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Changing Landscapes  Trends  and  Their  Effect  on  Society  Today China’s  Moving  Population BEIJING  ⏐  SHANGHAI

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Global  Context How  are  we  a  part  of  a  larger  phenomenon?

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Introduction Compassion for  Migrant  Children

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One in  six  people   worldwide  live  in  slum   dwellings.    

By 2020  it  will  be  one  in   three.

Source: UN-­‐HABITAT

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Global  Context  of  the  Migrant  Slum  Issue The  Third  World  cities  and  their  slums  grew  quickly  in  the   second  half  of  the  twentieth  century.

Source: Planet  of  Slums,  page  50-­‐51

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Global  Context  of  the  Migrant  Slum  Issue Distribution of slum dwellers by region Developed

Dra6

countries 5%

Sub-Saharan Africa 18%

Latin-America & Carribean 15 %

Asia 60%

Source: Slum  dwellers  estimates  country  level,  Gora  Mboup,  Senior  Demographic  and  Health  Expert,  GUO

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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China’s cities  are  developing  at  an   unprecedented  rate Between   2000   and   2030,   the   urban   areas   of   the   developing   countries   will   absorb   95   percent  of  world’s   population   growth.   Excessive  levels   of   urbanization  in  relation  to  the  economic  growth   have  resulted  in  high  levels  of  urban  poverty  and  rapid  expansion   of   unplanned   urban   settlements   and   slums,   which   are   characterized   by   a   lack   of   basic   infrastructure   and   services,   overcrowding   and   substandard   housing   conditions.   Slums   have   wide  adverse  impacts  on  people  and  the  society. UN-­‐HABITAT

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The China  Context What  is  China’s  story?

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Population Shift:   From  Rural  to  Urban 100% 75%

74%

64%

50% 25% 0%

50% 26% 1990

36%

2000

Rural

50%

2015

Urban

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

25

million migrant  children  in  China

250

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million migrants

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Overview

Massive migration  in  China   from  the  poor  countryside  to   the  burgeoning  cities  is   unprecedented  in  human   history

More migrants  are  coming   every  day  to  seek  a  better  life   for  their  children  

China’s thriving  economy  is   built  on  the  backs  of  migrant   workers

Beijing is  home  to  5  million   migrant  workers  and  500,000   migrant  children  Xinhua,  2007;  Global   Envision,  2007

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Overview While China’s  development  is  offering  tremendous  opportunities  to  those   from  its  countryside,  it  also  presents  new  challenges  and  uncertainties  to   those  who  choose  to  take  the  risk  of  moving  their  families  to  the  urban   centers.    Migration  to  cities  could  prove  to  be  a  great  blessing  or  a  great   threat  to  China’s  surge  towards  a  harmonious  society.    

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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5 Issues... Through  the  Lives  of   5  Migrants

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65% of  migrant  teachers  have  never  taught  before  which     leads  to  poor  quality  of  education.    Most  migrant  children   attend  unlicensed  private  schools  because  they  can’t   access  public  schools.  

65%

ISSUE

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EDUCATION

Name Unknown,  Shanghai

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Not only  do  internal  migrants  face  greater   occupational  hazards,  but  more  than  80  percent  lack   health  insurance.

80%

ISSUE

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HEALTH

Zhao Chun,  Beijing

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In 2009,  one  in  five  migrant  workers  could  not  find   work  or  had  been  laid  off,  a  situation  which  has  the   potential  to  lead  to  great  social  unrest.

1 in  5

ISSUE

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EMPLOYMENT

Zai Yang,  Beijing

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In Shanghai,  migrant  workers  occupy  an  average  of  less  than   seven  square  meters  per  person  and,  in  extreme  cases,  only   two  square  meters.

7 m

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2

ISSUE

HOUSING

Jin Rei,  Beijing

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In a  recent  survey,  only  63  percent  of  migrant  children   believed  they  were  a  useful  person  and  only  about  70   percent  of  migrant  children  felt  happy  about  their  lives.

63%

ISSUE

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SOCIAL EXCLUSION

Unknown Name,  Beijing

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Overview

These combined  factors  are  creating  a  situation  which  is  unsustainable  in   the  long  run  and  need  to  be  addressed  by  the  government,  the  public,  and   non-­‐governmental  organizations  if  there  is  to  be  a  China  in  which  basic   rights  are  equally  extended  to  each  of  its  citizens.

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billion

+ 500,000,000 China’s  Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Half a  billion  more  from  the  countryside   seen  going  urban  in  the  next  30  years  in   China.    There  are  already  250  million   migrants  in  the  cities.

The rapidly  converging  forces  of  soon-­‐to-­‐be  a  half  billion  migrants,    58   million  left-­‐behind  children,  the  one  child  policy,  and  competition  for   resources  is  creating  an  environment  that  is  exciting  but  fraught  with   challenges  that  call  for  bold,  consistent,  and  effective  responses.  

Source: http://china.globaltimes.cn/society/2010-­‐02/507860.html

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15%

China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

By 2030,  

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of  the  world’s  

population will  have  moved  from  the   countryside  to  the  urban  areas  and  most   of  this  within  the  borders  of  China

Source: McKinsey

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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China’s Historical  Context 1949

Initially the  1949  Chinese  Revolution  opened  city  gates  to  returning  refugees  and  job-­‐hungry  peasant  ex-­‐soldiers.     The  result  was  an  uncontrolled  inundation  of  the  cities:  some  14  million  people  arrived  in  just  four  years.

1953

Finally, in  1953  the  new  regime  dammed  the  rural  flood  with  stringent  controls  over  internal  migration.    Maoism   simultaneously  privileged  the  urban  proletariat  -­‐  beneficiaries  of  the  iron  rice  bowl  and  cradle-­‐to-­‐grave  welfare  -­‐   and  tightly  constrained  urban  population  growth  through  the  adoption  of  a  household  registration  system  (hukou)   that  tied  social  citizenship  to  sedentary  membership  in  a  work  unit.    Most  urban  shantytowns  were  abolished  by   1960.

1960s

In the  early  1960s,  huge  numbers  of  unregistered  urban  immigrants  -­‐  some  estimates  are  as  high  as  50  million  -­‐   were  deported  back  to  their  villages.

1980s

The Chinese  state  alone  in  the  developing  world  during  the  1980s  and  1990s  managed  to  construct  vast  quantities   of  decent  mass  housing,  called  the  “unsung  revolution”.    Even  so,  it  fell  far  short  of  the  needs  of  tens  of  millions  of   peasants  moving  to  the  cities.

Source: Planet  of  Slums,  page  53,  54,  62

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Overview

three Ds

Because they  fill  the  existing  labor  gaps,  migrant  workers  often  find  jobs   referred  to  as  the  “three  Ds”  jobs:  dirty,  dangerous,  or  degrading

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Overview

Inevitably, their  children    are  the  ones  who  pay  the  highest  price.    With  no   support  network  in  the  new  city  and  parents  working  long  hours  every   day,  they  are  at  risk  of  becoming  the  “forgotten”  children  of  China.    As  a   result  of  China’s  unique  registration  system  (hukou),  which  ties  each   citizen  to  their  place  of  birth,  these  children  often  end  up  on  the  fringes  of   society.  

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The China  Context What  is  China’s  story?

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Incentives to  Migrate

Better Employment   Higher  Wages  (a  large   Opportunities  (increased   differential  in  living   agricultural  productivity  led   standards) to  labor  surplus  in  the  country   side) Increased  Mobility  in  the   1980s  

The future  of  their  children

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Obstacles to  Integration • The  hukou  system  still  ties  migrant  workers  to  their  original  rural  residence  and  excludes  them  from   health  care,  education,  and  social  security,  among  other  social  services  in  the  cities;  think  of  it  as  a   social  security  card  that  can  only  be  used  in  your  birthplace

• Limited political  participation  and  collective  action • Weak  legal  protection   • Poor  access  to  housing   • Largely  excluded  from  accessing  public  education • Social  discrimination  and  cultural  exclusion  –  majority  of  urban  dwellers  consider  migrants  to  be   socially  and  culturally  inferior  (“meiyou  wenhua”)

• The cheap  labor  of  the  migrant  workers  is  welcomed,  but  their  accompanying  presence  is  not • Little  resources  to  live  as  an  equal  to  the  urban  dwellers

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Influx of  Migrants  Continues • Despite  the  de  facto  second-­‐tier  citizenship,  migrant  workers  continue  to  flow  into  the  cities  in   search  of  better  economic  opportunities  .    Despite  the  low  quality  of  the  working  conditions,  they   are  often  able  to  send  much  more  money  home  than  if  they  had  remained  to  work  their  lands.

• Interestingly enough,  we  have  found  that  there  are  several  social  class  distinctions  even  within  the   migrant  community  itself.    Those  who  are  migrant  entrepreneurs  feel  little  in  common  with  small   traders,  migrant  wage  workers,  and  those  at  the  bottom  who  collect  the  trash  and  sweep  the   streets.  (Li  Zhang,  2001)    This  lends  to  the  building  of  a  societal  framework  even  within  these  ad-­‐ hoc  communities.

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Service  Sector • Has  been  many  years  ago  that  the  majority  migrant  was  a  construction  or  factory  worker.    The   majority  migrant  now  works  in  the  service  industry.

• The service  industry  has  quickly  grown  out  of  reaction  to  the  quickly  burgeoning  middle  class  in   China,  which  needs  more  mechanics  for  their  more  cars,  more  ayis  to  clean  their  homes,  more   waitresses  to  serve  them  during  their  increased  restaurant  visits.

• For this  reason,  we  don’t  see  migration  slowing,  even  if  the  manufacturing  and  construction  sectors   decrease  in  coming  years.

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Government/Policy Landscape • Most  laws  relating  to  migrants  are  “grey  laws” • Public  Security  Bureau  is  appointed  as  lead  agency  on  migrants;  the  “criminal”  mentality • 1996  and  2006  education  reforms • The  education  laws  have  had  limited  effect  on  urban  governments  but  did  cause  an  increase  of   children  leaving  their  parents  after  elementary  or  middle  school  to  return  to  their  hometowns  for   “free”  enrollment

• Opened up  legal  center  in  2005  to  assist  migrant  construction  workers  to  obtain  non-­‐paid  wages;   halved  the  amount  of  non-­‐paid  wages  within  one  year

• Much lip  service  but  change  can’t  be  too  far  behind  if  “harmonious  society”  to  be  held  together • Government  generally  moving  in  the  right  direction

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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A Few  Key  Trends • Migrants  stabilizing  in  their  cities   • Future  migration  likely  to  largely  take  place  in  tier  2-­‐4  cities • Increase  of  migrants  in  the  service  industry  rather  than  the  manufacturing  industry  (due  to   burgeoning  middle  class)  

• Government toying  with  education  reforms  in  Shanghai  (and  toying  a  wee  bit  with  hukou  reform  as   well)

• Strong entrepreneurial  spirit  still  thriving

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Next  10  Years? • China  government  simply  attempting  to  quietly  learn  how  to  manage;  allowing  NGOs  to  play  a   role,  though  on  a  leash

• China is  increasingly  moving  in  the  direction  of  the  rule  of  law • NGOs  playing  an  increasingly  important  role,  particularly  Chinese  NGOs;  a  genuine  shift  in   government  stance  on  registration  of  social  entities,  either  local  or  foreign  (kept  off  balance)  may   actually  happen  within  2  years

• Chinese media  is  an  increasingly  powerful  force  (ex:  crackdown  of  summer  2006) • Believe  we  will  see  migrants  “gently”  organizing  themselves  in  “soft”  groups  to  represent  their   interests

• Education reform  will  likely  happen  (could  be  catch  22  for  govt) • Economic  patterns  show  that  people  flow  to  emerging  markets  and  naturally  become  a  part  of  the   growth  themselves;  might  be  painful  initially  but  China  should  not  be  afraid  

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Next  10  Years? • The  PSB  recently  re-­‐confirmed  to  oversee  migrants  registration  for  next  years  to  come  so  no  big   change  here

• We believe  leverage  points  will  come  in  public  opinion  (informed  by  a  more  direct  media),  the   ability  of  migrants  to  form  informal  groups,  and  three-­‐way  collaborative  initiatives  between  the   nonprofit,  business,  and  government  sectors  which  will  serve  to  inform  and  catalyze  stronger   government  programs

• We believe  we  will  see  increasingly  assertive  and  effective  government  initiatives  on  behalf  of  the   migrants

• Overall trend  still  uncertain,  but  moving  in  a  positive  direction • Shifts  are  in  the  migrant’s  favor • Hopefully  in  10  years,  there  will  be  no  need  for  us  to  meet  together  about  this  particular  issue:) • What  will  this  take?

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Our vision  will  not  be  fully  realized  in  this   generation  but  hopefully,  we  can  give  this   generation  a  foothold  in  society  so  that  their   children  can  be  born  into  a  world  where  they  don’t   have  to  question  whether  they  are  second-­‐class   citizens  but  are  able  to  access  the  best  Chinese   society  has  to  offer.

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Resources Reach out  for  more

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Living in  the  Shadows:  China's  Internal  Migrants

Source: View  on  www.mrn-­‐china.org

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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China Source  White  Paper  on  Migrants

Source: ChinaSource

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Useful Websites Compassion  for  Migrant  Children www.cmc-­‐china.org

December 18  Website www.dec18.org

Dra6

Migrant Resource  Network  Website www.mrn-­‐china.org

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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A Response Where  to  now?

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

BEIJING ⏐  SHANGHAI BEIJING  ⏐  SHANGHAI

So knowing  this,  do  we  have  any  responsibility?    If   so,  what  could  we  do?

© Compassion  for  Migrant  Children


China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Possible Responses

Community Centers

The Arts

Clean Water

Confidence Building

Vocational Training

Serving Sex  Workers

After School  Programs

Etc

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Compassion for  Migrant  Children Compassion  for  Migrant  Children  (CMC)  strategically  builds  community   centers  in  the  heart  of  migrant  neighborhoods  and  provides  services  to   over  2,800  migrant  children  and  their  family  each  week  through  an   assets-­‐based  approach.    A  comprehensive  system  of  integrated  service   include  education  (after  school  programs,  teacher  training),  life-­‐ vocational  skills  training,  personal  development,  and  health.    CMC  is  a   registered  nonprofit  organization.

we believe  in  a  future  and  a  hope  for  every  migrant  child

© Compassion  for  Migrant  Children


China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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CMC Community  Centers

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010 One  Possible  Solution: Shipping  Container  Community  Centers

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'5$

© Compassion  for  Migrant  Children


China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Problems  Being  Addressed In  efforts  to  address  these  key  issues  and  challenges  faced  by  migrant  children  and   communities,  Compassion  for  Migrant  Children  (CMC)  conducts  programs  at  our  community   centers  that  focus  on  education,  life  and  vocational  skills  training,  and  personal  development.   In  2010,  CMC  looks  forward  to  expanding  our  personal  development  initiatives  and  health   education  workshops.  CMC’s  core  programs  (After  School  Program,  Teacher  Training,  and  Life-­‐ Vocational  Skills  Training)  address  problems  of  low  self-­‐esteem,  substandard  education,  and   gaps  that  exist  in  the  educational  infrastructure  of  migrant  schools.  Our  increasing  focus  on   personal  development  will  address  issues  of  low  self-­‐esteem  and  provide  parenting  workshops   while  our  upcoming  health  initiatives  will  concentrate  on  health  awareness  and  education.     In  addition,  the  overall  structure  of  CMC’s  community  centers  provide  a  safe  and  welcoming   place  for  migrants  and  their  families,  free  from  the  stigma  and  marginalization  they  often   otherwise  face  in  society.  In  the  midst  of  this  fractured  and  disenfranchised  section  of  society,   our  centers  offer  a  sense  of  stability,  ownership,  and  community.  The  centers  have  become   platforms  of  cohesion,  collaboration,  and  creativity  as  migrant  children,  parents,  and  teachers   come  together  to  move  towards  places  of  greater  hope.

© Compassion  for  Migrant  Children


China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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Economic Trends Chris  Turner

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China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

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The Economy

•China and  the  WTO  trends    -­‐  now  ten  years  in •The  RMB  exchange  rate  revaluation  (which  now  happened) •The  hallowed  8%  of  GDP  each  year  and  how  this  ensures   "stability”

•Affects on  labor  and  trends  in  salaries  for  migrant  workers  -­‐   displacement  (again)  and  replacement  flows  of  migrants   because  of  economic  financial  flows

© Compassion  for  Migrant  Children


China’s Migrants Overview  and  Trends  2010

BEIJING ⏐  SHANGHAI BEIJING  ⏐  SHANGHAI

Q &  A

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Changing Landscapes - China's Moving Population  

A 30 minute overview of migrants in China

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