf_x1000-2_6756491367_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_greentea-leaf_x1000_6756490947_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_gypsophila_x50_6756482883_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_gypsophila_x100_6756483245_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_hair_x100_6756491635_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_gypsophila-stem_x100_6756502691_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_gypsophila-stem_x500_6756503179_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_gypsophila-stem_x1000_6756503569_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_leaf-green_x40_6756484271_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_leaf_x250_6756484799_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_leaf-brown_x500_6756494421_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_leaf-green_x500_6756485249_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_leaf-green_x1000_6756485751_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_leaf-brown_x2000_6756494849_o.jpg

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Hitachi S-4000 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. U. Kassel Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc.

SP12_Nanotectonica_orange-peel_x50_6756495251_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_orange-peel_x250_6756495781_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_pumpkin-seed_x100_6756496255_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_pumpkin-seed_x250_6756496715_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_pumpkin-seed_x1000_6756497153_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_sesame-seed_x50_6756500261_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_sesame-seed_x150_6756500713_o.jpg SP12_Nanotectonica_sesame-seed_x1000_6756501167_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_babysbreath_x220_32365239474_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_drypeach_x230_33052663892_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_butterfly-wing_x210_33167750306_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_butterfly-wing2_x210_33052671752_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_butterfly-wing4_x720_33052668362_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_butterfly-wing3_x1600_33167752296_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_butterfly-wing_x1350_33167756096_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_echinoid3_x225_33209408465_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_echinoid4_x750_33052657162_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_echinoid2_x225_33052660702_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_echinoid_x2200_33167749196_o.jpg

Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Philips XL30 Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL

Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. Lucius Pitkin Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc.

SP17_Nanotectonica_plantseed_x230_33167763906_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x330_34566656614_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_plantseed_x1400_33167746226_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_potato-skin_x245_33081683081_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_potato-skin3_x590_32365222564_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_potato-skin2_x990_33081684121_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_plantseed_x710_33167762726_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_whitetopaz_x230_32365215974_o.jpg

Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL

LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc.

page 151 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5 C4-E5 E4 E5 page 152 A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 D1-E2 A3

sem index

321


B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP17_Nanotectonica_rose-stems_x220_33081682271_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_rose-stems_x540_33167743086_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_rose-petal2_x215_33167742146_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x630_33081681341_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_whitetopaz2_x960_33052635612_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cannabissativa_x320_34599448383_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cannabissativa_x2000_34599448223_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_chileskin_x290_34599445533_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_chileskin-crack_x2500_34599445373_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_chileseeds_x310-2_34599446173_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_chileseeds_x310_34599445923_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cilantro_x300-2_34599444943_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cilantro_x300_34599444783_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cilantro_x3000_34599444613_o.jpg

Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL

LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc.

SP17_Nanotectonica_cilantro_x6000_34599444303_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cinnamon-skin-inside_x275_35369575956_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cinnamon-skin-outside_x2000_3527973751_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cinnamon-skin-outside_x260_35369575726_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_cinnamon-skin-inside_x2000_34599447823_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly_x2000_34599443253_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-leng_x5000_35408976135_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-body-broken_x320_34566661924_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-head-body-joint_x320_34599441663_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-head-eye-joint_x320_34599442773_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-head-hair_x6200_34566660564_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-shield-detail_x2000_34566660064_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-shield-detail_x2000_34566660064_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_insulation-foam_x330_34566659424_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_sea-sponge_x2000_35021878180_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_fly-hair-pocket-head_x2100_35408975635_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_sea-sponge_x350_34566656204_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_sea-wool-sponge_x330_35021877870_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_sea-wool-sponge_x350-2_35021877710_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_sea-wool-sponge_x780_35021877240_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_sea-wool-sponge_x780-2_35021877430_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_sea-wool-sponge_x2000_35021877060_o.jpg

Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL

LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc.

SP17_Nanotectonica_wing-joint_x470_35021876040_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_commonmormon-butterfly_x340_34443753_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_commonmormon-butterfly_x2000_3453573_o.jpg SP17_Nanotectonica_commonmormon-butterfly_x340-2_3535266_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0058_x255_39110157665_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0059_x255_39110157005_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0060_x750_39110156065_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0074_x1000_40007873631_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0076_x2000_40007872901_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0073_x250_39110151705_o.jpg

Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL

LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc.

page 153 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4-B5 C4 D4 E4 C5 D5 E5 page 154 A1 B1 C1 D1-E2 A2 B2 C2 A3-B4 C3 D3

322 nanotectonica

Weining Zhong Weining Zhong Weining Zhong Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto


E3 C4 A5 B5 C5 D4-E5

SP18_Nanotectonica_0065_x250_39110153775_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0037_x160_39110169315_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0066_x1000_40007876121_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0067_x2500_39110153065_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0038_x500_39110168825_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0039_x2000_40007890451_o.jpg

Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL

LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc.

Sebastian Weining Zhong Sebastian Sebastian Weining Zhong Weining Zhong

SP18_Nanotectonica_0040_x4100_40007889741_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0014_x145_39110180155_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0015_x500_39298688014_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0016_x1000_39298687564_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0050_x250_39110162715_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0051_x250_40007882561_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0052_x750_39110161595_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0053_x2000_40007881271_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0047_x250_40007884561_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0048_x1000_39110163345_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0007_x200_39298690864_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0008_x500_39298689784_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0069_x250_39110152515_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0070_x1000_40007874861_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0071_x3000_39110151985_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0062_x200_39110155385_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0063_x1000_39110154765_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0043_x250_40007887861_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0044_x1000_40007886631_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0045_x3000_40007885581_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0078_x250_40007871991_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0079_x1000_39110149645_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0080_x2500_40007871011_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0082_x125_40007869861_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0083_x750_39110148195_o.jpg

Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL

LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc.

Weining Zhong Reese Christensen Reese Christensen Reese Christensen Alexandra Vanderburgh Alexandra Vanderburgh Alexandra Vanderburgh Alexandra Vanderburgh Kath Kath

SP18_Nanotectonica_0026_x250_39298684734_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0031_x750_39110172015_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0018_x200_39298687314_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0020_x170_39298686694_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0028_x2500_39110173855_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0004_x500_39298692184_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0027_x1000_39110174415_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0034_x2500_40007892421_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0033_x1200_40007893031_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0035_x4000_40007891781_o.jpg SP18_Nanotectonica_0019_x1000_39298687124_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x80_47467429752_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x150_47520187261_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x235_47467429812_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x350_47520187361_o.jpg

Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL Phenom XL FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650

LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. LPI, Inc. NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

Reese Christensen Reese Christensen Sera Ghadaki Sera Ghadaki Reese Christensen Kath Reese Christensen Sera Ghadaki/Reese Sera Ghadaki/Reese Sera Ghadaki/Reese Sera Ghadaki Haya Alnibari Haya Alnibari Haya Alnibari Haya Alnibari

page 155 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto Weining Zhong Weining Zhong Kath Kath Kath Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto Marc Rizzuto

page 156 A1 B1 C1 D1-E2 A2 B2 C2 A3-B4 C3 C4 D3-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5

sem index 323


E5 SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x350_40554135313_o.jpg

FEI, NanoLab650

NYSBC

Haya Alnibari

SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x800_40554134823_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x1188_47520187451_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x2501_40554134973_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x10001-2_40554135183_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_anther_x10012_47520187691_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chicken-heart_x47_47520187801_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chicken-heart_x150_40554135453_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chicken-heart_x350_47520187941_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chicken-heart_x800_40554135773_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chicken-heart_x2000_47520188161_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chicken-heart_x2500_40554135983_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chicken-heart_x10000_47520188321_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chili-pepper-skin_x350-1_47520188421_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chili-pepper-skin_x350-2_40554136383_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chili-pepper-skin_x350-3_47520188481_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chili-pepper-skin_x1000_40554136503_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chili-pepper-skin_x2500_47520188561_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x47_40554136853_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x150_47520188771_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x500_40554137083_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x1200_47520188841_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x6499_40554137203_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x6500_47520188951_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x10006_40554137393_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chinese-pepper_x11999_47520189091_o.jpg

FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650

NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

Haya Alnibari Haya Alnibari Haya Alnibari Haya Alnibari Haya Alnibari Francisco Moreno Francisco Moreno Francisco Moreno Francisco Moreno Francisco Moreno Francisco Moreno Francisco Moreno Sammie Wu Sammie Wu Sammie Wu Sammie Wu Sammie Wu Yifei Li Yifei Li Yifei Li Yifei Li Yifei Li Yifei Li Yifei Li Yifei Li

SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x46_47520187131_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x500_47467429662_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x800_47520187001_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x2500_47467429482_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x8014_40554133983_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_cinnamomum-verum_x47_40554137593_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_cinnamomum-verum_x80_40554137703_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x7997_47467429372_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x3500_47520186731_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_chrysanthemum_x20003_47467429262_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_cinnamomum-verum_x100_40554137853_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_cinnamomum-verum_x800_40554137963_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_cinnamomum-verum_x15009-2_405538263_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_cinnamomum-verum_x5000_40554138073_o.jpg

FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650

NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

Richard Yeung Richard Yeung Richard Yeung Richard Yeung Richard Yeung Nathania Wijaya Nathania Wijaya Richard Yeung Richard Yeung Richard Yeung Nathania Wijaya Nathania Wijaya Nathania Wijaya Nathania Wijaya

FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650

NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador

page 157 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 158 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3-B4 C3-E5 A5 B5 page 159 A1 SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x150_47467428382_o.jpg B1 SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x200-1_40554133463_o.jpg C1 SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x200-2_47467428302_o.jpg

324 nanotectonica


D1 E1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x500_40554133413_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x1500_47467428102_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x999_40554133333_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x800_47467428242_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x3500_40554133273_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x15003_40554133233_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_mycelium_x14987_46604697755_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rigid-insulation_x50_46604697615_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rigid-insulation_x200_46604697555_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rigid-insulation_x500_40554133123_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rigid-insulation_x1500_46604697465_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rigid-insulation_x6500_46604697395_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rigid-insulation_x15000_40554133073_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x47_46604697195_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x80_40554133013_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x100_46604697025_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x200_40554132923_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x800_40554132873_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x500_40554132903_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x12001_40554132823_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x1008_46604696625_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_rose-petal_x797_46604696805_o.jpg

FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650

NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador Daniel Salvador Leonardo Martinez Leonardo Martinez Leonardo Martinez Leonardo Martinez Leonardo Martinez Leonardo Martinez Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio Thomas J. Diorio

SP19-Nanotectonica_garlic-skin_x800_47467429162_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_garlic-skin_x46_40554133933_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_garlic-skin_x4998_40554133823_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_garlic-skin_x12001_47467428972_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_garlic-skin_x9998_47467429032_o.jpg SP19-Nanotectonica_garlic-skin_x12000_40554133773_o.jpg

FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650 FEI, NanoLab650

NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

Chaoyue Zhang Chaoyue Zhang Chaoyue Zhang Chaoyue Zhang Chaoyue Zhang Chaoyue Zhang

SP20-Nanotectonica_Bismuth_x17_20200204_102503 SP20-Nanotectonica_Bismuth_x1036_20200204_102932 SP20-Nanotectonica_Garlic-Skin_x1034_20200204_135627 SP20-Nanotectonica_Garlic-Skin_x2421_20200204_135744 SP20-Nanotectonica_Bismuth_x434_20200204_103304 SP20-Nanotectonica_Bismuth_3226_20200204_103710 SP20-Nanotectonica_Bismuth_x4754_20200204_103052 SP20-Nanotectonica_Bismuth_x55_20200204_102708 SP20-Nanotectonica_Fungus_x57_20200204_132132 SP20-Nanotectonica_Fungus_x101_20200204_133054 SP20-Nanotectonica_Fungus_x136_20200204_132242 SP20-Nanotectonica_Fungus_x247_20200204_133339 SP20-Nanotectonica_Fungus_x498_20200204_132404 SP20-Nanotectonica_Fungus_x794_20200204_133511 SP20-Nanotectonica_Leaf_x150_20200204_120134 SP20-Nanotectonica_Leaf_x461_20200204_121221 SP20-Nanotectonica_Leaf_x786_20200204_120718 SP20-Nanotectonica_Leaf_x2036_20200204_120904

E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II

NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang Brooke Muller, Mengna Li Brooke Muller, Mengna Li Brooke Muller, Mengna Li Brooke Muller, Mengna Li

page 160 A1-E4 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5 page 161 A1-B2 C1 D1 E1 C2 D2 E2 A3-B4 C3 D3 E3 C4 D4 E4 A5 B5 C5 D5

sem index 325


E5 SP20-Nanotectonica_Leaf_x5000_20200204_121109

E. T. SEM Cube II

NYSBC

Brooke Muller, Mengna Li

SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x188_20200204_125506 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x1032_20200204_130259 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x1374_20200204_130203 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x68_20200204_131020 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x68_20200204_130751 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x458_20200204_130920 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x272_20200204_130613 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x272_20200204_125350 SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-2_x106_20200204_122658 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x437_20200204_130045 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x732_20200204_131232 SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-1_x93_20200204_121612 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x1726_20200204_131351 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x388_20200204_125656 SP20-Nanotectonica_Oregano_x1004_20200204_125817 SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-1_x95_20200204_121954 SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-1_x123_20200204_122127 SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-1_x775_20200204_121833 SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-1_x45_20200204_121405

E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II

NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC NYSBC

J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee Brooke Muller, Mengna Li J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee Brooke Muller, Mengna Li J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee Brooke Muller, Mengna Li Brooke Muller, Mengna Li Brooke Muller, Mengna Li Brooke Muller, Mengna Li

SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-2_x273_20200204_122449 SP20-Nanotectonica_Petal-2_x866_20200204_122601 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x20_20200204_104310 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x34_20200204_110120 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x206_20200204_110526 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x128_20200204_104502 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x188_20200204_104629 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x1239_20200204_104759 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x477_20200204_105022 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x921_20200204_105809 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x2164_20200204_105345 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x223_20200204_111816 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x535_20200204_112047 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x1054_20200204_112348 SP20-Nanotectonica_Pyrite_x2055_20200204_112547 SP20-Nanotectonica_Rice_x51_20200204_123553 SP20-Nanotectonica_Rice_x327_20200204_124949 SP20-Nanotectonica_Rice_x774_20200204_124310 SP20-Nanotectonica_Rice_x596_20200204_123819 SP20-Nanotectonica_Rice_x2238_20200204_123941 SP20-Nanotectonica_Rice_x2672_20200204_124411 SP20-Nanotectonica_Tourmaline_x157_20200204_113806 SP20-Nanotectonica_Tourmaline_x612_20200204_113933 SP20-Nanotectonica_Tourmaline_x1609_20200204_114101 SP20-Nanotectonica_Tourmaline_x1000_20200204_114501

E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II E. T. SEM Cube II

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Brooke Muller, Mengna Li Brooke Muller, Mengna Li V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman V. Cedillos, V. Tsukerman J. Castaneda, T. McConville J. Castaneda, T. McConville J. Castaneda, T. McConville J. Castaneda, T. McConville J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee J. Hamilton, S. Lee K. Lo, H. Wang, L. C. Wang J. Castaneda, T. McConville J. Castaneda, T. McConville J. Castaneda, T. McConville J. Castaneda, T. McConville

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References Introduction [1] Architecture design practice Büro NY, Gisela Baurmann and Jonas Coersmeier. Design research seminar Nanotectonica at Pratt Institute and University of Kassel. [2] https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations See Daily vaccination rates. Total number of vaccination doses administered 2020-01-03: 12.34 million, 1/3 us 1/3 china, nearly all in the northern hemisphere. | COVID-19 vaccine doses administered per 100 people, Dec 31, 2020 https://ourworldindata. org/grapher/covid-vaccination-doses-per-capita?tab=map&stackMode=abs olute&time=2020-12-31&region=World [3] Almeida JD, Berry DM, Cunningham CH, Hamre D, Hofstad MS, Mallucci L, McIntosh K, Tyrrell DA (November 1968). “Virology: Coronaviruses”. Nature. 220 (5168): 650. Bibcode:1968Natur.220..650. [4] “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom: An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics” was a lecture given by physicist Richard Feynman at the annual American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. [5]

https://now.northropgrumman.com/when-quantum-mechanics-and-relativitycollide/

[6] See Walter Benjamin ‘Zerstreuung’. Architecture perceived in a state of distraction. [7] As an active, structuring entity, the electron beam may serve as an analog for the philosophical concept of the probe-head (têtes chercheuse, guidance device) freed by the abstract machine in Deleuze and Guattari’s Thousand Plateaus. [8] Three design competition entries: 1) Queen’s Plaza, van Alen Institute competi-

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tion, New York 2001. 2nd prize award to “Green Plaza” by Gisela Baurman, Jonas Coermeier, Birgit Schönbrodt, Dr. Michael Biermer. Genetically engineered flora and fauna are synthesized with natural green at the infrastructural non-nature hub at Queen’s Plaza, NYC. | 2) World Trade Center Memorial competition, New York 2003, The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation conducts the largest design competition in history. Finalist and first runner-up “Memorial Cloud” by Gisela Baurmann, Sawad Brooks, Jonas Coersmeier (BBC). Closest packing cell formations in hexagonal molecular structures inform the pattern for a vertical spar organization that constitutes the main spatial and structural object of the proposal. | 3) New Silk Road Park international competition, Xi’an, China 2006. Invited team to represent the Western European region: Jonas Coersmeier, Gisela Baurmann (Architecture,) Coersmeier GmbH Cologne with Marc Bültel (Urban), LandArt Milano Andreas Kipar with Gianluca Lugli (Landscape). A silk pattern as it occurs at nano- and at global scale generated the New Silk Road project (2006). [9] Mertins, Detlef, “Bioconstructivism” (2004). Departmental Papers (City and Regional Planning, University of Pennsylvania): While its procedures and forms have varied. self-generation has been a consistent goal in architecture for over a century, set against the perpetuation of predetermined forms and norms. The wellknown polemic of the early twentieth century avant-garde against received styles or compositional systems in art and architecture - and against style per se - may. in fact, be understood as part of a longer and larger shift in thought from notions of predetermination to selfgeneration. transcendence to immanence. The search for new methods of design has been integral to this shift. whether it be figured in terms of a period-setting revolution or the immanent production of multiplicity. Although a history of generative architecture has yet to be written, various partial histories in art, philosophy and science may serve to open this field of research. Historical Grounds [1] Hunter, “Hooke and Natural Philosophy,” 131.

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[2] Wilson, Catherine. The Invisible World, Early modern philosophy and the invention of the microscope. Princeton University Press 1995. [3] Ehrlich, Paul; Richard Holm; Dennis Parnell (1963) The Process of Evolution. New York: McGraw–Hill, pg. 66: “Its shortcomings have been almost universally pointed out by modern authors, but the idea still has a prominent place in biological mythology. The resemblance of early vertebrate embryos is readily explained without resort to mysterious forces compelling each individual to reclimb its phylogenetic tree.” [4] Bowler, Peter. The Non-Darwinian Revolution: Reinterpreting a Historical Myth (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988), 83 [5] Richards, Robert J. (2009) The Tragic Sense of Ernst Haeckel: His Scientific and Artistic Struggles. [6] ‘René Binet – Esquisses Décoratives & the Protozoic Façade of Porte Monumentale’ posted on May 25th, 2013. [7] Proctor, R. W. (2009). A World of Things in Emergence and Growth: René Binet’s Porte Monumentale at the 1900 Paris Exposition. In C. O’Mahony (Ed.), Symbolist Objects: Materiality and Subjectivity at the Fin-de-Siècle (pp. 220-244). Rivendale Press. [8] France, Raoul H. . Die Pflanze als Erfinder. Stuttgart 1920 [9] Mertens, Detlef. Bioconstructivisms. University of Pennsylvania, ScholarlyCommons, Department of City and Regional Planning (2004). [10] Llinás, R. The contribution of Santiago Ramon y Cajal to functional neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 4, 77–80 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1011 [11] Newman, Eric A., Araque, Alfonso, Dubinsky, Janet M., Swanson, Larry W., King,

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Lyndel Saunders, Himmel, Eric. The beautiful brain: the drawings of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. New York. 17 January 2017. ISBN 978-1-4197-2227-1. OCLC 9389913 [12] Schoonover, Carl. Portraits of The Mind: Visualizing the Brain from Antiquity to the 21st Century. Harry N. Abrams, 2010, ISBN 0810990334, 9780810990333 [13] Newman, Eric A., Araque, Alfonso, Dubinsky, Janet M., Swanson, Larry W., King, Lyndel Saunders, Himmel, Eric. The beautiful brain: the drawings of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. New York. 17 January 2017. ISBN 978-1-4197-2227-1. OCLC 9389913 [14] Schoonover, Carl. Portraits of The Mind: Visualizing the Brain from Antiquity to the 21st Century. Harry N. Abrams, 2010, ISBN 0810990334, 9780810990333 [15] Fields, R. Douglas. Why the First Drawings of Neurons Were Defaced. September 2017. [16] Schoonover, Carl. Portraits of The Mind: Visualizing the Brain from Antiquity to the 21st Century. Harry N. Abrams, 2010, ISBN 0810990334, 9780810990333 [17] Thompson, D. W., 1992. On Growth and Form. Dover reprint of 1942 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1917). ISBN 0-486-67135-6 [18] Ball, P. In retrospect: On Growth and Form. Nature 494, 32–33 (2013). [19] Smart, Steve. On growth and form 100. 31 March 2021. [20] Ball, P. In retrospect: On Growth and Form. Nature 494, 32–33 (2013).

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[21] Arhat Abzhanov The old and new faces of morphology: the legacy of D’Arcy Thompson’s ‘theory of transformations’ and ‘laws of growth’ Development 2017 144: 4284-4297; doi: 10.1242/dev.137505 [22] Thompson, D. W., 1992. On Growth and Form. Dover reprint of 1942 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1917). ISBN 0-486-67135-6 [23] Thompson, D. W., 1992. On Growth and Form. Dover reprint of 1942 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1917). ISBN 0-486-67135-6 [24] Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Sir D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 17 Jun. 2020, Accessed 30 March 2021. [25] Smart, Steve. On growth and form 100. 31 March 2021. [26] Smart, Steve. On growth and form 100. 31 March 2021. [27] Thompson, D. W., 1992. On Growth and Form. Dover reprint of 1942 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1917). ISBN 0-486-67135-6 p. 272 [28] Botar, Oliver A I. György Kepes’ “New Landscape” and the Aestheticization of Scientific Photography. The Pleasure of Light, 2010. [29] Goldsmith, Nicholas: The physical modeling legacy of Frei Otto First Published May 4, 2016 Research Article, https://doi.org/10.1177/0266351116642071 [30] Pawley, Martin. Buckminster Fuller. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York 1990. [31] Pawley, Martin. Buckminster Fuller. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York 1990. [32] Fuller, Richard Buckminster. Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking.

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Macmillan, 1982 [33] Fuller, Richard Buckminster. Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking. Macmillan, 1982 [34] Vrontissi, M. The physical model in the structural strudies of Robert Le Ricolais: “apparatus” or “hierogram”. Structures and Architecture, Taylor & Francis Group, London 2016. [35] ‘Robert le Ricolais’s Tensegrity Models – ‘The Art of Structure is Where to Put the Holes’’, Dataisnature, 2014. [36] Motro Robert, René. Le Ricolais (1894–1977) “Father of Spatial Structures”. International Journal of Space Structures Vol. 22 No. 4 2007 [37] Vrontissi, M. The physical model in the structural strudies of Robert Le Ricolais: “apparatus” or “hierogram”. Structures and Architecture, Taylor & Francis Group, London 2016. [38] Whitaker, William. “Anne Griswold Tyng: 1920–2011”. Domus. Retrieved October 26, 2020. [39] Whitaker, William. “Anne Griswold Tyng: 1920–2011”. Domus. Retrieved October 26, 2020. [40] Tyng, Anne. Urban Space Systems as Living Form, in Architecture Canada 45 (nos. 11-12, and vol. 46, no. 1). [41] Berkeley, Ellen Perry; McQuaid, Matilda. Architecture : a place for women. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989 [42] Langton, Christopher G. (1998). Artificial life: an overview. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-62112-6.

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[43] Bass, Thomas A.. The Predictors: How a Band of Maverick Physicists Used Chaos Theory to Trade Their Way to a Fortune on Wall Street. United States, Henry Holt and Company, 1999. [44] Sinapayen, Lana. Introduction to Artificial Life for People who Like AI. 25.NOV.2019 [45] Langton, Christopher G. (1998). Artificial life: an overview. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-62112-6. [46] “ [47] “ [48] Ochoa, Gabriela.”An Introduction to Lindenmayer Systems” (1998) [49] “ [50] “ [51] Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, Martin de Boer. Aristid Lindenmayer (1925– 1989), International Journal Of General System, 18:4, 289-290, DOI: 10.1080/03081079108935153 [52] Ochoa, Gabriela.”An Introduction to Lindenmayer Systems” (1998) [53] “ [54] “ [55] Benoit Mandelbrot,The Fractal Geometry of Nature Hardcover – January 1, 1982. [56] Hoffman, Jascha (16 October 2010). “Benoît Mandelbrot, Mathematician, Dies at 85”. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2010. [58] Lesmoir-Gordon, Nigel (17 October 2010). “Benoît Mandelbrot obituary”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 October 2010. [59] “

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Taxonomies [1] At the end of the 18th Century Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand set out to systematize architectural knowledge. He developed a theory of ‘type’, a kind of science for architecture, we now call typology. Durand published Collection and Parallel of Edifices of All Kinds, Ancient and Modern. Conceived as an aid for his teaching at the Ecole Polytechnique, the publication surveys every relevant building since classical times and develops a classification of building types. For it, Durand distilled the buildings down to their most typical elemental parts, and lined them up in a pure Cartesian organization. His (classification) method relies on the isolation of buildings from their historical and physical context. The sole focus is on the analysis of architectural form, structure and organization, not to be distracted by the urban or historic conditions. Until the early 20C (at least) typology, as a mechanistic, rational design method has been the dominant model. During the second half of the 20th century, Aldo Rossi’s developed a concept of type .. [2] Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 –1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor, who developed the Periodic Table of Elements in the form that we know it today. He is considered the father of the Periodic Table, a matrix that groups the elements according to their atomic weight in one dimension, and their shared chemical properties in the other. [3] In 2003 one of the heaviest elements yet was synthesized (recognized in 2015) much heavier than any element found in nature. Scientists have created a new element by slamming existing elements into each other, in this case Calcium into an element called Americium. The resulting element has 115 protons at its center and its temporary name is Ununpentium (Greek for 1-1-5,) now ‘Moscovium’. The superheavy element is extremely radioactive, and has a half-life of only 220 milliseconds. Few artificial elements have practical applications. Plutonium for example can be used for weapons or for fuel. Ununpentium/Moscovium has no practical uses yet. With 220 milliseconds, it is too unstable to make anything out of it.

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Taxonomy Image References Figure 1 Photograph of Taxonomy work by Thomas J. Diorio. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 2 Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of 1871 Figure 3 Electron shell diagram for Ununpentium, the 115th element in the periodic table of elements. Author: Pumbaa (original work by Greg Robson) Figure 4 Frei Otto’s Lebende und nicht lebende Natur Diagram. Figure 5 Frei Otto’s BIC chart of strcutural performance. Figure 6 Taxonomy Analysis Photograph. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Haya Alnibari and SammievWu Figure 7 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Francisco Gallegos, Leonardo Martinez. Figure 8 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Thomas J. Diorio Figure 9 Taxonomy Analysis 02. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: D.K. Figure 10 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Richard Yeung.

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Figure 11 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2012 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Kangsan Danny Figure 12 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2018 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Reese Christensen Figure 13 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2018 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Reese Christensen Figure 14 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Richard Yeung and Yifei Li. Figure 15 Photograph of Taxonomy board. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Richard Yeung and Yifei Li. Figure 16 (bottom left): Photograph of Taxonomy board. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Richard Yeung and Yifei Li. Figure 17 (bottom right): Photograph of Taxonomy board. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Richard Yeung and Yifei Li. Figure 18 Taxonomy Analysis .2007 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 19 Taxonomy Analysis, Winter 2008 Digital


Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier, 2008/2009 Figure 20 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2013 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Gillian Shaffer Figure 21 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2013 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Gillian Shaffer. Figure 22 Taxonomy Analysis 01. Spring 2012 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim Figure 23:Taxonomy Analysis 02. Spring 2012 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim Figure 24 Taxonomy Analysis 03. Spring 2012 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim Figure 25 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2013 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Aaron Gold and Katie Bourke. Figure 26 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2015 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Hayden J. Minick Figure 27 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2014 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Shirley J. Li and Sharon E. Jamison.

Figure 28 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2018 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Sera Ghadaki. Figure 29 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2015 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joseph C. Jacobson Figure 30 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2014 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Keshav Ramaswami. Figure 31 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2014 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Robinson Strong and Jeremy Peng. Figure 32 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2015 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 33 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2013 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Gillian Shaffer Figure 34 Taxonomy Analysis Photograph. Spring 2019 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 35 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2012 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Jiiwon S. Figure 36 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2012 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Wilson.

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Figure 37 Taxonomy Analysis. Spring 2012 Nanotectonica design research at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Wilson.

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Physiology Image References Figure 1 Labellum Physiology Analysis. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research at Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Graduate Architecture. Student: Kathrin Wiertelarz. Figure 2 Collagen Physiology Analysis. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Kevin Lo Figure 3 Cactus Physiology Analysis. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Juan Sebastian Guzman Figure 4 Spider Fiber Physiology Analysis. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Juan Sebastian Guzman Figure 5 Ellastin-Collagen Physiology Analysis. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Hayden J. Minick Figure 6 Collagen Physiology Analysis. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Kevin Lo Figure 7 Collagen Physiology Analysis. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Kevin Lo

Figure 8 Sea Urchin and Sand Dollar Physiology Analysis. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason. Figure 9 Sea Urchin Physiology Analysis. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason. Figure 10 Sand Dollar Physiology Analysis. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason. Figure 11 Bee Physiology Analysis Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Sharon E. Jamison, Shirley J. Li Figure 12 Bee Physiology Analysis Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Sharon E. Jamison, Shirley J. Li Figure 13 Bryozoa Physiology Analysis. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim. Figure 14 Bryozoa Physiology Analysis. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim

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Figure 15 Physiology Analysis. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Alex Truica Figure 16 Physiology Analysis. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Atafeh Zand Figure 17 Neuron Physiology Analysis. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Joey Jacobson Figure 18 Neuron Physiology Analysis. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Nandan Sawant Figure 19 Neuron Physiology Analysis. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Nandan Sawant Figure 20 Starfish Physiology Analysis. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students: Taylor McConville, Jose Castaneda Figure 21: Snow Physiology Analysis. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Yongmin Lee

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Natural Probes Image References Figure 1 Two-Dimensional Image Sampling. Student: Nicole Anthony. Figure 2 Pseudotrachea Natural Probes. Fall/Winter 2007, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Student: Michael Archer (Pratt), Roberta Ragonese (Kassel), www.turingtower.com/kassel Figure 3 Pseudotrachea Natural Probes. Fall/Winter 2007, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Student: Michael Archer (Pratt), Roberta Ragonese (Kassel), www.turingtower.com/kassel Figure 4 Corydalidae Natural Probes. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier. Figure 5 Sea Urchin Natural Probes. Spring 2008, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier. Figure 6 Antennae Natural Probe. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier. Figure 7 Shrimp Natural Probes. Spring 2008, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier. Figure 8 Daisy Branching Natural Probes. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Alex Alman and Michelle Frantel Figure 9 Branch Natural Probes. Spring 2010,

Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Alex Alman and Michelle Frantel Figure 10 Branch Natural Probes. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Alex Alman and Michelle Frantel. Figure 11 Natural Structures. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Oliver Allaux and Christopher Sondi Figure 12 Natural Structures. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Oliver Allaux and Christopher Sondi Figure 13 Ribbed Mussel Natural Probe. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Loyra Nunez. Figure 14 Branch Natural Probes. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Alex Alman and Michelle Frantel. Figure 15 Ribbed Mussel Natural Probe. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Loyra Nunez. Figure 16 Natural Structures. Spring 2011, Nano-

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tectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Oliver Allaux and Christopher Sondi Figure 17 Sand Dollar Natural Probes. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Michael Chambers and Jose Abreu Figure 18 Natural Probes. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Gillian Shaffer Figure 19 Field Condition Natural Probes. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Gillian Shaffer and Molly Mason Figure 20 Generative Natural Probes. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Gillian Shaffer and Molly Mason Figure 21: Bryozoa Natural Probes. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 22: Bryozoa Natural Probes. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture.

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Figure 23: Asteriscus of Salmon Natural Probes. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Kangsan Danny Kim. Figure 24: Natural Probes. 2008/2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Digital Design Department, University Kassel. Figure 25: Natural Probes. 2008/2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Digital Design Department, University Kassel. Figure 26: Branching Triangle. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Xing Zheng Figure 27: Module Natural Probes. Summer 2008, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier. Figure 28: Tropoelastin Natural Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Hayden J. Minick Figure 29: Tropoelastin Natural Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Hayden J. Minick Figure 30: Natural Probes. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Hayden J. Minick


Figure 31: Diatom Natural Probes. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier. Figure 32: Anthozoa Natural Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Jonathan Cortes Figure 33: Anthozoa Natural Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Jonathan Cortes Figure 34: Anthozoa Natural Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Jonathan Cortes Figure 35: Natural Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joey Jacobson Figure 36: Scale Natural Probes. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Shirley Sharon Figure 37: Growing Systems. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason Figure 38: Natural Probes. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier

at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Alireza Kabiri Figure 39 Recursive Tracing Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joe Ghaida, Hayden Minick, Georgios Avramides, Jonathan Cortes, Joey Jacobson Figure 40 Fruit Fly Natural Probes. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Alican Taylan Figure 41 Recursive Tracing Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joe Ghaida, Hayden Minick, Georgios Avramides, Jonathan Cortes, Joey Jacobson Figure 42 Fruit Fly Natural Probes. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Alican Taylan Figure 43 Mesocrystalline Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Georgios Avramides Figure 44 Mesocrystalline Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Georgios Avramides

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Figure 45 Fractal Growth Probes. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Alireza Kabiri. Figure 46 Fractal Growth Probes. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Alireza Kabiri. Figure 47 Natural Probe. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Nicole Mastrantonio and Anthony King Figure 48 Natural Probe. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Nicole Mastrantonio and Anthony King Figure 49 Point Cloud of Molecule with Backbone. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Zherui Wang Figure 50 Escherichia coli Probes. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Zherui Wang Figure 51 Escherichia coli Probes. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Zherui Wang

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Figure 52 Escherichia coli Probes. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Zherui Wang Figure 53 Neuron Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joey Jacobson Figure 55 Neuron Probes. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joey Jacobson


Design Drawings Image References Figure 1 Design Drawing. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Francisco Moreno and Leonardo Martinez Figure 2 Natural Structures Design Drawings. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Olga and Xing Figure 3 Parametric Transformation Drawings. Summer 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Yuanyang Nour Figure 4 Design Drawings. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Students: Alex and Michelle Figure 5 Design Drawings. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Students: Alex and Michelle Figure 6 Design Drawings. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Students: Alex and Michelle Figure 7 Design Drawings. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Xing Zheng

Figure 8 Design Drawings. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Kevin Lo Figure 9 Design Drawings. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Kevin Lo Figure 10 Design Drawings. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Kevin Lo Figure 11 Gyroid Design Drawings. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Figure 12 Tessalated Systems Design Drawings. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason Figure 13 Design Drawings. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Zherui Wang Figure 14 Thread Design Drawings. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Beijia Gu and Taylor Sam Figure 15 Unit Design Drawing. Spring 2013, Nano-

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tectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Students: Molly Mason and Gillian Shaffer Figure 16 Design Drawings. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Robinson Figure 17 Design Drawings. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students: Michael Chambers and Jose Abreu Figure 18 Design Drawings. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Keshav Ramaswami Figure 19 Design Drawings. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Keshav Ramaswami Figure 20 Design Drawings. Winter 2008, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Figure 21 Design Drawings. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Keshav Ramaswami Figure 22 Design Drawings. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student:

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Keshav Ramaswami Figure 23 Design Drawings. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Keshav Ramaswami Figure 24 Design Drawings. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Keshav Ramaswami Figure 25 Design Drawings. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students: Joe Ghaida, Hayden Minick, Georgios Avramides, Jonathan Cortes, Joey Jacobson Figure 26 Design Drawings. Fall 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Student: Roy Zhuang Figure 27 Elevation Drawings. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Student: Figure 28 Fractal Design Drawings. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students: Valeria Cedillos and Victoria Tsukerman Figure 29 Design Drawings. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students:


Francisco Gallegos and Leonardo Martinez Figure 30 Fractal Design Drawings. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students: Valeria Cedillos and Victoria Tsukerman Figure 31Design Drawings. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students: Francisco Gallegos and Leonardo Martinez Figure 32 Fractal Design Drawings. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture Students: Valeria Cedillos and Victoria Tsukerman

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Models Image References Figure 1 Specimen Model. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 2 Fractal model with material studies. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Valeria Cedillos and Victoria Tsukerman Figure 3 Mandelbrot variations models. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Valeria Cedillos and Victoria Tsukerman Figure 4 Croner artifact model. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Fransisco Moreno and Leonardo Martinez Figure 5 Specimen Model. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 6 Graphic Texture Model. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 7 Mandelbulb Model. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas

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Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Valeria Cedillos and Victoria Tsukerman Figure 8 Mandelbrot Model. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Valeria Cedillos and Victoria Tsukerman Figure 9 Graphic Texture Image. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 10 JC Pixelworks Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier. Figure 11 Model rendering on site. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Haoyuan Wang Figure 12 Algorithmic transformations models. Spring 2020, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Kevin Lo Figure 13


Artifacts Image References Figure 1 Artifact. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Loyra Nunez Figure 2 Artifact. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Aliresa Kabiri Figure 3 Specimen artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 4 Artifact. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Michael Chambers and Jose Abreu Figure 5 Specimen artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 6 Specimen artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 7 Neuron artifact. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Nandan Sawant

Figure 8 Specimen artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Kenith Mak and Daniel Salvador Figure 9 Artifact sequence. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Zherui Wang Figure 10 Artifact sequence. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Ghaflan Figure 11 Artifact variations. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Ghaflan Figure 12 Prototype. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Ghaflan Figure 13 Resin structure. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Atefeh Zand Figure 14 Shadow cast by cast glass (from 3d printed mold), mirrored photograph. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 15 Fibrous camouflage bust. Spring 2018,

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Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Sera Ghadaki Figure 16 Fibrous material study. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Sera Ghadaki Figure 17 Hand Artifact. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture, Student: Sharon Shirley Figure 18 Human shell prototype. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture, Student: Rawan Selma Figure 19 Human shell prototype. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture, Student: Rawan Selma Figure 20 Hand Cuff. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Figure 21 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 22 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting

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of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 23 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 24 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 25 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 26 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 27 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining


Zhong Figure 28 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 29 Urban Branding “SkinCity”, skin grafting of urban structures. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture, Student: Weining Zhong Figure 30 Artifact. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Heather Alfore and Maeleen Taylor Figure 31 Artifact. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Haley Williams Figure 32 Artifact. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Haley Williams Figure 33 Artifact. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 34 Artifact. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt In-

stitute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Sandra Berdick and Thomas Alia Figure 35 Artifact. Spring 2016, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Sandra Berdick and Thomas Alia Figure 36 Paper model. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Pimnara Nara Thunyathada. Figure 37 Artifact. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Arif Javed Figure 38 Artifact. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Ataylan Figure 39 Rubber coated mesh. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joey Jacobson Figure 40 Seed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 41 Seed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 42 Seed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectoni-

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ca design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 43 Arifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Gillian Shaffer Figure 44 Arifact. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 45 Artifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason Figure 46 Artifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason Figure 47 3d printed artifact. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Nour Nouralla and Yuanyang Teng. Figure 48 3d printed artifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Katie Bourke and Aaron Goldman Figure 49 3d printed artifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture.

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Students: Katie Bourke and Aaron Goldman Figure 50 3d printed artifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Katie Bourke and Aaron Goldman Figure 51 3d printed artifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Katie Bourke and Aaron Goldman Figure 52 3d printed artifact. Spring 2010, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Xing Zheng and Olga Stroubos Figure 53 3d printed artifact. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Sean Gold and Katie Bourke Figure 54 3d printed artifact. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Sean Gold and Katie Bourke Figure 55 3d printed artifact. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Sean Gold and Katie Bourke Figure 56 3d printed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student:


Danny Kim Figure 57 3d printed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim Figure 58 3d printed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim Figure 59 3d printed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim Figure 60 3d printed artifact. Spring 2012, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Danny Kim Figure 61 Set of artifacts. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 62 Tectonics of a model. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 63 Tectonics of a model. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 64 Neuron artifact. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier

at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Nandan Sawant Figure 65 Tectonics of a model. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 66 Artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Haya Alnibari and Sammie Wu Figure 67 Artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Haya Alnibari and Sammie Wu Figure 68 Artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Haya Alnibari and Sammie Wu Figure 69 Artifact. Spring 2017, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Alex Turica Figure 70 Artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Haya Alnibari and Sammie Wu Figure 71 Artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Haya Alnibari and Sammie Wu

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Fabrication Image References Figure 1 Artifact. Spring 2018, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Student: Loyra Nunez Figure 2 Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 3 Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 4 Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 5 Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 6 Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 7 Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 8 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements, Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 9 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements, Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 10 Prototypes of milled high-density foam

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elements, Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 11 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements, Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 12 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements, Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 13 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements, Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 14 CNC milling flip boards. Spring 2019, ummer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 15 CNC milling flip boards. Spring 2019, ummer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 16 CNC milling flip boards. Spring 2019, ummer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 17 CNC milling flip boards. Spring 2019, ummer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel


Figure 18 CNC milling flip boards. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 19 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 20 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 21 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 22 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 23 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 24 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 25 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 26 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 27 CNC tool path geometry. Summer 2009,

Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 28 CNC tool path geometry. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 29 Prototype of Glass fiber reinforced polymer system. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 30 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 31 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 32 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 33 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 34 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel Figure 35 Prototypes of milled high-density foam elements. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel

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Figure 36 CNC milling flip boards. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 37 CNC milling flip boards. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 38 CNC milling flip boards. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 39 CNC milling flip boards. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 40 CNC milling flip boards. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 41 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 42 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 43 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 44 Glass fiber reinforcement. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 45 Artifact. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica

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design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Molly Mason Figure 46 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 47Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 48 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 49 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 50 Filling, sanding and finish. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 51 CNC tool path geometry. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 52 CNC tool path geometry. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 53 3CNC tool path geometry. Summer 2009, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at University Kassel. Figure 54 3Full scale prototypes. Spring 2013,


Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Lauren Touhey Figure 55 3d printed artifact. Spring 2011, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Sean Gold and Katie Bourke Figure 56 Vacuum form drip models. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Figure 57 Vacuum form drip models. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Figure 58 Vacuum form drip models. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Figure 59 Vacuum form drip models. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Figure 60 Vacuum form drip models. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Figure 61 Vacuum form drip models. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture Figure 62 Vacuum form drip models. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture

Figure 63 Vacuum form drip colores prototypes. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Lauren Touhey, Seung Hoon Lee Figure 64 Assembly of laser cut parts. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 65 CNC cut foam pieces for molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 66 CNC cut foam pieces for molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 67 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 68 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason,

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Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 69 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 70 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 71 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 72 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 73 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 74 Assembly of laser cut pieces with vacuum plastic molds. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design

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research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 74 Hand sewn prototype. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 75 Hand sewn prototype. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 76 Hand sewn prototype. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 77 Hand sewn prototype. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 78 Hand sewn prototype. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Figure 79 Plastic layered prototype. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joey Jacobson Figure 80 Plastic layered prototype. Spring 2015, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Joey Jacobson Figure 81 PPlaster casted artifact. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Co-


Installation Image References Figure 1 Corner intervention. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Fransisco Gallegos and Leonardo Martinez Figure 2 Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier, 2008/2009. Digital Design Department, G. Professor Jonas Coersmeier, University Kassel, School of Architecture, during the summer of 2009. Research assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz. Participating students: Giampiero Riggio, Roberta Ragonese, Ljuba Tascheva, Jan Weissenfeldt, Pat Taylor, Katja Pape, Rania Abdurahman, Christina Finke, Shahram Abbasian, Michael Quickert. Figure 3 Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier, 2008/2009. Digital Design Department, G. Professor Jonas Coersmeier, University Kassel, School of Architecture, during the summer of 2009. Research assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz. Participating students: Giampiero Riggio, Roberta Ragonese, Ljuba Tascheva, Jan Weissenfeldt, Pat Taylor, Katja Pape, Rania Abdurahman, Christina Finke, Shahram Abbasian, Michael Quickert. Figure 4 Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier, 2008/2009. Digital Design Department, G. Professor Jonas Coersmeier, University Kassel,

School of Architecture, during the summer of 2009. Research assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz. Participating students: Giampiero Riggio, Roberta Ragonese, Ljuba Tascheva, Jan Weissenfeldt, Pat Taylor, Katja Pape, Rania Abdurahman, Christina Finke, Shahram Abbasian, Michael Quickert. Figure 5 Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier, 2008/2009. Digital Design Department, G. Professor Jonas Coersmeier, University Kassel, School of Architecture, during the summer of 2009. Research assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz. Participating students: Giampiero Riggio, Roberta Ragonese, Ljuba Tascheva, Jan Weissenfeldt, Pat Taylor, Katja Pape, Rania Abdurahman, Christina Finke, Shahram Abbasian, Michael Quickert. Figure 6 Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier, 2008/2009. Digital Design Department, G. Professor Jonas Coersmeier, University Kassel, School of Architecture, during the summer of 2009. Research assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz. Participating students: Giampiero Riggio, Roberta Ragonese, Ljuba Tascheva, Jan Weissenfeldt, Pat Taylor, Katja Pape, Rania Abdurahman, Christina Finke, Shahram Abbasian, Michael Quickert. Figure 7 Installation at the Digital Design Department, University Kassel, Jonas Coersmeier,

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2008/2009. Digital Design Department, G. Professor Jonas Coersmeier, University Kassel, School of Architecture, during the summer of 2009. Research assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz. Participating students: Giampiero Riggio, Roberta Ragonese, Ljuba Tascheva, Jan Weissenfeldt, Pat Taylor, Katja Pape, Rania Abdurahman, Christina Finke, Shahram Abbasian, Michael Quickert. Figure 8 Structure in the core of the stairs of Higgins Hall. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 9 Structure in the core of the stairs of Higgins Hall. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 10 Structure in the core of the stairs of Higgins Hall. Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Figure 11 Lightweight structure installation. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Keshav Ramaswami Figure 12 Lightweight structure installation. Spring 2014, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Student: Keshav Ramaswami Figure 13 Lightweight structure installation. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architec-

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ture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 14 Lightweight structure installation. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang. Figure 15 Lightweight structure installation. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 16 Lightweight structure installation. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 17 Lightweight structure installation. Spring 2013, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Undergraduate Architecture. Students: Molly Mason, Gillian Shaffer, Zherui Wang Figure 18 Corner intervention. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Fransisco Gallegos and Leonardo Martinez Figure 19 Corner intervention. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmei-


er at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Fransisco Gallegos and Leonardo Martinez Figure 20 Corner intervention. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Fransisco Gallegos and Leonardo Martinez Figure 21 Corner intervention. Spring 2019, Nanotectonica design research seminar Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute, Graduate Architecture. Students: Fransisco Gallegos and Leonardo Martinez

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7530. PMID 30799517. Langton, Christopher. Artificial Life: An Overview. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992. Lesmoir-Gordon, Nigel (17 October 2010). “Benoît Mandelbrot obituary”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 October 2010. Mandelbrot, Benoit. The Fractal Geometry of Nature Hardcover – January 1, 1982. McCleary, Peter: Robert Le Ricolais Search for the “Indestructible Idea” Lotus International Vol 99, 1999: 102+ Massey, Jonathan. “Buckminster Fuller’s cybernetic pastoral: the United States Pavilion at Expo 67.” The Journal of Architecture, Volume 11 Issue 4 2006, 463–483 Mertins, Detlef: Bioconstructivism, Lars Spuybroek NOX: Machining Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2004 Morton, Timothy. Ecology without Nature: Rethinking Environmental Aesthetics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009. Nerdinger, Winfried. Frei Otto Das Gesamtwerk: Leicht Bauen - Natürlich Gestalten. Birkhäuser, 2005. Otto, Frei, and Bodo Rasch. Finding Form: Towards an Architecture of the Minimal. Axel Menges, 1996. Otto, Frei. IL 21, Grundlagen / Basics - Form Force, Mass. University Stuttgart,

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Anne Tyng, A Life Chronology By: Ingrid Schaffner, Senior Curator, Institute of Contemporary Art Philadelphia & William Whitaker, Curator and Collections Manager, The Architectural Archives, University of Pennsylvania Tyng, Anne Griswold, “Simultaneous Randomness And Order: The Fibonacci-divine Proportion As A Universal Forming Principle.” (1975). University Press, 1988), 83 Vrontissi, M.. The physical model in the structural strudies of Robert Le Ricolais: “apparatus” or “hierogram”. Structures and Architecture, Taylor & Francis Group, London 2016. Wells, Herbert G. and Julian Huxley. The Science of Life. New York: 1931 Whitaker, William. “Anne Griswold Tyng: 1920–2011”. Domus. Retrieved October 26, 2020. Whitehead, Alfred North. The Concept of Nature: The Tarner Lectures delivered at Trinity College. Cambridge University Press, 1920. Whitehead, Modes of Thought (1968) Chapter VII Nature Lifeless pp.127-148 Chapter VIII Nature Alive pp.148-171 Wilson, Catherine. The Invisible World, Early modern philosophy and the invention of the microscope. Princeton University Press 1995. Stephen Wolfram. A New Kind of Science. Wolfram Media 2002.

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People Acknowledgements Research for this book was supported by Pratt Institute where the Nanotectonica seminar has been offered since 2007 and granted a sabbatical semester for the archiving of its material this fall 2020. Evan Douglis, then chair of undergraduate architecture, welcomed the idea of the course and generously supported its first installment. The course has since attracted a particularly curious and talented group of students, with whom I had the great fortune to develop the research agenda. The work of this student body is prominently featured in this book. Research on the electron microscope has been made possible through institutional and industry sponsors. We thank Scott Lieberman​principal engineer at LPI Inc. for his continued support, Terry Suzuki and the Hitachi Corporation for their original sponsoring of an SEM, and Clint Potter and his team at the New York Structural Biology Center for the operations in their lab of recent years. Our work at the University Kassel was supported by Dr. Wenzel Scholz at the Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology. Gisela Baurmann is the first collaborator and as with all our projects the primary source of inspiration. Gökhan Kodalak has been a conversational partner in developing the theoretical grounds for this design research. Valeria Cedillos has been the research assistant to the Nanotectonica project this year and she took on the task of archiving and preparing for publication the wealth of visuals material, and she was instrumental in the production of the historical grounds texts together with Luz Wallace. Additional editing support was provided by Mark and Christian Powers, and Michael Su. Thank you John Matt Martin for printing the draft of this book.

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Students: Spring 2021: Pratt GAUD Research Assistant: Luz Wallace Spring 2020: Pratt GAUD Research Assistant: Valeria Cedillos Jose Castaneda Valeria Cedillos Jonathan Hamilton Samantha Lee Chan Megna Li Kevin Lo Taylor McConoville Brooke Muller Victoria Tsukerman Haoyuan Wang Lu Chang Wang Spring 2019: Pratt GAUD Research Assistant: Aslihan Avci Aksap Haya Alnibari Tatiana Eletskaya Kenith Mak Nia Wang Daniel Salvador Francisco Moreno Gallegos

Sammie Wu Chaoyue Zhang Richard Yeung Tom Diorio Leonardo Martinez Nishtha Kakadia Yifei Li

Alican Taylan Nara Thada Alex Truica Atafeh Zand Arif Javed Atafeh Zandkarimi

Spring 2017: Pratt GAUD

Spring 2016: Pratt GAUD Jose Abreu Michael Chambers Maeleen Taylor Jorge Ibarra Matt Fischer Pricscilla Bargas Garrett Lord Sandra Berdick Thomas Alia Anthony King Nicole Mastrantonio Heather Alford Katie Wylie Haley Williams Spring 2015: Pratt UA

Ghaflan Abadi Delaram Amini, William Bodouva Jisi Chen Alireza Kabiri Sneha Palepu Nnandan Sawant

Joseph C Jacobson Georgios Avramides Yuli Huang Jorge Ibarra Hayden J. Minick Joseph Ghaida Jonathan Cortes

Spring 2018: Pratt GAUD Sera Ghadaki Yong Min Lee Yang Li Loyra Nunez Marc Rizzuto Alexandra Vanderburgh Weining Zhong Sunah Choi Reese Christensen Juan Sebastian David Guzman Gabriel Cano Kathleen Klein Alireza Kabiri

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Spring 2014: Pratt UA Keshav Ramaswami Selma Akkari Beijia Gu Armon K. Jahanshahi Sharon E. Jamison Shirley J. Li Rawan Muqaddas Jeremy Peng Taylor J. Sams Robinson E. Strong Berj D. Tenguerian Spring 2013: Pratt UA Zheruz Wagn Gillian Shaffer Aaron Goldman Molly Mason Katherine Bourke Seung Hoon Lee Lauren Touhey Spring 2012: Pratt UA Avery Carrig Zachary Chapman Wilson Cheng Yonathan Persovski Grinberg Kangsan Danny Kim Michelle Frantelizzi Rexman Ng

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Joi-Won Shin Dakota Swainson Spring 2011: Pratt UA Sophia Xanthakou Kevin hennessey Sean Gold Katie Bourke Chris Sondi Oliver Allaux Nour Nouralla Yuangyang Vento Teng Zain Koita Anna Golovko Fall 2010: Pratt UA Roy Zhuang Spring 2010: Pratt UA Elena Hasbun Ben Poulin Xing Zheng Olga Stroubos Greg Pietrycha Hai Nguyen Bernadette Cuaycong Alex Alman Michelle Frantellizzi

Fall 2009: Pratt UA Michael Cabrera Sasha Grishina Michael Archer Summer 2009 and Winter 2008: Universitat Kassel Research Assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz Giampiero Riggio Roberta Ragonese Ljuba Tascheva Pat Taylor Katja Pape Rania Abdurahman Christina Finke Shahram Abbasian Michael Quickert Jan Weissenfeldt Amir Doleh Jerome Barbu Ik Son Chad Reid Mathias Sarah Walsh Paulina Kolodziejczyk Da Jung Lee Min Sung Koo Hee Jin Jung Oh Joon Moon Francesco Del Conte


Cesar Gonzalez Nick Garate Viktor Oriola Summer 2008: Pratt UA Amir Doleh Jerome Barbu Ik Son Chad Reid Mathias Sarah Walsh Paulina Kolodziejczyk Da Jung Lee Min Sung Koo Hee Jin Jung Oh Joon Moon Francesco Del Conte Cesar Gonzalez Nick Garate Viktor Oriola Spring 2008: Pratt UA Jerome Hord Erik Martinez Ivan Delgado Edwin Lam Oleg Lyamin Changyup Shin Sean Stevenson Patrick Wyszynski Krystal Cargill Kendrick Lam

Won Choi

Lab Operators:

Fall 2007: Pratt UA

Spring 2020

Michael Archer Jason Golob Cory Watson Borah Betts Ashira Israel Ryan Prat Alexander Chiarella Josie Tse Colin Burton Berel Frost Tzu Chan Alexander Fang Matt Failla Zaime Casazola

Studio Jonas Coersmeier at New York Structural Biology Center Operator: Hui Wei, Misha Kopylov, Chase Budell, JC Studio Jonas Coersmeier at LPI, Inc., New York Operator: Dr. Scott Lieberman Spring 2019 Studio Jonas Coersmeier at New York Structural Biology Center Operator: Kataro Kelley, Ashleigh Raczkowski Spring 2017 Microscope: SEM Phenom XL Lab: Studio Jonas Coersmeier at LPI, Inc., New York Operator: Dr. Scott Lieberman, Dr. Boris Goldenberg, JC Spring 2016 Studio Jonas Coersmeier at LPI, Inc., New York Operator: Dr. Scott Lieberman,

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Dr. Boris Goldenberg, JC

Fall 2009

Spring 2012

Studio Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute School of Architecture (UA), with generous support by Hitachi Operator: Terry Suzuki, JC

Studio Jonas Coersmeier at Lucius Pitkin Inc., New York Operator: Joseph P. Crosson (P. E.), Andrew Shapiro (Materials Engineer), JC Spring 2011 Studio Jonas Coersmeier at Cornell University, Center for Materials Research (NSF Grant DMR 0520404) Operator: John Hunt, JC, Student Name Studio Jonas Coersmeier at Lucius Pitkin Inc., New York Operator: Joseph P. Crosson (P. E.), Andrew Shapiro (Materials Engineer), JC. Spring 2010 Studio Jonas Coersmeier at Lucius Pitkin Inc., New York Operator: Joseph P. Crosson (P. E.), Andrew Shapiro (Materials Engineer), JC

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Winter 2008 Digital Design Department, G Prof. Jonas Coersmeier, School of Architecture at Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, University Kassel, Germany. Operator: Dr. Wenzel Scholz, JC Fall 2007 Studio Jonas Coersmeier at Pratt Institute School of Architecture (UA), with generous support by Hitachi Operator: Terry Suzuki, JC


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Keywords

Abstraction, Acceleration, Adaptation, Aesthetics, Affect, Aggregate, AI, AL, Algorithm, Allotropy, Alteration, Analog, Analysis, Anatomy, Animal, Anthropocene, Ants, Apparatus, Appearance, Architecture, Arrangement, Art, Artform, Artifact, Artificiality, Ruth Asawa, Assembly, Astronomy, Astrophotography, Atmosphere, Atomism, Automata, Automation, Automorphic, Autopsy, Awareness, Axiom, Bacteria, Baroque, Bauhaus, Beam, Bearing, Beauty, Beaux-arts, Becoming, Beehive, Beginnings, Being, Binary, René Binet, Bio-mathematics, Biocentrism, Bioconstructivisms, Biology, Biomimicry, Bionics, Bios, Biotechnik, Bird, Blind, Blindfolded, Blocks, Blueprint, Blurred, Bodily, Body, Bonding, Bones, Mary Ann Booth, Botany, Bottom-up, Brain, Branch, Breed, Brick, Bryozoans, Buckminsterfullerene, Building, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Calculation, Camouflage, Carbon, Cartesian, Catalogue, Categorization, Celestial, Cell, Cellular, Ceramics, Chemistry, City, Civil, Classification, Cloud, Club-shaped, Code, Cognition, Coherence, Commonalities, Complexity, Composition, Computation, Concept, Concrete, Configuration, Conflict, Connection, Consciousness, Construction, Constructivism, Construct, Continuity, Convergence, John Horton Conway, Cork, Corona, Coronavirus, Correlation, Corridors, Cortical, Cosmology, CPU, Craftsman, Creature, Cremaster, Crisis, Crystal, Crystallography, Culture, Curiosity, Cyanobacteria, Cyrotoidea, Dance, Charles Darwin, Darwinism, Dataisnature, Deciphering, Decontextualized, Decoration, Definition, Deformation, Delicacy, Demonstration, Depiction, Descartes, Design, Desire, Detail, Determinism, Development, Deviation, Differences, Discipline, Discourse, Discovery, Discrepancy, Disruption, Dissociative, Divergence, Diversity, Doctrine, Dome, Drafting, Drawing, Dualism, Albrecht Dürer, Dymaxion, Dynamic, Ecological, Ecology, Education, Electricity, Electromagnetic, Electronmicrograph, Electron, Electronics, Elegance, Element, Elusive, Embedding, Embodiment, Embryonic, Emergence, Empirical, Energetic-synergetic, Engineering, Entanglement, Environment, Ephemeralization, Epigenesis, Equity, Erfinder, Esoteric, Esquisses, Evolution, Exchange, Exercise, Exhibition, Experience, Experiment, Explanation, Exploration, Expression, Extinction, Extraction, Extraterrestrial, Fabric, Fabrication, Familiarity, Fang, Fantastic, Fascination, Fauna, Feathers, Fibonacci, Field, Figurative, Finch, Finding, Flexibility, Flora, Flow, Flowers, Fluidity, Folding, Folio, Force, Form, Form-building, Form-finding, Formation, Forrest, Fossils, Fractal, Raoul Francé, From-building, Buckminster Fuller, Fullerene, Future, Galaxy, Game, Gardens, Generation, Generative, Genetics, Genotype, Geodesic, Geological, Geometry, Gestalt, Gradien, Gravity, Grayscale, Green, Walter Gropius, Grotesque, Grotto, Grounds, Growth, Grundformen, Ernst Haeckel, Hawkins, Helix, J.G. Helmcke, Hexagon, Hierogram, History, Hitachi, Robert Hooke, Human-centrism, Anna Maria Hussey, Hybrid, Hydraulics, Hylomorphism, Hypothetical, Identity, Idiosyncrasy, Illumination, Illustration, Image, Imagery, Images, Imagination, Immanence, Immersion, Incremental, Indexes, Individuation, Industrial, Information, Infrastructure, Innovation, Inorganic, Inquiry, Insect, Inspiration, Installation, Instrument, Integration, Interaction, Interconnectivity, Interdisciplinary, Intervention, Intricacy, Invention, Investigation, Iteration, Jahrhundertwende, Jellyfish, Jugendstil, György Kepes, Paul Klee,

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nanotectonica


Kleinwelt, Kunstformen, L-systems, Laboratory, Landscape, Christopher Langton, Lattices, Antony van Leeuwenhoek, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Life-like, Lightweight, Aristid Lindenmayer, Liquid, El Lissitzky, Anna Lister, Living, Looping, Machine, Magnification, Mandelbrot, Mapmaker, Maps, Maritime, Material, Materialism, Materiality, Mathematics, Matrices, Matter, Mechanics, Mechanism, Media, Membrane, Mendeleev, Detlef Mertens, Metabolic, Metaphysics, Method, Methodology, Hannes Meyer, Micro-structures, Microbial, Microbiologist, Microcosm, Micrographia, Micrographs, Microorganisms, Microphotography, Microscale, Microscope, Microscopy, Microworld, Mikrokosmos, Minerals, Minimal, Minimizing, Mirroring, Mock-ups, Model, Modernism, Modules, Moholy-Nagy, Molecular, Monadology, Monarch, Monastery, Monism, Moody, Moon, Morphology, Multi-dimensional, Multicellular, Multidisciplinary, Multiplicity, Mycological, Mythology, Nano-scale, Nano-structures, Nanoform, Nanographia, Nanoscale, Nanostructure, Nanotechnology, Nanotectonica, Natural, Naturalism, Naturamorphic, Naturbilder, Nature, Nature-centric, Nervous, Nets, Network, Neural, Neuroanatomy, Neurology, Neurons, Neuroscience, New, Isaac Newton, Nodes, Nomenclatures, Non-deterministic, Non-human, Non-nature, Non-planar, Non-scale-invariance, Nonlinear, Nonliving, Normals, Numbers, Objectifying, Object, Obscurity, Observation, Open, Operation, Operative, Optical, Optimization, Organic, Organism, Organization, Origination, Ornamentation, Orthographic, Orthographic, Oscilloscope, Frei Otto, Painting, Pairings, pandemic, Panning, Parallelism, Parameters, Part-to-whole, Particle, Patent, Path, Pattern, Pedagogy, Perception, Pflanze, Pflanzenzellen, Phasing, Phenomenon, Phenotype, Philosophy, Photogrammetry, Photomicrographs, Phylogenetics, Physicists, Physics, Physiologist, Physis, Pixel, Plane, Planet, Planetary, Plant, Plasma, Plastic, Platforms, Platonic, Play, Plumbing, Point, Politics, Polygon, Polymaths, Positivism, Possibilities, Potential, Practice, Pratt, Predetermination, Predictability, Prefabrication, Probe, Probing, Probehead, Process, Production, Professional, Programming, Proliferation, Promise, Proof, Propaganda, Properties, Prosthetic, Proto-science, Prototype, Protozoa, Provocation, Proximity, Pyramidal, Qualities, Quantum, Question, Radiograph, Radiolaria, Rationalizing, Razor, Re-emergence, Re-evaluation, Reach, Realism, Realities, Realization, Rebuilding, Recapitulation, Recognition, Reconstruction, Recording, Recreation, Recursion, Redirection, Reduction, Regeneration, Reinterpretation, Rejects, Relativity, Render, Reorganization, Reorientation, Repertoire, Representation, Reproduction, Research, Resource, Resourceful, Responsibility, Responsive, Result, Retrieved, Retrospect, Reveal, Review, Revised, Revolution, Rewriting, Robert le Ricolais, Robotic, Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, Roughness, Ruins, Ruleset, Scaffolding, Scale, Scalpel, Scanning, Scans, Scenario, Scene, Schematic, Scheme, Sci-fi, Science, Screw, Scripted, Sculptural, Sculpture, Sea, Secret, Section, Secular, Seed, Seeing, Seeking, Seismic, Selection, Self-organization, Self-similarity, Sem, Sem-lab, Seminar, Senses, Sensory, Sequence, Serial, Series, Service, Session, Shadow, Shape, Shaping, Shared, Sharp-edged, Sharpening, Sheet, Shell, Shelter, Shift, Sight, Silk, Silkworm, Similarity, Gilbert Simondon, Simplicity, Simulation, Simultaneity, Single, Size, Skeletal, Sketch, Skulls, Sliced, Slight, Small, Smaller, Smallest, Smart, Smooth, Social, Society, Socio-political, Software, Soil, Solar, Solitaire, Sorting, Space, Space-filling, Species, Specification, Specimen, Speculation, Sphere, Spikes, Spine, Spiral, Stability, Static, Stellar, Stimulation, Strange, Strangeness, Stratigraphic, Strength, Stretched, Striated, Strings, Stroboscopic, Structural, Structuralism, Structure, Structures, Student, Studio, Study, Style, Stylized, Sub-visible, Subjectivity, Sublime, Substitution, Substrate, Subtle, Subvisibilia, Subvisible, Super-human, Surgery, Swarms, Synaptic, Synergy, Synergetics, Synthesis, Synthetic, System, Taxonomy, Teaching, Technical, Technik, Technique, Technology, Tectonics, Teleology, Teleology, Telescope, Tensegrity, Tensile, Tetrahedron, Textbook, Texture, Theory, D’Arcy Thompson, Three-dimensional, Tiny, Tool, Topology, Transcendence, Transdisciplinary, Transformation, Transmission, Transposition, Trees, Triangular, Truss, Anna Tyng, Typology, Undermining, Undulation, Unfamiliar, Unfolding, Unifying, Universality, Unpredictability, Urban, Vaccine, Vacuum, Variance, View, Visual, Visualization, Mary Ward, Wavelength, Stephen Wolfram, Wonders, X-ray, Zoologist, Zoology.

keywords

375