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C.O.B.A.C. E V E R L A S T I N G M O U N T H LY

M A G A Z I N E -

D E C E M B E R

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Interview Nelson Medina Biography of Mohammad Reza Shajarian

Louver Museum Persepolis

Merry Christmass Nelson!


verseau laval winter 2008


Editorial Art history History of classical music traditions Biography of helene segara Jean baraque Joe satriani Mohammad reza shajarian Architecture Persepolis Painting Drama Ferdowsi History of film Fashion design Interview with Nelson medina Louvre palace

Special thanks to: omid saadat- babak ghanaat- hajar vahidunisef- verseau laval- james dawehelene segara- mohammad reza shajariannelson medina- charles saatchisalvador sabater-emaad navy

C.O.B.A.C. E V E R L A S T I N G M O U N T H LY

M A G A Z I N E -

D E C E M B E R

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Interview Nelson Medina Biography of Mohammad Reza Shajarian

Louver Museum Persepolis

Merry Christmass Nelson!

c.o.b.a.c. art international magazine by ali saadat december 2009 cobac.a.c@gmail.com cobacac.blogspot.com

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Editorial 4 E V E R L A S T I N G

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Finally, after lots of ups and downs, crossing those who wished me success or didn’t, those who allowed me or didn’t, the January of 2010 arrived. And now, I’m trying to connect different and various cultures around the world. Some subjects, presented in this magazine, might have been repeated several times, but I’m aiming to show my own style in designing and page making. However, due to being alone and lack of enough time, I couldn’t have presented what I’ve been cherishing in the mind. I know I’d be able to achieve the ideal target of my mind, though. At the end, I deem it necessary to appreciate all my friends’ assistance with providing sources and allowing time for me. Specially “Nelson Medina” who was the creator of this plan in my mind. Doubtless, it’s going to be one of the greatest artistic magazines of global village in the near future. It’s my message to all my friends throughout the world to assist me in reaching this goal.

Best wishes Ali Saa’dat cobac.a.c@gmail.com


Marlon Brando April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004 I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y J A M E S D AW E


hist

Art 6

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Part I

Definition

Art history as we know it today began in the nineteenth century but has precedents dating to the ancient world. Like the analysis of historical trends in politics, literature, and the sciences, the discipline benefits from the clarity and portability of the written word, but art historians also

Methodologies

Art historians employ a number of methods in their research into the qualities, nature and history of objects. Art historians often examine work in the context of its time. At best, this is done in a manner which respects its creator’s motivations and imperatives; with consideration of the desires and prejudices of its patrons and sponsors; with a comparative analysis of themes and approaches of the creator’s colleagues and teachers; and with consideration of iconography and symbolism. In short, this approach examines the work of art in the context of the world within which it was created. Art historians also often examine work through an analysis of form; that is, the creator’s use of line, shape, color, texture, and composition. This approach examines how the artist uses a two-dimensional picture plane or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space to create his or her art. The way these individual elements are employed results in representational or non-representational art. Is the artist imitating an object or image found in nature? If so, it is representational. The closer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the art is realistic. Is the artist not imitating, but instead relying on symbolism, or in an important way striving to capture nature’s essence, rather than copy it directly? If so the art is non- representational also called abstract. Of course, realism and abstraction 7 exist on a continuum. Impressionism is an example of a representational style that was not directly imitative, but strove to create an “impression” of nature. If the work is not representational and is an expression of the artist’s feelings, longings and aspirations, or is a search for ideals of beauty and form, the work is non-representational or a work of expressionism. An iconographical analysis is one which focuses on particular design elements of an object. Through a close reading of such elements, it is possible to trace their lineage, and with it draw conclusions regarding the origins and trajectory of these motifs. In turn, it is possible to make any number of observations regarding the social, cultural, economic, and aesthetic values of those responsible for producing the object. Finally, many art historians use critical theory to frame their inquiries into objects. Theory is most often used when dealing with more recent objects, those from the late 19th century onward. Critical theory in art history is often borrowed from literary scholars, and it involves the application of a non-artistic analytical framework to the study of art objects. Feminist, Marxist, critical race, Queer and postcolonial theories are all well-established in the discipline. As in literary studies, there is an interest among scholars in nature and the environment, but the direction that this will take in the discipline has yet to be determined.

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tory

rely on formal analysis, semiotics, psychoanalysis and iconography. Advances in photographic reproduction and printing techniques after World War II increased the ability of reproductions of artworks. Such technologies have helped to advance the discipline in profound ways, as they have enabled easy comparisons of objects. The study of visual art thus described, can be a practice that involves understanding context, form, and social significance.

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rt history has historically been understood as the academic study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; genre, design, format, and look. This includes the «major» arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture as well as the «minor» arts of ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. The historical backbone of the discipline is a celebratory chronology of beautiful creations funded by upper class men in Western Europe. Such a «canon» remains prominent, as indicated by the selection of objects present in art history textbooks. Nonetheless, since the mid-20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline to be more inclusive of nonWestern art, made by women, and vernacular creativity. As a term, Art history encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts; in common usage referring to works of art and architecture. Aspects of the discipline overlap. As the art historian Ernst Gombrich once observed, «the field of art history is much like Caesar’s Gaul, divided in three parts inhabited by three different, though not necessarily hostile tribes: (I) the connoisseurs, (II) the critics, and (III) the academic art historians». As a discipline, art history is distinguished from art criticism, which is concerned with establishing a relative artistic value upon individual works with respect to others of comparable style, or sanctioning an entire style or movement; and art theory or «philosophy of art», which is concerned with the fundamental nature of art. One branch of this area of study is aesthetics, which includes investigating the enigma of the sublime and determining the essence of beauty. Technically, art history is not these things, because the art historian uses historical method to answer the questions: How did the artist come to create the work?, Who were the patrons?, Who were his or her teachers?, Who was the audience?, Who were his or her disciples?, What historical forces shaped the artist’s oeuvre, and How did he or she and the creation, in turn, affect the course of artistic, political, and social events? This is not to say that art history is only a biographical endeavor. In fact, art historians often root their studies in the close scrutiny of individual objects. They thus attempt to answer in historically specific ways, questions such as: What are key features of this style ?, What meaning did this object convey?, How does it function visually?, Did the artist meet their goals well?, What symbols are involved?, and Does it function discursively?


History classical m traditions 8

Part I

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Prehistoric music

Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music, is the name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Traditional Native American and Australian Aboriginal music could be called prehistoric, but the term is commonly used to refer to the music in Europe before the development of writing there. It is more common to call the “prehistoric” music of non-European continents – especially that which still survives – folk, indigenous, or traditional music.

Biblical period

According to Easton’s Bible Dictionary, Jubal was the inventor of musical instruments. The Hebrew was much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of Laban’s interview with Jacob. After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang their song of deliverance. But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of training in the schools of the prophets. There now arose also a class of professional singers. Solomon’s Temple, however, was the great school of music. In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed. In private life also music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews. Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of Semitic and early Judeo-Christian culture, have also discovered common links between theatrical and musical activity in the classical cultures of the Hebrews with those of the later cultures of the Greeks and Romans. The common area of performance is found in a “social phenomenon called litany,” a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of litany, “Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical tradition:

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usic is found in every known culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places. Around 50,000 years ago, early modern humans began to disperse from Africa, reaching all the habitable continents. Since all people of the world, including the most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, scientists conclude that music must have been present in the ancestral population prior to the dispersal of humans around the world. Consequently music must have been in existence for at least 50,000 years and the first music must have been invented in Africa and then evolved to become a fundamental constituent of human life.

Music history eras C.O.B.A.C.

ymusic of

A culture’s music is influenced by all other aspects of that culture, including social and economic organization and experience, climate, and access to technology. The emotions and ideas that music expresses, the situations in which music is played and listened to, and the attitudes toward music players and composers all vary between regions and periods. “Music history” is the distinct sub field of musicology and history which studies music (particularly western art music) from a chronological perspective.

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Hélène Ségara French Singer Biography

10 E V E R L A S T I N G

C.O.B.A.C. Her childhood in the French Riviera

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élène Ségara was born on 26 February 1971 in SixFours-les-Plages in her grandfather’s farm. Her father is Italian and her mother is Armenian. She said that she had been traumatized in her childhood by the divorce of her parents. - When she was 8, and by the death of her grandfather when she was 16. As she wanted to become a singer, she left school and family at the age

of 14. Then she had many successive jobs including performances in the piano bars of the French Riviera. At 18, she gave birth to Raphael, her first son. Her repertoire was expanding, with many musical influences and over a thousand songs. - In 1993, a first single entitled «Loin» was released, but didn’t meet success.

Her life in Paris

In 1996, accompanied by her young son, she moved to Paris where she met Christian Loigerot, who became one of her com-

posers. She also met the famous producer Orlando, Dalida brother, who supervised and gave new impetus to her career. Almost she was marked by the experience and professionalism of this mentor; she remains under contract with her first producer. Ségara began to have success with «Je vous aime adieu», the first single from her début album, Cœur de verre (1996), and the duet «Vivo per lei», performed with Andrea Bocelli. She then played the role of Esmeralda in the musical Notre-Dame de Paris, com-

posed by Richard Cocciante. While she auditioned for this role in 1997, she was selected in 1999, following the withdrawal of the Israeli singer Noa. «When the fate knocks at the door for a second time, we must not let it get away», said Ségara. However, her career was jeopardized when Dr. J. Abitbol diagnosed her with a cyst on the vocal cords, while she continued to perform in a show. During a show in Canada, she lost her voice. Her producer then resold her contract to Orlando while Dr. J. Abitbol


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carried out a laser operation to treat the singer’s vocal cords.

A new start

After her convalescence, she recorded her second album, Au Nom d’une femme in 2000. The album topped the charts, and became Diamond disc. Five singles from this album were all successful. Ségara then began a concert tour that lasted about two years. A video recording of the concert she gave at the Olympia in Paris on this occasion was released. According to a poll made by the IFOP, Ségara was the

French people’s favorite French singer at the time. In March 2003 was released a third album, Humaine, including «On n’oublie rien, on vit avec», a duet with Laura Pausini and «L’Amour est un soleil», composed by Romano Musumarra. About 700,000 copies of this album were sold. She started another tour in late 2003 but was forced to stop her performances because of a difficult pregnancy. In August 2003, Ségara married in Ajaccio Mathieu Lecat (son of journalist Didier Lecat), with whom she

had two other children: Matteo (born in May 2003) and Maïa (October 2004). Her fourth studio album, Quand l’éternité ... came out in 2006. The first single from this album was «Méfietoi de moi», followed by «Rien n’est comme avant». This album has a different style from previous ones, with more pronounced rock influences, texts almost all composed by the singer, and that addresses issues such as the absence, death and hope. The album eventually achieved gold status three months after its release for more than 200,000

copies sold. In early 2007, she made a new concerts tour in France, including the Palais des Sports in Paris. In 2007, when she finished the first part of her tour, two other songs from the album were sent to the radio: «Tu ne seras jamais libre» and «Father». Both songs were not released as singles. In late 2007, several editions came out: a box set with of 3 CDs (Les 50 plus belles chansons d’Hélène Segara), two boxes composed of 2 CDs with a new cover (Cœur de verre + Au Nom d’une femme, Humaine + Quand


l’éternité...) and a CD ‘Prestige’ with 15 tracks. In February 2008, she released «La Moitié de nous», a duet with Bruno Pelletier, who’s a part of profits were given to an association name Rêves. - The tour «Quand l’éternité...» is ongoing until summer 2008, in France and abroad. This year, Ségara will also record a new album that is described by her as a «realistic travel around the world», with a link between all the songs. This album name is “Mon pays c’est la terre “(My land is earth) released at the end of the year, before a new international tour, including two concerts at the Olympia on 22 November and 23, 2008.

Other participations

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- In 1998, Ségara performed with Garou a duet for the album Ensemble contre le sida (Together against AIDS). The song is a cover version of «L’amour existe encore», composed by Luc Plamondon and Richard Cocciante for Celine Dion. - She supports associations Rêves, Les Restos du Cœur, Les Enfants de la Terre et e-enfance. - She participated in the album Le Cœur des femmes in favor of the Association Laurette Fugain, as well as charity programs on France 3. - She is also godmother of the association Suisse, Escape Adoption, which supports adoptive families and adopted children. - Hélène Ségara is currently ambassador of the asso12ciation Rêves since 1998. - On 4 November 2006, Hélène took part in the Concert for Tolerance in Agadir, Morocco, where she performed with many international artists (Andrea Bocelli, Samira Said, Zucchero, Pascal Obispo, Florent Pagny, Faudel, Cheb Mami, Lorie, Amina...)

Awards

- Spring 1997: The Sacem awarded the price Rolf Marbot to Hélène Ségara and Thierry Geoffroy, Christian Loigerot and Christina Vié, the writers and composers of the song «Je vous aime adieu». - 1999: Segara was sacred Best Female Singer during the ceremony of the ‘Trophy of Women in Gold’ in Courchevel. - 22 January 2000: Revelation of the year at the ‘NRJ Music Awards’ in Cannes - 17 November 2000: Female Artist of the Year «M6 Music Awards» in Lille - 16 December 2000: ‘Trophy of Little Princes for the Best Singer of the Year’ on TF1 - 20 January 2001: She received at the Palais des Festivals in Cannes a ‘NRJ Music Awards’ for the francophone album of the year. - 17 February 2001: She won at the Olympia a ‘Victoire de la Musique’ for female artist of the year - 2 May 2001: She won the ‘World Music Awards’ in Monaco for the highest selling disc in France for 2000/2001 - 20 October 2001: IFOP poll, ordered by the magazine TV Star, revealed that Ségara is the favorite French singer and the performer of the most beautiful love songs - 25 October 2001: Ségara made her entry in the famous Who’s Who. - 27 December 2001: Segara formed a part of 10 stars who made 2001, according the French people, for the magazine «Gala». - 10 July 2002: She won the ‘IFPI Platinum Europe

Awards’ in Brussels - 1 October 2002: She had her status at the Grevin Museum in Paris - 13 January 2005: During the Fête de la Musique on France 2, «Il y a trop de gens qui t’aiment» was awarded ‘Most beautiful love song’.

Discography Albums

- 1996: Cœur de verre - 1998: Notre Dame de Paris (musical) - 2000: Au Nom d’une Femme - 2001: En concert à l’Olympia - 2002: Hélène (in Spanish-language) - 2003: Humaine - 2004: Le Best of - 2006: Quand l’éternité... - 2007: Les 50 plus belles chansons - 2007: Collection prestige - 2008: Mon pays c’est la terre

Singles

- 1993: «Loin» - 1996: «Je vous aime adieu» - 1996: «Une voix dans la nuit» - 1997: «Les Larmes» (remix) - 1997: «Auprès de ceux que j’aimais» - 1997: «Vivo per lei (je vis pour elle)» (duet with Andrea Bocelli) - 1998: «Loin du froid de Décembre» (soundtrack from Anastasia) - 1998: «Vivre» (soundtrack from the musical NotreDame de Paris) - 1999: «Les Vallées d’Irlande» - 1999: «Il y a trop de gens qui t’aiment» - 2000: «Elle, tu l’aimes...» - 2000: «Parlez-moi de nous» - 2001: «Tu vas me quitter» - 2001: «Au nom d’une femme» (Remix) - 2001: «Mrs Jones» (Live Olympia 2000) - 2002: «Donner tout» - 2003: «L’Amour est un soleil» - 2003: «Encore une fois» - 2003: «On n’oublie jamais rien, on vit avec» (duet with Laura Pausini) - 2004: «Humaine» - 2004: «On ne dit pas» - 2004: «Ailleurs comme ici» - 2006: «Méfie-toi de moi» - 2007: «Rien n’est comme avant» - 2007: «Tu ne seras jamais libre» - 2007: «Father» - 2008: «La Moitié de nous» (duet with Bruno Pelletier) - 2008: «Qu’est-ce qu’on faire avec ce monde (Sodad)»


- graphists - photographers - modelers & models - writers - musicians & singers - artists and all of the art society . . .

cONNECT tO mE C.O.B.A.C. E V E R L A S T I N G

E V E R L A S T I N G

iT iS wAITING fOR yOU

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iS tHIS aN iNVITE? 13


Barraq Jean

Jean-Henri-Alphonse Barraqué (January 17, 1928 – August 17, 1973) was a French composer and writer on music who developed an individual form of serialism which is displayed in a small output of highly 14 complex but passionate works.

B

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arraqué was born in Puteaux, Hauts-de-Seine. The family moved to Paris in 1931. He studied in Paris with Jean Langlais and Olivier Messiaen and, through Messiaen, became interested in serialism. After completing his Piano Sonata in 1952, he suppressed or destroyed his earlier works. A book published by the French music critic André Hodeir, titled Since Debussy, created controversy around Barraqué by claiming this work as perhaps the finest piano sonata since Beethoven. As the work had still not been publicly performed, and only two other works by him had at this time, the extravagant claims made for Barraqué in this book were received with some scepticism. Whilst with hindsight it is clear that Hodeir had accurately perceived the exceptional features of Barraqué’s music-notably its searing Romantic intensity, which distinguishes it from the contemporaneous works of Boulez or Stockhausen-it could be said that at the time the tone of Since Debussy did the young composer some harm and did not improve his prospects for the serious and sustained public exposure which eluded his music throughout his lifetime.Nor can the fact that Hodeir explicitly pitched the work of Barraqué much higher than the extensive achievements of his much better-known contemporary Pierre Boulez have eased relations between the two, at a time when Boulez was arguably the most powerful advocate for new music in France. As Paul Griffiths’ recent biography has clarified, Boulez had in fact attempted to get the Barraqué Piano Sonata performed for some years after it was finished. When that failed to materialise, Boulez had given Barraqué prominent early performances at his famous Domaine Musical concerts in Paris, even taking on the world première of ... au delà du hasard at relatively short notice, when an earlier commission for it had fallen through. Even following the publication of Since Debussy, Boulez wrote to Barraqué asking him for a new work-this was eventually to be the Concerto, but complications surrounding this venture meant that the work received its first performance in London in 1968.Barraqué’s music was published starting in 1963 by the Florentine businessman Aldo Bruzichelli, who provided much-needed material assistance for the composer, but whose promotion could not perhaps compete with that of the better known Universal Edition in Vienna who published Boulez, Berio, and Stockhausen. In any event, Barraqué did not obtain ready access to the better-known new music festivals and concert series until much later than they. Barraqué was involved in a car accident in 1964, and his apartment was destroyed by fire in November 1968. He suffered from bad health for much of his life. Nevertheless his death in Paris in August 1973, at the age of 45, was sudden and unexpected, and he appeared to have resumed serious work on a number of larger compositions from the Death of Virgil cycle. Music and Reputation


Writings

Barraqué wrote many articles on other composers (including Alban Berg, Monteverdi, Mozart and Messiaen) and on theoretical aspects of contemporary music. His major prose work is his book on Claude Debussy (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1962). He also made numerous analyses of works in the standard repertoire from J.S. Bach to Honegger, some of which he used in his teaching. His few pupils included the British composer Bill Hopkins. Compositions Completed Works • Trois Mélodies for soprano and piano (1950) (texts from The Song of Solomon, Baudelaire and Rimbaud) 15 • Séquence for voice, percussion and chamber ensemble (1950-55) (text by Nietzsche; incorporates material from the Trois Mélodies) • Piano Sonata (1950-52) • Etude for 3-track tape (1952-3) • Le Temps Restitué for soprano, chorus and orchestra (1956-68) (text from Hermann Broch, The Death of Virgil, in French translation by Albert Kohn) • … au delà du hasard (premier Commentaire de ‘Affranchi du hasard’ et du ‘Temps Restitué’) for four instrumental groups and one vocal group (1958-9) (text by Barraqué ‘around a quotation of Hermann Broch’) • Concerto for six instrumental groups and two solo instruments (vibraphone and clarinet) (1962-8) • Chant après Chant for six percussionists, voice and piano (1965-66) (text by Barraqué and Hermann Broch) Unfinished Works • Sonorité jaune (1957 sketch based on Wassilly Kandinsky, Der gelbe Klang) • Discours (c. 1961): sketch for a work for voices and orchestra, text from Hermann Broch, The Death of Virgil, in French translation by Albert Kohn) • Lysanias (c. 1966-9; 1972-3): sketch for three solo voices and orchestra (text by Barraqué and Hermann Broch) • Portiques du Feu (c. 1968; 1972-3): sketch for 18 solo voices (text by Barraqué and Hermann Broch) • Hymnes à Plotia for string quartet (1972-3)

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Barraqué stated that he wrote about 30 works before those that he eventually acknowledged; as far as is known they were destroyed by him. They included a Nocturne and Mouvement lent for piano, at least three piano sonatas, a sonata for unaccompanied violin, and a Symphony in C sharp minor.The presumably fourth, but un-numbered Piano Sonata, for which he gave the date 1952, was his earliest acknowledged work. Barraqué then produced his only electronic piece, the musique concrète Etude (1954), made at Pierre Schaeffer’s studio. Subsequently he planned a large-scale cycle of pieces, La Mort de Virgile, based on Hermann Broch’s novel The Death of Virgil, a book which Barraqué’s friend and sometime lover Michel Foucault recommended to him. This cycle, along with other pieces deriving from it or acting as commentaries upon it, he envisaged as his principal life-long creative project. Following the scheme of the novel, it was to be divided into four sub-cycles: Water (The Arrival)’, Fire (The Descent)’, Earth (The Expectancy)’ and Air (The Return)’. Most of Barraqué’s creative efforts went into the works which were to take their place in Fire (The Descent)’, which - to give an idea of the projected scope of the whole design - was to have consisted of thirteen works.Before his death he completed two of the projected parts: Chant aprés chant (1966), and Le temps restitué (1957/68). Fragments of some of the other parts exist. Barraqué also wrote ... au dela du hasard (1959) for three female voices and ensemble, and a concerto for clarinet, vibraphone and ensemble in 1968, which are related to The Death of Virgil, but not actually part of that cycle. (... au dela du hasard is described as a commentary on Affranchi du hasard, which was to have been the eleventh piece of Fire (The Descent)’ but was not actually composed. The only other extant piece by Barraqué is Séquence (1955-56), a setting of Nietzsche for soprano and ensemble which is partly a re-working of three songs for soprano and piano from the early fifties. Barraqué’s use of tone rows in his work is quite distinctive. Rather than using a single tone row for an entire piece, as Anton Webern did, or using a number of related rows in one work, as Alban Berg or Arnold Schoenberg sometimes did, Barraqué starts by using one row, and then subtly alters it to get a second. This second row is then used for a while before being slightly altered again to make a third. This process continues throughout the work. He called this technique «proliferating series». Harry Halbreich has written that «Barraqué’s whole work is marked by terrible despair, lightened by no reli-

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qué

gious or ideological faith, and entirely dominated by the great shadow of Death». His relatively small output has left him as a somewhat obscure figure, although his work is often praised, and the sonata in particular is seen as one of the great pianistic challenges of the twentieth century. In 1998 the record company CPO issued his entire output on CD, in performances by the Austrian ensemble Klangforum Wien, and since then performances of his work have been increasingly frequent. Leaving aside the more excessive claims a few specialists have occasionally made on his behalf, Barraqué is now recognised as one of the most important and distinctive French composers since 1945; the lyrical passion and explosiveness of his finest music-notably ...au delà du hasard and Le temps restitué-is steadily finding the wider, non-specialist audience it deserves. The major reference work on his music in English is a biography entitled The Sea on Fire by the British music critic Paul Griffiths (2003). In German, Heribert Henrich’s book of 1997 is its complement. His music is now published by the German firm of Bärenreiter.


Sat Joe this txt proudly present to my best friend ebi golabbakhsh that i know he loves satriani very muchand i hope he could accept this incapable gift from me in begining of a new year.

J

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oseph «Satch» Satriani (born July 15, 1956 in West bury, New York) is an American multiinstrumentalist, known as an instrumental rock guitarist, who has been nominated for Grammy 16Awards. Early in his career, Satriani worked as a guitar instructor, and some of his former students have achieved fame with their guitar skills. Satriani has been a driving force behind other musicians throughout his career, as a founder of the ever-changing touring trio, G3, as well as performing in temporary positions with other musicians. In 1988, Satriani was recruited by the The Rolling Stones’ Mick Jagger as lead guitarist for the singer’s second solo tour. Later, in 1994, Satriani was the lead guitarist for Deep Purple. Satriani worked with a range of guitarists from many musical genres, including Steve Vai, John Petrucci, Eric Johnson, Larry LaLonde, Yngwie Malmsteen, Brian May, Patrick Rondat, Andy Timmons, Paul Gilbert, Adrian Legg, and Robert Fripp through the annual G3 Jam Concerts. He is heavily influenced by blues-rock guitar icons such as Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page and Jeff Beck, possessing, however, his own easily recognizable style. Since 1988, Satriani has been using his own signature guitar, the Ibanez JS Series, which is widely sold in stores. He has a signature series amplifier, the Peavey JSX, and a signature Vox distortion pedal, the Satchurator. He is currently the lead guitarist for the supergroup Chickenfoot. Life and career Satriani was inspired to play guitar at 14 soon after learning of the death of Jimi Hendrix. He has been said to have heard the news during a football training session, where he confronted his coach and announced that he was quitting to become a guitarist. 1970s In 1974, Satriani studied music with jazz guitarist Billy Bauer and with reclusive jazz pianist Lennie Tristano. The technically demanding Tristano greatly influenced Satriani’s playing. Satriani began teaching guitar, with his most notable student at the time being fellow Long Island native Steve Vai. While he was Vai’s teacher, he was attending Five Towns College for studies in music.

In 1978 Satriani moved to Berkeley, California to pursue a music career, and Vai moved on to study at the Berklee School of Music, soon after graduating becoming a high profile guitarist first with Frank Zappa, and after, other bands. Not long after Satriani arrived in California, he resumed teaching. His students included Steve Vai, Kirk Hammett of Metallica, David Bryson of Counting Crows, Kevin Cadogan from Third Eye Blind, Larry LaLonde of Primus / Possessed, Alex Skolnick of Testament, Rick Hunolt, Phil Kettner of Lääz Rockit, Geoff Tyson of T-Ride, and Charlie Hunter. 1980s When his friend and former student Steve Vai gained fame playing with David Lee Roth in 1986, Vai raved about Satriani in several interviews with guitar magazines. Guitar World Magazine In 1987, Satriani’s second album Surfing with the Alien produced popular radio hits and was the first all-instrumental release to chart so highly in many years. In 1988 Satriani helped produce the EP The Eyes of Horror for the death metal band Possessed. In 1989, Satriani released the album Flying in a Blue Dream. The album sold well. «One Big Rush» was featured on the soundtrack to the Cameron Crowe movie Say Anything. «The Forgotten Part II» was featured on a Labatt Blue commercial in Canada in 1993. «Big Bad Moon», one of Satriani’s few songs to feature his vocals, was a minor hit in late 1989. 1990s In 1992, Satriani released The Extremist, his most critically acclaimed and commercially successful album to date. Radio stations across the country were quick to pick up on «Summer Song», while «Cryin’», «Friends» and the title track were regional hits. In late 1993, Satriani joined Deep Purple as a temporary replacement for departed guitarist Ritchie Blackmore during the band’s Japanese tour. The concerts were a success, and Satriani was asked to join the band permanently but he declined, having just signed a multi-album solo deal with Sony, so Steve Morse took the guitarist slot in Deep Purple.


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G3 In 1996, he founded the G3, a concert tour intended to feature a power trio consisting of three instrumental rock guitarists. The original lineup featured Satriani, Vai, and Eric Johnson. The G3 (tour) has continued periodically since its inaugural version, where Satriani is the only permanent member, featuring differing second and third members. Other guitarists who have performed in such a G3 configuration include among others: Steve Vai, Eric Johnson, Yngwie Malmsteen, John Petrucci, Kenny Wayne Shepherd, Robert Fripp, Andy Timmons, Uli Jon Roth, Michael Schenker, Adrian Legg and Paul Gilbert. In 1998 Satriani recorded and released Crystal Planet, which went back to a sound more reminiscent of his late ‘80s work. Planet was followed up with Engines of Creation, one of his more experimental works featuring the ‘Electronica’ genre of music. During the subsequent tour, a pair of shows at the Fillmore in San Francisco were recorded in December 2000 and released as Live in San Francisco, a two-disc live album and DVD. 2000 and beyond Over the next several years, Satriani regularly recorded and released evolving music, including Strange Beautiful Music in 2002 and Is There Love in Space? in 2004. In 2006 Satriani recorded and released Super Colossal and Satriani Live!, another two-disc live album and DVD recorded May 3, 2006 at the Grove in Anaheim, CA. 18 On August 7, 2007 Epic/Legacy Recordings re-released Surfing with the Alien to celebrate the 20th anniversary of its release. This was a two-disc set that includes a remastered album and a DVD of a previously never-before-seen live show filmed at the Montreux Jazz Festival in 1988. Satriani’s newest album, titled Professor Satchafunkilus and the Musterion of Rock, was released on April 1, 2008. Controversy On December 4, 2008 Satriani filed a copyright infringement suit against Coldplay in the United States District Court for the Central District of California. Satriani asserts that the Coldplay song “Viva la Vida” includes “substantial original portions” of the Satriani song “If I Could Fly” from his 2004 album, Is There Love in Space?. The Coldplay song in question received two Grammy Awards for “Song of the Year.” Coldplay has denied the allegation, which has resulted in further legal action from Satriani. The case has since been settled out of court. Other work Satriani is also credited on many other albums, including guitar duties on Alice Cooper’s 1991 album Hey Stoopid, Spinal Tap’s 1992 album Break Like the Wind, Blue Öyster Cult’s 1988 album Imaginos, band members Stu Hamm and Gregg Bissonette’s solo albums. Interestingly, he was credited with singing background vocals on the 1986 debut album by Crowded House. In 2003, he played lead guitar on The Yardbirds’s CD release Birdland. In 2006 he made appearances on tracks for Deep Purple vocalist Ian Gillan’s solo CD/DVD dual disc Gillan’s Inn. On Dream Theater’s 2007 album, Systematic Chaos, Satriani contributed spoken lyrics to the song “Repentance”. Satriani contributed a guitar solo to Jordan Rudess’ 2004 solo release Rhythm of Time. He is featured in the Christopher Guest film, For Your Consideration, as the guitarist in the band that played for

the late-night show. Chickenfoot Main article: Chickenfoot (band) It was revealed on May 29, 2008 that Satriani is involved in a new hard rock band called Chickenfoot with former Van Halen members Sammy Hagar and Michael Anthony, and Red Hot Chili Peppers drummer Chad Smith. The band features Hagar on vocals, Satriani on guitar, Anthony on bass and Smith on drums,. Their debut album was released on June 5, 2009. The first single and video released from this album is the track “Oh Yeah”, which was also played on the Tonight Show With Conan O’Brien on June 5, 2009. Satriani received a writing credit on each of the songs featured on the band’s self-titled debut album. Technique and influence Satriani is recognized as a technically advanced rock guitarist, and has been described as a virtuoso. by some publications. He has mastered many performance techniques on the instrument, including legato, two-handed tapping and arpeggio tapping, volume swells, harmonics, and extreme whammy bar effects. One of his trademark compositional traits is the use of pitch axis theory, which he applies with a variety of modes. During fast passages, Joe favors a legato technique (achieved primarily through hammer-ons and pull-off) which yields smooth and flowing runs. He is also adept at other speed-related techniques such as speed picking (a rapid form of alternate picking) and sweep picking, but does not often use them. Satriani has received 15 Grammy nominations and has sold more than 10 million albums worldwide. Many of his fans and friends call him “Satch,” short for “Satriani”. An influential guitarist himself, Satriani has many influences, including jazz guitarists Django Reinhardt, Wes Montgomery, Allan Holdsworth and Charlie Christian, and rock guitarists Jimi Hendrix and Ritchie Blackmore. Equipment Satriani has endorsed Ibanez’s JS Series guitars, and Peavey’s JSX amplifier. Both lines were designed specifically as signature products for Satriani. The Ibanez JS100 was based on and replaced the Ibanez 540 Radius model which Satriani first endorsed. However, Satriani uses a variety of gear. Many of his guitars are made by Ibanez,


Baby wah, RMC Wizard Wah, Digitech Whammy, BK Butler Tube Driver, BOSS DS-1, BOSS CH-1, BOSS CE-2, BOSS DD-2 and a standard BOSS DD-3 (used together to emulate reverb effects), BOSS BF-3, BOSS OC-2, Barber Burn Drive Unit, Full tone Deja Vibe, Fulltone Ultimate Octave, and Electro-Harmonix POG (Polyphonic Octave Generator), the latter being featured prominently on the title cut to his 2006 Super Colossal. Satriani has partnered with Planet Waves to create a signature line of guitar picks and guitar straps featuring his sketch art. Although Satriani endorses the JSX, he has used many amps in the studio when recording, including the Peavey Classic. He used Marshall heads and cabinets, including live, prior to his Peavey endorsement. Most recently Satriani used the JSX head through a Palmer Speaker Simulator. Joe Satriani has also released a Class-A 5-watt tube amp called the “Mini Colossal”. He is currently working with Vox on his own line of signature effects pedals designed to deliver Satriani’s trademark tone plus a wide range of new sounds for guitarists of all playing styles and ability levels. The first being a signature distortion pedal titled the “Satchurator”, and recently, the “Time Machine” which will be a delay pedal, with more to follow in 2008, including a wah pedal called the “Big Bad Wah”. Recurring themes Satriani’s work frequently makes references to various science fiction stories and ideas. “Surfing with the Alien”, “Back to Shalla-Bal” and “The Power Cosmic 2000” refer to the comic book character Silver Surfer, while “Ice 9” refers to the secret government ice weapon in Kurt Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle. “Borg Sex” is a reference to Star Trek, which features a homogeneous cybernetic race known as the Borg. His albums and songs often have other-worldly titles, 19 such as Not of this Earth, Crystal Planet, Is There Love in Space?, and Engines of Creation. On the album Super Colossal the song titled “Crowd Chant” was originally called “Party on the Enterprise”. “Party on the Enterprise” featured sampled sounds from the Starship Enterprise from the Star Trek TV show. But as Satriani explained in a podcast, legal issues regarding the samples could not be resolved and he was unable to get permission to use them. Satriani then removed the sounds from the song and called it “Crowd Chant.” “Redshift Riders”, another song on the Super Colossal album, is “based on the idea that in the future, when people can travel throughout space, they will theoretically take advantage of the cosmological redshift effect so they can be swung around large planetary objects and get across universe a lot faster than normal,” Satriani said in a podcast about the song. On the album Professor Satchafunkilus and the Musterion of Rock the song “I Just Wanna Rock”, is about a giant robot on the run who happens upon a rock concert. Philanthropy In 2006, Satriani signed on as an official supporter of Little Kids Rock, a non-profit organization that provides free musical instruments and instruction to children in under served public schools throughout the U.S.A. Satriani has personally delivered instruments to children in the program through a charity raffle for the organization and, in common with Steve Vai, sits on its board of directors as an honorary member.

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including the JS1000, and JS1200. These guitars typically feature the DiMarzio PAF Pro (which he used up until 1993 in both the neck and bridge positions), the DiMarzio Fred (which he used in the bridge position from 1993 to 2005), and the Mo’ Joe and the Paf Joe (which he uses in the bridge and neck positions, respectively, from 2005 to present day). The JS line of guitars is his signature line, and they feature the Edge Pro, which is Ibanez’s exclusive vibrato system, although he’s always used the Original Edge unit on his guitars. The guitar with which he was most often associated during the nineties was a chrome-finished guitar nicknamed “Chrome Boy” (this instrument can be seen on the Live in San Francisco DVD). However, the guitar used for most of the concert was in fact a look alike nicknamed “Pearly”, which featured Seymour Duncan Pearly Gates pickups. Satriani uses a number of other JS models such as the JS double neck model, JS700 (primary axe on the self-titled CD and seen on the 1995 tour “Joe Satriani”, which features a fixed bridge, P-90 pickups, and a matching mahogany body and neck), JS6/JS6000 (natural body) , JS1 (the original JS model), JS2000 (fixed bridge model), a variety of JS100s, JS1000s and JS1200s with custom paint work, and a large amount of prototype JSs. All double locking bridges have been the original Edge tremolo, not the newer models, which point to a more custom guitar than the “off the shelf” models. Joe played a red 7-string JS model, seen in the “G3 Live in Tokyo” DVD from 2005. He also has a prototype 24-fret version of the JS which he has used with Chickenfoot. Satriani has used a wide variety of guitar amps over the years, using Marshall Amplification for his main amplifier (notably the limited edition blue colored 6100 LM model) up until 2001, and his Peavey signature series amps, the Peavey JSX, thereafter. The JSX began life as a prototype Peavey XXX and developed into the Joe Satriani signature Peavey model, now available for purchase in retail stores. Joe Satriani has used other amplifiers over the years in the studio, however. Those include the Peavey 5150 (used to record the song ‘Crystal Planet’), Cornford, and the Mesa/ Boogie Mark IIC+ (used to record the song ‘Flying in a Blue Dream’), amongst others. His effects pedals include the Vox wah, Dunlop Cry


Shajari Mohammad-Reza

M

ohammad Reza Shajarian born September 23, 1940 in Mashhad, Iran is an internationally and critically acclaimed Persian traditional singer, composer and ostad (master) of Persian music. He has been called «Iran’s greatest living master of traditional Persian music.» Shajarian is also

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Presented him with the Picasso Award.

Early work

Shajarian studied singing at the early age of five under the supervision of his father, and at the age of twelve, he began studying the traditional classical repertoire known as the Radif. Shajarian started his singing career in 1959 at Radio Khorasan, rising to prominence in the 1960s with his distinct style of singing. Since then his career has included teaching at Tehran University’s Department of Fine Arts, working at National Radio and Television, researching Iranian music, and making numerous recordings.

Music Groups

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Shajarian has not always been in music groups, but he currently does the vocals for the Masters of Persian Music with his son Homayoun Shajarian, as well as two other ostads, Keyhan Kalhor and Hossein Alizadeh.

Masters

Shajarian studied with the ostads Esmaeil Mehrtash and Ahmad Ebadi, and learned the vocal styles of singers from previous generations, including Reza Gholi Mirza Zelli, Fariborz Manouchehri, Ghamar Molouk Vaziri, Eghbal Azar , and Taj Isfahani. He started playing the santour under the instruction of Jalal Akhbari in order to better understand and perform the traditional repertoire, and in 1960, he became the pupil of Faramarz Payvar. He studied under the guidance of master Abdollah Davami, from whom he learned many early Persian songs. Abdollah Davami also passed on to Shajarian his own interpretation of the Radif.

Bam Art Garden project

After the 2003 Bam earthquake, Shajarian initiated a project to help the people of Bam. He also performed concerts in support of people of Bam. known for his skills in Persian calligraphy, and humanitarian activities. Shajarian has collaborated with Parviz Meshkatian, Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Hossein Alizadeh, and Faramarz Payvar. He is recognized as skilled singer in the challenging traditional Dastgah style. In 1999 UNESCO in France

2009 election protest

Shajarian has indicated support for Iranians protesting against the 12 June 2009 Iranian presidential election results. When Iran’s president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad referred to the protesters as «dust and trash», Shajarian told a BBC BBC Persian channel telephone interviewer that he considered himself the voice of dust and trash: «It is


Awards and distinctions • Nushin medal (2008) • The UNESCO award - the UNESCO Mozart Medal (2006) • Nominated for Grammy award in Best World Music (2006) • Nominated for Grammy award in Best World Music (2004) • Iran’s best classical vocalist (2000) • Golden Picasso Medal (1999), one of UNESCO’s highest honors • National radio and television golden cup (1977) • Prize presented by Turkish parliament speaker (1976)

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ALIREZA

MORTAZAVI his music instrument INVENTED? n i w e i v r e t n I

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the voice of dust and trash and it will always remain the voice of dust and trash.» He also asked IRIB (Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting) to stop broadcasting his songs. He mentioned that his famous song «Iran, Ey Saraye Omid» (Iran, the land of Hope), has no relation with the current situation of his country. Lyrics of his song «Language of Fire,» issued in September 2009,»Lay down your gun, Come, sit down, talk, and hear. Perhaps the light of humanity will get through to your heart too “are thought by some observers to speak «directly to the plainclothes Basiji militiamen and security forces» who beat protesters during recent unrest.

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ian

Do you know

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Architecture Part I Brunelleschi in Italy

venustatis, which translates roughly as • Durability - it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. • Utility - it should be useful and function well for the people using it. • Beauty - it should delight people and raise their spirits. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill Each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leone Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, although ornament also played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealized human figure, the Golden Mean. The most important aspect of beauty was therefore an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially; and was based on universal, recognizable truths. The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari. The treatises, by the 18th century, had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English. In the early nineteenth century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts (1836) that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval

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The Parthenon, Athens, Greece, «the supreme example among architectural sites.»

rchitecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture is both the process and the product of designing and constructing spaces that reflect and functional, aesthetic and environmental 22considerations. Architecture requires the use of materials, technology, textures, light, and shadow. As a process, architecture also includes the pragmatic elements of design, such as planning, cost and construction. A wider definition may comprise all design activity from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture). In fact, architecture today may refer to the activity of designing any kind of system. Architectural works are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

The Architect

Architects plan, design and review the construction of buildings and structures for the use of people by the creative organizations of materials and components with consideration to mass, space, form, volume, texture, structure, light, shadow, materials, program, and pragmatic elements such as cost, construction limitations and technology, to achieve an end which is usually functional, economical, practical and often artistic. This distinguishes architecture from engineering design, which has as its primary object the creative manipulation of materials and forms using mathematical and scientific principles. As documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, architecture defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.

Theory of Architecture

Historic treatises The earliest written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century CE. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitatis utilitatis

world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only “true Christian form of architecture.” The 19th century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the «art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men ... That the sight of them» contributes «to his mental health, power, and pleasure». For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way «adorned». For


Contemporary concepts of architecture

The great 19th century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: «Form follows function». While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of «function» in place of Vitruvius «utility». «Function» came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural. Nunzia Rondanini stated, «Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.’

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Architectural drawings of details of the Palace of Persepolis, Persia (Iran)

Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the very least. On the difference between the ideals of «architecture» and mere «construction», the renowned 20th C. Architect Le Corbusier wrote: «You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful. That is Architecture».

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Persep P

ersepolis, Takht-e-jamshid or Chehel Minar, was the ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire during the Achaemenid dynasty. Persepolis is situated 70 km northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran. In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e-Jamshid (Throne of Jamshid) and Parseh. The earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BC. To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Parsa, which means «The City of Persians». The UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.

Construction

Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BC. André Godard, the French archaeologist who excavated Persepolis in the early 1930s, believed that Cyrus the Great chose the site of Persepolis, but that Darius the Great built the terrace and the great palaces. Darius ordered the construction of the Apadana Palace and the Council Hall (the Tripylon or three-gated hall), the main imperial Treasury and its surroundings. These were completed during the reign of his son, King Xerxes the Great. Further construction of the buildings on the terrace continued until the downfall of the Achaemenid dynasty. Location

Archaeological Research

The first Westerner to visit the ruins of Persepolis was Antonio de Gouveia, from Portugal, who wrote about cuneiform inscriptions following his visit in 1602. His first written report on Persia, the «Jornada», was published in 1606. The first scientific excavations at Persepolis were carried out by Ernst Herzfeld and Erich F Schmidt represent

the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Excavations were conducted for eight seasons beginning in 1930 and included other nearby sites. Herzfeld believed the reasons behind the construction of Persepolis were the need for a majestic atmosphere, a symbol for their empire, and to celebrate special events, especially the “Nowruz”. For historical reasons, Persepolis was built where the Achaemenid Dynasty was founded, although it was not the center of the empire at that time. Persepolitan architecture is noted for its use of wooden columns. Architects resorted to stone only when the largest cedars of Lebanon or teak trees of India did not fulfill the required sizes. Column bases and capitals were made of stone, even on wooden shafts, but the existence of wooden capitals is probable. The buildings at Persepolis include three general groupings: military quarters, the treasury, and the reception halls and occasional houses for the King. Noted structures include the Great Stairway, the Gate of Nations (Xerxes the Great), the Apadana Palace of Darius, the Hall of a Hundred Columns, the Tripylon Hall and Tachara Palace of Darius, the Hadish Palace of Xerxes, the palace of Artaxerxes III, the Imperial Treasury, the Royal Stables and the Chariot House.

Site

Persepolis is near the small river Pulwar, which flows into the river Kur (Kyrus). The site includes a 125,000 square meter terrace, partly artificially constructed and partly cut out of a mountain, with its east side leaning on Kuh-e Rahmet («the Mountain of Mercy»). The other three sides are formed by retaining walls, which vary in height with the slope of the ground. From 5 to 13 meters on the west side a double stair, gently slopes to the top. To cre-


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Ruins of a number of colossal buildings exist on the terrace. All are constructed of dark-grey marble. Fifteen of their pillars stand intact. Three more pillars have been re-erected since 1970. Several of the buildings were never finished. F. Stolze has shown that some of the mason’s rubbish remains. These ruins, for which the name Chehel minar («the forty columns or mina- 25 rets») can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takht-e Jamshid(«the throne of Jamshid»). Since the time of Pietro della Valle, it has been beyond dispute that they represent the Persepolis captured and partly destroyed by Alexander the Great. Behind Takht-e Jamshid are three sepulchres hewn out of the rock in the hillside. The façades, one of which is incomplete, are richly decorated with reliefs. About 13 km NNE, on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a perpendicular wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley. The modern Persians call this place Naqsh-e Rustam or Nakshi Rostam («the picture of Rostam»), from the Sassanian reliefs beneath the opening, which they take to be a representation of the mythical hero Rostam. It

Bas-relief in Persepolis - a symbol Zoroastrian Nowruz

ate the level terrace, depressions were filled with soil and heavy rocks, which were joined together with metal clips. Around 518 BC, construction of a broad stairway was begun. The stairway was planned to be the main entrance to the terrace 20 meters above the ground. The dual stairway, known as the Persepolitan stairway, was built in symmetrically on the western side of the Great Wall. The 111 steps were 6.9 meters wide with treads of 31 centimeters and rises of 10 centimeters. Originally, the steps were believed to have been constructed to allow for nobles and royalty to ascend by horseback. New theories suggest that the shallow risers allowed visiting dignitaries to maintain a regal appearance while ascending. The top of the stairways led to a small yard in the north-eastern side of the terrace, opposite the Gate of Nations. Gray limestone was the main building material used in Persepolis. After natural rock had been levelled and the depressions filled in, the terrace was prepared. Major tunnels for sewage were dug underground through the rock. A large elevated water storage tank was carved at the eastern foot of the mountain. Professor Olmstead suggested

Ruins

Reprasantation palace of Darius at Perspolis

polis

the cistern was constructed at the same time that construction of the towers began. The uneven plan of the foundation of the terrace acted like a castle whose angled walls enabled its defenders to target any section of the external front. Diodorus writes that Persepolis had three walls with ramparts, which all had towers to provide protection space for the defense personnel. The first wall was 7 meters tall, the second, 14 meters and the third wall, which covered all four sides, was 27 meters in height, though no presence of the wall exists in modern times.


may be inferred from the sculptures that the occupants of these seven tombs were kings. An inscription on one of the tombs declares it to be that of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by the use of ropes. Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persian kings, either that their remains were brought «to the Persians,» or that they died there.

The Gate of All Nations

The Gate of all Nations, referring to subjects of the empire, consisted of a grand hall that was a square of approxi-

Two Persian Soldiers in Persepolis

two rows of six. At the south of the grand hall a series of rooms were built for storage. Two grand Persepolitan stairways were built, symmetrical to each other and connected to the stone foundations. To protect the roof from erosion, vertical drains were built through the brick walls. In the four corners of Apadana, facing outwards, four towers were built. The walls were tiled and decorated with pictures of lions, bulls, and flowers. Darius ordered his name and the details of his empire to be written in gold and silver on plates, which were placed in covered stone boxes in the foundations under the Four Corners of the palace. Two Persepolitan style symmetrical stairways were built on the northern and eastern sides of Apadana to compensate for a difference in level. Two other stairways stood in the middle of the building. The external front views of the palace were embossed with pictures of the Immortals, the Kings’ elite guards. The northern stairway was completed during Darius’ reign, but the other stairway was completed much later.

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mately 25 meters (82 feet) in length, with four columns and its entrance on the Western Wall. There were two more doors, one to the south which opened to the Apadana yard and the other opened onto a long road to the east. Pivoting devices found on the inner corners of all the doors indicate that they were two-leafed doors, probably made of wood and covered with sheets of ornate metal. A pair of Lamassu’s, bulls with the head of a bearded man, stands by the western threshold. Another pair, with wings and a Persian head (Gopät-Shäh), stands by the eastern entrance, to reflect the Empire’s power. Xerxes’ name was written in three languages and carved on the entrances, informing everyone that he ordered it to be built.

Apadana Palace

Darius the Great built the greatest and most glorious palace at Persepolis in the western side. This palace was named Apadana (the root name for modern «ayvan»). The King of Kings used it for official audiences. The work began in 515 BC. His son Xerxes I completed it 30 years later. The palace had a grand hall in the shape of a square, each side 60 m long with seventy-two columns, thirteen of which still stand on the enormous platform. Each column is 19 m high with a square Taurus and plinth. The columns carried the weight of the vast and heavy ceiling. The tops of the columns were made from animal sculptures such as two headed bulls, lions and eagles. The columns were joined to each other with the help of oak and cedar beams, which were brought from Lebanon. The walls were covered with a layer of mud and stucco to a depth of 5 cm, which was used for bonding, and then covered with the greenish stucco which is found throughout the palaces. At the western, northern and eastern sides of the palace there was a rectangular veranda which had twelve columns in

The Throne Hall

Next to the Apadana, second largest building of the Terrace and the final edifices, is the Throne Hall or the Imperial Army’s hall of honor (also called the «Hundred-Columns Palace). This 70x70 square meter hall was started by Xerxes and completed by his son Artaxerxes I by the end of the fifth century BC. Its eight stone doorways are decorated on the south and north with reliefs of throne scenes and on the east and west with scenes depicting the king in combat with monsters. Two colossal stone bulls flank the northern portico. In the beginning of Xerxes’s reign the Throne Hall was used mainly for receptions for military commanders and representatives of all the subject nations of the empire. Later the Throne Hall served as an imperial museum.

Other palaces and structures

There were other palaces built. These included the Tachara palace which was built under Darius I, and the Imperial treasury which was started by Darius in 510 BC and finished by Xerxes in 480 BC. The Hadish palace by Xerxes I, occupies the highest level of terrace and stands on the living rock. The Council Hall, the Tryplion Hall, The Palaces of D, G, H, Storerooms, Stables and quarters, Unfinished Gateway and a few Miscellaneous Structures at Persepolis near the south-east corner of the Terrace, at the foot of the mountain.

Tombs of King of Kings

It is commonly accepted that Cyrus the Great was buried at Pasargadae. If it is true that the body of Cambyses II was brought home «to the Persians», his burying-place must be somewhere beside that of his father. Ctesias assumes that it was the custom for a king to prepare his own tomb during his lifetime. Hence the kings buried at Naghsh-e Rustam are probably Darius the Great, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I and Darius II. Xerxes II, who reigned for a very short time, could scarcely have obtained so splendid a monument, and still less could the usurper Sogdianus (Secydianus). The two completed graves behind Takhti Jamshid would then belong to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III. The unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses of Persia, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III (Codomannus), who is one of those whose bodies are said to have been brought «to the Persians.»


Destruction

After invading Persia, Alexander the Great sent the main force of his army to Persepolis in the year 330 BC

After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire

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by the Royal Road. Alexander stormed the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains), then quickly captured Persepolis before its treasury could be looted. After several months Alexander allowed his troops to loot Persepolis. A fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city. It is not clear if it had been a drunken accident, or a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Hellenic-Persian War. Many historians argue that while Alexander’s army celebrated with a symposium they decided to take revenge against Persians. In that case it would be a combination of the two. The Book of Arda Wiraz, a Zoroastrian work composed in the 3rd or 4th century CE, also describes archives containing «all the Avesta and Zand, written upon prepared cow-skins, and with gold ink» that were destroyed. Indeed in his the chronology of ancient nations, the native Iranian writer Biruni indicates unavailability of certain native Iranian historiographical sources in post-Achaemenid era especially during Ashkanian and adds «And more than that. He (Alexander) burned the greatest part of their religious code, he destroyed the wonderful architectural monuments in t h e mountains of Istakhr, nowadays known as the mosque of Solomon Ben David, and delivered them up to the flames. People say that even at the present time the traces of fire are visible in some places.» The Apadana Palace, northern stairway

Another small group of ruins in the same style is found at the village of Hajjiäbäd, on the Pulwar, a good hour’s walk above Takhti Jamshid. These formed a single building, which was still intact 900 years ago, and was used, as the mosque of the then-existing city of Istakhr. Cyrus the Great was buried in Pasargadae, which is mentioned by Ctesias as his own city. Since, to judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I, it was probably under this king, with whom the scepter passed to a new branch of the royal house, that Persepolis became the capital of Persia proper. As the residence of the rulers of the empire, however, a remote place in a difficult alpine region was far from convenient. The country’s true capitals were Susa, Babylon and Ecbatana. This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until Alexander the Great took and plundered it. At that time Alexander burned «the palaces» or «the palace,» universally believed now to be the ruins at Takhti Jamshid. From Stolze’s investigations it appears that at least one of these, the castle built by Xerxes, bears evident traces of having been destroyed by fire. The locality described by Diodorus after Cleitarchus corresponds in important particulars with Takhti Jamshid, for example, in being supported by the mountain on the east. There is, however, one formidable difficulty. Diodorus says that the rock at the back of the palace containing the royal sepulchers is so steep that the bodies could be raised to their last resting-place only by mechanical appliances. This is not true of the graves behind Takhte Jamshid, to which, as F. Stolze expressly observes, one can easily ride up. On the other hand, it is strictly true of the graves at Nakshi Rustam. Stolze accordingly started the theory that the royal castle of Persepolis stood close by Nakshi Rustam, and has sunk in course of time to shapeless heaps of earth, under which the remains may be concealed. The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes. Moreover, Persian tradition at a very remote period knew of only three architectural wonders in that region, which it attributed to the fabulous queen Humgi (Khumái)the grave of Cyrus at Pasargadae, the building at HäjjIãbãd, and those on the great terrace. It is safest therefore to identify these last with the royal palaces destroyed by Alexander. Cleitarchus, who can scarcely have visited the place himself, with his usual recklessness of statement, confounded the tombs behind the palaces with those of Nakshi Rustam; indeed he appears to imagine that all the royal sepulchers were at the same place.

In 316 BC Persepolis was still the capital of Persia as a 27 province of the great Macedonian Empire (see Diod. xix, 21 seq., 46; probably after Hieronymus of Cardia, who was living about 316). The city must have gradually declined in the course of time; but the ruins of the Achaemenidae remained as a witness to its ancient glory. It is probable that the principal town of the country, or at least of the district, was always in this neighborhood. About 200 BC we find the city Istakhr (properly Stakhr), five kilometers north of Persepolis, as the seat of the local governors. There the foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and there Istakhr acquired special importance as the center of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy. The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighborhood, and in part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions. They must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors. The Romans knew as little about Istakhr as the Greeks had known about Persepolis and this despite the fact that for four hundred years the Sassanians maintained relations, friendly or hostile, with the empire. At the time of the Arabian conquest Istakhr offered a desperate resistance. The city was still a place of considerable importance in the first century of Islam, although its greatness was speedily eclipsed by the new metropolis


Shiraz. In the 10th century Istakhr dwindled to insignificance, as may be seen from the descriptions of Istakhri, a native (c. 950), and of Mukaddasi (c. 985). During the following centuries Istakhr gradually declines, until, as a city, it ceased to exist. In 1618, García de Silva Figueroa, King Philip III of Spain’s ambassador to the court of Shah Abbas, the Safavid monarch, was the first Western traveler to correctly identify the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid as the location of Persepolis. The fruitful region was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated. The «castle of Istakhr» played a conspicuous part several times during the Muslim period as a strong fortress. It was the middlemost and the highest of the three steep crags which rise from the valley of the Kur, at some distance to the west or north-west of Nakshi Rustam. We learn from Asian writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen. Amongst others, James Morier and E. Flandin have visited them. W. Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th

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Century, at least as a state prison. But when Pietro della Valle was there in 1621, it was already in ruins.

Modern events

In 1971, Persepolis was the main staging ground for the 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy.

Sivand Dam controversy

Construction of the Sivand Dam, named for the nearby town of Sivand, began September 19, 2006. Despite 10 years of planning, Iran’s own Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broad areas of flooding during much of this time and there is growing concern about the effects the dam will have on Persepolis’ surrounding areas. Many archaeologists and Iranians worry that the dam’s placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites.

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Times) and wish to distance Iran from it’s ancient heritage. Ayatollah Khomeni once expressed such negative opinions about Persepolis. In 1979, Khomeini’s right-hand man, the Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali, tried to demolish Persepolis by bulldozers on these grounds. He was stopped by the provisional government, who criticized the decision on the grounds that Persepolis was a defining feature of Iran’s cultural heritage, and is a major source of income from tourism. In addition, Iranian enthusiasts drove the thugs of Khalkhali who tried to destroy Persepolis by force.

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Scientists involved with the construction refute this claim, stating its impossibility because both sites sit well above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered the more threatened. Archaologists are also concerned that an increase in humidity caused by the lake will speed Pasargadae’s gradual destruction; however, experts from the Ministry of Energy believe this would be negated by controlling the water level of the dam reservoir. Other archaeologists and political analysts believe that the real motivation for destroying Persepolis is the Islamic Fundamentalism of the Ayatollahs, who view the pre-Islamic heritage of Iran as shirk (idolatry) and Jahillya (the dark

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P

ainting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). In art, the term describes both the act and the result, which is called a painting. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay or concrete. Paintings may be decorated with gold leaf, and some modern paintings incorporate other materials including sand, clay, and scraps of paper. Painting is a mode of expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork de-

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picting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes of eastern religious origin.

Pain

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nting

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Further information: Western painting, Eastern Painting, Indian painting, Chinese Painting, and History of painting The boundary of things in the second plane will not be discerned like those in the first. Therefore, painter, do not produce boundaries between the first and the second, because the boundary of one object and another is of the nature of a mathematical line but not an actual line, in that the boundary of one color is the start of another color and is not to be accorded the status of an actual line, because nothing intervenes between the boundary of one color which is placed against another. Therefore, painter, do not make the boundaries pronounced at a distance.» What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity. Every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity; by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes. Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization (perspective), and symbols. For example, a painter perceives that a particular white wall has different intensity at each point,

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Overview

due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a white wall in pitch darkness. In technical drawing, thickness of line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word «red», for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like, red, blue, green, brown, etc.). Painters deal practically with pigments, so «blue» for a painter 31 can be any of the blues: phtalocyan, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological, symbolical meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear sound in music (like «C») is analogous to light in painting, «shades» to dynamics, and coloration is to painting as specific timbre of musical instruments to music though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it. Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. Rhythm is basically a pause incorporated into a body (sequence). This pause allows creative force to intervene and add new creations form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work. This is because the esthetical value is functionality dependent, the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of «techne», directly contributes to the esthetical value. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. (There is a growing community of artists who use


T

ing either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century belies the premature declarations of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Important works of art continue to be made in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments, the marketplace being left to judge merit. Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting, Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Appropriation, Hyper realism, Photo realism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermediate painting, Assemblage painting, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, and paint-on-glass animation. Georges Seurat (1859–91) – Circus Sideshow, (1887–88)

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computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.) In 1829, the first photograph was produced. From the mid to late 19th century, photographic processes improved and, as it became more widespread, painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. There began a series of art movements into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded, through Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Dadaism. Eastern and 32African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time. Modern and Contemporary Art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favor of concept; this led some to say in the 1960s that painting, as a serious art form, is dead. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice paint-

History of

he oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rockshelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia that is dated 40 000 years old. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world in France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, India etc. In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting are the best known media, with rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions.

painting Aesthetics and theory of painting

Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for such 18th and 19th century philosophers as Kant or Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular; Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting. By the time of Leonardo painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that «Pittura est cousa mentale» (painting is a thing


Painting media

Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc. Examples include: Acrylic, Dry pastel, Enamel paint, Encaustic (wax), Fresco, Gouache, Ink, Light, Oil, Oil pastel, Spray paint (Graffiti), Tempera, Water miscible oil paints, Watercolor, Painting styles ‘Style’ is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist’s work. It can also refer to the move-

ment or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word ‘style’ in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following: Western styles Abstract, Abstract figurative, Abstract Expressionism, Art Brut, Art Deco, Baroque, Body painting, CoBrA, Color Field, Constructivism, Contemporary Art, Cubism, Digital painting, Expressionism, Fauvism, Figuration Libre, Folk, Futurism, Graffiti, Hard-edge, Hyperrealism, Impressionism, Lyrical Abstraction, Mannerism, Minimalism, Modernism, Naïve art, Neoclassicism, Op art, Orientalism, Orphism, Outsider, Painterly, Photorealism, Pinstriping, Pluralism, Pointillism, Pop art, Post-painterly Abstraction, Postmodernism, Precisionism, Primitive, Realism, Regionalism, Rococo, Romantic realism, Romanticism, Socialist realism, Street Art, Stuckism, Superflat, Surrealism, Tachism, Tonalism Eastern styles Far eastern Chinese Tang Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Shan shui, Ink and wash painting, Hua niao, Southern School, Zhe School, Wu School, Contemporary Japanese Yamato-e, Rimpa school, Emakimono, Kanō School, 33 Shijō School Korean Islamic / Near eastern Ottoman miniature, Persian miniature Indian My sore, Tanjore, Madhubani, Rajput, Mughal, Bengal school, Samikshavad Common painting Idioms Painting idioms include Allegory, Bodegón, Body painting, Botanical, Figure painting, Illustration, Industrial, Landscape, Portrait, Still life, Veduta Some other Painting terms Altarpiece, Broken Color, Cartoon, Chiaroscuro, Composition, Dry brush, Easel Picture, Foreshortening, Fourdimensional painting, Genre, Halo, Highlights, History painting, Imprimatura, Landscape, Licked finish, Madonna, Maulstick, Miniature, Mural Painting, Palette, Panel Painting, Perspective, Pietá, Plein Air, Portrait, Sfumato, Stippling, Technique, Trompe l’oeil, Underpainting, Varnish, Wet-on-wet

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of the mind). Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former. Although he did not refer particularly to painting, this concept was taken up by painters such as Turner and Caspar David Friedrich. Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and in his aesthetic essay wrote that Painting is one of the three «romantic» arts, along with Poetry and Music for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose. Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee. Kandinsky in his essay maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do. Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, then their meaning for the viewer at the time, and then analyze their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning. In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: «Remember that a painting before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order.» Thus, many twentieth century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world, nature, which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting have been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book what is Painting? Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas. In Mirror of the World Bell writes: ‘A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.


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Drama

and Euripides, and the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus’ historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BCE, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years. The competition (“agon”) for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BCE; official records (“didaskaliai”) begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr

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rama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning “action”, which is derived from “to do”. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. The early modern tragedy Hamlet by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus the King (c. 429 BCE) by Sophocles are among the supreme masterpieces of the art of drama. The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia and Melpomene. Thalia was the Muse of comedy (the laughing face), while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy (the weeping face). Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotelean’s Poetics (c. 335 BCE) the earliest work of dramatic theory. The use of “drama” in the narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the 19th century. Drama 34in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy for example, Zola’s Thérèse Raquin (1873) or Chekhov’s Ivanov (1887). It is this narrow sense that the film and television industry and film studies adopted to describe “drama” as a genre within their respective media. “Radio drama” has been used in both senses originally transmitted in a live performance, it has also been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in opera is sung throughout; musicals include spoken dialogue and songs; and some forms of drama have regular musical accompaniment. In certain periods of history (the ancient Roman and modern Romantic) dramas have been written to be read rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance; performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience.

History of Western drama Classical Athenian drama

Western drama originates in classical Greece. The theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE they were institutionalized in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus. Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, who is credited with the innovation of an actor (“hypokrites”) who speaks (rather than sings) and impersonates a character (rather than speaking in his own person), while interacting with the chorus and its leader (“coryphaeus”), who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry (dithyrambic, lyric and epic). Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, however, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles

play was introduced. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays (though the individual works were not necessarily connected by story or theme), which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play (though exceptions were made, as with Euripides’ Alcestis in 438 BCE). Comedy was officially recognized with a prize in the competition from 487-486 BCE. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia (though during


the Peloponnesian War this may have been reduced to three), each offering a single comedy. Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between “old comedy” (5th century BCE), “middle comedy” (4th century BCE) and “new comedy” (late 4th century to 2nd BCE).

Roman drama

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Following the expansion of the Roman Republic (50927 BCE) into several Greek territories between 270-240 BCE, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the later years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire

theatrical entertainments. The first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BCE. Five years later, Gnaeus Naevius also began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies; their successors tended to specialize in one or the other, which led to a separation of the subsequent development of each type of drama. By the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, drama was firmly established in Rome and a guild of writers (collegium poetarum) had been formed. The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies based on Greek subjects) and come from two dramatists: Titus Maccius Plautus (Plautus) and Publius Terentius After (Terence). In re-working the Greek originals, the Roman comic dramatists abolished the role of the chorus in dividing the drama into episodes and introduced musical accompaniment to its dialogue (between one-third of the dialogue in the comedies of Plautus and two-thirds in those of Terence). The action of all scenes is set in the exterior location of a street and its complications often follow from eavesdropping. Plautus, the more popular of the two, wrote between 205-184 BCE and twenty of his comedies survive, of which his farces are best known; he was admired for the wit of his dialogue and his use of a variety of poetic meters. All of the six comedies that Terence wrote between 166-160 BCE have survived; the complexity of his plots, in which he often combined several Greek originals, was sometimes denounced, but his double-plots enabled a sophisticated presentation of contrasting human behavior. No early Roman tragedy survives, though it was highly-regarded in its day; historians know of three early tragedians Quintus Ennius, Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius. From the time of the empire, the work of two trage- 35 dians survives one is an unknown author, while the other is the Stoic philosopher Seneca. Nine of Seneca’s tragedies survive, all of which are fabula crepidata (tragedies adapted from Greek originals); his Phaedra, for example, was based on Euripides’ Hippolytus. Historians do not know who wrote the only extant example of the fabula praetexta (tragedies based on Roman subjects), Octavia, but in former times it was mistakenly attributed to Seneca due to his appearance as a character in the tragedy.

Medieval

In the Middle Ages, drama in the vernacular languages of Europe may have emerged from religious enactments of the liturgy. Mystery plays were presented on the porch of the cathedrals or by strolling players on feast days. Miracle and mystery plays, along with moralities and interludes, later evolved into more elaborate forms of drama, such as was seen on the Elizabethan stages.

Elizabethan and Jacobean

(27 BCE-476 CE), theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England; Roman theatre was more varied, extensive and sophisticated than that of any culture before it. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BCE marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, however, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of

One of the great flowerings of drama in England occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. Many of these plays were written in verse, particularly iambic pentameter. In addition to Shakespeare, such authors as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Middleton, and Ben Jonson were prominent playwrights during this period. As in the medieval period, historical plays celebrated the lives of past kings, enhancing the image of the Tudor monarchy. Authors of this period drew some of their story lines from Greek mythology and Roman mythology or from the plays of eminent Ro-


man playwrights such as Plautus and Terence. Modern and postmodern The pivotal and innovative contributions of the 19thcentury Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen and the 20thcentury German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht dominate modern drama; each inspired a tradition of imitators, which include many of the greatest playwrights of the modern era. The works of both playwrights are, in their different ways, both modernist and realist, incorporating formal experimentation, meta-theatricality, and social critique. In terms of the traditional theoretical discourse of genre, Ibsen’s work has been described as the culmination of “liberal tragedy,” while Brecht’s has been aligned with an historicised comedy. Other important playwrights of the modern era include August Strindberg, Anton Chekhov, Frank Wedekind, Maurice Maeterlinck, Federico García Lorca, Eugene O’Neill, Luigi Pirandello, George Bernard Shaw, Ernst Toller, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, Jean Genet, Samuel Beckett, Harold Pinter, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Dario Fo, Heiner Müller, and Caryl Churchill.

Other Asian cultural forms Indian

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Indian drama is traced back to certain dramatic episodes described in the Rigveda, which dates back to the 2nd millenium BC. Early examples include the Yama-Yami and other Rigvedic dialogue hymns. The dramas 36episode dealt with human concerns as well as the gods. The nature of the plays ranged from tragedy to light comedy. Dramatists often worked on pre-existing mythological or historical themes that were familiar to the audience of the age. For instance, many plays drew their plot lines from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the great epics of India. Their stories have often been used for plots in Indian drama and this practice continues today. The earliest theoretical account of Indian drama is Bharata Muni’s Natya Shastra (literally “Scripture of Dance,” though it sometimes translated as “Science of Theatre’”) that may be as old as the 3rd century BC. The text specifically describes the proper way one should go about staging a Sanskrit drama. It addresses a wide variety of topics including the proper occasions for staging a drama, the proper designs for theatres, the types of people who are allowed to be drama critics and, most especially, specific instructions and advice for actors, playwrights and (after a fashion) producers. Drama was patronized by the kings as well as village assemblies. Famous early playwrights include Bhasa, Kalidasa (famous for Vikrama and Urvashi, Malavika and Agnimitra, and The Recognition of Shakuntala), Śudraka (Famous for The Little Clay Cart), Asvaghosa, Dandin, and Emperor Harsha (famous for Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika).

Chinese

Chinese theatre has a long and complex history. Today it is often called Chinese opera although this normally refers specifically to the popular form known as Beijing Opera; there have been many other forms of theatre in China. Shirley Wo also is in interest in an act of drama shows especially Asian dramas.

Japanese

Japanese Nō Drama is a serious dramatic form that

combines drama, music, and dance into a complete aesthetic performance experience. It developed in the 14th and 15th centuries and has its own musical instruments and performance techniques, which were often handed down from father to son. The performers were generally male (for both male and female roles), although female amateurs also perform Nō Dramas. Nō Drama was supported by the government, and particularly the military, with many military commanders having their own troupes and sometimes performing themselves. It is still performed in Japan today. Kyōgen Is the comic counterpart to Nō Drama. It concentrates more on dialogue and less on music, although Nō Instrumentalists sometimes appear also in Kyōgen.

Forms of drama Opera

Western opera is a dramatic art form, which arose during the Renaissance in an attempt to revive the classical Greek drama tradition in which both music and theatre were combined. Being strongly intertwined with western classical music, the opera has undergone enormous changes in the past four centuries and it is an important form of theatre until this day. Noteworthy is the huge influence of the German 19th century composer Richard Wagner on the opera tradition. In his view, there was no proper balance between music and theatre in the operas of his time, because the music seemed to be more important than the dramatic aspects in these works. To restore the connection with the traditional Greek drama, he entirely renewed the operatic format, and to emphasize the equal importance of music and drama in these new works, he called them “music dramas.” Chinese opera has seen a more conservative development over a somewhat longer period of time.

Pantomime

These stories follow in the tradition of fables and folk tales, usually there is a lesson learned, and with some help from the audience the hero/heroine saves the day. This kind of play uses stock characters seen in masque and again commedia del arte, these characters include the villain (doctore), the clown/servant(Arlechino/Harlequin/buttons), the lovers etc. These plays usually have an emphasis on moral dilemmas, and good always triumphs over evil, this kind of play is also very entertaining making it a very effective way of reaching many people.

Creative Drama

Creative Drama refers to dramatic activities and games used primarily in educational settings with children. Its roots in the United States began in the early 1900s. Winifred Ward is considered to be the founder of creative drama in education, establishing the first academic use of drama in Evanston, Illinois.

Legal status UK

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 does not define a dramatic work except to state that it includes a work of dance or mime. However, it is clear that dramatic work includes the scenario or script for films, plays (written for theatre, cinema, television or radio) and choreographic works.


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Samuel Beckett 13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989


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Ferdowsi Tomb Mashhad Iran by EMAD NAVY

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Ferdowsi, the son of a wealthy land owner, was born in 935 in a small village named Paj near Tus in Khorasan which is situated in today’s Razavi Khorasan state in Iran. His great epic, the Shāhnāmeh («The Great Book», In Persian language, Shah means king, monarch or dynast, but when it is used as a prefix, it means «Big», «Great» or «Major».), To which he devoted more than 35 years, was originally composed for presentation to the Samanid princes of Khorasan, who were the chief instigators of the revival of Iranian cultural traditions after the Arab conquest of the seventh century. When he was just 23-years old, he found a “Shāhnāmeh” Written by AbuMansour Almoammari; it was not, however, in poetic form. It consisted of older versions ordered by Abu-Mansour ibn Abdol-razzagh. The discovery would be a fateful moment in the life of the poet. Ferdowsi started his composition of the Shahnameh in the Samanid era in 977 A.D. During Ferdowsi’s lifetime the Samanid dynasty was conquered by the Ghaznavid Empire. After 30 years of hard work, he finished the book and two or three years after that, Ferdowsi went to Ghazni, the Ghaznavid capital, to present it to the king. There are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by the new king, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, in Ferdowsi and his lifework. According to historians, Mahmud had promised Ferdowsi a dinar for every distich written in the Shahnameh (60,000 dinars), but later retracted and presented him with dirhams (20,000 dirhams), which were at that time much less valuable than dinars (every 100 dirhams worth 1 dinar). Some think it was the jealousy of other poets working at the king’s court that led to this treachery; the incident encouraged Ferdowsi’s enemies in the court. Ferdowsi rejected the money and, by some accounts, he gave it to a poor man who sold wine. Wandering for a time in Sistan and Mazandaran, he eventually returned to Tus, heartbroken and enraged. He had left behind a poem for the King, stuck to the wall of the room he

Books

His masterpiece, the Shāhnāmeh, Is the most popular and influential national epics belonging to the Iranian people that at one time made up the greater Persian Empire, named in Prophet Zarathustra’s Gatha as Airyanem Vaejah, in Shahnameh as Iran, and in Greek as Persian Empire. In this context we use «Persians» to denote what the Greeks viewed as the people of Airyanem Vaejah and the word Persia for all its territories. Thus the greatest achievement of Ferdowsi is to have all of the named fragments of the former Persian Empire, once again recite together «if there is no Iran, may my body be vanquished, and in this land and nation no one remain alive, if everyone of us dies one by one, it is better than giving our country to the enemy.» If there is a single document in the Persian literature that can reunite Persia and all of its nations, it is this document.

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Ferdowsi

Life

had worked in for all those years. It was a long and angry poem, more like a curse, and ended with the words: «Heaven’s vengeance will not forget. Shrink tyrant from my words of fire, and tremble at a poet’s ire.» Ferdowsi is said to have died around 1020 in poverty at the age of 85, embittered by royal neglect, though fully confident of his work’s ultimate success and fame (clearly seen especially in last verses of his book). One tradition claims Mahmud re-sent the amount promised to Ferdowsi’s village, but when the messengers reached his house, he had died a few hours earlier. The gift was then given to his daughter, since his son had died before his father at the age of 37. However, his daughter refused to receive the sum, thus making Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh immortal. Later the king ordered the money be used for repairing an inn in the way from Merv to Tus, named “Robat Chaheh” so that it may remain in remembrance of the poet. This inn now lies in ruins, but still exists. Some say that Ferdowsi’s daughter inherited her father’s hard earned money, and she built a new and strong bridge with a beautiful stone caravanserai nearby for travellers to rest and trade and tell stories. Ferdowsi was buried at the yard of 39 his own home, where his mausoleum now lies. It was not until Reza Shah Pahlavi’s rule, in 1925, that a mausoleum was built for the great poet.

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akīm Abu’l-Qāsim Firdawsī Tūsī, More commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi (or Firdausi), (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. He was the author of the Shāhnāmeh, The national epic of Persian-speakers and of the Iranian World.


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The Shāhnāmeh (Book of Kings), or «The Great Book» consists of the translation of an even older Middle Persian work titled the Book of Lords. It has remained exceptionally popular among Persians for over a thousand years. It tells the history of old Persia before the Arab conquest of the region. This tale, all written in poetic form and in Darī Persian, starts 7,000 years ago, narrating the story of Persian kings, Persian knights, Persian system of laws, Persian Religion, Persian victories and Persian tragedies. The main source of Ferdowsi for historical and some of the mythological events was «Khodaynama», a book which was gathered and written during the Sassanid era. Illustrations, especially those of Mahmoud Farshchian, are historical and use the different themes for the stories. According to popular legend, Ferdowsi was commissioned by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni to write 40a book about his valour and conquests. However, the poet, though dedicating the book to the King for an agreed fee of 30 horses loaded with gold coins, decided to tell the story of the Kings that had made the land of Persia into an Empire throughout the ages. This task was to take the poet some thirty years or more, during which he included the verse: I suffered during these thirty years, but I have revived the Iranians (Ajam) with the Persian language; I shall not die since I am alive again, as I have spread the seeds of this language Upon the presentation of the Shāhnāmeh, Sultan Mahmud was furious for not being the subject of the book and finally betrayed the agreement by offering Ferdowsi thirty camels loaded with Silver; the offer was refused by the poet. Heartbroken and poor the poet returned to his home town of Tus, the Sultan eventually realising his er-

ror and the true value of the Shāhnāmeh Sent the agreed fee to the poet yet, upon the arrival of the camels the Ferdowsi’s coffin was being carried out through the exit gate of Tus to his grave.

Influence

Ferdowsi is one of the undisputed giants of Persian literature. After Ferdowsi’s Shāhnāmeh A number of other works similar in nature surfaced over the centuries within the cultural sphere of the Persian language. Without exception, all such works were based in style and method on Ferdowsi’s Shāhnāmeh, But none of them could quite achieve the same degree of fame and popularity as Ferdowsi’s masterpiece. Ferdowsi has a unique place in Persian history because of the strides he made in reviving and regenerating the Persian language and cultural traditions. His works are cited as a crucial component in the persistence of the Persian language, as those works allowed much of the tongue to remain codified and intact. In this respect, Ferdowsi surpasses Nezami, Khayyam, Asadi Tusi, and other seminal Persian literary figures in his impact on Persian culture and language. Many modern Iranians see him as the father of the modern Persian language. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica:The Persians regard Ferdowsi as the greatest of their poets. For nearly a thousand years they have continued to read and to listen to recitations from his masterwork, the Shahnameh, in which the Persian national epic found its final and enduring form. Though written about 1,000 years ago, this work is as intelligible to the average, modern Iranian as the King James version of the Bible is to a modern English-speaker. The language, based as the poem is on a Pahlavi original, is pure Persian with only the slightest admixture of Arabic.


Nosrat Rahmani March 6, 1930 – June 17, 2001


History T

of

he history of film spans over a hundred years, from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century. Motion pictures developed gradually from a carnival novelty to one of the most important tools of communication and entertainment, and mass media in the 20th century. Motion picture films have had a substantial impact on the arts, technology, and politics.

Precursors of film

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Plays and dances had elements common to filmsscripts, sets, lighting, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. They preceded film by thousands of years. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scène. Moving visual images and sounds were not recorded for replaying as in film. The camera obscura was pioneered by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021), and was later perfected near the 42year 1600 by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a projected moving image, indistinguishable from a projected high quality film to an audience, but it is not preserved in a recording. In 1740 and 1748, David Hume published Treatise of Human Nature and An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, arguing for the associations and causes of ideas with visual images, in some sense forerunners to the language of film.

The birth of film

In 1878, under the sponsorship of Leland Stanford, Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographed a horse named «Sallie Gardner» in fast motion using a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras. The experiment took place on June 11 at the Palo Alto farm in California with the press present. The cameras were arranged along a track parallel to the horse’s, and each of the camera shutters was controlled by a trip wire which was triggered by the horse’s hooves. They were 21 inches apart to cover the 20 feet taken by the horse stride, taking pictures at one thousandth of a second. The second experimental film, Roundhay Garden Scene, filmed by Louis Le Prince on October 14, 1888 in Roundhay, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England is generally recognized as the earliest surviving motion picture. On June 21 1889, William Friese-Greene was issued patent no. 10131 for his chronophotographic camera. It was apparently capable of taking up to ten photographs per second using perforated celluloid film. A report on the camera was published in the British Photographic News on February 28 1890. On 18 March, Friese-Greene sent a clipping of the story to Thomas Edison, whose laboratory had been developing a motion picture system known as the Kinetoscope. The report was reprinted in Scientific American on April 19. Friese-Greene gave a public dem

onstration in 1890 but the low frame rate combined with the device’s apparent unreliability failed to make an impression At the Chicago 1893 World’s Colombian Exposition, Muybridge gave a series of lectures on the Science of Animal Locomotion in the Zoopraxographical Hall, built specially for that purpose in the «Midway Plaisance» arm of the exposition. He used his zoopraxiscope to show his moving pictures to a paying public, making the Hall the very first commercial movie theater. William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, chief engineer with the Edison Laboratories, is credited with the invention of a practicable form of a celluloid strip containing a sequence of images, the basis of a method of photographing and projecting moving images. Celluloid blocks were thinly sliced, then removed with heated pressure plates. After this, they were coated with a photosensitive gelatin emulsion. In 1893 at the Chicago World’s Fair, Thomas Edison introduced to the public two pioneering inventions based on this innovation; the Kinetograph - the first practical moving picture camera - and the Kinetoscope. The latter was a cabinet in which a continuous loop of Dickson’s celluloid film (powered by an electric motor) was back lit by an incandescent lamp and seen through a magnifying lens. The spectator viewed the image through an eye piece. Kinetoscope parlours were supplied with fifty-foot film snippets photographed by Dickson, in Edison’s «Black Maria» studio (pronounced like «ma-RYE-ah»). These sequences recorded mundane


film Part I

They quickly became Europe’s main producers with their actualités like Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory and comic vignettes like The Sprinkler Sprinkled (both 1895). Even Edison, initially dismissive of projection, joined the trend with the Vitascope within less than six months. The first public motion-picture film presentation in Europe, though, belongs to Max and Emil Skladanowsky of Berlin, who projected with their apparatus «Bioscop», a flicker free duplex construction, November 1 through 31, 1895. That same year in May, in the USA, Eugene Augustin Lauste devised his Eidoloscope for the Latham family. But the first public screening of film ever is due to Jean Aimé «Acme» Le Roy, a French photographer. On February 5, 1894, his 40th birthday, he presented his «Marvellous Cinematograph» to a group of around twenty show business 43 men in New York City. The movies of the time were seen mostly via temporary storefront spaces and traveling exhibitors or as acts in vaudeville programs. A film could be under a minute long and would usually present a single scene, authentic or staged, of everyday life, a public event, a sporting event or slapstick. There was little to no cinematic technique: no editing and usually no camera movement, and flat, stagey compositions. But the novelty of realistically moving photographs was enough for a motion picture industry to mushroom before the end of the century, in countries around the world.

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events (such as Fred Ott’s Sneeze, 1894) as well as entertainment acts like acrobats, music hall performers and boxing demonstrations. Kinetoscope parlors soon spread successfully to Europe. Edison, however, never attempted to patent these instruments on the other side of the Atlantic, since they relied so greatly on previous experiments and innovations from Britain and Europe. This enabled the development of imitations, such as the camera devised by British electrician and scientific instrument maker Robert W. Paul and his partner Birt Acres. Paul had the idea of displaying moving pictures for group audiences, rather than just to individual viewers, and invented a film projector, giving his first public showing in 1895. At about the same time, in France, Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, a portable, three-in-one device: camera, printer, and projector. In late 1895 in Paris, father Antoine Lumière began exhibitions of projected films before the paying public, beginning the general conversion of the medium to projection (Cook, 1990).

The silent era

In the silent era of film, marrying the image with synchronous sound was not possible for inventors and producers, since no practical method was devised until the late 1920s. Thus, for the first thirty years of their history, movies were silent, although accompanied by live musicians and sometimes sound effects and even commentary spoken by the showman or projectionist. In most countries the need for spoken accompaniment quickly faded, with dialogue and narration presented in intertitles, but in Japanese cinema it remained popular throughout the silent era.


F

ashion design is the applied art dedicated to clothing and lifestyle accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time. It is considered to have a built in obsolescence usually of one to two seasons. A season is defined as either autumn/winter or spring/summer. Nowadays, even though French, British, Japanese and American fashion are the top in style, Italian fashion is considered the most important and elegant in design and it has led the world of fashion since the 1970s and <80s.

Structure

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Fashion designers can work in a number of ways. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion company, known as in-house designers, which owns the designs. They may work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers works for themselves, and sell their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyer’s label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients. Other high-fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-fashion department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men’s, wom44en’s, and children’s fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a <name’ as their brand such as Calvin Klein, Gucci, Ralph Lauren, or Chanel are likely to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a designer director.

Designing a collection

A fashion collection is something that designers put together each season to show their idea of new trends in both their high end couture range as well as their mass market range.

ated after 1858 could be considered as fashion design. It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, which was much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy.

Ready to wear

At this time in fashion history the division between haute couture and ready-to-wear was not sharply defined. The two separate modes of production were still far from being competitors, and, indeed, they often co-existed in houses where the seamstresses moved freely between made-to-measure and ready-made. Around the start of the 20th century fashion magazines began to include photographs and became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators, among

Designing a garment

Fashion designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on paper, while others drape fabric on a dress form. When a designer is completely satisfied with the fit of the toile (or muslin), he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who then makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card. The pattern maker’s job is very precise and painstaking. The fit of the finished garment depends on their accuracy. Finally, a sample garment is made up and tested on a model.

History

Fashion design is generally considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture (fashion house) in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, and high fashion descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth’s success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done. The term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing cre-

them Paul Iribe, George Lepape and George Barbier, drew exquisite Fashion plates for these publications, which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton, which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years). World War II brought about many radical changes to the fashion industry. After the war, Paris’s reputation as the global center of fashion began to crumble and off-thepeg and mass-manufactured clothing became increasingly popular. A new youth style emerged in the 1950s, changing the focus of fashion. As the installation of central heating became more widespread the age of minimumcare garments began and lighter textiles and, eventually, synthetics, were introduced. Faced with the threat of a factory-made fashion-based product, Parisian haute couture mounted its defenses, but to little effect, as it could not stop fashion leaking out onto the streets. Before long, whole categories of women hitherto restricted to inferior substitutes to haute couture


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Fashion design

Extreme attention to detail and finish, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look And fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.

Ready-to-wear

Would enjoy a greatly enlarged freedom of choice. Dealing in far larger quantities, production cycles were longer than those of couture workshops, which meant that stylists planning their lines for the twice-yearly collections had to try to guess more than a year in advance what their customers would want. A new power was afoot, that of the street, constituting a further threat to the dictatorship of the masters of coutures.

Types of fashion

There are three main categories of fashion design, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories: Haute couture Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominantly designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis (French for high-fashion), with the garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, and is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with

Ready-to-wear clothes are a cross between haute couture and mass market. They are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive. Ready-towear collections are usually presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week. This takes place on a city-wide basis and occurs twice a year.

Mass market

Currently the fashion industry relies more on mass market sales. The mass market caters for a wide range of customers, producing ready-to-wear clothes in large quantities and standard sizes. Cheap materials, creatively used, produce affordable fashion. Mass market designers generally adapt the trends set by the famous names in fashion. They often wait around a season to make sure a style is going to catch on before producing their own versions of the original look. In order to save money and time, they use cheaper fabrics and simpler production techniques which can easily be done by machine. The end product can therefore be sold much more cheaply.

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Have you ever searched this phrase in Google? “Graphic PDF magazine” surely you watch the name of “REV-

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OLUTIONART INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE ” in top list.

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elson, let us to return back, when you were younger, what was your story that you interested in GD? I always loved to use my notebooks to design characters and stories only with pen. Before Photoshop and Internet, I was making comics and stories with my friends. I enjoyed those times a lot. I’m not a graphic designer. I’m advertiser and communicator. Graphic design is my best tool to communicate messages for my clients, for my magazine, and all my projects. I think communication is the basis that make us humans. What`s the position and level of art and GD in your country? Do the government emphasize it? I don’t think that the level of graphic design in Peru is relevant compared with other countries, but the market force the competitivity. There are a lot of hidden talents,

Here I had a very special interview with my friend nelson and his manner in improving his Magazine but government doesn’t care a lot. Is my personal vision. That why I prefer to look all around the world for inspiration. Which software do you work on and which of them do you prefer? Illustrator, In Design, Photoshop are my favorite tools for designing. When I was kid I tried all kind of software for audio, design, web, and print. Now I don’t need much tools but only creativity. I can’t think well with stress. Hopefully I don’t have a stressed life. Something is clear in your works and that is your like to use vector elements and show a vector work finally, is it haphazard or you are following a specific target? Yes maybe, but is only for quick advertisements and pieces of communication. Because time is my enemy.


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If I had to choose, I would prefer to design with photography and retouching images hours and hours. But I don’t have many hours to put it on artistic pieces. I have lot of work that have to be managed and distributed uniformly. I know I’m not showing the best of my potential. Vector design is more easy to handle for me. What is your style of works (classic, modern or …) And do you prefer it? I love the modern art, pop art, and impressionism. I don’t like too much the kind of works that are open to multiple interpretations. I like to see clear emotions and messages that are understandable for everyone. Nelson, we all know that you have R.A magazine and that`s successful and admirable. I remember approximately 3 years ago when you started your publishing for R.A. Those days did you think it can reach to this level of structure and view in the world? Yes, the start was a dream, but a vision at the same time. I’m very proud of the result and the continuity of the work. It makes me to be fully updated and practicing new concepts. At the same time is a contribution to the world because Revolutionart make the people think about important themes. How much times spend a day for it? 15 days starting from the deadline until the publication. The other days are for research, interviews and cool hunting. Are you working on that lonely? 48 I do the most of Revolutionart but the result could be impossible without the contributions of all the Creative that participate in the magazine. I think Revolutionart is made by all the people. In every edition I got a lot of help of researchers, writers, models and people that support the project. Why PDF? Why not print? Why not monetary? How do you earn money? Those are similar questions that people are making to the owners of youtube or facebook. First at all I make this with passion and motivation. I know a LOT of publications that was abandoned because the people was looking just for money. I have another important values with Revolutionart like prestige, open access to events around the world, exchanges, deals, promotions, etc. PDF is a format that can be delivered and distributed easily. In the other way I don’t have the resources to print and distribute worldwide neither the time. I’m open to make Revolutionart bigger. What`s your suggestion for beginners? For young generation? Practice, practice, practice. Don’t be afraid to show your works, don’t be afraid to fail. Creative process is like vomiting ideas. After that you can purge the result, but start without fear. What should be the feature of a PDF for success? The PDF is just the media. It could be a power point, a print, a website. The success is in the concept, in the product and in the strategy. You have to connect with the people giving them what they like to see. What`s your idea about evaluation of PDF in the world in future? I think that all the digital world is changing very quick. I would like to see very interactive features in PDF

like less height, interactive features, online connection. But the digital world changes very fast. I really don’t know if PDF will be the future. Gathering all the issues of R.A, and have a general viewpoint to the complex of them, I can deduct two things: in the 1st sight obscured and noisy mind of the designers, and 2nd their view about sex that is not with peace and serenity, these two points involve my mind. What`s your idea about it? Where does this manner originate from? Maybe is anarchy. We’re dealing with visual terrorists! Hehehe ! When you don’t have strong restrictions you can see what’s what people like. Is like graffiti but legal. You can see all the aspects of creativity in Revolutionart. Is part of the balance. But in your works there is calmness. Are you yourself a quiet man or emotion? I’m a very serene man. Open minded. Don’t drink or smoke. Philosopher and thinker. But very strong and emotional with thoughts, ideals, and music. Finally, what do you plan to do in future? What`s Your vision for the next round? ( far future) I like to teach, to travel, to sing, to compose, to design, and love my work as advertiser creating strategies for private clients. I have hundreds of plans! But don’t know where to start. For Revolutionart, I’m looking and evolution. I think is time to take it to the next level.


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he Louvre Palace, on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, is a former royal palace situated between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l’Auxerrois. Its origins date back to the medieval period, and its present structure has evolved in stages since the sixteenth century. The Louvre gets its name from a Frankish word leovar or leower, signifying a fortified place, according to the French historian Henri Sauval (1623-1676). It was the actual seat of power in France, until Louis XIV moved to Versailles in 1682, bringing the government perforce with him; the Louvre remained the formal seat of government to the end of the Ancien Régime in 1789. Since then it has housed the celebrated Musée du Louvre as well as various government departments.

The present-day Louvre Palace is a vast complex of wings and pavilions on four main levels which, although it looks to be unified, is the result of many phases of building, modification, destruction and restoration. The Palace is situated in the right-bank of the River Seine between Rue de Rivoli to the north and the Quai François Mitterrand (formerly the Quai du Louvre) to the south. To the west is the Jardin des Tuileries and, to the east, the Rue de l’Amiral de Coligney (its most architecturally famous façade, created by Claude Perrault) and the Place du Louvre. The complex occupies about 40 hectares (400,000 sq m) and forms two main quadrilaterals which enclose two large courtyards: the Cour Carrée (“Square Court”), completed under Napoleon I, and the larger Cour Napoleon with the Cour du Carrousel to its west, built under Napoleon III. The Cour Napoleon and Cour du Carrousel are separated by the street known as the Place du Carrousel. The Louvre complex may be divided into the “Old Louvre”: the medieval and Renaissance pavilions and wings surrounding the Cour Carrée, as well as the Grande Galerie (“Great Gallery”) extending west along the bank of the Seine; and the “New Louvre”: those 19th Century pavilions and wings extending along the north and south sides of the Cour Napoleon along with their extensions to the west (north and south of the Cour du Carrousel) which were originally part of the long-gone Palais des Tuileries (Tuileries Palace). Some 51,615 sq m (555,000 sq ft) in the palace complex are devoted to public exhibition floor space. The complex is so vast that one could visit every day for a week and still not be able to give more than a cursory look to each of the exhibits.

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The complex

The “Old Louvre”

The Old Louvre occupies the site of the 12th-century fortress of King Philip Augustus, also called the Louvre.

Its foundations are viewable in the basement level as the “Medieval Louvre” department. This structure was razed in 1546 by King Francis I in favor of a larger royal residence which was added to by almost every subsequent French monarch. King Louis XIV, who resided at the Louvre until his departure for Versailles in 1678, completed the Cour Carrée, which was closed off on the city side by a colonnade. The Old Louvre is a quadrilateral approximately 160 meters on a side consisting of 8 ailes (wings) which are articulated by 8 pavillons (pavilions). Starting at the northwest corner and moving clockwise, the pavillons consist of the following: Pavillon de Beauvais, Pavillion de Marengo, Northeast Pavilion, Central Pavilion, Southeast Pavilion, Pavillon des Arts, Pavillon du Roi, and Pavillon Sully (formerly, Pavillon de l’Horloge). Between the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon Sully is the Aile Lescot (“Lescot Wing”): built between 1546 and 1551, it is the oldest part of the visible external elevations and was important in setting the mold for later French architectural classicism. Between the Pavillon Sully and the Pavillon de Beauvais is the Aile Lemercier («Lemercier Wing»): built in 1639 by Louis XIII and Richelieu, it is a symmetrical extension of Lescot’s wing in the same Renaissance style. With it, the last external vestiges of the medieval Louvre were demolished.

The “New Louvre”

The New Louvre is the name often given to the wings and pavilions extending the Palace for about 500 meters westwards on the north (Napoléon I and Napoléon III) and on the south (Napoléon III) sides of the Cour Napoléon and Cour du Carrousel. It was Napoléon III who finally connected the Tuileries Palace with the Louvre in the 1850s, thus finally achieving the Grand Dessein “(Great Design”) originally envisaged by King Henry IV of France in the 16th century. This consummation only lasted a few short years, however, as the Tuileries was burned in 1871 and finally razed completely in 1882. The northern limb of the new Louvre consists (from east to west) of three great pavilions along the Rue de Rivoli: the Pavillon de la Bibliotheque, Pavillon de Rohan and Pavillon de Marsan. On the inside (court side) of the Pavillon de la Bibliotheque are three pavilions; Pavillon Colbert, Pavillon Richelieu and Pavillon Turgot; these pavilions and their wings define three subsidiary Courts, from east to west: Cour Khorsabad, Cour Puget and Cour Marly. The southern limb of the New Louvre consists (from east to west) of five great pavilions along the Quai François Mitterrand (and Seine bank): the Pavillon de la Lesdiguieres, Pavillon des Sessions, Pavillon de la Tremoille, Pavillon des Etats and Pavillon de Flore. As on the north side, three inside (court side) pavilions (Pavillon Daru, Pavillon Denon and Pavillon Mollien) and their wings define


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three more subsidiary Courts: Cour du Sphinx, Cour Viconti and Cour Lefuel. For simplicity, on museum tourist maps, the New Louvre north limb, the New Louvre south limb, and the Old Louvre are designated as the “Richelieu Wing”, the “Denon Wing” and the “Sully Wing, respectively. This allows the casual visitor to avoid (to some extent) becoming totally mystified at the bewildering array of named wings and pavilions. The Pavillon de Flore and the Pavillon de Marsan, at the westernmost extremity of the Palace (south and north

limbs, respectively), were destroyed when the Third Republic razed the ruined Tuileries, but were subsequently restored beginning in 1874. The Flore then served as the model for the renovation of the Marsan. A vast underground complex of offices, shops, exhibition spaces, storage areas, and parking areas, as well as an auditorium, a tourist bus depot, and a cafeteria, was constructed underneath the Louvre’s central courtyards of the Cour Napoléon and the Cour du Carrousel for François Mitterrand’s “Grand Louvre” Project (1981-2002).


The ground-level entrance to this complex was situated in the centre of the Cour Napoléon and is crowned by the prominent steel-and-glass pyramid (1989) designed by the American architect I.M. Pei.

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Medieval period Fortress

The Palais du Louvre was originally constructed as a fortress, built in the 12th century by King Philip II Augustus along with the City’s first enclosure wall to defend the banks of the Seine river against invaders from the north. The fortress had at its center a cylindrical tower: the Donjon, or the Keep. (Archaeological discoveries of the original fortress are now part of the Medieval Louvre exhibit in the Sully wing of the museum.) Philip Augustus’ fortress of 1190 was not a royal residence but a sizable arsenal comprising a moated quadrilateral (seventy-eight by seventy-two meters) with round bastions at each corner, and at the center of the north and west walls. Defensive towers flanked narrow gates in the south and east walls. At the center of this complex stood a keep, the Grosse Tour (fifteen meters in diameter and thirty meters high). Two inner buildings abutted the outer walls on the west and south sides.

Royal residence

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The Louvre was renovated frequently through the Middle Ages. Under Louis IX in the mid-1200s, the Louvre 58became the home of the royal treasury. The castle soon gained a dual function: in addition to its protective role, it became one of the residences of the king and the court, along with the chateau de Vincennes, the Hotel Saint-Pol in the Marais and the palace of the Île de la Cité. The fortress was enlarged and beautified in the 14th century by Charles V, making it the most celebrated royal residence in Europe of its time. Charles V began the enlargement of the Louvre in 1358, but his work was ruined in the course of the Hundred Years War and demolished in the 1500s by King Francis I, to make room for a new structure built in the Renaissance style.[1]

Renaissance period

Beginning in 1546, after returning from his captivity in Spain, King Francis I of France employed architect Pierre Lescot and sculptor Jean Goujon to remove the keep and modernize into a Renaissance style palace. Lescot had previously worked on the châteaux of the Loire Valley and was adopted as the project architect. The new plan consisted of a square courtyard, with the main wing separated by a central staircase, and the two wings of the sides comprising a floor. Lescot added a ceiling to King Henry II’s bedroom (Pavillon du Roi) that departed from the traditional beamed style, and installed the Salle des Caryatides, which featured sculpted caryatids based on Greek and Roman works. Art historian Anthony Blunt refers to Lescot’s work «as a form of French classicism, having its own principles and its own harmony». Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre’s holdings; his acquisitions included Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. The death of Francis I in 1547, however, interrupted the project. The architect Androuet du Cerceau also worked on the Louvre. In 1564 Catherine de’ Medici directed the building of a château to the west called the Palais des Tuileries, facing the Louvre and the surrounding gardens. The Palace closed off

Western end of the Louvre courtyard. Catherine then took over the restoration of the entire palace. Her architect Philibert de l’Orme began the project, and was replaced after his death in 1570 by Jean Bullant.

House of Bourbon and After

The Bourbons took control of France in 1589. During his reign (1589-1610), Henry IV began his «Grand Design» to remove remnants of the medieval fortress, to increase the Cour Carrée’s area, and to create a link between the Palais des Tuileries and the Louvre. The link was completed via the Grande Galerie by architects Jacques Androuet de Cerceau and Louis Métezeau. More than a quarter of a mile long and one hundred feet wide, this huge addition was built along the bank of the Seine; at the time of its completion it was the longest building of its kind in the world. Henry IV, a promoter of the arts, invited hundreds of artists and craftsmen to live and work on the building’s lower floors. (This tradition continued for another 200


to parallel the Petite Gallerie, and a chapel. Le Nôtre redesigned the Tuileries garden in the French style, which had been created in 1564 by Catherine de’ Medici in the Italian style; and Le Brun decorated of the Galerie d’Apollon. A committee of architects proposed on Perrault’s Colonnade; the edifice was begun in 1668 but not finished until the 19th century. Commissioned by Louis XIV, architect Claude Perrault’s eastern wing (1665-1680), crowned by an uncompromising Italian balustrade along its distinctly non-French flat roof, was a ground-breaking departure in French architecture. His severe design was chosen over a design provided by the great Italian architect Bernini, who had journeyed to Paris specifically to work on the Louvre. Perrault had translated the Roman architect Vitruvius into French. Now Perrault’s rhythmical paired columns form a shadowed colonnade with a central pedimented triumphal arch entrance raised on a high, rather defensive base, in a restrained classicizing baroque manner that has provided models for grand edifices in Europe and America for centuries. The Metropolitan Museum in New York, for one example, reflects Perrault’s Louvre design. In 1678 the royal residence moved to Versaille and the Palais du Louvre became an art gallery.

Later works

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In 1806 the construction of the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel began, situated between the two western wings, commissioned by Emperor Napoleon I to commemorate his military victories, designed by architect Charles Percier, surmounted by a quadriga sculpted by Baron François Joseph Bosio, and completed in 1808. The Louvre was still being added to by Napoleon III. The new wing of 1852-1857, by architects Louis Visconti and Hector Lefuel, represents the Second Empire’s version of 59 Neo-baroque, full of detail and laden with sculpture. In 1871 the Tuileries Palace was destroyed in the upheaval during the suppression of the Paris Commune. The western end of the Louvre courtyard has remained open since, forming the Cour d’honneur. Continued expansion and embellishment of the Louvre continued through 1876.

Grand Louvre and the Pyramids

Years until Napoleon III ended it.) In the early 1600s, Louis XIII razed the north wing of the medieval Louvre and replaced it with a continuation of the Lescot wing. His architect, Jacques Lemercier, designed and completed the wing by 1639 (subsequently known as the Pavillon de l’Horloge, after a clock was added in 1857.) The Richelieu Wing was also built by Louis XIII, the building first being opened to the public as a museum on November 8, 1793 during the French Revolution. Louis XIII (1610-1643) completed the wing now called the Denon Wing, which had been started by Catherine de Medici in 1560. Today it has been renovated, as a part of the Grand Louvre Renovation Programme.

The Louvre under the Sun King

In 1659, Louis XIV instigated a phase of construction under architects Le Vau and André Le Nôtre, and painter Charles Le Brun. Le Vau oversaw the decoration of the Pavillon du Roi, the Grand Cabinet du Roi, a new gallery

The current Louvre Palace is an almost rectangular structure, composed of the square Cour Carrée and two wings which wrap the Cour Napoléon to the north and south. In the heart of the complex is the Louvre Pyramid, above the visitor’s center. The museum is divided into three wings: the Sully Wing to the east, which contains the Cour Carrée and the oldest parts of the Louvre; the Richelieu Wing to the north; and the Denon Wing, which borders the Seine to the south. In 1983, French President François Mitterrand proposed the Grand Louvre plan to renovate the building and move the Finance Ministry out, allowing displays throughout the building. American architect I. M. Pei was awarded the project and proposed a modernist glass pyramid for the central courtyard. The pyramid and its underground lobby were inaugurated on 15 October 1988. Controversial at first, it has become an accepted Parisian architectural landmark. The second phase of the Grand Louvre plan, La Pyramide Inversée (The Inverted Pyramid), was completed in 1993. As of 2002, attendance had doubled since completion.


www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk


Gubbio By Salvador Sabater Photo of the week www.photo.net


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