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LSE$China$Development$Forum London$$|$$February$18,$2012


Introduc)on •

Asked/to/add/a/more/personal/dynamic/to/this/urbaniza)on/narra)ve,/so/I/will/be/the/ lightweight/in/academia/today

1


Migrants/and/Urbaniza)on/1 •

The/story/of/urbaniza)on/in/China/has/really/been/the/story/of/the/migra)on/of/poor/villagers/ to/the/ci)es/in/search/for/a/beCer/life/for/their/children

• •

But/what/they/find/is/oFen/far/from/what/they/expected

• •

1/6/to/1/3

• •

++++++++++++++++

When/we/look/at/China’s/urbaniza)on/not/in/isola)on/but/as/part/of/a/larger/history,/we/see/ that/urbaniza)on/is/inevitable/[*slides/x/10*] (MOCA)/Half/billion/more/in/China/and/the/2011/government/census/showed/the/majority/ now/live/in/ci)es;/both/a/China/issue/and/a/global/issue And/rather/than/misunderstanding/it,/ci)es/and/governments/can/embrace/it,/for/our/own/ good

‣ I’m/no/economist/but/it/seems/people/flow/to/emerging/economies/and/help/further/ grow/those/economies/with/their/contribu)ons

‣ Ci)es/have/become/so/interdependent/on/this/lowZcost/labor/that/they/would/grind/to/ an/immediate/halt/if/migrants/leF/tomorrow

2


1$(in)$3 $6$


55% Nepal <

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3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


2 mill Bangladesh <

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3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


55% India <

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


70,000 Egypt <

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


55% Kenya <

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


33% Brazil <

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


5 mill Indonesia <

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


40% Philippines <

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


250 mill China <

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3

4

5

6

7

8

9

>

>$$GLOBAL$ISSUE


1/2

billion


Migrants/and/Urbaniza)on/2 •

The/key/challenge/of/migrants/globally/and/in/China/is/one/of/informality./They/have/informal/ jobs,/educa)on,/healthcare,/housing…live/informal/lives/on/the/edges/of/our/ci)es

A/system/which/allows/migrant/families/to/more/easily/obtain/formal/status/in/their/ci)es/ would/go/a/long/way/in/helping/them/access/the/formal/educa)on,/healthcare,/and/ employment/systems/which/already/exist

• •

While/they/are/inves)ng/their/sweat/equity/into/the/ci)es/in/return

It/discounts/the/ability/of/migrants/to/contribute/in/our/socie)es/and/discounts/the/future/for/ their/children

The/idea/of/people/staying/on/their/small/farms/might/be/roman)c/to/us/as/urbanites/but/it/ simply/is/not/a/life/for/the/21st/century

3


Migrant/Perspec)ve •

Awhile/ago/I/went/to/lunch/with/one/of/the/migrant/contractors/who/was/renova)ng/our/ offices

• • •

He/explained/he/grew/up/in/a/village/of/300/people

• • •

I/asked/him/“what/caused/you/to/take/such/a/large/risk?”

He/was/doing/exactly/the/same/thing/for/his/daughter/that/you/and/I/would/do/for/our/ daughter

[[BREAK]]

As/he/was/speaking,/I/was/startled/to/realize/the/historical/significance/of/his/choice He/was/the/first/in/his/family/that/had/lived/in/that/small/village/for/hundreds/if/not/thousands/ of/years/who/decided/to/move/away He/replied/“It/is/for/my/3/year/daughter./I/want/her/to/have/a/future.” He/realized/that/the/village/farm/offered/no/future/for/his/daughter/in/today’s/society,/and/ was/determined/that/she/wouldn’t/be/leF/behind

4


Nonprofits/and/Urbaniza)on/1 OUR/OWN/EXPERIENCE •

When/I/founded/Compassion/for/Migrant/Children/in/2006,/it/was/because/liCle/aCen)on/was/given/ the/migrant/issue/at/that/)me

I/had/stumbled/into/that/first/migrant/community/and/couldn’t/sleep/for/months/because/I/ was/overwhelmed/by/what/I/saw/and/energized/by/ideas

• •

+++++++++++++++

Government/officials/did/their/job/well,/listen,/smile,/no/call/back/(whiteZs)ll/am,/no/ experience,/no/model,/no/millions/of/dollars,/influence)

We/were/stuck./In/order/to/get/their/aCen)on,/we/needed/scale./To/get/scale,/we/needed/a/ model./To/start/a/model,/we/needed/their/tacit/permission

So/we/worked/as/hard/and/as/fast/as/we/could/to/develop/something/that/could/catch/their/ aCen)on,/and/have/opened/7/community/centers/for/migrants/since/then/[*slide*]

From/the/beginning,/we/knew/that/if/we/wanted/to/do/anything/of/scale,/it/had/to/eventually/ involve/the/government/so/we/began/to/meet/with/different/departments

5


CMC$Community$Cubes

legos


Nonprofits/and/Urbaniza)on/2 OUR/OWN/EXPERIENCE •

We/were/quite/naive/back/in/2006/when/we/started.//LiCle/good/has/ever/come/from/ stupidity/but/much/good/can/come/from/naivety./When/you/don’t/know/it/can’t/be/done,/it/ gives/you/the/confidence/to/try

I/oFen/think/that/if/we/never/were/naïve/enough/to/start,/we/never/would/have/been/in/the/ posi)on/to/serve/thousands/of/migrants/today

• •

+++++++++++++++ The/road/hasn’t/always/been/easy/but/our/commitment/to/engaging/the/government/has/ been/worth/it,/and/we/have/found/many/allies/along/the/way

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Nonprofits/and/Urbaniza)on/3 NONPROFITS/ROLE • • •

And/over/)me,/they’ve/began/to/embrace/us/as/a/trustworthy/partner/(BIG3/Z/Fund,/SH,/funds)

Its/no/ques)on/that/primary/educa)on/and/healthcare/for/migrants/resides/firmly/in/the/realm/of/ government

+++++++++++++++

• •

Yet/nonprofits/also/have/a/role/to/play

We/are/at/our/best/when/we/can/inspire/others/to/take/ac)on

[[BREAK]]/+/3

And/this/is/important,/as/significant/change/on/the/migrant/issue/can’t/occur/without/the/government And/they/are/already/addressing/the/issues/of/migrants;/Hú/Jǐntāo,/Wēn/Jiābǎo/have/visited/migrant/ schools/and/communi)es/over/the/last/few/years/and/pledged/to/do/more

We/are/at/our/best/when/we/find/exis)ng/gaps/that/are/not/already/met/by/govt/or/market/forces,/ and/come/up/with/reasonable/responses,/and/pull/in/the/other/sectors/to/collaborate/together/on/ broad/and/sustainable/systema)c/change

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INCLUSIVE/CITIES/MICROci)es MICROZCITIES/(the/case/for/inves)ng/into/microZci)es) • • • • •

[*slide*] If/informality/is/the/greatest/challenge,/What/if/we/reimagine/migrant/communi)es/or/migrant/slums They/can/be/seen/as/microci)es/that/are/complementary/to/and/connected/with/macroci)es/[*slide*] This/could/bring/the/formality/and/apprecia)on/and/a/path/of/transi)on/that/is/needed Imagine/ The/migrant/phenomenon/could/well/become/the/defining/poli)cal/event/of/our/century/and/its/ important/we/all/do/our/part/to/get/it/right

• • •

Even/selfish/reasons/should/drive/us/to/care

Treat/migrants/as/we/would/want/to/be/treated;/we/don’t/want/handouts,/we/simply/want/opportuni)es/ and/the/encouragement/to/believe/in/ourselves

We/want/to/be/treated/with/genuineness/and/fairness/and/a/commitment/to/our/best,/to/not/be/kept/at/ arms/length

Dawangjing,/mother/threw/her/arms/open:/now/you're/here/to/live/life/with/us/[*slide*]//[[BREAK]]

+++++++++++++ And/yet/the/greatest/argument/in/paying/aCen)on/to/migrants/is/ul)mately/an/ethical/one:/our/fellow/ humans/deserve/to/be/included

8


reimagine


microcities

megacities$+$

a$partnership


Conclusion/1 •

I/am/assuming/you/are/here/today/because/you/are/from/China/or/you/have/significant/interest/in/ China

Come/back,/build/on/the/founda)on/of/today’s/leaders/who/have/already/done/so/much/in/just/a/few/ decades/in/China

• •

Our/social/fabric/is/as/important/as/our/GDP,/it/doesn’t/need/to/be/a/zeroZsum/game

If/you/do/this,/you/will/secure/the/future/for/all/of/our/children

When/its/your/turn/to/lead,/remember/the/migrant,/remember/the/underdog./Lead/with/rightness,/ with/fresh/eyes,/and/with/a/clear/sense/of/inclusion

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Conclusion/2 •

I/will/close/with/this./I/asked/my/wife/to/read/over/what/I/had/wriCen/to/share/with/you/today./She/said/ this/reminded/her/of/her/own/experience./Kimberley/was/born/in/Vietnam/to/Chinese/parents/and/ became/a/part/of/the/boat/people/exodus/to/HK/at/the/age/of/one./Her/family/eventually/made/it/to/the/ UK./Here/are/her/words:

‣ My#parents#took#a#journey#of#great#risk,#one#of#life#or#death,#when#they#stepped#into#a#boat#to#

cross#the#sea.#The#odds#of#survival#were#not#great.#Many#people#died#along#the#way#from#either# disease#or#because#of#the#rough#sea#or#a=acks#by#pirates.#My#parents#could#have#chosen#to#go# back#to#China#and#live#a#rural#life.##But#they#were#willing#to#risk#their#lives#in#hopes#of#a#be=er# future#for#their#family.#

‣ The#country#that#opened#their#arms#to#us#gave#us#rights#equal#to#all#other#ciAzens#of#their#country## C#the#right#to#educaAon,#healthcare#and#opportuniAes.#They#accepted#and#included#us.#The#risk# that#my#parents#took#at#the#Ame#changed#the#course#of#history#for#our#family#and#future# generaAons.#

‣ Within#one#short#generaAon,#our#family#is#no#longer#a#NongMin#farmer#village#family#C#but#one# that#consists#now#of#educated#professionals#and#entrepreneurs#

10


Conclusion/2b •

+++++++++++++++

That/first/day,/dozens/of/migrant/children/are/running/around/the/trashZfilled/alleyways/in/front/of/ me

• • • • •

They/didn’t/have/much

• •

May/we/find/the/courage/to/give/migrants/the/same/experience/of/inclusion/as/my/wife/has/been/given

But/they/had/a/crea)vity,/energy,/belief/in/their/own/future If/same/kids/born/in/NY,/London,/Hong/Kong Doctors,/lawyers,/and/godZforbid,/LSE/alumni So....3 We/won’t/regret/it

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LSE China Forum Speech (London)