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THE METHOD OF PSYCHOHISTORY An ongoing project Philip Conover Lazo


THE METHOD OF PSYCHOHISTORY An ongoing project by Philip Conover Lazo

PART I: THE CONCEPT OF PSYCHOHISTORY

The concept of psychohistory refers to a series of reflections on the nature of History that have been taking place since antiquity inspired first by philosophy and ethics and in more recent times by psychology and anthropology. The Republic of Plato, The Politics of Aristotle, The philosophy of Confucius, The Utopia of Thomas More and Machiavelli’s The Prince are examples of these ideas.

From the XX century onwards the development of psychology and psychoanalysis awoke a number of interdisciplinary reflections that when combined with certain philosophical and ethical considerations arising from a reflection on the special brutality and general degradation in the decline of politics that lead into genocide and war during the XX century, have inspired certain thinkers in the necessity of expanding historical analysis with an interdisciplinary approach. And here the development of psychoanalysis has been crucial as well as a knowledge of anthropology and prehistory.

It is in order to save ourselves from ourselves that such an interdisciplinary approach has been necessary. Self-knowledge was the original purpose of philosophy as well as the very origin of ethics. From Pleistocene times the use of entheogenic plants led to the refinement of language. Expanded awareness necessitated clear elocution. The discovery of formal relationships between the elements of nature led to new discoveries, to practical applications of these discoveries which in turn led to new language, to the elaboration of new words to describe new functions.

Such is psychohistory, it is a new tool.


THE METHOD OF PSYCHOHISTORY

The purpose of the method of psychohistory is to organize certain insights derived from the association of historical events, or even current political events, with their phenomenological relation in time-space and known psychological realities. And as we mention phenomenology we should define what phenomenological logic is.

'Phenomenological origin' as Edmund Husserl defined it in his Pure Phenomenology and Investigations in Logicrefers to Noema (noumena as in Kant), nous or noos, mind in Greek, which is a thing in itself, extant in time-space, independent of the human mind, different from perception or a psychological event, or from phenomena as an object described by man.

Then, to approximate Psychohistorical Noumena, we would have to use an interdisciplinary approach. As an example we shall take a Noumena from contemporary politics: gun control.

What would a gun be? In terms of psychohistorical duration in time-space (from Brentano’s Psychology of Intentionality and Bergson’s concept of historical duration) a gun is an extension of the arm, a continuation of the historical function of the sword and the poignard. But like them a gun is in psychological terms an unconscious extension of the male penis and with it men define territoriality and power. Here we should note that territoriality is an anthropological concept and that power is a political idea. So that in psychohistorical terms a gun becomes a phallocratic tool that expresses territoriality and power.

As in the sphere of individuals so in the domain of nations: guns are used to assert supremacy and power. Internationally, guns, in terms of world culture (following Marshall McLuhan, The Medium is the Message) and the very existence of arms, signify war. And here is a case in point: Guns are a Noumena, a thing in themselves, independent of men, they ARE war. Or rather


they are the expression of “I will punish you if you do not do as I want” (“A child is being punished” in On Psychopathology from Sigmund Freud; Wilhelm Stekel: Sadism and Masochism). Also in the psychopathology of violent crime involving guns and murder there is a strong element of repressed homosexuality as in gang warfare (e.g. la Mara Salvatrucha, the brownshirts of Eric Rohm vs. Himmler’s Gestapo or the tragic murder in Kansas described by Truman Capote in his novel In Cold Blood, a clear case of repressed homosexuality between the two murderers).

So that gun control to the ultraconservatives in the United States signifies castration. This is why you see such hysterical reactions to the possibility that a law banning guns might literally do away with their penises (see, e.g., Piers Morgan’s interview with an anti-gun control fanatic in a recent CNN television program).1 The whole question of gun control is a psychohistorical problem that has tremendous implications for the future welfare of humanity.

This reaction to gun control in the United States is part of the ‘fort apache’ complex, another psychohistorical phenomenon that has to do with collective paranoia and supremacist phallocracy in which large sectors of the American public see themselves threatened by the outside world, particularly by the United Nations and ‘hostile’ countries that allegedly possess atomic bombs. Also part of this syndrome is the fear of certain conservative elements of the population of a threat by the ‘native’ populations of the world. This syndrome contains a certain element of historical guilt and sexual domination in which the threat of the possession of their women or even of themselves by the ‘native populations' they have harmed in the past is an unconscious psychological possibility; so that it is particularly offensive and threatening that a ‘black man’, President Obama, wants to take away their guns.

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Interview available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtyKofFih8Y (last visit, February 23, 2013).


PART TWO: WAR AFTER WAR, April 22, 2013

The Boston Marathon… Two Chechen brothers, a little American boy, a Chinese girl, an American girl and many more victims… A psychohistorical tragedy with world reverberations.

Reverberations of the War in Chechnya?

The intentionality of murderers is aleatory, they might take out their anger on anyone, the contagiousness of violence is a shock wave that stays in space around us, no one is immune to it, it saddens almost everyone. The etiology of violence is multiple, but perhaps its most pernicious cause is in the alteration of personality as a perversion. Violence can be induced as the ideology of hatred. Who perverts the most, the politician full of hatred or the religious ideologue who transfers his own hatred to the minds of the young? Where does responsibility lie?

Violence generates more violence, and guns and bombs are its agents. Guns and bombs are not merely inanimate objects. The tremendous energy needed to manufacture a single gun is inherent in it. It is potential energy and we transfer our psychological projections to them. In moments of great stress the very availability of guns can tip the balance from ire to tragedy. Even a knife can become a deadly weapon any moment. Just as you don’t leave a sharp knife around children you should not exhibit machine guns in store racks. What is the purpose of this, are you commercializing paranoia? It is a dangerous, obscene and irresponsible commerce that should be outlawed.

It is the sickness in culture, a culture of violence, a cult of violence. A supremacist culture that imposes its power through the cult of violence; be it class warfare or hatred of pacifists, or as in the case of religious hatred of infidels (the Chechen brothers)… They all lead to the same thing: WAR. Nothing good has come out of hatred, notwithstanding the platitudes of the purveyors of hatred, the golden rule is still valid: ‘Do unto others as you would wish to be done unto you’. It still stands today: It is the discipline of compassion, self- control and moderation.


The culture of violence should not be encouraged. It starts at home with the toleration of ire and the adulation of violence and the cult of guns. A supremacist culture requires this. The nations of the world united in their international forums should not permit this. Peace should be the culture of the World, no matter how utopian it sounds today, it is the way to universal consciousness and enlightenment.

The Method of Psychohistory

The diversity of cultures and of historical experience, of varied and contrasting anthropological environments cannot be denied. Humanity speaks different languages which are learning processes, implanted on a biological foundation, in vocal cords that produce different sounds.

The Chinese civilization, the Egyptian civilization and Mayan culture are three very clear examples of differentiated psychohistorical experiences evolved from the Pleistocene and later Neolithic cultures. There is a continuity of human evolution in Northern China from Pekin man to the earliest cultures of the Yellow River rooted to the soft, rich loess of the land. The migration of the people of the Sahara at the end of the Mesolithic Period into the fertile valley of the Nile, the spread of Olmec civilization from its central core in the Gulf Coast of Mexico into the high valleys of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Guatemala was a learning process in new climates and environments, also a linguistic achievement evidenced in hieroglyphs and architecture.

This is dynamic human psychic evolution molded by historical events: The Shang Dynasty, the unification of Egypt by Nemes, the arrival of the Teotihuacan ambassador, Fire-is-born at Tikal, (378 A.D.) , were all linguistic achievements of the first order. The Spanish Conquest of Mexico and the Norman Conquest of England were intense formative periods that produced entirely new cultures from what had been before, and this is a true psychohistorical event, in the anvil of the collective mind, suffering profound transformation.

The structural logic of language studied by philology and linguistics corresponds to the first mnemonic effort implicit in early formative poetry like the charming Canterbury Tales of Chaucer or the delicious poetry of Sor Juana InĂŠs de la Cruz. In a way these works of art reveal traces of a broad psychohistorical synthesis that is operating in time and still


continues. This process testifies the emergence of a cultural genotype which is in itself a psychohistorical noumena.

This is the process of Psychohistory, its Rosetta Stone, its transcultural complexities deciphered reveal our provenance as a people and help us recover our historical memory from the ashes of History, sometimes violent and full of grief, sometimes sweet and beautiful, constructive‌ into the components of our national psyches, ethnical and cultural differences, Islamic or Christian; Western or Oriental.

The Noosphere

The Noosphere is the last of telluric layers after the atmosphere and the biosphere, visualized by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. It is a useful concept for Psychohistory because it describes the collective biological and psychic energy generated by mankind throughout its process of evolution and history and like the other layers it is subjected to its own dynamics in time-space and duration. It forms a corona with the other telluric layers of planetary existence.

This layer, The Noosphere, (from Greek: sphaira, sphere; noos, mind; thus, sphere of the mind), resonates and vibrates with creativity or destruction depending on the irrational moods of the species. It also reacts to certain events that alter its composition like great natural catastrophes or cosmic events.

Before we come to a description of contemporary psychohistorical reality and its multiple manifestations, it would be helpful to trace the psychohistorical events that have most contributed to the formation of the Noosphere. To recuperate the Historical Memory of what was; to see again the mysterious panorama of the great megalithic centers at the end of the Pleistocene‌ to contemplate again the stupendous cosmic tragedy of the fall of The Great Asteroid that fractured the Earth and drew forth magma from Iceland to Puerto Rico and changed the face of the Earth forever. This we will designate The Great Pleistocene Terminal Event or GPTE from its initials.


Paleoclimatology

Terminations: (Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Arqueology, p. 53) Rapid Ice Retreat. Each corresponds to a major rise in sea level causing a Marine Transgression in low laying coastal areas. The last mayor cold period - The Full Glacial or Pleniglacial, lasted from about 23 000 to 14 000 BP. The last 10 000 years from 8000 BP are known as The Post Glacial or Holocene.

The Megalithic Cultures of the Late Pleistocene

Before we come to The Great Pleistocene Terminal Event we would do well to describe The Megalithic Cultures of The Late Pleistocene. In media res, we come to Gobekli Tepe, a most extraordinary archeological site in south eastern Turkey that has completely revolutionized our understanding of Prehistory, for no hunter gatherers constructed this site at least they were no simple hunter gatherers as previously understood.

The people who built Gobekli Tepe inhabited a different frame of mind from the simple hunter gatherers. These people were motivated by cultural phenomena of a different order. To begin with they possessed a remarkable idea of architecture in stone with a striking sense of esthetics quite out of place in a conventional conception of late Pleistocene civilizations. Those extraordinary pillars in the shape of a mushroom are very abstract and atemporal in conception, they could have been designed by Inhotep for The Temple complex at Sakkara (4778 BP) or by Pier Luigi Nervi in his Palazzetto dello Sport (1957). They are a 13 000 year old mystery of a culture we cannot fully comprehend. Entheogenic rites took place there under those mushroom shaped columns.

Gobekli Tepe, images from National Geographic (Historia NG No. 104).


King Zoser's tomb, Sakkara. Images from K. Lange and M. Hirmer, Egypt: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, in Three Thousand Years (Phaidon Press, 1957)

Pier Luigi Nervi, Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome

So that these elegant megalithic structures are 2000 years older than Katal Huyuk, the oldest known Neolithic site. Gobekli Tepe, is nearly 13 000 years old. Up to now twenty similar round structures have been found and many more are believed to be awaiting excavation, which in the words of the head of the German archeological team working at the site, could take more than fifty years.

But we cannot wait fifty years, we must reach some conclusions now given the unsettled nature of geopolitical circumstances. So we must draw intelligent conclusions and carry on with our reconstruction of Prehistory over and beyond the passivity and political


procrastination of the scientific community on this subject, or is it the desire of the western establishment to suppress anything that threatens the validity of the Judeo-Christian tradition? There will always be exceptions, and we wish to remember here the great names in recent Middle Eastern archeology: James Mellaart and Kathleen Kenyon.

The problem of financing scientific research is paramount; it is important to establish priorities. For instance, some of the money spent in finding the Titanic, then filming the sinking of that emblematic boat overloaded with atavism and full of dire catastrophe, and now comes the making of a replica, a new vehicle of morbidity for the pampered and the idle in this latter age of decadence in the West, to tempt again the fates. Some of that money could be well spent in exploring and photographing the Pyramids of Guanahacabibes Peninsula that lie a mere 600 meters below the surface of the sea.

The point that we wish to make is one that we feel has been clearly established by submarine archeology in recent times: that there was a worldwide Megalithic Civilization in the late Pleistocene that came abruptly to an end on June 5, 10498 BP. We accept Otto Muck’s date, derived from a careful analysis of a large spectrum of scientific evidence for this terminal event, a veritable Noumena of Psychohistory, carefully remembered in the tradition of Maya astronomers. It is the oldest Maya date extant to be found at the Temple of the Sun in Palenque.

Other late Pleistocene sites include: several in the Bahamas Bank consisting of interminable megalithic walls with groups of pyramids; specially the pyramids on the submarine plain off the coast of the Guanahacabibes Peninsula in western Cuba. To these we should add the two submarine cities in the Gulf of Cambay near the modern city of Dwarka; the underwater archeological site in Mahabalipuran in southeast India and the now famous underwater pyramid of Yonaguni Island in the Sea of Japan. There are also many megalithic sites around the Mediterranean whose dating should be revised. These include the megaliths in Tartessos Spain; the Island of Malta, Baalbek in Lebanon and Nevali Cori and Cayonu in Turkey. There should be many more sites on the submarine plains bordering the present coast lines of the north Atlantic, Mediterranean and Indian Oceans; the result of Glacial Terminations and Marine Transgressions; of eustatic and isostatic processes in the level of the sea and of tectonic subsidence.

So that near 1 p.m. June 5, 10 498 BP, a great asteroid (“Asteroid A”), possibly ten kilometers in diameter, came in from the Northwest, travelling much faster than the Earth herself, penetrated the Earth’s atmosphere, caught fire, exploded, broke in half and its two larger segments penetrated the Atlantic Ocean a few miles north of the Island of Puerto


Rico. These two huge masses of iron ore, like two cosmic missiles, fractured the Earth’s crust all the way to Iceland and precipitated a cataclysmic eruption of lava all along the line of fracture accompanied by a 500 meter high tsunami that swept the coasts of the north Atlantic and all the former Islands that existed in that Ocean.

We should visualize that late Pleistocene world before its final day, very different from our own in terms of geography and climate. For instance, the peninsulas of Florida and of Yucatan were twice as large as they are today, the Bahamas Bank was one big island the size of Yucatan and around the Azores there was probably a big island that sank. Hesitant England was then connected to Europe by a large sea side plain through which flowed the Thames, a longer Rhine and Loire. Also on the other side of the Atlantic the Hudson and The Delaware continued to flow along broader sea side plains before they emptied into the Atlantic Ocean opposite the Island of Atlantis, lost in memory until Plato rescued her, had already given her name to that surrounding Ocean. It was altogether a striking and beautiful world holding a veritable kaleidoscope of cultures that we cannot even begin to imagine let alone describe‌ But we do have the image of Gobekli Tepe even though that place flourished some two thousand years before the cosmic event. A few objects have emerged from the two sunken cities near Dwarka in the Bay of Cambay that show a level of culture similar to that of Sumer. The sonar photographs of the architectural complex at Guanahanacabibes shows signs of having been built on platforms similar to those in Olmec architecture as in La Venta and San Lorenzo. But without proper submarine archeological surveys we cannot have a more developed understanding of this very important site like we might have at Gobekli Tepe if investigations continue.

There have been interesting observations made about the nature of this world wide civilization. Graham Hancock has noted in a recent interview that this Pleistocene Civilization mapped the then existing world. There is a map, the Piri Reis map, formerly in the possession of a Turkish admiral of that name who lived in the early XVI century. A map that shows the Antarctic continent clearly represented as two large bodies of land separated by a straight. This knowledge was not arrived at until the middle of the XX century. We surmise that the Piri Reis Map is a copy of older maps that found their way to Constantinople from Alexandria where such knowledge was miraculously preserved from a time in the IX millennium before the present when the Antarctic was free of ice and someone cartographed the whole continent.

Plato vindicated, we should consider the terrific psychohistorical shock delivered by Asteroid A on the collective conscience and memory of mankind. We cannot here analyze all the geological, oceanographic and paleoclimatological evidence there is on the impact


produced by Asteroid A. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) and its Russian equivalent have all the data collected by The Glomar Challenger and The Academician Petrovsky, the oceanographic vessels that conducted extensive research in the North Atlantic during the 1970’s. This data has not been fully reported and interpreted. Here we are concerned with the impact of Asteroid A on the Noosphere and its reverberation to this day.

The resistance applied on this point by the collective memory of mankind which does not wish to remember anything about Asteroid A explains among other things, the 2300 year old controversy between Atlantologists and their detractors. But beyond literature lies the region of the unconscious as any poet worth his salt well knows. In what varied ways did Asteroid A affect the planet Earth and the History of Mankind? The Mesolithic Period, the 5000 years following the beginning of the Holocene, which by the way, coincides with the impact of Asteroid A, was an age literally of darkness and of recovery. Darkness because for an unknown period of time, which has been calculated at upwards of two thousand years, a dark mass of volcanic ash hung over the Northern Hemisphere, which the ancient Greeks knew as ‘the night of the hyperboreans ’. The gloomy light of this northern mist must have had some sort of effect on the mood of the people who inhabited that part of the world (perhaps this is the reason why they ‘bleached white’ becoming ‘the white race’?). The population must have greatly declined after the catastrophe which came to be known as ‘the deluge’ due to the sustained precipitation after the evaporated sea water from such momentous submarine volcanism had fallen back as rain water for a period much longer than the proverbial forty days, one would surmise. Be it as it may, it took humanity nearly 5000 years to recuperate, perhaps to get to the point where culture was left off in 10498 BP. Around 5100 BP we see the rise of urban civilization for better or for worse because certain innocence was lost when walled cities appeared; if we are to quote the poet:

‘Something there is that doesn’t love a wall…’ ‘Before I built a wall I’d ask to know What I was walling in or walling out…’ (Mending Wall, by Robert Frost)

Perhaps the wall symbolizes the trauma… for we have been building walls ever since.


The Spiral

The Spiral of History is its converging movement, resolving itself in a synthesis after a long experience of trial and error, Political History looking for the perfect formula between personal freedom and public administration. It could be happening now, the flowering of the past 5000 years of political experimentation. Historical experience compressed by an implosion and resolved into its simplest manifestations: simple councils of self-government by free men without bureaucracy or political parties. As people become more conscious, or educated if you will, they will want to be in syntony with each other without conflict or violence. And this state of things everyone will want to recognize as the natural state of being. Harmony will seize to be an utopia when a majority of people begin to want it. Perhaps after so much violence people will begin to inquire about the mechanics of peace.

There is a danger of involution if humanity refuses to learn, a decadent regression to perversion and brutality, when the State, influenced by corporate religion, wishes to block research into the expansion of the mind. There is a need to draw a line and say : ‘a historical era has ended’, we must begin anew, try something different; new political institutions with a spiritual life that goes beyond corporate formulas into the real inner discovery, inner direction, lucidity and autonomy, with the social and political institutions that define maturity, self-government and social responsibility shared by all.

The era that began with the unification of Egypt ends today, because it is salutary that it should be so, because new beginnings are healthy. Because the theory and practice of The State has been played out and any more procrastination will further brutalize humanity beyond recovery. It is childhood’s end: if he does not leave on his maturity, the grown child could be destroyed by his parents, Corporate Religion and The Nation State.

For this is no doubt the greatest of all psychohistorical problems: renewal. Some people will say: ‘who wants renewal, renewal is risky…’ ‘We will lose control’…there are some things that cannot be explained… they have to be experienced, people come into them, sometimes after catastrophe has hit them. I have already said in my book La Huerta del Macehual that public administration should be returned to the people… That little by little in a peaceful and democratic way, public office should be accessible to individuals bearing a card that contains in a microchip the sum of their abilities and past working experience… put it in a computer in all centers of public administration and the machine will tell them in detail where is an opening for them in real time where they can find work and be paid by the hour in any branch of public administration. Of course the mechanics of the system will have to be worked out by people who understand public administration, demography,


economics and so forth‌ And it will work when people have arrived at the junction of consciousness, education and shared social responsibility. I believe that we are nearly there, all we have to do is make this project public knowledge in such a way that everyone will want to participate in it spontaneously as a shared endeavor that will free us all from history.


PART THREE The Spiral: El Sue単o Florido

Paleoethnobotany

The spiral is a recurrent symbol in megalithic temples from Malta to Ireland. It is the Entheogenic symbol of the psychic continuum, of the passage between spheres of existence and parallel worlds. The use of The Sacred Entheogens was a common occurrence in late Pleistocene times. It was the central event at the temples of Gobekli Tepe, the Hypogeum of Malta and Newgrange in Ireland. The spirals at the entrance door to the passage corridors of these temples symbolized the psychic continuum of the experience of death and of Entheogenic experience that took place in the central chamber; these were parallel experiences that the ancients knew to be equivalent: The Little Death and the Great Voyage through The Portal. This is the reason why these temples were both temples and tombs.


The figure of The Sleeping Lady was recovered from the main chamber at the Hypogeum of Malta and may represent an Out of Body Experience while in Entheogenic trance and could be related to oracular functions. It is also possible that these temples are far older than they are supposed to be and that we should place all Megalithic Architecture before 10 498 BP. Men were different after that date, culture changed, perhaps that is the reason why Gobekli Tepe was deliberately filled with ruble sometime after 10 000 BP; they were ‘burying the past’ so to speak, after The Great Pleistocene Terminal Event. Social organization had changed and the cosmological outlook had changed.

Chronology in prehistory is very important to determine the cultural sequence. That is why civil and ecclesiastical authorities should not interfere with the work of archeologists or historians in an attempt to censure or suppress knowledge. In Malta, at the beginning of the XX century, the civil and ecclesiastical authorities conspired to destroy evidence of the antiquity of the megalithic civilization there ( Philip Coppens ). Most interestingly they


effaced the figure of a bison, an animal that became extinct in Europe around 10 000 BP, from the walls in one of the chambers of The Hypogeum. They also disappeared the work of Immanuel Magri in 1907, the investigator who spent two years working at the Hypogeum. What were they seeking to protect, the validity of the Judeo-Christian tradition?

A hundred years later we are still struggling against self-censure, passivity, complacency and immobility within the academic community and with retrograde authorities who want to shore up the Judeo-Christian tradition from the advancement of knowledge.

At the end of the Pleistocene there was a land bridge between Africa and Europe that went right through Malta and connected that island with Sicily and Italy. The geography and the climate of the world were much different and the people most have been very different, living in a world of plenty with temperate climates. They were civilized, no doubt about it. If we cannot imagine how or reconstruct their world from the little evidence we have it does not mean that we are going to accept the indifference of the scientific community on this subject. We must use our vision to see and understand their culture from what we know of prehistory, early Neolithic civilizations and the lives of aboriginal people in more recent times. We can be certain that late Pleistocene men carried out Entheogenic rites in their temples, like the Celtic Druids did, that included travelling along the psychic continuum through an spiraling vortex of light into unimagined worlds of the spirit that revealed to them the unfathomable forces of nature that surrounded their fantastic world of mega fauna and gigantic ice walls. ( See Cambridge Encyclopedia of Archeology and Peter T. Furst: Entheogens and Culture )

The Maya, The Hindu, The Sumerians, The Egyptians, even The Greeks remembered a world before The Deluge. These late Pleistocene people were giants compared to post diluvia humanity. If there was a mega fauna there were probably large human beings to go with it, those megaliths seem large to us today but they did not seem large to our ancestors in the late Pleistocene, at least they could handle them and place them in extraordinary fashion to build remarkable constructions like the Hypogeum of Malta and the temples of Gobekli Tepe. They must have been over seven feet on the average, the men, and the women over six feet. They lived in large communal houses made of wood as Plato says, like the Vikings did and the natives of British Columbia.


They were big and powerful, these homo sapiens diluvialis, and they could move huge monoliths, (Baalbek). They were very intelligent and they might have had an urban civilization that is lying at the bottom of the sea; that the scientific community has the responsibility to explore. They could have come from the west into western Europe and not from Africa as was previously thought. Between 20 000 and 10 000 years ago the climate in Western Europe was similar to that of Siberia today whereas at that time, the large islands of the Atlantic ocean: Bahamas, Cuba and Atlantis and the peninsulas of Florida and Yucatan enjoyed a mild semi tropical climate and must have been very fertile and were larger than they are today. These were the centers of a civilization in the late Pleistocene that radiated East into western Europe, to the valley of the Dordogne, Malta and Gobekli Tepe in Turkey.…

As I described it in my book Teonanacatl, our late Pleistocene ancestors held Entheogenic Rites for thousands of years ( Soleki in Furst: The Mousterian tombs in Shanidar, Syria ). They were not afraid to explore the phenomenon of death because to them it was an everyday occurrence . Like The Olmecs who would sit in a circle and let a jaguar out of a stone cage to see whom it would chose to eat… and in this way the Olmecs practiced selfcontrol. Our ancestors would enter into trances and visit parallel worlds. That is what happened in the Hypogeum of Malta and at the round temples of Gobekli Tepe.

Yet with time, The Entheogenic Experience was refined until it produced the theology of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, The founding Father of The Western World.

El Sueño Florido

The Phenomenon of Illumination is the awakening of consciousness. It is the vision of Telesis, of the formal interrelationship between all the elements of nature viewed as a personal experience within a spiritual phenomenon. The person that experiences this vision changes with it, as his soul or her soul, it is the same thing in metaphysical terms, explores the confines of identity and moves beyond the boundaries of the body to identify with that unitary vision of Telesis that helps us find our place in this world, indeed in the Universe. This is a profoundly emotional experience that involves the totality of our beings until the ‘I’ disappears within the experience of Illumination.


This is indeed a lonely journey; Akhenaten was trying to go back to a time when there were no gods; not Amon, not Aton but the Spiral and the journey through The Portal, The Flower of Illumination. Perhaps this is why The Toltecs called the experience of Illumination, El Sueño Florido, in Nahuatl Temixoch. And Xochipilli was the protective divinity, the embodiment of the experience that flowered into consciousness. For Akhenaten, the Sun, Aton, was the sole divinity that shed light on the living world and on the joy of life, our life, to live with open eyes, with clarity and truth, in the spirit of Maat which was to him impeccability of action, love and ethical consciousness. Akhenaten was a contemporary of the poets who wrote The Rig-Veda. And their time was one of momentous spiritual radiation, even reaching to our own time, for Akhenaten inspired Moses just as the Rig-Vedas led to the Upanishads, The Isa Upanishad: ‘Behold the universe in the glory of God: and all that lives and moves on earth. Leaving the transient find joy in the Eternal: set not your heart on another’s possessions…’ ‘He moves, and he moves not. He is far and he is near. He is within all, and he is outside all. Who sees all beings in his own self, and his own self in all beings, loses all fear.’ ‘The Spirit filled all with his radiance. He is incorporeal and invulnerable, pure and untouched by evil. He is the supreme seer and thinker, immanent and transcendent. He placed all things in the path of Eternity.’ (from the Issa Upanishad circa 2800 years before the present, Penguin Classics edition, 1965).

AKHENATEN’S HYMN TO ATON Though appearest beautifully on the horizon of heaven, Thou living Aton, the beginning of life! When thou are risen on the eastern horizon, Thou hast filled every land with thy beauty. Thou are gracious, great, glistening, and high over every land; Thy rays encompass the lands too… all that thou hast made: As thou art Re, thou reachest to the end of them; Though thou art in their faces, no one knows thy going.

When thou settest in the western horizon,


The land is in darkness, in the manner of death. They sleep in a room with heads wrapped up, Nor see one eye the other. All their goods which are under their heads might be stolen, (But) they would not perceive (it). Every lion is come forth from his den; All creeping things, they sting. Darkness is a shroud, and the earth is in stillness, For he who has made them rests in the horizon.

At daybreak when thou arises on the horizon, When thou shinest as the Aten by day, Thou drivest away the darkness and givest thy rays. The two lands are in festivity every day, Awake and standing upon (their) feet, For thou hast raised them up. Washing their bodies, taking (their) clothing, Their arms are (raised) in praise at thy appearance. All the world, they do their work.

All beasts are content with their pasturage; Trees and plants are flourishing. The birds which fly from their nests, Their wings are (stretched out)) in praise of thy ka. All beasts spring upon (their) feet.


Whatever flies and alights, They live when thou hast risen (for) them. The ships are sailing north and south as well, For every way is opened at thy appearance. The fish in the river dart before thy face; The rays are in the midst of the great green sea.

Creator of seed in women, Thou who makest fluid into man, Who mantainest the son in the womb of his mother, Who soothest him with that which stills his weeping, Thou nurse (even) in the womb, Who givest breath to sustain all that he has made! When he descends from the womb to breath On the day when he is born, Thou openest his mouth completely, Thou suppliest his necessities. When the chick in the egg speaks within the shell, Thou givest him breath within it to maintain him. When thou has made him his fulfillment with in the egg, to Break it, He comes forth from the egg to speak at his completed (time); He walks upon his legs when he comes forth from it.

How manifold it is, what thou hast made!


They are hidden from the face of (man), O sole God like whom there is no other! Thou didst create the world according to thy desire, While thou wert alone: All men, cattle, and wild beasts, Whatever is on earth going upon (its) feet, And what is on high, flying with its wings.

The rays suckle every meadow. When thou risest, they live, they grow for thee. Thou makest the seasons in order to rear all that thou hast made, The winter to cool them, And the heat that they may taste thee. Thou hast made the distant sky in order to rise therein, In order to see all that thou dost make. Whilst thou wert alone, Rising in the form of the living Aten, Appearing, shining, withdrawing, or approaching, Thou madest millions of forms of thyself alone. Cities, towns, fields, road and riverEvery eye beholds thee over against them, For thou art the Atem of the day over the earth‌.

Thou art in my heart, And there is no other that knows thee


Save thy son Neferkheperure Waenre, For thou hast made him well versed in thy plans and in thy Strength. The world came into being by thy hand, According as thou hast made them. When thou hast risen they live. When thou settest they die. Thou art lifetime thy own self, For one lives (only) through thee. Eyes are (fixed) on beauty until thou settest. All work is laid aside when thou settest in the west. (But) when (thou)) risest (again), [Everything is] made to flourish for the king…. Since thou didst found the earth And raise them up for the son, Who came forth from thy body: the King of Upper and Lower Egypt…Akhenaten… And the Chief Wife of the King…Nefertiti, living and youthful for ever and ever.

From Leonard Cottrell’s , The Penguin Book of the Lost Worlds, 1966.


THE RIG VEDA WE HAVE DRUNK THE SOMA

1 I have tasted the sweet drink of life, knowing that it Inspires good thoughts and joyous expansiveness to the Extreme, that all the gods and mortals seek it together, Calling it honey. 2 When you penetrate inside, you will know no limits, And you will avert the wrath of the gods. Enjoying Indra’s friendship (note), O drop of Soma, brings riches as a docile cow brings the yoke. 3 We have drunk the Soma; we have become immortal; We have gone to the light; we have found the gods. What can hatred and malice of a mortal do to us now, O immortal one? 4 When we have drunk you, O drop of Soma, Be good to our hearts, kind as a father to his son, thoughtful as A friend to a friend. Far-famed Soma, stretch out our lifetime So that we may live. 5 The glorious drops that I have drunk set me free in wide space. You have bound me together in my limbs as thongs bind a chariot. Let the drops protect me from the foot that stumbles and keep lameness away from me. 6 Inflame me like a fire kindled by friction; make us see far; Make us richer, better. For when I am intoxicated with you, Soma, I think myself rich. Draw near and make us thrive. 7 We would enjoy you, pressed with a fervent heart,


Like riches from a father. King Soma stretch out our lifespans As the sun stretches out the spring days. 8 King Soma, have mercy on us for our well-being. Know that we are devoted to your laws. Passion and fury are stirred up. O drop of Soma, do not hand us over to the pleasure of the enemy. 9 For you Soma are the guardian of our body; watching over men You have settled dawn in every limb (note). If we break your laws, O God, have mercy on us Like a good friend to make us better. 10 Let me join closely with my compassionate friend So that he will not injure me when I have drunk him. O lord of bay horses (note), for the Soma that is lodged in us I approach Indra to stretch out our life-span (note). 11 Weakness and diseases have gone (note); the forces of darkness have fled in terror Soma has climbed up in us, expanding. We have come to the place where they stretch out life-spans. 12 The drop that we have drunk has entered our hearts, An immortal inside mortals. O fathers, let us serve that Soma with the oblations And abide in His mercy and kindness. 13 Uniting in agreement with the fathers (note), O drop of Soma, You have extended yourself through sky and earth. Let us serve Him with an oblation; let us be masters of riches. 14 You protecting gods, speak out for us. Do not let sleep or harmful speech Seize us. Let us, always, dear to Soma, speak as men of power in the sacrificial gathering (note). 15 Soma, you give us the force of life on every side. Enter into us finding the sunlight,


Watching over men. O drop of Soma, summon your helpers and protect us before and after. ( From The Rig Veda, Penguin Classics, 1981, translated by Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty )

Notes and correlations

The Indo-Europeans known as the Aryans, not to be confused with the ‘aryans’ of Nazi folklore, migrated from the region of the Caspian Sea and the Iranian Plateau into NorthWestern India some three thousand five hundred years ago, about the time of the Pharaoh Tuthmosis III and queen Hatshepsut. Like many tribal nomads of Central Asia before and after them they were cattle breeders and horse tamers who moved about in their wagons looking for good pasture lands. They crossed the passes of the Hindu Kush into NorthWestern India around 1500 BC. All members of the tribe were familiar with amanita muscaria and other Entheogeic plants, as Gordon Wasson has pointed out ( Soma ). They performed the horse sacrifice for their god Agni and drank the sacred Soma in honor of their god Indra from whose name the word India is derived, ( it could be said that the national emblem of Mexico, the Eagle and the Serpent is of Entheogenic origin, a symbol of spiritual liberation, as the Aztec knights of The Eagle held Entheogenic rites at their sanctuary in Malinalco, under the auspices of Quetzalcoatl, The Plumed Serpent, and Xochipilli, the god of flowers and sacred plants, who were the tutelary deities of the rites The Temixoch).

The Horse Sacrifice of the Aryans and the drinking of the Soma were the two principal rites celebrated in The Rig Veda. I have myself eaten The Sacred Mushrooms, psilosibe Mexicana, with the Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca, and can testify that the Vedic Hymn to the god Soma is a beautiful and faithful rendering in poetry of Entheogenic Experience as I experienced it and wrote in my book Teonanacatl. I could say the same thing about The Tibetan Book of The Dead which describes the passage through The Portal into the Bardo Plain, ( Teonanacatl p. 67, note 20).

1 ( Verse 2 ) The god Indra was the tutelary deity of Entheogenic Rites. He was the personification of human wholeness and spiritual unity; of the reconstructed and born again self, thus of liberation; like Quetzalcoatl, Osiris, Dionysus and Christ.


2 ( Verse 5 ) The chariot of Akhenaten and the chariot of the Aryan heroes, like that of Achilles most have looked alike: light, with spiked wheels, drawn by two horses, ( Romila Thapar, A history of India. Penguin, p. 42 ), This image of a chariot has helped me to place the date of the Vedic Hymn, We have drunk the Soma around the XIII or XII century B.C., The Age of Akhenaten and Moses.

Akhenaten in his war chariot, his image defaced by his enemies.

3 ( Verse 7 ) The phrase, ‘stretch our life-spans’, repeated throughout the Hymn refers to the general feeling and appreciation on the part of the participant on the rite of a recuperated self, possessor of recovered and expanded faculties, that if well nurtured will help prolong life This phrase clearly suggests the origin of Yoga… which was a science designed to PRESERVE not attain Illumination, AFTER HAVING PARTAKEN OF THE SACRED PLANT. Throughout the centuries the ancient Arhats, ascetics and teachers of Yoga developed this science to help men preserve a spiritual resonance acquired while in communion with the god during the taking of Soma. The art of preserving and extending the duration of all the virtues attained during the gathering and the interpretation of the many experiences that compose the inner structure of a renovated self ( See Teonanacatl pp. 60-70 ). 4 ( Verse 9 ) The phrase, ‘ you have settled dawn in every limb ‘ refers to the somatic changes experienced in the body while the special alkaloid of the plant is enhancing neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system and specially in the brain. Not


surprisingly the medical term Teonanacatl pp. 60-70 ).

soma was derived from the Entheogen Soma. ( See

5 ( Verse 10 ) ‘ bay horses’ were apparently much admired by the Aryan bards who composed The Rig Veda and this is another clue that places our hymn in the early nomadic pre-urban face of Aryan history in North-Western India more than three thousand years ago. ( Thapar, op.cit. ) 6 ( Verse 11 ) ‘ weakness and diseases have gone’ . Entheogenic experience may clarify many psychosomatic syndromes liberating the body and the mind of certain illnesses. This author experienced the improvement of his eyesight and other beneficent changes. 7 / Verse 13 ) ‘ Uniting in agreement with the fathers’ . This expression is very important because it establishes a continuity in time with all the generations past and present from Gobekli Tepe to the present passing through Akhenaten and the Rig Veda; constituting in effect a veritable psychohistorical noumena being this, Entheogenic Experience, the fountainhead of religious inspiration throughout the ages ( See Teonanacatl, Author’s Note p. IV, The Source ). 8 ( Verse 14 ) ‘in the sacrificial gathering’. It is my belief that Aryans, because they had been or still were nomads at the time on The Rig Veda, gathered together in places that suggested to them the power of Nature, of mother Earth; and forming a circle, seated on the ground, passed around the Soma in the sacred kukeon, which had been previously prepared in the traditional way with the sacred implements, the stones and mortars used for pressing the plant. In Greek times the sacred crucible, The Kukeon, contained mint, claviceps purpurea, honey and water. ( Gordon Wasson, The road to Eleusis ).

Was Akhenaten trying to liberate Egypt from the theocratic power of the priests of Amon? Was he unconsciously trying to recuperate the spiritual freedom that homo sapiens diluvialis enjoyed at the temples of Gobekli Tepe? We do not know the exact sequence of events after Akhenaten’s death. How many people remained loyal to the vision of Akhenaten after his death? Were some of his followers, the Habiru of Pi-Ramses, taken by Moses into the desert?

Strabo, the Greek historian, geographer and philosopher of the first century of our era is one of the ancient non-jewish writers who mentions Moses with reverence in his Geography (24 A.D. ). He writes that Moses was an Egyptian priest who had political control of an area east of The Delta of The Nile, ( Pi-Ramses? ) and was dissatisfied with the current political institutions. He left Egypt followed by a large body of people. Moses wrote Strabo referring to his religious ideas, believed that The Divinity should have no


human or animal representation, for God according to Moses: ‘May be this One Thing that encompass us all: land, sea, the heavens, the universe and the nature of things…’, very close to the theology of Akhenaten. The historicity of Moses is an extremely difficult subject because one has to contend with a multiplicity of literary sources but no archeological or contemporary textual or paleographic evidence. There are biblical, rabbinical, Christian and Islamic sources, ( Moses is mentioned more than 500 times in the Koran ), not to mention contemporary critical historiography. On the other hand there is no doubt about the historicity of Akhenaten of whom we have a large selection of paleographic evidence in sculpture, reliefs, hieroglyphic inscriptions and tomb paintings.

There were many Semitic and non-Semitic people living east of the Nile delta, for several centuries since the time of the Hyksos, 3800 years BP, Semitic refugees established themselves in the area of Pi-Ramses until there emerged a border culture half Semitic and half Egyptian to which Moses very easily could have belonged so that the people that he led out of Egypt were not completely Semitic and could have been partisans of Akhenaten, people who left Egypt after some civil strife of which there is an echo in The Bible story of Exodus.

The monotheism of the Jews did not necessarily have to come from Moses but rather from a nucleus of emigrants who already possessed a monotheistic world view that was later superimposed to the polytheistic Habiru Bedouin tribes who worshiped the mother goddess Acera and a volcanic-teluric deity named Yahwe. They did not have the intellectual resources to design a new theology nor did they have a political motive or the urge for union, nor the need to produce a politico-religious synthesis. But Moses did. Was he a follower of Akhenaten? Was Moses Akhenaten? We know that the period between Akhenaten’s death and the reign of Ramses II was one of insecurity and strife, possibly of civil war between the followers of Akhenaten Theology of love and the soldiers, merchants and priests who favoured the god Amon and imperialist policy of general Horemheb. We should consider that Aye and Horemheb, the successors of Akhenaten, reverted to the worship of Amon. And as Sigmund Freud suggests in his book, Moses and Monotheism (pp. 62-69), out of the pact of Quadesh in the desert, the Hebrew tribes emerged with the new monotheism designed by Moses and adapted from the theology of Akhenaten.


The idea that Moses and Akhenaten are one and the same person proposed by Ahmed Osman in his book Moses and Akhenaten seems to me fantastic. It would solve many problems indeed and revolutionize the history of religion but it does not seem probable. The date for Akhenaten’s death has been given as 1334 B.C.. Osman’s thesis is that he did not die in 1334 B.C. but was exiled to north-eastern Egypt were he had relatives through his mother, Queen Tiye , and there stroke an alliance with the Semitic elements of the population and persuaded them to leave Egypt; whereas the date for the Exodus is variously believed to have fallen anywhere between 1298 and 1232 B.C., during the reign of Ramses II. Much would be gained in this debate if the mummy of Akhenaten were to be found and his probable age at the moment of his death established. The fact that his body has not been found leaves ground for a lot of speculation. ( The body in tomb KV 55 has not been positively identified as being that of Akhenaten since it corresponds to a younger man, aged 25, who is believed to be his son Smenkhkare ).

The central idea behind the desire to link Akhenaten and Moses beyond the obvious one suggested by Freud that Moses must have been an Egyptian nearly contemporaneous to Akhenaten, is that the fountain head of monotheism is One and the same; that is, The Phenomena Of Illumination. An individual has contact with The Source and he renders his message in contemporary language within the context of a specific culture, be this culture Egyptian or proto-Judaic. Moses delivered his message, so did Akhenaten. That Moses was influenced by Akhenaten there is no doubt in my mind but that they were the same person is entirely a different matter; no doubt a very attractive proposition involving much historical research and hard evidence that unfortunately has not been forthcoming. Yet the possibility cannot be excluded, for this is the very purpose of historical investigation; for one thing is what we know and another thing is what was, things not yet perceived by menthe noumena of History.

These are psychohistorical moments, when the cross currents of political and religious history meet in one man who operates a great religious synthesis. During special periods of tension ideological forces come into conflict and must be resolved. Thus new visions of the world are created and new interpretations of The Divine are met with and transmitted with varying success.

Akhenaten did just that out of his own original reality in the special political context that he lived. He was the son of Amenophis III, a many sided, athletic and outstanding man, who had already tried to reconcile the rival theologies of Heliopolis and Thebes, of Aton and Amon with the need for an imperial ideology, a unifying superstructure for the Egyptian


Empire that spread from Nubia to Syria and was created by his ancestor, Tuthmosis III, and which he visualized under the benevolent protection of Aton. Akhenaten, his son, ( Amenophis IV ), was an inspired man who combined many complex physical, intellectual, ethical and spiritual natures that led him to produce a remarkable politico-religious synthesis unique in world history, a vision of The Divinity infused with the miracle of beauty and the joy of life and love in great contrast with the violence of the patriarchal world which is still acting upon us today. He operated such a vast synthesis that he must have experienced a moment of satori, a comprehensive vision. He was a talented man who was the leader of an artistic revolution in culture and art, and a spiritual visionary. His psychohistorical resonance is such that he is still a popular figure today; who has achieved an immortality of sorts, must be the envy of all the other Pharaohs, including Ramses II his close competitor…So much has been written and said about him and his lovely wife, Nefertiti, that out of an affectionate respect for them both I will say no more.

Akhenaten had six daughters, he was probably a biological hermaphrodite, and in antiquity hermaphrodites were sacred because it was thought that hermaphroditism was a symbol of the dual perfection of God as it combined both masculine and feminine in perfect proportions ( there is a wonderful image of this in Federico Fellini’s film, Satyricon, of an albino hermaphrodite child, or ‘semi-dio’, who is stolen from a sanctuary by two covetous rogues.)

Plato presents us with a different interpretation in the Symposium. Through the voice of the dramatist Aristophanes, one of the participants in the dialogue, Plato sees, rather, in the longing and coming together of the proverbial separated halves into which we, ungrateful arrogant mortals, were reduced by the gods, an idealization of homosexual love raised to a ‘virile, spiritual communion’, to quote the words of the dramatist.

It would seem that the love between Akhenaten and Nefertiti, that produced six daughters, was an ecstatic orgasmic love between male and female parts that led to a shared vision of The Divinity, and that it inspired the royal couple’s reformist ideas. And here we see the complexity of being expressed in the dissolution of identity were male and female disappear in a carnal union of joyful celebration of life in union with all beings: men, animals and plants in humble recognition of the Sublime, in a true sacralization of erotic love. Akhenaten and Nefertiti wanted to symbolize that to their people. Perhaps this is the reason why they were not afraid to show themselves naked in public, to show their affection in public almost to the point of coitus, and urged their artists to commemorate their love in painting and sculpture in realistic detail; to communicate to mankind the


radiance and the warmth of the Sun as the One god, and to celebrate their love of life. This became the Hymn of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, their legacy to us.

The Judeo-Christian western world has underestimated the theological importance of Akhenaten’s message. His understanding of the sacred dimension of eroticism has only a parallel in Hindu philosophy and Yoga. It was only until the arrival of psychoanalysis and the literary art of David Herbert Lawrence ( Lady Chatterley’s Lover ), that western culture, after two thousand years of Christianity, discovered the spiritual dimension of eroticism without guilt, the fundamental equality between the sexes facing the act of love, the spiritual awakening into the beauty of the world motivated by orgasmic release when love is an art practiced by sensitive beings who interact constructively, creatively as Erich From suggested in his Art of Love. In this sense is Akhenaten very modern and perhaps this is the basis of his appeal to the younger generations of today.


THE  METHOD  OF  PSYCHOHISTORY    

An  ongoing  project    Philip  Conover  Lazo  

   

  THE  CONCEPT  OF  PSYCHOHISTORY   The   concept   of   psychohistory   refers   to   a   series   of   reflections   on   the   nature   of   History   that   have   been  taking  place  since  antiquity  inspired  first  by  philosophy  and  ethics  and  in  more  recent  times   by  psychology  and  anthropology.  The  Republic  of  Plato,  The  Politics  of  Aristotle,  The  philosophy  of   Confucius,  The  Utopia  of  Thomas  More  and  Machiavelli’s  The  Prince  are  examples  of  these  ideas.   From  the  XX  century  onwards  the  development  of  psychology  and  psychoanalysis  awoke  a  number   of   interdisciplinary   reflections   that   when   combined   with   certain   philosophical   and   ethical   considerations   arising   from   a   reflection   on   the   special   brutality   and   general   degradation   in   the   decline   of   politics   that   lead   into   genocide   and   war   during   the   XX   century,   have   inspired   certain   thinkers   in   the   necessity   of   expanding   historical   analysis   with   an   interdisciplinary   approach.   And   here  the  development  of  psychoanalysis  has  been  crucial  as  well  as  a  knowledge  of  anthropology   and  prehistory.   It   is   in   order   to   save   ourselves   from   ourselves   that   such   an   interdisciplinary   approach   has   been   necessary.   Self-­‐knowledge   was   the   original   purpose   of   Philosophy   as   well   as   the   very   origin   of   ethics.   From   Pleistocene   times   the   use   of   entheogenic   plants   led   to   the   refinement   of   language.   Expanded  awareness  necessitated  clear  elocution.  The  discovery  of  formal  relationships  between   the   elements   of   nature   led   to   new   discoveries,   to   practical   applications   of   these   discoveries   which   in  turn  led  to  new  language,  to  the  elaboration  of  new  words  to  describe  new  functions.   Such  is  psychohistory,  it  is  a  new  tool.  

 

  THE  METHOD  OF  PSYCHOHISTORY   The   purpose   of   the   method   of   psychohistory   is   to   organize   certain   insights   derived   from   the   association   of   historical   events,   or   even   current   political   events,   with   their   phenomenological   relation  in  time-­‐space  and  known  psychological  realities.  And  as  we  mention  phenomenology  we   should  define  what  phenomenological  logic  is.   Phenomenological   Origin   as   Edmund   Husserl   defined   it   in   his   Pure   Phenomenology   and   Investigations  in  Logic  refers  to  Noema  (noumena  as  in  Kant),  nous  or  noos,  mind  in  Greek,  which   is   a   thing   in   itself,   extant   in   time-­‐space,   independent   of   the   human   mind,   different   from   perception  or  a  psychological  event,  or  from  phenomena  as  an  object  described  by  man.   Then,   to   approximate   Psychohistorical   Noumena,   we   would   have   to   use   an   interdisciplinary   approach:  


As  an  example  we  shall  take  a  Noumena  from  contemporary  politics:  gun  control.   What   would   a   gun   be?   In   terms   of   psychohistorical   duration   in   time-­‐space   (from   Brentano’s   “psychology  of  intentionality”  and  Bergson’s  concept  of  historical  duration)  a  gun  is  an  extension   of  the  arm,  a  continuation  of  the  historical  function  of  the  sword  and  the  poignard.  But  like  them  a   gun  is  in  psychological  terms  an  unconscious  extension  of  the  male  penis  and  with  it  men  define   territoriality  and  power.  Here  we  should  note  that  territoriality  is  an  anthropological  concept  and   that  power  is  a  political  idea.  So  that  in  psychohistorical  terms  a  gun  becomes  a  phallocratic  tool   that  expresses  territoriality  and  power.   As  in  the  sphere  of  individuals  so  in  the  domain  of  nations:  guns  are  used  to  assert  supremacy  and   power.  Internationally,  guns,  in  terms  of  world  culture  (following  Marshall  McLuhan,  The  Medium   is  the  Message)  and  the  very  existence  of  arms,  signify  war.  And  here  is  a  case  in  point:  Guns  are  a   Noumena,   a   thing   in   themselves,   independent   of   men,   they   ARE   war.   Or   rather   they   are   the   expression   of   “I   will   punish   you   if   you   do   not   do   as   I   want”   (“A   child   is   being   punished”   in   On   Psychopathology   from   Sigmund   Freud;   Wilhelm   Stekel:   Sadism   and   Masochism).   Also   in   the   psychopathology   of   violent   crime   involving   guns   and   murder   there   is   a   strong   element   of   repressed   homosexuality   as   in   gang   warfare   (e.g.   la   Mara   Salvatrucha,   the   brownshirts   of   Eric   Rohm   vs.   Himmler’s   Gestapo   or   the   tragic   murder   in   Kansas   described   by   Truman   Capote   in   his   novel  In  Cold  Blood,  a  clear  case  of  repressed  homosexuality  between  the  two  murderers).     So  that  gun  control  to  the  ultraconservatives  in  the  United  States  signifies  castration.  This  is  why   you   see   such   hysterical   reactions   to   the   possibility   that   a   law   banning   guns   might   literally   do   away   with  their  penises  (see,  e.g.,  Piers  Morgan’s  interview  with  an  anti-­‐gun  control  fanatic  in  a  recent   CNN   television   program).2   The   whole   question   of   gun   control   is   a   psychohistorical   problem   that   has  tremendous  implications  for  the  future  welfare  of  humanity.   This   reaction   to   gun   control   in   the   United   States   is   part   of   the   ‘fort   apache’   complex,   another   psychohistorical   phenomenon   that   has   to   do   with   collective   paranoia   and   supremacist   phallocracy   in   which   large   sectors   of   the   American   public   see   themselves   threatened   by   the   outside   world,   particularly   by   the   United   Nations   and   ‘hostile’   countries   that   allegedly   possess   atomic   bombs.   Also   part   of   this   syndrome   is   the   fear   of   certain   conservative   elements   of   the   population   of   a   threat   by   the   ‘native’   populations   of   the   world.   This   syndrome   contains   a   certain   element   of   it   even   of   themselves   by   the   ‘native   populations´   they   have   harmed   in   the   past   is   an   unconscious   psychological   possibility;   so   that   it   is   particularly   offensive   and   threatening   that   a   ‘black   man’,   President  Obama,  wants  to  take  away  their  guns.  

                                                                                                                        2

         

 Interview  available  at  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtyKofFih8Y  (last  visit,  February  23,  2013).  


Part  two     War  after  War          April  22,  2013       The  Boston  Marathon…  Two  Chechen  brothers,  a  little  American  boy,  a  Chinese  girl,  an  American   girl  and  many  more  victims…  A  psychohistorical  tragedy  with  world  reverberations.   Reverberations  of  the  War  in  Chechnya?   The   intentionality   of   murderers   is   aleatory,   they   might   take   out   their   anger   on   anyone,   the   contagiousness  of  violence  is  a  shock  wave  that  stays  in  space  around  us,  no  one  is  immune  to  it,  it   saddens   almost   everyone.   The   etiology   of   violence   is   multiple,   but   perhaps   its   most   pernicious   cause  is  in  the  alteration  of  personality  as  a  perversion.  Violence  can  be  induced  as  the  ideology  of   hatred.   Who   perverts   the   most,   the   politician   full   of   hatred   or   the   religious   ideologue   who   transfers  his  own  hatred  to  the  minds  of  the  young?  Where  does  responsibility  lie?   Violence  generates  more  violence,  and  guns  and  bombs  are  its  agents.  Guns  and  bombs  are  not   merely  inanimate  objects.  The  tremendous  energy  needed  to  manufacture  a  single  gun  is  inherent   in  it.  It  is  potential  energy  and  we  transfer  our  psychological  projections  to  them.  In  moments  of   great  stress  the  very  availability  of  guns  can  tip  the  balance  from  ire  to  tragedy.  Even  a  knife  can   become  a  deadly  weapon  any  moment.  Just  as  you  don’t  leave  a  sharp  knife  around  children  you   should   not   exhibit   machine   guns   in   store   racks.   What   is   the   purpose   of   this,   are   you   commercializing  paranoia?  It  is  a  dangerous,  obscene  and  irresponsible  commerce  that  should  be   outlawed.   It   is   the   sickness   in   culture,   a   culture   of   violence,   a   cult   of   violence.   A   supremacist   culture   that   imposes  its  power  through  the  cult  of  violence;  be  it  class  warfare  or  hatred  of  pacifists,  or  as  in   the   case   of   religious   hatred   of   infidels   (the   Chechen   brothers)…   They   all   lead   to   the   same   thing:   WAR.   Nothing   good   has   come   out   of   hatred,   notwithstanding   the   platitudes   of   the   purveyors   of   hatred,  the  golden  rule  is  still  valid:  ‘Do  unto  others  as  you  would  wish  to  be  done  unto  you’.  It  still   stands  today:   It  is  the  discipline  of  compassion,  self-­‐  control  and  moderation.   The  culture  of  violence  should  not  be  encouraged.  It  starts  at  home  with  the  toleration  of  ire  and   the  adulation  of  violence  and  the  cult  of  guns.  A  supremacist  culture  requires  this.  The  nations  of   the  world  united  in  their  international  forums  should  not  permit  this.  Peace  should  be  the  culture   of   the   World,   no   matter   how   utopian   it   sounds   today,   it   is   the   way   to   universal   consciousness   and   enlightenment.    


The  Method  of  Psychohistory     The   diversity   of   cultures   and   of   historical   experience,   of   varied   and   contrasting   anthropological   environments   cannot   be   denied.   Humanity   speaks   different   languages   which   are   learning   processes,  implanted  on  a  biological  foundation,  in  vocal  cords  that  produce  different  sounds.   The  Chinese  civilization,  the  Egyptian  civilization  and  Mayan  culture  are  three  very  clear  examples   of   differentiated   psychohistorical   experiences   evolved   from   the   Pleistocene   and   later   Neolithic   cultures.   There   is   a   continuity   of   human   evolution   in   Northern   China   from   Pekin   man   to   the   earliest   cultures   of   the   Yellow   River   rooted   to   the   soft,   rich   loess   of   the   land.   The   migration   of   the   people   of   the   Sahara   at   the   end   of   the   Mesolithic   Period   into   the   fertile   valley   of   the   Nile,   the   spread  of  Olmec  civilization  from  its  central  core  in  the  Gulf  Coast  of  Mexico  into  the  high  valleys   of   Oaxaca,   Chiapas   and   Guatemala   was   a   learning   process   in   new   climates   and   environments,   also   a  linguistic  achievement  evidenced  in  hieroglyphs  and  architecture.   This   is   dynamic   human   psychic   evolution   molded   by   historical   events:   The   Shang   Dynasty,   the   unification   of   Egypt   by   Nemes,   the   arrival   of   the   Teotihuacan   ambassador,   Fire-­‐is-­‐born   at   Tikal,   (378  A.D.)  ,  were  all  linguistic  achievements  of  the  first  order.  The  Spanish  Conquest  of  Mexico  and   the   Norman   Conquest   of   England   were   intense   formative   periods   that   produced   entirely   new   cultures  from  what  had  been  before,  and  this  is  a  true  psychohistorical  event,  in  the  anvil  of  the   collective  mind,  suffering  profound  transformation.   The   structural   logic   of   language   studied   by   philology   and   linguistics   corresponds   to   the   first   mnemonic  effort  implicit  in  early  formative  poetry  like  the  charming  Canterbury  Tales  of  Chaucer   or  the  delicious  poetry  of  Sor  Juana  Inés  de  la  Cruz.  In  a  way  these  works  of  art  reveal  traces  of  a   broad  psychohistorical  synthesis  that  is  operating  in  time  and  still  continues.  This  process  testifies   the  emergence  of  a  cultural  genotype  which  is  in  itself  a  psychohistorical  noumena.   This   is   the   process   of   Psychohistory,   its   Rosetta   Stone,   its   transcultural     complexities   deciphered   reveal  our  provenance  as  a  people  and  help  us  recover  our  historical  memory  from  the  ashes  of   History,  sometimes  violent  and  full  of  grief,  sometimes  sweet  and  beautiful,  constructive…  into  the   components   of   our   national   psyches,   ethnical   and   cultural   differences,   Islamic   or   Christian;     Western  or  Oriental.                


The  Noosphere     The  Noosphere  is  the  last  of  telluric  layers  after  the  atmosphere  and  the  biosphere,  visualized  by   Pierre   Teilhard   de   Chardin.   It   is   a   useful   concept   for   Psychohistory   because   it   describes   the   collective   biological   and   psychic   energy   generated   by   mankind   throughout   its   process   of   evolution   and   history   and   like   the   other   layers   it   is   subjected   to   its   own   dynamics   in   time-­‐space   and   duration.  It  forms  a  corona  with  the  other  telluric  layers  of  planetary  existence.   This   layer,   The   Noosphere,   (from   Greek:   sphaira,   sphere;   noos,   mind;   thus,   sphere   of   the   mind),   resonates   and   vibrates   with   creativity   or   destruction   depending   on   the   irrational   moods   of   the   species.  It  also  reacts  to  certain  events  that  alter  its  composition  like  great  natural  catastrophes  or   cosmic  events.   Before   we   come   to   a   description   of   contemporary   psychohistorical   reality   and   its   multiple   manifestations,   it   would   be   helpful   to   trace   the   psychohistorical   events   that   have   most   contributed  to  the  formation  of  the  Noosphere.  To  recuperate  the  Historical  Memory  of  what  was;   to   see   again   the   mysterious   panorama   of   the   great   megalithic   centers   at   the   end   of   the   Pleistocene…   to   contemplate   again   the   stupendous   cosmic   tragedy   of   the   fall   of   The   Great   Asteroid   that   fractured   the   Earth   and   drew   forth   magma   from   Iceland   to   Puerto   Rico   and   changed   the  face  of  the  Earth  forever.  This  we  will  designate  The  Great  Pleistocene    Terminal  Event  or  GPTE     from  its  initials.       Paleoclimatology     Terminations:   (Cambridge   Encyclopaedia   of   Arqueology,   p.   53)   Rapid   Ice   Retreat.   Each   corresponds  to  a  major  rise  in  sea  level  causing  a  Marine  Transgression  in  low  laying  coastal  areas.   The  last  mayor  cold  period    -­‐  The  Full  Glacial  or  Pleniglacial,  lasted  from  about  23  000  to  14  000  BP.   The  last  10  000  years  from  8000  BP  are  known  as  The  Post  Glacial  or  Holocene.     The  Megalithic  Cultures  of  the  Late  Pleistocene     Before  we  come  to  The  Great  Pleistocene  Terminal  Event  we  would  do  well  to  describe  The     Megalithic  Cultures  of  The  Late  Pleistocene.  In  media  res,  we  come  to  Gobekli  Tepe  ,  a  most   extraordinary  archeological  site  in  south  eastern  Turkey  that  has  completely  revolutionized  our   understanding  of  Prehistory,  for  no  hunter  gatherers  constructed  this  site  at  least  they  were  no   simple  hunter  gatherers  as  previously  understood.  


The   people   who   built   Gobekli   Tepe   inhabited   a   different   frame   of   mind   from   the   simple   hunter   gatherers.   These   people   were   motivated   by   cultural   phenomena   of   a   different   order.   To   begin   with  they  possessed  a  remarkable  idea  of  architecture  in  stone  with  a  striking  sense  of  esthetics   quite   out   of   place   in   a   conventional   conception   of   late   Pleistocene   civilizations.   Those   extraordinary  pillars  in  the  shape  of  a  mushroom  are  very  abstract  and  atemporal  in  conception,   they   could   have   been   designed   by   Inhotep   for   The   Temple   complex   at   Saqqara   or   by   Pier   Luigi   Nervi   in   his   Palazzetto   dello   Sport.   They   are   a   13   000   year   old   mystery   of   a   culture   we   cannot   fully   comprehend.  Entheogenic  rites    took  place  there  under  those  mushroom  shaped  columns.   So   that   these   elegant   megalithic   structures     are   2000   years   older   than   Katal   Huyuk,   the   oldest   known   Neolithic   site.   Gobekli   Tepe,   is   nearly   13   000   years   old.   Up   to   now   twenty   similar   round   structures  have  been  found  and  many  more  are  believed  to  be  awaiting  excavation,  which  in  the   words   of   the   head   of   the   German   archeological   team   working   at   the   site,   could   take   more   than   fifty  years.       But  we  cannot  wait  fifty  years,  we  must  reach  some  conclusions  now  given  the  unsettled  nature  of   geopolitical   circumstances.   So   we   must   draw   intelligent   conclusions   and   carry   on   with   our   reconstruction   of   Prehistory   over   and   beyond   the   passivity   and   political   procrastination   of   the   scientific  community  on  this  subject,  or  is  it  the  desire  of  the  western  establishment  to  suppress   anything   that   threatens   the   validity   of   the   Judeo-­‐Christian   tradition?   There   will   always   be   exceptions,   and   we   wish   to   remember   here   the   great   names   in   recent   Middle   Eastern   archeology:     James  Mellaart  and  Kathleen  Kenyon.     The   problem   of   financing   scientific   research   is   paramount;   it   is   important   to   establish   priorities.   For   instance,     some   of   the   money   spent   in   finding   the   Titanic,   then   filming   the   sinking   of   that   emblematic   boat   overloaded   with   atavism   and   full   of   dire   catastrophe,     and   now   comes   the   making  of  a  replica,  a  new  vehicle  of  morbidity  for  the  pampered  and  the  idle  in  this  latter  age  of   decadence   in   the   West,   to   tempt   again   the   fates.   Some   of   that   money   could   be   well   spent   in   exploring   and   photographing   the   Pyramids   of   Guanahacabibes   Peninsula   that   lie   a   mere   600   meters  below  the  surface  of  the  sea.   The   point   that   we   wish   to   make   is   one   that   we   feel   has   been   clearly   established   by   submarine   archeology   in   recent   times:   that   there   was   a   worldwide   Megalithic   Civilization   in   the   late   Pleistocene   that   came   abruptly   to   an   end   on   June   5,   10498   BP.   We   accept   Otto   Muck’s   date,   derived  from  a  careful  analysis  of  a  large  spectrum  of  scientific  evidence   for  this  terminal  event,  a   veritable   Noumena   of   Psychohistory,   carefully   remembered   in   the   tradition   of   Maya   astronomers.   It  is  the  oldest  Maya  date  extant  to  be  found  at  the  Temple  of  the  Sun  in  Palenque.     Other   late   Pleistocene   sites   include:   several   in   the   Bahamas   Bank   consisting   of   interminable   megalithic   walls   with   groups   of   pyramids;   specially   the   pyramids   on   the   submarine   plain   off   the   coast   of   the   Guanahacabibes   Peninsula   in   western   Cuba.   To   these   we   should   add   the   two   submarine   cities   in   the   Gulf   of   Cambay   near   the   modern   city   of   Dwarka;   the   underwater   archeological  site  in  Mahabalipuran  in  southeast  India  and  the  now  famous  underwater  pyramid   of   Yonaguni   Island   in   the   Sea   of   Japan.   There   are   also   many   megalithic   sites   around   the  


Mediterranean   whose   dating   should   be   revised.   These   include   the   megaliths   in   Tartessos   Spain;   the   Island   of   Malta,   Baalbek   in   Lebanon   and   Nevali   Cori   and   Cayonu   in   Turkey.   There   should   be   many  more  sites  on  the  submarine  plains  bordering  the  present  coast  lines  of  the  north  Atlantic,   Mediterranean  and  Indian  Oceans;  the  result  of  Glacial  Terminations  and  Marine  Transgressions;   of  eustatic  and  isostatic  processes  in  the  level  of  the  sea  and  of  tectonic  subsidence.   So  that  near  1  p.m.  June  5,  10  498  BP,  a  great  asteroid  (“Asteroid  A”),  possibly  ten  kilometers  in   diameter,  came  in  from  the  Northwest,  travelling  much  faster  than  the  Earth  herself,  penetrated   the   Earth’s   atmosphere,   caught   fire,   exploded,   broke   in   half   and   its   two   larger   segments   penetrated   the   Atlantic   Ocean   a   few   miles   north   of   the   Island   of   Puerto   Rico.   These   two   huge   masses  of  iron  ore,  like  two  cosmic  missiles,  fractured  the  Earth’s  crust  all  the  way  to  Iceland  and   precipitated   a   cataclysmic   eruption   of   lava   all   along   the   line   of   fracture   accompanied   by   a   500   meter   high   tsunami   that   swept   the   coasts   of   the   north   Atlantic   and   all   the   former   Islands   that   existed  in  that  Ocean.   We   should   visualize   that   late   Pleistocene   world   before   its   final   day,   very   different   from   our   own   in   terms  of  geography  and  climate.  For  instance,  the  peninsulas  of  Florida  and  of  Yucatan  were  twice   as  large  as  they  are  today,  the  Bahamas  Bank  was  one  big  island  the  size  of  Yucatan  and  around   the   Azores   there   was   probably   a   big   island   that   sank.   Hesitant   England   was   then   connected   to   Europe  by  a  large  sea  side  plain  through  which  flowed  the  Thames,  a  longer  Rhine  and  Loire.  Also   on  the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic  the  Hudson  and  The  Delaware  continued  to  flow  along  broader   sea  side  plains  before  they  emptied  into  the  Atlantic  Ocean  opposite  the  Island  of  Atlantis,  lost  in   memory   until   Plato   rescued   her,   had   already   given   her   name   to   that   surrounding   Ocean.   It   was   altogether   a   striking   and   beautiful   world   holding   a   veritable   kaleidoscope   of   cultures   that   we   cannot  even  begin  to  imagine  let  alone  describe…  But  we  do  have  the  image  of  Gobekli  Tepe  even   though   that   place   flourished   some   two   thousand   years   before   the   cosmic   event.   A   few   objects   have  emerged  from  the  two  sunken  cities  near  Dwarka  in  the  Bay  of  Cambay  that  show  a  level  of   culture   similar   to   that   of   Sumer.   The   sonar   photographs   of   the   architectural   complex   at   Guanahanacabibes   shows   signs   of   having   been   built   on   platforms   similar   to   those   in   Olmec   architecture  as  in  La  Venta  and  San  Lorenzo.  But  without  proper  submarine  archeological  surveys   we  cannot  have  a  more  developed  understanding  of  this  very  important  site  like  we  might  have  at   Gobekli  Tepe  if  investigations  continue.        There  have  been  interesting  observations  made  about  the  nature  of  this  world  wide  civilization.     Graham   Hancock   has   noted   in   a   recent   interview   that   this   Pleistocene   Civilization   mapped   the   then   existing   world.   There   is   a   map,   the   Piri   Reis   map,   formerly   in   the   possession   of   a   Turkish   admiral  of  that  name  who  lived    in  the  early  XVI  century.  A  map  that  shows  the  Antarctic  continent   clearly   represented   as   two   large   bodies   of   land   separated   by   a   straight.   This   knowledge   was   not   arrived  at  until  the  middle  of  the  XX  century.  We  surmise  that  the  Piri  Reis  Map  is  a  copy  of  older   maps   that   found   their   way   to   Constantinople   from   Alexandria   where   such   knowledge   was   miraculously   preserved   from   a   time   in   the   IX   millennium   before   the   present   when   the   Antarctic   was  free  of  ice  and  someone  cartographed  the  whole  continent.    


Plato   vindicated,   we   should   consider   the   terrific   psychohistorical   shock   delivered   by   Asteroid   A   on   the   collective   conscience   and   memory   of   mankind.   We   cannot   here   analyze   all   the   geological,   oceanographic   and   paleoclimatological   evidence   there   is   on   the   impact   produced   by   Asteroid   A.   The   National   Ocanic   and   Atmospheric   Administration   (“NOAA”)   and   its   Russian   equivalent   have   all   the  data  collected  by  The  Glomar  Challenger  and  The  Academician  Petrovsky,  the  oceanographic   vessels   that   conducted   extensive   research   in   the   North   Atlantic   during   the   1970’s.   This   data   has   not  been  fully  reported  and  interpreted.  Here  we  are  concerned  with  the  impact  of  Asteroid  A  on   the  Noosphere  and  its  reverberation  to  this  day.     The  resistance  applied  on  this  point  by  the  collective  memory  of  mankind  which  does  not  wish  to   remember  anything  about  Asteroid  A  explains  among  other  things,  the  2300  year  old  controversy   between   Atlantologists   and   their   detractors.   But   beyond   literature   lies   the   region   of   the   unconscious  as  any  poet  worth  his  salt  well  knows.  In  what  varied  ways  did  Asteroid  A  affect  the   planet   Earth   and   the   History   of   Mankind?   The   Mesolithic   Period,   the   5000   years   following   the   beginning   of   the   Holocene,   which   by   the   way,   coincides   with   the   impact   of   Asteroid   A,   was   an   age   literally  of  darkness  and  of  recovery.  Darkness  because  for  an  unknown  period  of  time,  which  has   been   calculated   at   upwards   of   two   thousand   years,   a   dark   mass   of   volcanic   ash   hung   over   the   Northern   Hemisphere,   which   the   ancient   Greeks   knew   as   ‘the   night   of   the   hyperboreans   ’.   The   gloomy  light  of  this  northern  mist  must  have  had  some  sort  of    effect  on  the  mood  of  the  people   who   inhabited   that   part   of   the   world   (perhaps   this   is   the   reason   why   they   ‘bleached   white’   becoming   ‘the   white   race’?).   The   population   must   have   greatly   declined   after   the   catastrophe   which  came  to  be  known  as  ‘the  deluge’  due  to  the  sustained  precipitation  after  the  evaporated   sea  water  from  such  momentous  submarine  volcanism  had  fallen  back  as  rain  water  for  a  period   much  longer  than  the  proverbial  forty  days,  one  would  surmise.  Be  it  as  it  may,  it  took  humanity   nearly  5000  years  to  recuperate,  perhaps  to  get  to  the  point  where  culture  was  left  off  in  10498   BP.  Around  5100  BP  we  see  the  rise  of  urban  civilization  for  better  or  for  worse  because  certain   innocence  was  lost  when  walled  cities  appeared;  if  we  are  to  quote  the  poet:   ‘Something  there  is  that  doesn’t  love  a  wall…’   ‘Before  I  built  a  wall  I’d  ask  to  know   What  I  was  walling  in  or  walling  out…’    (Mending  Wall,  by  Robert  Frost)   Perhaps  the  wall  symbolizes  the  trauma…  for  we  have  been  building  walls  ever  since.        


The  Spiral     The   Spiral   of   History   is   its   converging   movement,   resolving   itself   in   a   synthesis   after   a   long   experience   of   trial   and   error,   Political   History   looking   for   the   perfect   formula   between   personal   freedom   and   public   administration.   It   could   be   happening   now,   the   flowering   of   the   past   5000   years  of  political  experimentation.  Historical  experience  compressed  by  an  implosion  and  resolved   into   its   simplest   manifestations:   simple   councils   of   self-­‐government   by   free   men   without   bureaucracy  or  political  parties.  As  people  become  more  conscious,  or  educated  if  you  will,  they   will   want   to   be   in   syntony   with   each   other   without   conflict   or   violence.   And   this   state   of   things   everyone  will  want  to  recognize  as  the  natural  state  of  being.  Harmony  will  seize  to  be  an  utopia   when  a  majority  of  people  begin  to  want  it.  Perhaps  after  so  much  violence  people  will  begin  to   inquire  about  the  mechanics  of  peace.   There  is  a  danger  of  involution  if  humanity  refuses  to  learn,  a  decadent  regression  to  perversion   and  brutality,  when  the  State,  influenced  by  corporate  religion,  wishes  to  block  research  into  the   expansion   of   the   mind.   There   is   a   need   to   draw   a   line   and   say   :   ‘a   historical   era   has   ended’,   we   must  begin  anew,  try  something  different;  new  political  institutions  with  a  spiritual  life  that  goes   beyond  corporate  formulas  into  the  real  inner  discovery,  inner  direction,  lucidity  and  autonomy,   with   the   social   and   political   institutions   that   define   maturity,   self-­‐government   and   social   responsibility  shared  by  all.     The  era  that  began  with  the  unification  of  Egypt  ends  today,  because  it  is  salutary  that  it  should  be   so,   because   new   beginnings   are   healthy.   Because   the   theory   and   practice   of   The   State   has   been   played   out   and   any   more   procrastination   will   further   brutalize   humanity   beyond   recovery.   It   is   childhood’s  end:  if  he  does  not  leave  on  his  maturity,  the  grown  child  could  be  destroyed  by  his   parents,  The  Corporate  Religion  and  The  Nation  State.   For  this  is  no  doubt  the  greatest  of  all  psychohistorical  problems:  renewal.  Some  people  will  say:   ‘who  wants  renewal,  renewal  is  risky…’  ‘We  will  lose  control’…there  are  some  things  that  cannot   be  explained…  they  have  to  be  experienced,  people  come  into  them,  sometimes  after  catastrophe   has   hit   them.   I   have   already   said   in   my   book   La   Huerta   del   Macehual   that   public   administration   should   be   returned   to   the   people…   That   little   by   little   in   a   peaceful   and   democratic   way,   public   office   should   be   accessible   to   individuals   bearing   a   card   that   contains   in   a   microchip   the   sum   of   their   abilities   and   past   working   experience…   put   it   in   a   computer   in   all   centers   of   public   administration  and  the  machine  will  tell  them  in  detail  where  is  an  opening  for  them  in  real  time   where   they   can   find   work   and   be   paid   by   the   hour   in   any   branch   of   public   administration.   Of   course  the  mechanics  of  the  system  will  have  to  be  worked  out  by  people  who  understand  public   administration,  demography,  economics  and  so  forth…  And  it  will  work  when  people  have  arrived   at  the  junction  of  consciousness,  education  and  shared  social  responsibility.  I  believe  that  we  are   nearly  there,  all  we  have  to  do  is  make  this  project  public  knowledge  in  such  a  way  that  everyone   will  want  to  participate  in  it  spontaneously  as  a  shared  endeavor  that  will  free  us  all  from  history.  


Part  Three   The  Spiral:  El  Sueño  Florido  

    Paleoethnobotany   The  spiral  is  a  recurrent  symbol  in  megalithic  temples  from  Malta  to  Ireland.  It  is  the  Entheogenic   symbol   of   the   psychic   continuum,   of   the   passage   between   spheres   of   existence   and   parallel   worlds.  The  use  of  The  Sacred  Entheogens  was  a  common  occurrence  in  late  Pleistocene  times.  It   was  the  central  event  at  the  temples  of  Gobekli  Tepe,  the  Hypogeum  of  Malta  and  Newgrange  in   Ireland.   The   spirals   at   the   entrance   door   to   the   passage   corridors   of   these   temples   symbolized   the   psychic   continuum   of   the   experience   of   death   and   of   Entheogenic   experience   that   took   place   in   the  central  chamber;  these  were  parallel  experiences  that  the  ancients  knew  to  be  equivalent:  The   Little  Death  and  the  Great  Voyage  through  The  Portal.  This  is  the  reason  why  these  temples  were   both  temples  and  tombs.      


The   figure   of   The   Sleeping   Lady   was   recovered   from   the   main   chamber   at   the   Hypogeum   of   Malta   and  may  represent  an  Out  of  Body  Experience  while  in  Entheogenic  trance  and  could  be  related  to   oracular  functions.  It  is  also  possible  that  these  temples  are  far  older  than  they  are  supposed  to  be   and  that  we  should  place  all  Megalithic  Architecture  before  10  498  BP.  Men  were  different  after   that   date,   culture   changed,   perhaps   that   is   the   reason   why   Gobekli   Tepe   was   deliberately   filled   with   ruble   sometime   after   10   000   BP;   they   were   ‘burying   the   past’   so   to   speak,   after   The   Great   Pleistocene   Terminal   Event.   Social   organization   had   changed   and   the   cosmological   outlook   had   changed.   Chronology  in  prehistory  is  very  important  to  determine  the  cultural  sequence.    That  is  why  civil   and  ecclesiastical  authorities  should  not  interfere  with  the  work  of  archeologists  or  historians  in  an   attempt  to  censure  or  suppress  knowledge.  In  Malta,  at  the  beginning  of  the  XX  century,  the  civil   and   ecclesiastical   authorities   conspired   to   destroy   evidence   of   the   antiquity   of   the   megalithic   civilization  there  (  Philip  Coppens  ).  Most  interestingly  they  effaced  the  figure  of  a  bison,  an  animal   that   became   extinct   in   Europe   around   10   000   BP,   from   the   walls   in   one   of   the   chambers   of   The   Hypogeum.   They   also   disappeared   the   work   of   Immanuel   Magri   in   1907,   the   investigator   who  


spent  two  years  working  at  the  Hypogeum.  What  were  they  seeking  to  protect,  the  validity  of  the   Judeo-­‐Christian  tradition?   A   hundred   years   later   we   are   still   struggling   against   self-­‐censure,   passivity,   complacency   and   immobility  within  the  academic  community  and  with  retrograde  authorities  who  want  to  shore  up   the  Judeo-­‐Christian  tradition  from  the  advancement  of  knowledge.   At  the  end  of  the  Pleistocene  there  was  a  land  bridge  between  Africa  and  Europe  that  went  right   through   Malta   and   connected  that  island  with  Sicily  and  Italy.  The  geography  and  the  climate  of   the  world  were  much  different  and  the  people  most  have  been  very  different,  living  in  a  world  of   plenty  with  temperate  climates.  They  were  civilized,  no  doubt  about  it.  If  we  cannot  imagine  how   or  reconstruct  their  world  from  the  little  evidence  we  have  it  does  not  mean  that  we  are  going  to   accept  the  indifference  of  the  scientific  community  on  this  subject.  We  must  use  our  vision  to  see   and  understand  their  culture  from  what  we  know  of  prehistory,  early  Neolithic  civilizations  and  the   lives   of   aboriginal   people   in   more   recent   times.   We   can   be   certain   that   late   Pleistocene   men   carried   out   Entheogenic   rites   in   their   temples,   like   the   Celtic   Druids   did,   that   included   travelling   along   the   psychic   continuum   through   an   spiraling   vortex   of   light   into   unimagined   worlds   of   the   spirit   that   revealed   to   them   the   unfathomable   forces   of   nature   that   surrounded   their   fantastic   world   of   mega   fauna   and   gigantic   ice   walls.(   See   Cambridge   Encyclopedia   of   Archeology   and   Peter   T.  Furst:  Entheogens  and  Culture  )   The   Maya,   The   Hindu,   The   Sumerians,   The   Egyptians,   even   The   Greeks   remembered   a   world   before   The   Deluge.   These   late   Pleistocene   people   were   giants   compared   to   post   diluvia   humanity.   If  there  was  a  mega  fauna  there  were  probably  large  human  beings  to  go  with  it,  those  megaliths   seem   large   to   us   today   but   they   did   not   seem   large   to   our   ancestors   in   the   late   Pleistocene,   at   least   they   could   handle   them   and   place   them   in   extraordinary   fashion   to   build   remarkable   constructions   like   the   Hypogeum   of   Malta   and   the   temples   of   Gobekli   Tepe.   They   must   have   been   over   seven   feet   on   the   average,   the   men,   and   the   women   over   six   feet.   They   lived   in   large   communal   houses   made   of   wood   as   Plato   says,   like   the   Vikings   did   and   the   natives   of   British   Columbia.   They  were  big  and  powerful,  these  homo  sapiens  diluvialis,  and  they  could  move  huge  monoliths,   (Baalbek).  They  were  very  intelligent  and  they  might  have  had  an  urban  civilization  that  is  lying  at   the  bottom  of  the  sea;  that  the  scientific  community  has  the  responsibility  to  explore.  They  could   have   come   from   the   west   into   western   Europe   and   not   from   Africa   as   was   previously   thought.   Between  20  000  and  10  000  years  ago  the  climate  in  Western  Europe  was  similar  to  that  of  Siberia   today   whereas   at   that   time,   the   large   islands   of   the   Atlantic   ocean:   Bahamas,   Cuba   and   Atlantis   and   the   peninsulas   of   Florida   and   Yucatan   enjoyed   a   mild   semi   tropical   climate   and   must   have   been  very  fertile  and  were  larger  than  they  are  today.  These  were  the  centers  of  a  civilization  in   the  late  Pleistocene  that  radiated  East  into  western  Europe,  to  the  valley  of  the  Dordogne,  Malta   and  Gobekli  Tepe  in  Turkey.…   As  I  described  it  in  my  book  Teonanacatl,  our  late  Pleistocene  ancestors  held  Entheogenic  Rites  for   thousands   of   years   (   Soleki   in   Furst:   The   Mousterian   tombs   in   Shanidar,   Syria   ).   They   were   not  


afraid  to  explore  the  phenomenon  of  death  because  to  them  it  was  an  everyday  occurrence  .  Like   The  Olmecs  who  would  sit  in  a  circle  and  let  a  jaguar  out  of  a  stone  cage  to  see  whom  it  would   chose  to  eat…  and  in  this  way  the  Olmecs  practiced  self-­‐control.  Our  ancestors  would  enter  into   trances   and   visit   parallel   worlds.   That   is   what   happened   in   the   Hypogeum   of   Malta   and   at   the   round  temples  of  Gobekli  Tepe.   Yet   with   time,   The   Entheogenic   Experience   was   refined   until   it   produced   the   theology   of   the   Pharaoh  Akhenaten,  The  founding  Father  of  The  Western  World.       El  Sueño  Florido   The  Phenomenon  of  Illumination  is  the  awakening  of  consciousness.  It  is  the  vision  of  Telesis,  of   the  formal  interrelationship  between  all  the  elements  of  nature  viewed  as  a  personal  experience   within   a   spiritual   phenomenon.   The   person   that   experiences   this   vision   changes   with   it,   as   his   soul   or  her  soul,  it  is  the  same  thing  in  metaphysical  terms,  explores  the  confines  of    identity  and  moves   beyond   the   boundaries   of   the   body   to   identify   with   that   unitary   vision   of   Telesis   that   helps   us   find   our   place   in   this   world,   indeed   in   the   Universe.   This   is   a   profoundly   emotional   experience   that   involves  the  totality  of  our  beings  until  the  ‘I’  disappears  within  the  experience  of  Illumination.   This   is   indeed   a   lonely   journey;   Akhenaten   was   trying   to   go   back   to   a   time   when   there   were   no   gods;   not   Amon,   not   Aton   but   the   Spiral   and   the   journey   through   The   Portal,   The   Flower   of   Illumination.   Perhaps   this   is   why   The   Toltecs   called   the   experience   of   Illumination,   El   Sueño   Florido,   in   Nahuatl   Temixoch.   And   Xochipilli   was   the   protective   divinity,   the   embodiment   of   the   experience  that  flowered  into  consciousness.  For  Akhenaten,  the  Sun,  Aton,  was  the  sole  divinity   that   shed   light   on   the   living   world   and   on   the   joy   of     life,   our   life,   to   live   with   open   eyes,   with   clarity  and  truth,  in  the  spirit  of  Maat  which  was  to  him  impeccability  of  action,  love  and  ethical   consciousness.   Akhenaten  was  a  contemporary  of  the  poets  who  wrote  The  Rig-­‐Veda.  And  their  time  was  one  of   momentous   spiritual   radiation,   even   reaching   to   our   own   time,   for   Akhenaten   inspired   Moses   just   as  the  Rig-­‐Vedas  led  to  the  Upanishads,  The  Isa  Upanishad:     ‘Behold   the   universe   in   the   glory   of   God:   and   all   that   lives   and   moves   on   earth.   Leaving   the   transient  find  joy  in  the  Eternal:  set  not  your  heart  on  another’s  possessions…’   ‘He  moves,  and  he  moves  not.  He  is  far  and  he  is  near.  He  is  within  all,  and  he  is  outside  all.  Who   sees  all  beings  in  his  own  self,  and  his  own  self  in  all  beings,  loses  all  fear.’   ‘The  Spirit  filled  all  with  his  radiance.  He  is  incorporeal  and  invulnerable,  pure  and  untouched  by   evil.  He  is  the  supreme  seer  and  thinker,  immanent  and  transcendent.  He  placed  all  things  in  the   path  of  Eternity.’  (from  the  Issa  Upanishad  circa  2800  years  before  the  present,  Penguin  Classics   edition,  1965).  


AKHENATEN’S  HYMN  TO  ATON   Though  appearest  beautifully  on  the  horizon  of  heaven,   Thou  living  Aton,  the  beginning  of  life!   When  thou  are  risen  on  the  eastern  horizon,   Thou  hast  filled  every  land  with  thy  beauty.   Thou  are  gracious,  great,  glistening,  and  high  over  every  land;   Thy  rays  encompass  the  lands  too…  all  that  thou  hast  made:   As  thou  art  Re,  thou  reachest  to  the  end  of  them;   Though  thou  art  in  their  faces,  no  one  knows  thy  going.     When  thou  settest  in  the  western  horizon,   The  land  is  in  darkness,  in  the  manner  of    death.   They  sleep  in  a  room  with  heads  wrapped  up,     Nor  see  one  eye  the  other.   All  their  goods  which  are  under  their  heads  might  be  stolen,   (But)  they  would  not  perceive  (it).   Every  lion  is  come  forth  from  his  den;   All  creeping  things,  they  sting.   Darkness  is  a  shroud,  and  the  earth  is  in  stillness,   For  he  who  has  made  them  rests  in  the  horizon.     At  daybreak  when  thou  arises  on  the  horizon,   When  thou  shinest  as  the  Aten  by  day,   Thou  drivest  away  the  darkness  and  givest  thy  rays.   The  two  lands  are  in  festivity  every  day,   Awake  and  standing  upon  (their)  feet,  


For  thou  hast  raised  them  up.   Washing  their  bodies,  taking  (their)  clothing,   Their  arms  are  (raised)  in  praise  at  thy  appearance.   All  the  world,  they  do  their  work.     All  beasts  are  content  with  their  pasturage;   Trees  and  plants  are  flourishing.   The  birds  which  fly  from  their  nests,   Their  wings  are  (stretched  out))  in  praise  of  thy  ka.   All  beasts  spring  upon  (their)  feet.   Whatever  flies  and  alights,   They  live  when  thou  hast  risen  (for)  them.   The  ships  are  sailing  north  and  south  as  well,   For  every  way  is  opened  at  thy  appearance.   The  fish  in  the  river  dart  before  thy  face;   The  rays  are  in  the  midst  of  the  great  green  sea.     Creator  of  seed  in  women,   Thou  who  makest  fluid  into  man,   Who  mantainest  the  son  in  the  womb  of  his  mother,   Who  soothest  him  with  that  which  stills  his  weeping,   Thou  nurse  (even)  in  the  womb,   Who  givest  breath  to  sustain  all  that  he  has  made!   When  he  descends  from  the  womb  to  breath   On  the  day  when  he  is  born,   Thou  openest  his  mouth  completely,  


Thou  suppliest  his  necessities.   When  the  chick  in  the  egg  speaks  within  the  shell,   Thou  givest  him  breath  within  it  to  maintain  him.   When  thou  has  made  him  his  fulfillment  with  in  the  egg,  to   Break  it,   He  comes  forth  from  the  egg  to  speak  at  his  completed  (time);   He  walks  upon  his  legs  when  he  comes  forth  from  it.     How  manifold  it  is,  what  thou  hast  made!   They  are  hidden  from  the  face  of  (man),   O  sole  God  like  whom  there  is  no  other!   Thou  didst  create  the  world  according  to  thy  desire,   While  thou  wert  alone:   All  men,  cattle,  and  wild  beasts,   Whatever  is  on  earth  going  upon  (its)  feet,   And  what  is  on  high,  flying  with  its  wings.     The  rays  suckle  every  meadow.   When  thou  risest,  they  live,  they  grow  for  thee.   Thou  makest  the  seasons  in  order  to  rear  all  that  thou  hast  made,   The  winter  to  cool  them,   And  the  heat  that  they  may  taste  thee.   Thou  hast  made  the  distant  sky  in  order  to  rise  therein,     In  order  to  see  all  that  thou  dost  make.   Whilst  thou  wert  alone,   Rising  in  the  form  of  the  living  Aten,  


Appearing,  shining,  withdrawing,  or  approaching,   Thou  madest  millions  of  forms  of  thyself  alone.   Cities,  towns,  fields,  road  and  river-­‐   Every  eye  beholds  thee  over  against  them,   For  thou  art  the  Atem  of  the  day  over  the  earth….     Thou  art  in  my  heart,   And  there  is  no  other  that  knows  thee     Save  thy  son  Neferkheperure  Waenre,   For  thou  hast  made  him  well  versed  in  thy  plans  and  in  thy     Strength.   The  world  came  into  being  by  thy  hand,     According  as  thou  hast  made  them.   When  thou  hast  risen  they  live.   When  thou  settest  they  die.   Thou  art  lifetime  thy  own  self,   For  one  lives  (only)  through  thee.   Eyes  are  (fixed)  on  beauty  until  thou  settest.   All  work  is  laid  aside  when  thou  settest  in  the  west.   (But)  when  (thou))  risest  (again),   [Everything  is]  made  to  flourish  for  the  king….   Since  thou  didst  found  the  earth   And  raise  them  up  for  the  son,   Who  came  forth  from  thy  body:   the  King  of  Upper  and  Lower  Egypt…Akhenaten…   And  the  Chief  Wife  of  the  King…Nefertiti,  living  and    


youthful  for  ever  and  ever.     From  Leonard  Cottrell’s  ,  The  Penguin  Book  of  the  Lost  Worlds,  1966.        

 

THE  RIG  VEDA     WE  HAVE  DRUNK  THE  SOMA     1  I  have  tasted  the  sweet  drink  of  life,  knowing  that  it   Inspires  good  thoughts  and  joyous  expansiveness  to  the   Extreme,  that  all  the  gods  and  mortals  seek  it  together,   Calling  it  honey.   2  When  you  penetrate  inside,  you  will  know  no  limits,   And  you  will  avert  the  wrath  of  the  gods.  Enjoying  Indra’s    friendship  (note),   O  drop  of  Soma,  brings  riches  as  a  docile  cow  brings  the  yoke.   3  We  have  drunk  the  Soma;  we  have  become  immortal;   We  have  gone  to  the  light;  we  have  found  the  gods.   What  can  hatred  and  malice  of  a  mortal  do  to  us  now,   O  immortal  one?   4  When  we  have  drunk  you,  O  drop  of  Soma,   Be  good  to  our  hearts,  kind  as  a  father  to  his  son,  thoughtful  as   A  friend  to  a  friend.  Far-­‐famed  Soma,  stretch  out  our  lifetime   So  that  we  may  live.   5  The  glorious  drops  that  I  have  drunk  set  me  free  in  wide  space.   You  have  bound  me  together  in  my  limbs  as  thongs  bind  a  chariot.    


Let  the  drops  protect  me  from  the  foot  that  stumbles  and  keep  lameness  away  from  me.   6  Inflame  me  like  a  fire  kindled  by  friction;  make  us  see  far;   Make  us  richer,  better.  For  when  I  am  intoxicated  with  you,  Soma,   I  think  myself  rich.  Draw  near  and  make  us  thrive.   7  We  would  enjoy  you,  pressed  with  a  fervent  heart,   Like  riches  from  a  father.  King  Soma  stretch  out  our  lifespans   As  the  sun  stretches  out  the  spring  days.   8  King  Soma,  have  mercy  on  us  for  our  well-­‐being.     Know  that  we  are  devoted  to  your  laws.  Passion  and  fury  are  stirred  up.    O  drop  of  Soma,  do  not  hand  us  over  to  the  pleasure  of  the  enemy.   9  For  you  Soma  are  the  guardian  of  our  body;  watching  over  men   You  have  settled  dawn  in  every  limb  (note).  If  we  break  your  laws,  O  God,  have  mercy  on  us     Like  a  good  friend  to  make  us  better.   10  Let  me  join  closely  with  my  compassionate  friend   So  that  he  will  not  injure  me  when  I  have  drunk  him.   O  lord  of  bay  horses  (note),  for  the  Soma  that  is  lodged  in  us   I  approach  Indra  to  stretch  out  our  life-­‐span  (note).   11  Weakness  and  diseases  have  gone  (note);  the  forces  of  darkness  have  fled  in  terror   Soma  has  climbed  up  in  us,  expanding.     We  have  come  to  the  place  where  they  stretch  out  life-­‐spans.   12  The  drop  that  we  have  drunk  has  entered  our  hearts,   An  immortal  inside  mortals.  O  fathers,  let  us  serve  that  Soma  with  the  oblations   And  abide  in  His  mercy  and  kindness.   13  Uniting  in  agreement  with  the  fathers  (note),  O  drop  of  Soma,   You  have  extended  yourself  through  sky  and  earth.   Let  us  serve  Him  with  an  oblation;  let  us  be  masters  of  riches.  


14  You  protecting  gods,  speak  out  for  us.  Do  not  let  sleep  or  harmful  speech   Seize  us.  Let  us,  always,  dear  to  Soma,  speak  as  men  of  power  in  the  sacrificial  gathering  (note).   15  Soma,  you  give  us  the  force  of  life  on  every  side.  Enter  into  us  finding  the  sunlight,   Watching  over  men.  O  drop  of  Soma,  summon  your  helpers  and  protect  us  before  and  after.   (  From  The  Rig  Veda,  Penguin  Classics,  1981,  translated  by  Wendy  Doniger  O’Flaherty  )       Notes  and  correlations     The   Indo-­‐Europeans   known   as   the   Aryans,   not   to   be   confused   with   the   ‘aryans’   of   Nazi   folklore,   migrated   from   the   region   of   the   Caspian   Sea   and   the   Iranian   Plateau   into   North-­‐Western   India   some   three   thousand   five   hundred   years   ago,   about   the   time   of   the   Pharaoh   Tuthmosis   III   and   queen  Hatshepsut.  Like  many  tribal  nomads  of  Central  Asia  before  and  after  them  they  were  cattle   breeders  and  horse  tamers  who  moved  about  in  their  wagons  looking  for  good  pasture  lands.  They   crossed  the  passes  of  the  Hindu  Kush  into  North-­‐Western  India  around  1500  BC.  All  members  of   the  tribe  were  familiar  with  amanita  muscaria  and  other  Entheogeic  plants,  as  Gordon  Wasson  has   pointed  out  (  Soma  ).  They  performed  the  horse  sacrifice  for  their  god  Agni  and  drank  the  sacred   Soma   in   honor   of   their   god   Indra   from   whose   name   the   word   India   is   derived,   (   it   could   be   said   that  the  national  emblem  of  Mexico,  the  Eagle  and  the  Serpent  is  of  Entheogenic  origin,  a  symbol   of  spiritual  liberation,  as  the  Aztec  knights  of  The  Eagle  held  Entheogenic  rites  at  their  sanctuary  in   Malinalco,   under   the   auspices   of   Quetzalcoatl,   The   Plumed   Serpent,   and   Xochipilli,   the   god   of   flowers  and  sacred  plants,  who  were  the  tutelary  deities  of  the  rites    The  Temixoch).   The   Horse   Sacrifice   of   the   Aryans   and   the   drinking   of   the   Soma   were   the   two   principal   rites   celebrated  in  The  Rig  Veda.  I  have  myself  eaten  The  Sacred  Mushrooms,  psilosibe  Mexicana,  with   the  Mazatec  Indians  of  Oaxaca,  and  can  testify  that  the  Vedic  Hymn  to  the  god  Soma  is  a  beautiful   and   faithful   rendering   in   poetry   of   Entheogenic   Experience   as   I   experienced   it   and   wrote   in   my   book     Teonanacatl.     I   could   say   the   same   thing   about   The   Tibetan   Book   of   The   Dead   which   describes  the  passage  through  The  Portal  into  the  Bardo  Plain,  (  Teonanacatl  p.  67,  note  20).     1   (   Verse   2   )   The   god   Indra   was   the   tutelary   deity   of   Entheogenic   Rites.   He   was   the   personification   of   human   wholeness   and   spiritual   unity;   of   the   reconstructed   and   born   again   self,   thus   of   liberation;  like  Quetzalcoatl,  Osiris,  Dionysus  and  Christ  


2  (  Verse  5  )    The  chariot  of  Akhenaten  and  the  chariot  of  the  Aryan  heroes,  like  that  of  Achilles   most   have   looked   alike:   light,   with   spiked   wheels,   drawn   by   two   horses,   (   Romila   Thapar,  A   history   of   India.   Penguin,   p.   42   ),   This   image   of   a   chariot   has   helped   me   to   place   the   date   of   the   Vedic   Hymn,   We   have   drunk   the   Soma     around   the   XIII   or   XII   century   B.C.,   The   Age   of   Akhenaten   and   Moses.      

  Akhenaten  in  his  war  chariot,  his  image  defaced  by  his  enemies.  

3   (   Verse   7   )   The   phrase,   ‘stretch   our   life-­‐spans’,   repeated   throughout   the   Hymn   refers   to   the   general   feeling   and   appreciation   on   the   part   of   the   participant   on   the   rite   of   a   recuperated   self,   possessor   of   recovered   and   expanded   faculties,   that   if   well   nurtured   will   help   prolong   life       This   phrase  clearly  suggests     the  origin  of  Yoga…  which  was  a  science  designed  to  PRESERVE  not  attain   Illumination,   AFTER   HAVING   PARTAKEN   OF   THE   SACRED   PLANT.   Throughout   the   centuries   the   ancient   Arhats,   ascetics   and   teachers   of   Yoga   developed   this   science   to   help   men   preserve   a   spiritual  resonance  acquired  while  in  communion  with  the  god  during  the  taking  of  Soma.  The  art   of  preserving  and  extending  the  duration  of  all  the  virtues  attained  during  the  gathering  and  the   interpretation   of   the   many   experiences   that   compose   the   inner   structure   of   a   renovated   self   (   See   Teonanacatl  pp.  60-­‐70  ).   4   (   Verse   9   )   The   phrase,   ‘   you   have   settled   dawn   in   every   limb   ‘   refers   to   the   somatic   changes   experienced   in   the   body   while   the   special   alkaloid   of   the   plant   is   enhancing   neuro-­‐transmission   throughout   the   central   nervous   system   and   specially   in   the   brain.   Not   surprisingly   the   medical   term    soma  was  derived  from  the  Entheogen  Soma.  (  See  Teonanacatl  pp.  60-­‐70  ).  


5  (  Verse  10  )  ‘  bay  horses’  were  apparently  much  admired  by  the  Aryan  bards  who  composed  The   Rig   Veda   and   this   is   another   clue   that   places     our   hymn   in   the   early   nomadic   pre-­‐urban   face   of   Aryan  history  in  North-­‐Western  India  more  than  three  thousand  years  ago.  (  Thapar,  op.cit.  )   6   (   Verse   11   )   ‘   weakness   and   diseases   have   gone’   .   Entheogenic   experience   may   clarify   many   psychosomatic   syndromes   liberating   the   body   and   the   mind   of   certain   illnesses.   This   author   experienced  the  improvement  of  his  eyesight  and  other  beneficent  changes.   7  /  Verse  13  )  ‘  Uniting  in  agreement  with  the  fathers’  .  This  expression  is  very  important  because  it   establishes  a  continuity  in  time  with  all  the  generations  past  and  present  from  Gobekli  Tepe  to  the   present   passing   through   Akhenaten   and   the   Rig   Veda;   constituting   in   effect   a   veritable   psychohistorical   noumena   being   this,   Entheogenic   Experience,   the   fountainhead   of   religious   inspiration  throughout  the  ages  (  See  Teonanacatl,  Author’s  Note  p.  IV,  The  Source  ).   8  (  Verse  14  )  ‘in  the  sacrificial  gathering’.  It  is  my  belief  that  Aryans,  because  they  had  been  or  still   were  nomads  at  the  time  on  The  Rig  Veda,    gathered  together  in  places  that  suggested  to  them   the  power  of  Nature,  of  mother  Earth;  and  forming  a  circle,  seated  on  the  ground,  passed  around   the   Soma   in   the   sacred   kukeon,   which   had   been   previously   prepared   in   the   traditional   way   with   the   sacred   implements,   the   stones   and   mortars   used   for   pressing   the   plant.   In   Greek   times   the   sacred   crucible,   The   Kukeon,   contained   mint,   claviceps   purpurea,   honey   and   water.   (   Gordon   Wasson,  The  road  to  Eleusis  ).     Was  Akhenaten  trying  to  liberate  Egypt  from  the  theocratic  power  of  the  priests  of  Amon?  Was  he   unconsciously   trying   to   recuperate   the   spiritual   freedom   that   homo   sapiens   diluvialis   enjoyed   at   the   temples   of   Gobekli   Tepe?   We   do   not   know   the   exact   sequence   of   events   after   Akhenaten’s   death.  How  many  people  remained  loyal  to  the  vision  of  Akhenaten  after  his  death?  Were  some  of   his  followers,  the  Habiru  of  Pi-­‐Ramses,  taken  by  Moses  into  the  desert?   Strabo,  the  Greek  historian,  geographer  and  philosopher  of  the  first   century  of  our  era  is  one  of   the  ancient  non-­‐jewish  writers  who  mentions  Moses  with  reverence  in  his  Geography  (24  A.D.  ).   He  writes  that  Moses  was  an  Egyptian  priest  who  had  political  control  of  an  area  east  of  The  Delta   of  The  Nile,  (  Pi-­‐Ramses?  )    and  was  dissatisfied  with    the  current  political  institutions.  He  left  Egypt   followed  by  a  large  body  of  people.  Moses  wrote  Strabo  referring  to  his  religious  ideas,  believed   that   The   Divinity   should   have   no   human   or   animal   representation,   for   God   according   to   Moses:   ‘May   be   this   One   Thing   that   encompass   us   all:   land,   sea,   the   heavens,   the   universe   and   the   nature   of  things…’,  very  close  to  the  theology  of  Akhenaten.   The   historicity   of   Moses   is   an   extremely   difficult   subject   because   one   has   to   contend   with   a   multiplicity   of   literary   sources   but   no   archeological   or   contemporary   textual   or   paleographic   evidence.  There  are  biblical,  rabbinical,  Christian  and  Islamic  sources,  (  Moses  is  mentioned  more   than  500  times  in  the  Koran  ),  not  to  mention  contemporary  critical  historiography.  On  the  other  


hand  there  is  no  doubt  about  the  historicity  of  Akhenaten  of  whom  we  have  a  large  selection  of   paleographic  evidence  in  sculpture,  reliefs,  hieroglyphic  inscriptions  and  tomb  paintings.   There  were  many  Semitic  and  non-­‐Semitic  people  living  east  of  the  Nile  delta,  for  several  centuries   since  the  time  of  the  Hyksos,  3800  years  BP,  Semitic  refugees  established  themselves  in  the  area   of  Pi-­‐Ramses  until  there  emerged  a  border  culture  half  Semitic  and  half  Egyptian  to  which  Moses   very  easily  could  have  belonged  so  that  the  people  that  he  led  out  of  Egypt  were  not  completely   Semitic  and  could  have  been  partisans  of  Akhenaten,  people  who  left  Egypt  after  some  civil  strife   of  which  there  is  an  echo  in  The  Bible  story  of  Exodus.   The   monotheism   of   the   Jews   did   not   necessarily   have   to   come   from   Moses   but   rather   from   a   nucleus   of   emigrants   who   already   possessed   a   monotheistic   world   view   that   was   later   superimposed   to   the   polytheistic   Habiru   Bedouin   tribes   who   worshiped   the   mother   goddess     Acera  and  a  volcanic-­‐teluric    deity    named  Yahwe.  They  did  not  have  the  intellectual  resources  to   design   a   new   theology   nor   did   they   have   a   political   motive   or   the   urge   for   union,   nor     the   need   to   produce  a  politico-­‐religious  synthesis.  But  Moses  did.  Was  he  a  follower  of  Akhenaten?  Was  Moses   Akhenaten?   We   know   that   the   period   between   Akhenaten’s   death   and   the   reign   of   Ramses   II   was   one   of   insecurity   and   strife,   possibly   of   civil   war   between   the   followers   of   Akhenaten   Theology   of   love   and   the   soldiers,   merchants     and     priests   who   favoured   the   god   Amon   and     imperialist   policy   of   general   Horemheb.     We   should   consider   that   Aye   and   Horemheb,   the   successors   of   Akhenaten,   reverted   to   the   worship   of   Amon.   And   as   Sigmund   Freud   suggests   in   his   book,   Moses   and   Monotheism   (pp.   62-­‐69),   out   of   the   pact   of   Quadesh   in   the �� desert,   the   Hebrew   tribes   emerged   with  the  new  monotheism  designed  by  Moses  and  adapted  from  the  theology  of  Akhenaten.   The  idea  that  Moses  and  Akhenaten  are  one  and  the  same  person  proposed  by  Ahmed  Osman  in   his  book  Moses  and  Akhenaten  seems  to  me  fantastic.  It  would  solve  many  problems  indeed  and   revolutionize  the  history  of  religion  but  it  does  not  seem  probable.  The  date  for  Akhenaten’s  death   has  been  given  as  1334    B.C..  Osman’s  thesis  is  that  he  did  not  die  in  1334  B.C.  but  was  exiled  to   north-­‐eastern  Egypt  were  he  had    relatives  through  his  mother,  Queen  Tiye  ,  and  there  stroke  an   alliance   with   the   Semitic   elements   of   the   population   and   persuaded   them   to   leave   Egypt;   whereas   the  date  for  the  Exodus  is  variously  believed  to  have  fallen  anywhere  between  1298  and  1232  B.C.,   during  the  reign  of  Ramses  II.  Much  would  be  gained  in  this  debate  if  the  mummy  of  Akhenaten   were  to  be  found  and  his  probable  age  at  the  moment  of  his  death  established.  The  fact  that  his   body   has   not   been   found   leaves   ground   for   a   lot   of   speculation.   (   The   body   in   tomb   KV   55   has   not   been   positively   identified   as   being   that   of   Akhenaten   since   it   corresponds   to   a   younger   man,   aged   25,  who  is  believed  to  be  his  son  Smenkhkare    ).   The   central   idea   behind   the   desire   to   link   Akhenaten   and   Moses   beyond   the   obvious   one   suggested   by   Freud   that   Moses   must   have   been   an   Egyptian   nearly   contemporaneous   to   Akhenaten,  is  that  the  fountain  head  of  monotheism  is  One  and  the  same;  that  is,  The  Phenomena   Of   Illumination.   An   individual   has   contact   with   The   Source   and   he   renders   his   message   in   contemporary  language  within  the  context  of  a  specific  culture,  be  this  culture  Egyptian  or  proto-­‐


Judaic.   Moses   delivered   his   message,   so   did   Akhenaten.   That   Moses   was  influenced   by   Akhenaten   there  is  no  doubt  in  my  mind  but  that  they  were  the  same  person  is  entirely  a  different  matter;  no   doubt   a   very   attractive   proposition   involving   much   historical   research   and   hard   evidence   that   unfortunately  has  not  been  forthcoming.  Yet  the  possibility  cannot  be  excluded,  for  this  is  the  very   purpose  of  historical  investigation;  for  one  thing  is  what  we  know  and  another  thing  is  what  was,   things  not  yet  perceived  by  men-­‐  the  noumena  of  History.      These   are   psychohistorical   moments,   when   the   cross   currents   of   political   and   religious   history   meet   in   one   man   who   operates   a   great   religious   synthesis.   During   special   periods   of   tension   ideological   forces   come   into   conflict   and   must   be   resolved.   Thus   new   visions   of   the   world   are   created  and  new  interpretations  of  The  Divine  are  met  with  and  transmitted  with  varying  success.   Akhenaten  did  just  that  out  of  his  own  original  reality  in  the  special  political  context  that  he  lived.   He   was   the   son   of   Amenophis   III,   a   many   sided,   athletic   and   outstanding   man,   who   had   already   tried  to  reconcile  the  rival  theologies  of  Heliopolis  and  Thebes,  of  Aton  and  Amon  with  the  need   for  an  imperial  ideology,  a  unifying  superstructure  for  the  Egyptian  Empire  that  spread  from  Nubia   to   Syria   and   was   created   by   his   ancestor,   Tuthmosis   III,   and   which   he   visualized   under   the   benevolent      protection  of  Aton.  Akhenaten,  his  son,  (  Amenophis  IV  ),  was  an    inspired  man  who   combined   many   complex   physical,   intellectual,   ethical   and   spiritual   natures   that   led   him   to   produce  a  remarkable  politico-­‐religious  synthesis  unique  in  world  history,  a  vision  of  The  Divinity   infused  with  the  miracle  of  beauty  and  the  joy  of  life  and  love  in  great  contrast  with  the  violence   of   the   patriarchal   world   which   is   still   acting   upon   us   today.   He   operated   such   a   vast   synthesis   that   he   must   have   experienced   a   moment   of   satori,   a   comprehensive   vision.   He   was   a   talented   man   who   was   the   leader   of   an   artistic   revolution   in   culture   and   art,   and   a   spiritual   visionary.   His   psychohistorical   resonance   is   such   that   he   is   still   a   popular   figure   today;   who   has   achieved   an   immortality   of   sorts,   must   be   the   envy   of   all   the   other   Pharaohs,   including   Ramses   II   his   close   competitor…So  much  has  been  written  and  said  about  him  and  his  lovely  wife,  Nefertiti,  that  out   of  an  affectionate  respect  for  them  both  I  will  say  no  more.   Akhenaten   had   six   daughters,   he   was   probably   a   biological   hermaphrodite,   and   in   antiquity   hermaphrodites   were   sacred   because   it   was   thought   that   hermaphroditism   was   a   symbol   of   the   dual  perfection  of  God  as  it  combined  both  masculine  and  feminine  in  perfect  proportions  (  there   is  a    wonderful  image  of  this  in  Federico  Fellini’s  film,  Satyricon,  of  an  albino  hermaphrodite  child,   or  ‘semi-­‐dio’,  who  is  stolen  from  a  sanctuary  by  two  covetous  rogues.)   Plato   presents   us   with   a   different   interpretation   in   the   Symposium.   Through   the   voice   of   the   dramatist  Aristophanes,  one  of  the  participants  in  the  dialogue,  Plato  sees,  rather,  in  the  longing   and   coming   together   of   the   proverbial   separated   halves   into   which   we,   ungrateful   arrogant   mortals,  were  reduced  by  the  gods,  an  idealization  of  homosexual  love  raised  to  a  ‘virile,  spiritual   communion’,  to  quote  the  words  of  the  dramatist.    It  would  seem  that  the  love  between  Akhenaten  and  Nefertiti,  that  produced  six  daughters,  was   an   ecstatic   orgasmic   love   between   male   and   female   parts   that   led   to   a   shared   vision   of   The   Divinity,   and   that   it   inspired   the   royal   couple’s   reformist   ideas.   And   here   we   see   the   complexity   of  


being   expressed   in   the   dissolution   of   identity   were  male  and  female  disappear  in  a  carnal  union  of   joyful  celebration  of  life  in  union  with  all  beings:  men,  animals  and  plants  in  humble  recognition  of   the   Sublime,   in   a   true   sacralization   of   erotic   love.   Akhenaten   and   Nefertiti   wanted   to   symbolize   that   to   their   people.   Perhaps   this   is   the   reason   why   they   were   not   afraid   to   show   themselves   naked   in   public,   to   show   their   affection   in   public   almost   to   the   point   of   coitus,   and   urged   their   artists  to  commemorate  their  love  in  painting  and  sculpture  in  realistic  detail;  to  communicate  to   mankind  the  radiance  and  the  warmth  of  the  Sun  as  the  One  god,  and  to  celebrate  their  love  of   life.  This  became  the  Hymn  of  Akhenaten  and  Nefertiti,  their  legacy  to  us.  

     

   

 

The  Judeo-­‐Christian  western  world  has  underestimated  the  theological  importance  of  Akhenaten’s   message.   His   understanding   of   the   sacred   dimension   of   eroticism   has   only   a   parallel   in   Hindu   philosophy   and   Yoga.   It   was   only   until   the   arrival   of   psychoanalysis   and   the   literary   art   of   David   Herbert   Lawrence,   (   Lady   Chatterley’s   Lover   ),   that   western   culture,   after   two   thousand   years   of   Christianity,   discovered   the   spiritual   dimension   of   eroticism   without   guilt,   the   fundamental   equality  between  the  sexes  facing  the  act  of  love,  the  spiritual  awakening  into  the  beauty  of  the   world  motivated  by  orgasmic  release  when  love  is  an  art  practiced  by  sensitive  beings  who  interact   constructively,  creatively  as  Erich  From  suggested  in  his  Art  of  Love.  In  this  sense  is  Akhenaten  very   modern  and  perhaps  this  is  the  basis  of  his  appeal  to  the  younger  generations  of  today.    


Fourth  Delivery,  The  Method  of  Psychohistory   A  General  Theory  of  Psychohistory   Authority,  Violence  and  Sexuality         The   National   Geographic   Society   recently   published   an   article   on   the   languages   of   the   world,   it   found   that   the   language   spoken   by   more   people   was   Chinese   Mandarin   followed   by   Spanish,   which  by  one  million  people  was  ahead  of  English  in  third  place.  The  present  author  is  bicultural   and  writes  both  in  English  and  Spanish  sometimes  without  being  aware  that  he  has  shifted  from   one   language   into   the   other;   into   a   different   language.   Certain   themes   suggest   the   Spanish   language   and   others   English   yet   the   author   regrets   to   admit   that   he   does   not   know   Chinese…I   would  like  to  take  this  opportunity  to  thank  my  readers  for  their  gracious  interest  in  reading  my   ideas  for  which  I  alone  take  responsibility.  Also  I  would  like  to  thank  their  patience  if  now  and  then   I  were  to  shift  from  English  into  Spanish  or  from  Spanish  into  English.    I  apologize  for  not  always   supplying   a   translation   for   it   is   not   always   possible   to   do   so   because   the   flow   of   ideas   emerges   without  warning  from  the  unconscious  were  they  seem  to  occur  in  a  language  that  is  outside  time,   all  of  its  own,  that  claims  immediate  exposition  before  it  is  forgotten.   In   our   essay   on   The   State,   La   Tarjeta   Inteligente   found   in   La   Huerta   del   Macehual,   we   have   covered  some  of  this  ground  we  now  wish  to  make  a  further  investigation  on  the  basic  Noumena   that   have   consistently   dislocated   History.   We   believe   that   throughout   History   there   has   been   operating   a   collective   urge   towards   liberation,   coherence   and   consciousness.   This   is   the   natural   consequence   of   the   ongoing   process   of   Knowledge.   Athenian   Democracy,   Roman   Law,   The   Magna   Carta,   the   democratic   constitutions   of   the   last   three   centuries   are   examples   of   this   fundamental   desire  for  coherence  and  certainty  in  social  organization.   The  spirit  of  consciousness  which  unites  the  best  qualities  of  analysis,  memory  and  emotion  have   been   pointing     towards   perfectibility   since   late   Pleistocene   times   when   the   Tabu   against   anthropophagy  began  to  take  hold  on  the  mind  of  humanity.  Today  we  continue  to  re-­‐dramatize   generation   after   generation   certain   grotesque   habits   that   darken   the   experience   of   life   in   this   Planet.   War,   Violence   and   Torture,   or   the   sadistic   pleasure   in   violence,   re-­‐dramatizes   pain   in   an   endless  chain  of  redress  and  vengeance.  Also  the  desire  to  immobilize  other  human  beings  for  our   service   which   is   called   power   or   slavery;   the   corporate   slavery   procured   by   the   State   or   the   individual  slavery  inflicted  by  emotional  dependency  can  also  constitute  a  form  of  torture.   We   could   quickly   make   a   historical   survey   of   the   origin   of   these   psychohistorical   Noumena.   At   the   end  of  the  Matriarchal  Age  when  the  first  public  granaries  were  established  and  the  distribution  of   wealth   became   an   occasion   for   violence.   The   Patriarchy   was   born   along   with   armed   guards   and  


bronze   weapons.   The   State   was   founded   and   organized   violence   appeared   along   with   the   foundational  myths  of  the  patriarchal  Judeo-­‐Christian  tradition.         Today  the  Gordian  knot  of  power,  authority,  violence  and  sexuality  is  an  unquestioned  fact  of  life   accepted   by   most   people.   Specially   by   its’   more   accomplished   practitioners   who   believe   in   it   implicitly  as  pure  ideology:  the  darker,  higher  circles  of  the  political  class  and  of  organized  crime,   the  oligarchies  and  plutocracies  of  our  authoritarian  democracies.   The   associated   syndromes   of   violence   and   power   have   continued   to   change   and   expand   in   the   XXI   century   from   the   reality   described   by   Herbert   Marcuse   in   Eros   and   Civilization   and   One   Dimensional  Man.  The  political  reaction  of  the  1970’s  introduced  the  cult  of  violence  as  a  response   to   the   pacifism   of   The   60’s   generation.   The   conservative   ideologue   William   F.   Buckley,   the   Supreme  Court  Justice  Powell  and  billionaire  F.I.  Stone  promoted  the  candidacy  of  Ronald  Reagan   to  subvert  Culture  and  establish  a  conservative  regime  based  on  the  cult  of  violence  and  political   reaction.   John   Lennon   was   murdered   the   U.S.   flag   appeared   in   all   U.S.   films   to   pass   censure,   the   cult   of   violence   came   to   the   fore   personified   by   actors   Clint,   ´dirty   Harry´,   Eastwood,   Charles   Bronson,   Sylvester,  ‘rocky’,  Stallone,  Bruce  Willis,  et  all…  With  the  passing  away  of  the  generation  of  Marlon   Brando,  Paul  Newman  and  Richard  Burton,  directors  like  John  Huston  and  Elia  Kazan  the  American   film   industry,   the   number   one   promoter   of   popular   culture,   lent   itself   whole   heartily   to   political   reaction.   The   spirit   of   self-­‐criticism,   the   idea   that   dramatic   art   is   there   to   help   generate   a   moment   of   self-­‐knowledge   through   catharsis   as   the   ancient   Greek   dramatists   understood   it   has   nearly   passed   away   from   western   culture   thanks   to   a   generalized   political   reaction   and   the   fear   of   excellence   in   art.   We   now   have   the   rule   of   a   mediocre   bureaucracy   of   culture,   the   one   that   organizes   the   film   festivals   and   the   literary   prizes   is   in   league   with   the   plutocracy   who   desires   alienated   market   consumers   and   no   free   individuals   with   a   clear   level   of   political   and   cultural   understanding   such   as   true   democratic   societies   produce,   where   not   only   are   men   and   women   equal   but   are   also   spiritually   advanced   and   possess   a   certain   degree   of   political   conscience   and   social  responsibility.     The   cult   of   martial   arts,   arms   trafficking   and   political   reaction   perverted   a   whole   generation   the   world   over   originating   countless   civil   wars   along   with   grave   social   dislocation   that   includes   the   drug  culture  of  organized  crime  and  gang  violence  like  the  Mara  Salvatrucha  of  Central  America,   one  of  the  byproducts  of  the  civil  wars  promoted  by  U.S.  led  political  reaction.   This  world  culture  of  violence  which  now  saturates  the  planet  is  having  a  special  psychohistorical   effect   in   the   more   vulnerable   societies   the   world   over:   genocides   in   Africa   by   phallic-­‐narcissistic   goons   in   Uganda,   violent   convulsions   within   Islamic   culture,   (a   theme   that   will   require     an   extended  analysis  in  a  special  section  of  our  project  to  come  ),  teenage  hit  men  employed  by  the   drug  cartels  all  over  the  world.  The  cumulative  effect,  the  expansion  and  reverberation  of  all  this   violence  overwhelms  the  minds  of  the  seriously  disturbed  creating  a  reverberating  chain  reaction   to  the  point  of  psychotic  breakdown  as  in  the  case  of  the  student  in  the  Denver,  Colorado  cinema,  


the  Chechen  brothers  in  Boston,  the  Connecticut  school  slayer  and  the  Washington  D.C.  naval  post   attacker,  the  shooting  of  a  woman  in  a  car  with  a  baby  by  police  in  front  of  The  White  House…           In  The  Second  Delivery  of  this  Project  we  have  already  mentioned  the  cumulative  effect  and  the   reverberation   of   violence   as   an   expanding   wave   within   The   Noosphare   of   the   Planet.   This   is   perhaps   the   single   most   important   Noumena   of   Psychohistory.   The   negative   Quanta   of   bio-­‐energy   induced   by   the   cumulative   effect   of   mass   atrocities   and   brutalities   is   still   emanating   from   such   places  as  Auschwitz.  None  the  less,  there  is  a  psychogenic  transference  operating  as  ‘culture’  and   we  can  observe  this  in  Israel-­‐Palestine  where  this  mass  psychohistorical  quanta  of  negative  energy   is   being   reproduced   and   perpetuated   throughout   as   a   culture   of   violence   that   does   not   accept   the   existence  of  the  Other,  The  Enemy.  If  the  populations  involved  do  not  come  into  an  understanding   of  this  fact  and  analyze  it  and  deal  with  it  collectively  through  special  programs  of   education  they   will   be   condemned   to   re-­‐dramatize   periodically   the   same   episodes   of   vengeance   sadism   and   cruelty   to   the   point   that   after   the   end   of   the   world   the   phantoms   of   a   German,   a   Jew   and   an   Arab   will  still  be  chasing  each  other  with  a  club  much  like  in  the  paintings  of  Francisco  Goya.   Hablar   de   la   violencia   necesaria   del   estado   es   una   aberración   bolchevique.   A   los   socialistas   que   creen  en  el  estatismo  les  podríamos  recordar  que  sin  libertad  y  democracia  el  camino  conduce    al   Archipiélago  Gulag  .  O  puede  ser  que  como  politólogos  quieran  congraciarse  con  el  régimen    para   ingresar  a  la  burocracia.  Nosotros  comprendemos  el  proceso  histórico  que  vive  México  es  por  eso   que   reconocemos   los   esfuerzos   del   gobierno,(   octubre,   2013),   ante   los   desastres   naturales   y   la   terrible   situación   de   inseguridad   creada   por   más   de   100,   000   secuestros   en   un   año.   También   entendemos   el   esfuerzo   del   gobierno   por   encontrar   un   equilibrio   político   dentro   del   marco   del     régimen  del  sistema  de  partidos  pues  este  es  el  momento  histórico  que  vive  México  y  le  hace  bien   al   país   aprender   la   práctica   parlamentaria   y   la   necesidad   de   la   responsabilidad   en   política.   Sin   embargo  esperamos  que  el  Congreso  estudie  la  necesidad  de  abrirle  el  acceso  a  la  administración   pública  a  todos  los  ciudadanos  que  no  militen  en  un  partido  político  mediante  la  creación  de  una   Ley   del   Servicio   Social   Voluntario   y   de   La   Tarjeta   Inteligente   que   les   diera   acceso   a   plazas   libres   en   la   administración   pública   por   un   corto   periodo   de   tiempo   dentro   de   un   sistema   rotativo   para   evitar  la  creación  de    sinecuras.   También  queremos  reconocer  la  moderación  que  demostró  el  gobierno  de  Distrito  Federal  en  su   manejo   de   la   crisis   magisterial.   En   ese   mismo   espíritu   podríamos   sugerir   que   a   los   jóvenes   ‘anarquistas´  que  se  manifiestan  violentamente  ´cual  rito  de  paso  tribal’,  empañando  aniversarios   tan  significativos  como  la  Marcha  por  El  2  de  Octubre,  se  les  proporcione  acceso  a  algunos  talleres   artesanales  como  los  que  alguna  vez  existieron  en  las  unidades  habitacionales  del  IMSS  para  que   aprendan   algún   oficio,   tomen   clases   de   guitarra   o   de   yoga   y   se   socialicen   de   una   manera     pacífica.   Muchos   son   rechazados   de   las   Universidades   o   los   que   son   militantes   políticos   serios   podrían   formalizar  su  perspectiva  política  mediante  un  desplegado  en  algún  periódico  o  en  internet  para   comunicar   algún   programa   político   o   social   y   no   ser   confundidos   con   otros   que     tanta   droga   les   impidió  concentrarse  y  terminar    sus  estudios  universitarios.  (Se  podría  negociar  con  el  grupo  que  t   hace   algunos     años   tomó   el   Auditorio   ‘Che’   Guevara   para   que   lo   entreguen,   que   mucha   falta   le   hace   a   la   Facultad   de   Filosofía   y   letras   de   la   UMAM.   El   autor   de   estas   líneas   en   alguna   ocasión  


disfruto   ahí   de   sendas   conferencias   dadas   por   personalidades   internacionales   como   el   compositor   Karlheinz  Stockhaussen  y  la  escritora  Susan  Sontag,  sin  mencionar  los  muchos  clásicos  del  cine  que   disfrutó   presentados   por   el   Cine   Club   de   La   Facultad.   El   autor   de   estas   líneas   no   comprende   porque  capricho  están  ahí  esos  jóvenes  y  porque  los  tolera  La  Universidad,  pero  en  realidad  debo   decir   que   no   conozco   a   estos   grupos,   que   soy   seguidor   de   Mohandas   Karamchand   Gandhi   y   de   León  Tolstoi  y  que  estoy  en  contra  de  la  violencia  de  cualquier  género…)     Otros  politólogos,    más  generosos,  más  independientes  y    menos  interesados  en  formar  parte  de   la   burocracia,   han   dicho,   con   Winston   Churchill,   que   el   sistema   político   que   tenemos,   o   que   padecemos,  hoy  en  día,  es  el  mejor;  considerando  las  alternativas.  En  un  sentido  estricto  esto  es   cierto   si   consideramos   los   regímenes   dictatoriales   personales,   los   caudillos   y   el   fascismo   corporativo  de  izquierda  o  de  derecha  que  ha  padecido  Latino  América.  La  democracia  electoral  de   partidos  pone  a  competir  a  diferentes  sectores  y  grupos  de  interés  de  la  sociedad  que  se  arrebatan   el   poder   periódicamente   en   el   descontento   y   en   la   amargura   de   la   derrota   de   los   perdedores;   evitando  así  las  continuas  guerras  civiles  tan  prevalentes  en  el  siglo  XIX,  pero  sin  erradicar  nunca  la   pobreza  y  la  discordia,  tan  necesarias  para  mantener  una  mano  dura  y  autoritaria  y  una  mano  de   obra  barata  en  el  mercado  del  trabajo.  Este  es  nuestro  presente  y  ha  sido  nuestro  pasado.   Sin   embargo   se   supone   que   debemos   de   aprender   de   la   experiencia   de   la   Historia,   que   nos   propone  que  el  hombre  es  perfectible  y  que  para  sobrevivir  y  vivir  en  sociedad  meditemos  sobre  la   esfera   de   la   ética   y   así   proyectemos   y   visualicemos   sociedades   cada   vez   mejores.   Nos   movemos   hacia  ellas  buscando  el  bien  común.  Es  en  este  sentido  que  pensamos  en  una  fase  superior  de  la   democracia  hacia  la  cual  pudiésemos  todos  transitar  pacíficamente  poniéndonos  de  acuerdo  como   sociedad  compleja  y  plural  que  somos,  gestionando  paso  a  paso  lo  que  valla  surgiendo  ,  cada  vez   con   mayor   aplomo,   perfeccionando   nuestras   instituciones   históricas   e   invirtiendo   toda   nuestra   atención  en  la  educación  de  nuestros  hijos  y  nietos  .  Donde  haya  hombres  y  mujeres  que  sepan   convencer  con    lucidez  y  con    el  ejemplo  de  sus  actos  por  ahí  estará  la  democracia.     Por  eso  el  gobierno  del  futuro  podría  surgir  de  las  asambleas  de  barrio,    de  las  juntas  de  vecinos,   de  las  manzanas  o  de  las  cuadras  que  ante  la  emergencia  del  colapso  de  la  política  se  presentarían   como  lo  más  sencillo,  lo  que  está  a  la  mano,  como  escribiera  E.F.  Schumacher  en  Small  is  Beautiful.   Lo   curioso   del   caso   es   que   las   asambleas   de   barrio   y   las   juntas   de   vecinos   no   constituyen   una   utopía,  o  una  forma  inocente  de  idealismo;  no,  implican  la  recuperación  de  un  ejercicio  perdido,   que   es   la   comunicación   humana,   cancelada   por   el   intenso   narcisismo   e   ensimismamiento   de   la   política   en   que   se   ha   convertido     nuestra   cultura   mundial   contemporánea.   Una   cultura   de     marginación  y  consumo  donde  la  más  mínima  comunicación    espontanea,  efusiva  y  afectuosa  se   ha  olvidado  en  el  primitivo  narcisismo  de  una  psique  fracturada  por  el  consumo  y    la  manipulación   del   Estado,   que   ha   alineado   al   individuo   en   la     envidia   permanente,   en   los   celos   y   en   la   frustración   ante   las   metas   deliberadamente   inalcanzables   inducidas   por   la   himnopaedia   de   la   publicidad   comercial   reforzada   por   la   propaganda   política   que   propone   una   sociedad   de   clases,   meritocrática   y  jerarquizada.  .    


El  Método  de  La  Psicohistoria:  la  cuestión  religiosa       La   esfera   de   lo   secular   debe   de   estar   claramente   diferenciada   de   la   vida   espiritual   del   individuo.   Esto   ha   significado   un     arduo   aprendizaje   a   todo   lo   largo   de   la   Historia   desde   que   se   dejó   de   compartir  la  experiencia  enteogénica  a  finales  del  pleistoceno.  Hoy  en  día  la  religión  en  sus  formas   exteriores   es   un   fenómeno   étnico   cultural   que   ha   perdido   su   origen   enteogénico   y   ya   no   es   compartida   universalmente   como   experiencia   interna   como   se   hacía   al   final   del   pleistoceno   y   como  se  hace  hoy  en  día  en  las  pocas  sociedades  sobrevivientes  que  viven  la  experiencia  religiosa   de  una  manera  directa  con  Las  Plantas  Sagradas    Es  por  eso  que  hoy  en  día  tenemos  que  hablar  de   una   sociedad   secular   necesariamente   para   defendernos   del   embate   ideológico   de   las   religiones   externas  corporativas  que  tienen  un  origen  histórico  étnico-­‐geográfico   con   un   fuerte   componente   racial  de  supremacía  política    cultural  o  explícitamente  agresiva  e  imperialista.  Es  por  eso  que  en   una   sociedad   laica,   en   una   sociedad   libre,   en   una   sociedad   democrática   que   a   la   vez   es   plural   tenemos  que  hablar  de  la  libertad  de  conciencia  y  del  secularismo  fundamental  en  una  sociedad   democrática.     Es   el   sentido   tutelar   que   asumen   las   religiones   corporativas   asociadas   al   Estado   que   amenaza   la   libertad  espiritual  del  hombre  contemporáneo  con  la  sombra  de  la  Teocracia,  permeando  la  vida   social  con  un    paternalismo  autoritario  y  patrimonialista  sobre  las  almas  y  las  ideas  religiosas  como   en   los   tiempos   de   Juan   de   Palafox   y   Pedro   Moya   de   Contreras,   quienes   por   cierto   no   lograron   doblegar  el  espíritu  de    Sor  Juana  Inéz  de  la  Cruz,  aunque  lo  intentaron….     La   pluralidad   religiosa   existente   en   las   democracias   avanzadas   del   mundo   garantizada   por   sus   Constituciones,   es   garantía   de   diversidad.   Dios   los   hizo   Ateos,   Budistas,   Católicos   o   Marxistas   y   tanta   competencia   los   mantiene   inspirados   para   bien   de   la   sociedad   que   no   permite   que   predomine  alguna  confesión;  que  como  la  política  exterior  de  Inglaterra  en  los  siglos  XVIII  y  XIX,  se   aseguraba   que   siempre   existiera   un   balance   en   el   poder,   que   nadie   predominara,   que   nadie   impusiera  un  orden  espiritual  totalitario  sobre  las  conciencias  -­‐  ninguna  teocracia  para  el  mundo,   entonces,  ningún  ayatola  u  obispo  virrey.    La   Espiritualización   de   la   Política   está   en   el   fuero   interno   de   cada   individuo,   si   se   es   religioso   u   espiritual;   en   la   esfera   de   lo   enteogénico,   de   la   divinidad   que   mora   dentro   de   nosotros;   si   se   es   agnóstico   alejandrino   o   rosacruz   etc…,   entonces   morara   en   la   conciencia   de   lo   político   y   de   lo   ético.     Pero   una   sociedad   laica   y   sus   necesarios   límites   a   las   libertades   religiosas   es   algo   que   ya   se   ha   acordado   en   la   mayor   parte   del   mundo   civilizado.   Ha   quedado   entendido   después   de   innumerables  guerras  religiosas    cuales  son  los  límites  de  la  libertad  religiosa.  No  creo  que  nadie   quiera  regresar  a  las  guerras  religiosas;  por  eso  el  laicismo  en  política  es  necesario.  Pero  también   es   cierto   que   hoy   más   que   nunca   deseamos   que   renazca   el   espíritu   de   comunidad   espiritual   universal  que  es  silencioso  y  telepático  porque  mora  dentro  del  corazón  de  cada  individuo.  En  el  


terreno   de   la   vida   social   no   necesitamos   exteriorizar   nuestra   ideología   religiosa   si   la   sabemos   expresar  con  nuestros  actos.   Luego   entonces   La   Espiritualización   de   la   Política   no   tiene   sentido   si   se   limita   a   un   ejercicio   de   buenas  intenciones  y  propósitos  humanitarios,  eso  no  funciona  en  política  real.  Para  asegurarnos   que  el  poder  no  se  eternice  en  la  venalidad    tenemos  que  cambiar  de  sistema  político  y  así  estar   seguros   que   nunca   más   sea   transferida   a   persona   alguna   responsabilidad   social   en   un   plano   de   autoridad   discrecional   sino   que   la   responsabilidad   de   la   gestión   de   los   asuntos   públicos   de   la   sociedad   sea   compartida   por   todos   en   términos   de   igualdad,   de   autogestión   y   autogobierno,   en   juntas  vecinales  de  manzanas,  de  cuadra  o  de  edificio,  en  asambleas  de  barrios  o  de  colonia,  en   parlamentos   delegacionales,   distritales,   federales,   de   ciudad   y   en   los   consejos   de   las   comunidades   étnicas  rurales.                                          


The  Method  of  Psychohistory:  Imago       Imago,  in  Spanish,  mitote,    are  the  many  copies  of  reality,  the  representations  from  the  Collective   Unconscious  that  help  form  the  many  version  of  history  for  political  purposes  and  propaganda;  the   projection,   the   image-­‐idea   favored   by   nationalists   and   the   elaborators   of   religious   ideology   designed  to  perpetuate  domination.   The   image   of   the   Argentinian   Jesuit   pope   standing   before   a   kneeling   ‘Mexican’   in   the   Vatican   plaza,   surrounded   by   some   of   his   countrymen   wearing   the   t-­‐shirts   of   the   national   soccer   team,   performing   an   ‘exorcism’,   (   or   was   it   an   unconscious   act   of   submission     reminiscent   of     conquest   ?   ),  upon  a  representative  of  a  ‘pagan  Indian  race  possessed  by  the  devil’,  (  Mexico,  the  archrival  of   Argentina  in  culture  and  sports  vying  for  primacy  in  Latin  America)?   We   have   to   deconstruct   this   into   the   Vatican   strategy   to   preserve   its   power   over   the   Latin   American   masses   believed   to   be   the   last   stronghold   of   a   faltering   church   which   has   lost   its   authority  and  credibility  in  Europe.  The  idea,  or  Imago,  of  electing  an  Argentine  Jesuit  to  succeed   the  resigning  Ratzinger  was  masterminded  fairly  quickly,  probably  suggested  by  Ratzinger  himself   who  pointed  out  the  dire  straight  in  which  the  church  found  herself.   Apparently  the  cardinals  calculated  that  the  way  to  hold  their  sway  over  the  expertly  intimidated   and   suppressed   Latin   America   masses   was   to   have   recourse   of   the   wide   historical   experience   of   the   Jesuit   order   in   this   matter,   who   from   the   missions   of   Paraguay   to   those   of   New   Mexico   had   had  much  experience  in  the  past.  Why  was  not  a  Mexican  prelate  chosen  for  this  task?  Because   they  have  too  much  Indian  blood  in  them  and  the  Argentines  are  more  reliable  because  they  are   solidly   Latin   and   Eurocentric,   from   the   Vatican´s   point   of   view,   the   most   competent   representatives  of  Latin  Europe  in  the  American  continent.           In   such   a   fashion   is   public   opinion   created   and   manipulated,   the   conservative   media   quickly   responds.  But  are  we  here  back  in  the  eighteenth  century  or  in  the  twenty  first?  Is  Latin  America   going   to   be   seduced   by   the   Jesuit   siren   call   and   through   it   provide   the   survival   of   an   obsolete   religion  restrictive  of  human  spiritual  expansion,  the  maintainer  of  the  authoritarian  social  order   and   singular   prop   of   the   decadent   National   State?   What   exactly   is   the   ‘Theology   of   Liberation’?   Instead   of   defending   the   rich   like   the   Legionaries   of   Christ   why   not   defend   the   poor   like   father   Alejandro  Solalinde?  We  would  need  whole  companies,  legions  of  Solalindes  to  defeat  Organized   Crime...   Some   forty   years   ago   in   Cuernavaca,   Morelos,   Mexico       inspired   by   Erich   Fromm   who   was   then   living  in  Cuernavaca,  Bishop  Sergio  Mendez  Arceo,  Gregorio  Lemercier  and  Ivan  Illich  proposed  the   use  of  psycho-­‐analysis  in  monasteries  and  seminars  of  the  Catholic  Church  as  they  had  observed  


the   manifestation   of   severe   psychopathological   syndromes   like   alcoholism,   repressed   homosexuality,  pederasty  and  other  related  neurosis  and  psychoneurosis  in  young  aspirants  to  the   priesthood.  The  Vatican  and  the  reactionary  Mexican  clergy  furiously  fought  such  notions  as  they   continued  to  steer  the  ship  of  Catholicism  towards  the  rock  of  sexuality.  Today  they  are  paying  the   prize   as   the   Church   founders   in   the   sea   of   its   veritable   nemesis,   the   incomprehension   and   repression   of   sexuality,   which   places   the   Church   in   obsolescence,   outside   the   currents   of   contemporary  society.   The  Vatican  can  count  on  the  conservative  masses  of  Latin  America  who  can  mobilize  thousands  of   people  for  a  papal  visit,  and  so  the  Vatican  is  gambling  for  a  show  of  power  in  its  outing  to  Brazil.   They   have   elected   a   Jesuit   pope   and   they   can   rely   on   the   discipline   of   the   order   to   bring   into   their   order   the   fragile   and   defenseless   new   generation   of   Latin   American   youth   gambling   on   the   atavistic  permanence  of  their  catechism  and  apologetics  in  the  unconscious  minds  of  the  masses   that   the   Jesuit   order   worked   so   well   to   introject   in   the   minds   of   youth   at   their   schools   and   universities  since  their  early  days  in  Germany  with  Le  Jay,  Láinez  and  Canisius.   One   thing   they   have   not   calculated   is   their   continuous   evasion   of   the   problem   of   sexuality,   the   very   rock   towards   which   the   vessel   of   the   church   is   heading.   I   ignore   if   the   subject   was   mentioned   in   the   Manual   of   Exercises   designed   by   Ignatius   of   Loyola   or   in   the   theology   that   his   delegates     expounded   at   the   council   of   Trent,   (   Leopold   Von   Ranke,   Historia   de   los   Papas,   FCE   pp.   68-­‐112),     but  how  can  the  order  and  the  church  think  of  surviving  in  the  world  of  international  sex  traffic,   slavery   and   pederasty   in   The   Net?   Are   they   aware   of   their   own   responsibility,   how   their   own   ignorance  and  teaching  contributes  to  sexual  ignorance  and  brutality  in  the  world?   An  exclusively  male  society  ignores  the  mechanism  of  the  Oedipus  Complex,  even  the  U.S.  army  is   beginning  to  recognize  and  accept  homosexuality  as  an  established  fact  of  human  nature  without   pseudo   moral   or   ideological   posturing.   How   is   it   that   a   society   that   ‘sublimates’   its   generalized   homosexuality  in    vows  of  chastity  and  ‘asceticism’  confronts  the  nature  of  the  human  libido  which   is  in  operation  24  hours  a  day  every  day  of  our    lives  by  ignoring  its  existence?  


There  are  signs  that  Europeans  have  grown  tired  of  the  Catholic  Church.  Christianity  was  originally   a   Mediterranean   historical   event,   it   was   precisely   the   Jesuit   order   who   between   1550   and   1773   insisted   on   making   it   universal,   until   the   order   was   suppressed   because   of   its   overbearing   pretensions   and   conflicts   with   constitutional   monarchy   and   the   emerging   volterian   bourgeoisie   .   The   autochthonous,   indigenous,   populations   of   the   American   continent   have   never   been   great   fans  of  Christianity  and  their  sense  of  identity  is  growing  stronger  every  day.  The  criollos  and  the   mestizos  of  Latin  America  are  constructing  a  new  identity,  looking  for  their  roots  in  the  Earth  that   gave   them   birth.   Why   should   the   Eurocentric   Jesuit   order   come   to   teach   us   what   to   think   and   exploit  the  generous  innocence  of  the  majority  of  the  people  of  this  continent?         The  Method  of  Psychohistory:  recurrent  syndromes,   Sugar  and  Slavery   Drugs  and  Organized  Crime         Hernando   Cortez’   conquest   of   Mexico   awoke   incommensurable   greed   in   Europe.   The       genocide   perpetuated  on  the  Tainos  of  the  Caribbean,  and  the  Portuguese  slave  traffic  introduced  a  new  era   of  depredation  and  forced  extinction  of  autochthonous  cultures  that  became  a  new  paradigm  for   the   Americas   that   survives   in   many   forms   and   many   disguises   to   this   day.   It   is   the   ethic   of   the   matador,  the  machito  and  the  cabrón  eulogized  in  popular  social  folklore  since  the  XIX  century,  a   Karma  that  continues  to  reverberate  today  as  organized  crime.   The   Caribbean   Islands   were   the   scene   of   an   experiment   in   terror,   a   generalized   collective   sadomasochism   for   economic   gain   was   the   accepted   culture   of   the   day;   sheer   erotic   perversion   reaching   its   apotheosis   with   the   death   of   hundreds   of   thousands   of   transported   slaves   not   to   mention  the  eventual  desertification  of  Haiti  as  the  result  of      extreme  exploitation.  This  was  the   legacy  of  the  French,  the  thirty  thousand  French  slavers  who  perished  at  the  hands  of  the  rebels  in   Haiti  massacred  after  the  rebellion  of  Toussaint  Louverture  in  Española,  the  former  home  of  the   original   Tainos   of   pre-­‐Colombian   days.   (   We   are   reminded   of   another   thirty   thousand   royalist   Frenchmen,  men,  women  and  children,  killed  in  La  Vendée,  in  December  1793,  by  the  artillery  of   general   citizen   Westermann   at   Savenay   while   attempting   to   cross   La   Loire   on   their   way   to   Normandy,  hopping  for  the  support  of  the  Royal,  (  British  ),  Navy  which  never  got  there.      ).  


The  economic  impact  of  slavery  has  been  the  subject  of  many  academic  investigations  yet  many   forms  of  slavery  persists  in  our  day.  We  could  recommend  the  excellent  History  of  Cuba  by  Hugh   Thomas.   Similar   processes   were   experienced   in   Jamaica   and   Haiti   and   elsewhere   in   The   Caribbean   until  the  abolition  of  slavery  in  the  latter  part  of  the  XIX  century.  The  creation  of  the  market  for   sugar  through  the  agency  of  slavery  has  a  similar  parallel  in  the  rise  of  the  contemporary  market  in   human  traffic  for  sexual  and  economic  exploitation  in  conjunction  with  the  traffic  in  marijuana  and   cocaine  generated  by  the  inflated  prices  of  these  commodities  because  of  their  illegal  condition.   This   double   ‘opportunity’   of   ‘drugs’   and   slavery   is   one   of   the   fundamental   combinations   that   sustain  organized  crime,  this  symbiosis  is  its  source  of  energy  as  well  as  its  source  of  liquid  cash.  In   the  same  manner  the  questionable  or  illegal  practice  of  slavery  created  huge  margins  of  profit  in   the  sugar  market  in  the  XVIII  and  XIX  centuries.  It  is  the  same  opportunistic  technique  designed  by   parliaments   and   governments   to   maintain   the   unholy   cohabitation   between   politics   and   crime.   The  same  situation  generated  by  members  of  the  English  parliament  who  owned  sugar  plantations   in   Jamaica   during   the   XVIII   century   is   repeated   today   by   many   politicians     and   bankers   who   are   partners  in  crime  with  the  drug  cartels  and  who  greatly  benefit  with  the  ‘illegal’  condition  or  status   of  ‘drugs’.   Isn’t  there  a  similarity  in  time-­‐space  between  a  clipper  slave  ship  of  1860  and  a  jungle  laboratory   producing   Cocaine   in   2013,   the   huge   profits?   The   hypocritical   insistence   on   the   illegality   of   Marijuana   has   made   millionaires   in   all   corners   of   ‘The   Americas’.   An   innocent   plant   that   grows   from   Alaska   to   Patagonia   has   turned   millions   of   people   into   accomplices   in   crime   and   sanctimonious  vulgarity;  the  result  of  political  schizophrenia  and  cultural  double  standards…   Not  until  drugs  are  legalized  will  we  see  a  return  to  sanity  and  real  prices.  The  vested  interest  by   the   present   political   world   order   in   prohibiting   ‘drugs’   is   to   keep   prices   high,   in   the   streets   of   New   York.   Up   to   twenty   seven   thousand   dollars   can   be   made   on   a   kilogram   of   marijuana   because   of   prohibition   and   because   of   prohibition   the   apparatus   of   the   state   in   association   with   organized   crime   cam   make   fabulous   fortunes   that   can   hardly   fit   in   the   cellars   of   organized   crime   and   assorted   corrupt   political   operators   who   stash   the   dollars   in   huge   bundles   inside   cardboard   boxes,   (Chinese   goons   in   Mexico   city   and   politicians   in   Tabasco).   With   legalization,   markets   will   be   regulated,  prices  will  be  more  realistic,  they  will  go  back  to  the  original  1960’s  price  of  27  pesos   the   kilogram   of   marijuana,   just   like   epazóte   and   hierbabuena,   (   peppermint   ),   which   is   what   marijuana  is  in  a  market  sense  –  another  herb.  And  a  true  new  culture  of  health  in  a  more  lucid   civilization  will  disclose  the  proper  dimension  of  the  so  called  ‘drugs’  within  the  frame  of  a  saner   society  that  will  be  liberated  to  do  more  creative  things.   Laboratories   could   be   licensed,   revenues   collected,   markets   stabilized,   new   legal   codes   amply   debated,  instead  of  being  habitually  infringed  with  impunity,  with  the  result  that  society  loses  all   respect  for  the  law.  The  lack  of  an  international  conference  on  Drugs  is  gravely  contributing  to  a   deterioration  of  social  relations  within  the  countries  that  suffer  the  syndromes  of  drug  trafficking.     The   more   that   such   a   conference   is   delayed   the   stronger   will   organized   crime   become.   The   artificially   high   prizes   created   by   penalization   vastly   increase   the   power   of   organized   crime   and   greater  is  the  universal  corruption  operated  on  society  as  a  whole  as  the  new  generations  sink  in  a  


culture  of  habitual  crime.  What  is  even  more  perverse  is  the  glorification  of  crime  and  violence  as   a  way  of  life  that  constantly  teaches  the  young  and  vulnerable  that  crime  pays  and  that  they  will   do  well  in  life  if  they  join  the  ranks  of  organized  crime.   This  is  what  is  happening  in  the  Mexican  state  of  Morelos  where  after  the  death  of  capo  Beltrán   Leyva  who  more  or  less  imposed  an  old  style  order  on  the  different  bands,  several  new  bands  have   emerged,  some  of  them  composed  of  teen  agers  who  have  scaled  to  new  heights  of  brutality  as   they  compete  with  each  other  for  the  control  of  territory,  killing  innocent  bystanders  during  their   gang   shootouts   and   committing   more   atrocious   crimes,   (   evidence   of   several   Morelenses   in   conversation  with  this  author  ).    The   cycle   of   violence   continues   because   no   one   has   a   clear   idea   of   when   it   started,   why   it   started   or   what   it   all   mean   in   a   broad   social   and   historical   sense.   Beyond   political   posturing   is   pure   economic  gain  which  betrays  the  complicity  of  a  corrupt  political  order,  morally  bankrupt,  which   has   nothing   more   to   give   but   a   lot   to   take.   This   is   why   an   international   conference   on   Drugs   convening    all  the  nations  involved  is  urgent:  to  acknowledge  the  trade,  understand  its  history,  its   cultural   and   economic   ramifications,   its   regulation   and   its   place   within   a   new   international   legal   order.       The  Method  of  Psychohistory:  Self  Government  versus  Party  Politics       Self-­‐Government   is   an   advanced   form   of   electoral   democracy.   Party   politics   belongs   to   another   era;   to   the   era   of   the   written   press   and   political   journalism,   the   heyday   of   ideology.   It   was   the   era   that   began   with   Daniel   de   Foe   and   L’Abbé   Prévost   and   ended   with   the   Internet.   Today   public   opinion   is   formed   via   tweeter.   The   written   press   is   too   cumbrous   with   the   extractive   paper   industry  that  devours  the  forests  of  the  planet  and  the  labyrinthine  articles  and  editorials  that  try   to  define  a  political  reality  that  is  too  exclusive  and  corrupt  for  the  good  of  humanity.   Town  councils  are  better  and  get  more  things  done  than  the  ideology  of  the  conservative  parties   or  the  liberal  parties,  the  communist  and  socialist  parties  all  put  together  because  all  these  parties   are   self-­‐perpetuating   organisms   that   through   their   bureaucracies   exclude   everyone   else.   The   electoral  system  based  on  party  politics  is  not  going  to  survive  through  the  agency  of  independent   candidates   either….The   system   of   party   politics   has   been   superseded   by   the   desire   to   communicate  directly  through  the  new  media  that  can  quickly  mobilize  a  territorial  unit  that  has   nothing  to  do  with  ‘ideology’  or  ‘class  interests’  but  with  direct,  immediate  community  problems   that  deal  with  the  living  conditions  of  your  city  block,  neighborhood,  township  or  district.  


The   change   to   direct   democracy   would   be   the   affirmation   of   the   idea   of   community,   of   the   existence   of   a   community…A   great   renewal.   There   would   be   no   dislocation   in   the   transition,   no   chaos.   People   would   gather   in   some   neighbor’s   house   to   represent   their   block   and   elect   two   delegates:   one   female   and   one   male,   to   represent   them,   for   a   limited   time,   in   the   district   assembly.   Thus   public   administration   would   be   managed   directly   at   the   block   level   and   at   the   district   level   through   block   meetings,   (   juntas   ),   and   district   assemblies,   (   asambleas   de   barrio   o   de   distrito   ).   Each   district   assembly   would   then   choose   eight   representatives,   four   women   and   four   men,   to   represent   them   at   the   state   congress.   Which   will   be   renamed   the   community   congress   or   the   community   parliament   to   leave   behind   the   political   concept   of   The   State   and   all   that   it   implies   and   get   on   with   the   task   of   a   new   redefinition   of   civilization   to   be   defined   by   the   participants   themselves  in  their  new  assemblies.  It  would  be  1776  and  1789  and  1821  all  over  again  but  more   festive  because  we  would  have  lifted  a  huge  weight  from  our  backs.    We  will  have  expanded  our   consciousness  and  live  in  the  instant  world  of  direct  communication  through  the  new  media.  We   will   have   created   a   new   political   environment   at   a   higher   level   of   consciousness   and   empathy,   closer  to  direct  telepathy,  which  is  an  instantaneous  mutual  agreement  of  shared  enlightenment   in  social  order.   A   friend   has   said,   quoting   Winston   Churchill,   that   the   electoral,   party   democracies   that   we   have   today   are   the   best   we   could   hope   for,   considering   the   alternatives.   And   yes,   those   were   the   alternatives   in   the   past   but   they   are   not   what   we   can   do   in   the   future   to   better   our   present   condition.   In   Churchill’s   time   National   Socialism,   Fascism,   dictatorship   and   imperialism   were   the   alternatives  to  electoral  party  democracy;  pretty  grim  indeed;  but  that  has  changed,  it  is  not  the   alternative  today.  The  alternative  today  is  between  a  mechanized  plutocratic  state  in  the  manner   of   George   Orwell´’s   1984   and   Herbert   Marcus’   alienated   societies   ‘with   a   lot   of   security   and   no   liberty’;   no   matter   how   light   and   homogenized   it   might   be   made   to   look   by   the   plutocracies,   political   scientists   and   mass   psychologists,   the   possibility   that   we   might   enjoy   life,   freedom   and   democracy   through   some   form   of   self-­‐  government   and   direct   democracy   will   be   taken   away   from   us  by  the  people  who  love  The  System  of  Power.                


The  Method  of  Psychohistory:    The  Vision  of  Love  is  the  highest  form  of  Consciousness   The  Entheogenic  Theology  of  Huautla  and  the  Bardo  Thödol:  Temixoch,  el  Sueño  Florido       Los   protagonistas   enteogénicos   son:   La   Tierra   en   su   modalidad   sacralizada   por   el   enteógeno   o   sea   La   Diosa   Madre   Demeter,   Guadalupe   Tonantzin   Cihuacoatl,   el   enteógeno   u   Hongo   Sagrado,   Teonanacatl,  (  psilocybe  Mexicana  ),  Peyote,  (  losophora  williamsii  );El  Hijo,  el  iniciante  o  Mistoi,  y   el  Dios  Padre,  La  Divinidad  Inmanente  proveedora  de  la  luz,  el  calor,  la  llivia  y  la  Telésis,  (Gestalt  de   configuraciones   y   significados   que   le   confieren   unidad   y   sentido   a   todos   los   elementos   de   la   Naturaleza).  El  Nombre  de  esta  última  divinidad  es  múltiple:  El  Padre  Tláloc,  en  Sánscrito,  Diaus-­‐ Pithar,   para   los   Griegos,   Dionisio,   el   joven   Iacco,   que   fueran   como     Xochipili   y   Quetzalcoatl   deidades  tutelares  del  Sueño  Florido,  Temisoch.   En   la   Antigüedad   el   Santuario   Enteogénico   de   mayor   influencia   durante   2000   años   fue   Eleusis,   sobre   el   mar   Egeo,   a   quince   kilómetros   de   Atenas;   desde   la   época   Micénica   3500   AP   hasta   su   destrucción  por  el  Vándalo  Alarico  en  396  de  nuestra  era.    El  uso  de  los  Enteógenos  es  tan  antiguo   como  la  humanidad  misma.  Pensamos  que  Los  Enteógenos  eran  conocidos  en  Gobekli  Tepe,  Catal   Huyuk,   Eridu,   en   el   Egipto   predinástico,     en   la   civilización   Minoica   de   Creta   y   en   la   cultura   pre-­‐ Helénica  de  Grecia.  Sin  duda  que  Grecia  estuvo  bajo  la  influencia  cultural  Cretense  y  que  la  Gran   Diosa   Madre   común   a   todas   las   culturas   Mediterraneas   y   del   Cercano   Oriente   también   fue   venerada   en   Grecia   y   que   en   algún   punto   se   llamó   Deméter   y   que   fue   reverenciada   en   Eleusis   como   La   Gran   Madre   y   que   es   posible   que   en   el   Bronze   Tardio   sus   ritos   tuviesen   influencia   Cretense.   Lo  que  si  sabemos  con  más  certeza  es  que  a  comienzos  de  la  Epoca  Clásica  en  Grecia  Pisistrato  el   tirano  de  Atenas  amplio  la  pequeña  estructura  rectangular  del  antiguo    Telesterión   de   Eleusis   con   una  mayor  que  después  fue  destruida  por  los  Persas.  También  sabemos  que  el  arquitecto  Ictinus,   comisionado  por  el  gran  Pericles,  diseño  un  templo  con  un  pórtico  de  columnas  de  mármol  y  que   la   parte   posterior   del   Telesterión   estaba   constituida   por   una   gradería   de   piedra   excavada   en   la     roca  viva  que  otrora  habría  sido  la  cantera  original  y    que  en  tiempos  remotos  (  4000  AP  )  existió   una  cueva  que  bien  pudo  haber  sido  el  santuario  original.  Siglo.s  después  este  pequeño  acantilado   sirvió  de  pared  natural  para  el  templo  en  épocas  clásicas.  Esto  nos  da  a  entender  el  patrocinio  que   ejerció   Atenas   sobre   el   Santuario   de   Eleusis   durante   la   época   Clásica   Griega   y   después   bajo   el   imperio  Romano  hasta  el  año  396  de  nuestra  era  cuando  el  Santuario  fue  destruido  por  el  Vándalo   Alarico.      


Sabemos   que   Herodoto,   Sófocles,   Eurípides,   Esquilo,   Sócrates,   Platón,   el   emperador   Adriano,   el   escritor   Apuleyo   autor   de   Las   Metamorfosis,   y   muchos   otros   hombres   y   mujeres   de   todas   las   edades   y   condiciones   sociales   incluyendo   a   los   esclavos,   Las   únicas   personas   excluidas   de   participar  en  los  ritos  Eleusinios  serían  las  que  hubiesen  cometido  delitos  de  sangre.    Los  ritos  se   celebraban  bajo  la  protección  de  la  Gran  Madre  Deméter,  de  su  Hija  Core-­‐Perséfone  y  del  Estado   Ateniense   y   fueron   de   gran   influencia   en   el   mundo   antiguo   para   el   Helenismo,   y   de   hecho   constituyeron    el  fenómeno  central  de  la  religión  personal  en  el  mundo  antiguo  en  Asia,  Africa  y   América.  (  ver  Richard  Evans  Schultes,  Plantas  de  los  Dioses,  FCE  )     La  mejor  descripción    de  lo  sucedido  al  interior  del  telesterión  durante  la  ceremonia  de  iniciación   en  Eleusis  esta  en  Gordon  Wasson:  El  Camino  a  Eleusis,  una  solución  al  enigma  de  los  Misterios,   FCE.     Lo   que   puedo   decir   aquí   para   no   repetir   el   excelente   trabajo   que   hicieran   Wasson   y   sus   colaboradores   es   que   La   experiencia   Enteogénica   profunda   de   Iluminación   y   de   visiones   trascendentales  la  puede  vivir  cualquiera  que  lo  desee,  que  lo  halla  meditado  y  que  este  consiente   de  su  significado,  preparado,  como  se  hacía  en  la  antigüedad,  con  gran  respeto  y  estudio  previo  a   la  ceremonia  de  iniciación  con  Las  Plantas  Sagradas.     Se  puede  destacar  de  todo  lo  dicho  por  tantos  autores  de  la  antigüedad  y  de    tiempos  modernos     el   valor   espiritual   transformador   que   se   llevaban   los   antiguos   de   su   experiencia   en   Eleusis:   la  


Visión  de  lo  Inefable,  La  Paz  concedida  por    La  Divinidad  y  su  infinita  misericordia  al  concedernos  la   oportunidad   de   conocernos   a   nosotros   mismos,   al   recuperar   la   línea     de   nuestra   memoria   rescatada   y     reconstruida   y   contemplar   la   sobrecogedora   unidad   y   belleza   del   mundo   que   nos   rodea;   el   sentimiento   de   la   paradisiaca   experiencia   que   podría   ser   la   vida   en   esta   tierra   si   tan   solo   ejerciésemos   el   autocontrol   suficiente   para   vivir   en   armonía   con   la   naturaleza   y   con   nuestros   semejantes,  como  lo  pintara  con  gran  claridad  Hieronymus  Bosch  en  su  tríptico  del  Jardín  de  las   Delicias.  Esa  era  la  certeza  que  se  llevaban  los  antiguos,  la  convicción  íntima  de  que  el  paso  entre   esta   vida   y   la   otra   constituía     Un   Continuo   Psíquico   por   el   que   transitaban.     En   el   momento   mismo   en  que  salían  de  Eleusis  los  invadía  el  sentimiento  de  tener  el  destino  espiritual  de  sus    vidas  en   sus   propias   manos   y   que   esta   vida   era   equivalente   a   la   otra   y   que   no   había   la   menor   diferencia   entre  una  y  otra  porque  la  vida,  como  dijera  el  poeta:  sueño  es  y  los  sueños,  sueños  son  y  que  la   única  realidad  era  La  Visión  de  lo  Inefable,  inenarrable,  que  era  el  mayor  tesoro  que  se  llevaban…      


The  innocence  that  lies  under  the  skin  of  the  huautleños  and  the  freshness  of  the  mornings  in   Huautla  announce  a  promise  revealed  by  The  Sun.  It  is  a  vision  of  love  that  recalls  The  garden  of   Paradise  among  the  fruit  trees  of  the  orchards  of  Huautla.  No  words  can  describe  it;  or  if  words  are   a  vehicle  to  the  unconscious  we  should  do  well  to  stand  outside  time  and  like  the  crumbling   pigment  of  ancient  buildings  retain  the  pressed  images  of  past  lives  to  live  and  to  witness  a   simultaneity  elongated  like  the  shadow  we  project  from  our  backs,  facing  the  sun,  facing  the  light.   Imagine  that  at  that  moment  of  crossing  The  Portal  ,    you  are  presented  with  a  moment  of  grace,   with   the   eternity   of   your   life   opened   like   the   many   petals   of   a   lotus   flower   blending   with   the   beauty  of  the  world  that  surrounds  you.  We  would  then  be  experiencing  The  Clear  Light  of  Pure   Reality   and   the   very   cobble   stones   that   we   tread   with   the   pilgrims   of   Huautla   will   shine   with   magnificence   revealing   the   hands   that   set   them,   letting   us   see   the   presence   of   the   masons   of   long   ago  performing  the  tequio,  the  hours  of  communal  work.  We  would  then  pass  from  one  world  to   another   understanding   a   long   series   of   events   that   placed   us   there   at   that   moment,   like   the   bonding   of   many   lives   that   suddenly   manifest   themselves   and   are   understood   to   be   part   of   the   same  effort  towards  redemption  through  the  clarity  of  The  Vision  of  Love.   The  trees  in  the  orchard  of  Huautla  will  seem  friendly  to  us  and  the  wise  huautleños  will  smile  with   us  assenting,  for  they  are  all  mushroom  eaters,  the  best  of  them.  We  come  and  go  between  the   worlds  parading  dawn  the  street  with  our  friends  who  accompany  us,  who  are  travelling  with  us   along  the  Luminous  Path  of  The  Clear  Light  of  Radiance.  We  enter  the  Portal  and  disappear.    


The   Meaning   of   Love   is   stated   by   little   sign   posts   along   the   way,   a   friendly   face,   a   chance   conversation   with   friends   standing   at   the   crossroads,   a   phrase   remembered   that   clears   the   meaning  of  a  paradox,  will  open  an  unsuspected  door,  previously  unseen,  that  will  lead  to  joyous   gatherings   with   friends,   in   this   world   or   in   another,   it   does   not   matter   ,   it   is   the   same.   So   we   should  not  fear…   Pilgrim  on  the  road,  the  one  who  knows  the  Way,  how  to  find  the  divinity  that  dwells  inside  us?   Pilgrim   on   the   road,   where   does   he   go,   he   goes   towards   the   center   of   his   heart   to   begin   the   life   of   consciousness.  He  will  have  his  life  in  his  own  hands  and  will  be  responsible  for  his  actions  because   he   knows   the   Way…   that   each   decision   in   his   life   emerges   from   the   clarity   of   his   consciousness   for   in  such  a  way  he  increases  his  spiritual  energy  and  this  shows  him  the  Way…  The  pilgrim  chooses   the  paths  that  have  a  heart…that  lead  to  the  center  of  his  heart.       Thus  we  read  in  D.T.  Zuzuki’s  Zen  Buddhism:   “In   the   Sayings   of   Nan-­‐ch’uan   we   read   that,   when   T’ui   governor   of   Ch’i   District,   asked   the   fifth   patriarch   of   the   Zen   Order-­‐that   is,   Hung-­‐jen-­‐   how   it   was   that   while   he   had   five   hundred   followers,   Hui-­‐neng,   in   preference   to   all   others,   was   signaled   out   to   be   given   the   orthodox   robe   of   transmission  as  the  sixth  patriarch,  the  fifth  patriarch  replied:  “four  hundred  and  ninety  nine  out   of   my   disciples   understand   well   what   Buddhism   is,   except   one   Hui-­‐neng.   He   is   a   man   not   to   be   measured  by  ordinary  standard.  Hence  the  robe  of  faith  was  handed  over  to  him.”  


‘’Under   the   fifth   patriarch,   all   of   his   five   hundred   disciples,   except   one   Hui-­‐neng,   understood   Buddhism   well.   The   lay   disciple,   Neng   was   quite   unique   in   this   respect,   for   he   did   not   at   all   understand  Buddhism.  He  understood  the  Way  only  and  no  other  thing.’’   From  D.T.  Zuzuki,  Zen  Buddhism,  pp.  27  and  28.    Doubleday  Anchor  Book,  1956.       The   highest   form   of   knowledge   is   a   direct   vision   of   reality,   when   a   series   of   associations   are   connecting   several   levels   of   existence   in   a   broad   phenomenological   spectrum   integrating   new   discoveries   into   a   unified   vision   that   expands   continuously   in   a   continuum   of   knowledge   that   is   reaching  us  directly  from  the  unconscious.  This  is  a  comprehensive  vision  akin  to  Illumination.  This   vision   is   not   an   elaboration   of   a   previously   known   ideology   but   is   completely   spontaneous   and   original.  It  does  not  mean  that  this  original  vision  does  not  resemble  other  previous  visions  outside   the   mnemonic   content   stored   by   a   single   individual   because   it   could   be   said   that   original   vision   emerges  from  the  same  Universal  Source.  The  Ultimate  Vision  of  Reality  is  something  that  we  have   perhaps  experienced  before  and  that  we  are  now  remembering.     Perhaps  this  is  The  Way  that  Hui-­‐neng  knew  and  yet  yet  he  did  not  know  Buddhism  ideologically,   just  as  Plotinus  might  have  known  The  Way  even  before  he  studied  the  philosophy  of  Plato  with   his   teacher   Amonius   Saccas.   Any   man   can   know   the   way   if   he   so   desires,   for   we   are   all   pilgrims   on   the  way,  peregrinos  en  el  camino.  And  we  come  from  the  same  source  even  though  it  is  not  easy   to  remember.   That  this  Vision  of  Ultimate  Reality  is  a  vision  of  love  is  unquestionable,  it  is  in  the  nature  of  Telesis   that   a   continuous   association   of   ideas   that   clarifies   some   point   is   inspired   by   love.   Love   is   the   highest  form  of  consciousness,  it  can  become  pure  knowledge  This  is  indeed  the  object  of  science   when  it  wishes  to  go  beyond  the  limit    to  expand    knowledge  around  a  phenomena;  it  goes  beyond   the  limits  of  knowledge  to  touch  a  noumena,  something  previously  unknown.   Galileo  did  this,  so  did  Descartes  –  and  Hui-­‐neng.                


Psychohistory  and  the  History  of  Religion       Ever  since  Sir  James  George  Frazer’s  monumental,  The  Golden  Bough,  (  Macmilland,  1922  ),  Joseph   Cambell’s,  The    Hero  With  a  Thousand  Faces,  (  Bollingen  Foundation,  1949  ),  Claude  Lévi-­‐Strauss´   La  pensée  sauvage,(  Librairie  Plon,  1962  ),    Mircea  Eliade´s   Traité  d’histoire  des  religions,  (  Editions   Payot,  Paris,  1964  ),    and  E.  O.  James’  Prehistoric  Religion,  (  Thames  and  Hudson,  New  York  ),  we   posses  a  well  structured  road  for  The  History  of  Religion,  albeit  the  road  did  not  go  much  further   than   Sumerian   Ur.   Then   came   the   description   of   James   Mellart   of   Catal   Huyuk   in   the   April   1964   issue  of  Scientific  American  and  sometime  later  the  discovery  of  Gobekli  Tepe  in  southern  Turky  at  the  end   of  last  century,  a  site  that  has  not  been  fully  interpreted  and  perhaps  will  remain  so  for  some  years  

to  come  while  excavations  continue.    We   hope   to   establish   a   continuity   of   religious   thought   from   Gobekli   Tepe   to   Catal   Huyuk,   Eridu   and   Eleusis…right   dawn   to   Bishop   Eusebius   and   emperors   Constantine,   Julian,   Theodosius   and   Justinian.   It   is   indeed   the   History   of   the   Decline   of   Religion   in   the   West,   from   the   courageous   psychonauts   of   Gobekli   Tepe   and   The   Hypogeum   of   Malta   who   travelled   through   The   Portal   to   modern   Psychonauts   like   Terence   Mackenna   and   a   few   other   mystics   and   poets.   Or   should   we   apologize   because   we   are   not   considering   the   vast   calendar   of   saints   and   the   battalion   of   theologians  from  the  Mediterranean  world?         The   Method   of   Psychohistory:   Repressed   Homosexuality   and   Male   Hysteria,   Sigmund   Freud:   On   Psychopathology,   Some   Neurotic   Mechanisms   in   Jealousy,   Paranoia   and   Homosexuality.   (The   Pelican  Freud  Library,  Volume  10,  1979  ).    Leonardo,  Sigmund  Freud,  chap.  3,  A  Pelican  Book  1963.   Wilhelm  Reich,  Character  Analysis,  Farrar,  Strauss  and  Giraud,  1972.  Wilhelm  Stekel,  Sadism  and   Masochism,   The   Psychology   of   Hatred   and   Cruelty,   Liveright   Publishing   Corporation,   New   York   1953.         Exclusively   masculine   corporations   like   armies   and   corporate   religious   institutions   unconsciously   base   themselves   in   paranoid   mechanisms   derived   from   the   repression   of   homosexuality,   the   consequence   of   a   neurotic   fixation   that   can   generate   mass   hysteria,   sadism   and   violence   clearly   observed   during   a   civil   war.   A   classic   example   of   this   was   The   Spanish   Civil   War   1936-­‐1939,   well   documented  by  Hugh  Thomas  in  his  monumental  History  of  that  war.  Another  more  contemporary   case  in  point  is  the  Syrian  Civil  war  where  desperate  acts  of  brutality  seen  in  internet  document  


the   terrible   contradictions   in   contemporary   Islamic   Culture   that   have   been   building   up   since   the   late  XVIII  century.   It  takes  a  complete  collapse  of  society  to  bring  out  the  components  of  mass  psychopathology  in   psychohistory.  The  problem  of  Authority  and  Power  is  amplified  for  us  to  see.  A  historical  society   struggles   to   find   the   best   forms   of   social   organization,   helpless,   without   the   instruments   of   self-­‐   analysis   and   falls   victim   to   old   atavisms   and   formulas   repeated   from   generation   to   generation   because   they   seem   to   have   worked   in   the   past.   One   combatant   professes   to   be   fighting   for   freedom,  his  opponent,  his  enemy,  is  also  fighting  for  freedom,  so  he  is  convinced.  No  matter  who   wins,   in   a   few   years’   time,   they,   the   winners,   will   have   recreated   the   same   conditions   of   oppression  that  they  fought  to  liberate  themselves  from.  To  understand  this  is  the  very  purpose  of   the  Method  of  Psychohistory.   A  situation  is  developing  in  US  society  created  by  cultural  attitudes  that  were  developed  in  the  last   centuries  as  the  result  of  slavery,  slave  traffic  and  a  slave  powered  economy  that  is  now    returning   as   a   dramatization   of   past   conflicts   unresolved   in   our     collective   unconscious;   drives   that   were   thought  to  have  been  overcome  after  the  struggle  of  the  civil  rights  movement  in  the  1960’.The   psychohistorical   consequences     of   slavery   in   the   United   States   are   not   over   and   the   recent   tensions   between   The   Tea   Party   and   President   Obama   are   symptoms   of   this   unresolved   conflict   that   could   well   lead   to   civil   war.   There   are   unconscious   forces   not   fully   understood   by   the   conservative  masses  that  perceive  in  President  Obama  a  threatening  force  that  could  be  operating   a   symbolic   mass   castration   on   those   elements   of   society   that   base   their   internal   psychological   security   and   sense   of   identity   in   the   fact   that   they   are   white   and   belong   to   the   Judeo-­‐Christian   tradition  and  who  feel  themselves  threatened  by  what  they  perceive  to  be  the  plural,  multiracial   and  multicultural  world  they  do  not  understand  and  do  not  wish  to  accept.    Obama   Care   is   the   point   of   rupture,   and   they   do   not   want   to   ‘let   go’   because   they   would   then   be   accepting   symbolic   castration   and   loss   of   power.   Millions   of   people   have   been   conditioned   by   years  of  conservative  rule  and  the  supremacy  of  conservative  culture  that  they  have  The  power.   They  cannot  bear  to  loose  it  and  are  showing  all  the  symptoms  of  great  stress  that  might  only  be   released   after   great   violence.   Are   the   psychotic   killers   that   have   been   re-­‐dramatizing   their   fantasies   by   going   out   into   the   streets   or   cinemas   and   killing   with   bombs   or   guns   all   the   people   they  can  premonitory  symptoms  of  this?   Is   the   United   States   getting   ready   for   a   mass   re-­‐dramatization   of   the   events   of   1861-­‐1865?   The   conditions  seem  to  be  there,  they  seem  to  be  mounting…   A   culture   of   a   phallic-­‐narcissistic   character   produces   phallic-­‐narcissistic   leaders.   The   repressed   homosexuality,  the  jealousy  and  the  paranoia  remain  at  bottom  the  same  cultural  substratum.  The   people  change  but  the  culture  remains,  and  this  occurs  all  over  the  world  in  the  same  fashion.  The   Manic-­‐depressive  and  sadistic  Ivan  The  Terrible  did  not  start  a  trend  when  he  massacred  his  own   people;  before  that,  the  Mongols  had  brutalized  the  Slavs  of  the  ancient  Rus.  The  ancient  Swedes   in   their   journeys   dawn   the   Volga   towards   Constantinople   captured   Slavs   to   sell   in   the   slave   markets  of  Constantinople.  Today  the  Russian  mafia  travels  all  over  the  world  looking  for  captives  


to   sell   in   the   sex   markets   of   five   continents…   dramatizing   again   the   contempt   that   phallic-­‐ narcissistic   characters   feel   for   the   opposite   sex.   This   is   the   march   of   the   conquerors   and   the   conquered  who  do  not  know  anything  better  other  than  ‘the  lessons  of  Power’.  (  Sigmund  Freud   op.cit.  pp  205-­‐208.  Wilhelm  Reich,  op.cit.  pp.  219-­‐222).                The   only   thing   we   can   do   is   to   indicate   pathogenic   tendencies   and   syndromes,   we   are   not   generalizing   from   a   philosophical   standpoint;   we   want   to   help   establish   The   Method   of   Psychohistory.  But  we  most  warn  that  this  method  has  elements  that  are  experiential,  to  a  certain   extent  one  has  to  live  these  events  in  order  to  experience  a  sudden  understanding.  The  author  can   narrate   one   of   these   moments:   in   November   1968,   in   Paris,   at   the   Faculty   of   Philosophy   and   Letters  in  The  Sorbonne,  The  author  participated  in  several  meetings  organized  by  the  Trotskyist   journal,  Rouge,  directed  by  Alain  Krivine.  This  ‘  groupuscule  ‘  which  controlled  The  Faculty  at  the   time  possessed  a  ‘service  d’ordre’  composed  of  a  group  of  goons  in  black  leather  jackets  who  were   at  the  orders  of  a  hysterical  young  man  who  looked  exactly  like  Trotsky-­‐  spectacles,  goat-­‐tee  and   all.   The   service   d’ordre   would   block   all   the   entrances   to   the   conference   hall,   an   imposing   oval   amphitheater   from   the   XVII   Century,   while   this   deputy   of   Alain   Krivine,   would   harangue   the   crowded  hall  with  his  little  Trotskyite  gestures  and  poses.   I   was   then   witnessing   the   genesis   of   the   future   political   figure   and   even   then   I   suspected   the   existence  of  the  phallic-­‐exhibitionistic  attitude  and  the  general  infantilism  of  politics  which  made   the   political   discourse   hard   to   believe.   In   very   few   people   and   in   very   few   circumstances   have   I   been   moved   by   political   oratory.   Very   few   political   figures   are   free   of   the   expostulation   of   the   narcissistic-­‐exhibitionist  attitude.   What   is   the   origin   and   the   meaning   of   this   posturing?   It   originated   with   the   earliest   kinglets   of   the   first   city   states   in   Neolithic   times-­‐   Those   personages   who   controlled   the   first   public   granaries   in   places   like   Mohenjo-­‐Daro,   Eridú   and   Ur   probably   already   possessed   a   ‘Service   d’Ordre’.   Are   we   going  to  continue  to  believe  in  the  system  of  power  and  the  expostulation  of  its  neurotic-­‐hysterical   symptoms  in  politics  for  another  five  thousand  years?      I   have   already   described   some   of   the   mechanisms   that   lead   to   the   formation   of   the   system   of   power  in  my  book  La  Huerta  del  Macehual,  La  Tarjeta  Inteligente,  (included  in  this  blog  ).  All  these   psychopathological   symptoms   inherent   in   politics   form   part   of   my   criticism   of   Hans   Kelsen’s   General  Theory  of  The  State,  which  is  a  standard  reference  in  many  faculties  of  law  and  Political   Science    the  world  over.  Perhaps  the  time  has  come  to  make  a  critical  reading  of  Doctor  Kelsen’s   thesis  in  view  of  the  questionable  relevance  of  electoral  democracies  and  the  problem  of  political   representation  in  our  oligarchical  societies?   One  of  the  fundamental  psychohistorical  questions  is:     Can   a   democratic   society   be   built   without   the   threat   of   violence   and   the   recourse   to   authority?   Are   we   sufficiently   developed   as   political  


societies  to  organize  ourselves  in  corresponding  and  harmonious  understanding?  Is  this  a  desirable   end   in   political   organization?   If   the   answer   of   a   majority   is   yes,   how   could   we   proceed   to   get   there?   Clearly,   education   is   the   only   way:   to   raise   the   level   of   consciousness   of   our   populations   to   the   point   where   a   higher   empathy,   nearer   telepathy,   is   possible   as   a   shared   collective   experience,   when   the   stratification   of   class   is   no   longer   impressive,   new   more   spiritualized   generations   will   no   longer  feel  the  need  to  differentiate  themselves  within  class  structures  with  all  the  paraphernalia   and  nomenclature  that  give  status  and  hierarchy.   The  author  shared  this  experience  of  communion,  the  bond  of    tele-­‐pathos,  with  his  friends  during   The   Taking   of   The   Sacred   Mushrooms   in   Huautla   de   Jimenez,   Oaxaca,   Mexico   in   the   summer   of   1968  (  Teonanacatl  p.  64,  on  this  blog  )  .  I  believe  that  this  is  possible,  that  it  could  be  possible  to   teach   telepathy   to   children   without   using   the   Sacred   Plants:   the   disappearance   of   ego-­‐centric   tendencies   gives   way   to   a   feeling   of   love   and   compassion,   an   awareness   of   the   world   imbued   with   generous   impulses   that   could   become   a   new   culture.   There   are   systems   of   Yoga:   Raja   Yoga   and   Bhakti   Yoga   that   can   be   taught   to   children   and   which   could   become   a   way   of   life   for   an   entire   community…..(  Tibetan  Yoga  and  secret  doctrines.  Edited  by  W.Y.  Evans-­‐Wentz,  Oxford  University   Press,  p.  33  ;    see  also:      Aldous  Huxley,    Island,  Penguin  Books,  and    E.F.  Schumacher,   Lo  Pequeño   es  Hermozo,  Herman  Blume  Ediciones,  1978  ).                                



The method of psychohistory (parts 1 3) con correcciones de papá a la parte 3 version para blog r