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GUYANA THE GROWTH of a NATION

1966 GUYANA 201 6

THE OFFICIAL GOLDEN JUBILEE OF INDEPENDENCE BOOKAZINE


GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation 1966 GUYANA 2016

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The Official Golden Jubilee of Independence Bookazine

CONTENTS

Publisher’s Notes - Simeon L Corbin Message His Excellency President David A. Granger Message Honourable Prime Minister Moses V. Nagamootoo Brief History Of Guyana

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First Ladies of Guyana

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National Symbols of the Republic

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Guyana’s National AWARDS

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Thursday, May 26, 1966 - A Photo Essay of Some of the Events

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The Brickdam Independence Arch

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PRESIDENTS of Guyana

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GUYANA

1966 - 2016

Nation and Imagination - Development of the Arts in Post-Colonial Guyana A brief perspective of the Guyana picture 1966-2015 Dance Education in Guyana 1966 to 2016 The National Gallery in Independent Guyana MUSIC in Guyana Since Independence


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GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation 1966 GUYANA 2016

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CONTENTS II

Guyana Timeline 1966 - 2016, 50 Years of Tragedies, Triumph & Hope

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Map of Guyana

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A Street Map of Georgetown

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Trivia - Test your knowledge of Guyana

88 98 98 100 101

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The Official Golden Jubilee of Independence Bookazine

50 YEARS in a Nutshell The Signing of the Historic Cummingsburg Accord 2015 Election Results Mayors Of Georgetown, 1967 - 2016 Local Government Elections 2016 Results

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

GUYANA

1966 - 2016

The APNU+AFC CABINET MINISTERS and Members of Parliament Opposition Members of Parliament 50 Golden Years Of Guyanese Literature

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Guyana Jubilee Calendar of Events, NY

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Scenes from Mashramani 2016

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Guyana’s 50th Anniversary Calendar of Events Business Contacts

122 Acknowledgments 124

Trivia Answers


GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation 1966 GUYANA 2016

The Official Golden Jubilee of Independence Bookazine

Publisher Managing Editor Copy Editor Administrative Manager Layout & Design Sales & Marketing

GUYANA

1966 - 2016

Simeon L Corbin Coretta Corbin-Rival Donna Shortt-Gill Tiya Peterkin Mark James Tiya Peterkin Gitanjali Sarjoo-Currica

CONTRIBUTORS • Coretta Corbin-Rival • Tiya Peterkin • Gitanjali Currica • Vivienne Daniel • Majorie Chester • Petamber Persaud • Linda Griffith • Guyana Police Force

• The National Archives of Guyana • Alim Hosein • Wikipedia.com • Facebook.com • Augustus ‘Gus’ Corbin • Donna Shortt-Gill • Michelle Corbin

• Carl Croker • Louis Collymore • The Guyana Chronicle Newspaper • GINA • Guyana Defence Force • Jagan.org • Al Gibbs Creighton

• Marilyn Dewar • Ian Mcdonald • The Parliament Guyana • Maurice Amres • Nadia Shansudin • Guyana Graphic 1966 • Gem MadhoNascimento

CORBIN MEDIA GROUP, INC.

Corbin Media Group 50 BB | Eccles | East Bank Demerara | Guyana P: 592.233.3138, 233.2940, 233-2132 E: sales@corbinmediagroup.com

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION is the official golden jubilee of Independence bookazine produced by the Corbin Media Group (CMG) as our contribution to the country’s 50th Independence Celebration. All rights reserved. CMG does not assume responsibility for advertisements, nor any representation made therein, nor the quality or deliverability of the products themselves. Reproduction of articles, illustrations and photographs in whole or part contained in GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation without expressed consent from the Publisher is strictly prohibited with the exception for news / media use. All information herein was deemed accurate at the time of printing but may have changed thereafter. Copyright © April 2016 by CORBIN MEDIA GROUP

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


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Publisher’s Notes

1966 GUYANA 2016

D

ear Fellow Guyanese,

Welcome to our Golden Jubilee of Independence souvenir publication G U YA NA : T h e G r ow t h of a Nat i on . T h i s ye ar, as we all know, is our 50 th independence anniversary and to mark this significant milestone, Corbin Media Group (CMG) has produced this commemorative coffee table bookazine. As the preeminent Guyanese publishing company, we felt duty-bound to help you reflect and celebrate in the only way we know how – through relevant information, world-class pictures, easy-to-read text and an international quality presentation.

This coffee table publication is full of rare and memorable photos from every decade, thanks to the National Archives and our team of photographers. This keepsake Jubilee publication is a comprehensive guide with something for all interests including messages, articles on the growing arts and entertainment industry, a timeline, trivia, maps, proclamations and much more. This is one of CMG’s many contributions to this

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

historic moment. It is my hope that GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation serves as a fitting tribute to a country that we all love and it provides further insight into who we are as a people and what our future may hold. I would like to thank President David Granger and Prime Minister Moses Nagamootoo for their fitting messages, which helped to augment the spirit in which the publication was done. To our writers, photographers, partners and clients in the private and public sectors, thank you for helping to make GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation a reality. And to all others whom we have worked with throughout the production process, heartfelt thanks. Finally, I take this opportunity to wish everyone a safe and happy golden jubilee of independence experience. May God continue to bless Guyana,

................................................ Simeon L Corbin Publisher


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Guyana’s most widely read lifestyle & entertainment publication.

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MESSAGE

His Excellency President David A. Granger

The Promise of Independence

T

his year’s observance of Guyana’s Independence Jubilee is a season for jubilation. It is an occasion for the celebration of our national culture. It is an opportunity to pay tribute to the personalities and parties who laid the foundation for freedom to be won on 26 th May 1966. It is a time to ponder the future of our beloved nation.

Guyana’s road to Independence was not an easy one. We became a sovereign state after three and a half centuries of sacrifice and struggle waged by our ancestors against Dutch and British colonisation. The achievement of Independence represented the triumph of our resolve to resist and to rebel against oppression. Guyana’s Independence, like that of other Caribbean states, was the result of the struggle of workers in their trade unions, of legislators in the legislative assemblies and of political leaders in their parties. There were few, indeed, who did not desire universal adult suffrage and who did not demand Independence from the British Empire. We, Guyanese, struggle not against a foreign empire but against the ‘four horsemen of the Guyanese Apocalypse’ – crime, disease, ignorance and poverty. Independence will be meaningless unless we rid the nation of these four impediments and create the conditions for our children to enjoy ‘a good life.’

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

We can now look back at the recent past with satisfaction. Our education system has expanded with the introduction of a national university, and scores of schools, colleges and technical institutes. Our economy has been enlarged. Our population has increas ed. Our public infrastructure, information and public telecommunications networks have been extended with aero dromes, bridges, highways, and internet, radio, tele v is i on s er v i ces . T he s e changes, howe ver, are not sufficient. We, Guyanese, must be able to look forward to reaping the fruit of freedom in the future. We must be forever vigilant in protecting our rights which are enshrined in our national Constitution. We can do more, together, to intensify our inclusionary democracy, to fortify the economy and to deepen social cohesion. Guyana – a beautiful and bountiful land – is our children’s birthright. They will inherit a better country tomorrow because of the struggles of foreparents in the past and of their parents today. This is the promise of Independence.

................................ David Granger President of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana


MESSAGE Honourable Prime Minister Moses V. Nagamootoo, M.P.

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ap p l au d t h e C or bi n Media Group Inc. for pro du c i n g a s p e c i a l commemorative coffee table publication titled “Guyana: the Growth of a Nation.” This publication is a significant contribution towards capturing and defining the journey of our nation over 50 years of Independence. Un d ou bte d ly it i s a worthwhile souvenir of our Golden Jubilee Celebrations. I am honoured to be asked to write a message in recognition of this publication, the kind of which has been absent for too long from the literature of Guyana. I am sure that, looking back, we can objectively assess our disappointments and lost opportunities but we can also appreciate, with a full heart, our triumphs and achievements as a nation.

The pictures and stories would capture not only moments of challenges but feats of bravery which, combined, show the true grit of the Guyanese personality, that we could overcome our difficulties and we could stand up and be counted. The story of 50 years since the Golden Arrowhead was hoisted on May 26, 1966, is also the epic journey of our Indigenous peoples; the first Africans who were brought here as slaves; and of Indian, Chinese and other indentured immigrants who were bonded on the plantations – all of whom dreamt that they could one day be free. Our political freedom was paid for in blood, sweat, struggles and sacrifices.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

The publication, I hope, will weave this common thread of the Guyana dream for freedom, unity and social progress. It is with both nostalgia and pride that I look back at a young man, aged 14 in 1961, joining a motorcade that was styled the Freedom March. I walked the journey over those years and today I still enjoy that warm, exhilarating feeling of freedom in my bosom. Though, in the album of our minds, there are snapshots that would capture pain, we cannot, as much as we might try, erase them. We need to create new, living photos as we go forward, that would show the smiles of our people and their confidence in their future, and their faith in the boundless potential of Guyana to shine and prosper. Though we have experienced ethnic distrust and we have endured the scars of political division, we could yet astound the world with what we could become and what we could do as a united Guyanese nation. While this publication will focus on a chronicle of past memorable events, it must mirror also the resurrection of fresh hopes, as we lay anew the foundations for a truly free, open and inclusive democracy. I congratulate the publishers and look forward to the launch of this unique Golden Jubilee Magazine.


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Brief

HISTORY of Guyana

By Nadia Shansudin

T

he Cooperative Republic of Guyana commonly known as Guyana and previously known as British Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America.

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the coast during his third voyage in 1498.

The country is the only English speaking nation on the continent. Its population is approximately 770,000 living on 83,000 square miles. Guyana is the land of the six peoples, but that figure has changed over the years with the commingling of the races.

The Dutch were the first to establish colonies in the counties of Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice. The British assumed control in the late 18th century and the French also ruled Guyana for a period. The Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana. After gaining independence in 1966, it became known as Guyana.

C ont rar y to p opular b elief, Guyana was already inhabited by the Amerindians when Christopher Columbus spotted

The Amerindians or indigenous peoples were the first to inhabit Guyana in the 1200’s. Most of them lived in communities along

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

the coast and further inland. The Amerindians are generally split into seven tribes: Akawaio, Arekuna, Barima River Caribe, Macusi, Patamona, Waiwai and Wapisiana. But many have moved out of these tribal settings to live and work among other mixed communities. At the beginning of the plantation the planters first tried using Amerindians as labourers, but they proved unsuitable for the grueling plantation work, hence the importation of Africans began. Other skills of the Amerindians were still sought after as they possessed valuable knowledge of


the surrounding terrain and were used as trackers to capture and return runaway slaves to their masters. Today, Amerindians are estimated to making up about 7% of the population. People of Amerindian descent can be found in all regions in Guyana, but regions 1, 2, 7, 8 and 9 are more heavily populated. Africans’ first introduction to Guyana were as slaves as they were forcibly brought from the continent in 1600’s to work as free labour and enrich white plantation owners in Europe. This practice continued until 1834 when slavery was abolished. After completing a five year apprenticeship period, many of the former slaves bought land around the countr y and this ignited a pattern which came to be known as the Village Movement. Africans make up about 35% of the population and live in practically all regions of Guyana. The abolition of slavery brought on serious labour shortages for the plantation owners as many freed slaves focused on life away from the plantations. This forced the owners to look outside of Guyana for people to work on the sugar plantations. On May 3, 1835, the first set of Portuguese indentured labourers arrived from Madeira on the ship Louisa Baillie. However, not too long after their arrival, the Portuguese had to use the skills they brought to move off the plantations to pursue other endeavours. They bought small plots of land and moved into other trades.

By the end of t h e 1 8 0 0 ’s t h e Por tu g u e s e ha d owned many plots of land and they we re e st abl ishe d shop owners, brick makers, cattle owners, porkknockers, importers, bakers and photographers and other professions.

QUICK FACTS

Name: Co-operative Republic of Guyana Motto: “One people, one nation, one destiny” Anthem: Dear Land of Guyana Capital: Georgetown (largest city) Capital population: 230,000 Country population: (2009) 777,000 Official language: English Government: Republic President: David Granger Prime Minister: Moses Nagamootoo Republic status: February 23, 1972 Area: Total 214,970 km² / 83,000 sq mi Currency: Guyanese dollar (GYD) Time zone: (UTC-4) Internet TLD: .gy Calling code: 011592

The Portuguese with a heavily catholic background can be credited for the construction of many churches in Georgetown on the East Coast and East Bank, in Demerara and Essequibo.

Between 1838 and 1917, about 240,000 East Indian indentured workers were brought to British Guiana from India. They were given the same offer as other indentured workers, which gave them the right to return home at the end of their contracts. By 1890, most of the East Indian indentured workers had chosen to settle here. At 49%, people of East Indian descent make up the largest ethnic group in Guyana and they are integrated in every region of the country. The Chinese were the last ethnic group to arrive as indentured labourers in 1853. These arrivals continued until 1879. Like other immigrants, the Chinese were given an apprenticeship contract for five years. In the twenty six year period,

approximately 39 ships came to these shores carrying 13,533 Chinese. Many died or migrated to Suriname, Trinidad, St. Lucia and Jamaica. Guyana has developed into a true melting pot for unique cultures, despite some residual distrust that lingers. This mistrust, perceived or real was brought on by the past colonial system and later, racial political stance by some politicians. The descendants of all ethnic groups continue to work in harmony as they contribute greatly in the development of the country. The vitality of the country’s cultural diversity is reflected in religion, business, cross-culture marriages, public holidays, national festivals, sports, music, fashion, politics, education, entertainment events and just about any facet of society. This is especially noticeable among the young people who are more racially and culturally diverse than their seniors.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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“We shall serve as a model of an efficient, cost effective, customer service oriented and profitable Public Sector Company.”

Guyoil Management Team The Guyana Oil Company Limited was incorporated in June 16, 1976. The company is wholly owned by the Government of Guyana through the National Industrial Commercial & Investments Limited (N.I.C.I.L) and governed by a Board of Directors.

Products and Services Offered:

The Guyana Oil Company(Guyoil) is the leading retailer of high octane gasoline to the motoring public and boast of a retail network that comprises of forty two (42) dealer own stations stretching from the Corentyne to the Pakaraima . The Guyana Oil Company has a bulk fuel terminal in each county of Guyana. It owns and operates eight (8) state of the art service stations providing fuels, Castrol lubricants and services at reasonable and affordable prices.

GASOLENE

Guyoil through its subsidiary Guyana Aviation Services Inc. is a supplier of aviation jet fuel to international and local airlines at both Timehri and Ogle airports.

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Bulk Terminals: • Demerara, Providence. 265-7362/7386 • Berbice, Heathburn. 333-5877/3728 DepoT: • essequibo, Adventure Depot. 774-4602, 774-4601/02 GuYoil aViaTion serViCes. 261-4300/01 serViCe sTaTions: • Regent. 226-6893/231-9589 • Sheriff. 2275021/231-9592 • Kitty. 225-5987/231-9593 • Providence. 265-7366/7116 • Victoria. 229-2667/2670 • Diamond. 265-5701/02 • Palmyra. 332-0216/0737 HeaD oFFiCe. 2251595-8

www.guyoil.gy

The Company’s head office is located at 191 Camp Street, Georgetown and has in its employment over 400 Guyanese. Guyoil has served as a model profitable public company that has consistently contributed billions of dollars to the National purse over the years. Guyoil contributes in a positive manner to national development by paying its dividend and taxes to the Government which greatly assists in the building of new roads, schools and public infrastructure. Guyoil attaches great significance to its corporate duty to the public by making regular and generous donations to charitable causes, sports, education and social activities. The Guyana Oil Company is ever conscious of the preservation of a green environment and operates under strict national regulations that is maintained by a highly trained work force. We are honored in serving the Guyanese public over the past forty years.


GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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Thursday May 26, 1966

A Photo Essay of Some of the Events

Prime Minister Forbes Burnham (standing centre) accepts the instruments of independence from the Duke of Kent.

Sir David Rose arriving at parliament

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Embrace between Forbes Burnham and Cheddi Jagan before the hosting of Guyana's new flag, the Golden Arrow Head

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


ALL SMILES FROM HOME-COMING GUYANESE, Guyana's High Commissioner to London, Sir Lionel Luckhoo, Lady Luckhoo and their two children smile happily as they deplane at Atkinson Airfield

Raising of the Golden Arrowhead and Lowering of the Union Jack

END OF COLONIAL RULE! Varying expressions of emotion are reflected on the faces of the Duke and Dutchess of Kent. Prime Minister Forbes Burnham and Guyana's Governor-General Sir Richard Luyt as they see the country's Flag raised and hear its National Anthem played at midnight on Wednesday

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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Thursday, May 26, 1966. A Photo Essay of Some of the Events

Sir Richard Luyt [last Governor of British Guiana] and HM Queen Elizabeth II with Prime Minister Forbes Burnham in the background

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Guyana’s Independence Act A section of Guyana Independence Act read in the British parliament on 12th May 1966 CHAPTER 14 An Act to provide for the attainment by British Guiana of fully responsible status within the Commonwealth; to make provision as to the effect of certain certificates of naturalisation; and for purposes connected with the matters aforesaid. Section 1 Fully responsible status of Guyana. (1) On and after 26th May 1966 (in this Act referred to as “the appointed day”) Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom shall have no responsibility for the government of the territory which immediately before that day constitutes the Colony of British Guiana and which on and after that day is to be called Guyana. (2)

No Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on or after the appointed day shall extend, or be deemed to extend, to Guyana as part of its law; and on and after that day the provisions of Schedule 1 to this Act shall have effect with respect to the legislative powers of Guyana.

The Speaker receives the text from the Throne

The Duke of Kent (third, left) inspecting the Guard of Honour

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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Thursday, May 26, 1966. A Photo Essay of Some of the Events

The National Assembly of 1966 Speaker Aubrey Alleyne People’s National Congress Members: • Neville Bissember

• Roydon Field-Ridley

• William Blair

• Winifred Gaskin

• Deoroop Mahraj

• John Joaquin

• George Bowman

• Llewellyn John

• Forbes Burnham

• Anson Sancho

• Budhoo Jagnarine

• Robert Jordan

• Winslow Carrington

• Rudyard Kendall

• Charles Chan-A-Sue

• Claude Merriman

• Oscar Clarke

• Ptolemy Reid

• Eugene Correia

• James Thomas

• David De Groot

• Alexander Trotman

• Philip Duncan

• Henry Wharton

United Force Members: • Randolph Cheeks • Marcellus Fielden Singh • Peter D’Aguiar • Rupert Tello • Harry Prashad • Cyril Too-Chung Independent Members: • Moses Bhagwan • Mohamed Kasim • Sheik Mohamed Saffee

People’s Progressive Party Members: • Yacoob Ally

• Harry Lall

• Brindley Benn

• Rudy Luck

• Ranji Chandisingh

• Lloyd Linde

• Ashton Chase

• Cedric Nunes

• Maccie Hamid

• Reepu Daman Persaud

• Jocelyn Hubbard

• M. Poonai

• Charles Jacob

• Subhan Ali Ramjohn

• Cheddi Jagan

• Fenton Ramsahoye

• Derek Jagan

• Eugene Stoby

• Ram Karran

• Earle Wilson

• Mooneer Khan

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

American Whitney Smith who designed the Golden Arrowhead showcasing some of the other flags that he had designed in this 2006 photo.


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The Brickdam

Independence Arch

M

ONUMENTS are masterpieces of a rc h it e c t u re . T h e y are as varied as their creators, expressing the collective goals, joys and sorrows of society.

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Throughout Guyana, the visions of our most prolific artists and sculptors have redefined events and important personas of our history.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

On Sunday, May 22, 1966 at 11:45 am the Honourable Prime Minister L.F.S. Burnham, as part of a week of activities to celebrate the birth of Guyana, an independent nation, unveiled the `Monument


Prime Minister unveiled the plaque on the base of the Arch. to Freedom’. The Independence Arch was handed over by the managing director of the Demerara Bauxite Company, Mr. J.G. Campbell as a gift to the people of Guyana on the achievement of their Independence. Mr. Campbell stated that “it was justly fitting and proper that DEMBA should be responsible for the project as the company had been an increasingly significant economic factor in this country for the past fifty years.” He further remarked that the arch could be described as “truly Guyanese” as it was built of materials that would endure time and the elements, namely aluminium metal that was from bauxite mined and processed into aluminium in Mackenzie, and quartz stone from the Mazaruni River. The arch was designed by Canadian engineer Eric Flack. Its design was said to be “modern and unique; springing from a common rock three arches taper upwards, towards the cloud, representing the three counties of Essequibo, Berbice and Demerara. The six granite posts at the base of each arch symbolise the six peoples of Guyana.

Chairman of the Arch Committee, Mr. Aubrey Barker stated that: It was proposed in later years to locate the capital’s civic and cultural precinct on the lands of D’Urban Park: in time therefore he said that the Arch would be a fitting gateway to an important civic centre. Brickdam is one of the finest streets in Georgetown lying along the centre of Stabroek, the oldest part of the city, “this site therefore at the head of Brickdam, linking our turbulent past with our exciting future”.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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The Brickdam Independence Arch For these reasons, Brickdam was deemed a fitting location for an arch commemorating our independence. Shortly after receiving DEMBA’s gift, the Prime Minister entrusted it into the safe keeping of City Mayor Rahaman B. Gajraj, the municipality and the people of

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Georgetown. In his acceptance speech of the arch, Mr. Gajraj s t at e d t h at t h e c i t i z e n s o f Georgetown would treasure the monument. He added: “I charge the people of Georgetown to keep this monument in perfect order so that we can pass it to future generations in the same lustre and beauty as we have received it.”

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

As the premier organisation for the conservation of our natural patrimony, The National Trust inv ites t he memb ers of t he community to actively participate in the process of conservation as we strive to `Safeguard and Promote Our Heritage’, for the benefit of future generations.


PRESIDENTS of Guyana T

he Prime Minister Forbes Burnham was the Head of State when Guyana gained independence in 1966. After the country became a Republic in 1970, the position of Presidency was added and Arthur Chung was named the country’s first President. Later in 1980, and a new constitution, the title of Executive President was added as the head of state, replacing Prime Minister. Forbes Burnham was named the country’s first Executive President.

Presidential Oath of Office

“I, _____________________ , do hereby solemnly declare that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the people of Guyana; that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana without fear or favour, affection or ill will; and that in the execution of the functions of that office I will honour, uphold and preserve the Constitution of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana.”

Arthur Chung

(January 10, 1918 – June 23, 2008)

He also served as Registrar of Deeds of the Supreme Court and then a Puisne Judge. He then served as an Appeal Court Judge in 1963. Under the leadership of Forbes Burnham and at a time when Guyana had become a republic state, Arthur Chung was elected President by the National Assembly on 17th March 1970. In 1980 after a constitutional revision transformed the presidency into an executive position, Forbes Burnham succeeded Arthur Chung as President.

Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham (20 February, 1923 – 6 August,1985)

President of Guyana from 1970 to 1980. He was awarded the Order of Excellence (O.E.) He was the youngest of eight children born to Joseph and Lucy Chung in Windsor Forest, West Coast Demerara. He attended Windsor Forest, Blankenburg and Modern High School. He married Doreen Pamela Ng-See-Quan in 1954, and had one son. Chung started off his career as a young apprentice surveyor and sworn land surveyor. In the early 1940s, Chung qualified as a barrister after studying in London in 1947. On his return to Guyana, he was appointed acting magistrate and in 1954 he became magistrate followed by senior magistrate in 1960.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

President from 6th October 1980 to 6th August 1985. He was Prime Minister from 1964 to 1980.


Born in Kitty, Burnham was one of three children. He attended Queen’s College. He won the Guiana Scholarship as the colony’s top student in 1942. In 1948, he received a law degree from the London School of Economics.

In May 1985 whilst traveling in advance to hear Hoyte deliver the May Day address in Linden, his only two children: Amanda and Maxine, his sister-in-law and his driver we killed in a vehicular accident. Only his wife, Joyce, survived.

In 1951 he married Sheila Lataste and they had three daughters, Roxanne, Annabelle and Francesca. In 1967, he married Viola Harper and they had two daughters, Melanie and Ulele.

Hoyte was appointed the Foreign Affairs Minister from 1990 to 1992.

In 1955, there was a split in the PPP between Burnham and Jagan and Burnham went on to form the People’s National Congress (PNC) in 1958.

In his ministerial capacity, he served as Guyana’s Governor on the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Caribbean Development Bank and headed many delegations to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Caribbean Committee for Development and Cooperation, the Commonwealth Finance Ministers Meeting, ACP/EEC Meetings and other regional and international conferences on economic, financial and developmental issues. He was Guyana’s chief representative at the deliberations which led to the establishment of the Latin American Economic System (SELA) and was a member of the Latin American Council from 1975 to 1983.

Hugh Desmond Hoyte

On the sudden death of President Forbes Burnham on the 6th August 1985, Hoyte became President.

In 1950, Burnham was one of the founding leaders of the People’s Progressive Party (PPP). The late Cheddi Jagan became Leader of the PPP and Burnham became its Chairman. In 1952, Burnham became president of the British Guiana Labour Union. He serviced as the Minister of Education within the PPP government.

(9 March 1929 – 22 December 2002)

The October 1992 election was won by the People’s Progressive Party, led by Cheddi Jagan. Hoyte remained leader of the PNC until his death.

Dr. Cheddi Bharrat Jagan (22 March 1918 – 6 March 1997)

President from 6 August 1985 to 9 October 1992. Hoyte was born in Georgetown. He was educated at St Barnabas Anglican School and Progressive High School. He studied Law in London. In 1960, British Guiana, he set up private practice and became one of the leaders of the Guyana Bar Association. Between 1969 and 1984, Mr. Hoyte held many positions including those of Home Affairs, Finance, Works and Communications and Economic Development. In 1984 he became First Vice President and Prime Minister.

President of Guyana from 1992 to 1997. He was born in Port Mourant, Berbice and the eldest of 11 children. His parents came from Uttar Pradesh, India to British Guiana as indentured labourers. He attended Queen’s College and went on

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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Presidents of Guyana to study dentistry in the United States. Jagan was first elected Chief Minister in 1953 and later Premier of British Guiana from 1961 to 1964, prior to Independence. He co-founded the Political Affairs Committee (PAC) in 1946 and was subsequently elected to the Legislative Council in November 1947. On 1st January 1950, the People’s Progressive Party (PPP) was founded by a merger between the PAC and the British Guiana Labour Party with Jagan as its leader, former BGLP leader Forbes Burnham as its chairman and Jagan’s wife Janet as secretary. In 1943, Jagan married Janet (nee Rosenberg) and they had two children, Nadira and Cheddi Jr.

temporarily replaced Hinds with Bharrat Jagdeo. Jagdeo became President upon her resignation and he re-appointed Hinds as Prime Minister. Hinds is a licensed and qualified chemical engineer, having graduated from the University of New Brunswick. He was awarded Guyana’s highest national award, the Order of Excellence (O.E.) in 2011. Hinds married Yvonne in December of 1967 and they have 4 children, Deirdre Sonia, Nikolai and Vernon.

Janet Rosenberg-Jagan

( October 20, 1920 – March 28, 2009)

Having broken off ties with Burnham, Jagan became active in the government as a labor activist and leader of the opposition. After 28 years in opposition, the PPP won the 5 October 1992 elections. On the death of Jagan, Samuel Hinds became President briefly.

Samuel Archibald Anthony Hinds (born 27th December 1943)

Janet Jagan was the first female President of Guyana, She served from 19th December 1997 to 11th August 1999. She also served as the first female Prime Minister of Guyana from 17th March 1997 to 19th December 1997.

He briefly served as President of Guyana in 1997 after the death of the late Cheddi Jagan. Upon Jagan’s death, Prime Minister Samuel Hinds succeeded him as President and Janet Jagan was appointed Prime Minister. In the 1997 elections, Janet Jagan was elected President and Hinds was reappointed Prime Minister. In August 1999, President Janet Jagan resigned and

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

She was the wife of the late President Cheddi Jagan. She was awarded Guyana’s highest national award, the Order of Excellence, in 1993, and the UNESCO Mahatma Gandhi Gold Medal for Women’s Rights in 1998. She was born Janet Rosenberg to middle-class Jewish parents on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. In December 1942 at the age of 22 whilst working as a student nurse at Cook County Hospital, she met Cheddi Jagan, who at the time was a dental student at Northwestern University. They married on 5th


August 1943 and she moved with him to Guyana in December 1943 where he set up his dental practice. On 1st January 1950 she and her husband were cofounders of the left-wing People’s Progressive Party (PPP). Janet served as the PPP’s General Secretary from 1950 to 1970. Janet was elected to Parliament in 1973 and was reelected in 1980, 1985, and 1992, eventually becoming the longest-serving member of Parliament. On 17th March 1997, after Cheddi Jagan’s death, Janet Jagan was sworn in as Prime Minister as well as First Vice President. Jagan was the presidential candidate of the PPP in the December 1997 election. The PPP won the election and Janet Jagan became the first female President of Guyana. After Janet’s resignation, she was succeeded by Bharrat Jagdeo in 1999.

Dr. Bharrat Jagdeo (born 23rd January 1964)

Party (PPP), the Progressive Youth Organisation, when he was 13, and became a member of the PPP at the age of 16. He obtained a Master’s degree in Economics, from Patrice Lumumba Peoples’ Friendship University in Moscow in 1990 and returned to Guyana to work as an economist. Jagdeo was appointed as Junior Minister of Finance in October 1993 and shortly after he was elected to the party’s Central Committee. He later became a member of the Executive Committee of the PPP. In the Cabinet, he was promoted to Senior Minister of Finance in May 1995. On Janet Jagan’s resignation, Jagdeo was appointed Prime Minister on the 9th August and sworn in as President on the 11th August 1999. At age 35, he was one of the youngest Heads of State in the world. He was married to Varshnie Singh in 1998. His term of office came to an end in 2011 and Donald Ramotar was elected President after the 28th November 2011 General Election.

Donald Rabrindranauth Ramator (born 22nd October 1950)

President from 11th August 1999 to 3rd December 2011. Jagdeo was born in Unity Village, East Coast Demerara. Before becoming President, he served as the Minister of Finance. He became President after Janet Jagan resigned due to ill health. He won the 2001 and 2006 elections He joined the youth wing of the People’s Progressive

President from 2011 to 2015. He was born in Caria, Caria Essequibo Islands. His early days began at the Caria Caria Congregational School and St. Andrew’s Primary School.

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Presidents of Guyana He attended the Government Technical Institute and graduated from the Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Guyana. He also studied in the former Soviet Union. He began his career working on his father’s timber plant. From 1988 to 1993 he was the International Secretary of the Guyana Agricultural Workers’ Union and in the 1992 election, he was elected to the National Assembly. In 1993, he was designated as the PPP’s Executive Secretary and following the death of

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Cheddi Jagan in March 1997 he became General Secretary on the 29th March 1997. After the 28th November 2011 elections he was sworn in as President on the 3rd December 2011. He is married to Deolatchmee and they have three children, Alexei, Lisaveta and Alvaro. Donald Ramotar and the PPP/C lost the 11th May 2015 General Election to the opposition APNU/AFC Coalition led by Brigadier David Arthur Granger.


Brigadier David Arthur Granger (born 15th July 1945)

security agencies. He was Chair of the Central Intelligence Committee, Co-Chair of the Border and National Security Committee and was a member of the Guyana Defense Board, National Drug Law Enforcement Committee and the Disciplined Forces Commission. He was elected to the presidencies of the History Society, the Guyana Heritage Society, the University of Guyana, Guild of Graduates and the Guyana Chess Federation. He is also a former member of the University of Guyana Council, Association of Caribbean Historians, Caribbean Studies Association, Guyana Press Association, Guyana Book Foundation and currently, a member of the Guyana Legion and the Board of Trustees of the Guyana Veterans Foundation.

Incumbent 16th May 2015. President David Arthur Granger, a retired military officer, was born in Georgetown and attended Queen’s College. He was a member of the Queen’s College Cadet Corps and joined the Guyana Defense Force (GDF) as a cadet officer in 1965 and then commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in 1966. President Granger is a graduate of the University of Guyana, where he received his Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees. He is also a graduate of the University of the West Indies where he received his post-graduate diploma in International Relations. He attended the Urban Policy Development Workshop at the University of California, Los Angeles; the Defense Planning and Resource Management course at the National Defense University, Washington DC; and the CounterTerrorism Educators’ Workshop at the Joint Special Operations, University, Florida, USA. In 1979, he became Commander of the GDF and was the National Security Adviser to then President, David Hoyte. President Granger received his military training at the Mons Officer Cadet School, the School of Infantry in the United Kingdom, the Jungle Warfare Instruction Centre in Brazil and the Army Command and Staff College in Nigeria and became a member of several defense and

President Granger is a published author and in 1992, he founded the Guyana Review news magazine and served as its Managing Editor. He has published books on military, historical and media topics. He is the author of:- Guyana’s State Media: The quest for control and A Preliminary Study of Women Soldiers in the Anglophone Caribbean. From 1995–1996, he was a Hubert H. Humphrey/ Fulbright Fellow at the Philip Merrill College of Journalism at the University of Maryland, College Park. President Granger has received various academic awards, including the President’s Medal for the best graduating student; the Dennis Irvine Prize for the student who has made the greatest contribution to all cultural life of the University, Council of the University Prize, Elsa Goveia Medal of Excellence, Guy de Weever History Prize, Earl Attlee History Prize, Sister Mary Noel Menezes Award for History; Department of History Prize and others from the University of Guyana. He also holds three national awards: the Military Efficiency Medal (1976), the Military Service Medal (1981), and the Military Service Star (1985) for distinguished military service. From 2012 to 2015, he was Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly of Guyana. President Granger is married to Sandra (née ChanA-Sue) and they have two daughters, Afuwa and Han.

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First Ladies of Guyana

First Lady Sandra Granger

She is an advocate on women and children’s issues.

Deolatchmee RAMOTAR (2011 - 2015) Mrs. Deolatchmee Ramotar is the wife of the Hon. Donald Ramotar who served as President from 2011 to 2015. She is an advocate on women and children’s issues.

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Varshnie SINGH-JAGDEO (1999) Former First Lady Varshnie Jagdeo was the wife of the former President of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, Dr. Bharrat Jagdeo. She served in the capacity as chairperson of the National Commission on the Rights of the Child and is the Chairperson for Kids First Fund.


YVONNE HINDS M.S. (1997) Yvonne Hinds is the wife of the Hon. Samuel A. Hinds O.E., the former Prime Minister of Guyana, who served as President from March 6th to December, 1997. A period during which she was First Lady of Guyana. She is the Chairperson of the Guyana Relief Council (GRC).

VIOLA BURNHAM (1980-1985) The late Viola Burnham was the wife of the late Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham, the first Executive President of Guyana who died in 1985.She was the first female to be appointed Vice-President and Deputy Prime Minister in the late 1980’s and died in 2003.

JANET JAGAN O.E. (1992-1997) Janet Jagan, wife of the late President Dr. Cheddi Jagan was the first woman elected President of Guyana and served in that capacity from 1997 to 1999.

DOREEN CHUNG (1970-1980) Doreen Chung was the wife of former President Arthur Chung, the First President of the Republic of Guyana. She was First Lady of Guyana from 1970 to 1980 and died in 2009.

JOYCE HOYTE (1985-1992) Joyce Hoyte was the wife of former President of Guyana, the late Mr. Hugh Desmond Hoyte, who died in 2002. She was First Lady of Guyana from 1985 to 1992, and died in 2012.

PATRICIA ROSE (1966-1969) Lady Patricia Rose was the wife of the late Sir David Rose who was the First Governor General of Guyana. She was by profession a Medical Doctor.

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National SYMBOLS of the Republic

THE NATIONAL FLAG AKA THE GOLDEN ARROWHEAD The Flag bears five distinct colours, each of which has its own independent significance. •

• • •

The red triangle at the base is symbolic of the zeal and dynamic task of nation building which is the responsibility/duty of our young nation. The black strip which borders the red bases presentative of the endurance and strength of the Guyanese people who are charged with the sustenance of the Golden Arrowhead’s progressive future. The gold forms a golden arrowhead, symbolic of the nation’s mineral wealth and forward thrust. The strip of white which borders the gold is a testimony to Guyana’s many rivers and vast water potential. And finally, the greatest portion of the Flag is coloured green and is symbolic of the vast forests and agricultural potential.

The Golden Arrowhead was created by Dr. Whitney Smith an American who studied and designed flags, in 1966. The COAT OF ARMS This symbol showcases aspects of Guyanese culture, flora and fauna. The features include: The Amerindian head-dress symbolizes the Amerindians as the indigenous people of the

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

country. The two diamonds at the side of the headdress represent the country’s mining industry. The helmet is the monarchial insignia. The two jaguars holding a pick axe, a sugar cane and a stalk of rice symbolize labor and the two main agricultural industries of the country - sugar and rice. The shield which is decorated with the National Flower, the Victoria Regia Lily, is to protect the nation. The three blue wavy lines represent the many waters of Guyana. The Canje Pheasant, the National Bird, at the bottom of the shield represents a rare bird found principally in this part of the world and also the rich fauna of Guyana. The streamer below the shield bears the Nation’s Motto “ONE PEOPLE, ONE NATION, ONE DESTINY”.

The NATIONAL ANIMAL The JAGUAR The Felis pantera whose common name is the Jaguar, is the National Animal of Guyana. Its habitat ranges from the coastland of French Guiana all the way to Central America and the south of South America.


Arms of the President

The NATIONAL BIRD The CANJE PHEASANT The Canje Pheasant (Hoatzin) is Guyana’s National Bird. The Adult Canje Pheasant is about twenty-two inches long from bill to tail. In coloration, reddishbrown streaked with green. The under parts are pale brown, while on the shoulder and sides the feathers are creamy-white.

The NATIONAL FLOWER The Victoria Regia, A water lily, was discovered by Robert Schomburgk, a German Botanist in 1837, while leading an expedition into the interior of what was then British Guiana. It grows in 4 to 6 feet of water, the base of the stems being situated in soft mud. From each plant there are seldom more than 4 or 5 leaves. The largest flowers can measure 10 inches to one foot in diameter. When first open, they are white with a sweet smell rather like a ripe fruit; by the second day they are fully expanded and a deeper pink; by the third day, they start to wither.

There is also what is referred to as the Arms of the President. It is essentially a heraldic shield that is adorned by the Cacique Crown.

The CACIQUE CROWN The Cacique Crown is traditionally an Amerindian head piece which is worn primarily by the Chief of the tribe symbolic of the authority they possess within their community. In our contemporary society and in an effort to include all aspects of Guyanese culture, the Cacique Crown was chosen as the personal symbol of the President.

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National SYMBOLS of the Republic The NATIONAL PLEDGE The National Pledge which was written by Rev. A.L. Luker, is repeated at official functions and in schools. Protocol requires each individual of the gathering to display some measure of reverence by ceremonially placing the right arm across one’s heart as the Pledge is repeated. The National Pledge I pledge myself to honor always the Flag of Guyana, and to be loyal to my country, to be obedient to the laws of Guyana, to love my fellow citizens, and to dedicate my energies towards the happiness and prosperity of Guyana.

GUYANA’S NATIONAL SONGS • National Anthem of Guyana • Song of the Republic • My Native Land • A Poet’s Prayer • Hymn for Guyana’s Children • Arise, Guyana • Guyana the Free • O Beautiful Guyana • My Guyana Eldorado • A Song of Hope • Song of Guyana’s Children • To Serve My Country • River Song • Way Down Demerara • The Berbice Ferry

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Let Us Co-operate Salute to Guyana Twilight The Goldern Arrowhead To the Hihiscus Blue Saki Children of Guyana Beautiful Guyana Treat All Guyanese Equal Citizen John Me Cawfee in de Marnin’ The Mango Sellers In An Aeroplane My Kitchen Garden Out of School On the Banks of the Kako River

The NATIONAL ANTHEM Our National Anthem is another national symbol which words were penned by Reverend A. L. Luker, while the music was provided by Mr. R.C.G. Potter. For their efforts, they were both awarded a prize of five hundred dollars ($500). The National Anthem Dear land of Guyana, of rivers and plains, Made rich by the sunshine, and lush by the rains. Set gem-like and fair, between mountains and sea, Your children salute you, dear land of the free. Green land of Guyana, our heroes of yore, Both bondsmen and free, laid their bones on your shore. This soil so they hallowed, and from them are we, All sons of one mother, Guyana the free.

Dear land of Guy - a - na,

of riv - ers and plains, made

rich by the sun - shine and lush by the rains,

gem - like and fair bet - ween mountains and sea, your

Great land of Guyana, diverse though our strains, We are born of their sacrifice, heirs of their pains. And ours is the glory their eyes did not see, One land of six peoples, united and free. Dear land of Guyana, to you will we give, Our homage, our service, each day that we live. God guard you, Great Mother, and make us to be More worthy our heritage, land of the free.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Set

chil - dren sa - lute you, dear land of the free.


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Guyana’s

National AWARDS

The Order of Service for Military Service and for service in the Police, Prisons and Fire Services is presented to members of the Guyana Defence Force and the disciplined services of Guyana.

The Military Service Star (M.S.S.)

is the highest award presented for military service to officers of the Guyana Defence Force, the Guyana People’s Militia and the Guyana National Service. It may be awarded for exceptional service, above and beyond the call of duty or for gallantry in action.

The Military Service Medal (M.S.M.)

is presented for military service to members of the Guyana Defence Force, the Guyana People’s Militia and the Guyana National Service. It may be awarded for exceptional service, above and beyond the call of duty or for gallantry in action.

The Disciplined Services Star for Distinguished Service (D.S.S.)

is the highest award presented to members of the Guyana Police Force, Prison Service, or Fire Brigade. It is awarded for distinguished service above and beyond the call of duty.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

The Disciplined Services Medal for Meritorious Service (D.S.M.)

is awarded to members of the Guyana Police Force, Prison Service, or Fire Brigade. It is awarded for dedicated and sustained service of a high order.

The Disciplined Services Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct

may be awarded to members of the Guyana Police Force, Prison Service, or Fire Brigade for the completion of fifteen years of continuous full-time service, and with no disciplinary issues for a period of twelve years.

The Efficiency Medal

is awarded to officers and other ranks of the Guyana Defence Force, the Guyana People’s Militia and the Guyana National Service who complete ten years of efficient service.


Orders, decorations, and medals of Guyana. The Orders, decorations, and medals of Guyana were established after Guyana gained independence from the United Kingdom on the 26th May 1966. On the 23 rd February 1970, Guyana became a Republic and established its first two national awards under the Constitution of the Orders of Guyana. In 1976, the Constitution of the Orders of Guyana was amended to add a third national award.

The Order of Service of Guyana

is the third ranking order of Guyana. It consists of six awards that are divided into general awards and special awards. Citizens of foreign countries may be presented with an Honorary Award under the Order of Service of Guyana for acts of service or exceptional achievements which benefit Guyana. If a recipient is presented with a higher award within the order they are to return the insignia of the lower award and only wear the insignia and ribbon of the higher award. Recipients only use the postnomial of the highest award after their name.

The first appointments to the Orders of Guyana came in 1970 and were presented annually through 2002. After a period of several years where no awards were given, new appointments were made in 2011. Traditionally appointments are made on the Anniversary of Guyana’s Independence by the President of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana, acting in his capacity as the Chancellor of the Orders of Guyana.

The Cacique’s Crown of Valour (C.C.V.)

is the highest award of the Order of Service of Guyana. The Cacique’s Crown of Valour is awarded for high acts of bravery involving great danger and serious risk to life.

The Order of Excellence of Guyana (0.E.)

is the highest national award of Guyana. Sir David Rose, Governor General of Guyana was amongst the awardees. Established in 1970 under the Constitution of the Orders of Guyana, it is limited to twenty five living citizens of Guyana.

The Order of Roraima of Guyana (0.R.)

is the second highest National Award of Guyana, and is limited to only thirty five living Guyanese recipients. Established in 1976, it awarded to any citizen of Guyana who has given outstanding service to the nation. Citizen of foreign nations who are deemed eligible may be recognised as honorary members of the order.

The Cacique’s Crown of Honour (C.C.H.)

is the second highest award in the Order of Service of Guyana. It is limited to fifty citizens of Guyana. It may be awarded to any citizen of Guyana who has rendered service of an exceptionally high quality beyond the normal call of duty in the public service, social and voluntary services, industry or trade unions, or in any other area of public service, or

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Guyana’s National AWARDS achieved excellence of national or international standing and recognition in the arts, professions, sciences or sport or in any other area of activity. It may also be awarded to institutions, organisations, corporations or a group of people who have made substantial contributions to the national economy, for achievements of a significant advance resulting in increased efficiency, for applying technology to production or development process in industry, or other significant achievements and contributions to national development. The President awarded the Cacique Crown of Honour to ten citizens in 1970 and two citizens every year, after that, as long as the vacancy exists.

of Guyana who has performed an outstanding and specific act of service or achievement of an exceptional nature, or is given for long and dedicated service of a consistently high standard in responsible offices, local government services, social and voluntary services, industry or trade unions, or in any other area of public service. It may also be awarded to institutions, organisations, corporations or a group of people under similar conditions to the Cacique’s Crown of Honour.

The Medal of Service (M.S.) The Golden Arrow of Courage (A.C.)

is the second highest award for bravery. It ranks as the third highest award of the Order of Service of Guyana. It is awarded for acts of bravery of a lesser degree than those recognized by the Cacique’s Crown of Valour.

The Golden Arrow of Achievement (A.A.)

is the fourth highest award in the Order of Service of Guyana. It may be awarded also to any citizen

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

is the fifth highest award of the Order of Service of Guyana. It is awarded for ten years of dedicated public service, local government service, service to industry, service to trade unions or other areas of service to the community.

The President’s Commendation for Brave Conduct

is awarded for lesser acts of bravery, but still deserving of government recognition. This award is not recognized with a medal, but by a miniature Guyana leaf in gold. Recipients also receive a citation signed by the President.


Nation and Imagination Development of the Arts in Post-Colonial Guyana By Al Gibbs Creighton

I

t is the universal practice in criticism, in diachronic studies, to divide the development of the arts into historical periods and movements. When we talk about Pre-Independence Guyanese art, we refer to anything before May 26, 1966, while the arts of PostIndependence Guyana would be anything after that date. It is common when referring to Guyanese literature, to talk about Pre- and Post- Independence Literature.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Y

et the arts themselves do not respond to dates in the way critical accounts will have us believe. They do not change overnight, so that a poem or a painting done on May 26 will be distinctly different from anything done on May 25 because it belongs to a different historical period. First of all, it takes a much longer time for art forms to change – it does not happen overnight. However, art does respond to several stimuli in the environment within which it is created, and these influences may be historical, political and social. It is possible to talk about changes and development in the creative arts of Guyana after Independence, and to say that these changes took place because of the historical event that is political independence. The colonial period in Guyana was very much influential upon the arts, and so were national movements in the country that advocated change in the country’s colonial status. These began to shape the arts for many years before independence and gained considerable ground in the years after the end of colonialism. Among the most significant developments was a meeting of Caribbean artists hosted by the government in Georgetown in 1966 which paid attention to artistic development in the region, particularly in the areas and disciplines represented at the meeting. These were mainly in literature, the fine arts, music and theatre. This


led directly to a second conference in 1970, similar to the first, out of which the idea for CARIFESTA was established. Guyana therefore created and hosted the first CARIFESTA in 1972 and this was the most important forward movement in the arts both locally and regionally since 1966. The momentum did not sag. During the 1960s the arts in Guyana were still very much colonial and the most central administrative support came from the History and Arts Council, which later b e c am e t h e D e p ar t m e nt of Culture with Directors of dance, drama, creative writing, music and art. Other institutions

were the Theatre Guild, the new University of Guyana, the Bookers Sugar Estates and the Bauxite company in Wismar, McKenzie and Christianburg (later grouped together as Linden) which were the most active in the practice of the arts with pronounced leadership from the expatriate community. But what developed between 1966 and 1972 drove a movement away from the colonial quality. Guyana had after CARIFESTA, developed strong alliances and exchanges w it h C ar ibb e an neig hb ours such as Cuba and Haiti. As the arts took on more indigenous characteristics, Guyana made

great strides through the building of a school of art, a school of dance and a national dance company. A number of other forces were in action, including the development of Mashramani, the Guyana National Ser vice, the Indian Cultural Centre, the founding of Nrityageet dance troupe and dance productions, the rise of new playwrights and a more local grounding at the Theatre Guild, the opening up of local plays at the National Cultural Centre, the rise of The Link Show and new theatre companies, the Guyana Prize for Literature, certainly made it possible for greater diversification and gave deeper meaning to the arts of the nation.

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Nation and Imagination In addition to the general nationalist movements and normal cultural change, close alliances with geographical neighbours and responses to international stimuli once again played important roles in the way the arts developed in Guyana. Cooperation among ‘the Guianas’ realised the annual Inter-Guianas Cultural Festival. This new ‘mini CARIFESTA’, shared with Surinam and French Guiana, was yet another stimulus that signaled a certain maturity in the arts coming out of Guyana. In the larger original CARIFESTA Guyana began to play increasing pivotal roles from 2008 to 2015. Institutions have continued to be a major part of development in the arts with the establishment of formal training in the new Schools of Music and Theatre Arts and Drama, which were amalgamated with the old ones of dance and the visual arts to form the Institute of Creative Arts in 2014. With the projected addition of Creative Writing to the ICA curricula there are continued signs of independence in the arts of the nation, particularly since the Caribbean Press gave prominence to important national literature and provided publishing opportunities for many unestablished writers. This Press was the largest publication programme in the history of the nation. The post-Independence creative arts in Guyana saw attention to a number of industries such as film with the creation of CineGuyana and other private efforts, the craft and fashion industries – all areas that were seeking a stronger infrastructure for development. Such institutions as the creation of a national gallery of art in 1993, the dramatic rise of Amerindian art, a National Drama Festival, dance and music festivals, the renovation and reenergising of the Theatre Guild, and the Guyana Visual Arts Competition and Exhibition will suggest that various forces including the historical, political and international have helped to shape the way the arts have moved in Guyana since Independence.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Happy 50th INDEPENDENCE Anniversary “The more you read, the more things you will know. The more you learn, the more places you’ll go.” ― Dr. Seuss, I Can Read With My Eyes Shut! ”

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A brief perspective

of the Guyana picture 1966-2015

By Vivienne Daniel

A

number of stalwarts and trailblazers – Dorothy King, the Clavier Sisters, Mrs, Harvey Reid, Ivy Campbell, Sabelle Kranenburg, Helen Taitt, Monica Vieira, Verna Williams Robert Naraine, Partab Bissessar, Philip McClintock, Pat Anderson – were the windows through which formal dance technique was first experienced in Guyana.

From the earliest times, man danced to communicate with his spiritual environment or with his fellow man. Body language was all important and simple vocabulary was built up, encoded, p a s s e d d ow n an d g u ard e d . One danced to express emotions, to boost morale, in recognition of and communication with

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‘’Supreme Beings’. Dance was done to honour ancestors, to celebrate every phase from birth to death, in festivity and for sheer joy. As a nation, Guyana inherited this culture of dance in which Many races, different faces, many cultures, par ticipated in a rich variety of folk culture that is essentially Guyanese. As a result of these ethnological influences in society, the dance fraternity continues to go through a cultural renaissance in its struggle to see an evolution of the folk cultures from the natural environment into a theatre art form. During the period 1966-1972, Guyanese continued in their cultural forms- square dancing,

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

the various Amerindian dances, phagwah and diwali celebrations, queh queh, matikore etc. in t h e i r v a r o u s c o m mu n i t i e s . Te a c h e r s s u c h a s D o r o t hy King, who also taught Physical Education and basic movement at the Bishops’ High School; Ivy Campbell and her ‘dancing dolls’; Helen Taitt’s Dance School, presented their students at many national functions including the grand Coronation Concert at Q ue en’s C ol lege and t he Government House Cabaret. The year 1966 saw the beginning of change in the history of dance in Guyana. The then History and Arts Council engaged the services of Ms. Beryl McBurnie of Trinidad to conduct a workshop


in Folk Dance and Dance in Education. One hundred teachers from primary, secondary and allage schools benefitted from this activity. Its significant outcome w a s t h e h i s t or i c a l Pa g e a nt or g a n i s e d f or t h e c h i l d re n i n t he Gre ate r G e orge tow n area in connection with the Independence Celebrations. The pageant, ‘Ours is the Glory’, was an all-encompassing outdoor portrayal of the coming of the first peoples of Guyana. The venue was the Queen Elizabeth National Park, which is to be found just over the bridge east of the building which presently houses the E.R. Burrowes School of Art in the vicinity of the grass mounds and the lake. This was the first major occasion where students experienced a n a c t i v i t y o f t h i s n at u r e . According to Mrs. Cicely Robins on “Miss McBur nie’s soujourn in Guyana, I think, was one of great benefit to the country, not only from the point of view of being able to present an impressive and memorable pageant, but also

for the great fillip it has given to creative Caribbean dancing in Guyana. Miss McBurnie has revealed in us talents we never imagined existed before. Let us hope we will never let this talent wither and die” In 1972, the first CARIFESTA was held. It was Guyana’s vision. The most significant impact this event had in relation to the medium of dance was the opportunity for viewing presentations by participating delegations from other countries. It also brought into fo cus the need for the promotion of Guyanese culture, and the development of dance, which benefitted from the direct intervention of Madame Lavinia Williams. 1973 -1979 saw the beginning of a very significance stage in the evolution of Guyanese dance. Although progress was slow in the beginning, by the end of the period the visible changes could be termed revolutionary. Ma d a m e L av i n i a Wi l l i a m s’

conduct of a dance workshop in 1973 led to the establishment of a National School of Dance in Guyana in April 1974.. Children, youth and adults from all walks of life were eligible for entry. Parallel to this, the Department of Culture also instituted a one –year Dance Teachers’ Certificate Training Programme not only to supply the needs of the new School of Dance, but also with larger projections for the nation. The initial tutors were Malcolm Hall, Saskia Luckhoo and Monica Veira until the return of Mme Williams as principal tutor and director of the School. The first batch of graduands were certificated in December 1974. Entry to the programme was open to teachers in all regions. Teachers were seconded to Georgetown for their period of training, at the end of which they returned home and were mandated to teach dance in their schools and community. Thus began the long awaited programme in ‘Dance Education’ for the masses.

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A brief perspective A series of events over the next several years all made significant contributions to the way dance developed in Guyana. In 1976 The second CARIFESTA was held in Jamaica, and a small group of dancers were sent to perform under the name ‘Triveni’. In 1979 The National Dance Company was founded under the directorship of Cuban Professor Geraldo Lastra. The third CARIFESTA was held in Cuba in the same year and the newly formed ‘Company’ was sent to perform there. The 1981 CARIFESTA in Barbados also saw representation not only from the ‘Dance Company’ but also the Madrasi Dancers and Amerindian dancers. This period also saw the beginning of the Children’s Mashramani C ompetitions i n clu s ive of d an c e an d t h e introduction of Mass Games. Additionally there was a further prolonged sequence of activities: •

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The inclusion of aspects of training in dance for students of the National School of Dance and members of the National Dance Company, not only by Cuban teachers and choreographers from overseas who continued the teaching of classical ballet, modern and African dance forms but also local personnel who taught authentic movement in Indian dance, queh queh and masquerade. N . D . C . w a s e x p o s e d to the rudiments of Amerindian dance. Attention was paid to related music. N.D.C. conducted workshops and performed in various regions during their outreach programmes. Cultural tours were made t o s e v e r a l c o u nt r i e s t o promote exposition of ‘things Guyanese’ and also to gain

experience in the area of dance. •

A prolific mushrooming of dance groups including The Nadira and Indranie Shah Dance Troupe, Let’s Dance, D h a r m i c Nr i t y a S a n g h , Crystallites, Apsara, Classique S c h o o l a n d C o m p a n y. Cydance, Dance Fanatics, Enigma, Nzingha, Shellita, the Hallelujah Group, Divine Stars and a growing list of others. T h e T h e at r e G u i l d w a s i nv o l v e d i n w o r k s h o p s . These developments, however, were somewhat countered by a high rate of migration, trans movements among g roup memb ers and t he combination of some of the groups themselves. Several other CARIFESTA’s w e r e h e l d – Tr i n i d a d , Suriname, St. Kitts/Nevis, Guyana; Inter-Guiana Cultural Festival was held in Cayenne and dance was adequately represented in all.

The 21st century saw a series o f d r a m at i c c h a n g e s – t h e discontinuation of the Dance Teachers’ Training Programme; the beginning of an infiltration of m ov e m e nt s , m or a l s a n d values influenced mainly by the electronic social media. This affected and continues to affect the ‘dance culture’ in Guyana. Choreographic representation continues to veer sharply towards popular dance, moreso than which is linked to ‘dancehall’ music. Dance suffers from the basic limitations since the root of the creative process necessary for qualitative artistic continuity has, for the most part, been replaced by the regurgitating of movement seen on YouTube and

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

music videos. The majority of dance groups are led by persons who are not certified, unlike the parallel for sports and music where certification of coaches/ instructors is demanded for recognition. Dance instructors are expected to have a continuous proliferation of new dances and an endless process of innovations. Alternately, musicians rarely compose. Although there has been an over w helming resp ons e to participation for the Children’s Mashramani Dance Competitions, it should be noted that the quality of the presentations did not match the quantity. •

Ve r y f e w d a n c e g r o u p s perform dances/ use music w h i ch d e a l w it h ‘t h i ng s Guyanese’; our cultural forms are dying or being degenerated. On the other hand the use of dance in church has increased tremendously.

Dance has become visible at almost every function. The more established groups/ schools/ companies have pro duc t i ons an nu a l ly at National Cultural Centre N.C.C. or the Theatre Guild.

In 2003 CXC brought on board Theatre Arts as an examinable subject for its CSEC examination- Dance is catered for in Option 2.

In 2006 Guyana for the first time entered candidates for this subject . Eleven teachers sat the examination resulting in awards of four- grade 1; six- grade 2 and one - grade 3. One of the successful teachers continued the process in her school with fair results.

By 2011 five secondary schools had candidates for this subject area, forty-three candidates,


including fifteen teachers sat the examination. •

In 2009 a committee was formed for the promotion of activities in observance of UNESCO’S International Dance Day. This was an initiative of Classique and National Dance Company. Other members consisted of two teachers who were on secondment to the Unit of Allied Arts and a Cuban dancer/instructor.

All art has to undergo change and this is a natural process, but if we are not careful we can precipitate the change by our impatience and indifference and when it comes about we can be left with nothing of value. The medium of dance is unfortunate since its instant exposure to both electronic and printed media compounds the problem and as the younger people

move into a more sophisticated/ immoral way of life, old traditions are bound to die. Thus the original functions of the traditional dance will cease to exist. DVD’S/films etc. cannot replace the impact of practical experiences. More needs to be done to save Guyana’s dying heritage in this culturally pluralistic society. Responsibility weighs heavily on our dance educators/instructors/ choreographers. There is also an increasing tendency to neglect formal training in dance- ballet, modern – forms which give scope to creative expression in a language of its own. In Guyana, the outlook is narrow, moreso in that there are no proper yardsticks by which to measure st and ards. C hore og raphers, teachers, dancers need to expose their work abroad; study best practices, innovations and learn new approaches; do research

and continuous workshop experiments. These must be done if Guyanese dance and our ‘dance culture’ as a whole are to maintain uniqueness. The Guyanese public must also be educated in / knowledgeable of the various dance forms in the medium if they are to make informed choices and comments re suitability and artistic ability of dance, dancers and dance groups/ companies. This is mandatory for objectivity in the decision-making process. It is important to remember that one’s preference for a specific dancer, instructor dance form / group/ or company has no part to play in objectivity. Dance in Guyana must cater for the masses- the working class, the peasantry and the progressive intelligensia.

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Dance Education F

rom 1966 a larger percentage of persons were able to access dance training which was previously limited to a small number of persons. Those with the financial ability to pay for dance classes sent their children to the Taitt’s Dance School in Quamina Street; formerly Murray Street. Primarily classical training was offered there. If you were lucky enough to be a member of the Smith Church Girl Guides you would have learnt some classical ballet. Two of the members from Taitt’s school who later transferred to the National School of Dance became lead dancers and instructors. These individuals were Monica Veira and Deryck Reid. Reid later went on to study modern dance in Cuba and upon his return accepted the position of Director of the National School of Dance. In 1966 Beryl McBernie from Tr i n i d a d a n d To b a g o w a s commissioned to stage a Pageant

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By Linda Griffith MS

of Our Peoples as part of Guyana’s Independence Celebrations. This was performed by students from several schools in the city and its environs in the National Park. This training afforded persons with no dance training an opportunity to showcase their talent. Doris Harper-Wills who was also an outstanding teacher and choreographer, produced one of the pieces for the Opening of the first CARIFESTA in 1972. Though she was not officially considered a staff member at the school, she imparted her knowledge at workshop sessions on her several visits to Guyana. Guyana for the first time realized its full potentialities in dance as a national expression. Lavinia Williams was the next person to make a great impact in dance education in Guyana. After CARIFESTA in 1972 she was invited to conduct a three month workshop for teachers in 1973. She started the school at

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

the Umana Yana; during which a wider cross section of persons learned correct techniques of the different genres of dance. The first and largest theatrical performance at that time was held at the Queens’ C ollege auditorium in 1994. It was entitled “Studio to Stage” and included young children. Williams, being a researcher in the dance folk idiom, travelled to various parts of the country to study folk dances peculiar to the community. The list of persons she interacted with included Vesta Lowe from Berbice; well-known for her Queh Queh performances and Lionel Blackett and Boise Sage for Masquerade. These persons were brought to the National School of Dance where they conducted workshop sessions to teach the music and dances of the art forms. CARIFESTA later trained two successors who eventually headed the school after she ended her stay. They were Pamela Mosely-Williams and Linda Griffith MS; who is now the


in Guyana 1966 to 2016 current Director of the National School of Dance. The Teacher’s Certificate Course was introduced in 1974 which saw teachers from all areas of Guyana, whoimparted the knowledge gained from this programme to their students. The results of this were seen at Guyfesta performances and Mashramani Celebrations Dance Competitions. Dancers with potential were recognised. Phillip McClintock was one such person who was later rewarded with a scholarship to the National School of Dance and subsequently one to India. He excelled in India and returned to head the School and the National Dance Company.

He was instrumental in creating a new style of dance which included the different forms he studied. This Guyanese fusion is peculiar to us as he mixed the Indian techniques with modern and folk styles which made the National Dance famous in the 1998 for it unique style. Deryck Reid will also be remembered for his fusion of modern style with the Masquerade dance. 1979 saw a shift in technique as there was an influx of Cuban instructors and choreographers. Geraldo Lastra introduced a new dimension, the formal auditioning of students. He also headed the National Dance Company as the director until his return to his

homeland. He made the company and school modern based institutions using the peculiar Cuban style of technique which included an amalgamation of several modern styles. We have seen the emergence of a unique style that we can call our own through years of work particularly by Linda Griffith MS, Director of the National School of Dance and Vivienne Daniel, Director of the National Dance Company. This is not limited to these two institutions as many of their students have branched out to form their own groups and companies.

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The National Gallery in Independent Guyana By Alim Hosein

I

n 1956, in a singular lucid act, a small group of discerning Guyanese reached through the curtain of colonial misperceptions to secure, by public subscription, the repatriation of Denis William’s painting, Human World. Thus was the National Collection of Guyana birthed in a spirit of reclamation and selfidentity. The subsequent establishment of official structures such as the National History and Arts Council in 1962 underscored the importance of harnessing the nation’s creative wealth so as to promote the ideals of cultural identity and self-recognition necessary in Guyana’s effort to establish itself as an independent nation. The founding of Castellani House as the National Gallery of Art in 1993, long after Guyana had gained its independence, emphasised the enduring relevance of art to our independence, and the answered the need to ensure that the propositions of our artists are available to the wide Guyanese and other public.

The National Gallery of Art is inseparable from the National Collection, and the existence of both is inseparable from the spirit of independence and the proposition of intrinsic national value. In an environment where many galleries do not exist, the National Gallery shoulders the responsibility of being not just an organ of officialdom or a static repository, but a

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dynamic, open and democratic space. This is reflected in its mandate to document, preserve, grow, exhibit, interpret and promote the National Collection in “the interest of all the diverse communities which shape our national cultural character” and to provide “lectures, seminars, workshops, and other forms of public education”. In fulfilling its mandate, t he G a l l e r y strengthens our d e m o c r a c y. A s a n a t i o n a l institution, it defines and privileges a space - both as a physical place and a forum of ideas and imagination - within the hustle and bustle of our life as an independent nation. As a

place, it houses the nation’s art patrimony: a body of artwork which provides resources and indicates pathways for the possibilities of national identity and development. Although the issue of a “national identity” might be problematic in a multiethnic country such as Guyana, the artworks reflect important questions pertaining to our life and development in this common space: questions on matters such as place, belonging, ancestry, everyday life, living together. The Gallery is a forum where ideas from among the people are given the same importance and national exposure as those from the top. It allows Guyanese from different walks of life the opportunity to

contemplate the ideas of other Guyanese in forms that stimulate the imagination. Its effect is to stimulate and appeal to dialogue rather than confrontation. A perusal of the C ollection indicates the issues which occupy the Guyanese imagination, and establishes the fact that there is an active, involved and valuable imagination in Guyana. The Gallery is therefore an invaluable reservoir of imagination which sustains and supports the claim that Guyana is indeed an independent nation, and its very existence underscores the credibility of Guyana’s nationbuilding effort.

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MUSIC in Guyana By Marilyn Dewar, B.A., M. Ed.

Since Independence

Since we gained independence on May 26, 1966, music has influenced our culture and the memories we share as Guyanese. But before explaining any of this, I feel it is necessary to begin just before May 1966, as our musical stage was set by many pioneers in the years just prior to Independence.

I

n this regard, music was ever ywhere in the homes, schools, churches and communit ies. This resu lte d in British Guiana having many talented performers in various musical genres. For example, there was Bill Rogers and his famous ‘Weed Song’ as well as his well-known song, ‘Jimmy Black Pudding and Souse’, which was one of the first Guyanese songs recorded internationally.

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Throughout the counties of Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, there were numerous choirs from religious to secular groups. There were instrumentalists. There were string and steel bands, an orchestra, a Police Band and a S a l v at i o n A r my B a n d t h at produced competent musicians, who became members of the Police Force Band. Such persons were internationally acclaimed Guyanese Conductor Rudolph Dunbar and Guyanese Flautist

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Keith Waithe. At the time of our Independence, we had a rich musical landscape that converged and synthesized the talents that were displayed in the Bi-Annual Music Festivals and presented in many school, church and community concerts held across the country. S o af t e r In d e p e n d e n c e , w e experienced spectacular performances from the over


150 voice choir performing AJ Seymour’s poetry “Legend of Kaieteur” set to Music by Phillip Pilgrim at the newly built National Cultural Center. We experienced the National Symphony Orchestra performing at many cultural events. Likewise, our steel and string bands played important roles at national celebrations. In short, our music blossomed and our culture came alive, especially after the establishment of the Department of Culture, headed by Lynette Dolphin, OR, who was a cultural leader and visionary. Through the work of the Department of Culture and its many Musical Directors, we were blessed with the production of National Songs and Guyanese Music, especially folk songs. In addition, there was the continuous development of our steel bands, Masquerade Bands, String Bands, Calypsonians; and the Guyana Festival of Creative Arts

(Guyfesta) that was initiated to seek out, cultivate and develop the talents of the people in the ten regions of Guyana. The decades of the seventies, eighties and nineties saw a vast number of new and young talented individuals emerging from all over Guyana. The Pilgrims, Lonckes, Potter, Rodway, and Gilkes,Sr. Rose Magdalene and Bro Paschal Jordan, among others, were joined by the younger generation of Noel, Hemerding, Benjamin - Ahyoung, Smith- Cambridge, B ernard, Etkins, Garraway, and many others who began composing and contributing to the musical scene. Who could forget the contributions of Lord Canary, Lady Guymine, The Mighty Rebel among many others calypsonians, who would bring the National Park to life on Calypso Night. ‘ Ta k e Wa r n i n g ’, a s E d d i e Hooper, another of our famous

Calypsonians would say. There was also an upsurge of String Bands such as The Telstars, Bumble and the Saints, The Young Ones, Des Glassford’s Combo Seven, Harry Whittekar, Dave Martin and the Trade Winds, Nello and the Luckies, Eze Rockliffe and the Yoruba Singers, E.C. Connection, Mingles, and other numerous bands. We had a number of steelbands such as Chronicle Atlantic, Roy Geddes Pan School, and Quo Vadis Steelband. Who could forget the contributions of Johnny Braff, Aubrey Cummings, Aubrey Mann, Dolly Baksh, Nesha Benjamin among others? What of ‘Sahani Raat’, by Ralph Blakeney and the Rhythmaires? What of ‘Gimme Hope Jo’anna’ by our world famous singer/composer Eddie Grant? Our new comers Adrian Dutchin, Jomo Primo, Ossie Nedd, Gavin Mendonca and others. Thanks to the Radio stations; they

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MUSIC in Guyana were never shy on promoting Guyanese talent. Thanks also to the program, ‘Broadcast to Schools’, a program which included the teaching of national songs to our children. In a different genre, we also had Ray Luck, an international performer, making a name for himself, worldwide. At home, we had Joycelyn and Victor Loncke, Avis and Aubrey Joseph, Dr. Moses Telford, Cradeline Spence, The Police Male Voice Choir, The Woodside Choir, The Emmel Singers, the Civil Service Folksong Group, various church choirs all vying for prominence and all contributing to the development of Music in Guyana. During this period, the Department of Culture began classes teaching persons to play wind and brass instruments, as well as teaching the rudiments of harmony in order to develop composing skills. Undoubtedly, musicianship and musicians were beginning to mature in their talent

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and craft. By the late 1990’s, however, we began to observe the migration of our talented performers, creating thereby a gap in the musical development within the country. Our schools, churches and many of our organizations suffered because there were only a small number of trained persons left to provide musical opportunities for our young people. Those who remained worked assiduously to maintain the musical culture and traditions. This was accomplished through the resuscitation work by the Woodside Choir in 1992. They restarted the Music Festival, later renamed the Guyana Musical Arts Festival. Additionally, with assistance of the Department of Culture, The Lutheran Church of Tulsa and Guyana, The Guyana Bank of Trade and Industr y, the Republic Bank and many private individuals, this group of music lovers was able to recruit individuals locally and overseas

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

to co ordinate and facilitate workshops in training persons in vocal and instrumental music, enabling thereby the return of the Music Festivals. The Department o f C u l t u r e a l s o f a c i l i t at e d professionals of various musical genres to visit Guyana and hold workshops. Ray Luck has played a pivotal role in piano workshops during the last decade. In 2011 the Ministry of Culture Youth and Sport commissioned a Music School to help develop the musical talent of our peoples. They are hosting classes in music theory and practice and have established various festivals to promote music in the country. As we celebrate our Golden Jubilee, let our music continue to feed us; and let our musicians continue to find ways to express what we feel; for the notes and the rhythms are essential for our nation building.


1966 - 2016

Guyana Timeline • May 26, Guyana gained Independence

from Britain, and Forbes Burnham was named Prime Minister. • Guyana Airways Corporation commences flights to some Caribbean destinations. • Sir David Rose was sworn in as the first Governor General since independence. • Beauty Umblita Van Sluytman makes it into the semi- finals at the Miss World pageant

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‘68

50 Years of Tragedies, Triumph & Hope

Beauty Adrienne Harris was 5th runner-up at the Miss World pageant.

• It was officially announced that Timerhi

would be the name of Guyana’s International Airport from Atkinson Field. • The Soesdyke / Linden Highway was officially opened. • Beauty Pamela Patricia Lord was the 3rd runner-up at the Miss Guyana World. • The National Insurance Scheme (NIS) was established.

Baksh later Shakira Caine placed 2nd r u n n e r- up at the Miss World pageant.

• Peter D’Aguiar resigns from the coalition

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and his post as Minister of Finance.

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• The

P e o p l e’s National Congress (PNC) wins the General Elections.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

1 97 0

1 967

• Beauty Shakira

• February 23 - Guyana became a Co-

operative Republic. • February 23, the first ever Mashramani celebrations were held in Mackenzie (Linden) which was organized by the Jaycees of Linden.


The Republic Proclamation Febrauary 22nd 1970, at midnight, Acting Governor General, Sir Edward Luckoo read the Republican Proclamation moments before inviting all Guyanese to join him in saluting the Republic of Guyana. The proclamation was as follows: WHEREAS the Constitution of Guyana makes provision in paragraph (5) of article 73 thereof whereby Guyana may become a Republic and accordingly cease to be part of Her Majesty’s dominations; AND WHEREAS the twenty-third day of February in each year commemorates the revolt of enslaved peoples on that day in the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty-three in the then colony of Berbice - being the first significant blow struck for Freedom in the territory now comprised in the State of Guyana; AND WHEREAS the aforementioned provision of the Constitution of Guyana requires a resolution of the national Assembly, upon a motion introduced by the Prime Minister, that Guyana shall become a Republic on such day after the passing of the resolution as may be specified therein; AND WHEREAS by virtue of such provision notice of such motion was given on the twentieth day of March in the year one thousand nine-hundred and sixtynine by the Honourable Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham, Prime Minister of Guyana, specifying the twenty-third day of February in the year one thousand nine-hundred and seventy as the day on which Guyana shall become a Republic; AND WHEREAS pursuant to the said motion and in fulfilment of the processes of National Independence, the National Assembly, through the elected representative of the people of Guyana in Parliament assembled, on the twenty-ninth day of August in the year one thousand nine hundred and sixty nine resolved that on the twenty – third day of February in the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy Guyana shall become a Republic and accordingly cease to be part of Her Majesty’s dominions: NOW, THEREFORE, on behalf and in the name of the people of Guyana I do hereby proclaim the birth of the Republic of Guyana at the commencement of this twenty third day of February in the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy. LONG LIVE THE REPUBLIC! These historic words were those which ushered in a new era in Guyanese political and constitutional history – the era of Co-operative Republicanism.

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Guyana Timeline • Guyana signed a treaty with Barbados,

Tr i n i d a d and Jamai c a to e st abl ish CARICOM.

between Guyana and Venezuela leading to a 12-year moratorium on the border controversy. • March 17, Arthur Chung was sworn-in as the first president of Guyana.

• Januar y 8, the

Guyana Hindu Dharmic Sabha was established.

• Clive Hubert Lloyd

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was named Wisden Cricketer of the Year.

August 25 - September 15, first Caribbean Festival of Arts (CARIFESTA) held in Guyana. The Construction of Umana Yana in Kingston was completed. Guyana hosted the Non-Aligned Movement of Conference of Foreign Ministers. Diplomatic relations between China and Guyana was established.

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‘ 70

• The protocol of Port-of-Spain was signed

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Multilateral Secondar y school was established at A n n a R e g i n a , Essequibo.

• July 17, the People’s National Congress

(PNC) won 37 of the 53 seats at the General Elections. • Cuba’s President Fidel Castro visited Guyana.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

unveiled the African Liberation Monument inside the compound of the Umana Yana in Kingston. • The formation of the Working People’s Alliance (WPA) with Dr. Walter Rodney as leader. • The Guyana National Service (GNS) established its first training centre at Kimbia on the Berbice River. • Tanzania’s President Julius Nyerere visits Guyana and receives a $50,000 cheque as Guyana’s contribution to the struggles in Southern Africa.

Queen’s College and Bishop’s High School became co-educational institutions. James Gilkes won the gold medal in the 200 metres at the Pan American Games.

• May

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• The Anna Regina

• August 26, President Forbes Burnham

23, the 1 7 6 3 Mo nu m e nt popularly known as the ‘Cuffy Mo n u m e n t’, w a s unveiled at Durban Park to mark G u y a n a’s t e n t h independence anniversary.


Guyanese lost their lives when Cubana de Aviación Flight 455 from Barbados to Jamaica was brought down by a bomb.

1980

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• October 6, eleven

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• James Gilkes won

the silver medal in the 200 metres at the Pan American Games.

• October 4, Minister of Education Vincent Teekah was shot dead.

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was killed in a car bomb explosion in Georgetown. • October 6, Linden Forbes Burnham (19231985) began serving as Guyana’s first Executive President. • Michael Anthony Parris won a bronze medal in boxing at the Olympic Summer Games in Moscow.

• Clive Hubert Lloyd retired from playing professional cricket.

• August 6, President Linden Forbes

Burnham (b.1923), died. • President’s College a senior secondary school located in Golden Grove, East Coast Demerara was founded.

• November, Stabroek

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longest floating toll bridge at 6,074-foot (1,851 m) was commissioned. • July 3, Guyana, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin. • Boxer Winfield Braithwaite won gold in the Light Welterweight division at the Commonwealth Games in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. • November 18, Leo J. Ryan a California USA representative and four others investigating the People’s Temple religious cult in Jonestown were killed by members of the cult. The killings followed a mass murder / suicide of 918 members including their leader Jim Jones.

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• July 2, the Demerara Harbour Bridge the

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• The People’s Militia was officially launched.

• June 13, WPA leader Dr. Walter Rodney

News, Guyana’s first, post-independence, privately-owned newspaper founded by David DeCaires was first published as weekly.

Guyana Prize for Literature established.

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Guyana Timeline

• March30, the death

was announced of Peter Stanislaus D’Aguiar founder of Banks DIH and United Force and former minister of government.

• P e o p l e ’ s

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• August 8, the PPP/C

1994

issued in Guyana. • The Indian M o n u m e n t Gardens was built t o c e l e b r at e t h e 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to Guyana (British Guiana).

Progressive Party/ Civic (PPP/C) announced that Dr Cheddi Jagan and Samuel Hinds will be their candidates at the 1992 elections.

the Guyana Defence Force (GDF) were deployed to Antigua which was hit by Hurricane Luis.

• December 23, the first 1000 dollar note was

Jagan of f icially opens Omai Gold Mines Limited.

People’s National Congress (PNC).

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

19 9 6 1 997

19 9 2 1 993

Machine (ATM) in Guyana was launched by Demerara Bank. • Kaieteur News co-founded by Glenn Lall began operation as a weekly newspaper.

issued in Guyana. • Guyana’s population was about 780,000. • September 9, leader of t h e U S - b a s e d Nat i o n o f Is l a m Minister Louis Farrakhan arrived in Guyana for a 4-day visit.

• President Dr Cheddi

• Hamilton Green was expelled from the

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• December 11, the first Real Time Automated

• September18, forty three members from

• July 2, the first $500 note was issued to

Guyana. • Dr. Cheddi Jagan’s People’s Progressive Party with its Civic component won the general elections with 54% of the votes • December 17, the Af r ic an Cu ltura l and Development Association (ACDA) was founded.

won Municipal and Local Government elections receiving 86,887 of the 157,165 votes and 51 out of 71 local councils.

19 9 5

1989

1988

• October 10, the first 100 dollar note was

• March 6, Dr. Cheddi Jagan died at the Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, DC. His widow, Janet Rosalie Jagan, became prime minister under President Samuel Hinds.


19 9 2

PPP/C Govenment in After Winning the Elections

Dr. Cheddi Jagan Samuel Archibald Hinds Reepu Daman Persaud, JP S. Feroze Mohamed Harripersaud Nokta

President Prime Minister Senior Minister of Agriculture (Leader of the House) Senior Minister of Home Affairs, (Government Chief Whip) Senior Minister in the Ministry of Public Works, Communications and Regional Development Asgar Ally Senior Minister of Finance Rev. Dr. Ramnauth D.A. Bisnauth Senior Minister of Education and Cultural Development Bernard C. DeSantos, SC Attorney General and Minister of Legal Affairs Dr. Henry B. Jeffrey Senior Minister of Labour, Human Services and Social Security Moses V. Nagamootoo Senior Minister in the Office of the President Clement J. Rohee Senior Minister of Foreign Affairs Gail Teixeira Senior Minister of Health M. Shree Chan Senior Minister of Trade, Tourism and Industry Clinton C. Collymore Minister in the Ministry of Agriculture Indranie Chandarpal Minister in the Ministry of Labour, Human Services and Social Security F. Vibert DeSouza Minister in the Ministry of Public Works, Communications and Regional Development George E. Fung-On Minister in the Office of the President Dr. Roger Luncheon Head of the Public Service , Head of the Presidential Secretariat & Secretary to the Cabinet Bharrat Jagdeo Special Advisor to the Minister of Finance GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

71


Guyana Timeline

19 9 8

• Timehri International Airport was renamed

Dr. Cheddi Jagan International Airport (Timehri). • July 2, with the country in turmoil President Jagan met with former President Desmond Hoyte in St. Lucia to make a deal that provided the opposition with more say. • Guyana Telephone a n d Te l e g r a p h (GTT) launched the prepaid phone card

2000

the vessel Whitby resting on a rectangular base, was unveiled in commemoration of the arrival of the first East Indians in British Guiana. The vessel was one of two which brought the immigrants to the country on May 5, 1838. • November 5, was declared Nomination Day for those parties wishing to contest the December 15 elections • November 16, Queen’s College was partially destroyed in a fire. Damage was estimated at G$200 million (around US$1,000,000). • December 15, Janet Jagan (77) was swornin as President of Guyana.

• March 19, the People’s Progressive Party

72

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Civic (PPP/C) lead by Bharrat Jagdeo won the general elections. • Brazil signed a trade agreement with Guyana.

• February 23, five prisoners -four on

2002

1999

• August 8, President

Jan e t Ja g an ( 7 8 ) announced that she was resigning due to ill health and that f i n anc e m i n iste r Bharrat Jagdeo (35), would succeed her. • Finance Minister Bharrat Jagdeo was sworn in as Prime Minister (PM) after Sam Hinds resigned as PM to become President. He and Jagdeo resigned their posts and Jagdeo was appointed President and he in turn reappointed Hinds as PM. • D’Urban Street in the Lodge ward was renamed Pollydore Street in honour of veteran trade unionist Joseph Pollydore. • April 27, PPP General secretary Donald R amotar accepted the Order of the Companions of O.R. Tambo in Gold on behalf of Janet Jagan who was unable to make the trip to South Africa to accept the posthumus award on behalf of Dr Cheddi Jagan.

• February 24 – 27, Prince Charles visited Guyana. • First JAMZONE event held in Guyana.

2001

1997

• May 6, the monument, a bronze replica of

remand for murder and/or armed robbery and the forth serving twenty-five years for robbery, shot a female officer and stabbed her male colleague as they broke out of the Georgetown prison. Their escape followed months of murder and mayhem mostly in the city. • April 17, the contract for the construction of the CARICOM Secretariat Headquarters was signed and construction commenced shortly after. • Members of the Guyana police opened fire on demonstrators who broke into the compound of the Office of the President, killing two and wounding six others. • July 2, political activist Mark Benschop surrendered to authorities after being wanted for treason.


popular with some ruling party members, killing three people and injuring seven others, including the country’s chief prosecutor who was involved in a highprofile treason trial. • December 22, Desmond Hoyte (b.1929), former President (1985-1992) died and Robert Corbin became the leader of the PNC and leader of the Opposition PNC/R. • Athlete Aliann Pompey won a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games in the 400 metres final.

• March 20, thousands marched through

2004

2002

• September 26, gunmen opened fire at a bar

2, Ptolemy Alexander Reid (85), former P r i m e M i n i s t e r, died after suffering a stroke. Reid was named Prime Minister under President Forb es Burnham, and held the post from 1980 to 1984. • At h l e te A l i an n Pomp e y won a bron z e m e d a l at the Pan American Games in the 400 metres final. • October 10, former vice president and first lady Viola Burnham (72) died after a prolonged battle with cancer. She served as vice president and deputy PM from 19851991.

2004

• January 30, Guyana Entertainment Magazine (GEM), the country’s first glossy lifestyle & e nte r t ai n me nt magazine was launched.

• February 3, the US government revoked Guyana’s Home Affairs Minister Ronald Gajraj’s travel visa.

• January, after days of nonstop rain and

2005

2003

• September

Georgetown, demanding the government order an independent investigation into the extrajudicial killings of mostly young men of African descent. June 24, George Bacchus (51), a Guyana cattle farmer who prompted an inquiry into an alleged hit squads was assassinated. December 25, fire destroyed the iconic Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church on Main Street Georgetown. The government gave the indigenous Wai Wai tribe control of 2,400 square miles of tropical forest and savanna, nearly half the size of Connecticut. The state-owned television and radio bro adcast ing cor p orat ion Nat iona l Communications Network (NCN) is established after a merger between the Guyana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) and GTV.

• •

failure of a dam, Georgetown and villages along the coast were flooded to recorded levels. Some 35 persons lost their lives and an estimated 70,000 households were affected by the flooding. January 19, the US State Department issued a warning asking Americans to defer travel to Guyana because of flooding and the treat of the killer disease Leptospirosis. February 19, the CARICOM Secretariat Headquarters was opened at Turkeyen, Greater Georgetown. March 3 1 , p ol i c e fou nd Ame r i c an missionaries Richard Hicks (42) and his wife Charlene Hicks (58) slain at a farm they rented near the border with Brazil. June 2 1 , Pres i d ent Bhar rat Jagd e o announced that Guyana will hire 600 new police officers and loosen rules on wiretapping and asset seizures as part of a strategy to fight increasing drug trafficking.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

73


Guyana Timeline age of female sexual consent from 13 years old to 16, despite months of lobbying from groups who said the age should have been 18. • The Alliance For Change (AFC) was formed by three MPs who left other parties; Raphael Trotman of the People’s National Congress, Khemraj Ramjattan of the People’s Progressive Party and Sheila Holder of the Working People’s Alliance. Trotman became the leader of the party. • Singer, music producers and Guyanese international superstar Edmond Montague “Eddy” Grant postage stamps were launched.

• T h e P P P / C g ov e r n m e nt d i s a l l ow s •

2006

2005

• October 28, lawmakers voted to raise the

• •

government advertisements in the Stabroek newspapers. December 28, Guyana police said they had shot and killed Neil Bovell (37), the country’s most wanted fugitive after he refused to surrender when they tracked him to his father’s house in Georgetown. December, Brazil’s government agreed to spend $3 million on a bridge to Guyana over the Takutu River. An attempt 5 years earlier had failed over financial irregularities. Drug trafficking accounted for up to 20% of Guyana’s GDP, according to the US State Dept. The US revoked commissioner of police Henry Greene’s visa over alleged links to drug trafficking.

• •

• • •

74

8 people dead and a dozen bystanders wounded on the outskirts of Georgetown. About 15 gunmen armed with rifles tried to rob a gas station when security guards responded. They escaped with about $40. April 22, gunmen burst into the home of agriculture minister Satyadeo Sawh (50) and fatally shot him along with two relatives and a security guard. June 15, drug dealer Shaheed Khan was arrested by authorities in Suriname. August 13, Guyana won the inaugural Stanford 20/20 cricket title, after beating Trinidad and Tobago by five wickets in St John's Antigua. August 8, gunmen with automatic weapons stormed Kaieteur News, killing six workers and wounding three others in an attack. August 28, Guyana held it’s general elections. August 31, President Bharrat Jagdeo’s People’s Progressive Party Civic (PPP/C) won re-election. The PPP/C received 55% of the votes casted and 36 parliamentary seats.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

• March 16, the Inter-American Development

200 7

2006

• February 26, gunmen on a rampage left

• •

Bank announced it would forgive $4.4 billion in debt owed by five of the poorest countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The bank excused the foreign debts of Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti and Guyana in an announcement ahead of its annual meeting. April 28, the Guyana police found the remains of an elderly woman who was lynched by a crowd of villagers. She had been accused of being an “Old Higue,” an evil spirit who drinks the blood of human babies. August 16, a conservation group said mercury used by gold miners has seeped into rivers and streams and sickened scores of villagers in rural areas. August 20, political activist Mark Benschop gets an unconditional pardon that allowed him to get out of prison. September 20, a UN decision awarded Guyana, rather than Suriname, most of a disputed area of coastal Atlantic Ocean, which may hold a large amount of undiscovered oil.


• November 16, Guyana rushed troops and

• • •

• February 2, Guyana banned nighttime •

2 0 09

2007

police to its western border a day after Venezuelan soldiers allegedly blew up two Guyanese gold-mining dredges on a river near the frontier. December 7, the Caribbean Community (Caricom) meeting in Guyana, agreed to open up its markets to certain European goods, on the condition that entertainment workers from the region are allowed free access to Europe. Completion of a US$25M, 15,000-seat sports stadium at Providence, East Bank Demerara. Guyana hosts matches in ICC Cricket World Cup. The first ever Guyana Fashion Week was launched.

• January 26, gunmen stormed into Lusignan,

• • •

2010

200 8

an East Coastal Demerara village, and shot dead 11 people with 5 children among the dead February 17, gunmen killed 12 people, including three police officers in an assault on Bartica, a small town on the Essequibo River. June 16, authorities banned the importation of pit bulls following a spate of attacks by the breed. August 22 – 31, Guyana hosted CARIFESTA X. November 1, The Editor-in-Chief of the Stabroek News, David de Caires(70) passed away in Barbados where he had gone for medical evaluation. November 2, a plane carrying American pilots James Barker and Chris Paris and Canadian technician Patrick Murphy went missing while doing survey work. December 23, the Berbice River Bridge opens.

flights because of a strike by air traffic controllers. March 28, Janet Jagan (88), a Chicago native who became Guyana’s first white and first female president (1997), died. September 14, the leaders of Brazil and Guyana met to inaugurate the $5 million Takutu River Bridge that is expected to boost trade between Brazil and the Caribbean. October, notorious drug dealer Shaheed Roger Khan was sentenced in a courtroom in New York to 40 years imprisonment for trafficking in cocaine, witness tampering and illegal firearm possession. Through a plea deal Khan will only serve 15 years. November 18, Guyana unveiled a simple, white stone plaque at the jungle clearing where more than 900 members of the cult led by the American preacher Jim Jones died in a night of mass murder and suicide on November 18, 1978. Two police officers reportedly doused teenager Twyon Thomas’ private parts with alcohol and set him ablaze while investigating the killing of a government official.

March 28, Sangeeta Persaud (15) died after neighbors and a local pastor tried to treat her convulsions with an exorcism at a church. • October 2, sixteen year old Neesa Gopaul’s body was found inside a suitcase that had been weighted down with dumbbells and thrown in a creek at Emerald Tower Resort on the Linden Highway. She was reported missing by her mother five days ago. • October 8, police charge the mother Bibi Sharmina Gopaul and her lover Jarvis Small with murder of Neesa Gopaul.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

75


Guyana Timeline

2 0 11

• •

• October 1, Bharrat Jagdeo banned a

television station from broadcasting for four months after the station allegedly aired slanderous comments about a member of his party. • November 28, the PPP/C won 32, APNU 26 and the AFC 7 seats at the general elections. • December 3, President Donald Ramotar was sworn in a Guyana’s 7th executive president. • December 6, a number of opposition protestors were injured after police fired tear gas and rubber pellets to break-up a protest demanding an election recount.

76

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

2012

• December 14, a 34-year-old woman told

201 3

exploded in the h an d s of a m a l e deportee at a mini bus park at Stabroek market, killing him and wounding 19 others from shrapnel. January 13, Guyana recognized Palestinian statehood, joining a string of other South American nations in a push for Palestinians and Israelis to negotiate a peace deal. March 9, police Sgt. Dexter Clemenston was accused of raping and sodomizing a 19-year-old recruit after beating him unconscious at the national force’s headquarters. May 19, Guyana police detained Akbar Muhammad, a visiting US Muslim cleric and longtime aide to Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, on suspicion of ties to drugs and terrorism. July, A Partnership for National Unity (APNU) made of 10 parties was formed to contest the 2011 general elections. July 30, a Caribbean Airlines jet on its way from New York with 163 people onboard crash landed at the Cheddi Jagan International Airport injuring many. The annual IZWE Emancipation magazine was launched to commemorate the International Year for People of African Descent.

‘11

• January 5, a grenade

reporters that commissioner of police Henry Greene took her to a hotel and raped her. She alleged that the incident occurred in late November

• Februar y 25, beauty Alana Seebaran

captured the Miss India Worldwide Pageant crown in Paramaribo Suriname . • April 3, government said it is launching a national debate on whether to eliminate the death penalty and overhaul laws that discriminate against gays, lesbians and transgender people. • August 3, police found 57 pounds of cocaine about to be loaded onto a flight to NYC. Officials the next day said they will fire almost a dozen baggage handlers and ramp attendants complicit in the operation.

• January 24, Guyana signed an agreement with NY conservation group Panthera, which was trying to establish a jaguar corridor from northern Argentina to Mexico. • October 10, the Venezuelan navy detained the crew of an oil exploration vessel operated by US-based Anadarko Petroleum in waters disputed by the Guyana and Venezuela. The RV Teknik Perdana and its crew were released on October 15. • November 15, the Bank of Guyana unveiled the 5,000-dollar note.


• January 18, a Canadian pilot was among

2 0 14

• •

• January 20, President Donald Ramotar •

2 0 15

two people feared dead when the small plane he was flying went down in the jungle two minutes after takeoff. March 15, businessman Lennox La Cruz (50) was arrested on suspicion of killing his wife and four of his five children by locking them inside their home and setting it on fire the previous evening. April 4, government said it had closed an office in Bartica that regulated the sale of gold after discovering that millions of dollars in gold had been replaced with silver. Several employees were detained. April 22, the Walter Rodney Commission of Inquiry (CoI) commenced to try and ascertain who was behind the death of historian and political activist in 1980. August 16, a 65-foot diesel engine submarine was discovered by authorizes near the border with Venezuela. It was believed to be locally built and used to ferry drugs across the Atlantic. September, WHO gave Guyana an agestandardized suicide rate of 44.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, the worst in a world average of 11.4. Guyana came 121st of 187 countries on the UN human development index. November 10, a presidential decree by President Donald Ramotar prorogued parliament until further notice. Beauty Rafieya Husain placed in the top eleven at Miss World Pageant and also copped the Continental Queen of Caribbean and p l a c e d To p 5 at Multimedia Award.

• •

announced that general and regional elections will be held on May 11th January 23, the European Union said it is withholding $37 million in aid slated for Guyana because the government is operating without a Parliament. February 14, the APNU and AFC formed a coalition termed the Cummingsburg Accord to contest the May 11 polls. APNU Head, David Granger was selected as their presidential candidate and the AFC’s Moses Nagamootoo was the prime ministerial candidate February 21, the People’s Progressive Party/ Civic (PPP/C) named Elisabeth Harper as its Prime Ministerial candidate to contest the May 11 general and regional elections. April 2, a judge temporarily blocked the government from accessing a $32 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank because there was no Parliament. April 17, costing $1.084 billion, Guyana’s first Synthetic Track and Field Facility was officially opened at Leonora, West Coast Demerara. May 16, former Brigadier David Arthur Granger (69) of the Guyana Defence Force (GDF) was sworn-in as the country’s 8th executive president after his coalition won the national elections. November, the government ends the Dr Walter Rodney Commission of Inquiry (CoI). December 19, beauty Lisa Punch won the title of Miss World Talent 2015 and made it among the 10 semi-finalists in Sanya, China. December 31, the Golden Jubilee year was launched at the Square of the Revolution.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

77


2016

Guyana Timeline

• March 4, seventeen prisoners were burnt

to death after inmates demanding better conditions, set fire to the capital A block of the Lot 12 Camp Street prison. • March 18, the local government elections were held after a 22 year hiatus. • April 1, Patricia Chase-Green elected as the 4th female Mayor of the City of Georgetown. • Mayors were elected for Bartica, Lethem and Mabaruma since the President had announced in 2015 that they will receive township status in 2016.

78

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


Atlantic Ocean BRITISH HIGH COMMISSION

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INDIAN HIGH COMMISSION

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NATIONAL LIBRARY

BANK OF GUYANA

NATIONAL MUSEUM

NATIONAL CULTURAL CENTRE STABROEK MARKET

SOPHIA EXHIBITION SITE

CHINES ASSOCIATION H.Q.

Demerara River

BOTANICAL GARDENS

ST. GEORGE’S CATHEDRAL

NATIONAL ZOO

VENEZUELAN EMBASSY

TOURISM MINISTRY

BRICKDAM CATHEDRAL

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BANKS DIH

FOREIGN AFFAIR MINISTRY

OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

INDEPENDENCE ARCH

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CASTELANI HOUSE


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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

83


Answers on Page 124

Test your knowledge of Guyana with these 50 brain teasers! 1.

The first Governor General of Guyana was born in which country?

Johnny Braff

---------------------------------------------------------2. Who was the acting president of Guyana from February - March 1970? ---------------------------------------------------------Which Guyanese lead the West Indies to 3. their first Under-19 Cricket World Cup title? ---------------------------------------------------------4. Which act allowed the Netherlands to cede British Guiana to the United Kingdom? ---------------------------------------------------------5. How old was Vivian ‘Vicious’ Harris when he became the youngest Guyanese to win a world boxing title? ---------------------------------------------------------6. What was the late radio broadcaster Bertie Chancellor full name? ---------------------------------------------------------7. Who was the first indigenous person to be elected to the Legislative council? ---------------------------------------------------------What age was Bharrat Jagdeo when he 8. became the young president in the world ---------------------------------------------------------9. Who are four male Guyanese boxers to win world titles. ---------------------------------------------------------What was Rohan Khanai’s highest test score 10. and against which team? ----------------------------------------------------------

84

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

11.

Where is the highest point in Guyana?

---------------------------------------------------------12. The name of the Guyana Defence Force officer who raised the Golden Arrowhead at midnight of May 25, 1966? ---------------------------------------------------------Guyana and which two other countries 13. make up the list of three smallest nations in South America? ---------------------------------------------------------14. Who is Guyana’s most successful lawyer with 245 successive murder-charge acquittals? ---------------------------------------------------------15. The longest river in Guyana is the Essequibo at how many miles? ---------------------------------------------------------Guyana is a founding member of which 16. South American organization in 2008? ---------------------------------------------------------17. The highest mountain ranges in Guyana? ----------------------------------------------------------


18.

Who was the first Guyanese to win a calypso crown in Trinidad?

30.

Who was the Minister of Information and Culture in 1970?

---------------------------------------------------------19. Name two of the rarest animal species found in Guyana.

---------------------------------------------------------31. Who sang ‘Welcome Independence to Guyana’ which was recorded May 1966?

---------------------------------------------------------20. What is the sitting capacity of the providence stadium?

---------------------------------------------------------32. Who was arguably the best known, longestserving and most versatile radio broadcaster in the country?

---------------------------------------------------------Who did Gwendolyn “Stealth Bomber” 21. O’Neil defeat to win the WIBA Light Heavyweight title in 2004?

---------------------------------------------------------33. Who was the first Brigadier to become Commander-in-Chief of the Guyana Defense Force?

---------------------------------------------------------22. What date did the Bank of Guyana issued the $5000 note?

---------------------------------------------------------Which Guyanese was once Francisco Slinger 34. aka the Mighty Sparrow’s promoter / manager?

---------------------------------------------------------23. Which Guyanese won the 2005 Miami Soca Competition? ---------------------------------------------------------24. Which is the first country to host CARIFESTA and what year? ---------------------------------------------------------25. When did Guyana and the Federal Republic of Germany establish formal diplomatic relations? ---------------------------------------------------------26. What year did India’s Prime Minister Indira Gandhi pay a state visit to Guyana?

---------------------------------------------------------35. Who was the first female Justice of Appeal in the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court of Guyana; the first female Chief Justice; the first female Chancellor of the Judiciary of Guyana and the Caribbean and the first female Judge of the Caribbean Court of Justice? ---------------------------------------------------------36. Against which team and in what year did Shivnarine Chanderpaul register his first Test double century of 203? ----------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------27. Who Produced & Directed the 1976 Guyanese Musical Comedy “If Wishes Were Horses”? ---------------------------------------------------------28. Who was known as the first Guyanese pop star?

L-r: Roy Fredericks, Ian McDonald and Rohan Khanai

---------------------------------------------------------Tutorial High School was founded by which 29. two brothers and in what year?

37.

----------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------

After retiring from Test cricket, Roy Fredericks served as Minister of?

Answers on Page 124

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

85


43.

What year did American R&B star Neyo perform in Guyana?

---------------------------------------------------------Which memorial site was Dr. Cheddi Jagan 44. laid to rest? ---------------------------------------------------------Trinidadian by birth, he captained the 45. Guyana Lawn Tennis and Squash teams? ---------------------------------------------------------Who holds the title for winning the Chutney 46. Soca Monarch Competition a record five times?

Brian Lara at his final game at GCC. 38.

In what year did Queen’s College High School became coed?

---------------------------------------------------------Who scored their first Test century in the 39. Caribbean at Bourda in 1994? ---------------------------------------------------------What does the Bishop’s High School motto:” 40. Labor Omnia Vincit ” mean in English? ---------------------------------------------------------Where is the 18th Century Dutch Court of 41. Policy Hall located? ---------------------------------------------------------What two portfolios did Peter D’Aguiar hold 42. in the coalition government of 1964? ----------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------What was Quamina Streets in Georgetown 47. original name? ---------------------------------------------------------48. The name of the Chancellor of the Judiciary who swore in Dr. Cheddi Jagan after his party won the General Elections in 1992. ---------------------------------------------------------Edmond Montague “Eddy” Grant was 49. a founding member of which racially integrated pop group in England? ---------------------------------------------------------Who was the host of the radio show in the 50. 1960’s called “Creole Meche Meche”? ----------------------------------------------------------

Answers on Page 124

86

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

87


50 YEARS

in a nutshell GUYANA NATIONAL SPORTS AWARDS TOP MEN & WOMEN Wall of Fame

YEAR

SPORTSMAN

DISCIPLINE

Deryck Phang

Lawn Tennis

Clem Fields

Athletics

1956

Rohan Kanhai

Cricket

Claudette Masdammer

Athletics

1957

George DePena

Athletics

Claudette Masdammer

Athletics

Judy Franker

Lawn Tennis

1955

DISCIPLINE NOT AWARDED

Ian McDonald

Lawn Tennis

Roy MrArthur

Weightlifting

1959

Carl Crawford

Boxing

Myrna Fawcett

Athletics

1960

Mohammed Ali

Rifle

Brenda Archer

Athletics

1961

Lance Gibbs

Cricket

Brenda Archer

Athletics

1962

Martin Dias

Weightlifting

Claire Harris

Table Tennis

1958

1963 1964

88

SPORTSWOMAN

NOT AWARDED Roy Federicks

Cricket

NOT AWARDED Denise Osman

Table Tennis

1965

NOT AWARDED

NOT AWARDED

1966

NOT AWARDED

NOT AWARDED

1967

NOT AWARDED

NOT AWARDED Barbara Jekir

Table Tennis

Shirley Babb

Hockey

Debbie Phillips

Lawn Tennis

Cycling

Doreen Chow Wah

Table Tennis

Eric Vieira

Motor Racing

Dawn Hinds

Netball

1972

Neville Hunte

Cycling

Kean Gibson

Lawn Tennis

Debbie Phillips

Lawn Tennis

1973

Rohan Kanhai

Cricket

Carol Davidson

Table Tennis

1974

Roy Federicks

Cricket

Carol Davidson

Table Tennis

1968

Clive Lloyd

Cricket

1969

Harry Prowell

Athletics

1970

Neville Hunte

1971

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Garfield Wiltshire

Gwendolyn O’Neil

TOP MEN & WOMEN Wall of Fame YEAR

SPORTSMAN

DISCIPLINE

SPORTSWOMAN

DISCIPLINE

1975

James Gilkes

Athletics

Hodiah Davidson

Table Tennis

1976

Lennox Blackmore

Boxing

June Griffith

Athletics

June Griffith

Athletics Athletics

Lennox Blackmore

Boxing

Colin Croft

Cricket

1978

Winfield Braithwaite

Boxing

Jennifer Innis

1979

James Gilkes

Athletics

Yvette London

Swimming

1980

Michael A. Parris

Boxing

Josephine Whitehead

Squash

1981

Clive Lloyd

Cricket

Juliet Federicks

Athletics

1977

1982

Roger Harper

Cricket

June Griffith

Athletics

1983

Clive Lloyd

Cricket

Tomolyn McDonald

Athletics

1984

Clive Lloyd

Cricket

Bergette Williams

Athletics

1985

Carl Hooper

Cricket

Coleen Braithwaite

Squash

1986

Garfield Wiltshire

Squash

Dianne Lee

Squash

1987

Roger Harper

Cricket

Lorrie Ann Adams

Athletics

1988

Lennox Braithwaite

Weightlifting

Lorrie Ann Adams

Athletics

1989

Ray Hector

Athletics

Tessa Adams

Athletics

1990

Garfield Wiltshire

Squash

Koreen Thomas

Badminton

1991

Carl Hooper

Cricket

Hughette Robertson

Athletics

1992

Sydney Christophe

Table Tennis

Morvaine Parris

Athletics

1993

Andrew Murray

Boxing

Denise Jonas

Martial Arts

Andrew Murray

Boxing

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Onica Fraser

Athletics

1995

Rawle DaSent

Martial Arts

Avanna Hassad

Athletics

1996

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Reona Cornette

Athletics

1997

Clayton Lambert

Cricket

Francine Abrams

Table Tennis

1998

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Mariam Burnette

Athletics

1999

Reon King

Cricket

Mariam Burnette

Athletics

2000

Ramnaresh Sarwan

Cricket

Nicolette Fernandes

Squash

1994

2001

Andrew Lewis

Boxing

Nicolette Fernandes

Squash

2002

Wayne Braithwaite

Boxing

Aliann Pompey

Athletics

2003

Wayne Braithwaite

Boxing

Mariam Burnette

Athletics

2004

Sylvan Gardener

Bodybuilding

Gwendolyn O’Neil

Boxing

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

89


Ramnaresh Sarwan

Nicolette Fernandes

Cleveland Forde

Alicia Fortune

TOP MEN & WOMEN Wall of Fame

90

YEAR

SPORTSMAN

DISCIPLINE

SPORTSWOMAN

DISCIPLINE

2005

Ransford Goodluck

Rifle

Nicolette Fernandes

Squash

2006

Cleveland Forde

Athletics

Nicolette Fernandes

Squash

2007

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Alicia Fortune

Athletics

2008

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Alika Morgan

Athletics

2009

Ramnaresh Sarwan

Cricket

Nicolette Fernandes

Squash

2010

Hugh Arlington Ross

Bodybuilding

Shondell Alfred

Boxing

2011

Devendra Bishoo

Cricket

Dawn McCammon-Barker

Power Lifting

2012

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Nicolette Fernandes

Squash

2013

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Shemaine Campbelle

Cricket

2014

Veerasammy Permaul

Cricket

Cassie George

Track Athlete

2015

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Cricket

Nicolette Fernandes

Squash

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


Katherina Roshana

Odessa Phillips

Tamika Henry

Jasmine Herzog

Ruqayyah Boyer

Umblita Van Sluytman

1988

Christina Jardim

1989

Reeya Majeed

1999

Morvinia Sobers

2002

Mia Rahaman

2003

Leanna Yulanie Damond

2004

Odessa Abenaa Phillips

2005

Candisie Franklin

2006

Alana Ernest

2007

Meleesa Natasha Payne

2009

Jenel Cox

2010

Tamika Henry

2011

Kara Lord

2012

Ruqayyah Boyer

2013

Katherina Roshana

2014

Niketa Barker

2015

Shauna Ramdehan

Lisa Punch

MISS GUYANA WORLD

MISS Universe Guyana 1966

Shauna Ramdyhan

Olive Gopaul

1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1988 1989 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015

Umblita Van Sluytman Shakira Baksh Adrienne Harris Pamela Patricia Lord Jennifer Diana Wong Nalini Moonsar Christina Jardim Reeya Majeed Indra Changa Olive Gopaul Odessa Abenaa Phillips Alexis Glasgow Suzette Marissa Shim Jasmine Samoy Herzog Dessia Braithwaite Candace Charles Christa Lasaunta Simmons Kalerouann Radix Aletha Shepherd Arti Cameron Ruqayyah Boyer Rafieya Husain Lisa Punch GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

91


MASHRAMANI WINNERS YEAR

2013 2014 2015 2016

THEME

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

We Mashing As One In 2000 Let’s Have Fun In 2001 Colourful And True In 2002 United Are We In 2003 Unity, Beauty And More In 2004 Mash Alive In 2005, As We Celebrate 35 Showcasing A Cultural Mix In 2006 A Cultural Invasion In 2007 Let’s Unite And Celebrate In 2008

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

One Dream, One Celebration, One Design In 2009 Embracing Our Diversity; Celebrating Our Heritage Showcasing Our Culture, Sustaining Our Pride Mashin’ With Pride, Keepin’ We Tradition Alive Reflecting creativity, embracing diversity Cultural Folklore, Celebrating 44 One People, One Culture, One Celebration Celebrating Diversity, Unity and Sovereignty

Lester Charles Lester Charles Manoel Ferreira Lester Charles

De Professor De Professor King Perai De Professor

God Don’t Sleep The truth King Perai We nah put yuh back deh

Harresh Singh Chutney Champions YEAR

Malcolm Corrica aka Mighty Canary Adult Calypso Champions YEAR

92

NAME

SINGING NAME

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Joseph Thomas Geofrey Phillips Vivian Jordan Vivin Jordan Camille Golliah-Basdeo Camille Golliah-Basdeo

Lil Joe Mighty Rebel V.J. V.J. Tempest Tempest

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Malcolm Corrica Geofrey Phillips Roger Hinds Lester Charles Geofrey Phillips Lester Charles Roger Hinds

Mighty Canary Mighty Rebel Young Bill Rogers De Professor Mighty Rebel The Professor Young Bill Rogers

NAME

SONG

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Harresh Singh Sandradai Persaud Rajesh Dubraj Sechitra “Fiona” Singh Sechitra “Fiona” Singh Haresh Singh Young Bill Rogers Pooran Seeraj

Next Door Neighbour We Go Sing Up & Dance Up Again Zara Dheray Say (A Little Slowly) Farm Up ME Land Reality of having Money Ajee and Ajaa Chutney for my larki Under de Maro

2015 2016

Young Bill Rogers Bunty Singh

Looking for a larki Fat Gyal

SONG Pagalee Man Ask The President V.J. For President Power Sharing Don’t DIs My Ability The Hands of the Father Share The Love Is We Put You Dey We’re Still A Paradise Save De Land All O We Know De Man Dem Got It So Soup Drinkers

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Junior Calypso Champions YEAR 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

NAME Wilbur Levans Wilbur Levans Wilbur Levans Mark Batson Mark Batson Ernesta Nelson Ernesta Nelson Abigail James Tennicia De Freitas Diana Chapman Tennicia De Freitas

SINGING NAME

SONG

Lil Man Lil Man Lil Man Mighty Adviser Mighty Adviser

Live Entertainment GPL Get Plenty Lamp Man Shortage Abuse True Identity Stop Deh Road Carnage Don’t Blame Children Talking About Education I Don’t Want To Be Born Br br Anansi Stories Rumours: I don’t know

Singing A. J


2013 2014 2015 2016

Niiosi Alsopp Shantelle Giddings William Trowell T’ashanna Cort

Drama School Chinese taking over Pick it up I have Hope

Road March Champion NAME

SINGING NAME

2009

Shelly Garraway

2010 2012 2013

Melissa Roberts aka Vanilla YEAR

Jumo Primo

Shelly G.

Work It

Orlando Johashen

Bonesman

Is We Own

Jumo Primo

Rubber Waist

One People One Nation One

Rubber Waist

Destiny Fireworks

Rubber Waist

Unruly

Jumo Primo

2014

Kwesi Ace

2015

Jumo Primo

Still in the Game

SONG

2003

Compton Hodge

Umbrella Party

2004

Compton Hodge

Balloon City

2005

Adrian Dutchin

Display

2006

Adrian Dutchin

One

2007

Melissa Roberts

Vanilla

Queen of the Band

2008

Michelle King

Big Red

On De Road Again

2009

Melissa Roberts

Vanilla

Rude

2010

Melissa Roberts

Vanilla

High

2011

Dem a Watch Meh

2012

Mahendra Ramkellawan Adrian Dutchin

2013

Adrian Dutchin

Jook

2014

Melissa Roberts

Vanilla

Yada Yada

2015

Jumo Primo

Rubber Waist

Unruly

I am Guyanese

Carib Soca Monarch Champions YEAR

NAME

SINGING NAME Cody

SONG

2004

Compton Hodges

2005

Adrian Dutchin

Display

2006

Adrian Dutchin

One

2007

Marlon Webster

2008

Adrian Dutchin

Malo

Balloon City

Give it to me No Place Like Home

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

93


THE GUYANA DEFENCE FORCE

Colonel Ronald Pope 1966-1969

Major General Norman Mc Lean 1979-1990

Brigadier General Edward Collins, MSM 2004-2007

94

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Brigadier Clarence Price 1969-1979

Major General Joseph Singh, MSS 1990-2000

Major General Michael Atherly, MSS 2000-2004

Rear Admiral Gary Best, MSS 2007-2013

Brigadier General Mark Phillips, MSS 2013 - present


Commissioners of Police

Felix Austin, DSS, QPM, CPM 1st January, 1967 (Deceased)

96

Prior to achieving Independence on May 26, 1966, Commissioners of the Guyana Police Force were appointed from among British Nationals, as the country was still a British Colony. However, since independence, all Commissioners of Police have been appointed from among Guyanese Nationals. The current and former Commissioners of Police:

Carl Austin, DSS, QPM, CPM 1st October, 1968 (Deceased)

Floyd McDonald, DSM, 5th September, 2001

Henry Fraser, DSS, DSM, CPM 22nd October, 1973 (Deceased)

Winston Felix, DSM, 16th February, 2004

Lloyd Barker, DSS, DSM, CPM 2nd August, 1977 (Deceased)

Henry Greene, DSS, DSM, 1st November, 2006 (Deceased)

Balram Raghubir, DSS, DSM 9th January, 1985

Leroy Brumell, DSM, 1st June, 2012

Laurie Lewis, DSS, DSM, 1st August, 1990 (Deceased)

Seelall Persaud, DSM, 10th March, 2015

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


Kashif & Shanghai Knockout Tournament Winners • 2012/13 : Buxton United 0-0 Amelia’s Ward United [aet; 5-4 pen] • 2013/14 : Wismar/Christianburg SS 1-1 Ash Education Institute [4-2 pen] (contested by school teams) • 2015 :

Aubrey ‘Shanghai’ Major and Kashif Mohammed

Slingerz FC (Vergenoegen) 2-0 Alpha United (Georgetown)

Kashif & Shanghai Knockout Tournament Winners • 1990/91 : Milerock (Linden) 2-1 Eagles United (Linden) • 1991/92 : Eagles United (Linden) bt Milerock (Linden) • 1992/93 : Botafogo (Linden) drw Central Hikers (Linden) [trophy shared] • 1993/94 : Camptown (Georgetown) 3-2 Eagles United (Linden) • 1994/95 : Topp XX (Linden) 2-1 Milerock (Linden) • 1995/96 : Beacon’s (Georgetown) bt Thomas United (Georgetown) [2-0?] • 1996/97 : Topp XX (Linden) 3-0 Pele (Georgetown) • 1997/98 : Milerock (Linden) bt Pele (Georgetown) • 1998/99 : Doc’s Khelwalaas (Trinidad) 2-1 Real Victoria Kings • 1999/00 : Topp XX (Linden) 3-1 Conquerors (Georgetown) • 2000/01 : Topp XX (Linden) 1-1 Camptown (Georgetown) [4-2 pen] • 2001/02 : Real Victoria Kings 2-2 Netrockers (Linden) [aet; 5-4 pen] • 2002/03 : Conquerors (Georgetown) 1-0 Western Tigers (Georgetown) • 2003/04 : Camptown (Georgetown) 1-0 Topp XX (Linden)

Current Speaker of the National Assembly Dr. Barton Scotland, M.P.

Speakers of the National Assembly Speakers of the National Assembly

Period Served

Aubrey Percival Alleyne

December 31st 1964 to August 4th 1967

Rahaman Gajraj

February 16th, 1968 to June 1970

• 2006/07 : Joe Public F.C. (Trinidad) 1-0 Topp XX (Linden)

Sase Narain

January 1971 to August 1992

• 2007/08 : Alpha United (Georgetown) 1-0 Topp XX (Linden)

Derek Jagan

December 17th 1992 to October 15th 2000

Winslow Zephyr

October 23rd 2000 to February 2001

Hari Narayen Ramkarran

May 4th 2001 to September 2011

Rafael Trotman

January 12th 2012

Dr Barton Scotland

2015 to present

• 2004/05 : Conquerors (Georgetown) 4-1 Dennery (Saint Lucia) • 2005/06 : Topp XX (Linden) 1-0 Alpha United (Georgetown)

• 2008/09 : Pele (Georgetown) 1-0 Camptown (Georgetown) • 2009/10 : Western Tigers (Georgetown) 2-0 Alpha United (Georgetown) • 2010/11 : Alpha United (Georgetown) 3-2 Pele (Georgetown) • 2011/12 : Caledonia AIA (Trinidad) 2-0 Pele (Georgetown)

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

97


The Signing of the Historic Cummingsburg Accord The signing of the Cummingsburg Accord on Saturday, February 14, 2015 (Valentine’s Day) by A Partnership for National Unity (APNU) and the Alliance For Change (AFC) was to form a Coalition of National Unity to contest the May 11 2015 General and Regional Elections. This act will go down in history as one of the most significant alliances in local politics since independence. Leaders of the APNU+AFC before the signing of the Cummingsburg Accord.

2015 General & Regional Elections

98

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


The May 11, 2015 General Elections Results Total Votes by Region (General) Region

PPP/C

APNU+AFC

TUF

IP

NIP

URP

Total

Region 1

6,278

2,788

59

0

0

14

9,139

Region 2

16,045

7,306

49

7

17

27

23,451

Region 3

40,280

20,912

102

47

32

56

61,629

Region 4

70,241

113,856

256

203

120

130

184,806

Region 5

16,644

13,416

49

15

27

36

30,187

Region 6

39,610

22,103

125

34

47

73

61,992

Region 7

2,981

4,599

171

0

19

13

7,783

Region 8

1,836

1,837

48

0

0

16

3,737

Region 9

5,794

3,592

131

0

0

29

9,546

Region 10

2,785

16,791

90

38

0

38

19,742

202,694

207,200

1080

344

262

432

412,012

Total

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

99


New Mayor Mrs. Patrica Chase-Green Mayor of Georgetown

MAYORS OF GEORGETOWN 1967 - 2016 1967

– Mrs. Dorothy V. Baley, M.B.E.

1968 – 1969

– Archibald Codrington

1970 – 1971

– John M. Ford

1972 – 1974

– Mrs. Beryl Simon

1975

– Mr. Kenneth Shortt

1976

– Mr. Kenneth Shortt & Mr. Cecil Persaud J.P.

1977 – 1980

– Mr. Cecil Persaud J.P.

1981 – 1985

– Ms. Mavis Benn J.P.

1986

– Mr. Robroy Whyte J.P., & Ms. Lucille Cox-David J.P

1987 – 1989

– Mr. Robert Edward Williams J. P.

1990 – 1994

– Mr. Compton Young

1994 – 1995

– Hon. Hamilton Green J. P.

1995 – 1996

– Mr. Ranwell Jordan J. P.

1996 – 2016

– Hon. Hamilton Green, O.R., J.P.

2016 – Present – Mrs. Patrica Chase-Green

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


Local Government Elections 2016 Results REGION

TOWN

MAYOR

DEPUTY MAYOR

TOWN CLERK

1 (Barima-Waini)

Mabaruma*

Henry Smith

Ashtrilla Gammel

Ovid Morrison (ag)

2 (Pomeroon-Supenaam)

Anna Regina

Rabindranauth Mohan

Darshan Persaud

Diane Critchlow

4 (Demerara-Mahaica)

Georgetown

Patricia Veronica Chase-Green

Sherod Duncan

Royston King

6 (East Berbice-Corentyne)

New Amsterdam

Kirk Anthony Wynter

Winifred Rebecca Heywood

Sharon Alexander

6 (East Berbice-Corentyne)

Corriverton

GANESH Gangadin

Krishand Jaichand

Narendra Nauth Sukham

6 (East Berbice-Corentyne)

Rose Hall

Vijay Kumar Ramoo

Dave Budhu

Natasha Munroe

7 (Cuyuni-mazaruni)

Bartica

Gifford Eldon Marshall

Nageshwari Lochan Prasad

Sherry Jerrick (ag)

9 (Upper Takatu-Upper Essequibo)

Lethem

Carlton Peter Beckles

Maxine Ann Welch

10 (Upper Demerara-Berbice)

Linden

Carwyn Rowell Holland

Waneka Odetta Arrindell

Jonellor Cort Bowen

* The PPP/C applied to and received from the High Court an interim order quashing the appointment of the Mayor and his deputy by Minister of Communities Ronald Bulkan.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

101


The APNU+AFC CABINET MINISTERS and Members of Parliament

Hon. Moses Verasammy Nagamootoo, M.P. Prime Minister & First Vice-President

102

Hon. Raphael Trotman, M.P. Minister of Natural Resources

Hon. Catherine Hughes, M.P. Minister of Public Telecommunication & Tourism

Hon. Dominic Gaskin, M.P. Minister of Business

Hon. Basil Williams, M.P. Attorney General and Minister of Legal Affairs

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Hon. Joseph Harmon, M.P. Minister of State

Hon. Annette Ferguson, M.P. Minister within the Public Infrastructure Ministry

Hon. Amna Ally, M.P. Minister of Social Cohesion

Hon. Winston Jordan, M.P. Minister of Finance


Hon. Khemraj Ramjattan, M.P. Minister of Public Security & Second Vice-President

Hon. Volda Lawrence, M.P. Minister of Social Protection

Hon. Carl B. Greenidge, M.P. Minister of Foreign Affairs & Fourth Vice-President

Hon. Dr. George Norton, M.P. Minister of Public Health

Hon. David Patterson, M.P. Minister of Public Infrastructure

Hon. Sydney Allicock, M.P. Minister of Indigenous Peoples Affairs & Third Vice-President

Hon. Valerie Garrido Lowe, M.P. Minister within the Indigenous People’s Affairs Ministry

Hon. Winston Felix, M.P. Citizenship Minister Minister of Citizenship

Hon. Nicolette Henry, M.P. Minister within the Education Ministry

Hon. Ronald Azam Bulkan, M.P. Minister of Communities

Hon. Keith Scott, M.P. Minister within the Ministry of Social Protection

Hon. Noel Holder, M.P. Minister of Agriculture

Hon. Dawn Hastings Williams, M.P. Minister within the Ministry of Communities

Hon. Dr. Rupert Roopnaraine, M.P. Minister of Education

Hon. Dr. Karen Cummings, M.P. Minister within the Health Ministry

Hon. Jaipaul Sharma, M.P. Minister within the Finance Ministry

Hon. Simona Broomes, M.P. Minister within the Natural Resources Ministry

Hon. John Adams, M.P.

Hon. Valerie Patterson, M.P. Minister within the Ministry of Communities

Hon. Audwinn Rutherford, M.P.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

103


Hon. Charrandass Persaud, M.P.

Hon. Haimraj Rajkumar, M.P.

Hon. Michael Carrington, M.P.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Hon. Jennifer Wade, M.P.

Hon. Rajcoomarie Bancroft, M.P.

Hon. Jermaine Figueira, M.P.

Hon. Richard Allen, M.P.


Opposition Members of Parliament

Hon. Dr. Bharrat Jagdeo, M.P. Leader of the Opposition

Hon. Bishop Juan A. Edghill, M.S., J.P., M.P.

Hon. Cornel Damon, M.P.

Hon. Dr. Jennifer Westford, M.P.

Hon. Gail Teixeira, M.P.

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Hon. Adrian Anamayah, M.P.

Hon. Pauline Campbell-Sukhai, M.P.

Hon. Dharamkumar Seeraj, M.P.

Hon. Africo Selman, M.P.

Hon. Alister S. Charlie, M.P.

Hon. Clement J. Rohee, M.P.

Hon. Collin D. Croal, M.P.

Hon. Dr. Bheri Ramsarran, M.P.

Hon. Sheila Veerasammy, M.P.

Hon. Dr. Frank C.S. Anthony, M.P.

Hon. Dr. Vindhya V. Persaud, M.S, M.P.

Hon. Dr. Vishwa D.B. Mahadeo, M.P.

Hon. Ganga Persaud, M.P.

Hon. Gillian R. Persaud, M.P.

Hon. Harry Gill, M.P.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


Hon. Joseph L.F. Hamilton, M.P.

Hon. Indra Chanderpal, M.P.

Hon. Komal Chand, M.P.

Hon. Mohabir A. Nandlall, M.P.

Hon. Mohamed Irfaan Ali, M.P.

Hon. Neendkumar, J.P., M.P.

Hon. Yvonne Pearson- Fredericks, M.P.

Hon. Odinga Lumumba, M.P.

Hon. Priya Manickchand, M.P.

Hon. Nigel D. Dharamlall, M.P.

Hon. Zulfikar Mustapha, M.P.

Hon. Charles Ramson, M.P.

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

107


Golden Years

of Guyanese

By Petamber Persaud

T

Literature

o gain a fuller appreciation of Guyanese Literature after Independence, it would be useful to bear in mind that our literature was hitched in a close relationship over a long period to the British literary tradition.

Edgar Mittelholzer This is not a censure of a fine literary tradition that continues to entertain, educate and influence us in many ways; a tradition that, more importantly, allowed us a foothold in world literature and continues to sustain some of our more accomplished writers like Wilson Harris, Pauline Melville, David Dabydeen, Grace Nichols, Jo h n A g a r d , S h a r o n Ma a s , among others. One of the most substantial benefits coming out of

108

that British literary tradition was Edgar Mittelholzer acquiring the distinction father of the Guyanese novel. Writing by Guyanese during colonialism was useful apprenticeship; learning the basics and generally helping to hone the skills of our writers. However, that pervading colonial influence lost some ground with the rise of Guyanese intellectualism and birth of political awareness, both movements feeding off each other, sometimes betrothing each other to produce defining literature. And the imaginative writers at that time were treating new impulses with a passion; i mpu l s e s of s e l f - d i s c ove r y, identity, social revolt, quest for freedom and self-respect. So a Guyanese literature really started then with writers exploring those themes and was consolidated and given validation through the 1950s and 1960s, looking towards independence and the future.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

Poems (of resistance, of succession, and of affinity) by Martin Carter encapsulate that shift more than the work of any other writer of the time. Poems of pride in people, place and country from the pens of A. J. Seymour and numerous others formed part of the equation of giving validity to a Guyanese identity and sovereignty. There can be no doubt that after Independence there was a marked increase in publications by Guyanese writers, both from the established and the emerging ones, both from the locals and those in the Diaspora.

Publishing

Self-publishing was a notable feature of the post-Independence period. Sheik Sadeek was a pioneer in this field, printing his own works of poetry, short fiction and drama, and the material of other writers. The Guyanese Writers and Artists Association and other entities like the Free Press, Release Publishers, Demerara Publishers, Red Thread Women’s Press made significant contributions in this area. Overseas publishing houses also started taking a healthy interest in local writers with the most notable contribution coming from Peepal Tree Press. The Caribbean Press instituted under former President


Bharrat Jagdeo which in less than a decade of operation published over seventy Guyanese titles of rare books and contemporary writing. The situation for publishing has changed but not significantly to effect a shift from self-publishing. In fact, the digital age has enhanced self-publishing. Other enabling features of this emerging literature could be found in the upsurge in formation of literary organizations, founding of literary magazines, publications of anthologies, offering of prizes, recognition of women writers and the opening of performance venues.

included estrangement and the quest for harmony which were dealt with by writers like Jan Shinebourne, Sasenarine Persaud, Harischandra Khemraj, Grace Nichols, Roy Heath and Narmala Shewcharan, among others.

Prizes

The Guyana Prize for Literature initiated by the late President Desmond Hoyte in 1987 was another defining moment in our literary heritage. Some recent winners like Ruel Johnson, Subraj Singh, Ryhaan Shah and a few writers like Oonya Kempadoo will be a force to be reckoned with in the near and not too distant future.

Organizations

In due time, the liberation of the imagination in our writers was harnessed and streamlined with the formation of organizations like the PEN - Guyana Writers Group, the Annandale Group of Writers, the Pavements Poets and the Messenger Group. The Culture Corp of the Guyana National Service also played a role in producing writers imbued with political and nationalistic fervour; much of what was published did not stand the test of time. Mahadai Das was perhaps the Corp’s best known poetess. Later, in the new millennium, many other literary organizations like the Association of Guyanese Writers and Artists, Janus, and Writers in Concert (WICK) were birthed. As time went by, the convergence of writers through those organizations extended the debate/ discussion on current issues to include a wide cross section of society for whom the writers were supplying new words/phrases to address new experiences. New experiences of this era

of Local Indian Verse’ edited by C. E. J. Ramcharitar-Lalla (1934) and ‘They Came In Ships’, An Anthology of Indo-Guyanese Prose and Poetry, selected by Lloyd Searwar, Ian McDonald, Laxhmie Kallicharan, and Joel Benjamin, published in 1988.

Magazines

Magazines like Kaie, Kyk-overAl, New World, Dawn, Heritage, Plexus, Expression, the Arts Journal and the Guyana Annual offered intermediate avenues for showcasing emerging writers and some were responsible for launching the career of many writers who have gone on to international recognition. In the new millennium, the Guyana Entertainment Magazine (GEM) came on stream and is worthy of mention here due to some space provided for book reviews over the years and it has now introduced ‘a literary corner’.

Anthologies

Anthologies acted as yardsticks to the nation’s literary development and as bookkeepers of the nation’s invaluable literary heritage. Some prominent anthologies included ‘Guianese Poetry’, edited by N. E. Cameron (1931), ‘An Anthology

(The Jagan G old Me da l for Literature offered during 1961 to 1964 by Dr. Cheddi Jagan, first Premier of British Guiana, is worthy of note in this section.)

Performance venues

C ar i b b e an Fe s t i v a l of A r t s (Carifesta) founded by the late President Forbes Burnham added a new major performance venue, the National Cultural Centre, to existing ones created by various forms of the performing arts, and poetry reading. The Theatre Guild founded in 1957 was for decades the major performance venue.

The Indigenous Voice

The indigenous voice which was stifled for a long while starting s u p p l y i n g n e w nu a n c e s t o mainstream literature as it became ‘A Merry Indian No More’. See the encroachment of the environment, its beauty, its destruction, and its recovery in the poetry of David Campbell, Basil Rodrigues and Edwina Melville. (The prose of

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

109


Fifty Golden Years of Guyanese Literature Wilson Harris ought to be given mention here.)

Pauline Melville

Women Writers

A glorious manifestation of this Post-Independence period was

GUYANA

1966 - 2016

the emergence of women writing, enriching the literary landscape from a different perspective as women were able to ‘tease out the truth’ in many instances. Our women writers also grabbed world attention. In poetry, Grace Nichols won the Commonwealth Prize, in fiction, Pauline Melville the Whitbread Prize and Karen KingAribisala the Commonwealth Prize, and in drama, Paloma Mohamed the Anthony Sabga Caribbean Award for Arts and Letters.

Literary Studies

Academics from around the world have and are continuing to do dissertations on the our literature namely on the work of Martin Carter, Wilson Harris,

Jan Carew, Edgar Mittelholzer, David Dabydeen, Cyril Dabydeen, Sasenarine Persaud, among others. And I am sure in the near future local resident academics will take as much pride in our literature and do us proud. It is imperative to have the scholarship alongside the creative literature. Fifty years in life of a nation’s literature is not a very long time but we have achieved much, far too much to do justice to in this short paper. But when we string these bits and pieces together, we would find, without a doubt, that we have indeed produced a solid core of writing that we can proudly call Guyanese Literature.

New York Jubilee Celebrations

Commemorative Events June 4 -12, 2016

110

January 16, 2015 - Official New York Celebration lunch – Jamaica Performing Arts Center, 153-10 Jamaica Ave, Queens, New York 11432

June 8th - United Nations Reception to Commemorate 50 Years of Membership, Manhattan

June 4th - Interfaith Prayer Service, Queens

June 4th – Unity Concert, Brooklyn

June 9th - Flag Raising Ceremony, Paul Robeson Stadium, East Orange, New Jersey

June 5 - Symposium on the History & Development of Guyana, Queens

June 10th - Cultural Extravaganza, Prospect High School Performing Arts Theater Brooklyn, New York.

June 6th – Exhibition of Guyanese Art, Permanent Mission of Guyana to the United Nations, Manhattan

June 11th - President’s Cup Soccer Tournament & Youth Fun Day, Brooklyn

June 7 “- Invest Guyana” Business and Investment Conference, Manhattan

June 11th - State Dinner & Awards Ceremony (evening), Manhattan

June 8th - “Guyana Gives Back,” Day of Volunteerism, Queens & Brooklyn

June 12th – “Mashramani in New York,” Brooklyn

th

th

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


OUR NATION NEEDS SAFE & WHOLESOME FOODS FOOD IMPORTERS MUST FOLLOW THESE GUIDELINES: Obtain a Permit to import food from the Government Analyst- Food and Drug Department, which is renewable annually for GY $ 20,000. ALL food items imported must be accompanied with the following documents: 1. A Free Sale or Export Health Certificate 2. A Certificate of Analysis 3. And a Commercial Invoice Food must be stored in bonds that are adequately lighted and ventilated. Food must be stored at least 18 inches away from walls and at least 6 inches off the ground. Sanitation, Pest control and Distribution records must be kept and maintained. Foods must have at least 75% of their shelf life at the time of importation. Food labels must be in English and the list of ingredients, expiry date and country of origin must be stated. Our nation deserve safe and wholesome foods. A message from the Government-Analyst Food and Drug Department. For more information call: 222- 8857- 61, email: fooddrugŠhealth.gov.gy

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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Scenes from

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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Scenes from

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION


GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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50 Anniversary th

GUYANA

1966 - 2016

Guyana C A L E N D A R

Reflect, Celebrate, Inspire

MAY 1st

Discussion. (Region 4) National Library MAY 4th

• National Day of Prayer (Countrywide)

• Matarkai Day (Region 1)

• National Labour Day Parade Countrywide.

MAY 2nd • Jubilee Literary Festival Digital Tent (Region 4) National Library. MAY 2nd - 22nd

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MAY 8th

• Fine Art Festival – National Collection (Region 4), National Art Gallery MAY 5th • Jubilee Literary Festival continues (Region 4) Indian Monument Gardens (Camp and Church Streets) @ 6pm

MAY 2nd - 31st • Fine Art Festival National Collection (Region 4)

MAY 6th • National Theatre Festival (Region 4) The plays will be held on all of the four weekends of the month at the Theatre Guild at 8pm each night.

MAY 3rd • Jubilee Literary Festival Lecture and Round Table

• Jubilee Literary Festival continues... (Region 6)

• Literary Fest (National Library)

• Republic Road Jubilee Jam (Region 6) New Amsterdam @ 9pm MAY 7th • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues (Region 3) Parika Market Square @ 9am

• May Day Unity Rally Countrywide.

• Guyana International Music Awards (Region 4) The National Cultural Centre.

“Lunch with Mittelholzer” New Amsterdam @1pm

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

• National Swimming Competition (Region 4) Aquatic Centre @10am MAY 9th • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues - Playwriting Workshops (Region 4) The National Cultural Centre @10am MAY 10th • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues - The Arts and Criticism (Region 4) The National Library


MAY 11th

New Amsterdam Multilateral School. MAY 14th • Independence Swim Meet for Persons with Disabilities (Region 4) National Aquatic Centre.

• National Unity Day and Day of Prayer Countrywide • Independence Sports Day, (Region 10) Linden @10am • National Social Cohesion Day Countrywide MAY 12th • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues - New Digital Media and Literacy (Region 4) The National Library • Health @ 50 in Guyana – P.A.H.O/W.H.O (Region 4) Launch of the Progress Health Report (1966 – 2016) and a Photo Gallery Book @ The Marriot Hotel (Invitation Only) • Health @ 50 in Guyana – P.A.H.O/W.H.O (Region 4) Dinner Honoring Persons of Outstanding Health Contributions @ The Marriot Hotel (Invitation Only) • GUY EXPO (Region 4)

• Inter-Secondary School Debating Competition (Region 6) Various schools in Berbice. • Unveiling of Golden Jubilee Totem Pole (Region 4) Umana Yana. • Moruca Village Day Fair (Region 1) Moruca @10am.

MAY 15th • Luncheon for the Elderly (Region 10) Kwakwani Worker’s Club. • Beach Volleyball (Region 10) Famous Blue Water Creek in Linden. • National Steel Orchestra Album Launch (Region 4) National Cultural Centre. • Cavalcade of Sports (Region 6) Albion Sports Club. • Launch of Linden Town Week (Region 10) MAY 16th • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues- Playwriting Workshop (Region 2) Anna Regina Multilateral School. • Jubilee May Pole Day (Region 1) Moruca.

• Country Wide Road Race Cycling (Region 4) Timehri to East Coast Demerara @10am. • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues “Lunch with Peter Kempadoo” @1pm. My Bones and My Flute - Boat Cruise, Berbice River @ 8pm.

MAY 13th • Health @ 50 in Guyana: Symposium – P.A.H.O/W.H.O (Region 4)

MAY 15th - 28th • National Trust - Architecture and Heritage Festival (All Regions) @10am - 3pm each day.

• Recognition of Guyana’s Creative Artists • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues- Play writing Workshop (Region 5)

MAY 15th - 21st • Launch of Linden Town Week (Region 10) The Market Square

MAY 17th • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues - Publishing Workshop (Region 4) The National Library. MAY 18th

• National Museum Day Exhibition • Unveiling of Independence Arch

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50th Anniversary

CALENDAR

MAY 19th • “Mic Up” Competition (Region 10) River Front Co-op Crescent @6pm • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues - Meet The Guyana Prize for Literature Laureates (Region 4) The National Library. MAY 19th - 21st

MAY 21st • Guyana Action Committee Gala (Region 4) • Fusion of Cultures/ North West Awards Ceremony • Police Gymkhana (Region 6) • “Tales of Our Fathers” Play (Region 10) LICHAS • Independence Exposition (Region 10) MAY 22nd

MAY 20th • The Golden Jubilee Literary Street Fair (Region 4) Avenue of Republic, Georgetown. • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues- “Ottoman and We” (Region 10) Yukuriba. • Republic Road Jubilee Jam (Region 6) New Amsterdam.

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MAY 23rd - 24th • National Symposium including Distinguished Lecture (Region 4) Arthur Chung Conference Centre. MAY 23rd • The Digital Tent (Region 4) Arthur Chung Conference Centre • Legacy of Iconic Guyanese Women - Launch (Region 4) Arthur Chung Conference Centre • National Creative Writing Competition Giftland Mall.

• Inter-region Steel Band Clash ‘Pan on de Walls’ Seawall Boardwalk MAY 19th - 22nd • Jubilee Festival (Region 4) May 19th - 22nd National Stadium.

• Ex-Athletes Track & Field (TBA)

• Miss Guyana World Pageant (Region 4). • Independence Horse Racing Cup (Region 5). • Dedication of Unity Park (Region 2) Perth Village, Essequibo. • Boat Cruise (Region 10). • Jubilee Literary Festival Continues “Future Tense”: Isika. • Schools Pan Explosion (Interregional schools steel band competition (Region 4) Merriman’s Mall.

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

• Short Play Writing Competition Giftland Mall • National Poetry Slam - On the theme of Independence Giftland Mall • Guyana Golden Jubilee Distinguished Lecture (TBA) MAY 23rd - 24th • Steel Pan Symposium (workshop, demonstrations, exhibition), Youth Village (Region 4) National Park. MAY 24th • Book Launch - Guyana at 50 (Region 4) Arthur Chung Conference Centre • Book Launch - Coffee Table Publications (Region 4)


Arthur Chung Conference Centre • The Legacy Of Female Icons (Region 4) • Literary Prize Giving Ceremony (Region 4) Arthur Chung Conference Centre

MAY 26th • Jubilee Float Parade (Region 4)

• Football (National Stadium)

• GTT sponsored Mega Event (Region 4) National Stadium

MAY 29th • T–20 Cricket (Region 4) National Stadium

MAY 27th • Day of Sports (Region 1) • Elite League Football Championship (Region 4) National Stadium

• Culture Night (Region 4) Golden Grove MAY 31st • Youth Reception (Region 4) Lawns of State House @7pm

• 50 Shades of Reggae Hj Water World • Football (Region 10) Regional Members Association Finals Linden Sports Club (CONCACAF)

MAY 28th • 50th Anniversary Gala (Region 4) Arthur Chung Conference Centre • Folk Festival (TBA)

• Prepared Speech Competition on Independence (Region 4) Carifesta Sports Complex

JUNE 3rd • Youth Parilament (Region 4) Parliament

MAY 25th • International Football Friendly (Region 4) National Stadium

• Village Day Launch (Region 4) June 4th - Cane Grove June 11th - Victoria June 18th - Chateau Margot June 25th - Diamond July 2nd - St. Cuthbert’s Mission

• T–20 Cricket (Region 6) Albion Sports Club • Mabaruma Independence Ball (Region 1) Brooms Resort • Finals of the 10/10 Softball cricket Competition (Region 4) National Stadium @10am

• National Flag Raising Ceremony (Region 4) Durban Park @ 9pm

• Banks DIH sponsored Mega Concert (Region 4) National Stadium @ 8pm

JUNE 12th - 13th • Youth Village (Region 4) National Park NOVEMBER 19th - 20th • Steel Band Music Festival and Award Ceremony (Region 4) Cliff Anderson Sports Hall

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

119


BUSINESS Contacts PRIVATE SECTOR COMMISSION 157 Waterloo Street, N/Cummingsburg, Georgetown Tel: (592) 225-0977 Fax: (592) 225-0978 Email: office@psc.org.gy Website: www.psc.org.gy FOREST PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION OF GUYANA 157 Waterloo Street, N/Cummingsburg Georgetown Tel: (592) 226-9848 Fax: (592) 226-2832 Email: fpasect@guyana.net.gy GUYANA MANUFACTURING & SERVICES ASSOCIATION 157 Waterloo Street, N/Cummingsburg Georgetown Tel: (592) 223-7405/06 Fax: (592) 225-5615 Email: gma_guyana@yahoo.com Website: www.gma.org.gy GUYANA ASSOCIATION OF TRAVEL AGENTS Wm Fogarty Building, 34-37 Water Street, Georgetown Tel: (592) 227-7225 Fax: (592) 225-2513 Email: debra.barron@laparkan.com GUYANA RICE PRODUCERS’ ASSOCIATION Block X, Crane, West Coast Demerara Tel: (592) 254-2012/13 Email: rparice1946@yahoo.com TOURISM & HOSPITALITY ASSOCIATION OF GUYANA 157 Waterloo Street, N/Cummingsburg Georgetown Tel: (592) 225-0807/0817 Fax: (592) 225-0817 Email: thag.secretariat@gmail.com Website: www.exploreguyana.org

CENTRAL CORENTYNE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 65 A Public Road, Rose Hall Town, Corentyne Berbice Tel: (592) 337-4778/5120 Email: central_chamber@yahoo.com WEST DEMERARA/EAST BANK ESSEQUIBO & ISLANDS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY Ocean View Dr. Ruimzeight, West Coast Demerara Tel: (592) 269-0020 /30 Fax: (592) 269-0022 Email: westdemerara_chamber@yahoo.com GOVERNMENT OFFICES & AGENCIES Ministry of Business 229 South Road, Lacytown, Georgetown Tel: (592) 226-2505 Fax: (592) 225-9898 Email: wmilton_ps@yahoo.com Guyana Revenue Authority 200-201 Camp Street Georgetown Tel: 512(592)227-6060 or 227-8222

CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE GEORGETOWN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY 156 Waterloo Street, N/Cummingsburg Georgetown Tel: (592) 227-6441 or 225-5846 Tel/Fax: (592) 226-3519 Email: gtchambe@networksgy.com / gccicommerce2009@gmail.com Website: www.gccigy.org

Ministry of Finance Main & Urquhart Streets Georgetown, Guyana Tel No: 00 592 227 1114/ 225 6088

BERBICE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND DEVELOPMENT 12 Chapel Street, New Amsterdam, Berbice Tel: (592) 333-3324 Email: bccda@guyana.net.gy

Ministry of Tourism Colgrain House Camp Street Georgetown Tel: 225 6826

LINDEN CHAMBER OF INDUSTRY, COMMERCE & DEVELOPMENT 97-98 Republic Avenue, McKenzie, Linden Tel: (592) 444-2901 Email: infolindenchamber@gmailcom RUPUNUNI CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY Block ‘A’ Takatu Drive, Lethem, Rupununi Region 9 Tel: (592) 772-2213 Email: rupununirccigyahoo.com

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UPPER CORENTYNE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY 157 Line Path ‘B’ Corriverton, Berbice Tel: (592) 339-2935 Fax: (592) 335-3738 Email: uccci_9@yahoo.com / hemchand@ yahoo.com

GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

REGIONAL ORGANISATION CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY SECRETARIAT (CARICOM) P.O. Box 10827, Turkeyen, Greater Georgetown Tel: (592) 222-0001-75 Fax: (592) 222-0171 Email: registry@caricom.org Website: www. caricom.org


GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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Acknowledgments

Thank You, to all who made this publication possible

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ARTHUR CHUNG CONVENTION CENTRE Page 78

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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To questions on pages 84-86! 1. South Africa. 2. Edward Luckhoo. 3. Shemron Hetymer. 4. The Treaty of London. 5. 24. 6. Albert Walter Chancellor Jones. 7. Stephen Campbell. 8. 35 years. 9. Andrew `Six Head’ Lewis, Wayne `Big Truck’ Braithwaite, `Vicious’ Vivian Harris and Gairy St Clair 10. 256 against India. 11. Mount Roraima at 2,835 meters (9301.181 feet). 12. Lieutenant Desmond Roberts. 13. Suriname and French

Guiana. 14. Sir Lionel Luckhoo. 15. 627 miles long. 16. Union of South American Nations. 17. Mount Ayanganna, Monte Caburaí and Mount Roraima. 18. Augustus Hinds aka Bill Rogers in 1937. 19. The giant otter and harpy eagle. 20. 15,000. 21. American boxer Kathy Rivers. 22. December 9, 2013. 23. John “Slingshot” DrePaul. 24. Guyana 1972. 25. September 1966. 26. 1968.

27. Vivian J. Lee.

38. 1975.

28. Johnny Braff (It Burns Inside).

39. Brian Lara, 167 against England.

29. Austin and Joseph Castello in 1938.

40. “Work conquers all”.

30. Martin Carter. 31. Terry Nelson a.k.a Omar Farouk. 32. Ayube Ahamad Khan, MS, AA, aka Ayube Hamid. 33. Brigadier David Arthur Granger. 34. Cyril Shaw. 35. The Honourable Madam Justice Desiree Bernard, CCJJ, OR, CCH. 36. Against South Africa in 2005. 37. Minister of Sport.

41. Fort Island, Essequibo River. 42. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance. 43. 2010. 44. Babu John Memorial Site, Port Mourant, Corentyne. 45. Ian McDonald. 46. Haresh Singh. 47. Murray Street. 48. Rudy George. 49. The Equals. 50. Wordswoth McAndrew

SOON COMING SOON COMING SOON COMING SOON COMING

124

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GUYANA: THE GROWTH OF A NATION

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SOON COMING SOON COMING SOON COMING SOON COMING SOON COMING SOON COMING SOON


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GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation  

GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation is CMG's gift to the nation on its 50th independence anniversary (May 26, 2016). It is a 124-page high-qualit...

GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation  

GUYANA: The Growth of a Nation is CMG's gift to the nation on its 50th independence anniversary (May 26, 2016). It is a 124-page high-qualit...

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