Codrington College - A brief history

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John W. Holder


CONTENTS Introduction v Foreword by the Archbishopof the west lndies vii

from the Princital ix A Message creetingsfrom the FormerArchbishop x creetingsfrom the Bishopof Barbados xi ChristopherCodringtonI SomelmportantDatesin the Historyof CodringtonCollege 4 SomeAcademicHighlights l0 Life on the CodringtonEstates 14 Principalsof CodringtonCollege,1830-198518 CodringtonCollege:A SpiritualOasisfor lhe AnglicdnChurchin the WestIndies 25 CodringtonCollegejA Catewayto the world 26

INTRODUCTION Some two hundred and eighty years ago, a young man had a dream-a geat vision of the spreadof Chrisrianityand rhegrowrh of the Church in the West Indies. But he was not just anothâ‚Źryoung dreamerand visionary,becausehe had the wherewithalro make his clreamcomettue. At the ageof thirty, he inheritedtwo plantarionsin Barbados,and on February 22, 1703,when he \r,asthirrv-five. he slatedin hi\ \ ill lhar Lheplanralions $ere lo be u5edro brrnghis dream to inrition. This young man, ChristopherCodrington, thus ser in motion a seriesof far-reachingeventsat whosehub has beenlhe collegebuijt to incarnatethat dream, Codrington College. This small booklet is an attempt to chart the turbulent bur fascinatinghhtory of CodringtonCollege.It is by no meansan exhaustive sludy of the institution.This mus!be left rc a far morecomDetent historian.Hopefully, one day, in rhe not loo disrant future, a more comprehensive history of Codrington Collegewill be written. Lecturer.CodringtonCollâ‚Źge

FOREWORD Promineniamongthe historicinstitutionsof learningin the West Indi€sis CodringtonCollegein Barbados,for not only is it the oldest Collegeof its kind in ihe WesternHemisphere,havingbeenfounded in 1745asa resultof the termssetout in Sir ChristopherCodrington's Will, it is alsothe placewheremany wesr Indianswho havemadeor are making invaluablecontributionsin rhe churchor in other sectors of societyreceivedan important part of their education, Now thoughthis Collegehasprovidedfor the rrainingof the Laity, and we are hoping that in due coursespecialisrtraining in Christian Education will be offered here (bearingin mind that the Chrisrian Ministry is committedto the wholepeopleof God), CodringtonColIege'smain task is to providesuitableand relevanttraining for those whom we believeCod has calledto serveas Priestsin the Church in the Provinceof the West Indies,therebyhelpingto equip the whole church for Ministry. However, despiteth€ efforts to maximizethe inconlc from the estates,and the fact that funds are obtain€d from fees, and from grants from many friends and well-whhers,it has not beenan easy task for the Trusteesand othersconnectedwith the operationsof this Collegeto preservethe old buildings,erectnew ones,and in fact keep it open, due to the shortageof funds. - I trust, therefore,that all of you who readrhis Brochurewill not only gain usefulinformaiion about this College,but that you will supporl with your prayersand in ev€ryotherway possiblethose of us who are involvedwith the running of this essentialProvincialinstiaution.

eur--.-- * e C.**/,,- -rt,-,2 Orland N.E. Caribbeanand Aruba Archbishop of theWestIndies

A MESSAGEFROM THE PRINCIPAL Codringlon Collegeis, in West Indian terms, an ancientfoundation. Its buildingswerecompletâ‚Źdin l?43, sincewhich time they have literally sufferedmuch. The Collegeis the oldestrertiaryinstitutionin the English'speaking Caribbean,havingbeenprovidingdegreecources in Classics,Mathematics,or Theologyfor well over a century and a half. Today it continuesto train ordinandsand others in Theology, and is exploringmeansby which to expandits programmes. The story of this pilgrimageis recountedin thesepagesby my colleague,The Rev. Dr. John Holder. By its very sizeone can seethat the booklet is not a detailedtreatmentof the subject.But it doesprovide the readerwith sufficien!information to enableâ‚Źachone to have a quick look in at this institution. The Collegehasbenefittedover two centuriesfrom the generosity ofmany persons.As it proceedstowardsits 250thanniversaryin 1995, we hope that otherswill assistin enablingir to fulfil its responsibil! ties. Ifyou the readerhavenot yet visitedthe College,I hopeyou will do so. If you havevisitedit before,I hope this work will stir your interestto visit it again.

NoeI R Titus Principal

to l€arnthat an informativebrochur€on Codring_ I am delighled in the nearfuture,and ton Collegeis to be producedandpublished success thisshortnoteis to conveymy verybestwishesfor complete for the project. averyoldCod As anOldCod.myself-andby nowI ambecoming of morethanforly yearsstanding-asa Bhhopof the Provincefor and Visitorof the the pastsixteenyears,and further,asArchbishop Collegefor thelastfiveyears,I knowthestringentne€dsof theInsti_ of th€ tution,so anywork whichmay bedoneto boostthe revenue ofsuppor!froma gr€atvarietyofper_ ev€rymeasure collegedeserves arernerelya trickleinthedverof oul expenses sons,Our Endowments of the Collegeis for everattended and the veryday-to'dayexistence wih muchpain-almostto the point of distress! of the informalivebrochurewith this newendeavour I commend provid€ to someof themuchneeded it will help hopethat theearnest very life of the College. the to support sustenance FloriensDomusCod ngtoniensis.

G.&(* b,;t"^,atrt"-t + Cuthbcrt Windward lslandE

On behalfof the entireDioceseof BarbadosI offer hedtiest con_ gratulationsto the Principaland Staff of CodringtonCollegefor the prodlction of the long awaitedCollegeBrochure. CodringtonCollegecotrtinuesto makea significantcontribution to the Missionand Ministry of the Churchin the provinceof the West Indiesand we in the Diocaseof Barbadospledgeour ongoingsupport for the Collegâ‚Ź.We have,for obvioushistoricalreasons,aNays enjoyeda veryspecialrelationship{ith the Collegeand w. pray that thc publicationof the Brochurcwill provehelpfu.lin two specificarâ‚Źa8i a greatq appraciationof therole of theCollegein thadevelopment of the Church and the wider society; iD the provisionof additionalfundsfor the work of the Collcgc,


s I


CHRISTOPHERCODRINGTON ChristopherCodrington,the founderof CodringtonCollege,was born in Barbadosin the year 1668.He had grown up in the housenow occupiedby the principal of CodringtonCollege,bur ir is not likely that he wasborn there,The founderwasth€ third of the samename. sincehis Chrisliannameand surnamewerealsorhoseof his farherand srandfather. His grandfather,th€ first ChristopherCodrington,arrivedin lhe islandof Barbadosin the year 1628,about one year afte. the island was first occupjedby the Engljsh.Between1628and 1656.ihe yearof the deathof ChristopherCodringlonI, rhe family had a€quireda considerabl€amount of land in Barbados.ChrislopherCodringlon, the father of the founder of the College,playeda p.ominentpart in the political affairs of the WestIndies.At the ageof lwenty-nine,he was named to act as Deputy Covernor of Barbados. In 1689 he was appoinled Covernor oi the Leeward Idands, having moved 10 rhe islandoi Antiguain FebruaryI683. This then js the immediate family backgroundof Christopher Codrington. His early childhood was spentin Barbados.At the age of eleven,he was senl by his parenrsto b€ educatedin Englandand sp€ntsome six yearsaltendinga school near London, At seventeen yearsof age,he beganstudiesat Christ Church, Oxford. Eventually he was granteda fellowshipat All SoulsCollege,and this instilution was later to benefit from its associationwith Codrington. He b€dueathedsome€10,000and gavehis collectionof booksro Al1 Souls. Many of thesecan slili b€ seentodav. Al twenty-six, he distinguishedhimself while fighring for the English in the Flemishwar. For his oursrandingperformanceduring the siegeof Namur, he receivedpromotionto the rank of LieulenantColon€l and the high praise of the King. In 1698, while srill in England, he was notified of his father's dearh.A few monlhs after this, word cameofhis appointmentby King Willian III to succ€edhis tuther as Covemor of the LeewardIslands.

ChristopherCodrington was now only thirty yearsof age.The shoddy treatm€nt m€ted out to his his father was very much in his mind. His father had beenaccusedof treason,and had noi receivedhis salaryas Covernor for somefour years,In responsetoall this, Christopher Codrington wrote, {{I shall lake especialcare my reputationdo not suffer for want of due enquiry, as my father's did". He set about to improve and regularisethe admiDistrationof the Leewardldands, going from hland ro islandto megtthe inhabitants, telling them that he had Chri stopher Codri ngton come not merely as lhe son of their last governor, Cenenl Codrington, but as "the impartial repr€sentative of imperial aulhority". The new Governor beganto lay down some high standardsfor thosein Dublicoffice in his o\anislandsand in the wider west Indies. He attackedthe practiceof briberywhich wasto be found amongthe governorsof the colonies, and argued strongly that no governor should be allowedlo acc€ptmoney from his Assembly.Instead,the salariesof the governorsshould be raised as pan of the effort to eradicatebribery and make them independen!of thei assemblies. ChristopherCodringlonalsosetaboul!o improvelhe legalandjudicial syslems,and the relationshipof the Churchto lhe slavepopulation. He askedthe Bishopof London to sendoul "apostolicmen who will take much pains", and in retum he would do all he could to help them. His concernfor the slavesgainedhim manyenemiesamongthe planlefctass, ln 1704,due 10 ill health,he a-skedleav€of his post as Governor of the Leeward lslands. The leave was granted but he was also replacedasGovernor.He retiredto his familyestatesin Barbadosand spenrmost of the next six remainingyearsof his life in the houseat the Consettestatewherehe had sp€nthis early childhood. On Cood Friday, April 7, 1710,he died and was buried in the parish of St.

Michael, Barbados.Six yearslater, his body was exhume.l, taken lo England,,buriedin the chapâ‚Źlof Ali SonlsCollege, Oxford. AT.:"c rhings.ChrilropherCodring,onwdsa man qirh a !i_ . 1]l slon.flls galtantallemptsLoimproverhe adrrunistralion ol the Lee_ ward Idands bearrhisout. His call !o unite mosr of rhe islands of the WestIndies,iDcludingBarbados,undera singlegovernment alsogives e!idenceof rhis-risionar)qualiryot the man. Bur surel) lhe besl oemonslrarrcn ol lhr5lraitis rhewayin whichhe wanredhisr\ o fam_ ily estatesof Societyand Consettto be usedafrer his dearh.His will, dated February22, 1703,bequeathed: My rwo plantations in the islandoi Ba.bados lo the Societyfor rhe Propagarion ofrhe ChristianRelisionin forraignepa s! er.ecled and established by my lategoodmasterWiltjamtheThi.a, anOmy desiil k to havetbeplantalions continued inrireard 300neg.o",ut i"urt to be keptthereon, &d a convenienr numberof professors andSchotars maintained there,atloithemrobeundervow$oi povertyandchasrity dndobedience. sho shatlbeobtised ro slud,andpracr,se physic( and chrurSer)a. seUa\ Diqniry,rharby theapparenr useiulnes nf rbc ro'merro aI mankrnd. rhq maybothmdearrhemlehe. ro rhepeopte andha\erheberrer opporrunilie, or do,nggoodto men.s ioutsqhil(r rhe)d'erdtingcareof rhelrbodys. bulrhepanrcutars or theconnlru. lion I leaveto lhe Sociery composed of sise anogooomen. Soon afrer.rhe\ailt qa\ publrshed.a relarireof Chrtlophet ^ looflngron ltvlngrn the WesLlndje, raisedsomeobjeoionsIo it, claiming rhat the two eslateswere partly his and could nor be given by Christopherin theirentirelyto rheSpC. Thjs problemrook ai;osl two years ro se(le bur, as ChristopherCodringlon intended, the estateswerâ‚Źpassedintact to the SpC for the purposesoutlinedin his


l7l4 -

ofthetwo Codrington€siates. The SPC obtainedpossession ColoneLChristianLilly, a famousEnglisharchitect,commissionedto prepareplans for the College They took him two years to complete. He follolved the pattern of a typical Englishcollege,with four long sidesenclosinga quadrangle opposite are the plans preparedby colonel Lilly The northern side of the Collegea5 proposedby Lilly was nol built. This was dueto a lack of funds. The construction of lhe Collegethus iell shorl ofthe "typical Englishcollege" as ProposedbY Lilly

Work on theCollegcbegan.IntheSPCreportofthisyear,it is describedas a college"for the useof the missionin ihose parls of lhe British dominions", and as a "nursery for the prcpagation of lhe Gospel, for providing a never'failing supply of laboureresto be sent fonh into th€ harvest of cod". 1143- The building of the Coltegewas completed.In a sermon preach€dbeforelhe SPC in 1717,Philip, the Bishopof Hereford, had declared,". . . how difficult soeverit is to lay the first stone in this greal work, we ourselves,by God's blessing,shall live to seeit rise, and be happilv brough! in . our own tjme to somedegreeof perfection". This hope was parlially realiscdin 1743 The Collcgewasopenedasa Grammarschoolwith seventeen \'745 puPils. 'Mansion-house' 1780 - The Coll€ge as well as rhe neighbouring (now lhe Principal's lodge) were almost destroyedby a devastatinghurrican€. The reports of SPC from l?80/81 paint a vivid picture of ihe devastation:

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The societyhale beenfavoured with one letter from Sir John Oay All€yne. Ban., and dothd from the Rev. Mr. Mashart, Calechisrat CodringtonCollege,relativeto lhe dreadfulhurricane,and the darnagedonelhereby!o the estales;by *hich ir is coll€ctedthat mos! ofrhe buildingson ihe eshreshave beenthrown down, €xceptthe mills, but nol one neSrolost,and very few cattle,in proporrionto the numberon tbe eslates;the Mansion-house entirely uncovered,lhe {all alonestanding;and part oi the college,particularly the Chapel, gr€atly damaged, the roof being blown away. and severalwindows broken down, bur lhe walls sknding. The wing of the Coll€ge*here the library is k€D!hassuffe.edliltle. so lhat it now servesfor the residence of lhe managerand his family. The top ol lhe School-roomhas b€enblown doqn, but Mf. Mashartp.oposedto makeuseof it for Divin€ serviceundl the Chap€l shall be made fit for the purpo*.

1 7 8 9- Under the direction of Mr. Husbands, Catechist, the school was re-opened at the Mansion-house on the 'upper Estate' with six boys. The College was repaired and opened under the Rev. Mark

Nicholson as President and superior master, and Mr. Thomas Moody as his assistant.The Crammar school was moved from the upper 6tate back to the College.

t829 * The Cramma.rschoolwas removed!o the Chaplain'slodge on the upperestateunderthechargeofthe Rev,John Packer. Measureswere taken for the opening of the Colle8€"no longeras a mereCrammar schoolfor boys, but as a strictly collegiateinstitution for the educationof young m€n, especially wirh a view to Holy Orders" (SPGreport on Codrington Colleg€,1847).

1830- The Collegewas openedfor the receptionof students. l83r - The Collegewasdevaslatedby a hurricane.The roofand top storeywere blown away, the library and most of its books was demolished,and the roof of the Principal's house(the old Mansion-house) wasblown off. Within two years(1833) most of the damagedbuildingswere repaired.

lE99 -

The SPC took a decisionto closeCodringtonCollege.There was a concertedeffort to prevent this disaster,with the Governor of Barbadosand the Archbishop of Canterbury appealingfor funds to ensurethat the College remained 6


oN cor,LEcE,BAR!^DO3

open. Therc seemsto have bcen a changeof hear! at the SPC,and it sentout somc€2200to the College. 1926-

TheColl€ge wasguled by fire with onlythe wallsleft inlact,


The collegewasre-openedwith a slightincreasein accommooallon.


A new schemefor the runningof the Codringtonestatesand the Collegewas instituted.The USPC, the trusteesfor the estat€s,feh that the dayto day runningofth€ collegeshould pass to the Anglican Church in the province of the West Indies. It was decidedto establishtwo boards,a Board of Managementto managethe Codringtonestates,and a Board ofGovernorsto seeafter the welfareofCodrington College. One of the main aims of the Board of Managementwas to maximiselhe resources of lhe Codringtone(tares, On rhe lst of Ocloberof ihisyear,theCodrington TrusrAct 1983,2?was promulgatedin ihe Barbadosparliament.The administrarionand conrrol of the Codrington EsrateTrust was vesredin a new Board of Trustees.This no! only supersededrhe arrangemenrsof 1976, bur afler 271 years (1712-1983), legalconrrolof the CodringronTrusrpassed


l98l -

from rhe USPC to a toially west Indian group. To understandthis eventof 1983,we must go back not oniy to l7l2 whenthe thenSPC acquir€dlegalcontrol of the CodringtonTrust, bui alsoto the yearsl7zl5,1829,1879and 1979.The year 1745of coursemarksthe openingol a Gram' mar schoolat Codringlon College.From then until today, therehasalwaysbeena Grammarschoolon the Codrington estates.When in 1829the decisionwas taken to lransform Codrington College iDto a real collegiateinstilution, the Crammar schoolhousedin the buildingwas r€mov€dto the Chaplain'slodgeon ibe upper estates.Hencethe name,the Lodge School. ln 1879,the Covernnlcniof Barbadostook overthe runof the institution ning of the school,meetingall the expenses and paying a small fee to thc SPG ior lhe use of the premises,lndced,the Covernmentwas givena onc bundred year leaseon thc prcmisesby ih€ SPC. This lcaseexpiredin 1979,and after someconsideration and much debate,thc Covcrnmentdecidedthat lhe time had of the premises ol 1bcLodge comc to acquirepossession School.To do so, the CodringlonTrust-which was still vestedin the USPC(formerlySPG)-had io be repatrialed. The USPCwasonly loo willingro do so,sincelhisbodyalso fch thal it was due time for th€ Codrington Trust to bc _orallyrn Lhchandsoi Wen lndians. Dlaced The inauguralmeetingofthe newTrusr washeld at Manon l8th October1981. dcvillcHouse,Si, Michael,Barbados, At this meeting,lhe then Secretaryof th€ USPC, Canon JamesRobertson,formally handedoverto thenewTrust the





Bishop Drexel Gonez ad Canon James Robettson

1986 -

historic manuscriprconraining,amongorher rhings,a copy of the will of Chisropher Codringron. The evemsof i983 can be viewedas rhe climax io rhc iong, lascinaling saga of the Codrington estares and CodrinsronCollegc.The TrusLbenefiftedhandsomclyfrom the Covenment's acquisitjonof the LodgeSchoolproperry. Today,almostfor the rimein the 250yeafsof rhe life of thc Collegejit canlook ior\yardro a steady,if not ad€_ quate. income accfuingfron the sale of the Lodge School propety. In a very ironic way, rhc cstareswhosesole func, tionaccording to rheCodringlon wjltisto providerhewhcre_ wilhal ior the "nudy and practiseof physic and Chirurgcry as well as Diviniry" at CodringronCollege,camecloscstto realising lheir purposewhenpart of rhemwassold. A new Board oi Covcrnorsior the Coll€gcwas established by th€ heldits fifst mcetingon th July 1986.

BOARDOF 'rRUSTEES Standirg tr) ML Mertot He tt, Mr. Derck Courtenay, Sir Nev re Osborre Shtine tr) Archbishop Orland Lindsay, Mrs. Edna Sco , Bishop Irexel Aomez,Mr. ha Rove-



SOME ACADEMIC HIGHLIGHTS If th€ historyofCodrington Collegehasbeenone fullof disast€rs, academicachievements it hasalsobeena hjstoryfull o i commendable From the 9th September1745wh€n the Collegeopenedils doors as a Crammarschoolwiih tw€lvestudenls,untilthe pr€sentday,a stcady streamof studentshave graduat€d.Following are someof th€ aca' demic milestones. l?43 -

The Rev. Thomas Rotherham,M.A. of Queen'sCollege, Oxford, was appoinledHeadmaslerof the school,with the Rev. JosephBewshamappointedUsher.


ofthis year.lnOclober TheschoolwasopenedinSeplember what was lhe first report of the sent off the Headmaster school to SPO. By this lime, lhe number of studentshad increased to sev€nleen.Mr. Rotherham lells oi their one "can read and academiclevels:One "can read", word", These seventeen boys read a write". . , one "cannoi i.e., education foundalion", their were "scholars of the was free. The SPC report of 1747mentions thirly other studentswho "were not on lhe foundation", i,e., they were boarderswho paid lor theireducation. A SPC report of this year stalesthat lhe Collegeshouldbe "providing an adequateeducation for such of lhe Wesl to Indian youlhs as should be disposedto devoteth€mselves the islands, without seeking Chris!ianminislryin their native qualificationsin Europe, at a distancefrom their n€cessary friendsand relations".

1825 ,

1829 -

The Collegeceasedbeinga Grammarschooland was desiSnated a full fledgedcollege.The Rev. J. Pinder, M.A. of Caius College,Cambridge,was sent out by the SPG to be Principal.The Rev. E.P. Smith, B.A of Pembrokecollege, Oxford, was appointedTutor. t0



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1830 -

October 12r CodringtonColleg€begana new era as a full fledgedcollege.

1846 -

Bythis date,somelll stud€nrshad graduatedfrom the Collegesincethe start of irs new era in 1830.The distribution of the studentsper country was as follows:



Anguilla I Antigua 9 Bermuda I British Guiana 2 Dominica I England l3 keland I

1875 -

1913 -

St. ChristopherlS1.Kiits) 2 Sl. Lucia I St. Vincent 3 Trinidad 6

Codrington College affiliated with Durham Universiry in England.Th€ studentsof Codringtonwere now allowedto read for Durham degrees.The affiliation with Durham lasteduntil 1955.During theseyears,the Collegebecamea 'mixed' college academically, consisting of 'secular' studentsreadingfor degr€esin classics,and lhosepreparing for ordination to the priesthood,many of whom also read classicsfor th€ Durham degree.

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Through rhe initiativeof PrincipalA.H.Ansrey, rhe College launched out into teacher training. The Rawle Training Institute for men was established, with a similar institution for women b€ing founded in the following year (1914).

Co&ington Co .ge: The Visitor, staff and students II



The Raele Ttaining lnstitute,n-d.

Thesestudentssharedin the socialand religiouslife of CodringtonCollege, 1955* At this rimerhe Universiryof the WestIndies(UWI) was established and students who wouldhavereadfor classical degrees at Codringtonnow went to the UWI CamDusat Mona,Jamaica. 197t -

The B.A. in Theologyof rhe UWI, approvedby Senatein 1970,wasintroducedar CodringtonCollege.Coursesfor the Licentiatehad begunin 1965.


A five-monthcoursein Communicationswas introducedat Codringlon.The coursewasjointly sponsoredby the BxtraMural Departmentof the UWl, the CaribbeanConference of Churchesand Codrington College.,Communicarib',as the coursewas called, cateredto personsinvolvedin work with the newspaper,televhionand radio mediain the Caribbean. The coursewas held each ensuingyear until 1981.

1974 -

The firsr group of Codrington studentsgraduatedwith the B.A. in Theologyof rhe UWt.

1974 -

Mrs. Edna Scottcreatedhistory by beingthe first femaleto enterCodringtonCollegeasa part-timenon-resident student, t2


to study for the B.A. in Theotogy. Shewas followedtwo wâ‚Źekslater by Mrs. Pearl Kirton who pursuedthe samestudies,


I Mts. Edna Scott

1978 -

A part-time course leading to the Diploma in Theology began at Codrington. This coursewas specificallyfor lay personswho playeda leadingrole in their church,and those who raughl religion in day schools,

LIFE ON THE CODRINGTONESTATES Thesugarmili becamethe hub oflife on the Codringtonâ‚Źstatesduring the four to five monthswhen the sugarcanewas reapedand ground. It was iherefore the sourceoi valuableincome for the College. ln 1793.rhe estateswere ablâ‚Ź ro show a Drofit of E3500, women have alwaysplayed a crucial role in the econornicdevelopment ofthe Westlndies.They havemadean outstandingcontribution to the economicwell-beingof the Codringtonestates.ln this photograph taken toward the end of the last century,we seewomen hard al work on a sectionof the estates.


The old mar in this photographwas born a slave.The Codrinstor esrales. Iike rhe WesrIndies,rhri\edon slarela;our for two centuries.No doubt whâ‚Źnslaverywasfinally abolished,many of the slaveslike this old man remainedon rhe Codrington estates primarily for economicreasons.Work on the estateswasstill the onlv sourceof income for the former slaves,


Some ot r,hebuildings on the Codrington estates

In I8l9 .lohn HothersalPindef was appointedchaplainfor the Ncgrocson thc Codringtoncslatcs.At lirst hc uscd thc hall at Codrington College,sometinres theloit of thehouserJsed ibr thecuring of sugar,at other times the schoolhouseon the upper estaleor his housc.On I I .luly 1819,a rvoodcnchapelwasopenedfor the use oi thc wasdcslroycd by a hurricanc in Octoberl8l9 and in l82l h stonâ‚Źbuildingwascrcctcd.l1 wassinplycallcdSocictyChapel. In 1954it was renanedHoly Cross. This pholographof "Sociely village" showslhe chapelto the righl, witb thc numcroussmall huts scattcrcdaround,Thesewereoccupied by the descendanls of slavesliving on rhe Codrington estales.The

photograph,which dalesfrom early in this century,showsthat living accommodationfor most of thesepeoplewas restrictedto a small wooden houseconsistingof one or two roonrs.

One can contraslrhe sizeof rhis housewith $at of the small huh in the pholographabove.This conlrastrepresenlsthe greargulf which existedbetweenthe white planterclassand the black workers,evenof theCodrington estates, whosemainiunctionwasto provideadequate funds to lrain men to carry the Cospelthroughout lhe West lndies. Today the estatecalled Societyplantation, is still engagedin sugar production and employsa number of peoplefrom the surrounding villages.The other estate,now calledCollege,is rentedto a number ofsmall farmers.Somesugaris producedon this estate,andvegetables are producedon both.



The Rev. J.H. Pitdq

The Rev. J.H. Pinder, M,A. 1830-1835 When CodringtonCollegeopeneditsdoors asa collegem the modern senseof theword on 9tl, September1830,John HolhersalPinder, first Chaplain to the Negroâ‚Źs(slaves)on the Codrington estates,became the Principal of the newly constitutedcollege.During Pinder's five yearsin that capacity,twenty-sâ‚Źvermen wereordainedfrom the College. Severalothers graduatedin other fields. Pinder returned to Englandin 1835and becamethe first Principal of WellsTheological college in Somerset. IE

The Rev,Henry Jones,M.A.


The Rev. Richatd Rav,le,M.A.

1847-1864 Richard Rawlemust be numberedamongrhe outstandingprincipals ofCodrington College.On his arrivalin Barbados,he immediatelybecame embroiled in a controversyreialing to whether the College shouldcontinueto function as a colleg€in the proper senseor revert to a Crammar schoolas it had beenfrom 1745-1830.The Bishop of Barbadoswas strongly opposedto the id€a of returningthe Colleg€ to a Crammar school, and Rawle also adopted this position. The Bishopand Rawlewerevictoriousand the Collegecontinuedto funclion as such at the universitvlevel. Princioal Rawlewill best be rememberedfor his start of his mission io Africa. "lt was thought thal such a mission would be both a lhanksgivingfor blessingsshown lo the WestIndies, and also a reparation to Africa for thehundredsof thousandso f slaveswho had been deportedfrom its shoresto make the fortunes oi the sugarplanlaiions" (Langley).Thus was launchedwhal becameknown as the Rio PongosMission. Rawleconstructeda little building, artachingit ro his own house(rhe Principal'slodg€),and setabout to train a few young menas missionaries. These were undoubtedly form€r daves who acceptedthe challengeto return 'home' to preachthe Cospel. In 1855,two men volunteeredto go as missionersro Africa. They werea priestof some sixty yearsnamed Leacock,and a young catechist,Duport. In 1864Rawlewas forced to resignhis post as Principal becauseof failing health. After some eight years back in England, Rawle acceptedthe bishopricofTrinidad, but in 1899,at the ageofseventy-six, he resignedthe post and returnedto Codrington Collegeto acr as Principalwithout salary.He died the followingyearand is buriednext 10 the Holy Crosschurch on a hitl a few hundredyardsaway from the College,"looking directly over the seasto Africa". The Rev. W.T. Webb 1864-1884 EachPrincipalofCodrington Collegecanprobablylay claimto a special contribution made towards its development.principal Webb,s contributionwas the affiliarion of CodringtonCollegewith Durham University.The studentsof Codringtonwerefrom l8?5 ableto obtain the B.A. and the M.A. of Durham Universitv. l9

The Rev.A. Caldecott 1884-1885 The Rev. Herbeft Bindlet, D.D. 1890-j910 Herbert Bindley assumeddutiesas Principal at a time when the ColIegewas in dire financialstraits.After the deathof RichardRawleir 1890,the post of Principal had rernainedvacant for a year. Bindley agreedto acceptthe post at a reducedsalary.By 1895the servicesof all the tutors had to be dispâ‚Źnsedwith, and Bindley wdsleft alone to keepthe Collegegoing. However,in spiteofthe ultimatum from the SPC in 1899stating that the Collegeshouid be closed,it remained open through some generousdonationsfrom the SPG Bi-centenary Fund and the Marriott Bequest. The Rev.Arthw Anstey, M.A. 1910-1918 During Anstey'sterm as Principal,threeimportant educationalinstitutions emergedout ofthâ‚Ź educationalmilieu of CodringtonCollege. Thesewere the Rawle Training Institute for men teachers(1913),a similar collegefor women (1914),and a Ciri's High School..on rhe upper plantation" (1915).The emergenceof theseinstitutionswas largelydue to the initiative of Anstey.He thereforeextendedtertiary educationbeyondthe confinesof Codrington Collegeto the impoF

Bishop Ansky 20

tant areaofteachertraining. lt wasalsoduring Anstey'sterm as prin, cipal that the Collegewas €niargedas part of the preparationto receiveordinandsfrom Englandro be rrainedalong wjth thosefrom the West Indies.In 1918,Anstey resignedas principal of Codrington Collegeto becomeBishop of Trinidad and Tobago. The Rev. Canon John C. Wippe , M.A., B.D. tglA_Ig4S If thereis one Princjpalof CodringtonColleg€whosenameis almost synonymouswith this instilution, ir is canon wippell. He spentsome thirty-four yearsat Codrington(1911-1945),twenty-seven of theseas Principal.CanonWipf,€ll is thereforerhe longestservingprincipal of the Collegero date. Ir is almost impossibleto chart his outstanding contributionto th€ institutionduring lheseyearsas tutor aid as prin cipal. It was his dedicationto Codringtonwhich saw th€ institulion recoverfrom the disastrousfire ol 1926.Thosestudentswho had rhe privilegeto be at CodringtonduringCanon Wippell,syearsof service. still refer to him affectionalelyas ,Prin'. He €ndearedhims€li to his students, who willalwaysrememb€r hisscholarshiD andhiswit. which guidedrhfm lhroughlheir yearsa. srudenrrof lhe school.Canon wippell went to Jamaicaupon his retirementfrom Codrinston. and died there on 27 August 1978. The Rev.A.H. Sayet 1945-1955 The principalship of A.H. Sayer marked the end oi an era for CodringtonColiege.It was durjng his term as principal rhat the lan studentsfor the Durham degree€dered Codringion. principal Sayer did a commendablejob in guidingthe Collegeour of lhe old era and into a new one,which mmmencedwhenthe Communiryof lhe Resurrectrontook over the adminislrarionof the Collegein 195j. The Communilyofthe ResurrectionadminisleredCodringtonCollege from 1955to 1969. During lhesefourr€en y€ars,a memberof the Communiryfunctionedas principal. Therewerethreeprincipalsdur_ ing this time, wirh anolhermemberof lhe Conununiryactingas principal for one year, Thesem€mberswere: The Rev,JohnathanCtuham, C.R., M.A. The Rev.Anseln Cenale$,C.R., M.A. The Rev. William Wheetdon,C.R., B.A. Acting Principal) The Rev. codfrey Pawson, C.R., M.A. 21

j955_1957 1957_1965 jg65_jg66 1966-1 9

Each Principal mad€ a significait contribution to rhe work at CodringtonCollege.It seems,however,that during this period there was a gradualshift in the emphasisof the Collegefrom the academic sideof theologyto the morepastoral'parishpriest' approach_Several of the studentswho ent€redCodringtonbetween1955and 1969were unableto developtheiracademicporential.The approachof the memb€rsof the Community of the Resurectionsurelystressed an important dimensionof ministry, but it probably did so at the expenseof severalother aspectsof training. The Rev. Martin Canison, S.T.M, 1969-1970 The delicateand indeeddifficult task of adrninisteringCodringlon Collegeafter the Mirfield era fell on the shouldersof Marrin Carrison. He was a citizenof the United Stares,and through the USpc, spent sometime working in Africa. Afrer only oneyearhe resignedhis post as Principal. There was a questionmark hangingover the future of the College,and this alongwith severalother adminislrativeproblems nrobably influencedFr. carison's decisionto resign as principal. The Rev.Kotttight Davis,B,D.(Lon,) 1970-tg7t (A.tjng p:irncipal, On the resignationof Fr. carrison the mantleof the principalshipof Codringtonfell on the shouldersofFr. Kortright Davis. Fr. Daviswas trained ar Codringtonduring the Mjrfield era, and after working for someyearsin the Dioceseof Antigua, he returnedto Codringtonto be Tulor. His was rhe task of holding the Coleg€ togetherafter the short and somewharrurbulenl period of Fr. Carrison. He did a fine job in serllingrhe turbulent watersat the College. The Rev.CanonSehonGoodtidge,B.D, (Lon.), Hon. D.D. (Hwon) 197t -t982 The contribution of Principal Sehoncoodridge must surelyrank as onEof the mosi significantin the history of CodringtonCollege.He took over the leadershipat a time when the Anglican Church in the Provinceof the West Indies was raising s€riousquestionsabout its viability asaProvincialinstitutiontraining menfor th€ministry.principal Goodridgegavea positiv€and powerful ,yes, to thesequestions. Himself an Old Cod, Canon Coodridgecameto Codringtonin 19?1 with the type of enthusiasmthat only an old student can generate towardshisaftra mater. He wasthe first WesrIndial (black)Pdncipal of Codrington.

Canon Sehon Coodtidse

When the Collegeopenedfor the 19?1-72academicyear, twelvenew studentsentered,joining six from the previousyear,Within a few vears. tle nudenr bod' of rhe College had risen to rhirty_seven.Thi; dramaticrisewasprimarily due in part to the new faith in Codrington which Canon Coodridgehad generated. Canon Coodridgewas also instrumentalin expandingthe importaot academicdimensionoI lheologicalrraining which had almosr sub_ sidedduring lhe Mirfield era. The B.A. in Theologyoffered by lhe UDiversityof the West lndieswasintroducedat Codringtonfrom the l97l-72 academic year.Thusa door whjchwaspartlyclosedwasopened againbecauseol the vision of Canon Coodridge.During his teim as Principal,severalstudentsgraduatedfrom Codringtonwith the B.A. in Theologyof the UWl. He was thus able to lay the foundation for the developmentofa solidcadreof WestIndian theologianswho have beenable to go on to greateracademicheights. Canon Coodridgeresignedhis post as principat ol Codrington Collegein December1982,and now works as Wardenand Stud;nt Counsellor at the Cave HiI Campusof the UWL He also lâ‚Źcturesin his favourite academicdiscipline,philosophy.The studentswho were at Codringtonduring hh term as principal will alwaysbe gratefulfor the tremendouscontribution he has rnadeto their development. The Rev. Canon Noet Titls

tan.-June, J98J (Acting principal) 1983_ Like Canon Coodridge, Canon Titus receivedhis training for thâ‚Ź minhtry at Codrington.He alsostudiedal Durhamand whileengaged in parish work, was able to completean M.A. for the Universityof

Durham and one for the Universityof the West Indies. Canon Titus worked as Tutor at Coddngton from l9l2-19'7 5, and after a stint of six years in the padsh ministry, he rctumed to Codringtonin l98l asTutor. Upon the resignation of Canon Coodridge,he actedas Principal and was appointed to this post in 1983. Canon Titus has a great vision of the contribution Codrington College can maketo theologicaldevelopmenlin the West Indies. The need for qualified personsto teach ReligiousSludiesin schools,the growinginterestin the im-

The Rev. Canon No.l Titus

portanceof moral/ethical instructionfor thoseengaged in workwith theyoung,as wellastheneedfor Ecumenical StudiesandStudiesin Mission,are someof the importantissuesto whichCanonTitus is directinglhe programme of CodringtonCollege.

CODRINGTON COLLEGE A SpiritualOasisfor the AnglicanChurch in the West Indies The reportsof the USPG statc that in 1721,altar stepsand palementswere scnt our for lhc chapelat CodringronCollege.The chapelwas originallyopencdon 1l June 1749.I! represenls the strong spiritual dimensionthai has becn a parr oi Codrington from rts very inception.Prayerand worshipwere kom rhe eartyCrammar schooldaysof the Collegean intcgralpart ot the life of the stu denrs.ln his rcportof Oclober1745,Mr. ThomasRoth€ram,headmasterof the Grammarschoolwrorc: we livein a lcry rcriredmanncr. We begtnrheschool at sixin rhe morninswith rhat ParricularPrayerappoinredbt rhe Socierytbr Schoolmastcrs andrheirscholas, togerhcr with theLord\ prayer. WereadthewholeMorninsServi0e ar cleven andthcwholeElcnins Scrviceat livc. On Sundayin lhc nromingwc haveprayeBand a sermon andPrayers in tficalrcrnoon. This patternol rhespiritualIilt hascontinuedrhroughthe centuries.Prayer,worshipandmediration havcmadethc Collegethc spiri, tual oasisthal it is. Today,wirh Morningpraycrar 7 a.m. followed by a cclebration of thc Eucharisr, Meditarion at,andEvcning Prayerat 6 p.n., the sludentsarc cxposedro the imporlanl elements for spjrirualgrowth,as wcrcrhe students of 1745. The spiritual climate and conscquenrlyrhc spirirual cxperience creaiedar CodringtonCollegc,undoubredlyare relatedto the physical setting of the College.Siruatedsomc thirreenmiles away from the husllcand bustleof liie in rhe cily of Bridgerown,and ovcrlookingrhe soothingwalersofthe A!1anlicOcean,rheCollegeis an idealplaccfor meditationand reflection.Its groundsrevclin lush tropicalshrubbcry, with the drivewaygraccdwith sratelycabbagepalms, somcof which date irom the early part of lhe lasr century. All this lendsa sratelyhisroricalmosphereto rhe €nvironsof rhe Collegewhich, situatedas it is on the easternsideof Barbados,looks out not only to the Arlanlic, bur ro Africa, whosesonsand daughrers labour€dto dig lhe stonesthat w€re usedin its consrruction.

CODRINGTON COLLEGE A Gateway to the World Throughtheseportalshavepassedmen, and ir more recenttimes women,to enterupon severalwalksoflife. It is impossibleto quantify the monumenialcontributionsthey, and thus Codrington Colleg€, have made to the developmenlof the numerouscountriesin which they have worked. In sp€akingof lhe specificcontribution of the Collegeto the Westlndies,a r€port from the Bicentenarycelebrations of l9l0 held in Englandclaims: haseiventh€w€s!IndiesnotonlyBishops, Archdeacons, Thecouege Barristers, Physicians andthe bulk of theclersy,but ChiefJustic€s, Plante6,andmenof leadingpositionin ev€rycolonyof Merchants, the Cafibbean seas. The college has continuedto make its contribution to the west lndies and beyond. It has just given to lhe Church of England its firsl black Bishop in the personof wilfred Wood, who graduated from Codringtonin 1962.All pasl studentsof the Collegeand all its benefactorsand well wisherscan boldly say, in the words of the famoustoast, that indeedFlorcatDomus CodinE oriersis-May the houseof Codrington flourish.