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NO. 39 | VOL. 97

LIFE CENTRAL MICHIGAN

DEC. 7, 2017 

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MOUNT PLEASANT, MI

NEW LOOK FOR NORTH CAMPUS?

PRESLEY’S POWER

Board of trustees committee discusses $550 million campus renovation project

Junior guard Hudson’s scoring ability has made her a force to be reckoned with

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SPECIAL REPORT: News Central 34, CM Life team up to cover climate change

G C N L I I G M N A A T H E C Since 198 0, Americ sustained a has 218 clima t e and extr events tha eme weat t caused $ her 1 billion in That total damage p doesn’t inc er storm. lude the e in damage s t imated $2 caused by 00 billion Hurricane Find out h s H a r v e ow climate y, Irma an d Maria. change is a lt e r in g and our w Michigan, orld, forev er.

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DEC. 7, 2017  |  CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  |  CM-LIFE.COM

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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

LIFE

NEWS

CENTRAL MICHIGAN

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EDITORIAL: Global warming is real. Here’s how you can help slow it’s impact on our earth.

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Local farmers rebuild after a $10$15 million loss from flooding

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STAFF

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF JORDYN HERMANI Student Government Association unanimously passes resolution for free menstrual items in senate, heavy support in house.

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MANAGING EDITOR EVAN SASIELA NEWS EDITOR MITCHELL KUKULKA NEWS EDITOR EMMA DALE

NEWS Five phone chargers in the UC to be removed by start of spring semester.

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EDITORIAL

NEWS

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SPORTS

FEATURES EDITOR PAIGE SHEFFIELD SPORTS EDITOR KULLEN LOGSDON ASSISTANT SPORTS EDITOR DYLAN GOETZ PHOTO EDITOR MACKENZIE BROCKMAN

BOT committee discusses $550 million renovation

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DESIGN EDITOR CONNOR BYRNE PAGE DESIGNER RACHAEL KAISER PAGE DESIGNER JARRETT OLDECK MULTIMEDIA EDITOR JOSH BARNHART ASSISTANT MULTIMEDIA EDITOR GRANT POLMANTEER

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Discussion continues on university strategic plan in Academic Senate

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Junior guard Presley Hudson’s scoring ability has made her an offensive force for the women’s basketball team.

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DEC. 7, 2017  | CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM

SGA passes legislation of free menstrual products on campus By Quinn Kirby Staff Reporter news@cm-life.com

Quinn Kirby | Staff Photographer Senator Lyndi Rose votes on an amendment to her legislation on Nov. 27 in the Bovee University Center Mackinaw Room.

Student Government Association senator Lyndi Rose was inspired by a Twitter post to craft SGA’s only piece of legislation for the fall 2017 semester. "We pay $20,000 (in tuition) a year, roughly, and not (enough) of that goes toward women's products," Rose said. The bill, which proposes to have free menstrual products in every bathroom on campus was passed unanimously in the senate and 94-3 in the house during the Dec. 4 meeting. Giana Korth, co-founder of Tampon Tribe, an organic tampon company based in California, learned of Rose's initiative after reading an article on Central Michigan Life website. Korth passed similar legislation during her time at Georgetown University and has continued supporting the cause. Korth has offered to help provide dispensers for the products, Rose said. "She wants to partner with us to help us and give us a good deal (to) help the university pay

for this," Rose said. Responses were mixed on a Central Michigan Life Facebook post that reported the legislation's passing and users bantered back and forth. When it comes to student opinion — responses appear supportive of the legislation. Freeland sophomore Kara Dobulis said she had never considered the idea of menstrual products becoming free on campus, but said she supports the proposition. "(People who menstruate) deal with this a week every month so I think it would be awesome," she said. When it comes to the cost of menstrual products, Detroit sophomore Tierra Wright addressed the positive impact the legislation could have on students. "I was going to resort to buying a menstrual cup because of the expenses of buying hygiene products," she said. Wright feels the passing of this legislation could help her with that cost. While the legislation passed, it still must be considered by the Academic Senate.

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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

UC charging ports to be removed by the end of semester By Mitchell Kukulka News Editor news@cm-life.com

The five charging stations located in student lounge areas of Bovee University Center will be removed at the end of this semester. Melissa Blythe, associate director of Events and Conference Services, said the decision to remove the chargers came after several surveys showed many students weren’t using the station. “A lot of the feedback from the students (showed) a lot of them carry their own chargers,” Blythe said. “Students are really looking more for electrical outlets they could plug there computers into more than charging stations.” Due to student use, wires at-

Cody Scanlan | Staff Photographer The charging stations in the Bovee University Center lobby on Oct. 3 feature broken and outdated charging accessories.

tached to the chargers are frayed and broken — making them unable to charge phones. A charg-

ing station in the Multicultural Academic Student Services office still works due to infrequent use.

The charging stations were originally installed through a third-party vendor, KwikBoost, in 2012 for $2,000. Between paying for the contract and replacing damaged wires, Blythe said each of the five ports cost about $200 per academic year. Blythe said Events and Conferences is in the process of looking for alternatives for students who need to utilize the charging stations. One potential alternative would be to keep charging units available at the service desk and have students check them out with their student ID cards. Other options include installing similar charging stations used by the athletics department, which require a small fee. Blythe said surveys suggest students would not be interested in pay-

ing for the service. “We’re trying to look at an efficient, but cost-effective way for students to be able to utilize the chargers,” Blythe said. “We don’t have a lot of need for (the chargers). Most people come to campus in the morning with their phones charged through the day. The chargers just aren’t utilized very often.” Director of Events and Conferences Calvin Seelye estimates it would cost about $500 to repair the charging ports as they are now. Blythe said there has also been a recurring issue of people cutting the wires. Some students, like Novi sophomore Megan Riley, are afraid the out-of-date technology will ruin their device.

Though the charging ports are dispersed throughout the upper and lower level of the UC, some students are unaware they exist. “I have never used them or never even looked at them until they were pointed out to me,” Novi freshman Cailin Gerwig said. Toledo junior Abby Nelson said while she had not used the chargers on the second floor of the UC, she has made use of the charger near the MASS office before. “I don’t necessarily see a reason to remove (the chargers),” Nelson said. “I don’t think they’re taking up space, and I think they could be helpful if people needed to use them.” Contributions to this article were made by staff reporter Jordan McGee.

Journalism is history’s first draft. Sharing CMU’s story since 1919. And not stopping anytime soon.

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Email editor@cm-life.com or stop by 436 Moore Hall for more information on applying. No experience required. Accepting applications from all majors.


NEWS

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DEC. 7, 2017  | CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM

SHED A LIGHT ON TRUTH

Climate change is a real issue and we must admit that in order to address it

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f you didn’t believe in climate change before, 2017 was the year to start. It included one of the most active hurricane seasons in recorded history. According to NASA, this October was the second warmest on record in the more than 130 years of weather record keeping. Here in Mount Pleasant, residents experienced the worst flooding since the 1980s. Climate change is real. These are not isolated weather incidents. Each year, more and more evidence supports that our world is changing. Several pages of our paper today are dedicated to exploring these changes in global temperature, severe weather, Great Lakes pollution and Michigan’s changing ecosystem. Facts should form the basis of our opinions when it comes to important conversations on climate change and global warming. We are providing you with facts from academics who study this science. We hope our coverage inspires you to explore these topics even closer. This is not a debate, however. We refuse to let baseless opinions be equivalent counter-arguments to established science and research.

EDITORIAL While it would be difficult for one average person to make an impact on climate change, it will take a group effort to help stymie the ongoing efforts of global warming. We understand it’s not easy for college students to radically change their lifestyles, considering their time constraints and budgets. Several low cost and easy changes could be made to a person’s life to account for their personal carbon-dioxide emissions. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), a nonprofit international environmental advocacy group, recommends the following for people looking to make a difference on a budget: • Buy energy-efficient bulbs. While it might cost you a few extra cents now, energy-efficient bulbs help to use roughly 80

percent less energy than regular fluorescent bulbs. • Take the bus. If you live close to or on campus, don’t drive your car. Get up a few minutes early and take the bus to your midday class. Not only will this help to marginally cut down on carbon emissions, it’ll save you the headache of trying to find a parking space. As a newspaper, we deal in facts — not fiction. Scientists are releasing more research every day explaining not just the impact of climate change, but detailing the physical consequences global warming is having on Earth. Likewise, too many special interest groups and political hacks are actively trying to confuse the issue with misinformation and false-equivalency arguments. The truth has become impossible to ignore: Climate change is real and must be addressed. Don’t leave this planet in worse shape then you found it. We can be one of the first generations to utilize the knowledge we have about global warming and make a difference. The change starts with us. Let’s change the world.


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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

OPINIONS

We are holding men accountable for their actions, why not athletes? Revelations about sexual assault and sexual abuse have exposed the disgusting truth behind some of America’s most well-known personalities. Survivors have come forward to tell their stories of abuse in the film industry, politics and journalism. These industries are undergoing a social reckoning because they covered up sexual harassment and assault for decades. This social reckoning needs to happen in sports. Kevin Spacey starred in “American Beauty,” “House of Cards” and “Baby Driver,” winning Academy Awards for his acting. On Oct. 29, Spacey’s first accuser came forward. As of today, 13 men have come forward to speak about their experiences. The allegations

James Paxson Columnist

against Spacey led to him being replaced in a movie and dropped by his manager. U.S. Sen. Al Franken, D-Minnesota, built his career in part by being a fighter for women’s rights and other progressive ideals. After radio host Leeann Tweeden came forward on Nov. 16 accusing Franken of groping her in 2006, five other women have come forward with similar allegations. Franken’s role and position in the Senate have been diminished and he’s

facing calls to resign. Matt Lauer, one of NBC’s top newscasters, was fired immediately after an employee filed a complaint alleging inappropriate sexual behavior in the workplace. All three men have been disgraced and their legacies will ultimately be shaped by these allegations. We’re rightly outraged because of what they’ve done and we’ve deemed them no longer worthy of a place in s society. These allegations that have destroyed these men’s careers happen all the time in sports. No one seems to care. Mike Tyson, former world heavyweight title-winning boxer, was convicted of rape in 1992. His punishment was a six-year prison sentence. Today, Tyson has an animated show

on Adult Swim and frequently guest stars in movies. It’s weird how Tyson, a convicted rapist, is most known as the guy who sings “In the Air Tonight” in “The Hangover” and not as a man who raped an 18-year-old woman. Floyd Mayweather Jr., the undefeated boxer who at one point was the highest paid athlete in the world, beat his girlfriend in front of their children and spent two months in jail. Many instead know him as the greatest boxer of all-time. Adrian Peterson, one of the best running backs in football, disciplined his son by beating him with a wooden switch. He was put on probation, fined $4,000 and ordered to complete 80 hours of community service because of child abuse.

He’s still playing football, with a two-year, $7 million contract with the Arizona Cardinals. These three athletes still have jobs and they’re still loved by fans, but they don’t bear the stigma of their crimes: abuse of women and children and rape. They’re treated like nothing ever happened. We’re not holding them to the same standard we’ve set for other men. The thing that shocks me is Lauer and Spacey will probably never work again and Franken will probably soon be out of his job, but Tyson, Mayweather and Peterson will still have their jobs. Why is this? Why are athletes treated differently? If we want to hold men in power accountable for their actions, every man must be held accountable.

Letter to the

EDITOR

It’s not OK to say the N-word around me just because it’s in a song TO THE EDITOR: My first week at Central Michigan University was the Leadership Safari program. I was the only black person in my group, but I kind of liked that. I was ready to meet new people. I loved my group. But I realized sometimes people can get a little too comfortable even when you first meet. I was walking with one of my group members and he happened to be singing along to a rap song. Everything was fine, until this guy thought it was okay to say the N-word around me. I mean, this wasn’t the first time I’d heard a non-person of color say it and I knew attending a predominantly white institution meant I would eventually hear it. But I just never thought I’d hear someone say it so casually, let alone around me. It honestly hurt to hear. So, I took a moment to collect myself and of course, I told him to not say it around me again. I thought that would be the end of it, but then he replied, “It’s just a song, so it doesn’t count.” I was literally in shock. I mean, where did this new rule stating people who aren’t black are allowed to say the N-word, as if it’s not offensive because it’s sung or rapped?

EDITORIAL BOARD EDITOR-IN-CHIEF | Jordyn Hermani MANAGING EDITOR | Evan Sasiela OPINION EDITOR | Elio Stante SPORTS EDITOR | Kullen Logsdon NEWS EDITOR | Mitchel Kukulka NEWS EDITOR | Emma Dale FEATURES EDITOR | Paige Sheffield DESIGN EDITOR | Alyssa Templeton

As a member of the black community, I am here to let you know that it’s actually offensive to most of us — it doesn’t matter if it’s in a song or not. Some people may want to argue that black people say it — I can’t say we don’t. But let me offer an idea to think about. The same way other traditionally marginalized groups have reclaimed offensive words within their communities like the feminist movement with the word “slut” and the LGBTQ community with the word “queer.” So have we with the N-word. Sometimes in order to justify using the N-word, non-black people try to pretend like the black community hasn’t reclaimed this word and accuse us of being hypocritical for doing it. That’s not OK. You see, a person who is not black may not understand exactly why we feel this way. When we hear the N-word certain images, memories and feelings instantly flood our minds that might not necessarily come to a non-black person’s mind. These are memories of witnessing racism first-hand. Racist words, actions and unjust treatment against our friends, families and ourselves. Stories from our elders and family members who’ve survived police

All letters to the editor or guest columns must include a name, address, affiliation (if any) and phone number for verification. Anonymous letters will not be printed, except under extraordinary circumstances. CM Life reserves the right to edit all letters and columns for style, length, libel, redundancy, clarity, civility and accuracy. Letters should be no more than 450 words in length. Longer guest columns may be submitted but must remain under 750 words. Published versions may be shorter than the original submission. CM Life reserves the right to print any original content as a letter or guest column. Please allow up to five days for a staff response, which will include an expected date of publication. Submission does not guarantee publication.

brutality. Memories of seeing videos and movies about African Americans being hosed down and beaten by police with clubs like we’re animals in the streets. Memories of what we learned in school — our history is filled with people arrested because they chose to flee plantations to find freedom. The N-word brings back memories of how we were raped and whipped at the hands of our “masters.” Memories of us being burned, lynched and murdered by men in white robes. When we hear the N-word, we get those memories of always being forced to feel inferior to an entire race of people. The pain of hearing this word is hard to understand for others because we feel and remember these things that have happened because of the color of our skin. The N-word carries a different weight when it’s not said by a black person. But if not saying a word is too hard for you to handle — imagine feeling that every time it’s said. If it should be so easy for us to “get over because it’s in a song,” then it should be just as easy for you not to say it.

Central Michigan Life, the independent voice of Central Michigan University, is edited and published by students of Central Michigan University every Monday, and Thursday during the fall and spring semesters. The newspaper’s online edition, cm-life.com, contains all of the material published in print, and is updated on an as-needed basis. Central Michigan Life serves the CMU and Mount Pleasant communities, and is under the jurisdiction of the independent Student Media Board of Directors. Dave Clark serves as Director of Student Media at CMU and is the adviser to the newspaper. Articles and opinions do not necessarily reflect the position or opinions of Central Michigan University. Central Michigan Life is a member of the Associated Press, the Michigan Press Association, the Michigan Collegiate Press Association, the Associated Collegiate Press, College Newspaper Business & Advertising

SAGE SANDERS Southfield Sophomore Managers Association, the Mount Pleasant Area Chamber of Commerce, Central Michigan Home Builders Association, Mount Pleasant Housing Association and the Mount Pleasant Downtown Business Association. The newspaper’s online provider is SN Works. Central Michigan Life is distributed throughout the campus and at numerous locations throughout Mount Pleasant. Nonuniversity subscriptions are $75 per academic year. Back copies are available at 50 cents per copy, or $1 if mailed. Photocopies of stories are 25 cents each. Digital copies of photographs published in Central Michigan Life are available upon request at specified costs. Central Michigan Life’s editorial and business offices are located at 436 Moore Hall, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, telephone (989) 774-3493 or 774-LIFE.


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DEC. 7, 2017  | CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM

Changing Climate Changing World Warmer temperatures contribute to extreme weather, billion-dollar climate disasters Kluver, a professor of meteorology. "Climate is the long-term, aggregate etter-than-normal conditions this fall caused trouble Student media team-up statistics of the weather." for Mid-Michigan farmers growing standing crops, to cover climate change Climate is always changing, Kluver explained, but the science sursuch as soybeans and corn.

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Union Township farmer Randy Recker, who has been growing soybeans, wheat and corn for more than 45 years, said the rain his farm received in October was as problematic as the flooding that occurred in June. Over the course of 10 days in October, Isabella County received 11 inches of rain. For Recker, that meant having to wait for water to recede before he was able to harvest his soybeans. “When you get rain in the fall, it's hard for it to go away,” he said. “In the summer, it’ll go away because it's warmer —it evaporates." A severe storm in June caused an estimated $10-15 million in crop damage for farmers in Isabella County, according to Paul Gross, an educator for the Michigan State University Extension, though a final total isn't expected until January 2018, when crop yields are totaled. Most crops have been harvested as of Nov. 30. The storm is said to be the county’s most costly agricultural disaster. Storms like one experienced by Mount Pleasant residents this summer are occurring more frequently across the nation. Since 1980, the United States of America has sustained 218 climate and extreme weather events that have caused an overall $1 billion in damage per storm. More than half of those natural disasters occurred in the past decade. Those massive storms resulted in $1.2 trillion in recovery costs. That total doesn't include the estimated $200 billion in damage caused by Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria which have taken place since September in America. “It’s been a prolific year for big disasters,” according to Russell Vose, a physical scientist for The National Centers for Environmental Information. Vose said 2017 ties 2011 for the most billion-dollar disasters – 15 – that occurred between January and September. A draft of the National Climate Change Report, awaiting approval by President Donald Trump, states temperature and precipitation extremes caused by a rise in global average temperatures can affect the likelihood of extreme weather. “We can’t say these climate and weather disasters have been

As Mid-Michigan is still recovering from June storm damage, Zahra Ahmad of Central Michigan Life and Justin Bradford and Ian Komarzec of News Central 34 investigated how changes in global temperature and climate will likely cause more extreme weather events. Go to cm-life.com for complete coverage.

caused by climate change,” Vose said. “There have been some studies released in recent years that said ‘these particular events are being influenced by the climate’.”

WHAT DOES CLIMATE CHANGE MEAN? Confusion about the science of climate change often stems from not understanding the difference between “weather” and “climate.” Central Michigan University is a leading educator in atmospheric science and offers the only meteorology major in the state. The U.S. Department of Labor projects a 15 percent increase in the atmospheric and space science professions by the year 2018. "Weather is what (conditions are) day-to-day outside," said Daria

rounding climate change in the national conversation seems to focus on whether humans are contributing to changes in a significant way. "Climate can change because of natural reasons — volcanic eruptions cool the climate for a few years (and) the amount of energy the sun puts out, such as solar flares, can change the climate," Kluver said. "(Human) changes are things like emitting greenhouse gases, deforestation and changing the surfaces of the earth so they absorb more or less radiation." The overwhelming majority of climate scientists report that human behavior significantly contributes to climate change. According to the Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report Summary, greenhouse gas emissions are at a historic high level and have increased largely as a result of economic development and human population growth. Greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane, settle in the atmosphere. These gases absorb heat emitted from the Earth's surface. This natural system, the “Greenhouse Effect,” is responsible for keeping the planet warm enough to sustain life. "Think of the atmosphere as a giant sponge that traps energy in the form of heat, which warms the Earth," Kluver said. “If the atmosphere didn't exist around the Earth, all of that energy would be released into space. None of it would be retained and the planet would be very cold." The Greenhouse Effect is warming on Earth at an alarming rate, Kluver explained. The Earth’s temperature is rapidly increasing due to massive releases of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Human-made industrial processes and burning of fossil fuels account for 78 percent of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere today, according to the climate change report. Global temperature data shows that climate change will have drastic effects on the planet’s ecosystems, Kluver said. Ocean levels will continue to rise. Weather will become increasingly erratic if the activity contributing to global warming is not reduced. "The climate is going to change so much that global populations will have to move if they live by the shore or on islands," she said. "This could potentially result in horrible things (involving) famines, agriculture and

By Zahra Ahmad | Staff Reporter


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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

Illustration | CONNOR BYRNE

immigration due to sea level rising." Temperatures could increase by 4 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100. "That's really warm," Kluver said. "You're probably thinking four degrees isn't a lot, but we're talking global average temperature." To put the increase in perspective, Kluver said during the last ice age, 18,000 years ago, the global temperature was only 5-8 degrees lower than the average temperature today. Melting ice sheets from Greenland and the Antarctic are the biggest contributor to the rising sea-level resulting from climate change. Kluver said this will have the greatest impact on humanity. "People love to live by the sea," she said. "The coastal ecosystems, and life that is there, will be impacted. In some cases, saltwater from the ocean can be introduced into freshwater systems as a result of severe flooding."

STATE OF THE CLIMATE Extreme weather certainly has become a topic of national media coverage. Record hot days are becoming more frequent. Nationally, winters are becoming shorter, though sometimes more intense. Wildfire season threatens the western states for longer than ever before. According to

data collected by the NCEI the likelihood of drought, flooding and severe storm disasters has increased overall in just the past decade. Data from NCEI shows that since 1980 more than half of the recorded wildfires, severe storms, and flooding disasters exceeding $1 billion in damage have occurred in the past decade. Scientists don’t have effective forecasting models to prove climate is causing weather disasters. That's because the weather systems form quickly and don't follow a historic trend. What is known, Vose said, is that national and global average temperatures have been breaking historic records. “Every decade is hotter than the decade it precedes," Vose said. "It’s been at a steady pace like this for the past five decades."

HUMANS INFLUENCING CLIMATE CHANGE Earth’s first breathable atmosphere formed about 500 million years ago. Since then, its climate system has maintained a radiative equilibrium, or balanced the amount of energy coming into and out of the atmosphere. Radiation entering Earth’s atmosphere travels in the form of short wavelength solar radiation. Only about 46 percent of the energy entering the atmosphere reaches Earth’s surface. The rest is absorbed by clouds,

scattered, or reflected back into space. In order to balance the amount of energy, known as the "net energy at the top of the atmosphere," the radiation leaving the atmosphere must be the same as the amount being emitted to Earth. This balance is currently off. The net energy of the atmosphere can be thrown off as a result of natural processes like variations in the Earth’s orbit (Milankovitch cycles) and human-caused climate forcing. “The natural changes in climate are very slow, occurring over 1,000year to 10,000-year periods,” said Richard Mower, a meteorology professor. “What we’re seeing now is a very rapid climate change.” Scientists have run climate models without the influence of human impact, Mower said. Those models have shown that without the influence of carbon dioxide, the Earth should be experiencing relatively cool temperatures today. This indicates the change in climate being observed today can’t be contributed to natural processes alone. According to a temperature analysis conducted by the National Aerow CLIMATE | 12


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DEC. 7, 2017  | CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM

How climate change will affect state weather and agriculture

Illustration | CONNOR BYRNE

By Zahra Ahmad | Staff Reporter

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hen climate change is discussed, its impact is often presented in global terms – the rising of ocean levels or the melting of polar ice sheets. In Michigan, the Great Lakes also are being affected in significant ways that few people seem to understand. According to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report published in January, ice cover on the Great Lakes is forming later and melting sooner as a result of rising global temperatures. That could impact life in Michigan in several ways – including less snow for winter tourism and precipitation carrying more contaminants into the lakes through runoff. “While we’ve seen a decrease in the amount of regular snow received, we’re seeing an increase in lake effect snow," said Daria Kluver, a meteorology professor studying lake effect snow. Michigan is receiving more lake effect snow because of warmer lake temperatures. The temperature in Michigan has increased by 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit since the 1980s, Kluver said, and it is predicted to get warmer. When cold air crosses over the lakes, moisture from the warm water is picked up and is condensed into clouds. Those systems dump snow downwind of the lake when it passes over the cold

land. As global and national temperatures continue to rise, less precipitation in Michigan will fall as snow and more will fall as rain. Total precipitation across the Great Lake states has increased by 11 percent since the beginning of the century. Data released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) suggests the Great Lakes could remain ice-free for longer periods of time.

CHANGES IN GREAT LAKES Heavier rain storms are projected to increase as the impacts of climate change become more profound, according to NOAA. This increase becomes problematic to areas prone to flooding. “The biggest issues facing the Great Lakes (are) an interplay between pollution and climate change,” said Donald Uzarski, director of the CMU Institute for Great Lakes Research. "Climate change has drastically increased the occurrence and magnitude of extreme storm events causing excess runoff to enter the Great Lakes.” The runoff of pollutants plays a critical role in how invasive species, algal blooms, pollution and climate change are connected. According to Uzarski, invasive species are often able to take over an ecosystem because “nutrient pollution has artificially elevated primary productivity (algal blooms).”

Severe rainstorms and extreme precipitation events, like the rainstorm that affected Mount Pleasant this summer, are becoming more frequent. In late June, Central Michigan experienced severe flooding due to excessive rainfall that occurred during a concentrated amount of time – it rained very hard during a short amount of time and overwhelmed the infrastructure designed to handle stormwater. On average, the city of Mount Pleasant receives about 32 inches of precipitation a year. On June 22, it received 6.5 inches in less than 20 hours. On Aug. 2, President Donald Trump declared a state of disaster for Isabella, Midland, Gladwin and Bay counties. “That is 20.3 percent of the annual precipitation in one day,” Uzarski said. The storm resulted in $6.1 million in damage in the city of Mount Pleasant. In Isabella, Midland, Gladwin and Bay counties, the storm caused more than $100 million in damage. That total includes $21 million to public property and at least $10-$15 million in agriculture losses. Fifty one buildings on Central Michigan University's campus were affected by the flooding. An estimate by the Facilities Management Administration placed the cost of on-campus damage between $7-10 million. Repairs were covered by the university's insurance.

While damage to private and public buildings can be cataloged and repaired, the damage done to the ecosystem of the Chippewa River is not easily measured. “When that much water hits the landscape at once, it does not percolate into the water table but instead runs off into lakes and streams carrying massive amounts of pollution with it,” Uzarski said. Streams and rivers then deliver the pollution that’s been introduced to the system into the Great Lakes. Much of the pollution that enters the streams are in the form of very soluble nitrogen. Increased levels of nitrogen can result in the excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants. When those organisms overtake the ecosystem they can block light to deeper water, affect oxygen levels and harm the food and habitat fish rely on. While coastal wetlands are still doing a good job of removing the added nitrogen, more than 50 percent of the state’s wetlands have been developed over and filled. When Uzarski and his research team took samples to test the water quality, about 80 percent of the wetlands they sampled were nitrogen limited. Uzarski and his team are working on a paper that would explain their findings. He believes nitrogen is going to be just as much of


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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017 a problem as other nutrient pollutants, such as phosphorus. The nitrogen content in the lakes is so high that a reactive-oxygen species toxic to even algae were produced. “We experimentally added phosphorus, we did not see an algal bloom. When we added nitrogen we did,” Uzarski said. “That is, in these systems, it is the excess nitrogen causing algal blooms, not excess phosphorus. Yet the 2012 Water Quality Agreement does not even contain the word ‘nitrogen’ in it.” Algal blooms can affect more than just fish habitats or recreation. In 2011, the city of Toledo issued a “Do Not Drink" advisory for more than 400,000 area residents served by Toledo Water. Chemical tests confirmed an increased, unsafe level of algal toxin in treated water.

EXPECT MORE FLOODING IN CENTRAL MICHIGAN Martin Baxter a meteorology professor at CMU who researches precipitation systems, believes Mount Pleasant will experience a more significant impact every time a heavy rainstorm moves into the area, because the Chippewa River is already prone to flooding. The “tremendous” amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere and an uplift caused by a front is likely to have caused the flooding seen in Mount Pleasant. “With the changing climate we’re seeing warmer air masses that are able to hold more water vapor which can then potentially precipitate out into the heavy rainstorms we’re seeing,” Baxter said. As the Earth’s surface and oceans warm, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to the increase in water evaporating from lakes, oceans and other reservoirs increases. Seasurface temperatures today are the highest on record according to a State of The Climate report published in 2016 by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Dry places will become even drier, Baxter said, as warmer temperatures lead to less vegetation that can hold in water. Humid places will become more moist as they warm, as warmer air can hold more water vapor. “There are models now that are capable of predicting where something like this will happen,” Baxter said. “The trouble is they aren't always accurate enough to give us the confidence to warn people of the potential impact of a storm like that.” This year Michigan experienced one of its warmest Septembers on record. The state also experienced one of its wettest Octobers, which Baxter said isn’t a coincidence. “There was a large warm and moist air mass caused by the evaporation over the Gulf (the

File Photo | McKenzie Sanderson Student employees walk through floodwaters on Broomfield and West Campus roads with buckets on June 23, rescuing fish and other wildlife from streets and ditches.

Gulf of Mexico),” Baxter says. “There was no troughs or upper-level disturbances that could cause the air mass to lift and precipitate. You need to lift the air in order to get clouds to precipitate. In October two troughs were able to lift the air mass and cause rain.”

CLIMATE CHANGING AGRICULTURE Warmer weather brings changes to more than just the distribution of water, it can affect the demographics of plants and animals. Joanne Dannenhoffer a botany professor at CMU, said as Michigan becomes warmer and experiences increased rainfall, she expects these changes to alter the composition of Michigan’s forests. “Here in Mount Pleasant we live in a transition zone where the vegetation in the southern half of the state merges into the vegetation found in the northern half of the state,” Dannenhoffer says. “With warmer weather there might be a change in the migration of the transition zone, to say, somewhere farther north like Gaylord.” w MICHIGAN | 12

Concentrations of green house gases over the past 2005 years, showing increases in concentrations since 1750 attribute to human activities in the inustrial era. Concentration units are parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb), indicating the number of molecules of air. Figure courtesy of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Illustration | CONNOR BYRNE


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DEC. 7, 2017  | CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM

MICHIGAN |

CLIMATE |

CONTINUED FROM 11

CONTINUED FROM 9

According to the EPA populations of northern species such as paper birch, quaking aspen, balsam fir and black spruce may decline while oak, hickory and pine trees will increase. "Plants have a general theme of adaptation, they've always been at the mercy of what happens in their environment," Dannenhoffer explained. Dannenhoffer, who researches the kernel development of corn, said increases in average temperatures could have both beneficial and harmful effects on farming in the state. The June flood ruined her research yield because crops, like corn, are intolerant to oversaturated soil caused by flooding. “Corn doesn’t do well in a lot of rain,” Dannenhoffer said. “Flooding will affect the yield of corn and so will frequent hot days.” Michigan’s lower peninsula, where most of its corn is grown, is likely to have five to 15 more hot days during the summer with temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Though higher temperatures mean a longer growing season, it also increases risk for droughts and can negatively impact the yield of corn and soybeans. Union Township farmer Jerry Neyer said his corn and soybean fields took the hardest hits from the flooding that occurred in June. Unlike his fields of hay, which have a larger root mass beneath them, the ground covering the soybeans and corn is easily washed away. This is problematic because nutrients essential to the growth of these crops is washed away. "In July, things looked pretty good, but in August, especially toward the end of August, you could see the crop was starting to slow down and running out of energy," Neyer said. "It just didn’t finish out like it should – the corn was short, ears weren’t fully-developed at all in some cases." The severity of climate impact is still uncertain, despite the advancement in climate and weather models. Scientists know average global temperatures are rising, they’re uncertain how quickly temperatures will rise. "I have kids and I hope to someday have grandkids," Kluver explained. "Some of these changes are going to happen no matter what we do and I want my kids and my grandkids to be okay. I'm a scientist and I look at the data and all of the numbers show what is happening and project what could potentially happen. I don't know how a responsible leader can ignore that."

nautics and Space Administration (NASA) the average global temperature increased about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit since 1880. The rise in global temperatures correlates with an increase of carbon dioxide.

Illustration | CONNOR BYRNE

File photo

Destructive flood waters wash away part of M20 near Mount Pleasant on June 23.

DEFENDING THEIR SCIENCE Frustration among young researchers and scientists is growing as some political leaders continue to deny the severity of climate change. Dean Horton, a doctorate student studying microbiology, cited an executive order issued on Jan. 20 banning any federal agencies dealing with research from speaking to the press or releasing their data to the public on platforms, such as websites or social media. The ban was lifted nearly two weeks later. Preventing research from being published, or in any way inhibiting research, harms more than just America. As a leader in scientific research, Horton said if American scientists’ work is censored, the world of science as a whole is set back. “If you censor results, or inhibit research from being conducted, it impacts everyone,” Horton said. “In the scientific community, scientists share knowledge with one another regardless if you’re part of a federal agency or academic research.” Researchers working for federal agencies have always been subject to some degree of censorship. Director of the Institute for Great Lakes Research Donald Uzarski said it is times like these where he feels most for his colleagues who work for the government. Their research funding relies on their cooperation with their administrators, he explained. “Censorship is not a good thing. It doesn’t belong in science, ever,” Uzarski said. “However, censorship has always been there to some degree. Federal scientists have never had the ability to report on their science as freely as scientists in academia.” A recent National Public Radio (NRP) analysis of grants awarded by the National Science Foundation found that scientists applying for public grants are "self-censoring" by removing the term "climate change" from their proposals. The current administration's stance on climate change was made public when the U.S. was pulled from the Paris Climate Accord. The President's 2018 budget proposal, eliminating climate science funding, has left climatologists in a difficult position. For climatologists, it can be frustrating to have to continuously defend evidence-based science against the opinions aired in the media by people who don’t have backgrounds in that science. "I think the current administration is ignoring clear evidence of climate change — the impacts it will have on the people living in this country," Kluver said. "They're making decisions they think will benefit them right now. In the long run, they're jeopardizing the safety of the people in this country."


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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

June storm caused $10-$15 million in crop damage By Mitchell Kukulka News Editor news@cm-life.com

Flooding caused by the June thunderstorms represented one of the costliest agricultural disasters in Isabella County history. Updated damage estimates show between $10-$15 million in losses to local farmers. These farmers are still feeling the effects months later. A damage estimate released by the Isabella County Emergency Operations Center listed the cost to the area to be about $87 million, a number that included damage to agriculture, public property and private property. Agriculture made up $21 million of the initial estimate, though the total was raised to $28 million in the following weeks after deeper examinations were done. Despite dire predictions, Michigan State University Extension educator Paul Gross said actual harm done to local crops will be lower than anticipated. “There’s impact, but certainly not what we thought we were going to get at the time (when) we were standing up to our ankles in water,” Gross said. Most crops have finished their harvesting season as of Nov. 30. Gross said estimates for countywide damages might end up being closer to $10-15 million, though final results won’t come in until crop yields are totaled in January 2018. Abe Pasch, president of the Isabella County Farm Bureau, said losses to his crops fell short of what he was anticipating during the summer. “My preliminary thought was things were going to be really bad, but it wasn’t as bad as I thought it would be,” Pasch said. “(In the summer) there were obviously

Mitchell Kukulka | News Editor

Jerry Neyer poses on Dec. 5 near a section of his corn crops that were damaged by summer flooding.

some areas where the plants were gone. There were some other areas on the fringe of the flooding area where you didn’t know how well it was going to turn out.” Gross attributes the difference between the estimates to the fact that a flooded field can make farmers jump to negative conclusions, which doesn’t always reflect an accurate outcome. “When you’re standing there looking at a field that’s underwater and asked to make a lossprediction, compared to once you actually put the combine in the field at the end of the year, they’re two completely different

things,” Gross said. Pasch, who plants corn, soybeans, wheat and alfalfa, cites the unexpected “buoyancy” of crops for why the damages fell short of estimates. He added the warmer than average months of September and October gave some local farmers the opportunity to replant crops they thought they had lost. Gross said it was lucky for local agriculture that the flooding happened during a time of year with cooler temperatures and overcast skies. When there’s more sunlight, Gross said, plants that are underwater still go through

photosynthesis. This would have meant the plants would have needed to draw more oxygen out of the air. Farmers of dry beans and wheat felt some negative consequences resulting from the flood. More than half of dry bean crops were not planted as a direct result of the flood, Gross said. Wheat yields were also down by a margin of 1215 fewer bushels than average. Some corn crops were also affected. Union Township farmer Randy Recker lost as much as 30 acres of crops between soybeans and corn. Recker said rainfall in October disrupted crop production

as much as the flooding had. “We got about 13-14 inches (of rain) in June, but when you come back with almost 10 inches in the fall, that almost made everything harder than the flood did,” Recker said. Recker, who has been a farmer for about 45 years, said the June flooding ranks among the most damaging he has ever experienced, even higher than the massive flood that struck the area in September 1986. “(During the 1986 flood), all the crops were there (in the fields), it was just a matter of trying to get (the crops) out,” Recker said. “We finished up around January trying to

get stuff out – damage-wise it probably didn’t do quite as much, it just made it a lot more miserable trying to do work.” Union Township dairy farmer Jerry Neyer said he lost between 10 to 20 percent of his corn crop as a direct result of the flooding. “We probably lost $50,000 in our corn that we’ll either have to replace or go out and purchase if we fall short for feeding our cattle,” Neyer said. Despite the loss to corn, Neyer said his hay yields turned out higher than expected. He credits the higher performance of hay crops compared to corn to the bigger root mass hay crops have beneath them, which prevented soil from washing away along with fertilizer. “The water didn’t wash (soil) away like it did where there was more exposed ground in the corn and soybean fields,” Neyer said. “Even if it didn’t look like the corn had been washed away or damaged initially by the water, because we didn’t have the fertilizer that we put in that spring, our crops just ran out of food and energy to finish out the season. We lost our tonnage from that.” As of Nov. 21, the U.S. Department of Agriculture listed Isabella among 10 counties in Michigan that qualified as primary natural disaster areas due to damages caused by excessive rain occurring between May 4 and Aug. 4. According to the USDA Farm Service Agency’s website, farmers in eligible counties have eight months from the date of the declaration to apply for loans. More information regarding eligibility can be found on the Farm Service Agency’s website at www.fsa.usda.gov.


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DEC. 7, 2017  | CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM

Trustees discuss $550 million potential campus renovation By Quinn Kirby Staff Reporter news@cm-life.com

An outside consultant has created an extensive plan for possible changes to Central Michigan University’s campus that would cost $550 million. Barrie Wilkes, vice president of Finance and Administrative Services, said the complete plan would include the renovation of dining and residence halls. The CMU Board of Trustees’ Finance and Facilities Committee discussed financing parts of the plan over several years at its Dec. 6 meeting. Wilkes said the northern sector of CMU’s campus needs to be “brought into modern times.” He added the university has considered renovating residence halls north of campus — Barnes, Calkins, Larzelere, Robinson and Trout halls — that would cost $40-50 million. Wilkes said even after this expense,

“(CMU) still would have residence halls that were built in the 1950s. “ This is where the campus plan comes in. Wilkes proposed the addition of 510 beds to the southern sector of campus, expansion of dining halls and the eventual removal of northern residence halls. The committee also addressed Title IX suggestions from the Gender Equity Committee and discussed a FEMA grant request.

SUBMISSION OF FEMA GRANT REQUEST A hazard mitigation proposal, “Central Michigan University South Campus Mitigation Project,” was submitted to Washington, D.C. for approval on Nov. 13. Jonathan Webb, associate vice president of Facilities Management, said the project is intended to “improve the storage and discharge of rainwater by creating three detention ponds on campus.” The project is expected to cost

Austin Berghoefer | Freelance Photographer Vice President Barrie Wilkes, right, speaks at Board of Trustees meeting on Dec. 6 in the Presidents Conference Room in the Bovee University Center.

$690,000-$930,000 —75 percent of which would be granted from FEMA. The remaining 25 percent would be covered by CMU, Mount Pleasant, Isabella County and Union Township.

A response from FEMA is expected by the end of January 2018. The delivery of the grant is expected to arrive the following summer.

GENDER EQUITY COMMITTEE AND TITLE IX COMPLIANCE English department faculty member Elizabeth Brockman and Mary Roy, associate general counsel, of the Gender Equity Committee presented a proactive approach to university compliance with Title IX. The committee, created in 2002 by former CMU President Michael Rao, added two women’s sports — women’s golf and lacrosse — in response to a 2011 mandate from the Office of Civil Rights. Current suggestions for further Title IX compliance include: • Building and renovating the athletic washrooms for women’s soccer and gymnastics. • Implementing the current maintenance plans for men and women’s track. • Continuing the assessment of the Baseball Performance Center to discern what future Title IX disparities it may create. Visit cm-life.com for the full story.


CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

Academic Senate hears update on Academic Organizational Review By Samantha Shriber Staff Reporter news@cm-life.com

More than 65 proposals are up for review during Central Michigan University’s ongoing academic strategic planning process. Ian Davison, senior vice provost of academic reorganization initiative, offered an update to the Academic Senate Dec. 5. The senate spent more than an hour discussing the progress: the reorganization is expected to be implemented in 2022. Davison said Committee I, the academic structure committee of CMU’s organizational review, has the leading number of proposals with 42. Proposals include the request for more than 20 new academic departments, six colleges, 12 department transfers to different colleges and five new schools. One of the most recent transfer proposals was initiated by the neuroscience program. Gary Dunbar, director of the neuroscience program, and four senior faculty members submitted the proposal on Nov. 17. They requested to be transferred from the College of Humanities and Social and Behavioral Sciences (CHSBS) to the College of Health Professions (CHP) or the College of Medicine (CMED.) Davison said a majority of proposals have come from CHP, CHSBS and the College of Communications and Fine Arts (CCFA). Committee I will have a day-long retreat Friday, Dec. 8 to review proposals. Davison said the goal is to begin the development of committee reports. He added he is fairly

Austin Berghoefer | Freelance Photographer Ian Davison, senior vice provost for academic reorganization initiative speaks at Academic Senate meeting on Dec. 5 in Pearce Hall.

confident Committee II, the academic support committee; and Committee III, the responsibility centered management committee, will be prepared to release official reviews by the beginning of next year. Melinda Kreth, chair of the English Language and Literature department, said assessing CMU’s unique college and departmental organization has led her to ask “what defines a school?” “We have some schools that work more like departments and others look more like minicolleges,” she said. “That’s relevant under the perspective of whether we’ll need a chair or if we need to have something like an associate or assistant dean in charge.” Kreth said Committee I will review the organizational structure of peer institutes — including colleges and universities throughout Michigan and a large number of Mid-American Conference (MAC) schools. She said the committee noticed the number of colleges CMU has and how it is unusual among Midwest schools.

ADDITIONAL BUSINESS The Academic Senate unanimously passed the program deletion of the Bachelor of Science Accounting Information Systems major through the College of Business Administration. Members also unanimously passed a resolution to make the Writing Center Advisory Council a standing committee to serve the Writing Center and Academic Senate. The WCAC comprises 13 members, including: • Director of the Writing Center • Graduate assistant (Writing Center consultant) • Undergraduate student (Writing Center consultant) • Director of the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning • Director of General Education • A faculty member from each college, the libraries and counseling services The committee is responsible for suggesting procedures and policies centered on learning outcomes and assessment of the Writing Intensive competency.

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DEC. 7, 2017  | CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM

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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

Junior guard Hudson builds confidence as ‘go-to’ scorer By Anthony Cook Staff Reporter sports@cm-life.com

For opponents facing the 2017-18 Central Michigan women’s basketball team, Sue Guevara has a warning: if you don’t stop Presley Hudson, you won’t beat CMU. “She’s our go-to, there’s no doubt about it,” coach said. “I think she knows that Central Michigan women’s basketball goes as Presley Hudson goes.” Through the first seven games, the Wayland junior has been an offensive force for the defending Mid-American Conference regular season champions. Hudson is quick to credit her success to the play of the teammates around her presenting opportunities to score. “(Micaela Kelly) does a good job at driving (the lane) and kicking out to me,” Hudson said. “Being able to contain not just me, but all of us as one team is difficult because on any given night. One player can go off so it’s hard to guard all five of us.” CMU (6-1) is off to its best start under a Guevara-led team and its best overall start since the 2005-06 team, which opened 6-0. The Chippewas’ success is largely due to Hudson’s consistent dominant performances that Guevara believes has reformed the CMU women’s basketball program. “When she came here, she changed the culture of our team,” Guevara said. “Our players realize how much time she puts in, how she has earned what she has and they want to put the time in.”

HUDSON CAN SCORE, FROM ANYWHERE Hudson’s 21.7 points per game is a team high and stands atop the MAC. From 3-point range, she leads the

conference with 33 field goals, boasting 48.5 percent from beyond the arc. That’s the 29th best in the country. “I have a lot of confidence (shooting from 3-point range),” Hudson said. “I practice that almost every day. You’ve got to shoot those in practice if you’re going to shoot them in the game and that’s what I do.” At the free throw line, Hudson is 29-of-29 this season from the charity stripe. Just weeks ago against Purdue, Hudson notched her 1,000th career point. In just just three short seasons, the junior has climbed to No. 18 on the CMU women’s basketball all-time career scoring list, a feat she had set her eyes on from day one. “That was my goal coming in here,” Hudson said. “I always like to write down my goals, and that was one of them, trying to be one of the best players to ever play here.” Guevara believes the hardest thing about defending the 5-foot-6 guard is her ability to knock down shots from virtually anywhere on the court. This forces opponents to respect all facets of her game and focus on her at all times. “As soon as she crosses half court, she can shoot it,” Guevara said. “To stop Presley Hudson, you’ve got to be physical with her, you can’t let her touch the ball.”

COACH’S CONFIDENCE For Guevara, the veteran coach has nothing but the utmost confidence in Hudson’s abilities since the day she set foot on the court. She’s given Hudson the green light for otherwise ridiculous shot selections. “I’ve always had confidence in Presley,” Guevara said. “When Presley was a freshman coming in, I didn’t care if she was at half court and shot the ball.”

Ben Suddendorf | Freelance Photographer

Junior guard Presley Hudson poses for a portrait on Nov. 25 at McGuirk Arena.

The all-time winningest CMU women’s basketball coach understood how ludicrous that statement sounded. However, after seeing Hudson’s work ethic, Guevara was sold. “I say that and people look at me like I’m crazy, but you don’t now how much time she puts in,” Guevara said. “She has earned the right to shoot that ball whenever she wants, wherever she is at.” Hudson said that’s why she came to CMU. “It feels good, that’s why I came here because I knew she had so much confidence in me,” Hudson said. “In high school she used to say ‘I wish I could have you here already’. She just built that confidence in me and that helps give me confidence as well.”

WHAT’S NEXT Hudson and the Chippewas travel to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville at 8 p.m. Thursday. The game will be aired on 91.5 WMHW. CMU has won six straight games.

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CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE  | CM-LIFE.COM  | DEC. 7, 2017

CENTRAL MICHIGAN LIFE

CLASSIFIEDS

CROSSWORD

C M - L I F E . CO M /C LA SS I F I E D S

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AUTOS WANTED

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Across

1. Bar mitzvah figure 6. Pretender 14. ___-ski 15. Sickened 17. Unsullied 18. Hazardous locale 19. Unpitying 21. Ring shapes 22. More restless 23. Online commerce events 25. Biblical verb ending 26. Pajama halves 28. “___ for the weary” 29. Soapmaking chemical 30. Idaho output 32. Jeering noise from a crowd 33. Entered gently 34. “Owner of a Lonely Heart” band 37. Indulged a fantasy 38. Volcanic output 41. Made fairer, as sides 43. Leslie Caron film of 1953 45. Sorrority letter 46. Underground workers 47. Roman official 49. 1999 Howard film 50. Discontinuance 52. Akhenaton’s wife

55. Jazz Count 56. “___ form a more perfect Union...” 57. Go off on ___ (complain) 58. Refuse receptacle 59. Calls

Down

1. Talk show host Ray 2. In abundance 3. Respire 4. Chicago’s NFL team 5. Response to “Nice day” 6. Put between 7. But, to Bernadette 8. Pups from China 9. Second-largest city in Kyrgyzstan 10. Jell 11. Subject of Genghis Khan 12. Filmdom’s Peter et al. 13. Sit on 16. Certain believers in God 20. Spotted cats 23. Authorizes 24. In a while

27. Swipe 31. Entrance fee 33. Linda of “Jekyll & Hyde” 34. Sana’a native 35. Plain to see 36. Summoned 38. Cabinetmaker, e.g. 39. Chasing off 40. Swarming stingers 42. ___ dull moment 44. Where Cheers was set, mostly 48. Video game pioneer 50. Flyer, for short 51. Rock and Roll Hall of Famer James 53. Map abbrs. 54. Common typo


20

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