Page 1

-�--�---le.4l'.>Af Vol.



b crte .dt-6. Cl1.6.t, e. 2, 1909

U1 m' 1 1' 43· ·


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Manufactured in Ireland by Irish Girls.

late Cigarettes. 10


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Ladies' Dress, Gentlemen's Dress, Household Furnishings OF EVERY DESCRIPTION





All Work Executed on the Premises at Talbot St, Dublin

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An cu1ueArh souns, [Ax � SOLUIS.]


2, 1909.




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Corh.e.tnt.e. COLAISTE NA MUMHAN. A Chara,

The ''. two (�r possibly three) ' have spoken, and­ ha':e said nothmg. My questions were straightforward, of mterest to Gaels, and bore directly, aye, too directly, perhaps, on the fac�s of the case. Why were they not answered ? Was i t that, awkward as the questions proved! to reply to them would be still more awkward ? There is an attempt to shirk the real point by telling me that I wrote in English. Yes, but how does that affect the questions ? The questions, my friends ! They stand, in the CLAIDHEAMH of the 5th ult.­and unanswered. In using English, by the way, I only followed your lead. Your ostensible objects have been very sedulously proclai�ed in the J=:>ress during the pas.t few months, yet, with the exception of one article which was. largely_ a rehash of what had previously appeared m English, all your campaign has been conducted in the Bearla ! Physician heal thyself. As for the other remarks in these two letters no sensible persoa will expect me to take them serio�sly. The "two (or possibly three) " reply to my questions by asking me scores of others, each and all as relevant to the point at issue as if I had been asked the colour of my hair, or "how many draught horses my father kept." Answer the questions my friends. If you can­ not, or if you will not, Munster Gaels will draw the natural conclusions. Your questions are chiefly attempts ­awkward attempts, indeed­at " drawing" me, and, considering the temper they reveal it is well for my personal safety that I am still "Einin." "Duine de'n bheirt" knows me, of course, and his whole letter, being based on this assumption, has, consequently, given some of us many a hearty laugh. For which let us be duly thankful, these being strenuous times. I am sorry to have to disillusion him, however, I am NOT an Uibh Laoghaire school teacher, and more's the pity! This same " Duine," whilst unable to bring any definite charge against the Committee of Co1aiste na Mumhan, cannot conceal his feelings towards that body. The Committee possesses the confidence of the College students, and of Munster Gaelic Leaugers, and Duine's " attack on that body can only recoil on himself. '' Muimheonach '' should be more careful in the choice of a pen name. Surely he knows that the Gael who usually writes over that name is well­known and honoured by Gaels throughout Ireland, and that consequently it is most improper for another to use it, and especially so to use it as your correspondent does. Indeed, his whole letter is, to put it mildly, peculiar in its tactics. Why, to quote one example, does he make me say that the object of the signatories of the Folaramh was to gain control of the College? I never said this. What I did say was that this was the object of the "two (or possibly three) " ringleaders who were running the "Students' Committee," and who were also, strange to say, organising this requisition. The signatories, with the exception of a few, were not Gaelic League WORKERS IN Munster. I am glad that the Muster Feis Committee judged the requisition at its proper value. By the way, why this hurry with the Munster Conference? What urgent and important matters concerning 'the status of the language in Munster" will not wait until Easter­the regularly The appointed time for calling the Conference ? Committee of Feis na Mumhan has earned the con­ fidence and support of Munster Gaelic Leaguers by its firm and dignified action in this matter. I am certain that the Committee of Colaiste na Mumhan will act similarly at its forthcoming meeting, and that it will not endanger the success of the College by placing it, as an experiment, at the tender mercy of apprentice hands. For the present, I have done with the "two (or The correspondence wiJJ do good possibly three)." both to the College and to the ambitious ones. I bear no ill­feeling towards these latter, and I know that they bear none towards me. Work on as privates for a little while longer, my friends. Read some poetry. Cultivate charity, sweetness of temper, and broadness of mental vision. Uibh Laoghaire has noble traditions. Let us live up to them. We shall all­the '' two (or possibly three) " and the "Einin "­meet at the Colaiste next summer, le congnamh De, and as good friends, I know. Go maith ! Mise. "EININ AR CHRAOIBH." t t




To the Editor of AN CLAIDHEAMH SoLUIS. Sir­ Tf Mr. M. J. Murphy will edit" Udhacht an Stiocaire, or a few simple short stories from the " Greann na Gaedhilghe " series, with an iriterlineal word for word translation (of which he has given a specimen in last week's "AN Cr.ArDHEAMH Sor ms,") he will increase the number of Irish learners bv thousands, and hasten the universal use of the Irish "language in Ireland by years. I am suggesting nothing novel. " This met�od Ham iltonian is eighty' years old and known as the Syst�m." The only reason I can imagine why it is not in universal use is that it was " too easy" a way for learning a language, and teachers conspire to kill it lest their occupation might go. We teach languages as we teach :n:iost subjects by beainnina at the wrong end. The easiest way to learn a l�nguage is as a child learn� it­_un<:onsciously. �ye do not worry the infant who is be�mm�g to spe�k. with nouns verbs declensions and conjuga.tions, \\ hile he is picking up the language he is .learning &rammar like Mons. Jourdain spoke prose­without being a:vare. of the fact. And this is the way we should begin with growing­up and grown­up learners. . 1:et tl_iem 1?egin from the verv commencement, reading m Ir ish with a interlineal word for word translation in English. Once learners begin to read in a new language " without difficultv " it takes a hold on them far stronger than will whiskv or opium. The teacher's trouble will not be to spur them on but to restrain the�, to p�event them rom scampering over several books m their eagerness

to read fresh matter in the new lanzuace before fhev ,",t, J know one book thoroughly. But this method will not do away with grammars or the manv admirable stories already published, on the contrary it will in­ crease their readers tenfold. When learners know the exact meaninz of everv word in, say, half a dozen or a dozen of our ,? short stories" without reference .to translation or vocabulary, grammar will be robbed of its terrors. Irs rules will become as it were, self­evident truths, and illustrations of their ex­ ceptions will often occur to the learners from what they h�ve read already. Learning the grammar will be like pictures.of 1:lac.es where we have been; we take pleasure m recallmg incidents connected with the different spots suggested to our memory. In this way grammar and langt�age would go amicably hand in hand; and the learning of a language would not be, to auote the words of the celebrated philsopher and educationalist John L�cke, "a sort of Egyptian tyranny, to bid the� make bricks who have not yet any of the material." While learners are enlarging their vocabulary, and un­ co:i�ciously learning grammar, they are also obtaining.a critical knowleqe of the meaning of words. They find that one word m one sentence has a different meaninz from the same word in another sentence­in fact that one w?rd has several meanings according to the different :­'lays its used. They have none of the trudgery of hunt­ mg out a forgotten or 1:nk�owi:i word i?­ the v:ocabula.ry to find only one meanmg is given which while it suits one sentence, they have to twist their brains and the sense to work in the same meaning in another sentence. If they are fortunate to possess a dictionarv the diffi­ culty is the other way ; as the knowledge· they have already obtained of the sentence does not enable them to deci.de whic� <;>f several meanings is the most suitable. Again, the 1d1_oms. of the language are forcibly im­ pressed upon thel! mmds. _Consciously or unconsciously �hey are companng the different modes of expression m �oth languages _for these differences are brought As the glc1:nng�y and contmually before their eves. ?bJect is to te�ch " Irish" not English, the exact mean­ !�g _of every Irish word in each sentence should be placed directly under it." For i_nsta�ce, Mr. Murphy in his word for word translation gives for " Bhi a bhean caill te." " His wife �as lost." I suggest that this is misleading. A be­ gmner would naturally conclude that " Bhi " meant «« His." But "Was his wife lost," and a few kindred sentences would fix in his mind that the verb "is" comes first, in a way that mere repetition would not. Wherever the word for word translation did not render �he meaning clearly, it could be expressed in a footnote m the usual English order. . Fr?m the very commencement, learning a language m t�:us way w?u�d be a plea:mre not a drudgery. Obser­ vation, assoc1a�10n, analysis, c�mparsion, and analogy would be contmually brought mto play, whereas it is now sheer memory work, of which so much of our so called educ�tion consists. �ot that I disparage memory ­memory is a. valuable gift­especially for parrots. Many _of the famt?­eartcd who gave up the language in despair, would be mduced to take it up again, and many who now look askance at it would be attracted to it. I speak not as teacher of language, but as a learner; I ventu.re to say tlfat any ordinary adult, by this system, would �n three months have a good reading knowledge ­a�d if pro_nunciation were taught in this way also­ a fa:r speakmg knowledge of the Irish language ; pre­ summg at the same time that he obtains the help of a teacher whenever he can, and remembering that the teacher is not a1ways at the learner's elbow. I did not intend to mention this matter until I had time to treat it at full length, but when I saw Mr. Murphy's translation I could not help suggesting the advantages of giving it along with the text. If the Editor will permit me I shall return to the sub­ ject later on. E. S. l..TA LAOGHAIRE, 43 Alfred Street, Islington, London, N. To the Editor of AN CLAIDHEAMH Sot.tns, A Chara, The following letter, with the exception of one slight change, was forwarded to the Editor of the Freeman's Journal a week ago, and has not been printed. I trust that you will find space for it. The opponents of the Language claims can throw "mud" with vigour, but any attempt to show their tactics to the general reader will be closured. "THE 'MANNERS' OF DR. MACNAMARA AND DR. McWALTER. Sir, Dr. McNamara, writing from " under the shadow of the British oak" to lecture the half­educated kerne of Ireland on the amenities of polite controversy is too good to let pass. Of course he is one of the '' great cattle," I quote from his letter. The body which has done most for Irish education is, according to this inoffensive gentleman, composed of ignorant, half­ educated, illogical people. "They do not know what a Dr. Hyde, Mr. John McNeill. Dr. University is." O'Hickey, Dr. Sexton, Father Mat Ryan, do not know Dr. McNamara will anything about a University. enlighten them ! He is politeness personified. In his cultured and elegant mind the Irish language, as an ess��tial in the new University;,, equc1;tes with " village Bemg unexperienced politics and tap­room manners. in such "manners," I defer at once to the great authority of Dr. MacNamara on the subject. Dr. l\facNamara politely refers to the vast body of the Irish people as "grass­hoppers," He must have for­ The Athenians knew what a gotten his history. University was. They proudly proclaimed that they were " grass­hoppers "­sons of the soil. Well, the Irish grass­hoppers are the sons of Ireland's soil, the men who followed O'Connell and Parnell, and, who, to­day, follow Dr. Hyde and Mr. John MacNeill on this issue. They are the people for whom Ireland won this Universitv. Dr. MacWalter adds to the gaiety of nations bv his lecture on " manners " and morals. .The elegant Doctor is polite enough to refer to the Irish people as a " mob." Of course, being a university graduate, he is a highly cultured gentleman. The Doctor says that Gaelic is not an essential subject in Scotch "Universities, and he thinks that Flemish is not an essential subject in Belgian Universities. What has that to do with the right of the Irish people to decide ? If Belgium or Scotland wished to starve itself nationallv, Ireland should do the same ! Scotland does not demand self­ government, therefore, the vast majority of the Irish

people should not do so ! This is the logic of Dr. :'.fac\V�l�er. I think it is pretty evident that his logic and Bilingsgate arc both of the worst description. But there is more. The Doctor calls those, who are deman�ing for their National Language its rizh tful place m the new University, a " few fan�1.tical e1;thusiasts." Very polite! The "multitude," I use his word, could according to the Doctor's Logic, learn French or German but not Irish!' Of course, it never occurred to him that there were over 200,000 children of the "multitude" learning Irish in the Primary schools Compulsory "Physics" (no pun intended) would, of course, be a benefit, Irish as an essential subject would be a bane ! No one would accuse the Doctor of being a. humourist but men are often wiser than they know. Bl�t. better still. The Doctor "scurrilously'' (as he would say) refers to the members of the Irish Public Boards. From his exalted position as a member of the Dublin Corporation, he sneers at the "Poor Law Guardians " and " District Councillors." A re these men who made sacrifices in the past and, obeying their Bishops, did not send their sons to Trinity C�llegc to be insulted by one who is on the side of members of th_e Senate of the new University who are against the Insh Language and who, while members of the Catholic School of Medi�ine, se1;t their ?Wffsons to Trinity College When res�lutions (with wluch I agreed) were being passed against the tyranny of the French Government, these Public Bodies were paragons of culture and enlightenment. Truth to tell, "<compul don " is to the opponents of the Irish Language as good as the blessed word " Messopo­ tamia.'' · I make a suggestion which will ensure the success of �he New University. Establish chairs of manners there­ m. Fc1;ncy Dr. MacNamara lecturing on the amenities of polite controversy, Dr. l\facWalter addressing the "mob" on make­believe, Father Barry and Father HumI?hreys teaching their young gentlemen the art of choosmg graceful and inoffensive language­it would be a sight for the gods ! LABHRAS UA MURIGHEASA. 20 5 Clonliffe Road.


Dublin, December z rst, 1908. Sir, A "certain" Dr. M'Walter calls us "howlers,, and "coercionists" who ask in our love for the native Irish language that all that is possible to do for its revival may be done, at least here at home, in our own land, by our own leaders, in our own (if it is to be our own) National University. Yes, indeed, it is necessary to compel ourselves and <?Ur friends owing to the effect of the primal compulsion of England when she forced our fathers to give up by tortuous yet effective means their land and language, and when she succeeded in creating an artificial atmosphere that well nigh killed our national tongue. to do what we can to save the remnant of that language. Why do we advocate strong and stern measures? Because by no other means, as we think, can this the last and most precious of purely Irish yet alienable possessions­the instrument through which the ancient Irish race during the brightest period of its national entity expressed itself in human speech­be saved. There is no more base insinuation, and it is often made use of during these sti11 glorious days by many of those who would slam the door of the National University on the Irish language, than that which suggests that the decay of the Irish language is a natural one, due to its essential' worthlessness, oand to, the deserved contempt and native want of love of it show_n _by the bulk <;>f !he Ir�s� people. Thfs suggestion, and 1t 1s used, and 1t 1s a hvmg force agamst us in the present controversy, is an audacious, an impudent and a contemptible falsehood. ' Oh, Heavens, how often Ireland has been lied to her face, and behind her back, and been libelled before the world in this manner when and where she never had an opportunity of _replying to her slanderers ; and oh, ,perfidy of perfidies, how often her basest caluminators have been her own children ! If self­denial in the matter and a stern resolve to. save the language at any cost, had not taken possession of certain individual enthusiasts and through them spread out, the Irish language would inevitably have died, and men like Dr. McWalter would, of course, have never shed a tear. · Dr. McWalter writes so many letters to the papers on every conceivable subject that he has become a What an astonishingly letter­writing phenomenon. clever man ! What amazing fertility of idea, and versatility of resource! Yet, though so marvellously endowed, he cannot be an equally good authority all­ round, and it is inevitable that such a man must make a fool of himself sometimes. It is said that Archbishop Whately, great scholar and logician, used sometimes sit on the chains at Trinity College and enjoy a quiet swing all to himself; and a famous Cardinal used to enjoy a kind of frog­leap over lines of chains. One thing is apparent­Dr. McWalter shows that he has not a particle oE ove for the Gaelic speech of our native land. Let the record of this fact be nailed to the counter in regard to him and most of the enemies of our side in our struggle for fair­play for Irish. More than one accurate and useful conclu"ion can be drawn from it. His reference to the Irish language as a " certain language " should not be forgotten for Dr. :\fc\Valter ; it is :3- gem �hat should !iv�. Assuming that Dr. ::.\Ic\Valter 1s an Inshman, there 1s something repulsively sickening in his unnatural anti­Iri1,h and utterly contemptuous reference­an almost hidden essence contained in a tinv word­to the ancient language of a historic people, the once excl usivc language of the Irish race and independent Ir:i1,h naticn at the most Irish and most illustrious pericd of its existence. There Dr. McWalter will have Trish Ireland,­but I forget­it is not Irish Ireland that troubles him­I was going to my he would have Irish Ireland led by himself and his friends, bv Scotland ancl \>Vales and Belgium. I should think he would find himself more at home in Scotland and \Vales and Belgium than in Done�al, or Galway, or Kerry. But I say let Ireland be led by Irish Irelandcr", for thev are the onlv true and natural constituents of an Irish Ireland; and ,vhat other kind of an IreJand should we have here ? Yours truly, T. HUNT, Late of Athea, Co. Limerick.



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THE LOUTH ARCHAELOGICAL JOURNAL. 'C . {. )'C: lJUtlU'O.l\f btt.o.i'.>11.l\ .l\11011' 6 CUtf'e.l\n:i.l\r r1or .6.llllt'eO ro1ti1e .<.\1\ The Louth Archce�og1cal Journal .1. 1f\1r­te.l\o.l\r Se.o.n'O.l\CC.l\ lu5_0.l\1'6. u.0.11, rl\ ott.o.'6.l\111 .o. t15e.6.r re l\m.o.c. _ 'C�­ c�f' r1or .o.5ur .l\1ft:1 .l\Titl 1 t1l bt1.l\'011.l\ f.l\ mor.o.n ce1r­ce.o.nn.o. .l\ o.o.111eor te re"<:'nc.l\r n� 11 e1re�11n, .1ct: 50 mor­m61' te re.l\n6.o.f 111ut5e tnmrte1m11e. .0.5ur 111 be.l\5 .6.11 6t11'0 ue f'e.l\nc.o.r n.l\ 11 e1rea11n rl.6.c 1om'6.l\ l\ t'>6.1t1e.l\r te mu15 rilu11,te1ti111e. rm C.l\t f U1 tt:e.l\c .l\5 ll f ­c1,01'0. Cf'O?.l\ .0.5_� f bt,1re.o.'6 cor5.o.r.o.c .l\ conn.o.1c .6.l1 n1.o.5 ce.6.'011.l\ �' n u, b.&t.6.i'.> Co Lp.d .6.5 be.l\ t n 6. born ne 50 'Ot:1 n L.i .l\t' tre15 Se.l\mur '56.eu1t .o.1, Of'l1.l\C .116. 11.l\o.o.nn,, .&'60.6.r C.l\tnn­ce_ 1H '0105 b.&1t • • •n >nA1"" 1'1"'v.u ' v. Ce.l\vtlu Ct1111.l\nn . Se.l\11'0.l\Ct:.6. lu5l)�1'6, n ..., l\ ue.o.r .l\1\ ·,r '0615 lll\C t>fU1l 6 'COf\.l\15 50 Ct.l\f'f'.6.t5e .b.o.tt 11' mo .l\ 1)6.111 te rel\nco.r tl.l\ };6'0\.6. 'n.& tn.o.c.o.1re ;t ct: 'l'e .l\ 11 t: 1 f'1 rte.6. b.6.t\ Se.111'0.l\Ct:.6 AA C,·QJll\1 tL , 1 reo .<.\C.i 6.5 Ct11' t>uo.'CMl\t..1 Of'.l\11111 'Oe n COt\ reo.

'C.& .o.n c-0.t L. Donnellan, C. C., .l\5 CUf' r1or .6.nt1 l\f' Ce.o.rt>.l\tt.&11. p.&ur.6.tC 6 'Oomn.l\tt.&m .6. tr.&ct: .l\1r r.o. ct­0.1"0e­0.m .l\t' .l\11 cr.l\�r.l\i'.> r' cu.o.1u t.o.f''C .l\ b.l\ 61011nt:.6.c te1r .0.11 -O.t. 0 'Oomn.l\tt.&rn 'C.& ­p10ccu11, Ce.o.ftt>.dtt.&111 .l\1111 6. t.l\rr.o.1115c .l\1f'. l\5ur cupt.o. 510­c.6. .l\ cum re.

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'Se &n ce.o.u 1u1u .6.t:..\ l\nn cur, r1or .o.1, Richard FitzRalph of Dundalk. te15e�ct: e 1'111 .l\ r111_n� Rev. James :\IacCaffrey, Ph. D.,' 1 'O�t'�,15 . $e1tilf'e'1'0 l' Cl16.t'O 'C�f'C l)0.1Le til1c bu�ttl °'l' . ,n . ,\.\pn·· (_· ..,rbos . ,. 01 r .., Richard reo, .15ur re . ,1,


'C.& Place Names in the County Louth .o.nn 6 t .&1ti1 Major General Stubbs. tu5 .l\n Major 1.o.rr.l\1i'.> .l\r cor ce.l\1111 'Oe n.l\ " Place Names " reo .l\ m111tu5.o.'6 .o.6t: 111 t15 t11111 .l\ f'.6.'0 5ur e1r15 te1r 5.0.6 U.l\17'. ­0.5 cur r1or .l\r Affane '06, 'Oe1r re ­ " A writer (" Louth Archceological Journal, No. II., Vol. I.), dealing with this ford "Bridge d'fein," translates it "Bridge of the Wagons," The word has no which is evidently wrong. relation to the English " Wain" or "Wagon." ,<\t me.o.'0011 .l\ oe.l\'f'f.6.'0 fe1re.o.n .l\1f\, ffie.l\f.l\mU1'0 50 oru1t .l\n Major "evidently wrong " t1u.l\1r .l\'Oe1f\ re 5ur ".&t me.l\'OOn " .l\'C.6. .l\llll Ctbe 6.C.l\ c.& .&t rern Ce.l\rt: 116 11.6.6 OfU1t. ­O.m.l\rct.0.11 .o. t>futt o.l\tn'C .<15 " ren " (nit cu1mne .l\5.l\tn .l\no1r . Ce .l\Cd "C.& fille.l\'O .l\r .l\11 e n6 n.o.c OfUtt} .l\ 5eobt.l\r 1 u'C.&rn b6 Cu.l\1t5ne Windisch, te1r. ­<\5ur '0.61' nu615 5.6.c .l\111111 .&1ce .l\ oru1t te f.&5.&1t .6.ntl 1f 6 1i1e1'60 .<1 11.o.rnm1115e.l\'6 e 'C.& b.l\111­c .l\15e te1r .1.n 'C.&111 !



Ladies' Dress, Gentlemen's Dress, Household Furnishings OF EVERY DESCRIPTION


'C15e.l\1111 Thomas Gogarty C. C. 111.0. i'.>1.l\1i'.> r111 .l\5ur e .l\5 cur r1or '°'1' St. Feighin .1. rl.l\om 1r u.l\1i'.> .o. 11.l\111n11115e.o.'6 ce.l\f'm.o.11n Fe16111. Fe1611111e .l\C& r.& ce1tre ril1te 'Oe 'Of'01Ce.l\'O ,<\t.o..

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bi crurnn1t15.o.'6 t1or 1 11'0011,e c.& 501r1'0 6 torn r.& 1r1rte.o.1:'.>.l\j\ i).J.­te.o.n5t.o.c .l\ cur .d t.l\1rt:e.o.t 'C.& blll\'O.l\111 1il6t' t.o.'O.l\ c.o.1tc:e 6 no c1re. 1 rm.6.orncm50.'6 .l\f' .6. te1te1'0 reo '0 1r1rte.100.r ,<). ­<\5ur 01 cum.o. cur .o.tll6.C u' Utt:.6.10, 6 tur. .6.f' '56.e1'.>e6.t.110 6.n cu151i'.> 50 mbe&i'.> 5t6.c.l\'6 .o.c.­1 ­.\1 t' ; �CC bi C l11'0 .l\C ._\ .0.5t11' 01 feOf'"C e.l\5t.1 Of't.'1


All \Vork Executed on the Premises at Talbot St , D ubli

n.o.c n­e1reo6.l\i) te p.&1pe.&r 'Oe'n creor­c reo 50 ro1tt. mur.l\ n­e1r151i'.> te1r n1 11.0.r .l\11 C61rce '5n6t.l\ n.& .l\r C61rt:e .l\t' b1t e1te .l\ oe.o.r .l\n toct:, .l\6­C .l\r Utc.l\11:'.>.


­<\5ur TIU.l\tr .l\ 6tutll1m fe111 'O.l\Otne .l\5 f'.6.'0 50 OfU1t e.l\5t.6. ort.6. TI.l\C 'O'C10Cf.l\i'.> .o.n ­p.&tpe.&r feO l\ t.l\0.6.1r­c .l\m.6.6 .o.5ur .l\ cur .o.r .l\5.l\1'0 ­c15 reort: f5.6.t.l\ orm .l\5Uf 're 1f ..ii)t).o.r 'Oe'n f5.6.t fill ,1. 5.6.n mu1n15111 .l\ oe1t .6.5 Utt:.l\10 .l\f'C.l\ tern. tl1ur.a. mbe1'6 111u11115111 .l\5.0.L .l\f.6.t: tem 1r be.l\5 cor.o.u ­<\cc bioi'.> m u11115111 t.&1'01r .6.5.l\"C uo t.o.ot6.tt', tetn .l\5ur e1reo6.o.1'6 te.l\'C, 11' CU111.6. '0.6. i'.>e.l\C7'.6.C"C .l\11 Ob.l\tr .l\ t>e.l\f rom.l\t:.


b.6.i'.> ril6f' .l\11 C.l\1tt 'Oe t1t:f'1i'.>e.l\ct: n.l\ '5.6.e'61t5e ­0. 6 t: C.l\ t1 .l\ti1 .l\111 n .l\ n • U t'C.l\ 6 .o. let 5e.l\11 .6. t' t..it', 'r1l\'O Utt:.0.15 1.0.'0 tetn .l\'C.<l. te 11­.0. f.&t>.&tt .6.5ur r111 .o.n r.&t· .6. oru1tte.l\l' .0.5 cur .6.n 1r1rte.6.t'.>.6.1r reo .l\f\ bun.


'CJ. cu15 ce.l\U cu1u (.1. shares) te 'Diot .l\f\ punc.l\ 5.6.6 cu1'0 .l\5Uf m.& 5e1bte.l\t' 500 pu11t:.o. ni oe1'6 co11t:.l\o.l\1f't: 111.<1 c10nn. s�­0.n1us o se­6nc­0.15.

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I­­­­ 6 Cu15e Con11­0.cc.

5­0.1 l t 1ti1. t.&11115 'Oe 6.l\t'.>.o.1r 1f 'Oe 6011511.o.ti1 .l\f' tucc cor.l\nt:.6. n.l\ '5.o.e'61t5e 1 11 '5.6.1tt1ti1 .l\n­cut m re 111 r.o.o rtu.l\5 mor m1ttt:e.l\6 tl1.6.1' 'O.l\01t1e. f111 .l\nn, m.1r u'te1cre.& 50 m1111c .0.5 be1ce.l\6 11' .0.5 e1r5e 'n .&1r'Oe, .o.ct: 1Ji .l\t1 'Of'e.l\m '0.6.0111e .l\TI11 .l\'C.6. 1 mbU11 1l' 1 mb.l\f'r 5.l\C CU111.l\TI1l 11' 5.0.6 11.o. '0.6.01t1e .l\ tu15e.6.f co1rt:e r.o. 5Conn'O.l\e. .l\11 ce1rt: reo .l\'C.& 1'011' t.&m' .0.5 '5.o.e'6e.6.t.o.1t> r.& 11.l\ 'O.l\0111e .l\ oru1t re 111.6. 5cu m.o.r t.J.t.l\1f'. butt.le '01f'e6.6 .l\ t.o.t>.l\1r­c '00 tuct: rc1urt.6. n.l\ l1 lOtf501te 11U.6.1'0e feO, 111.l\f'.6. 1:'.>fu151i) t:e.o.n5.o. 11.l\ 'Cif'e reo COtf'Onl n.l\ fernr,e U6.t.o..


'Se .l\n c­6t.o.1r ­0.11­come fUl'O r.o. 5c.o.t.6.01f'. le15 .6.11 Ri111.6.1re .1 . .6.n 'Ooccur bre.o.t11.l\c :so teor ttcre.o.6.o. o '6.0.011110 no.6 r.l\o re 111.1 ­0.ct: .o.til.&111 be1rc n­.o.cru111n .l\ 1:'.>e1t r.i l.&t.o.1r. n6 m.o.r rrn, n1 r.o.o .111 cr101iMi'.> "Ou111e .l\nn fltHl1, bl\i'.> e t:U.6.1f'1n1 5,16 f5f'H'>ne6f'.6. 50 mb.a.'O e .l\11 ru'O b.6. tu5.o., 50 mb.l\ C61r 50 t'.>j:U15e.l\'O tuct: cor.6.nc.o. 11.0. 5.o.et>1t5e .6.n me1u .6.t:'..i r1.l\'O .6. 1.l\f'f'6.1U 6 Seo.11.1u6q\1t'.> t1.o. 11­1otr501te. Sm 0

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tie.AS C4f4nn De4'6 45 n4 001te.cin41& t.>.ci mb�'6

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t,401t'> C41'C.4 .<\5 CUt' f10f 41' m' 4U04t' f56'1.·fe, b4 'Oe4f te c.At:, b4 Se.At te 'OAuf). 'B ni m1re 'mot en Ct'­Aor. '06.


Recentl� lnatallecl.

OUY & CO., LTD., 70 Patrick Street, CORK.

C1u, .&1t'ne 22­XII., '08. '.$e4'0, C14" (!141,t, 50 f>fU11. fl4 'OCj\Om­tu:An 4:SUT Ob411' 1'6ffiP.4 I f4 4¢C f1te 5.c1n ..111''0 4¢C b' t�'Otf' SW 4fl m61'0 r,n CU4f ne h6tgre tun O C4'0 f.AC 50 f>fU1t. .4n c6 4 �­ Ritooralaloorelalay " 'n­4 ro't>t.4'0 t.e 'O�.An.Aril 415e­.dn f1t.e bu1te b

9, 1909. J� 9i 190!,.



An cteroecrn soturs. [All CLAU>BB­AMB


about the foreign student is all moonshine, • "'o foreign student is going to patronise an Irish replica of an English University when he _can have access to the fountain head at Cambridge or Oxford."

" Western People." "The question is whether this infant institu­ tion is to grow into a great Irish University, reflecting all our national characteristics and rearing up a race of men who will be Irishmen first and above all, and who will work for their country's regeneration; or whether, as is desired by some, it should be an imitation English University, a weak reflex of Trinity College and the Queen's Colleges, teaching the ideas of a foreign civilisation and turning out men whose eyes, instead of being on Ireland, will be fixed on England, on India, and on England's colonies." " Westmeath Independent." " The fact that it should be necessary at all to get up an agitation for making our own language a compulsory subject for matriculation in our own University, with the further fact that the success of the reasonable and popular representation which has been made in the matter should remain quite problematic, affords proof that Ireland is deeply suffering from an intellectual grievance." " llldland Reporter.'' " The controversy that is just now waging on the question of the status of Irish in the new University is splendidly illustrative of the depths to which we have sunk on this very question of the National language. To read some Qf the effusions that aEpear in the press, in opposition to the Gaelic League's claim for Irish as an essential subject for matriculation, and up to the point where specialisation begins,', one would imagine that Ireland did not possess such a thing as a language of its own, taught in 2,500 primary schools, and in so many of the secondary schools, that 6,000 boys and girls passed the Irish examinations of the Intermediate Board this year." " The Times," Lonion. · "That all the Roman Catholic clergy do not side with the Gaelic 'League is proved, however, by the very �orous letter which Father Humphrys, of Killenaule, contributed to­day t& theoontroversy. He stated bluntly that the real object of the present agitation is to give an artificial impetus to the " new Irish industry " of Irish teaching. and to provide jobs for Gaelic �­ Be �ts out that the institution of �ry lmh in the University ' would practicaD.:y place the education of the country m the hands of on�th of the population, and this on�tb not the best qualified to tea.oh.'" . · Le Pays Bnton." IRLANDE. La langue a I'Universite. " Un: meeting tres important vient d'avoir lieu clans la salle de laRotondeausujet de la place a faire 1 la langue irlandaise dans la nouvelle Tout ce que l'Irlande Universi� nationale, donne rendez­vous s'etait d'illustrations compte Les Ratriotes du dehors, 1 cette ,reunion. d' Amm.que surtout., qui n avaient pu venir, ont envoye une foule de lettres de sympathie qui furent lues au debut de la seance. Le president de la Ligue Gaelique, le Docteur Douglas Hyde, a montre, dans un eloquent discours, ce que l'lrlande attend de son Universite Nationale 'qu'elle releve le sentiment de la race, en se J>?Sant des le debut comme une institution irlandaise; qu'elle reflete le passe de l'Irlande et travaille a son avenir'; ii a montre comment la nouvelle Universite devra realiser ce pro­ gramme en faisant en sorte 'qu'aucun Irlanda.is ne puisse pretendre a une education liberale sans la langue et l' histoire de l' Irlande. La resolution suivante a ete adoptee a la suite de ce discours : "' La langue irlandaise, �rite et parlee, sera exigee pour I'inscription et des dispositions seront prises pour que l'lrlandais soit enseignee dans tous les colleges de I'Universite.' " Ces verites que tout le monde admet aujourd'hui en lrlande et doat la mise en pratique a commence le relevement de ce pays, quand les verrons­nous triompher en Bretagne ? Quand verro�­�ous la fin de l 'odieux systeme de debretonisation et de deracinement par l'ecole qui est la regle chez nous, tant chez les catholiques que chez leurs adversaires? Puisse les lecons de l'Irlande nous profiter avant qu'il ne soit trop tard t ''

" For good or for evil . a • • e,�­ Uni_ upon us and I for one certainly th1�k Irish form an essential part m the cumculum student who passes through it.,,_ ir Bellingham. Bart.. Drogheda, June rst, 1


Irish Ireland Post Cards depicting scene froai Historical Pageant Play at Cas tleknock College be had at )Iessrs. Gill and Sons, O'Connell · The Ard­Righ Conn and hi attendant, Fionn's Famous hounds Bran and Sgeolan between Goll and Cumhal, Marriage of p· ' Daughter of Goll, Young Soldier and Olds�_. are the subjects of the pictures.




MOLLOY'S Irish Prosody









be e.n







DUBLIN. Aa lrl•II lnlaad Boardlll6 IUltl Dlw, tor Catbollc BoTII,,

Re­opening afteJt OhPlatmu

MONDAY, J.AlfUARY lltll, l A M111f Pla7ln1& Ple14 ha• been. adcle4 Chriatmaa Rece... and a number of llllilflllll carried oat la the internal ana...,..lt,t aad

SPECIAL fACILll­lES FOR PUPltS 10 FOR REMAINDER OF TEU, llor Pru,e«a• appq to tbe llead Mater,

P. H. PEA.BBB, B.A..,

st. Enda'• llohool, Calleuwood Roaae, DVB DUBLIN MADE WATERPROOFS.­Geat,' 301., 3�•·; Lacliea', :us., 251., 3a1. Wrlr. Crotty 1, Graf ,"n Street D RUBBER BLACK WATERPROOF RUGS.­Heavy quality, IOI. 6d.; OIL bound leather, 91. bd. ; unbound, 71. 6d. Grafton Street. WATE CLERICAL MADE DUBLIN COATS, 371. 6d.; Cape, all � DRIVING RUGS, 12s. 6d. ; CYCLE 71. 6d. Crotty'1, Grafton Street. CYCLE TUBES, guaranteed, H. 3cL, 21. (,OVERS, 49. 6d., 51. 6d., 71. 6d.; CAP inches, 31. 9d. ; 40 inches, 61. gd ; LEGG 68. 6d. Crotty',, Grafton Street.



T. HENSHAW & Manufacturers of Farm Implements, CHRISTCHURCH


All. ­

le6.t'.>Af Vol.



U1rh1t' 45


No. 45.

Jt­6 cti.e.r,


16. 1909.



[Registered as a Newspaper.]



Manufactured in Ireland by Irish Girls.

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Ladies' Dress, Gentlemen's Dress, Household Furnishings OF EVERY DESCRIPTION





All Work Executed on the Premises at Talbot St, Oubli

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De Prosodia Hibernica. FATHER


Irish Prosody in Chapters.




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ord ering Goods from any of its Adverti ers,


ern..'.\lf' 16. 1909. J,muary 16, 1909.



had there been more stewards on dutv. We would like to see a return to the old programme of the Fleadh, in which a play was one of the chief items, and when one had not to dance all night through. Clar An Oireachtais. The Secretarv of the Oireachtas desires us to call the attention of intending competitors to the revised svllabus of literary competitions which we publish this week. Re competition 8 ­Original Drama ­it should be noted that :\15. will not be received by the Secretary later than March rst. The date on which the other competitions close is July 8th.



Owing to the abuse of the F eis license by

Feis Coisti

in former years Coiste an Oireachtais has this year found it necessary to be more careful than formerly in authorising feiscanna. Accordingly, as will be seen in our "Fixtures," a distinction is made between authorised and unauthorised events.


A Correction.

In our Uimhir na K odlag it was stated that Padraic O Conaire's story "X a Gaisgidhigh" was awarded first prize in the short story com­ petition at last Oireachtas. This was a mistake, The first prize was awarded to � 0 Seagha, Cathair Domhnaill, Co. Chiarraighe.



Some clever catch­penny English novelist has written a book on the invasion of England by one of the European powers in the year 1910. It is not on that invasion that I now wish to write, but on the contemplated invasion and capture of the new University by English­ speaking Catholics from Great Britain and elsewhere. To get Irish Catholics to believe that non­Irish Catholics would in any way oppose the national aspirations of this country, where Catholic and Irish are usually synonymous, is a matter of great difficulty. This difficulty is intensified by another, viz., that of procuring evidence involving the connivance or participa­ tion of suspected parties in British treachery to Ireland. Occasionally, however, isolated instances throw a flash­light on the political chess hoard, and on the sinister system of persistent intrigue by which England endeavours to use any and every power in the pursuit of her political purposes, not even shrinking from employing, if possible, the all­powerful machinery of the Catholic Church. It is still fresh in public memory how a certain Lord Lieutenant came to Ireland with the Papal blessing in his pocket, and grown men and women will not have forgotten the circumstances that led up to the expulsion from the Vatican of an English Catholic nobleman who was sent to Rome by Gladstone to prevent, if possible, the election to the See of Dublin of the present Primate Archbishop. Only a few years ago the British Government, according to the statement of a French journal which was never contradicted, attempted to induce the Vatican to forbid the Irish clergy joining the Gaelic League. The attempt, as we know, failed, but Ireland's enemies ha \'C not forgotten that although a people may be deprived of freedom of action there is another and more precious right, and one which cannot be destroyed either by sword or prison, viz .. freedom of thought. The Gaelic League stands for freedom of thought, and more particularly for the right of the Irish people to determine what language shall be theirs. what literature, and what shall be the nature and ou t1ook of their educational systems. Now for the first time we have within the limited sphere of two poorly endowed Universities the freedom to evolve a svstem of highrr education sui table to Ireland. in keeping with her past. in touch with what is best in science and art the world over. and so efficient as to serve in the best wav the material necessities of a poor nation. · It is generally understood. however. that manv of the Dublin Senators were appointed in view of their ex­ pectcd subservieucy to their patrons­­as manv likelv Senators were excluded because of their known independence. Some make no secret of the course they will take. A few. just a few. HJ\.� known to be reliable men in whom the Gaelic League 1nay place its trust. Then there are those who so far as the public knows are still on the fence. \Vhat anti­Irish influences are being brought to hear on then: the Irish people will never learn. but the old intriguers against Ireland's interests arc verv . likelv to be at\\'ork ,;

The . Advertisers in .A.N


T. P & R. GOUOBODY, DUBLIN again. Of these the Duke of Xorfolk is the most inveterate and unscrupulous. A Catholic and a royal chamberlain, he seeks to win the s1niles of his masters by defeating every national aspiration of his co­religionists in Ireland. He is a willing ambassador for every British Government requiring his services, and being a multi­millionaire there are few doors which do not open to his golden key. This sinister figure is ever working behind the scenes and it may be safely asserted that his influence will be the greatest force the Gaelic League will have to contend with in the fight for an Irish University. It is time to unmask this intriguing Saxon who embodies in his character all the cunning and knavishness of his race, but none of the courage or open fighting qualities. Already the fruits of his secret labours are to be seen; Colonel Moore has stated in a letter to the Freeman's Journal that Dr. Delany's attitude has been dictated from the headquarters of his Order in Rome. Mr. Martvn has drawn attention to the importance of the statement, but no contradiction has been forthcoming, and we may take it that Colonel Moore had good authority for his words. Is Ireland to be for ever at the mercy of English schemers and their Irish victims ? Or will Irish Catholics be always willing (as Dr. O'Hickey puts it) " To sell their souls For penny rolls And soup and hairy bacon ? " If in the present crisis they willingly acquiesce in the latest attempt at their intellectual enslavement­well, to use the words of Mitchell, '' let them and be damned.'' It has already been pointed out in the CLAIDHEAMH SoLUIS that the aim of the Norfolk clique and of their Irish followers is to capture the University for British and Colonial Catholics, and to shape the course of studies to suit their tastes and requirements. " I can quite imagine," says Mr. Martyn, " that, with a Catholic University legally established in Dublin, the authorities in England would induce Rome again to prohibit Catholics from going to Oxford and Cambridge. Then, at once, we would be flooded by the hosts of our enemies, and all hope of language or nationality extinguished for ever. When I remember how, some years ago, a man like the Duke of Norfolk, who for his anti­Irish intriguing should never have been allowed to land in our countrv at all. was received with adulation by the�representative Catholics and by so many clergy, to the disgust and ridicule of all self­respecting Irishmen, I cannot but feel the gloomiest forebodings especially if those representative Catholics, which means all that is most commonplace and unenlightened, have their way on the Senate." Now, it may appear inhospitable and contrary to Irish tradition to object to foreign students coming to our shores, but in this particular case our objection is not so much to the coming of the foreigners as to the running of the University specially for them and to the detriment of poor Irish students, and much to the injury of the Irish language, literature and culture. Ireland is, comparatively, very poor, and is already heavily over­taxed. She can ill afford any additional burdens. The entire cost of the new Universities must come out of Irish pockets, and for a country so sadly in need of education herself it would be madness to establish a University with a course of studies planned to attract the students of other lands. To ignore home requirements and conditions would be an acknowledgment of submission to Anglicisation in which Irishmen will never acquiesce. Should the Senate persist in handing over the University to the garrison and to the Norfolk chickens, then Irish Councils must refuse all aid from local taxation, and it will be found that instead of Ireland being hood­ winked into the acceptance of an English University she will have made the success of such an institution as great an impossibility as the growth of Spanish onions at the ?­­� orth Pole. TADHG O CEALLAIGH. (The view of our contributor is one entitled to the fullest publicity and discussion. but personally we do not believe that Dr. Delany acted under instructions from Rome, or that he has any ulterior object beyond the welfare­ as he sees it­of the new Universitv and of the Irish Lanbuage.­F. an Ch.). ­


deserve your support



The resolutions of Local Governing Bodies dealing with the University question, and the reports of meetings held all over the counn­e in support of the Gaelic League demands which we publish this week, are the strongest proof necessary that Ireland wants an Irish "Cni,·ersit\· or none at all. The public are beginning to that unless the National Language be essential in the University the children of poor and middle­ class parents will be deprived of their only sure � stepping stone to higher education. Fortunately the Councils . have the power to finance out of local taxation scholarships in the University, and they are not going to commit themselves until they see whether the Senate means to cater for a democratic and Irish clientele or for the stray foreign students who may come from those far­divided lands that on the map are coloured red.








Th� Lord �Iayor of Cork presided at a public mc­>cting held m the City Hall of the southern capital on Thurs­ day, the 7th inst., in support of the demand that Irish be an essential subject in the new University. The large attendance included the Very Rev. T. Sexton D.D., the Rev. M. Murphy, Adm., Cathedral, Rev. Ryan, P.P., the Rev. Father Albert, O.S.F.C., the Rev. Fr. C. Walsh, the Rev. G. S. Baker, B,A., B.D. (Midleton) and many other clergymen from all parts of Cork County; Messrs. O'Donnell, Roche and Crean, M.P.'s, E. Sheehan B.A., F. J. Healy, B.L., J. O'Callaghan B.A., Eugine Callanan (Secretary Cork County Council) Eamonn O'Neill (Kinsale), Alderman Mullany, Alder� man For��· Alderman Phair, J. P. Dalton, John Sisk, Dr. J. F itzgerald, F. Hanrahan, Solicitor, D. M. O'�o!lnor, �.A., J. Horga�, Solicitor., J. O'Riordan, Solicitor, Fionan Mac Col mm and J. Dinan. � For mc1;ny years �ork has not had so large or as re• presentative a meeting. All the puhlic bodies of the City, from the Corporation down, were represented; men of all the professions were there, and representatives of every branch of commerce. Letters were read from Dr. Hyde, Lord Castletown, The Very Rev. Dr. Hickey the Hon. Wm. Gibson, J. J. O'Doyle, and others, and telegrams. approvmg of the p_urpose of the meeting were received from the Lord Bishop of Cork, and from the Most Rev. Dr. Mangan, Bishop of Kerry. Dr. Hyde, President of the League wrote·­­· " � have already �xrressed my views 'on the subject of Insh_as 3:­n essen�ial in the new University, at the great meeting 111; Dublin. I hc1;ve read carefully all that has appe_ared m the Press smce then, and I have seen nothmg to.shake my opinion. On the contrary, Tam more convinced thc1;n ever that the National University should strongly stnke the imagaintion of Ireland both at home and abroad from the very :first and I am con­ vinced that �othing will _do that more powerfully than than a prov!so that all its Irish­born students should know the �ns�1 language. If nothing is rushed, and if proper notice is given, I am sure the number of students who would n_ot enter on a�count of such a proviso, w�:mld be very small, and m no way commensurate w1�h the great advantag�s w�ich the University would gam. The �hole Uriiversit v question has always ap12ealed particularly to the people of Cork, and I am dehgh�ecl th�t t�ey will now have an opportunity of decl.�r��g. their views upon _a question so fraught with possibilities both to the, U:mvers1ty and to Ireland." " The Very �ev. Dr. 0 Hjckey; of Maynooth, wrote:­ For the gm�ance of _the men of Cork-if, indeed, they need any guidance m a matter affecting Ireland's honour­I. woul� rep�at what I have alreacly?"said : �he �ueshon a_t issue is, whether the National Univer­ sity is to be Insh or West Briton. How can any man here.after honestly call that University Irish 1.f the NaL_onal language be not an essential feature of its curriculum and of the general education it provides ? How can one regard a university as Irish into which a youth may enter, and from which he may later on emerge . as a graduate , .an. . utter stranger to our na ti1ve 1 earnmg, culture, and civilisation ;> How can · ­ · a unrvcr­ srty he _truth!ully styled Irish in which a foreign language a fore_1gn literature, f?reig� ideals arc dominant ? How, m fine, �an a university be called Trish, except by _a preservation of the meaning of words, in which native stu�1es _arc more or less optional, in which the ton�ue ':Inc?- rs a� once the badge and shrine of Ir ish �ati�nahty is ass1gu�d a �ecessarily and cssentiallv inferior status, and m which consenuently it is d,.:­­ ·1 • grade­I ? _ :!1e whole ,,:orlcl is b.eing searched for precedents to justify premediated national treason. We arc exhorted to turn, our eyes to \Vales. Is Wales the guardian of Irc�and � honour_? �Ve are asked " to look at this Urnvers1ty que_st1on hke sensible me>n." J hope the men of S:ork ,v11l clo so, but I earne­;tly trust thcv will look at 1t above all as patriotic Irishmen, as men' who, fo� paltrr rcason_s. �re not ready to play fast and loose with _nation�] pr�nciples, or to abjure the sacred cause of Insh nat10nahtv. \Ye are to!d by' one who would pose as our Mentor that an 01�t1on ought to be allowed, at all event<; be�ween I.:1sh _ and Greek. Is Greek any m<Jre tha� Lalin or_ Engl!sh or German, the � :rational Janguaue of Irc·land � ' N" ot one in t(n would takt; Crc·ck f­' our l\1:ent<?r goes on to '>ay. ,\II ecclc.siastical .... tudcnts must ta!­"e It ; an� so th':! result of the brilliant suggestion o�ered t.o lb would be that a pmvc_rful tempiation "ould be placed befon.: the future priests of Ireland,


Do thev recen·e it


An cteroe rt, souns. The follmnng r Iutioas were put to the meeting and carried unanunou lv ­ That we demand that th language and h ton I of our country be made obligatory subjects m th ational Universitv." z • That we call on the County Councils to refu to levy a rate in upport of the University until rt 1 made clear that tt is not to be solelv a nch man' Uni­ ftl'Sity. but that proper facilities' will be given to talented children to enter its halls." (3) " That we believe that the more intensely Irish and national the University is made the more will be ita measure of success, as only on these lines can it aroase popular interest and enthusiasm in its favour ; and that as the majority of Irish school­going children have no other opportunity of learning other languages than Irish and English, we believe that only a know­ ledge of these languages should be obligatory for entrance to the ational University. on pupils who have attended ational Schools."



January 16_

CARlfDO AGH GUARDI "That �e. the Guar Iians and Councillors Inishowen Union, a di trict which upplied man Ardrighs when Ireland was known as the • holars.' regard it as the duty of the Saints and of the new • ·ational University to en ure that on enterinf it hall have acquired a tuden factory knowledge o I� h, tha! thu . the be cumbered in the pun­mt of their pecial stud University, and be better prepared to profit higher course of • ·ational culture,."

DELVIN' GUARDIA The Delvin Board of Guardians have uinu• adopted a resolution recommending that lrisla essential in the ational University.



ti, ­­

On the motion of Mr. P. Flynn, J.P., County seconded by Mr. Blunden, the Carrick­cm Guardians have unanimously supported the of the Gaelic League. The resolution sta Irish people want­an Irish, and not an imttatio& or cosmopolitan University," and called on Councils not to strike any rate in aid of the until it be clearly seen what the character stitution is to be.

...."BJ' MBll'l'I'

ne � c.oaaq, c.o.mcu adopted the 1onpwmg �tioa at its last m� :­ Relolvect­­" That we. tile meQlben of the l(erry CoQnty Coiu:lcil. consider that it is abiolutdy nece.ary tbat the study of the �. literature, and � Oil the new of tbe Irish race ahouJd be maae ; that we call Univenities to be establtehed in the Senate. and Govenung BocUes of those in­ a to take a courageous and patriotic course to carry oat this object in tile fullest and most adequate manner in the interesta of the Irish people."




IQLKBlllY OOBPOBATIOK. City Hall, Kilkenny,

January 9, 1909. Dear Sir, I am directed to inform you that at a Monthly Meet­ ing of Kilkenny Corporation, held on Monday, 4th January 1909, the following resolution was, on the motion of Councillor O'Hanraban, seconded by Coun­ cillor Kennedy, unanimously adopted:­ ., That we. the Mayor, Alderman and Burgesses of the Brorough of Kilkenn1, hereby join with the other public Boards in Ireland m calling on the Senate of the new • ational University of Ireland to make Irish a compulsory subject for Matriculation. and up to the stage whe� specialisation begins in the eurriculum of the University which is under their government."

I am, Sir,

Your obedient Servant, EDWARD O'CO • ELL, Town Oerk.

••• Received or promised up to date Mic Leighinri Cholaiste Mhagh uadhat, ••• thri Pbadhraic O Congti&ile • •• ... Buacbail] u lJverpool As the fund is about to be cloeed IOOII, it • that thoee who intend to sublcribe ahoakl their subecriptiom u 100D u poMible to Dr• ._ 32 Sraid Ioc6. Leeson. Baile Atha Ciath.



•• That we are of opinion that in proportiaD membership in tbe Gaelic League and the of Irish speakers amongst its inhabitanu OW. ceives less attention from Gaelic League than the other provmces, and that we reqli"elt Coiste Gnotha to remedy existing cond1tiolls pointing for Ul ter another organJSer who shall his initial energies to Derry."


4ln c L� roecrn sotu1s.

e.6n.6.1p 16, 1909. January 16, 1909.


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Sgoil €anna,

ce ec te.o.­0­<\ cui t111n, R.&t o mz me, b­<\1 t.e .&t� ct.i.cc. ­­­­ ­ ­c­===


DUBLIN. An Irish Ireland Boarding and Day School for Catholic Boys.

A new Playing Field has been added during the Christmas Recess, and a number of improvements carried out in the internal arrangement and equipment.


.P. H.

PEARSE, B . .A., B.L., St. Enda,s School, Cullenswood House, DUBLIN.

"Brian na Banban's" New Book:

•'BY A HEARTH IN EIRINN.'' Stories full of the humour and glow and glamour of the Irish­Ireland Movement. The best Christmas Gift for a Gaedheal­ at home or in exile. Cover design by" Fitz." (of the "Leipreacan'') and Portraits of the Author and his Wife.

Can be bad from­


1s. Ne1i1i,



A large selection of IRISH TYPE for Posters, Circulars, Programmes, Booklets, Business Stationery, &c.


GUY & co., LTD.,

70 Patrick Street, CORK.


� bs. Bulbs. Bulbs. an cne.orbm

an c�ta1R pe.�04i


Large Pictures of the Ua6'0.a1'1,• U4C'0411.&n of the League (form.mt supplements to " "1 n Cu1ioe.c1m ,. J



ai�.­ n •· « atn; Bdint Balla 1/8, 1/,( l/� ....

i3l'IQll•VJuat Mark oa Wdtil'S WWiS pd lOftltfl BAlD

,. ...... w, l/1, 1/1. ,oatap WHELAN, 17 UPPER ORMON:O Qt1.AY, D ��

All. ­­­­­­­

l e.\t'.>6.r Vol.

x. X.

U1m111 46

b.o.1te &t.o.

No. 46.








23, 1909. [Registered as a Newspaper.]

23, 1909.

­­­­­·�­­­ ­­­ ­­




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Manufactured in Ireland by Irish Girls,


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Ladies' Dress, Gentlemen's Dress, Household Furnishings OF EVERY DESCRIPTION



All \Vork Executed on the Premises at Talbot St , Dub!

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support you.

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28, 1909.

An ctA1'0eAtf1

January 23, 1909.

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JANUARY 23, 1909.


New Recruit.,. While the spiritless are wasting their energies in deploring the !3:te of our pr�� the revival is every day gammg new recrwts m the most The University con­ unexpected quarters. troversy has brought to light many new sup­ porters, and now comes an accounJ of an Industrial meeting in Belfast at which Lady

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23, 1909.

January 23, 1909.


which we extract three :­I. " To be loval to Faith and country." II. "To study the Irish language and Irish history, to encourage Irish industry, and to strive to live a life worthy of Ireland." III. "To discountenance bad prints and the reading of bad books and papers." \Ve wish the crusade every success and hope that Irish­ Ireland school teachers will introduce the " Record " to their children, who are Ireland's greatest hope. Craobh Chuilm Chille. The Very Rev. Fr. Augustine, O.S.C.F., ex­ President of the Gaelic League in Cork,will deliver a lecture entitled" A Family of Irish Annalists" in the Colmcille Branch Hall, 5 Blackhall Street, on to­night (Thursday) at 8 o'clock. I_n �iew of the fact that this will be Fr. Augustine s first appearance on a Gaelic League platform in Dublin since his removal from Cork, it is expected that there will be a large attendance of Gaels to hear him. Admission will be free.


Press Opinions. The quotation in " Press Opinions" in our last issue attributed to the " Wicklow People" was from the " Wicklow Press."

­­­•!•·­­­ THE




The Champions of Irish in the University controversy seem to be somewhat afraid to assert the right of the non­University trained Irishman to hold, much less to offer, an opinion in said controversy. I don't see that they need be so. afraid. Up to this no Catholic Irishman whose opinion was honestly enough formed to be worth the having, could get a real University Has our great national training in Ireland. our University this­that been not grievance men are mainly anti­Irish ? In any case is it not a phenomenon to be welcomed, as calculated to fill one with high hope for the future of education in Ireland, that interest in this University question is not confined to University men, but· that the rank and file of Irishmen are wildly anxious about it ? Furthermore is it not time that men stamped as educated should cease to publicly exhibit their ignorant conceit of themselves, and learn to admit that a good deal of their learning is "shop," and that, "shop" apart, there is not much in educational statesmanship beyond the grasp or under­ standing of the plain man of unlettered name who has been merely so unfortunate as not to have got, or looked for, letters to put to his name? Personally I am looking to this very experience we are going through to, amongst other things, shake us in Ireland out of our traditional grooves of thought on the subject of Universities, and to get us all on terms of nearer intimacy than we have been with learning and with learned men. Lawyer­made laws are cumbersome and bad enough, and we in Ireland know it to our cost; I don't know that scholar­made systems of education may not be m�re cumbersome and worse. I hope that we wont have to learn from bitter experience of the new University that they are so. As I am writing I may as well refer to the This being the question of Latin learning. season for Pantomime I can understand the awe and respect with which all our controversialists speak of the Latin examination in the Royal. The language is said to be compulsory for matriculation there, and nobody has any fault to find with the arrangement. Well, if Latin is compulsory for matriculation in the Royal I hope the Gaelic League won't be s�tisfied with the same compulsion as regards Insh. Why, you can pass said Latin examination after three And yet our doctors must months reading! ! They must, but they examination pass the needn't know Irish even though the diagnosing ability of many of �hem w�ll consist in being able to get Irish­speaking patients to tell how they feel and what is the matter with them. You see 'without Latin you are not an educated man, and all our doctors are educated men. Seriously there's something admirable in the esprit de corps with which our " educated " men stand I shoulder to shoulder in defence of Latin. wonder may we hope that Irish will one day have as numerous and as venerable a body­ . . guard? There is one other point to which I am prompted to refer. This Irish­in­th:e­University uestion is spoken of as though it marked a q isis Well so it does, a crisis for the University. f�r the l�nguage,. the �dea of it� revival d�d t originate in a Uru versi ty and will not end in no As a matter of fact although the founda­ h k . one. it tion of the new U mversi y may mar an epoc



'I'he Advertisers. in AN

TTES. CIGAR ce S s. m R. a.





T. P &

�n the history of Ireland, the University itself is of very much less importance than the The spirit of the language is the language. blood in the Nation's veins, the University is but the blush of health in the Nation's cheek. I mention the matter because some Gaels are fearful less, if Irish be refused its rights by the Senate, Irish Ireland may fall back beaten and collapse. It will do nothing of the sort. If the blood that gives the blush to the cheek be choked off from the cheek it is the blush that collapses. " SEAN NA DIOMAIS." ­­­•!•­­­ LIMERICK MEETING. Irish Essential or ­­­­ Limerick Borough Council was the first public body to declare against financial assistance for a West British University. The County Council soon endorsed the action of the Corporation, and on Wednesday night of last week both City and County united in a vast meeting to give a further warning to the Senate. The Mayor occupied the chair, and both Corporation and County Council were officially represented. Most of the Limerick clergy and the most prominent people in politics and business were present, while amongst the speakers were Mgr. Hallinan, P.P., V.G., The Very Rev. Canon Ryan, P.P., of Tipperary, Mr. J oy�e, M.P ..� Mr. O'Shaughnessy, M.P., The Hon. Wilham Gibson, and Alderman M'N eice, the R�v. Father O'Dea, the Rev. Father Wall, and Wilfred O'Kane, B.A. A letter was read from the Very Rev. Canon O'Leary, of Castlelyons, in which he said we were "face to face with the old story which has always been the ruin of our country, the story of compromise, the story of yielding an inch to our opponents, and then seeing them take all when it was out of our power to stop them. We have b�ought the movement to its present position with the help of God and without the help of Are we to l!niversities of any description. yield now, are we to make a compromise now, by means of which we give away valuable ground and get nothing? Ruin the University," says the Canon, "ruin it a thousand times rather than accept a treacherous thing which would ruin us. The fact is there has been talk enough upon the subject. Everv word that could be said has been said. The Jquestion now is, what is to be done? I think your meeting ought to try and shape some answer to that qnestion." The sa 11e spirit exhibited in Canon O'Leary's letter, viz., the determination to oppose a Catholic replica of Trinity under a popular name, and at Ireland's expense, animated everv speech delivered at the meeting. The Mayor said it was attempted by some of our intellectuals to throw cold water on the language revival. It was for the people to show those who con­ stituted the Senate that they meant to have their language respected. Monsignor Hallinan who proposed the re­ solution, asked what right had men ignorant of Irish to condemn it as an essential subject for the University. Was the University to be for the classes or for the masses ? We want fair play and justice for the people, and if any language was to be essential, said the Mon­ signor, we want Irish at the top of the list. Mr. Joyce, M.P., was the next speaker, and he was followed by Canon Ryan, of Tipperary, who was the first to speak at a public meeting in the present agitation. He said in their thoelogical tracts when the subject was going to be discussed it generally began with some short consideration of certain heresies, and he was going to devote a few moments to­night to the subject The first heresy that had been touched of heresies. upon again and avain was the heresy that they were coercionists. Well, he did not think there was anybody present afraid of being called a coercionist. For his part he did not mind if they called him " Buckshot;" Coercion may be a vice, and often was a vice, but it was also a virtue when applied in its proper place. If he saw a friend of his setting out on a "journey, and particularly if he was carrying with him certain property very precious to him, and that he was anxious to see it reach its destination, and if he saw this friend taking the wrong road, he would try and put him right. If his erring friend would not listen to him, he would stretch out a kindly hand and try to direct him on the path by which he should travel; but if he still persisted on his course, he would take him by the shoulder and push him on to the right path. That might not be polite or pleasing to his friend, but he believed in the long run, when his journey was ended, he should have the thanks


deserve your support


of that man and that he would come and thank him for that rough set ting out. Oh, no ; coercion in the rio­ht place was a goocl thing, and he was not afraid of beincr called a coercionist '".hen he �vas engaged coercing at There was the rizht time and m the right cause. anoth:r heresy. They were unfair to the poor Senate they were castigating the poor Senate, and what had they done to merit such treatment ? �s a Senate, the Senate had not spoken at .all ; but, like the children who were taken upstairs and whipped before going to a party, to show them what they would get if they misbehaved themselves, the Senate were merely re­ ceiving a warning in the attitude adopted towards them by the Irish people on this question of Trish in the University. The Senate were discreet men; they had kept silence, all but one, of whom he wished to speak with affection and respect, his old and valued friend, Dr. Delany. He thought Ireland should never forget all Dr. Delany had done for Irish education and for Irish studies ; but Father Delany put up a little tiny straw to see how the wind was blowing. That little tiny straw ought to have floated on the gentle breeze away. Quite suddenly it was caught in the grip of hurricane, a very tempest, of Irish indignation That storm, he believed, had its and swept away. centre in Tipperary. As they were aware, Tipperary On one was a region where high winds prevailed. occasion these winds literally lifted a town and put it down somewhere else. They had since seen by the daily papers that that storm had spread throughout the length and breadth of Ireland, and the poor little straw sent up by Dr. Delany was having a very rough time of it, indeed. Then there was what was known as the snowball heresy. They knew there were two species ­of snowballs, the harmless snowball and the snowball with a certain quantity of gravel in the centre; Well, snowballing was mimic warfare, but they were not engaged in mimic warfare. They were fighting for the life of the country, and they would not win their bottles with snowballing, no more than the walls of Limerick could be levelled with roasted apples. The rev. speaker then referred to the heresy of refusing to follow precedent, and said if the curriculum of the Uni­ versity were without the Irish language, the Irish University would be divorced from the faith and hope and love of the Irish race. The last heresy he would touch upon, was the hersey which lamented the fact that some young men would find it impossible to enter the new University because they would not learn Irish, But the National University would live and thrive in the absence of this type of West Britonism. Alderman MacN eice assured the meeting that Limerick �orp?ration_ ""'."ould never contribute a penny to the University until i.t has declared for the National language. The Hon. William Gibson said he believed the time had come when through the stress of this Irish language movement a new life had been put into the Irish people.. For the last fifteen years they had been working for the regeneration of the native tongue, but there were some people of that practical turn of mind who said that if always as sensible as they Gaelic. Leaguers could sometimes were, that if they helped the Industrial movement they would all help them and do what they could to help them. Now he supposed that those whom he was addressing and had been connected with this agitation had had a good deal of trouble in dealing with the so­called practical man. The man who spoke not only of [industrial revival and said why did not they insist on the teaching of some other language besides Irish being taught in the schools. Well, he supposed that that argument could easily find an answer, and that was an answer not in cold blood. Most of those who had written against them did not seem to realise that as far as that examination was concerned it only conduced to the general education and efficiency of the pupils. He had been through two Universities, and in both case the subjects taken for matriculation were practically dropped when the period for specialisation was reached, and had nothing to do with the professional work which was afterwards to be got. The question which was now before them was whether the new University, which had been baptised National, was He trusted that they going to be National or not. were not going to start on the career of the old U niver­ sities, but to strike out on different and more progressive lines. The County Councils had got 600 scholarships, and he was glad to see that many of these Councils throughout the country had passed resolutions stating that no money would be voted for these if the Irish language was not made compulsory for matriculation It had been said that they were in the University. forcing this demand on the Senate, and using coercion, that it was unfair to the English­speaking students. Well, he thought in this matter there should be just as much and more consideration for the Irish­speaking parts of the country, such as Donegal, Mayo, and Gal­ way as for these. In this question of making the Iri�h language a compulsory subject in matriculation he did not think the Gael ic League had gone far enough, but that it should enter into the machinery of the Univer­ sity throughout. Mr. O'Shaughnessy, M.P., showed how thoroughly he had grasped the case of the League when he asked if it was not time at the beginning of the twentieth century to undo the work of the invader, and to turn the _Il1;inds of the people from West Britonism to Gaelicism. Self­preservation was the first law of nature, and they would be merely preserving themselves c1:5 a. race when �hey insisted on future generations of Irish­ men knowmg the language in which they spoke and thought. Who,. asked Father O'Dea, of Ennis, were the people wJ:1­o objected to the Irish language ? They were the miserable �emnant of our Catholic people who refused to �earn_ Ir:1sh _because they looked upon it as the badge of inferiority m an inferior race. Mr. Bennett of the County Council the Rev. Father W:111, and Mr. W. O'Kane were the �ther speakers at this the largest meeting Limerick has seen for years.


Do they receive it?



ACHT IRISH COLLEGE.­Principal Teacher wanted for above College for 1909. Salary .f.6o. Send application with qualifications and copy testimonials befote February 15th, to J. A. Flynn, Beech House, Tuam.



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January 30, 1909.


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�hen ordering Goods from any of its Adve

e.&nA11' 30, 1909 . January 30, 1909.

..o.n ctoroeern sotu1s.










A Message from Chicago. The Rev. Father Fielding of the Chicago Gaelic League has wired Padraic O Dalaigh, the Ard­Runaire, " Opinion here strenuously opposed to another royal Irish college."


'rhe Work of the Branches.

In the heat and suspense of the battle for the language in the University in w?ich the. is at present engaged .the. ordmary avocation of our organisation, which. 1s one of har� work, stands in danger of [being temporanly for.. gotten or neglected. \Ve could make no more fatal mistake than to hope that a�y me�e systems of education, however good �r _ideal m t�eory, could relieve us of our .ind1v1dual. duties or could obviate the necessity of persistent hard work. Spirit and earnestness are far more than system. Th�y h.ave been t�e strength of the League since its birth : they it was that enabled it to overcome the almost countless obstacles that stood in its path, and they are wanting more than ever to­day.



Whatever decision the Senate of the University may arrive at regarding the stat�s of .Irish in its curriculum our movement will still have heights to climb and great things to achieve. Should the Senate's decision be favourable the League will still be wanting to complete its work and to watch the interests of the language in the schools, both primary and higher. Should the new University persist in catering for West Britain then, more than ever, shall we require a strong and efficient org?'nisati<?n. Har� and continued work and an mcreasmg proficiency in a knowledge of the language, and in the use of it, are the surest guarantees of sincerity and success. We have taken upon ourselves the resurrection not of a language only but of a nation, and we should earn the contempt of mankind if we meanly deserted our posts on this the first occasion that West Britain has come into the open against us. .


The most urgent duty of the present is to insist that the University shall be Irish and for Ireland, and there should be no yielding to any­ one who counsels compromise. But while the fight is going on the ordinary work of the League should not be neglected even for a daf. Let it not come to pass at the end of this struggle that we shall h�ve only a wea� ?'nd Differences of opin10n, disorganised force. even on the University question, should not cause strife or dissension. Let there be full freedom of opinion, but let nothing interfere with the strength and unity of the League, for the hour of its trial is coming. Forces that hitherto have been neutral are now definitely arrayed against us, and we shall need more than ever to be discreet, but sincere and strong.


The present controversy has shown how appalling are the effects resulting from ignorance of the national language and of national historv. The importance of history is scarcely less than that of the language. The two subjects have been so neglected that progress is only possible as the nation advances in a knowledge of both. Men of education and position prove even· day by their unabashed contempt for their nut ive tongue their ignorance of true nationality. To them it is an accident of birth, but to us it is a thing that influences our daily lives and is second only to on!'! other influence in the formation of our characters. It is something which we cannot barter. and for which we must be· prepared to make any sacrifice.


Seachtmhain na Gaedhilge In addition to the educational work another dutv will soon fall upon the Branches. Soachtmhain na Gacdhilge will soon be with us, and all committees should at once set about preparing for the collection. The League lives on the shillings and pence of the workers ; it is their own organisation: it is for their elevation and advancement that it exists; and now when new enemies threaten it and when earnest workers arc being brow­beaten into silence and neutrality they must not fail or fall back either in their work or in their On slender resources financial contributions. the League has grow!1 to be a big national organisation. It has little reserve funds and no

The Advertisers in AN

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grant from either local or other taxation. Its very life, therefore, depends on the s�bs�ripti?ns of the people. The best proof of their sincerity, and the best answer they can give to the cha!}e�ge of West Britain, will be a record subscription during the coming Language Week.


Coming Meetings. A great meeting will be held in Tu_am on next Sunday to give expression to the wishes of the people of North Galway for a truly . Irish Amongst the speakers will b� University. An Craoibhin, An Mairtineach, Una N1 Fhaircheallaigh, and Coirneal O Mordha. An­ other monster meeting, at which Canon �eter O'Leary will be the principal speaker, will be held in Fermoy next week.


Coiste Ceanntair and Ard­Chraobh Lectures. The next lecture under the auspices of the Dublin Coiste Ceanntair will be given on The February 3rd at 25 Rutland Square. lecturer will be An tAthair Cathaoir O Braonain, and his subjects will be "Dante."


On February rst at 8 o'clock Mr. Bigger, M.R.I.A., of Belfast, will give a lantern lecture on "Some History from our Monuments" at the Ard­Chraobh rooms. Few writers know Ireland as well as Mr. Bigger does and all Dublin Gaels should endeavour to be present at his lecture at the League Hall, Rutland Square, on next Monday night. ­­­·•!•­­­ DUBLIN




A meeting of the Dublin City Council was held on Wednesday, January zoth, to consider the position of Irish in the new University. As the meeting was held on the same day as that on which the� Bishops made public their own opinions on the question the result has a special significance. The Lord Mayor and twenty­ four other members attended and only one voted or spoke against the resolution in favour of Irish as an essential for entrance into the University. Councillor O'Kelly moved, "That, in the opinion of this Council, the Irish language should be made an essential subject for matriculation in the new Irish University from its inception,if this University is to be an Irish and National institution, in fact as well as in name." He spoke first in Irish, and then in English. He said that a National University which ignored the national The difference between language was preposterous. those who were for and against Irish was a difference of ideals. It was the difference of wanting to be Irish Irishmen, instead of being English Irishmen. The one was staunch to the true national ideals of the race, and the other looked to England and the English idea of education. Higher education in Ireland without Irish as an essential feature might be English, but it could never be national. They wanted the national University to do for Ireland what the Universities of Germany and France do for their countries. They wanted to educate men to live in Ireland, and not to educate them for jobs abroad. Councillor Healy seconded the resolution. Councillor Briscoe said he would like to see Irish history included in the resolution. Their University was not for the Hottentots, or for the Esquimeaux, but for the Irish. Councillor Quaid said that on this question the lay mind was quite as capable of forming an opinion as the ecclesiastical, and in his opinion it was absolutely necessary that Irish should be compulsory. Alderman Reigh said they wanted a twentieth century University, not an eighteenth or nineteenth century one. The bishops had been educated on the old classical lines, but we want our people to be educated on modern lines. The people are going to pay the piper, and they will have to call the tune, and they want Irish to be made compulsory. The purse is predominant over bishops and all other interests, and the purse is in the hands of the people. Alderman Kelly said that men of little minds always ran in behind the bishops and priests. This was a question of the national life of Ireland. If l\Iaynooth had done its dutv, we would not be where we are now. The Lord Mayor said that when our enemies wanted to attack religion they destroyed the language. Unless Irish was made essential they could not call the University either Irish or National, and if it is not Irish and National we do not want it. The hierarchy had made a mistake, Ireland could not be a nation without her national language.

­­­...:­­­ :



deserve your support



" HANDS OFF, \VEST BRITOXs:· On Thursday night last Dr. Douglas H,·de was the princjpal speaker at ?' monster meetina held in Athlone to protest agam�t .the �hrea tened establishment of a second Trinity m Dublin :Mr. Lennon Chairn:an of Athlorl:e Urban Councii presided. In opening the meeting he said : J t is now one hundred and twenty seYen years since the Volunteers at Dungannon resoked that a claim of any body of men, other than the King, Lords, an� C�mmons ?f Ireland_ to make laws to bind this Kingdom is unconstitutional illegal, and a grievance. Now, if the Volunteer; were not backed up by every man that was worth his salt in Ireland in 1782 would England have granted the demand of the Volunteers? No. This West British Senate of the National University must grant the demand of the Gaelic League to make the Irish language and history a compulsory subject, because every man in Ireland that is worthy of the name of Irishman is with the Gaelic League in this fight, and if our demand be not granted we, the people hold the whip, and I might say, all the trump cards. Yes, the County Councils hold the trump cards, because they have the spending of the people's money and must not strike a rate for this so­called National University until the demand of the Gaelic League is granted by the Senate. The Councils hold the Irish money. The West Britons on the Senate can hold the English gold, the price for selling Ireland and degrading her before the Nations of the world. The Irish Parliamentary Party tell us they were the means of having this National University Act passed in the British House of Commons, and made the law of the land. Who sent and kept that party in London these past thirty years ? Was it the West Britons ? Was it the Castle Catholics ? Was it the Irish place hunter? Was it the hurlers on the ditch? No, ladies and gentlemen, it was by the people in Ireland who believe in the great future for our country, when our language takes its proper place in the education of our people. Some Irishmen tell us the National University was gained by the Irish Party as the price paid for our political freedom. I don't agree with this. But if it is the case, we have the more reason to cry out: " Hands off, West Britons ; hands off, Castle Catholics ; hands off, place hunters ; hands off, Duke of Norfolk." Why do I say "hands off, Duke of Norfolk ? '' Because he is the villian of the piece­the wire puller and trimm�r, and what right has this sprig of the English aristocracy to interfere with our education or nationality ? Bismarck said it was in the schools of Germany that the battles of Germany were fought and won. Yes, Bismarck knew the boys of Germany were taught that their first duty was to their country, their language, and history, and commerce, and all and everything that goes to make a country great and independent. Are any of the West British Senators greater or mightier than Bismarck ? Take the lot of th�m put together and could they stand for or build up their country as Bismarck did Germany? No, for they are for West Briton and forget the country that gave them birth. To­night we make history, for we are again defending the bridge as Custume and his men did in the brave days of old. The Very Rev. Dr. O'Hickey, of Maynooth, wi:ote : Mr Dear Father Forde­Your telegram jus� r�ce1ved. That the statement issued on behalf of the I�p1scopate by its Standing Cc,mmit�ee i� a disappoin.tment, i! wer� useless to attempt to disguise, But, with or w1thou,, the help of their Lordships, " on the cause must go�f "W_e mus� kee:p 01;1r heads and be firm. The cause all Insh nationality is not defeated, nor, please Ced, sh it ever be. Let there be no angry words against the Bishops; They recognise that the question be fore the countr)t " is a question for fair argument." The documen . . issued by the Standing Committee does not irnpo�a ·. duty of obedience upon Catholics. Their 3:ord��!'. have, of course, a perfect right to express their op� a S? much cannot be denied. Bl.t those who ta d_1fferent vie,�· have a correspondin� right; an�. nght they will, I hope, continue vigorously to the The Local Government Bodies can still save ,es 1 situation. God grant that they may show the�set�at equal to a great, a historic occasion, and thus �en.t the the memory of their services shall for ever live U1 gh pages of Irish history ? On the County and Boroiur Councils it now devolves to safeguard Ireland's hon '


Do they receive it ?

1e.6.n.6.1t' 30, 1909.


January 30, 1909.

to 'vindicate the cause of Irish nationality. Until Irish is accorded its rightful place in the National Universiry I trust with all my soul that not one copper of rate­in­ aid willjany Council levy for it. The Rev. Fr. O'Kelly of Sligo wrote: As to the question of compulsion in itself, I have always maintained and still maintain, that volunatry ancl !spontaneous effort is the driving force of the Irish Revival Movement. I do not for a moment imagine that any action of the Senate of the � ational University will "set back" the work of the Gaelic League. But we are concerned about the official character and trend of this new establishment. We arc concerned about the effect its official character will have on the minds of the younz men and women of this and succeeding genera­ While the new University cannot injure the tions. Movement it can clear the road for future National effort. It can diminish the hardship oi an educational system which has been, I do not hesitate to say, a dead It can weight upon the intelligence of our people. bring about the end 0£ the system which has tended to crush and paralyse intelligent National life, a system under which the education of young men to be Irish citizens has been all but impossible. If I thus blame the educational system hitherto in vogue I do so deliberately and advisedly. As a teacher of Irish, I have had hardly ever to complain of difficulties arising from lack of enthusiasm on the part of pupils, but of a great many, indeed, arising from the beggarly, and, I do not hesitate to say, scandalous position of Irish on the programmes with which we were confronted. Some of the best and most enthusiastic pupils I have met could not, after the conclusion of their secondary education, make any use of their knowledge of Irish. The following resolutions were proposed by Rev. Father Forde :­ with satisfaction that the 1. "That we note Catholic Bishops of Ireland the of Committee Standing think that 'whether it be good for the Irish Language movement, and good for the new University, that Irish be compulsory is a question for fair argument.' 2. " That we welcome with gratitude their Lordships' further statements : ' For our part we look forward to the clay when the Irish Language ­yvill �gain be spoken throughout the country, and will, m consequence, become largely the medium of instruction in the constituted colleges.' "That, in our opinion, the Gaelic Le':'­gue is the 3. body that has brought th� languag:e .to its present hopeful position, and we believe that it is consequently the best authority as to wh�� m�asures ought to be _ adopted to improve that position m the future. "That unless the language, literature, and history . 4 of Ireland are essential subjects for t_he e�trance and subsequent examination of th� new Umv_ers1ty u:p to the time when strictly professional �tudies begin, the University will be in no. s_ense National, but rather a Catholic imitation of Trinity College. 5 " Therefore, that we heartily join with the Ga�lic League and the Nationalist Democracy of Ireland in the eminently moderate �nd. reasonable de°:1­and that native students be essential in the sense specified, . in the new University. . "That, seeing that practically all the pubhc Bo�rds of the Province of Connacht have d�clar�d agamst financial assistance for the G3:­lway University College less the Irish language be given the place of honour the College, we are of opini<;>n that the Galway University College is doomed to failur� unless the study Irish Language is made a special feature of the O f thsee of study and every facility be given for the ' cour 1 erature. " . stud of the Irish Language and Lit Iny after to congrat1:1la thes�, �mg t�e speaking .­Ladies said he and size its importance, on · h · meetimg f and entlemen, you see the .Bishops are wit us so ar e tl as � end to be attained is concerne�­namely, the com lete and final triumph of our_ Nat_10nal La_nguage botl{ inside and outside of th� Umvers�ty. I_t is_ most ­ also to notice their Lordships faith m the . encouragting assimilatmg for�e ofth e Gae1 an d of hiis and attraction we have to consider the facts of the case. language. But ·11 b 1 l · ,e If Irish is not compulsory, then so_met ung e se wi s man a all takes it Then it. of instead 1 · · compu sory 1y the 11 ,. Iit is on we subjects the compulsory t"me to do b1 illi t few that can afford to attend voluntary n ian Therefore if Irish is not compulsory the vast · h ave no tiime t o s tudY ' classes. will · it f the studentc:; m�JinJu\e forced not to study it, b.ut to leave i� out In� 't cl something else instead of it. They will go an �dufi�ish their University co1:1rse, and �ome out of on a National University knowing nothmg o� the the rt rature and history of Ireland. The Bishops languagr e t th�g for the Irish language would be �}1ink tie . e\he Colleges bright centres of Gaelic study tet 1i1b�ntheir light and their re"':ards. att�act younR th.a ­,.th' the sphere of their Irish influence. I�1shme.� ".1 set up those bright cc atres of Gaelic Now, �� o the Senate? Does anyb idy think .that study . Is} ive an rhino­ like fair play to an optional the �ena�e­ "¥;fh (if sh � to be left optional) when shub31ct Jt�t their disp)sal are scarcely a�equate for Then if you Irishmen arc . t e un u bi ects ? JU . s the essential in gros�o lgnorance of the sitv d · t the nrver.si al�owe m oa literature and history, how can they Insh 1�1:t��I�o:l�e sphere �f influence of the_ University come "\ Gaelic study ? These young Inshmen can cen.tre o h of Irish to matriculate, only that easily k.arn eno��gdon't like it­not because they think 1 because now their paren an,·thm :­,a·else , but simply ­ . d 1tse ess or I call snobs i t 1tar . or ·Th Irishmen­Young 0 · h · · ese. ' ­ounz · t · I sh Iris at noses their i is ris ' things rn ·t up · 1 a 1wav s u ­ill 1 l t 1em­\\ f the Universitv. Most certain y t ·c1 inside �nd =: s� \ 0YoluntarY Irish ·class. How, then, they will not 3om_.tl . the si)here of influence of the · " 1 un vour close attention to th e . come ca_n thev I bez ;> Insh �chool �� se froi�l ·their Lordship's statement:­ followmg pa::af Irish in our seminaries and in numbers '' The pr_ogre:s:::. 0 . te schools of the country, so far of the _mh.'rme:ia .ierrt for compulsion, shows what the from being an acrun d r our constant C'ncouragement voluntary system un e ·hat no doubt, it will do still has hitherto done. anhd "olle:.e.:. of the new Univeristv." • o � · sf 1l1'· ID t e C � n!ore ::­ucce�::­ � ., do vou mean by a voluntary syst_em "\a!_1 ­ )\ow, I ask reo­ard to the present question 1 ;> 11 1 �n reference' to r�:::. · .:. fou; or five other .­::1bj:Cts are tt means th�t \\ hrea,. be studied bv all, Insh IS to be him:::elf. It me:l.Ils to be essential an. to 0: acli ,tudent :tte�d the Irish class or no!, left to the �weet will !lia_t the s:��eu\n0��) d�s such a s)·::,h'n� a.::­ this prev3;i! • or mtenned1ate school m 1ust as he hke:­. ­ � • in anv sinde senunar�








Ireland_? Is there any such seminary or school in which Irish is taught ath.ali, and lil which it is left to the option of the students to study it or not, as they think best? Emphatically and plau1ly, no. The authorities of the colleges and seminaries arrange their programmes and put their boys into the different classes, Irish among the rest, without consulting the wish of tl1e boys at all. The boys have to attend the Irish classes and learn their�Irish lessons whether it pleased them or not. It is in the strictest sense compulsory. If Irish is not compulsory the sons of the poor. the intelligent sons of the Democracy in town and country, will be met at the door by a barrier of Greek, or Latin, Instead of Gaels converting Gaels, or German. shoneens may pervert Gaels. If Irish be optional then the sons of the Democracy will be excluded. These are the majority, and their people always did the fighting and bore the suffering, and deserve far more considera­ t • ;. · i • tion than the minority of \Vest Britons. Dr. Hyde who first spoke ln Irish and continuing in"­English said­This meeting has come together like 100 others to discuss impartially without any pre­ conceived conclusion, but fairly upon its merits, the question of the National University and the National Language. It is a question in which intense interest is being taken throughout the country. In fact it is the one and only aspect of the University which has specially appealed to the people, to interested hundreds of thousands who could otherwise have scarcely given it a thought. That is indeed a happy omen. This Irish language question had the magic power of galvanising into instant activity every phase of life with which it comes into contact. They had had the question already discussed very fully in the news­ papers. Some of the language used had not been over gravious or over courteous, but most of that I am glad to say, came from the opponents not the supporters of the language. One of the many charms of the Irish revival was that it was bringing back the old spirit of courtesy which was so markedly characteristic of the early Gaels who were in this matter as in many others closely akin to the high minded, high­bred Spaniards with which so many of your ancestors obtained their education. Yes courtesy in the debate is a virtue we are bringing back into Ireland, as our Ard Feis shows Nobody in Ireland has realized more every year. forcibly than the Gaelic League has done that vitupera­ tion is not argument and amongst us there is practically no calling of names, for West Briton is not a vituperative appellation but an accurate description. But on the other hand the Gaelic League has always shown a very great earnestness, a ve.ry great doggedness ':'­nd . a resolution that, should 1t be defeated to­day 1t will renew the struggle to­morrow, and should we be defeated to­morrow we will renew the struggle the day after ; the struggle being all the time to make an Irish Ireland in contradistinction to an imitative England. The status of Irish in the University is a necessary part of this struggle. It seems to us that so long as Irish is not made an essential of the National University, the University will not be National. Of course, it is not easy always to define the word ." Na_tio�al." . One of my friends, whose honesty and smcenty m this matter I am as convinced of, as my own, has suggested that the word "National" must not be interpreted in such a way as to exclue such patriots as Emmett or Orr. I answer that there may be some doubt whether Emmett or Orr knew Irish or not. I myself believe they did more or less. That is not the point. But there can be no doubt whatever as to what they would do if they were in our shoes to­day. . They. would certainly, I belie:7e, ha".'e v<;>ted for Insh bemg an essential in an Insh Umvers1ty as would Flood and Grattan (whose Parliamentary Associations must have made them far more English) and yet one of whom left his whole estate to a University for the study of Irish and the other of whom has left on record the fact that he would be very sorry. to see Irish f�rgotten. The question, as it stands no:¥ 1s broadly speakmg, this. A University has bee� established for those people who, for religious or National reasons, would not go to Trinity College, or the Q:iieen's _Colleg�s. f That University has been established_ with Ins?­ m_oney, for, though coming from Impenal fu1;ds 1t will be undoubtedly pointed as an effort a�ams� our over­ taxation. The management of our Umvers1ty has been laced in the hands of Irishmen themselves. You are here to­night to tell them the cou�se that the Midlands of Ireland desire to see foll�wed w1�h regard to the Irish It is a qu�stio� which . as the standing language. committee of the Catholic Bishops said yesterday, is a question for fair argument. They themselves seem to think that Irish should not be made a_n essential. The Gaelic League on the other hand thmks that it ght to be so made. You yourselves do not knov.r ��sh but you ,vould if you l�a� been made learn it when ou were young. After all, it is you and. n�t the Bishops �ho have the sons to be educated;. 1t 1s for you to decide for yourselves whether they will suffer from the same disability, and there are arguments that morally actuate :­First, it would enori:nously deepen t�e National life of Ireland by turnmg all the Catholic secondary schools and many .of the Protestant ones into an Irish channel, persuadmg th�m to teach both lan uage and history of Ireland. ThIS would re­act on ma�y of the �ational schools also. Second, Irish has been dragged off the p�th of natura� seft­d�velopment It will 1;1ow r�qmre � little gentle bv main force. exercise of pressure .to put �t straight aga�. It cannot now get straight without 1t, nor ?O I believe that �he course which seems to recommen.d itself to th.e Stand.mg Committee will be fou�d suffic1en.t to do 1.t. Third, nothing will ever convmce the Insh speakmg people whose language has been f?r so l.ong under a ban that it is really an asset of _nat�onal importan_ce unless t�e drastic pressure of makmg 1t compulsory m entrance 1s taken. Fourth, not�ing short of this will strike the imacrination of the Insh race at home and abroad, and sho,� them we have really a Kational University which it will be their duty to support and en�ow. T�ere �re .­rreat and solid advantages and there is no _gamsaymg them. On the other hand. \\:e may, as t�err lordships of the standing committee p�mted out, dnve aw�y not a few student:; to other un­Insh colleges. I admit that at first me might. I think, hO\� ever, they would be very few and though I :::.hould not hke to l!)se one student if I could help it, I frel perfectly certam that the lo� would be compemated for a hundred fold, by the gain of a homogeneous lrbh Cniversity. Eamonn�Ceant said ·we had been told that this was an

academic question, and if it were, people like himself who did not go through an unh·crsity course, would be ruled out; but they had there Dr. Dougla 1 lvdC', who was qualified to speak on the subject, and h(' wtold them that it was not an academic question, that it wa� a question about which tlley were all competent to form an opinion, and his opinion was that if Belfast was going to be \Yest­British, Dublin was going to be Irish. It was going to be different from other universities. It could not compete with the old­established It could not compete with Unh­ersjty of Dublin. Oxford and Cambridge and London and Sheffield in England, and, therefore, it might as well take the peopl<' into its confidence and say: "\Ve are going to builrl an UniYersity for you, the people of Ireland." That was the question before the country, and the country was indicating its mind pretty clearly on the subject­so clearly that a little anxiety had alreany been e,·idcnct>d in certain quarters in which it was thought that the Bill had been framed for pushing on the old game of Anglicisation.! The Gaelic League wanted a University which would be frankly Irish, and they wanted Irish pupils. They would be willing to allow foreign students in. The Irish people had always a welcome for the foreigner, but they did not want the \Vest­Briton nor the shoneen Catholic, nor the pure Briton from England ; they did not "\Vant those people clumped on our shores, and they were not going to pay for their education. Mathematics­everybody agreed that they should be acquired. Physics­well, it was a good thing to know something about physcis. But Irish­oh, don't force that down the throats of the people. They didn't want it really; it was a fearful thing for a man to stoop down and become a common Irishman. He was told in Dublin the other day that the County Councils and District Councils that supported compulsory Irish were inspired by political ideas­that hatred of England was at the root of it. He (speaker) denied that. He did not think they were animated by any idea of injuring England, but he would give them credit for the ambition to improve their own country. The Nationalists of were Ireland who had fought under old banners Enthusiasm had been determined on this question. In roused and education had come in for criticism. regard to this National University the Irish people were paying the piper, and they should be enabled to call the tune. If they spoke out strongly, no one could prevent them getting what they asked for, and Irish would be given a place of honour in the National University. There was very little talk about coercion when the Irish language was being destroyed; when teachers, without a word of Irish, were sent to Irish speaking districts, to teach in National schools where the children did not understand a word of English. But the Irish people were coerced to speak the English language in certain districts by English speaking doctors and even priests to his own knowledge. They heard a great deal about the injustice which might be done to a few, who would not learn Irish and consequently would be debarred from entering the University, if the language were made compulsory. They heard nothing about that in the past. He specially wished to say a word about the Galway college. There was a resolution on the paper placed before the meeting, stating that the Galway college was doomed to failure unless it specialised in the way of establishing a faculty for the carrying on of this subject in Galway University College. Now, Galway, from its position, was at great dis­ advantages, and for its success, would have to depend upon the County Councils scholarships and so on. Now, it was possible that a rate of Id. in the£ would be struck to enable 30 or 40 students to get their training there. Those students would be sufficient to make it a success, and without them he could not say how it would be a success. Consequently they had it in their hand to make or prevent the establishing of the college unless the Irish language was made compulsory. Practically, all the public boards of the county had started declaring against financial assistance. It would be their duty as Irishmen to maintain that power and authority over the college, and where possible, to get these County Councils and District Councils to withhold this financial assistance unless the demand of the Gaelic League to make Irish a compulsory subject were sa tisfie<l. \Vi th these remarks he had great pleasure in supporting the resolution.


­<.....­­ On Thursday evening. ] anuary 21st, a big public meeting was held in the Town Hall, Strabane, in support of the demand for Irish as an essential in the l\lr. Conroy, Chairman of the National University. Urban Council, presided, and amongst the speakers were Peadar Mac Fhionnghaile, the Rev. Mr. Delap l\I. V. O':Nolan, B.A., Lindsay Crawford, and R. M: Cullen. Letters of apology for inability to attend were read from Seaghan Mac an Bhaird, Enri lJa Muirgheasa, " Beirt Fhear," Liam 1fac Giolla Brighdc and from Canon 1IacFadden, of Glenties, who wrote that it was his intention to put a resolution on the University question before the coming Vnited Irish League Con­ vention. In the course of his letter Liam Mac Giolla BrighdE> said:­ " \Vhen travelling some time ago from Cloghaneely College, as the train reached Derry he could not help reflecting, as an Irishman and a Catholic, that if any of his ancestors were in the neighbourhood of that city at the time of the Siege they were inside the wans. He was proud of Derry. He was proud of Limerick, and he thought the time was coming when, through the present revival of the Irish nation, the descendants of men who fought in Derry and the descendantc; of m<'n who fought in Limerick would stand together, shoulder to shoulder, to fight for the common country. The war thev were engaged in was a war of civilisation and invovled no loss of life or limb, but deeper ;ssues' were engaged, and there were forces at work deep in the souls of the people. " �fr. J. J. Doyle, Belfast, ·writing in favour of Jri&h in the rmversity, said the worst "weed:." he ever met were not from the M��l School<s, nor from the godl<?Ss �lleges, nor fro� Trm1�·. but f�om Catholic College,; m Ireland professmg to give supenor English education. The Chairman in opening the meeting said;­'' In my opinion the Irish ­ ·ational t.:nivc.'Tsity would have no right to that title if the rewlution which we propo;;c


An cteroesm soturs, (&JI

80, 1909.



Ireland, we are conversant with this question, for we know Irish. Let every Sena tor and every Iri hman know that unles the language of Ireland has its proper place in the new University, it cannot be a National University. It will be merely another English university. It is for the people of Ireland to say now whether they want an English or an Irish university. "Beiridis buaidh agus beannacht ! " D. H. BRO\VNE. PADRAIG O hEIGEARTAIGH. EUDHMON MAC SUIBHNE, Liagh. SEAGHAX S. 0 GORMAIN, Sagart. E. P. STANTON.


"Suas leis an nGaedhilg" is heard on every side these days; and, personally, I am, of course, an ardent supporter of the movement demanding compulsory Irish in the National University. I have already spoken on the subject as a member of Parliament, and as a County Councillor, and I will only add now that every argument and sentiment seems to me to favour The reason I refer to the matter here, it. however, is to call attention to the complaints made at the meeting last week in County Mayo that the teachers were not active enough in the · matter in their own interests. I am not sure that the complaint was well founded, as I have seen resolutions from associations, letters from teachers, and a pronouncement from the C.E.C. on the subject. Perhaps, too, indeed, the pro­ moters of the Castlebar meeting omitted to ask a teacher to speak at the meeting, a formality that is often overlooked. But, however, that , may be, it seems clear to me that this question ?f the position of I�h in the National University JS of the greatest importance to thousands of teachers and hundreds of thousands of children in Primary schools in Ireland, and, consequently, I hope that those concerned will leave n�thing undone to mould, direct, and enforce public opinion, on tht subject. JOHN MURPHY, M.P., In the Irish School Weeldy.

By a majority of eighty­four against seven votes the Limerick Teachers' Association adopted a reS'Ol\itibn at their last meeting requesting that Irish be made an essential subject in the National University. Similar resolutions have been adopted by the Muskerry all(j Dumnanway Teachers' Associations.


Newey National Teachers at their· quarterly meeti.UJ en Saturday last :passed the following resqb1tion :­ f' Tlaetamsolution be forwarded from this association to the Se•te of the new University, calling upon that b<>df' � the Irish. 4nguage an essential subject fo:q '™'�t1,tk>n. and that it be compulsory up to that � tLt w� specialisation begi.p$.''

� � aave come to an­important stage in Irish hiitdfy, so important that we must needs feel afllltl. The University i$ upon us, and it will bi'ffi[\.geat CAAP.g� for g� or for ill. Not oRJr;w.iD it effect the national life of the cQuntty bat ifts spiritual li� as well. Here the question.

fals �gether withiµ th� province of the �� � Priests of Irelmttl, and it is this �::·of the case that lll'.1.1St outweigh with � ""ery other. There are many among the ptie!ts of the country who believe that the Gaellc Revival and the Catholic Faith are bound together, that if Ireland is not to go the way of all other countries she must cling to her language and her traditions for so much as the University is Gaelic in so much and no more will it be Whether some dozens of students Catholic. will tum their back on a Gaelic University or whether the educational experts will declare it doomed to failure will matter little fifty years hence, but it will matter a great deal whether it .be a Catholic or Infidel University,and there will be then no turning back. This decision of whether Irish is to be given an equal place in the_ University or not will perhaps affect the saving or the loosing of a nation's soul and the souls of hundreds of her youth who are and who will be. This question is not as has been said ?ne for he3:ted argument or personal feeling, it Therefore we beg the IS far too important. Bishops and Priests to give themselves pause to consider while there is yet time, so that in the future it may not be said of Ireland "she did not cling to that which she had, therefore an­ other took from her her crown." " X."


"The Language of the Conqueror, in the mouths of the conquered, is ever the language of the slave. ''­7 ac itus.





On January i.. th and 19t� mec_tings wer_e held in:_ Puckane (Xenagh) and at Silvermines to discuss the rniversity question. The chair was taken at PuckaQe by Mr. J. Seymour, D.C., and at S�lverm�n:� by the Rev. Father Dooley who spoke on the impossibility of haviJlt a Xational University without Irish holding an honoured place therein. Resolutions were adopted deman� that the Irish language, both oral and written, be mad� an essential subject for entrance and up to the point where specialisation begins in the new Universities. and that proper provision be made for the teaching of Irish in all the colleges of the Universities, and � the County Councils to levy no rate­in­aid unless these. demands be acceeded to.



­·:.­ A public meeting was held in Guirtin, County Gal:w. on last Sunday to demand that no grant from I taxation be given to the University unless Irish made an essential subject for matriculation. Mr. G. Griffin of the County Council presided, and resolutions were proposed and seconded by Me Walsh and Donnelly, N.T's.

____.:­: ­­



The members of the Waterford County Council learning of the statement of the Bishops call• meeting to discuss the status of Irish in the Univ • The meeting was held on last Monday, and it u mously adopted the following resolution which proposed by Mr. Michael Power and seconded by P. W. Kenny :­ " That we, the County Council of Waterford, wishing success to the National University of lrel desire to point out that if the fame of the new Tlft·�iiil is to rival that of the ancient schools of Clonm1aa... Bangor and Lismore, it will be necessary thalt pniversity must be national, not only in namtt We therefore request the Senate to in nature. a knowledge of Irish, oral and written, essen matricuJation, and to give our Language and a premier place on the curriculum of the Arts as we believe that the superstructure of a N University must be built on the bedrock Nationality, the Language and History ol Ir·da:J•C



The Coalisland and Ballingary Branehes cM League have {oJVarded to the Senate re!iol dem�didg tti:at Irish be an essential for " entering th� Utuversity. The Ma.ll,<>w and Sligo Guarpians nave adopt Coisde Gnotha resolution. The Tuam Guardians have appoin� to attend the public meeting there on next Sund A public meeting has been held at Leigh, Lan in support of 'the Leagµe demands.

ce.dC te�I04 cu1 tmn, 1t.&e o bi6\1 te .ae• �t1�c.


ST. ENDA!S DUBLIN. An lrls/J lreMnd Boarding and Dtl¥: ,scy• • Boy•. tor Catbollc A new Playlni 'Field haa been· adde4 d,a Christmas Receu, and a numlter of imannraiiii carried out in the internal arrance.­ntaJUl:•dtij"'


P. H. PEAR.SE, B• .A., St. Enda'• School,


De Prosodia Hibem· FATHER


Irish Prosody in I Chapters.



TOMAS O FLANGHAILE. Cr. 81-•o. Cloth. Price es. 6d. net; postage 3 M.




RleTY, l;A'W'llft.


le.o.t'.>dr Vol.



U1rh11' 48. No. 48.

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cu e,c,


re.6.1JR.6. 6, 1909

[Registered as a New,spaper.]

DUBLIN, Fl�BRUARY 6, 1909.



Manufactured In . Ireland by Irish Qirl!!,' ­­

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fern. 'O.& mbezro e1re "Oe.o.tu15te .6.f\ f.6.'0 6 B�r.o.n.o. 1 :sc.&r .porticroeacce 1 mb.&1re.o.c, 1r 'OOC.6. _:so mbe.c'o fi 1 n­e n.o.1f1Un ne.o.ti'lfpte.o.'6.o.c, �ct: m oe.o.'6 fi 1 n­.o. n.&1r1un E;.o.et>e.o.t.o.c, 61f\ .o.n f.6.1'0 1f '00 oe.o.'6 .o.n be.o.rt.o. 'n­.o. 5n.&t­te.o.n5.o.m .6. oe.o.'6 mncr, .6.� 5.o.et>t.0.10, pe r.o.01rre.o.ct: m oe.c.'6 1 n e1rmn, t:.df\ e1r .o.n r:r. L, .o.ct: n.&1r1�n 5.o.tt'O.o. S5e.o.t m.d1t 6 C1.o.rr.o.15e .1. 5116 'O.& ue.o.n.o.m 1 .0.5 t.ucc Caomn aro n.o. m Oocr; 1r .o.n 'O.o.m5e.o.n .o.r 5.o.e'61t5. '01.o. t10 .o. C1.o.rr.o.1515. Sm rompt.o. :sur pu .o.1tr1r "00 '6e.o.n.o.m .6.1f\,




Ladies: Dress, Gentlemen's Dress, Household· ·Furnishings OF EVERY DESCRIPTION






" 1lOrt1.o.'C .o.'C-<5. Se." 'C.& ..1n :steo .o.r put).o.t r.o. rhum.o.m ror 1 "Ot:.6.00 re1m n.o. 5.o.e1'.>1t.5e 1 5curr1cut,.o. n.o. n 1otr:sot, ..15ur .0. 'Oe.6.0f'.6.til .6.1f\, :so te.o.nr.o.r "Oe :so ,:61tt. , e1te. 11i re1"01r �1re.o.ri1 .6. ue.0.11.0.til f.6. o.o.tt cum.0.115 ro .o.r 5.0.c bU1tte .6. r:u5.o.'6 .6.r ron n.o. r:e.o.n:s.o.ti 1 5c.o.1te.o.m n.o. re.o.cr:m.o.me reo 5.0.15 'C.& Com.o.1rte Co1111t:.o.e Corc.o.15e cun tor.0.11111. 'C.& Co1r"Oe n.o. t.o.o..11rr: .o.rir .6.f\ .o.n . 115116. C.o.tr.o.c 5.0.11 .6. 'Ot:U.6.lf\ttl .6. t.o.5.6.1f\t: u.o.t.o. ror, .o.ct: 111 f.o."O.o. :SO\ 5c\q1rre.o.r u.o.t.o., .o.1r151m. 'C.& mum11'C1f\ ri1.o.1ti:,ft�r te.o.rmt115e .0.5 t::et.Ct: 1 5c10nn ,:, ce1te, ce.o.11n "Oe n.o. t.o.ete.o.nc.0.10 reo cun be.o.rt: .6. '6e.o.n.o.m.; ­0.5ur m.o.r fm 'Oe. t.o.tt 1f .o.bur .6.f\ ru.o.1"0 11.6. n1um.o.n r:.&1'0 n.o. ftu.o.15r:e 5.0.et>e.o.t .0.5 ce.o.cc 1 OfOC<­\lf\ .6. ce1te .o.5ur 1.0.'0 50 te1r .6.f\ .0.011 .o.1511e .o.m.&m 1 'O ­c:.o.o o .0.11 cu1 r b.o."6 ce.o. ri .o. t.o. t'M1 re "Oo' n E;.o.eu1t5 r.o. 5te.o.r ,e\f\'O·r5ott11'6e.o.ct:.o. nu.o. ro .d'C.& "{).(\ ce..1p.o.'6 'O.&r n­.o.or 65. 'C.& .6.011 1111) " .o.til.&111 'Oe1ti111115te.o.c r.o. r:se.o.t :so "Ot:i ro "O.& mb.o.'O re r:s.&t .o.n pob.o.1t '00 t:6:Sf.6.1'0e 11.0. 111otr:so1te.o.1111.o. 11U..i ro 111 b.0.05.0.t :so "O'C.o.t'.>.o.r­ C& .0.11 me1"0 r111 f.6.1Ue r.o.1tt15e r.o. ::S.o.eu1t5. ro1te1f\ .o. '66t.o.1n Um .6.n 'Ot:.6.C..1. ro. o..cc eot.o...s .o.';· t"­0.1J.o..1nc b'0611J. .o.:sur ni rut.&1r n6 t:.& .6. t.&n ce1tte t:.o.5.o.1te "00 mumnr:1r n.o. 5.o.eu1t5e "Oe 0.6.f'f\ 11.6. t:1'0"0.6. ro. 1r e r.o.t .0.11 r:se1t e, .o.ri1, 5.0.11 .o.on ..111.o.­pu11111 ti10l\ "Oe' 11 ce1 tt .o. t)e1t ce.0.1111 u15te tt6·>6.o.or .o.C.o.. 1r 1 te1r '0 .o.011111e .6. cur.o.m n.o. 1101bre .6.1f\ rem 50 mb'tu1r1f'C' cur te COtrl.6.C'C�ll.o. 5..1e>61t5e, .o.ct: .o. c1.o.tt .o.5ur .6. bf\15 .o. mi111u5.o.u t>o'n r:rtu.0.5. .o.meot.o.r .6.f\ .6.11 11 '5.o.eu1t5 rem, ..11neowr .6.f\ t>un.o.t>.o.r 11.6. 5.o.eu1t5e .o.:sur .o.meowr .6.t\ te.0.116.0.r tl.6. r:1re reo .o.:sur .o.r .6.11 5c11111e..1ti1.o.111t: "00 5.o.1t) i, 6 .o.01f 50 11.o.01r : f1'0 1.0.'0 n.o. mute .o.c.& .0.5 cur b.o.c .o.r 5tu.6.1re.o.cr: n.o. 5.o.eu1t5e. �

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All Work Executed on the Premises at Talbot St , Dub!

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corne.i Rte

1 'Dcn­<5.t:. tiorn .o. �r.&t.<1mt.o. m.o.r ..1r com.o.q,t1:S : tr m.o.1t }e.o.r ­611 ct­0.1>01m 'O.c. te15teo1rrn, .6.n cre.scr­ trl.6.111 reo 5.0.11:'.> tor.o.mn, 5.0.n f.6.1tt15e .d t.o.t'.>.6.1f\'C 1 n­o b erp 11.0. 5.o.e'61t5e mr n.o. Cr.o.ot'.>.o.c.0.10 ..15ur n1 mo n.& m.o.r .6.f' 1 mt1:s 111r 11.6. r:so1te.o.1111..11t). .6. Ue.6.f'trl.6.'0 .6.1f\, Ctlf\.6.ttl .6. cur 1 rc.&1f\ 11.6. t::if'e 1r � me.o.r:s t.ucc ro5tumt.o. n..1 5.o.e'61t5e. 1 .o.n Ob.o.1r reo .6. t'.>e.o.rr.0.1>6 bU.6.1'0 '0(11nn r..1 'Oe1re. bioU .&r re.o.r.o.ti1 .6.t\ .6.11 5cum.o. 50 'O'C10Cf.6.1'0 Lmn 1 cur cun Cf\1Ce. Dero .6. t.&11 ..15 fe.6.6.dm'C 'n­.d'f' 11'01.6.1'0 re.o.rt:.o. .0. 01 p.o.t:U.6.r 'n·.df\ 'O'C.6.0l'.> 50 'Ot:::1 ro, te.o.1JH­<5. n ­0. t1 n1­0. t t­0.1$. 1 .o.r mburoeacar '0 eo111 m.o.c tlertt. .df' ro11 .<1n te.o.t>r.&m .o.'C.& r:sr1oot.o. .o.15e .0.5 5.o.t'.>.c.1t p.d1'f\t::: n.<1 .o.omne 5..1et>1t5e mr 11.6. 1110tr501te.o.nn.o.1t'.>. :so ofu1t ton co5.o.1u .o.r e.o.rb.<1 .<115e r..1 c..1t ro 1 'Ot:.<100 n.o. 5.o.et>1t5e, c.d rm5te.o.c "Oe te r..15.drt, 1 ..11:se f.6. te.o.t'.>r.&n ro. b't1u '0 ..10111ne, 'O.C. te.6.t'.l.df 0 tu1r "Oe1re c.c. re .<15 co1r .<1­c.& .o.1r, e te15e..1t>. 1 bf\UCt:.o.'6 te 11eot.o.r­eot.df '0 to1rpu 50 mor .<it' .o.n n:E;.o.e1'.:>1t5 .o.5ur .6. CU1f\f1U me.c.rt.<1t .6.t' .d 11.6.trl.6.1'0.



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EXPANDING THE OIREACHT AS. . Some correspondents have lately been writing m AN CLAIDHEA�IH Sor.urs on the necessity of The widening the scope of the Oireachtas feeling that a change for the better is necessary is shared by many, but it would be follv to adopt some of the suggestions made by '' Calm na Sgoile." He would have us set up a "talking shop " to which we should invite all the principal Bearloiri of the country­people who have not yet grasped the fundamentals of our movement­to instruct and advise us. It would be far more commonsense to have conferences at which Irish Irelanders would do the talking and the unconverted folk the listening. S. Ni Dheisighe suggests the inviting of It would foreigners to our annual festival. certainly be: wise to notify the principal Amencan and Continental journals of the event, and also the chief foreign literary academies and associations. Beyond that I believe it would be unwise to go. Our funds are slender and if once we began to give free entertainment the resulting benefits would never correspond to the cost. One of the Scottish Gaelic Societies spends about £1,000 a year in free lunches to Can we fashionable visitors to its festivals. afford so much ? The chief drawback from which the Oireachtas suffers is the hole­and­corner manner in which it is carried on. In 1907 some of the competitions went on in the rooms of the Leinster College, others across the street in the Gaelic League offices, others in the national schools, Dorset Street, and others in the Rotunda The art exhibition was in Abbey Street, and the exhibition of home made goods was crushed into the pillar room. Things were little better last year, and I fear that next Oireachtas will not show much improvement, for as things are at present arranged it will be held under the old conditions. While competitions are held over all the city it will be impossible for anyone to enJOY or appreciate the festival. Owing to want of concentration it loses in prestige and fails to make, • even on Dubliners, the impression which such a festival should be expected to create. The art and industrial exhibitions and all competitions should be held in one large building of such proportions as would enable the Oireachtas Committee to cope with any attendance that To properly future attractions might draw. and successfully impress the outside public with a true idea of the scope and importance of our work it will be necessary to bring all sections of the Oireachtas within a limited area, for people will not go about in search of us. We must compel them to come to us by the The sheer attraction of our programme. �n�ustrial exhibition if properly managed, and if it were run on popular lines, should appeal to large crowds of Dublin citizens who, ordinarily, take no interest in our doings. " Side shows," plays and concerts bands and firework displays at night should be included on the programme, and an earnest effort should be made to have fairly experienced companies for the production of the prize plays. The Coiste Gnotha might before the occasion of the next Oireachtas inquire into the desirability of acquiring the use of other and larger buildings than the Rotunda rooms, of �aving a popular industrial exhibition, of train­ mg � company of Irish speaking actors, and of holdmg conferences. _S. Ni Dheisige is right in saying that the Oireachtas has lost its original interest and has Unless the present acquired no new ones. Coiste Gnotha suggests some means of improve­ ment the matter should be discussed at the MAIRE DE ROISTE. next Ard Fheis. ­­­)­­­­ THE NEW YORK PHILO­CELTIC SOCIETY.

The following message has been received by the Ard­Runaire :­ A Chairde, Do bhi tionol ag Cumann Carad na Gaedhilg� Nua Eabhraic, Dia Domhnaigh, Eanair 17,ague 1 dtaobh na Gaedhilge ins an Iolsgoil Nua cuireadh run i bhfeim d'aon guth, mar leanas :­ " That W<', the New York Philo­Celtic Society, protest against the unpatriotic and unreasonable attitude of certain members of the Senate of the new National University for Ireland who would deny the National language of Ireland its rightful place in the curriculum· and that we most heartily endorse the demand of the Gealic League inIreland that the Irish language both oral and written, be made a compulsory subject for matriculation in the University, and that proper provision be made for the teaching of Irish in all the colleges of the University. Is mise le meas mor, TO:\IAS P. CAOl\IHANAIGHE, Runaire.

Be Rnre to mention AN

February 6, r9og

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· i ·1 l A Chara, A meetinz of the Committee of Colaiste na Mumhan was held re�ently in Cork. One would h_ave tho.u�ht that, considering the part which the Insh Tr�mmg Colle es are destined to play in the near futur� m he shaping of the National University, the Committee. of the Pioneer Irish College would have seen the necessity of defining their position with regard to the question, which, above all others, has united democratic Ireland. The Coiste Gnotha of the Gaelic League has called on the Irish nation to rally on this momentuous question and gallantly has the nation responded to the call. People, who, in the past, have not realized the life and death struggle in which the Gaelic League is engaged, are now amongst the warmest advocates of the League's demands. In such circumstances have we not a right to demand that a body which is largely subsidised from the League's funds should express their views on Is it that the majority of the this vital question. Committee are adverse to embarrassing the Senate ? It is well known that a leading member of t he Com­ mittee who is also a Senator of the National University, does not favour "coercion" and that this gentleman can command the support of not a few of his fellow­ mem bers on the Committee of Colaiste na Mumhan. Will the Committee kindly explain­and at once­ its inaction in this crisis of the League's fortunes. MICHEAL.

The objection urged that foreign st':1dents would be It's my scared away has already been demolished. firm conviction that unless the new University insisted firmly on the proper reco&�ition of the Irish language, it would, despite the promismg array of noted names on its Senate, settle back in_t? a second�rate institution of learning. In all probabihty n?t a smgl� mother's son in America, whether he be Insh or native American, would cross the seas to register as a student unless he were sure to find there what he could not find here or in England, or in Germany, :Vhy_ s_hould he ventur� into the unknown when urriversi ties are literally strewn over our land ? Here at his very door he can find institutions which will purvey to him the kind of education his nature demands. It is the Irish language and literature that will serve as the lodestone for foreign students. These, I believe will flock to Ireland, then, in increasing numbers, when they realise that only there can they enter fullv into that sweetness and light which has been infused into the Irish language and literature. This new University is bound by the conditions of things in Ireland­the dwindling population, the scarcity of money­to be of slow growth. Then it behoves the Irish people to make sure now that the foundations be so solid as to permit of any amount of superstructure to be raised upon them; to make sure that the rising tide of nationality does not require in A later years a te�ri_ng down and �n overhauling. Jonah­gourd rapidity of growth is not desirable ; it might entail as rapid a withering. The anxiety which should concern all Irishmen at present is solidity of the beginnings. I am, etc., EDWARD G. COX.





A LETTER FROM CORNELL UNIVERSITY Department of English, Cornell Universitv, Ithaca, N.Y. January 8th, 1909.

A Chara, Owing to pressure of what "Einin ar Chraoibh" would call the "work of privates " I was prevented !rom. replying earlier to his last effusion. He'Toolishly imagines I am a member of the Committee of the Poor Assocaition. Munster College Students' How much more usefully employed he "Einin ! " would be if he came off that branch and "worked as a private." I happen to be one of those who is of opinion that the organisation of Feis na Mumhan and the progress of the language should not be retarded by even the so­called Munster Feis Committee. Einin's questions not answered? Why were Simply because most of them were irrelevant to the issue, and because the Munster Conference is the proper Indeed body to demand an answer to the others. "Einin" must have a queer notion of what relevant questions are if he considers all mine are irrelevant. Awkward indeed they are, but all the more relevant in their awkwardness. [By the way how did I display temper? I should be more ca�eful in the choice of a pen­name. Only on� person. born m Munster can proclaim the fact that he is a Muimhneach. So says "Einin" and who will dare questi<:m his judgment ? It is a poor compli­ ment to the wnter who usually writes over "Muimh­ neach" to say that his pen­name should not be used for the furtherance of his native language. "Einin" asks me why I made him say certain things. Here are my exact words :­'' It will be news to the signatories to know that although they asked that the Dail be called together for three specific objects, they wanted it for Now if "Einin's" first .letter does not only one." convey the idea that the signatories were led blindly ?Y some two or three mysterious individuals what does it convey ? Would " Einin " kindly tell us ? If he were a WORKER in Munster or outside of it he would understand the urgent necessity for a Munster He wants his own questions answered �onfer�nce. immediately, but the fate of the Munster Feis and the status of the movement are matters which he considers can wait. Alas ! that we have so much lack of humour. I cannot congratulate the Committee of Feis na Mumhan o� its contemptuous treatment of the Folararnh signed by over 500 Gaels, and I am sure Munster Gaelic Leaguers in general are of the same opmion. If " Einin " can tell me where I am to get a copy of the Clar of the Feis that body were elected to organise I will give it credit for being in earnest. But w�at can be expected from a body which has not yet paid the debts incurred in connection with the last festival ? It is nothing short of a scandal that the once "powe�ful" Committee claiming to be representative of the mtellectual and commercial classes of the City of Cork which has now dwindled to three and has altogether abrogated its functions should retard and defy the will of the Gaelic workers of Munster. In conclusion let me say that if "Einin" wants me to change mv. pen­n_ame the remedy lies in his ov.:n hands. Let him wnte over his own name and I will write over mine. Until then, however, I must remain, MUIMHNEACH.

Sir, I see that the question of what shall be the status of the Irish language in the new University is engaging the attention and pen of many interested foreigners. Why should not I, then, who learned my Irish by the side of the peat fires of the Aran Islands, who sat under the inspiriting Michael Breathnach at Tourmakeady, and who spent many a busy day in Dublin puzzling over the snarls of Middle and Old Irish in the School of Irish Learning,­why should not I raise my voice, prophecy, and cry woe ! If you will kindly open your columns to me, I shall take the occasion to register my indictments against a policy that plans to degrade the Irish language from its rightful position as an essential to matriculation in the new University. In this matter Ireland has again like Sisyphus, rolled the stone to the summit of the hill; here again ls an opportunity to break loose from the hapless role of Sisyphus which it has been her As every burden to play for many centuries. observant Irishman knows, there have recurred fre­ quently times and seasons which seemed to point to a fruiting of Ireland's hopes and endeavours; but at the crucial moment a fatality (which means human blundering) thrust forth an interposing hand to blight the harvest nearly ripe. Now, if Ireland wishes to take such a step as will ensure, or perhaps even inaugurate, This step once a new era, here is the opportunity. taken will enable her to look back and· say, "so much has been traversed that need not be gone over again." Otherwise if this opportunity is pushed aside, all these years of toil, of work so patiently and laboriously built up by the Gaelic League will go for nothing. Failure to make the most of this chance means a tremendous set­back given to the cause of the Irish language and all the hopes dependent upon it. And little wonder if people become hopelessly discouraged and resign themselves to drifting toward the inevitable engulfing of Ireland into West Britonism. Why is it that the Irish people hesitate ? Are they Are they afraid of them­ afraid of their language ? selves ? Have they leaned back so long in the shadow of another nationality that they fear to realize their If Irish history ha9­ been !aught to every o�n ? Inshman when he was a child, the mterpretation of the epithet Irish would not involve the bugbear which frightens away the shoneen. It would call to mind a love of country that never hesitated in the face of infamy, exile, or death; a love of culture that deemed a manuscript a worthy ransom for a prisoner ; a love of learning that made light of distance, comfort, and poverty; and a conduct of life such as would fall in with the instructions of Finn to his foster son, Mac Lugach: "Censure not any if he be of grave repute; stand not up to take part in a brawl ; neither have anything at all to do with either a mad man or a wicked one. Two­thirds of thy gentleness be shown to woman and to creepers on the floor," etc.

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An ctA1t:>eArh sotu1s FEBRUARY 6, 1900.



� I� would be impossibl� to exaggerate the significance. of the �xpressu;ms of opinion from repr�entabve public bodies and great mass meetings of th� people which are recorded in our columns �hJS week. A fortnight ago a body venerable m its perso�el and venerable as the mouthpiece of the IrJSh Catholic Hierarchy declared i�elf against the overwhelming opinion � the nation on a. question of vital national :amportan�. It was rmmediately prophesied that the public .men who had voiced that opinion '!� s�aightway ,�wer the episcopal lash like whipped.curs. That prophecy, msulting a.Ike t<? the Bishops and to the public men of whom it was made, has been grandly falsified Oruthe �rrow of �e Bishops' announcement the �blin. �II>?ration. adopted a resolution imtly 1dentifymg itself with the national demand the,, only dissentient being the maker of the �ucky pr<?phecy. Wi� a day or two the same demand gained the unammous adhesion of the r&unty Council of Waterford. So much had �� when we went to press last week. Sijioe then the County Council of Galway, a $.jm.bet of Urban and Rural District Councils> ap, and down the .country, and in a second and �Jl1.0re unmistakeable i:esolution, the Dublin � Council, have added their voices to the � roar of the natioo's demand. Yet more �tic in its way is the rolling cheer from the �ket.­� of TWl,111 where ten thousand (not l'iHRi•thoU$8.Ud as the daily papers say) town and � folk of North Galway adopted the Irish � resolutions with passionate demonstra­ � of enthusiasm, greeting An Craoibhin. � the other JpPkesm�n of the League with � honours. In Belfast, a lecture by Eoin iii.tr' has drawn notable declarations of �ion from Professor Henry and Sir Peter �eB, both men of µght and leading in the orihem Univ,rsity. The Irish Ireland press <if all sections and every political, literary, and *'1endly associatiOD in the land that calls itself �at have been working together with a � "1td au energy unexampled in the recent 1ifstory of our eenatry. We knew all along that MJ.e;P'ople were with us, but we confess that even ..._.i.­ \ftere not prepared for so direct, vehement, and unanimous an answer. �d the expressioas of opinion, the calm, ,dignified, but perfectly resolute and uncom­ promising manifesto of the Coiste Gnotha­ we print it below as a second leader­must take first place as voicing the authentic views of the ­est and most important body of organised :�iAfoµ in Ireland. We said last week that the �c League would stand as firm as a rock. ;J).ose,­,­if there were any such­who thought to see it waver are doomed again to disappoint­ ment. High and clear has sounded the voice of the League, bidding those be of good cheer who hold its faith of an Irish Ireland which must not be compromised by any act of aspostacy, no matter by whom recommended nor howsoever speciously represented as in the genuine interests of the cause it has at heart. This is a time at which we must '' set our faces like iron against the opposition of good men and bad." The fact that many whom we revere and trust are against us may grieve us­­­it cannot dismay us, still less cause us to waver in our faith. That the Gaelic League should see and feel all this was only to be expected : that the country, too, sees and feels it, and that so spontaneously, so unmistakeably, so intuitively, fills us with hope and courage.




During the past few months national public opinion, expressed through the representative bodies of the country and through innumerable public meetings. in resolutions and in the speeches of men of the highest standing in public estimation, both clergy and la�·men, has declared in the clearest words the national con­ viction that in future the Irish language must be treated as an essential part of Irish higher education. The public mind has grasped the fact that now for the first time in centuries we have secured a free national scheme of University

Afl CU1'D6Affl SOlUIB. education. In the long period of State­ controlled education, the national language was banned and degraded to such a degree that e!en the nation itself, distracted by many bitter struggles, forgot the proud duty that every self­respecting nation acknowledges to­ wards its own tongue, and the schools and colleges of Ireland produced a type of Irishmen who were deadened to all sense of honour as concerned with the language of their country, and were not ashamed to plead the suppression of the language as their justification for joining the ranks of its suppressors. The question that has now arisen is this­ wh�ther. the nation having secured free University e�ucation will adopt the old anti· national policy, and rest content with the results of that policy, or will take a manly st�d and determine to reverse and undo that policy by every means in its power. �me people have raised a scare about the sa?ifioes, which, they imagine, will be en· tail�d by resolutely and logically carrying the national principle into effect. They have placed before the public a cmtressing· � of �owds of students driven away from the Nat�onal University through fear or hatred of having to learn the national language. They �e. b�� up in this attitude by the London Tunes and by the unanimous suppqit of all .who are hostile or indifferent to Irish nationality. A nation may possibly agree without dis­ honour. to acce�t a compromise on· a qupQll of national policy when it has no power to secure its full national rights. But ill this � everybody knows wel that the Irish !la�on has the settlementm ihe question entirely m _ its own hands. Less than a century ago t1ie Irish people indigitabtly �ected Catholic w. the Ellldish Emancipation rather than, Government to have a; �tom the ndmitiil.lion of their Bishops. They were, told that they were fools, and some the Bis�P,J � them to submit to the veto; but the' ,iEm1­lP stood firm �d carried the day. ./they reJ t�� th� compromise aa4 �¥ won E�cipa Quite recently the Irish �pie with �uat firmness rejected a measbre of sel��v�ent because they believed that it would com.promise their political principles. These were uses in which they could not· get what ithey. wanted without an intense s�gle. In the pttsent tae it is entirely in their own power to secure the triumph of the national principle. �e ·. principle is that a knowledge of t1ae national ··1angnage shall be re� as au essential element m the hi§her: �uaa.tion provided by a free National Uni'llerslty,, ant{ smJll not be ignored ­or treated as hitherto ur ­the basis of a mere mttter of inddiference ­wbich may be ignored by anybody who is so disposed. Everybody is free, il he · likes, to ignO,fe the national language, but no mere fractional minority is entitled to make the University of the Irish people a party to their contempt .or dislike for the language or to claim tie a&;ist­ ance of the Irish people to educate them as No nation in the world would foreigners. tolerate such an impudent pretence, and the national voice of Ireland has .aiade it plain that the people are determined to replace denationalised by nationalised education. At this juncture, when the public sense of the c<?untry has . been so clearly expressed, the Standing Committee of the Catholic Bishops of Ireland has published a pronouncement suggesting that the Irish language ought not " in existing circumstances," to be recognised as an essential element in the education to be administered by the National University, and basing this pronouncement on the views and supposed interests of those who are unwilling to study the language, and on the supposed injury which the University might suffer fro:n the defection of these persons. It is clear that the Bishops have been seriously influenced by the scare that has been raised in certain quarters. There is . not the slightest proof before the puhlic that even one per cent. of the students who would otherwise enter the University would be deterred from entering by the. requirement of an adequate It is knowledge of Insh for entrance to it. practically certain that the inclusion of Irish as essential will atrract many students who would not otherwise be attracted to the University. The opponents of the national demand have been encouraged in their opposition by the Bishops' pron_ouncement, and it has been glee­ fully prophesied that the representative men of Ireland will now '' run back like whipped This curs and eat up their own words." anticipation, no less insulting to the Bishops than to the people of Ireland, has already been




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February 6, 1909.


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;. . . ._E_l_e_o ) _( n_ _ : s _c _ _ c _ � . __ � The North. On January the zqth Eoin Mac � eill lectured before the College Society of the Belfast University on the " Value of Irish Studies." As he reminded his listeners the Irish language was as much their inheritance as that of the people of the South or West. Their ancestors who came from Scotland only a few centuries ago spoke the Gaelic tongue, and in r7r2 it was the universal language of � orth An trim. The • little band of litterateurs and patriots who at the close of the 18th century made Belfast famous were nearly all students of Irish. Hope, the Northern leader in '98, the noble Russell, and Bunting, the musician, were all acquainted with the language. Their vision extended beyond the borders of their province and they recognised the incongruity of a nation without its own distinguishing traits. From r782 to r8oo the spirit of nationality was every year gaining strength in Ulster, but the enmities sown by interested foreigners destroyed its growth, and to­day if Belfast is ahead of Dublin in wealth it is a centurv behind her in national spirit.



But the :N" orth is not hopeless. It is no longer the Black North. Professor Henry who at the lecture said that it would presided be a grave blunder to exclude Irish from the curriculum of the new Belfast University, and Sir Peter O'Connell, one of its Senators, assured the Society that Irish had real and sincere friends in the University. Mr. Bigger, speaking at the Ard­Chraobh on Monday night, said that he had no doubts about the treatment the language would receive. The Senators, he said, had practically told them that Irish would receive the place of honour which was its due in the programme of the University studies. The North, like other parts of the country, requires only enlightenment to gnide its actions and it will act onlv for Ireland's welfare. Belfast has already thrown in its lot with the rest of the country in the industrial revival, and it is only a matter of time until it joins the intellectual . movement which has given new life to the people _ .erywhere the study of the language has been taken up. The antecedents of the men of Ulster and their present and future interests demand that they shall no longer remain strangers in their own land.

Coming Meetings. The meetings for the coming week are Wexford on Sunday, University College Students· and Nenagh on Monday, and Fermoy on Tuesday. �

Feiseanna. Syllabuses of forthcoming Feiseanna are reaching us every week. The latest to hand are those of Feis Mhuigheo and Feis Cholmain. The former will be held in Castlebar where a few weeks ago the public meeting in support of the claims for an Irish University revived the old fighting spirit of the local Gaels. Castlebar has a name to live up to. It has memories of strife and sacrifice made ungrudgingly and heroically for Caitlin Ni Uallachain, memories that must con­ tinue to inspire new effort and further sacrifice, while the" hopes our fathers held" continue to be ours. Feis Mhuigheo is one of the most notable of Western Feiseanna. It is now several years since it was held in Castlebar. Local Gaels are vigorous and industrious as ever, and the best guarantee for a successful event lies in the fact that all �he League forces in the country are co­operatmg to make the coming Feis a brighter and more efficient festival than has yet been held by Fir an Iarthair.


\Vhile Padraig Mac ·Suibhne and Tomas Mac Donnchada were among the workers in Mainistir Fhearmuighe all who knew those two able and sincere workers took the success of Feis Chalmain as a matter of course, Now that they have left, the promoters of the r9�9 Feis which will held on June 6th, deserve praise and encourage­ ment for continuing the good work with their reduced forces. " An Seabhac, ,: who forwards us the Clar, is now the principal League worker in the district. The competitions. which are, generally, c_onfined. to.?\ orth­East Cork, arc in language, history. singmg, and danci�g. In the Inter­school Compctit101�:­­ three pnzes of one )omid (£1) each are given for three cl?,sses \howing the best knowledge of the. :N'�tional Board Irish Progran1me. !1­_ pound pnze is also given in the essay competition.

The Advertisers in . A.. N

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The Students' Meeting. Those who oppose the introduction of Irish as an essential subject in the Universities will not be allowed to miss the significance of the meeting of students to be held on Mondav night next in the Supper Room of the Mansion House which has been so kindly put at their disposal by the In the general courtesy of the Lord Xlayor, recklessness of assertion which has marked the arguments of our opponents, no body has suffered more by misrepresentation, sometimes unconscious, sometimes unscrupulous, than the very people for whom the Universitv is intended. On Monday night next, as detailed in our advertisement columns, the students will be afforded an opportunity of expressing their If it is in favour of Irish as we feel opmion. . ' quite confident it will be, it cannot but have a determining effect on those who still linger in doubt as to the solution which would work out in tl�e be�t interests of the University. The will be followed a process­ by torchlight �eehng �on and the students having first expressed an , independent and spontaneous opinion, they will afterwa�ds ask the co­operation of the citizens of Dublin to back up so important a pronounce­ ment, and to make an imposing display when they n_iarch through the city to convey their resolu­ tions to the official body.


America and her Language. The United States of America has frequently been cited of late by those opposed to Irish nationality, in its real sense, as an instance of a nation without a distinct language. Writing on the drawbacks following up on this, M. E. Sainte Marie Perrin, says, in the "Revue des Deux Mon des '' :­ " The American Nation speaks a language which is not its own, Not only do the different inhabitants of the United States use the same language, in spite of the dissimiliarities between North and South, between New England and California ; not only do the Yankee, German, Scandinavian, Dutch and Italian elements all speak English, but, moreover, the American people, although it is a new being, expresses itself in an old language which it has found readv­ made. Its new mind clothes itself in symbols which the British mind, thoroughly different, has made for its own use. In poetry language plays an instinctive, imperious role ; it should correspond to the most primitive forms of dreams and feelings. The poets of America, differing more, doubtless, by reason of their country and their life, from the English than the poets of Ireland and Scotland, may have found in their language, even without being conscious of it themselves, an obstacle in the way of attaining ' Truly, one· is somewhat lyrical perfection. tempted to pity this people, so proud of its vitality, yet whose genius has no voice of its own with which to sing of its new soul."



Lectures. The Rev. George O'NeilJ, S.J., will lecture before the Ard­Chraobh at 8 p.m. on Monday night. On Wednesday night, at the same hour, Padraig O hAichir will· read a paper on the '' Bilingual Programme in the Irish­speaking Districts.''

THE PEOPLE AND THE UNIVERSITY. Last week we reported the views of the Waterford County Council regarding Irish in the Before AN CLAIDHEAMH Sor.ors University. was in the hands of our readers Galway County Council had given expression not only to views equally strong, but to an intention to give no financial aid to the University until such tinc as the Senate makes a declaration of faith bv placing Irish among the essential subjects on th� curriculum. The Dublin City Council at a meeting held on Februarv rst, decided bv a majority of 38 against 4 to call an All­Ireland conference to discuss the best means of making · the Senate and the governing bodies of the different colleges sensible of the conn try· s wishes, and of warning them against the clanger CL.AIDIIEA.:\III

6, 1909.

deserve yo: tr support


of disregarding the recommendations of the Loc_al Government Boards and Councils on this national quesuon, the greatest that has stirred Ireland since the days of the Volunteers or the Union. At the Corporation meeting the na111e of Archbishop Walsh was impudently dracTCYed int? the discuss�on by the latest defender Faith, Dr. �Ic\\ alter, who, by his amendment forced . his oponen ts i.n to Yo ting against � . resolution of confidence in the Chancellor of the University. Dr. l\Ic\Valter is fond of sneering "_anti­cl�ric '� �t anyone more constant tha� himself in principle, but those whom he insults by his fulsome expressions of confidence are to�­ clear­s�eing to p�y an�� at_tention to the doings or sayings of this ubiquitous debater. The \Vexford County Committee of the Gaelic League at it� la:'t meeting �­econ11nended that 110 financial aid should be given from Wexford until the University meets the League demands, and a. public meeting which will be held in Wexford town on next Sunday will give the lead to the premier. county in all national struggles. Expressions <;>f support an� every. clay coming from the National Teachers Associations, from branches of the Foresters and of the United Irish League, and all classes are extendinz their support to the Gaelic League in its too mobderate­ demands for a system of education that will instruct the rising and coming generations in the service of their country. The people, impatient at the unreasoning opposition to their la�guage and their interests, are getting angry with those members of the Senate from whom they had reason to expect sympathy and ­ support. In the face of episcopal displeasure they came to the Tuam meeting to the number of �o,ooo on �ast _Sunday, to show and express their. determination that they will never co�tnbute to the support of another Trinity. Is it safe for the Senate to provoke the public Should the new University begin �oo far ? its work under the ban of the people it rnav take decades to retrieve the mistake. · Wherever the cause has been explained to the people they have given their best support. Let Leaguers go on spreading the light by means both of public meetings and the press. We need only to keep cool and firm. Justice and reason are with us, and victory cannot be long delayed.



TU AM'S 10,000.


. 01;1 last Sunday the Irish­speaking people of within a fifteen­mile radius of Tuam came together in that town where the great Mac Hale often preached to themsel ves and to their fathers­ to protest against the further perpetuation of the system of education that has brought our country to the brink of ruin. The newspaper reporters and others who were present state that fully ro,ooo people, men and women were massed in the market square round the Cross of Turlough O'Connor. Their enthusiasm was­ so great that they would scarce allow An Craoibhin to speak to them in English, and when the meeting was over he and Miss O'Farrelly had to address them again from the hotel windows. The people of Galway have been suffering under many wrongs in silence for years. They have borne with doctors and other public servants who speak only English; they have had to bear with teachers who were almost as well fitted to teach in China as in Ireland ; even priests ignorant of Irish have been and are still being sent to minister in Irish­speaking Galway parishes. The people have put up with all these injustices without undue complaint, but they have now determined to assert their rights a�d to sec that no usurped authority will further impose upon them. Mr. James l\IcDonncll, Chairman of the Tuarn Town Comm�ssioners, said they were aware of the purpose for which the meet mu was callcd­s­to civc an expression of opinio� on the ckciaraticn of the Bishops' statem�nt �:; regard mg compulsory r rish in the new University. They w�)Uld hear a. statement from men of experience, g1yen without the slightest trait of personality. Every Irishman now understood that if there was to be a new University in this country the Irish Language must take a foremost place, and it would be a shame and a disgrace for the people of Tuam to forget the ideas :ind love of their native tongue that were inculcated into­ them by that illustrious prelate, John Macl Iale­

Do they� rccei ve it ?


f e.:1 t'.> p.:1 6, 1909 .

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buy all our TPas by comparison WE y;e, t�erefore, can offer the pick

and first­h the Marke:n�; followmg pnces :­2 5, 2,2, 21­, 1/10, 1/S, 1/6, 1,4, 1/2, and 1/· per lb. (f

BECKER BROS., Tea Dealers and Importers



I 56.




T. HENSHAW & CO., Manufacturers of Farm Implements, CHRISTCHURCH PLACE,


CONN ACHT IRISH COLLEGE. PRINCIPAL TEACHER WANTED for above College for 1909. Salary £60. Send application with qualifications and copy testimonials before February 15th to J. A. GLYNN, BEECH HOUSE,


CLONMACNOISE. IN THE FOREFRONT OF PROGRESS. The. !�!sh­Ireland Bi­monthly Magazine, " Clon­ macn01se, conducted by Irish­Ireland authorities, oa every TOPIC of INTEREST under the sun. Should be read by all advanced Irish­Irelanders. Published ISt and I 5th of each month at


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Price 2d • Of all Newsagents.


Sgoil €anna,



ce­0.c te­0.u­0. cu1 t1 nn,

July 31st to August 6th­Olreachtas, Dublin.

b­0­1 le J.'t­0.

.!,­:­Felseanna whose dates only have been sanctioned • June 6.­Dundalk. June 29.­Tullamore. July I r.­Co. Carlow. 11­Felseanna whose Syllabuses have been approved by the Oireachtas Committee: and whose Fixtures are fully authorised. February 16, 17, and 18.­Belfast. April 13 and 14.­Feis Sligigh. May 30, 31 and June r.­Enniscorthy. Feis Loch gCarmain. May 16.­Chapelizod. Feis Mhagha Life. June 6 or 27.­Mainistir Fhearmuighe. Feis Cholmain. June 27th­Feis Mhuineachain. June 5 and 6.­Limerick. Feis Tuadh Mhumhan. .Tune 29.­Kilkenny. June 29.­Feis Fearmonach. Inis Ceithleann. July 4.­Feis Phortlairg­e. July 17 and 18.­Inis. Feis an Chlair.

n.J.t o


ct 1 ..6.'t.


DUBI�IN. An Irish Ireland Boarding and Dav School for Catholic Boys. A new Playing Field has been added during the Christmas Recess, and a number of improvements carried out in the internal arrangement and equipment.



m.o.rt.o.'O n.o. :S.o.e'"61t5e. eorb.o. r·m.o.c le151nn. "Cru.0.5 Ottr501te

For Prospectus apply

P. H.

to the lfead Master,


B.A.., B.L.,

St. Enda�s School,

No Irish ! No Students!! No University ! ! !

Cullenswood House, DU 13 LIN,



"Brian na Banban's" New Book:




'7­30 p.:rn.

To support the demand to make the National Language an Essential Subject • • in the National University DR.






ADDRESS THE STUDENTS. After the meeting a Torchlight will take place.


' BY A HEARTH IN EIRINN. '' Stories full of the humour and glow and glamour of the Irish­Ireland Movement. The best Gift for a Gaedheal­at home or 1n exile. Cover design by "Fitz." (of the ., Leipreacan'' , and Portraits of the Author and his Wife.

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An Claidheamh Soluis: Eanáir - Meitheamh 1909  

An Claidheamh Soluis: Eanáir - Meitheamh 1909  

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