Page 1

PROCEEDINGS


Organization Committee Conference Chairs Sofia Morgado João Rafael Santos Conference Manager Inês Moreira Workshop Coordinators Maria Manuela Mendes Miguel Baptista-Bastos

Inês Simões José Beirão Support team Ana Branco Catarina Castro Cláudia Rosete Diogo Silvestre Inês Cabaça Inês Mota Manuel Vieira Maria Amélia Ferreira, Cláudia Gomes, Ana Cotrim

FA.UTL Offices Scientific Committee

Dulce Loução, FA.UTL, Portugal Fernando Moreira da Silva, FA.UTL, Portugal Gabriella Esposito Di Vita, CNR, Italy João Paulo Martins, FA.UTL, Portugal João Pedro Costa, FA.UTL, Portugal João Sousa Morais, FA.UTL, Portugal Jorge Spencer, FA.UTL, Portugal Marcello Magoni, DiaP, Polimi, Italy Matej Niksic, UPIRS, Slovenia Pedro George, FA.UTL, Portugal Sabine Knierbein, SKuOr, TU Wien, Austria Track Chairs Alexander Wandl, TU Delft, The Netherlands Magdalena Rembeza, GUT, Poland Manuela Mendes, FAUTL, Portugal Rossella Salerno, DiAP Polimi, Italy Sara Santos Cruz, CITTA/FEUP, Portugal Sara Sucena, U.F. Pessoa, Portugal Publication Credits [inclusive of proceedings book, full papers and any other document included in the CD-ROM] Sofia Morgado & João Rafael Santos Coordinators Inês Moreira Contents organisation Authors of abstracts and papers; others, where referred ISBN: 978-972-9346-28-6 CD-ROM Faculdade de Arquitectura, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Editor Lisboa, 2012


Institutional partners:

Sponsors:


THE TOPIC

11

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS

12

Ali Madanipour Carlos Dias Coelho Frank Eckardt José Pinto Duarte

SCHEDULE

15

NOT FOR TOURISTS WALKING WORKSHOP

19

Workshop 1 - Urban patchwork

19

Workshop 2 - Shared spaces, crossing cultures

20

Workshop 3 - Hills, valleys and climbing machines

21

Workshop’s get-together and the AESOP Thematic Group Public Spaces and Urban Cultures meeting

22

THE DEBATE

25

EMPTY CITIES

25

How uncertain is this project? instability and future of “Arco Ribeirinho Sul” project Ana Brandão Urban cohesion: a guiding concept for new urban realities Ana Júlia Pinto Antoni Remesar Redefining the border between public and private in ambiguous modernist areas: The case of Amsterdam Nieuw West Birgit Hausleitner Facing the Abandonment of Public Places: the case of the historical artisanal market area of Naples “Città Bassa” Claudia Trillo Gabriella Esposito Di Vita Stefania Oppido Creating Futures: Unpacking Scarcity Deljana Iossifova

28 30

32

33

35

Occupied abandoned buildings. Informalization as a revitalization factor of the city João Amaral The demographic decline within the arco ribeirinho sul area José Vargas Policy planning proposal for Chittagong, Bangladesh region to impede increase human and sex trafficking of children Florina Dutt Subhajit Das

36 38

40

The dynamic Polish suburban landscape created by SME sector Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek Olga Martyniuk

41

The future of compact and empty cities

43 5


M. Francisca Lima Event Infrastructure – Short-lived or Forever? Małgorzata Kostrzewska Magdalena Rembeza

44

Integrated model for the regeneration of historical urban space in Naples (Italy) Marina Rigillo Cristina Vigo Majello

45

Our School – an old space with a new role in the city Sónia Rafaela Salgueiro

47

COLLECTIVE SPACES

49

Public Spaces, Private art? Expressions of power through the contexts of production of art in public spaces Ágata Dourado Sequeira

51

Whose public goods? Public spaces and social change in Naples, Italy Andrea Varriale

52

Gentrifying Diversity? What future for Mouraria? Beatriz Padilla Tiago Chaves

54

Community Planning in Contested Public Places: the case of Belfast Gabriella Esposito Di Vita Claudia Trillo Alona Martinez-Perez

55

Collective or exclusive spaces? How Vienna’s culture-led image frames its future urban development paths Johannes Suitner Ambivalent subjectivities in a Secular Age Jorge Rivera

56 58

Networks for a Necessary Public Space: Intervention around the Circunvalación Road of the Cerro de Santa Catalina, Jaen (Spain) Juan Luis Rivas Navarro Belén Bravo Rodríguez

59

Nature and the landscape of informal spaces. A new urban paradigm? Maria João Matos

61

Using Publicness as a public space transdisciplinary analysis tool Miguel Lopes Sara Santos Cruz Paulo Pinho

62

(Un)public places. on shopping centres and public space in the contemporary city Miguel Silva Graça Changing ’inclusivity‘ of an urban park in the ambivalent historic urbanscape of Ankara Oya Memlük Müge Akkar Ercan

63

65

Toward a German Mosque Ossama Hegazy

66

New Urban Landscapes between materials structures and digital representation Rossella Salerno

67

LIVING INFRASTRUCTURES

69

The centrality of a peripheral route – the Taveiro node`s case Ana Margarida Tavares

71

6


Territories-in-Between Across Europe: Comparing the Permeability and Accessibility of Green Spaces Alexander Wandl The role of Public Private Partnership (PPP) in a spatial configuration of new urban poles defined by the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) rationale. The case studies of Concord and Somerville in Massachusetts Carmelina Bevilacqua Carla Maione Luciano Zingali Approaches for sustainable landscape urban structure formation of the linear city Elina Krasilnikova, Yulia Ivanitskaya PROXIMITY AND SEGREGATION. The ambivalent relation between the infrastructural network and the development of Lisbon’s metropolitan territory Inês de Castro Luís Lopes Moreira

73

74

76

78

Interfacing and infrastructural development in Lisbon metropolis (2001-2012) João Rafael Santos

80

Mobility Infrastructures, Ambivalent Spaces? A morphological approach João Silva Leite

82

To WISH and to HAVE – the dilemmas of achieving good quality public spaces in contemporary Poland. Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek Grzegorz Pęczek The ambivalent zone between sea and city –a new approach to collective spaces based on maritime identity of the cities by the sea Massimo Clemente Eleonora Giovene di Girasole The Tower: a brief architectural interpretation Miguel Baptista-Bastos The public space in the restructuring of the Portuguese metropolitan city: the Metro do Porto case Rodrigo Coelho The Águas Livres Aqueduct. Patterns of a living infrastructure. Teresa Marat-Mendes Andreia Bastos Silva

INDEX

84

85

87

89 90

93

7


8


THE TOPIC

9


10


THE TOPIC Ambivalence stands for the simultaneously contradictory and opposing perception of a given phenomenon, which despite disorienting in its manifestations, may be regarded as a condition from which to build renewed frameworks of analysis and criticism. Recent trends in spatial, social and cultural processes show a growing sense of this ambivalence – in the coexisting patterns of spatial polarization and shrinkage, in the informal public spaces patched under recombining networks of individual and collective exchange, in the increasingly difficult access to social and physical infrastructures that (used to) support modern cities. These are the landscapes of a changing urban Europe. No longer confined to the City, however even more dependent on stronger spaces of citizenship. Ambivalent landscapes are the common ground and the opportunity to address public space and urban culture in the face of an open and transdisciplinary perspective. Three tracks were designed to bringing together different approaches into a shared topic: Empty Cities, Collective spaces, Living infrastructures. This is an invitation to scholars to participate with original papers on a multiple disciplinary basis – architecture and urbanism, social sciences and landscape, design and technology. Welcome to Lisbon and enjoy a lively and plural debate on Public spaces and Urban Cultures!

The Conference Chairs Sofia Morgado and JoĂŁo Rafael Santos

11


KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Ambivalence of the in-between Ali Madanipour Professor of Urban Design, Director, Global Urban Research Unit, School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, Newcastle University

The current global crisis and the longer term structural changes in urban societies have created spatial and temporal gaps, which are ambivalent in nature, as they can be used as vehicles for moving simultaneously in different economic and social directions. The ambivalence of the in-between, of emptiness and ephemerality, may be used pragmatically, to focus on the mismatch between demand and supply of space, filling the gaps as an interim measure, or as a stepping stone to more stable arrangements. It can also be used as a transformative possibility, rethinking the character of urban space, developing a critique of the status quo, questioning fixed identities and arrangements, becoming a catalyst for change, and facilitating experimentation and innovation. Meanwhile, transience is reasserted as an inherent feature of modern urban life.

The Morphological Atlas of the Portuguese City and the Studies on Urban Form Carlos Dias Coelho

Professor of Urban Design, Coordinator of the PhD Programme in Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

The studies on urban form, which were tackled systematically from the interwar period, gained a particular importance for the discipline of Urbanism with the contribution of works done by architects such as Robert Auzelle or Saverio Muratori, who used urban morphology as a tool not only for understanding the city but also for its production. The development of the methodologies that were explored then may be an effective basis for the interpretation of emerging urban phenomena, many of which unrecognizable according to the stabilized concepts on urban form. Aiming to contribute to the study of the 12


Portuguese city specifically, the research group Forma Urbis lab has undertaken the Morphological Atlas of the Portuguese City project as a database that allows the development of operative research on the formal dynamics of the city in Portugal.

Ambivalent Landscapes: Researching the Unknown City Frank Eckardt Professor of urban sociology, Institute for European Urban Studies, Bauhaus-University Weimar/Germany

In the mid of deep crisis of the European economy, growing social problems and uncounted ecological challenges, the nostalgia of the European City as a success model for economic prosperity, social cohesion and the democracy of close relations becomes strong. Looking back to the different models of urban development nevertheless delivers a more balanced appreciation of the city as we have known it so far. By comparison, the European City can be contrasted with the fordist and the post-modern city. By discussion these models paradigmatically explained with the examples of Los Angeles and Detroit, we can identify the specific notion of European urban life. Our understanding of the cities in Europe however is challenged again by profound changes in the European societies. So, what will come next? In this presentation, the concept of the “authentic city� will be carefully discussed as a new reading of the current urban dynamic.

Architecture in the Digital era: research, teaching, and practice JosĂŠ Pinto Duarte

Professor of Architecture and Dean of the Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

The integration of computational resources in architecture has not been exactly peaceful. The meaning of the term itself is ambiguous and tends to fall in a simplistic way to the computer. The issue divides, so educators and professionals in general tend to position themselves at opposite poles. On one side we have those who attribute a central role to 13


the computer and on the other, those who refuse to give him any function. The reality, however, demonstrates that the computer can be instrumental in solving certain problems or project can be an obstacle in resolving other. Time and experience, however, allow you to categorize the problems and identify appropriate ways to use the computational resources in the design process. The presentation will describe briefly a set of examples of proper use of those means in research, teaching and professional practice in the realms of architecture, urban planning, and design. The underlying idea is that more than support or replace the designer, the use of computational resources can profoundly change the way in which we design.

14


SCHEDULE 6th of December 09.00 10.00 10.30 10.30 12.00

Registration President of the Faculty of Architecture, Director of CIAUD, Director of DPAUD and Conference Chairs Keynote Speakers - Ali Madanipour - José Pinto Duarte

Faculty of Architecture

Lunch (free; several options within the campus; please refer to map) 14.00 Meeting point – Martim Moniz Plaza 14.30 17.30 17.30 18.30 Evening

7th of December 09.30 11.00 Coffee break 11.30 13.00

Walking Workshops [3 themes] Urban patchwork Shared spaces, crossing cultures Hills, valleys and climbing machines AESOP Thematic Group Meeting [Coming together and Debate at Grupo Desportivo da Mouraria] Typical “not for Tourists” Conference Dinner at Grupo Desportivo da Mouraria

Mouraria/Lisbon

Parallel sessions Session 1.1 Session 2.1 Session 3.1 Keynote Speakers - Frank Eckardt - Carlos Dias Coelho

Lunch (free; several options within the campus; please refer to map) 14h30 Parallel sessions 16h00 Session 1.2 Session 2.2 Session 2.3 Coffee break 16h30 Parallel sessions 18h00 Session 3.1 Session 3.2 Session 3.3 Coffee break 18h30 Closing 19.00 Conference Chairs

Faculty of Architecture

[FYI: Slight changes may occur; for the detailed schedule please refer to registration’s documents available during the Conference]

15


16


NOT FOR TOURISTS WALKING WORKSHOP

17


18


NOT FOR TOURISTS WALKING WORKSHOP WORKSHOP 1 - URBAN PATCHWORK

Tutors Miguel Baptista-Bastos

Nikolai Roskamm

Inês Moreira

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

Technical University of Berlin

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

Avenue Almirante Reis offers a cross-section overview of Lisbon’s urban spatial development. Running through one of the main valleys of the city, from downtown to the mid-20th century districts of Areeiro, this axis is the common ground to a highly diverse mosaic of urban fabric and architecture. The valley of Almirante Reis bears a distinct character as a popular and often mislooked mirror of some of the most celebrated spaces Lisbon’s urban history. Since the medieval resettlement of the Moorish population in the valley and skirts of adjacent hills until the early 20th century fast growing and dense bourgeois development, this valley embeds the thresholds and inbetweens in which everyday practices shape the city. The challenge of the Walking Workshop theme 1 – Urban patchwork – is to find the fabrics around the valleys, its hidden spaces and an intertwined storyline of Lisbon’s urban shaping. The walk starts at Martim Moniz and follows the old waterline and path of Regueirão dos Anjos, as it crosses through the strait axis of Almirante Reis, up until Alameda, we have a glimpse over the transition to the 1930's and 1940's formal approach to urban design.

19


WORKSHOP 2 - SHARED SPACES, CROSSING CULTURES

Tutors Manuela Mendes

Nuno Franco

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

ARM- Associação Renovar a Mouraria

The relationship between Mouraria, Martim Moniz and the rest of the city of Lisbon is involved in a “historical fog” that goes back to the principle of its own existence. Their ethnic and cultural multiplicity comes from its marginal and peripheral status, compared to the rest of Lisbon. After the Christian conquest, the Moors were excluded and relocated outside the city limits of the wall that surrounded the metropolis: Mouraria. Located on the northern slopes and less appealing city, Mouraria deleted and omitted, by contrast, functioned as a site suitable for alternative cultures and social expressions - this characteristic remained submerged for centuries in this area, until today. The second theme of the Walking Workshop – Shared spaces, crossing cultures – challenges us to discover Mouraria and Martim Moniz’s diversity, multiculturalism and multiple origins of people, products and cultural services. They can be considered a "urban ethnic place" (Lin, 2011), configured as a local crossroads worlds, where it combines paradoxical dimensions, the typical neighbourhood, historic, cosmopolitan and exotic, but also segregated space and defamed, living in present times a rapid transformation. In this context, this visit will wonder around streets, alleys and corners of the neighbourhood, providing contact with key actors (Associação Renovar a Mouraria and Largo - Residências Artísticas e Turísticas) and projects of urban intervention (AiMouraria) betting not only on physical intervention, but also on the social fabric.

20


WORKSHOP 3 - HILLS, VALLEYS AND CLIMBING MACHINES

Tutors João Rafael Santos

Justyna MartyniukPęczek

Małgorzata Kostrzewska

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Gdansk

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Gdansk

Known as the city of seven hills, Lisbon’s unique urban character comes from the way how the city’s shaped open spaces – plazas, streets, walled sites – bear the interplay of the river Tagus with the exuberant topography around downtown and the valleys to the north. At the same that infrastructure and modern technology allowed for the city to grow beyond the boundaries of the seven hills, new possibilities to facilitate flow and movement were also introduced through a number of climbing machines: elevators, tramways, mechanical escalators, some of them classified as National Monuments. Recent programs for urban regeneration in the historical districts include new mobility links, renewing buildings and public facilities, promoting a three-dimensional interlocking between pedestrian movement, urban activities, transport interfaces and outstanding landscape features. The Walking Workshop theme 3 - Hills, valleys and climbing machines – traces the public realm shaped by the several layers of technological apparatus that make the contemporary city. The path will run between the hills of the Castle and Chiado, looking for the street patterns between them and the climbing machines which are now embedded in the urban landscape.

21


WORKSHOP’S GET-TOGETHER CULTURES MEETING

AND THE

AESOP THEMATIC GROUP PUBLIC SPACES

AND

URBAN

Discussants Ceren Sezer Gabriella Esposito Di Vita Inês Moreira João Meneses João Rafael Santos Manuela Mendes Miguel Baptista-Bastos Nikolai Roskamm Sabine Knierbein Sofia Morgado

The AESOP (Association of European Schools of Planning) Thematic Group on Public Spaces and Urban Cultures has been initiated in 2009 by Sabine Knierbein, Ceren Sezer and Chiara Tornaghi after the Annual Meeting of AESOP in Liverpool (UK) in 2009. In April 2010 the initiative has been recognized as a new Thematic Group Public Spaces and Urban Cultures by AESOP. The aim of the group is to settle the research and design focus on Public Space and Urban Cultures as well in other related disciplines. The Thematic Group brings together research in the following themes: 

Issues of artistic and intellectual practices and urban planning

Emerging urban cultures and socio-spatial practices in public spaces

Academic education approaches regarding urban cultures and public spaces that challenge sectorial rationalities of particular disciplines The first day’s workshop and meeting, the 6 th December, are

dedicated to discussing several of these issues in a plural way. The group invites researchers and scholars to join and contribute to this crosscutting debate. Welcome!

22


TERRITORIES-IN-BETWEEN ACROSS EUROPE: COMPARING THE PERMEABILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY OF GREEN SPACES

Alexander Wandl

TU Delft / Department of Urbanism Chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy, Delft, the Netherlands a.wandl@tudelft.nl

Many Europeans wish to live in the green; this individual desire is in conflict with societal aim of protecting the landscape around cities. This conflict is especially visible in large metropolitan landscapes where areas that blend urban and rural features are dominant. But also historically predominantly rural areas are more and more spatially characterised by a dispersed urban development. In both, Territories-inbetween (TIB), areas where new functions, uses and lifestyles arise as a result of the on-going interaction of urban and rural elements (Garreau 1991; Sieverts & Bölling 2004; Viganò 2001), are more and more visible. TiB cannot solely be explained as an intensification of urban functions in the rural environment, but have specific spatial and programmatic features that set them apart. This spatial phenomena was named Zwischenstadt (Sieverts, 2001), Tussenland (Frijters & Ruimtelijk Planbureau, 2004), City Fringe (Louis, 1936), Città Diffusa (Secchi, 1997), territories of a new modernity (Viganò, 2001), Stadtlandschaft (Passarge, 1968), Shadowland (Harmers in Andexlinger et al., 2005) Spread City (Webber, 1998) and Annähernd Perfekte Peripherie (Campi et al., 2000) from different researches across Europe. This variety of names is an indication of the diversity of TiB, which has to be considered when investigating this spatial phenomenon. So far comparative studies of dispersed urban development in Europe didn’t exceed morphological (Xaveer de Geyter Architecten, 2002) or land use studies (Couch, Leontidou, & Gerhard, 2007; Kasanko et al., 2006).This article adds a relational aspect because, the urban landscape we live in is an interconnected tissues, where function and uses are not a question of scale or vicinity but a matter of connectivity.

73


Therefore, the study uses two concepts, accessibility and permeability, to describe, measure and compare the spatial quality of TiB. Accessibility describes if certain areas and services are accessible, for whom they are accessible and in which quality. This means it describes a quality of a node to node relationship. Permeability describes the property of a territory to allow flows trespassing it. This means it describes the quality of a material. This paper presents two indicators: Accessibility of green open space and landscape fragmentation. Those two indicators were chosen as they describe the conflict between living in the green and the ecological connectivity of the landscape. Therefore, together they are a measure of ecological and social qualities of a TiB. To achieve this, the paper explains first the role of TiB in sustainable regional development and the most important regional planning tasks related to it. Secondly, the paper investigates the role of indicators in regional strategic planning. Thereafter an adapted version of Dupuy’s network urbanism approach is introduced to define relational criteria for the selection of the indicators. Landscape fragmentation and accessibility of green open spaces, described and their operability for regional planning and design is tested in two cases, South Holland (NL) and The Tyrol (A). Finally the adapted indicators are applied to ten case studies across Europe and the results are compared and discussed. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) IN A SPATIAL CONFIGURATION OF NEW URBAN POLES DEFINED BY THE TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD) RATIONALE. THE CASE STUDIES OF CONCORD AND SOMERVILLE IN MASSACHUSETTS

Carmelina Bevilacqua

Carla Maione

Luciano Zingali

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, Italy cbevilac@unirc.it

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, Italy carla.maione@unirc.it

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, Italy luciano.zingali@unirc.it

The paper intends to investigate how a new spatial configuration characterized by a functional adaptation of transit services to the urban form jointed with a mixing land uses and activities could be

74


empowered by different forms of public private partnership based both on

community

activation

and

local

economic

development

implementation. In the era of globalization, the urban systems are facing an increase of local specialization, mostly in the supply of so-called advanced services. The effect is easily recognizable in new geographical taxonomies in which new urban centers acquire the role of hub services (Bevilacqua, Moraci 2007). The

theoretical

framework

in

which

the

new

spatial

configurations arise comes from the principles of Smart Growth. The Smart Growth paradigm - born in United States and implemented through the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) tool rationale – is now becoming a paradigm to be followed also in Europe (EC 2010). The TOD is a �mixed-use community, that encourages people to live near transit services and to decrease dependence on their driving� (Still 2002, Bernick and Cervero 1997, p. 5), and also the practice of developing or intensifying residential land use near rail stations and housing, along with complementary public uses, jobs, retail and services, are concentrated in mixed-use developments at strategic points along the regional transit systems. (Cathorpe 1993, Boarnet and Crane 1998, Salvensen 1996). The aim is to recognize the TOD potential as catalysts for investment, which together with the PPP becomes the real force of change that raises property values by encouraging the transformation of the existing, in this context, governments, local governments and small private get benefits, both in raising revenues related to direct taxes, but also on subsequent choices for the community, resulting in a strengthening of the suburban districts, facilitating direct contact between people, and creating a more diverse social and cultural environment. (Duaney et al. 2001; Calthorpe and Fulton 2001). Based on some insights coming from the CLUDs project under 7FP Irses 2010, the paper intends to highlight two case studies about two important suburbs in Massachusetts, Concord and Somerville in

75


which the TOD rationale is successfully implemented. Concord and Sommerville are two urban HUB interacting at different levels, from global to local ones, playing the role of places in which the skills needed to ensure both new business and social services for a better quality of life, are empowered through strong partnership1.

APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE URBAN STRUCTURE FORMATION OF THE LINEAR CITY

Elina Krasilnikova,

VRPO “Association of Landscape Architects, Russian Federation, landurbanizm@gmail.com

Yulia Ivanitskaya

Volgograd State Architectural and Civil Engineering University (VSUACE), Russian Federation y.ivanitskaya@gmail.com

XXI century – is the century of landscape urbanism. The most ambitious large-scale urban projects are related with the urban structures of different hierarchical levels of interaction with the environment. Modern problems of urban development are becoming more closely linked with the need of comfortable living environment creation, because of inability of existing functional spatial organization of the territory to meet manifold demands of society. Analysis of the planning structure evolution allows to determine not only the main stages of the planning changes dynamics in the city structure, but also to identify the causes of these changes in order to understand the opportunities and ways of its perspective development. Today Volgograd is a city-planning structure, elongated the banks of the Volga river more than 90 km and 9 km in width. Nowadays Volgograd is a complex urban planning structure. We can notice its Acknowledgements: This presentation draws from the activities of the Cluds Research Program, funded within the framework of the EU IRSES MARIE CURIE 7FP. the research is led by Pau-University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria (Italy) and the participants are: FOCUS-university of Rome La Sapienza (Italy); SOBE-University of Salford (uk); Aalto University (Finland); Northeastern University of Boston (Usa); and San Diego State University (USA). 1

76


INDEX Ágata Dourado Sequeira, 51 Alexander Wandl, 2, 69, 73 Ali Madanipour, 12, 15 Alona Martinez-Perez, 55 Ana Branco, 2 Ana Brandão, 28 Ana Júlia Pinto, 30 Ana Margarida Tavares, 71 Andrea Varriale, 52 Andreia Bastos Silva, 90 Antoni Remesar, 30 Beatriz Padilla, 54 Belén Bravo Rodríguez, 59 Birgit Hausleitner, 32 Carla Maione, 74 Carlos Dias Coelho, 12, 15 Carmelina Bevilacqua, 74 Catarina Castro, 2 Ceren Sezer, 22 Cláudia Rosete, 2 Claudia Trillo, 33, 55 Cristina Vigo Majello, 45 Deljana Iossifova, 35 Diogo Silvestre, 2 Dulce Loução, 2 Eleonora Giovene di Girasole, 85 Elina Krasilnikova, 76 Fernando Moreira da Silva, 2 Florina Dutt, 40 Frank Eckardt, 13, 15 Gabriella Esposito Di Vita, 2, 22, 33, 55 Grzegorz Pęczek, 84 Inês Cabaça, 2 Inês de Castro Luís Lopes Moreira, 78 Inês Moreira, 2 Inês Mota, 2 Inês Simões, 2 João Amaral, 36 João Meneses, 22 João Paulo Martins, 2 João Pedro Costa, 2 João Rafael Santos, 2, 11, 21, 22, 80 João Silva Leite, 82

João Sousa Morais, 2 Johannes Suitner, 56 Jorge Rivera, 58 Jorge Spencer, 2 José Beirão, 2 José Pinto Duarte, 13, 15 José Vargas, 38 Juan Luis Rivas Navarro, 59 Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek, 21, 41, 84 Luciano Zingali, 74 M. Francisca Lima, 43 Magdalena Rembeza, 2, 25, 44 Małgorzata Kostrzewska, 21, 44 Manuel Vieira, 2 Manuela Mendes, 2, 20 Marcello Magoni, 2 Maria João Matos, 61 Maria Manuela Mendes, 2, 49 Marina Rigillo, 45 Massimo Clemente, 85 Matej Niksic, 2 Miguel Baptista-Bastos, 2, 19, 87 Miguel Lopes, 62 Miguel Silva Graça, 63 Müge Akkar Ercan, 65 Nikolai Roskamm, 19, 22 Nuno Franco, 20 Olga Martyniuk, 41 Ossama Hegazy, 66 Oya Memlük, 65 Paulo Pinho, 62 Pedro George, 2 Rodrigo Coelho, 89 Rossella Salerno, 2, 49, 67 Sabine Knierbein, 2, 22 Sara Santos Cruz, 2, 25, 62 Sara Sucena, 2, 69 Sofia Morgado, 2, 11, 22 Sónia Rafaela Salgueiro, 47 Stefania Oppido, 33 Subhajit Das, 40 Teresa Marat-Mendes, 90 Tiago Chaves, 54 Yulia Ivanitskaya, 76

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

The role of Public Private Partnership (PPP) defined by the Transit Oriented Development  (TOD) rationale. The case studies of Concord and Somerville in Massachusetts  Carmelina Bevilacqua*, Carla Maione**, Luciano Zingali***  * … Assistent professor in Urban Planning, Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria,  Department PAU, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, (IT), 0965809506, +393358085836  cbevilac@unirc.it  ** Phd Candidate “Urban Planning“, Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita  Melissari, Reggio Calabria, (IT), carla.maione@unirc.it  *** Phd “Urban Planning“ Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari,  Reggio Calabria, (IT), luciano.zingali@unirc.it      ABSTRACT  The  paper  intends  to  investigate  how  a  new  spatial  configuration,  characterized  by  a  functional  adaptation of transit services to the urban form jointed with a mixing land uses and activities, could  be empowered by different forms of Public Private Partnership based both on community activation  and local economic development implementation.  The aim is to recognize TODs and Public Private Partnerships (PPP) as the real force of change that  raises property values by encouraging the transformation of deprived urban areas.   In the era of globalization, the urban systems are facing an increase of local specialization, mostly in  the  supply  of  so  called  advanced  services.  The  effect  is  easily  recognizable  in  new  geographical  taxonomies in which new urban centers acquire the role of hub services (Bevilacqua, Moraci 2007).   The theoretical framework is based on Smart Growth priciples. The Smart Growth paradigm, born in  United  States  and  implemented  through  the  Transit  Oriented  Development  (TOD)  rationale,  is  becoming a paradigm to drive the new strategies of Europe 2020 (European Community 2010).   The aim is to recognize the TOD potential as catalysts for investment. The PPP becomes the real force  of change that raises property values by encouraging the transformation of deprived urban areas. In  this context, local governments and small medium enterprises get benefits, both in raising revenues  related  to  direct  taxes,  but  also  on  subsequent  choices  for  the  community,  resulting  in  a  strengthening  of  the  suburban  districts,  facilitating  direct  contact  between  people,  and  creating  a  more diverse social and cultural environment. (Duaney et al. 2001; Calthorpe and Fulton 2001).  Based on some insights coming from the CLUDs project under 7FP Irses 2010, the paper intends to  highlight two case studies about two important suburbs in Massachusetts, Concord and Somerville in  1     


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

which the TOD rationale is successfully implemented. Concord and Sommerville are two urban HUB  interacting at different levels, from global to local ones, playing the role of places in which the skills  needed to ensure both new business and social services for a better quality of life, are empowered  through strong partnership.     KEYWORDS  Smart Growth, Urban Regeneration, Public Private Partnership, Transit Oriented Development, Value  Capture 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

INTRODUCTION The paper aims at recognizing the join role of local public transport and Public Private Partnerships,  as  a  founding  element  of  the  new  geographical  taxonomies,  olso  throught  the  news  process  of  economic localization (Krugmann,1990).  The  paper  intends  to  highlight  how  the  polycentrism,  based  on  new  urban  hierarchies  and  spatial  polarity  in  which  the  nodes  acquire  the  role  of  hub  services,  is  able  to  produce  local  economic  services  and  value  captures,  attractive  for  the  private  investors  and  therefore  useful  to  arouse  interest in Public‐Private Partnerships.  Peter Calthorpe (1993) pioneered the Transit Oriented Development model. Calthorpe viewed TODs  as  a  constellation  of  co‐dependent  centers  inter‐linked  throughout  a  region  by  high‐capacity  fixed‐ guideway transit services (Wolfe, 2009).  The  TOD  is,  by  definition,  a  ”mixed‐use  community,  that  encourages  people  to  live  near  transit  services and to decrease dependence on their driving” (Still 2002, Bernick and Cervero 1997, p. 5),  and  also  the  way  of  developing  or  intensifying  residential  land  use  near  rail  stations  and  housing,  along  with  complementary  public  uses,  jobs,  retail  and  services,  are  concentrated  in  mixed‐use  developments  at  strategic  points  along  the  regional  transit  systems.  (Cathorpe  1993,  Boarnet  and  Crane 1998, Salvensen 1996).   The  paper  considers  the  TODs  potential  as  catalysts  for  investment  by  encouraging  the  creation  of  “Transit Village District”, "a neighborhoods centered around a transit station planned and designed  so  that  residents,  workers,  shoppers,  and  others  find  it  convenient  and  attractive  to  patronize  transit" (Transit Village Development Planning Act, Government of California,1994).  Transit  Village  Districts  are  portion  of  area  subject  to  “Effect  Cluster”,  that  make  them  be  “  a  geographically  proximate  group  of  interconnected  companies  and  associated  institutions  in  a  particular  field,  linked  by  commonalities  and  complementarities”  (Porte,  1998).  The  Transit  Village  Districts come from the creation of productive system specialized in a network of goods and services,  and  where  the  urban  form  becomes  the  result  of  the  interaction  between  demand  and  supply  of  people, information and goods mobility.  This process, implemented in specific urban areas, is generator to "Socialization of Profits", not as the  classic concept of neo‐liberalism based on the "privatization of profits and socialization of losses". By  contrast,  it  consists  in  the  impact  of  the  interaction  between  TOD  and  PPPs  tool  in  local  system,  distributing benefits at the whole community. 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

The goal  is  to  recognize  the  role  of  TODs  as  possible  catalysts  investment,  through  the  virtuous  dynamics of Public‐Private Partnerships that can make social, economic and enviromntal sustainable  each initiative of urban transformation with a strong role played by the private sector.   In this way, it is possible argue that the creation of property value can foster benefits distribution for  the community.  A Transit Oriented Development model through a strong process Public Private Partnerships, offers a  multitude  of  environmental,  social,  and  fiscal  benefits  (Arringhton  and  Parker,  2001)  and  the  perceived value of these benefits is, to a certain extent, reflected in increased property values near  transit stations (Nadine Fogarty, Nancy Eaton, Dena Belzer, Gloria Ohland, 2008).   In a TODs context, governments, local governments and small private investors get benefits, both in  raising revenues related to direct taxes, but also on subsequent choices for the community, resulting  in a strengthening of the suburban districts, facilitating direct contact between people, and creating a  more diverse social and cultural environment. (Duaney et al. 2001; Calthorpe and Fulton 2001). 

Fig. 1 Logic scheme TOD+PPP 

  Transit‐Oriented  Development  (TOD)  has  attracted  interest  as  a  tool  for  promoting  Smart  Growth,  leveraging economic development, and catering to shifting market demands and lifestyle preferences  (Cervero and Arringhton, 2004).  The Smart Growth movement represents an important contribution from North American planning  theory on the issue of reduction urban sprawl (Daniels, 2001, Soule, 2006). 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

In the  last  two  decades,  Smart  Growth  implemented  in  almost  all  American  States  by  the  Transit  Oriented Development rationale tool becomes also in Europe a paradigm to be followed. (European  Community 2010).  Smart  Growth,  is  the  umbrella  (Robert  H.  Freilich,  Neil  M.  Popowitz,  2010)  where  different  approaches and theories can find a sort of protection, which share a common thread as revisiting the  link‐density public transport in view of the pursuit of sustainable urban.   The TODs model is divided into two principal schools of thought. The first is that of transportation by  Robert Cervero through qualitative analyzes show a link between public transport and urban form,  and  the  second,  of  the  New  Urbanism  with  Peter  Calthorpe,  which  highlights  the  role  of  urban  density  as  a  factor  for  the  configuration  of  space  assets  useful  to  encourage  the  use  of  public  transport, and testing models of reference purely morphological, neglecting the quantitative aspects  of the phenomenon.  Two different schools of thought, but both point to the correlation between re‐ configuration space  of  the  system  of  urban  center  and  public  transport,  recalling  the  well‐known  models  of  Christaller  (1933).  The  paper  is  articulated  into  three  different  sections.  The  first  provides  an  overview  of  the  international  literature  on  TODs  in  relation  to  the  influence  that  they  determine  the  formation  of  value  capture,  and  in  relation  to  the  stresses  that  cause  the  real  estate  market  encouraging  the  construction of Public‐Private Partnerships.  The  second  part  of  the  literature  review  aims  to  bring  out  the  key  factors  which  affect  the  construction of new urban centers that, in virtue of their specific spatial conformation, are capable to  support the construction of balanced and livable communities.  The third section, through the support of case studies, located in Massachusetts, in the metropolitan  area of Boston, Concord and Somerville, discusses the activate factors of these dynamics in two very  different contexts and offers an interesting discussion on the benefits at the community.    1.1 Transit  Oriented  Development  and  Public  Private  Partnership,  that  affecting  on  the  new  community urban?  In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several books have made a link between TODs and sustainability  principles.  

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

The TOD  theory  is  developed  using  an  approach  capable  of  integrating  the  urban  and  territorial  transformation with instances of socio‐economic development, it acts on the spatial configuration of  urban systems and defines new polarities, derived from the interaction with the economic processes  of "localization" of services, according to the principles of the new economic geography (Krugmann,  1990).   In  1826  the  first  studies  on  Location  Theory,  as  the  connection  between  spatial  variation  and  economic return, are by Johann Heinrich Von Thünen, which was the first to propose an association  between improved transportation and higher property values.  The  actions  proposed  from  TODs  models  in  specific  urban  areas  of  the  stations  are  aimed  at  encouraging development "compact", throught the Public Private Partnerships, that to increase the  economic return on investment in the transport system and to maximize the use of existing stations.   The  scientific  litterature  show  that,  “The  key  to  success  of  the  TODs  are  the  Public  Private  Partnership”(John Stainback e Renata Simril, in 2001).  In  1989,  The  National  Council  for  Urban  Economic  Development  in  USA,  argues  that  the  Public  Private  Partnerships  are,  “designed  to  decrease  the  costs  of  operating  or  constructing  public  transportation  systems,  stations  or  improvements  through  creative  public‐private  financing  arrangements”, it are also “…real estate transactions involving the development of private projects  on publicly owned land or air rights” (Sedway Kotin Mouchly Group 1996).   The  need  to  attract  business  and  industry  along  with  reduced  public  resources  has  led  to  the  communion of public‐private partnerships and urban regeneration.  Today  in  urban  regeneration  policies,  the  concept  of  community  is  combined  with  that  of  partnerships,  they  are  able  to  provide  social  services,  but  also  to  support  the  business  and  the  agenda of governments (MacLeavy July, 2009: p.849).   It  is  also  recognized  that  in  societies  of  people  and  communities,  local  authorities  and  private  entrepreneurs have the power to direct their interest towards negotiation.  However,  according  to  Collin  (1998),  the  PPPs  tool  can  allow  a  public  operator  to  have  access  to  specific skills or to create a strong antagonism to improve competition in the local market.  The PPPs tool, especially in the field of urban planning, has a number of complex variables that make  the application of these procedures complex, but three factors seem to be relevant: the context, the  actors and the balance between the partners.  

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

Indeed, the  PPPs  depending  on  the  context  and  according  to  the  different  laws  in  different  continents, it is influenced by different cultures, as well at the different levels of democracy.  For  this  reason,  it  is  recommended  a  difference  use  on  the  urban  system,  between  the  PPPs  in  Europe  (mainly  used  for  the  construction  of  infrastructure)  and  the  United  States  (also  used  to  enhance the urban economy and regeneration processes).   

Fig. 2 Scheme employment TOD and PPP  

In the  United  States  in  recent  years,  different  No  Profit  Organization  for  example,  Reconnecting  America,  in  collaboration  with  Local  Government,  which  aims  to  promote  "the  integration  of  transport  systems  with  urban  communities"  (Reconnecting  America,  2007),  has  demonstrated  how  benefits are generated, particularly in the areas of travel behavior and property value.   Several  positive  effects  are  related  to  TOD  (Arrington  and  Parker,  2001),  in  part  for  the  benefit  of  public  transportation  agencies  and  local  governments,  where  growth  has  a  displacement  of  iron,  resulting  in  a  direct  increase  of  earnings  for  transport  companies,  is  also  demonstrated  by  several  studies (Cervero and Duncan, 2002; Huang, 1996) as this type of intervention can generate processes  of capturing  value in the areas of influence of stations, or to increase property values and land for  different  uses,  resulting  in  a  potential  increase  in  revenues  to  local  governments  through  the  municipal tax base.  Dittmar and Ohland 2009, have proposed five main goals and benefits of the TOD model and PPPs  tool.  The  location  efficiency  that  comprises  density,  transit  accessibility,  and  pedestrian  friendliness  but  also  have  choice  in  housing,  retail,  and  employment,  rich  mix  of  residential  and  commercial  choices, value capture relates to household and community cost savings associated with transit use,  place  making  as  the  ability  for  TOD  to  create  attractive,  pedestrian  friendly  neighborhoods  replete  7     


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

with high‐quality civic spaces, similar to European cities, and the resolution of the tension between  node  and  place,  by  Luca  Bertolini  and  Tejo  Spit,  who  evaluated  the  redevelopment  of  rail  station  precincts across Europe.                               

Fig. 3 The Goal of TOD 

The  principal  benefits  that  TODs  provide  for  communities  are  increases  “location  efficiency”  so  people can walk, biking, and take transit. Boosting the transit ridership and minimized the impact of  traffic, provides a rich  mix of housing, jobs, shops, and recreational choices, provides value for the  public and private sectors, and for new and existing residents.     1.2 TOD and Value Capture: what are the benefits for the community?  TODs  are  considerated  a  niche  market  in  America.  (John  L.  Renne,  Keith  Bartholomew,  and  Patrick  Wontor, 2008).   Numerous  studies  have  demostated  –  forges  partnerships  that  unlock  the  value  of  premium  real  estate  near  transit  (Ian  Carlton,  Transact  2011)  ‐,  and  the  impact  of  transit  on  surrounding  real  estate,  and  have  discovered  that    transit  can  generate  a  significant  amount  of  value  capture  for  nearby property owners.  By a definition by Callies, David L. 1979, Robert M. Patricelli, “Although we cannot yet say that value  capture will be unfailingly successful in defraying the capital costs of development in all U.S. cities, it  offers a major untapped source of transit revenue.”   An  important  article,  by  John  Landis  and  Robert  Cervero,  1990,  introduced  the  concept  joint  development in the TOD theory ‐ the concept of Transit‐Joint Development (TJD) implies a quid pro  quo between the public sector and private developer. Usually they are transit agencies and private 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

developers that  work  together  under  a  common  vision  in  order  to  create  a  successful  economic  development.  TOD projects could be facilitated through joint development and value capture and that the public  sector can reduce risk for developers (John Renne 2009 and Peter Newman, 1997).   During the development phases, the public sector can help to expedite the approval process, provide  oversight  of  the  development,  and  begin  transit  service,  and  lease  or  sell  building  space  (which  depends on the agreement). The private sector should build the project and sell or lease buildings.   A  value  capture  mechanism  can  be  linked  to  density  bonuses,  rate  increases,  tax  increment  financing, and a rail trust fund from parking revenue.   In  Planning  Process,  the  principle  “Benefits  Received”  are  positively  capitalized  into  higher  land  values,  from  particular  infrastructure  or  service  in  the  context  of  public  transit,  provision  of  or  enhancements  to  public  transit  systems  accrue  a  accessibility‐related  benefits  to  the  neighboring  properties, (Shishir Mathur, Adam Smith 2012).  The  Public  Sector  the  increased  land  value,  that  can  be  captured  through  various  mechanisms,  for  example  property  tax  revenues,  the  sale  or  joint  development  of  public  land  in  proximity  to  the  transit  system,  lease  or  sale  of  air  rights  above  transit  stations,  levy  of  special  assessments,  imposition of public transit impact fees, land‐value taxation, and capture of property tax increments  through Tax Incrementing Financing. (Shishir Mathur, Adam Smith 2012)  So,  the  role  of  the  private  sector  is  to  establish  goals,  create  a  strong  partnership  with  the  local  government, create a new system and analyze market flexibility, develop winning strategies with the  public sector’s goals.  Land‐based initiatives, assembly, swaps, land banking, and the sale or lease of development rights, in  the respect to zoning, incentives such as density bonuses, performance zoning, inclusionary zoning,  interim  zoning,  floating  zones,  planned  unit  development,  specific  plans,  and  transfer  of  development rights are all noted as important tools for TODs.  In figure 3, represent a hypothetical example that illustrates how property values might increase over  time as a result of new transit service, which is the estimated amount that a property owner near a  new transit station could expect to realize with a good  value capture strategy.        9     


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

Transit Value 

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  1.2.1 A comparison of American and European Experiences  The  first  study  of  Transport  Development  Areas  (TDA)  is  in  2000  by  the  RICS  (Royal  Institution  of  Chartered  Surveyors)  in  Great  Britain.  The  TDA  proposes  a  method  for  the  application  of  TOD  in  England, together with a wide roundup of case studies of success. TDA is "a new integrated approach  between the government and the government of the mobility of urban transformation that has been  applied  to  public  transport  nodes  and  in  all  strategic  locations  with  high  accessibility"  (RICS,  2002)  and  olso,  “A  Transport  Development  Area  (TDA)  is  an  integrated  land  use/transport  planning  approach operating around urban public transport interchanges or nodal points well served by public  transport  in  which  a  more  specific  relationship  between  development  density  and  public  transport  service level is instituted”.  It can be argued that there is a little difference between the two models, USA and Europe ones. The  TODs are tied to specific interventions of transformation, not always contextualized in the regulatory  framework or in the territorial system, however the TDA approach is "oriented to transform urban  high accessibility "(Hine 2005).   The  TDA  approach  is  part  of  an  integrated  planning  at  all  levels,  national,  regional  and  local.  The  approach  comes  from  the  need  of  local  authorities  to  cooperate  and  engage    stakeholders  to  act  towards urban sustainable processes.  10     


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

In the last few years, in Europe, for example in France and Bodensee, in Oberschwaben (Germany), in  Stedenbaan  (Holland),  it’s  so  prevalent  the  need  to  use  transit  stations  to  connect  a  multipolar  system for regional economic development.   Dino  Barri  and  Fiorenzo  Ferlanino  argue  how  this  new  division  of  rail  transport  has  redesigned  the  urban geography and planning, facilitating the establishment of new communities around the areas  of  the  existing  stations,  bringing  improved  public  transport  services,  and  integration  between  the  stations  and  the  urban  environment,  through  also  bike‐sharing  services,  and  the  creation  of  greenways and pedestrian access, and also introducing structures devoted to business.    1.3 Research Methodology  The  discussion  of  the  literature  proposed  in  the  previous  section  showed  how  the  theory  of  TODs  enables  the  development  of  a  potentially  successful  approach,  not  only  to  catalyze  the  interest  of  private investors in urban transformation, due to the increase in land values, but also in encouraging  community  building  balanced  and  livable,  with  its  emphasis  on  factors  such  as  the  social  and  functional mixitè the basis of morphological principles underlying the design of urban TODs.  In order to see how the theory of TOD act as a activate in positive interaction between stress in the  housing market and construction of new urban communities, were examined two case studies, both  located in the metropolitan area of Boston, characterized by different situations.  The  selection  of  the  two  cases  has  been  directed  to  identify  two  urban  contexts  characterized  by  poor  conditions  or  deprivation  in  which  it  was  possible  analysed  how  physical  transformation  has  been  implemented  and  embarked  to  improve  physical  environment  and  also  socio‐economic  regeneration.   The case of Concord is located in a second metropolitan ring, and is served by a railway line, which  connects to the city center and in particular to the metro line that connects the station to Harvard.  The  case  of  Somerville  is  located  in  the  environs  of  the  city  center,  in  an  area  that  started  a  regeneration process that was emblematically defined "Slumville".   Both cases have in common from having focused on the implementation of the theory of TOD as a  catalyst  for  sustainable  regeneration,  in  both  cases,  the  successful  implementation  of  initiatives  designed was the result of an effective synergy between the public and private sectors.  The study is part of a larger research project, the CLUDs project, which unfolds over a period of three  years  and  involves  several  European  and  U.S.  units.  The  first  year,  just  completed,  this  project  has 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

been focused on the study of the functioning of Public‐Private Partnerships in urban regeneration, by  analyzing thirteen case studies in the Boston area. The two case studies referred to in this paper are  included in this selection.  The analysis of the case studies was conducted with a primarily qualitative methodology, through the  analysis of secondary sources and through direct surveys.   First of all, it was carried out a systematic analysis of planning documents and planning involving the  two areas over the past decade.   Were collected and analyzed the main socio‐economic indicators and real estate market of the area  in question, properly compared with those of the wider context. An extract of the indicators analyzed  is  shown  in  the  discussion  of  case  studies.  Were  administered  semi‐structured  interviews  with  key  stakeholders involved in the process of urban regeneration, following a strict protocol in line with the  ethical issues of the host institution.   In the description of case studies, whenever we refer to a given taken from the interviews. Finally,  analyzes  were  conducted  several  times  on  the  field  going  places  and  conducting  a  thorough  photographic survey, which aims to record not only the physical environment but also the behavior  of the users. On the occasion of visits, were held short informal conversations with users of the sites.    1.3.1 Description Case Study    Concord Commons Commuter Rail  Concord  Commons  Commuter  Rail,  is  a  model  of  Transit  Oriented  Development,  a  mixed‐use  community that encourages people to live near transit services and to decrease dependence on their  driving”  (Still  2002,  Bernick  and  Cervero  1997,  p.  5).  The  success  key  of  the  TOD  are  Public  Private  Partnership,  “designed  to  decrease  the  costs  of  operating  or  constructing  public  transportation  systems,  stations  or  improvements  through  creative  public  private  financing  arrangements”  (The  National  Council  for  Urban  Economic  Development  1989  transit  facility”  (Cervero  et  al.  1991).  The  strategy is Local property  owners and developers have always worked with local government, and,  today, the resulting Concord Common development comprises three mixed use buildings with retail  space,  office  space,  a  180  seat  restaurant,  and  20  rental  apartments.  With  the  final  agreement  between the Town and Developer, required that he provide four affordable units at another location  in the Town, allowing all the units at the station to be rented at market rates, with the purpose to 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

encourage the small retail and hinder the Global Market, and to keeps rents of the local stable in the  time.  Somerville  The  Assembly  Square  district  is  Somerville’s  largest  commercial  and  industrial  district  with  the  greatest  potential  for  redevelopment.  Over  the  past  two  years,  the  City  undertook  an  aggressive  planning  and  redevelopment  effort  designed  to  convert  this  former  industrial  district  to  a  transit  oriented  mixed  use  “urban  village”.  The  City  completed  a  planning  study  of  the  district  that  recommended  a  total  build  out  over  20  years  of  at  least  6  million  square  feet  of  commercial  and  residential  uses.  Various  public  improvements  are  planned,  including  a  new  Orange  Line  MBTA  station within the district, roadway improvements, renovations and expansion of a waterfront park,  and  improvements  to  pedestrian  and  bicycle  access.  The  planning  and  redevelopment  strategy  for  Assembly Square is to reduce reliance on retail use by encouraging higher density office, R&D, and  residential uses. The aim of the project is to revitalize an area that is of particular importance in the  development plan of the city. Its proximity to Boston and Cambridge make Somerville a gravitational  center capable of attracting tourism and new investment. This is the goal to achieve with this project,  which not only create a new district but also a new use and capable of generating new functions for  the city needed for its management and the possibility of developing through specific programs, the  infrastructures that will enable the city to become a truly strategic hub in the Boston metropolitan  area.  The  Public  Private  Partnership  between  the  city  and  Develop  allowed  to  share  a  journey  to  reach  this  goal  within  a  few  years  that  will  change  the  face  of  the  whole  area.  The  resulting  plan  envisions a vibrant, mixed use, urban neighborhood and commercial center providing significant local  and regional benefits including 19,000 new jobs, increased tax revenues, market rate and affordable  housing, improved access to transportation.   Furthermore, the proximity to the shores of the Mystic River, allows ownership by the citizens of new  recreational spaces opening the city to its waterfront.   The  key  industries  in  Somerville  are  health  services,  retail,  business  services  and  creative  design.  Somerville's  local  economic  base  is  heavily  influenced  by  three  factors:  its  dense  residential  population, the nature of its commercial and industrial building stock, and its proximity to Boston.     1.3.2 Discussion of case study  Through statistical surveys analysed on two empirical case studies, Concord and Somerville, we can  say that in this last decade, in this context, there have been many benefits for the community.  13     


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

The table 1 shows clearly the differences that exist between two concrete case studies. Concord is a  project  ended  in  2004,  which  saw  the  change  in  the  strength  of  PPP  for  the  benefits  to  the  community; Somerville shows a draft vision for the future.   Through  the  interaction  between  PPPs  and  TODs  wants  to  produce  employment  and  economic  development for the urban areas around the stations from time fragmented or degradated.    Table 1, The role of public and private in case studies. 

Concord  

The role of Public 

The Public  Sector  has  always   In 2000, the Somerville Redevelopment  Authority  (SRA)  gained  title  to  the  9.3  worked  with  the  local  acre  of  former  railroad  parcel  in  community  to  identify  goals  Assembly  Square  and  filed  a  Request  for Proposal for the developers. At the  and develop a vision for the   same  time,  the  City  initiated  an  extensive  public  planning  process,  future of the city.    producing  the  "2000  Planning  Study"  which  set  out  a  new  vision  for  Assembly Square. 

Sector

Somerville

The  role  of  Real 

Period Realty Trust  is   responsable 

estate

for

In 2005, the Federal Reality Investment  the 

(FRIT) purchased  the  Assembly  Square 

acquisition of  properties  and 

Mall and  other  properties  adjacent  to 

right‐of‐way  required for the 

the

construction, operation  and 

footretail/industrial complex. 

mall;

220,000‐square‐

maintenance,   management  and  ongoing  administration  of 

joint

contracts

development and 

leases

including parking. This   function  includes  collection  of  income  from  agreements,  invoicing,  billing,  property  inspections  and  property  management 

The

role

private Developer 

of

Collaboration between  the 

The Developer, in partnership with the 

Developers who  listened  to 

City

community

leaders

and

designation of  the  site  as  an  Economic 

integrated

housing

and

Development District pursuant to the I‐

of

retail

Cubed Program  in  order  to  secure  $50 

revitalization entities. 

of

Somerville,

proposes

million in  state  financing  toward  an  estimated  $111.5  million  for  Public  Infrastructure Improvements. 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

Based on  some  insights  coming  from  the  CLUDs  project  under  7FP  Irses  2010,  the  statistical  data  have been correlated with the forms of PPPs for each initiative ‐ case study selected. The aggregate  indexes  of  Cluds  Model  –  demographic  fragmentation,  education  and  per  capita  income  and  housing– have been associated to four grade of values – high medium, medium low, low – through  cluster analysis technique, based on finding similarities between data according to the characteristics  found in the data and grouping similar data objects into clusters.    

fig. 4: Demographic fragmentation index  (elaboration  from  Census  Data  2000‐ 2010) 

fig.5: Income per capita index (elaboration from Census Data  2000‐2010)     

fig. 6 Education index (elaboration from Census Data 2000‐2010)   

By dividing the PPPs forms from Cluds Project models, emerges thet Concord and Somerville are  in  the cathegory of PPP‐TOD, indeed, it is a “led reached a medium and high level of performance for  per capita income, a medium and medium low level for demographic fragmentation and education  but a contrast result about unemployment”.    

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

In Conclusion,  through  investigation  and  analysis  on  case  studies,  we  can  say  that  the  results  are  divided into three points:   Increased competitiveness urban through the application of a TOD model.   Increased  capitalization  of  investments  for  private,  and  it  is  generator  to  "Socialization  of  Profits", and consists mainly in the distribution of positive impact  for the whole community.    Increased the role of transport, which have the task of maximizing the cost‐effectiveness of  services,  adding  value  to  local  entrepreneurs,  so  that  increases  the  retail  sale  of  products  local.    Experience  in  this  case  studies  have  demonstrated  that  implementing  TOD  can  result  in  significant  benefits to individuals, communities and entire regions by improving the quality of life for people of  all ages and abilities to live, work, shop, learn and play. Conventional development often consumes  acres  of  land,  requires  extensive  investments  in  infrastructure,  and  perpetuates  dependence  on  private vehicles. TOD reduces travel time, shortens journeys and provides no motorized trip options,  helping  to  reduce  our  reliance  on  the  automobile.  The  case  studies  have  illustrated  how  transit  supportive  policies,  planning  and  coordinated  investment  in  land  use  and  transportation,  and  the  Public Private Partnerships, can create opportunities and benefits for the community.       

Competitive  

Community Benefits

High level of urban 

 

Transit Activness 

  Low level of 

 

Uncompetitive  

Transformation

Weak PPP 

PPP Strong PPP

 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

So, the papers want to recognize the TODs potential as catalysts for investment, in any urban context  the  European  and  American,  throught  a  strong  Public  Private  Parthnership,  and  supported  by  an  integrated  planning,  they  becomes  the  real  force  of  change,  that  raises  property  values  by  encouraging  the  transformation  of  the  existing,  with  the  goal  of  obtaining  as  positive  impact  a  “Socialization of Profits” and distribute equally of rhe services.    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This  presentation  draws  from  the  activities  of  the  Cluds  Research  Program,  funded  within  the  framework of the EU IRSES MARIE CURIE 7FP. The research is led by Pau‐University Mediterranea of  Reggio Calabria (Italy) and the participants are: FOCUS‐university of Rome La Sapienza (Italy); SOBE‐ University of Salford (uk); Aalto University (Finland); Northeastern University of Boston (Usa) and San  Diego State University (USA).    REFERENCES  (journal article)  1000 Friends of Oregon (1993). “The Pedestrian Environment Model Modifications”. Vol. 4A and Vol.  6. Portland, OR: LUTRAQ  Bertolini  L,  Dijst  M  (2003)  Mobility  environments  and  network  cities,  Journal  of  Urban  Design,  8,  1:23‐43  Boarnet  M,  Crane  R  (1998)  Public  Finance  and  Transit  Oriented  Planning:  New  Evidence  from  Southern California Journal of Planning Education and Research 17:206‐219  Boarnet  M.G.  and  Compin  N.  S.  (1999).  “Transit‐Oriented  Development  in  San  Diego  County.  The  incremental  Implementation  of  a  Planning  Idea”,  Journal  of  American  Planning  Association,  Winter  1999, N. 65, pp. 80‐95  Cervero R. and Kockelmann K. (1997). “Travel demand and the 3 Ds: density, diversity and design”,  Transportation Research, Part D2, 2 (3), 199‐219   Cervero  R.  (2002).  “Built  environments  and  mode  choice:  toward  a  normative  framework”,  Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 7 (4), pp. 265‐284   

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Davidoff P.  (1965)  “Advocacy  and  Pluralism  in  Planning”,  Journal  of  the  American  Institute  of  Planners, 31, 4, November   Dematteis  G.  and  Governa  F.  (2002)  “Grandi  infrastrutture  e  sistemi  locali.  Il  valore  aggiunto  territoriale  delle  infrastrutture  di  trasporto”,  Scienze  Regionali  Italian  Journal  of  Regional  Science,  Vol. 3/2002, Franco Angeli, Milano    Krizek  K.J.  (2005).  “Book  Review:  The  New  Transit  Town:  Best  Practices  in  Transit‐Oriented  Development”, Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 19, pp. 349‐ 350  Lund H. (2006). “Reasons for Living in a Transit‐Oriented Development, and Associated Transit‐Use”,  Journal of American Planning Association, Vol. 72, pp. 357‐366  Peter  Newman&Jeffrey  Kenworthy,(2006)Urban  Design  to  Reduce  Automobile  Dependence,  An  International Journal of Suburban and Metropolitan Studies, : Vol. 2: No. 1, Article 3.  Renne,  J.  (2009).  “From  transit‐adjacent  to  transit‐oriented  development”,  Local  Environment  Vol.  14, N. 1, January, pp. 1‐15  (conference paper)  Belzer  D.  and  Autler  G.  (2002).  Transit  Oriented  Development:  moving  from  Rhetoric  to  Reality  .  Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy and The Great  American Station Foundation   Bernick, Michael and Peter Hall. (1990). Land Use Law and Policy for Maximizing Use of  CaliforniaÕs New Inter‐Regional Rail Lines. IURD Working Paper number 523.  Berkeley, California: University of California IURD. http://www.uctc.net/papers/343.pdf  Bernick, Michael and Michael Carroll. (1991). A Study of Housing Built Near Rail Transit  Stations: Northern California. IURD Working Paper number 582. Berkeley,  California: University of California IURD.  Bernick, Michael and Peter Hall. (1992). The New Emphasis on Transit‐Based Housing  throughout the United States. IURD Working Paper number 580. Berkeley,  California: University of California IURD.  Bernick, Michael, Peter Hall, and R. Shaevitz. (1992). New Planning Strategies for  Transit‐Based Housing in Northern California. IURD Working Paper number 582. 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

Berkeley, California: University of California IURD  Curtis C., Renee J. and Bertolini L. (2009). Transit Oriented Development. Making it Happen. Surrey,  UK: Ashgate  Hale  C.  and  Charles  P.  (2007),  “A  Step‐by‐Step  Approach  to  Transit  Oriented  Development  Project  Delivery”,  11th  World  Conference  on  Transport  Research  University  of  California,  Berkeley,  24‐28  June  Landis,  John,  Robert  Cervero  and  Peter  Hall.  (1991).  Transit  Joint  Development  in  the  USA:  An  Inventory and Policy Assessment. Environment and Planning C:Government and Policy 9: 431‐452.  Rullani  E.,  (2001),"Il  distretto  industriale  come  sistema  adattivo  complesso",  paper  presentato  in               occasione  degli  Incontri  pratesi  "Lo  sviluppo  locale",  Villa  medicea  di  Artimino,  10‐14  settembre  2001, p. 6. I.R.I.S.  TABUCHI,  Takatoshi  &  THISSE,  Jacques‐François,  (2003).  "Regional  specialization,  urban  hierarchy,  and  commuting  costs," CORE  Discussion  Papers 2003060,  Université  catholique  de  Louvain,  Center  for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).  Luisa Debernardi, (2005),  Distretto della cultura, dello sport e  del loisir della citta’ di torino e  delle  sue valli alpine, uno sguardo alla teoria e alla letteratura Working paper n. 1/  (book)  Ache  P.  and  Andersen  H.T.  (2008)  “Cities  Between  Competitiveness  and  Cohesion:  Discourses,  Realities  and  Implementation”,  in:  Ache  A.,  Andersen  H.T.,  Raco  M.  and  Taşan‐Kok  T.  (eds.)  Cities  between Competitiveness and Cohesion, Springer, London  Ball  M.  (2003),  Synergy  in  Urban  Regeneration  Partnerships:  Property  Agents’  Perspectives,  Urban  Studies, Vol. 40, No. 11 pp. 2239–2253  Bernick, Michael. (1990). The Promise of CaliforniaÕs Rail Transit Lines in the Siting of  New Housing. Report to the California Senate Transportation Committee and the  Senate Housing and Urban Affairs Committee.  Bertolini  L.  (2008)  Station  areas  as  nodes  and  places  in  urban  networks:  An  analytical  tool  and  alternative development strategies, in Bruinsma et al. (eds.) Railway Development: Impacts on Urban  Dynamics, Physica‐Verlag a Springer Company 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

Bevilacqua C.,  (2001)Politiche  di  sviluppo  e  pianificazione  territoriale,  tra  innovazione  e  prassi  ordinaria, collana diretta da Enrico Costa, Roma, Gangemi Editore,.  Borri  D.  e  Ferlaino  Fiorenzo,(2009)  Crescita  e  sviluppo  regionale:  strumenti,  sistemi,  azioni,  editore  Franco Angeli, Milano  Cervero R. and Bernick M. (1997).  Transit Villages in the 21st Century. New York: McGraw‐Hill  Cervero R. (1989). America’s Suburban Activity Centers: The Land Use‐ Transportation Link. Boston:  Unwin‐Hyman.  Dematteis G., (2000)"Per una geografia della territorialità attiva e dei valori territoriali" in P. Bonora  (a cura di), SLOT quaderno 1 – Progetto nazionale di ricerca sui sistemi locali nei processi di sviluppo  territoriale, Torino, Baskerville,.  Dematteis  G.  e  Bonavero  P.  (a  cura  di),  (1997)  Il  sistema  urbano  italiano  nello  spazio  unificatoeuropeo, Bologna, Il Mulino.  De Matteis G. Governa F. (eds) (2001) Contesti Locali e Grandi Infrastrutture. Politiche e Progetti in  Italia e in Europa, Franco Angeli, Milano  Di  Bernard  H.  Ross,Myron  A.  Levine,  (2004)  “Urban  Politics:  Cities  and  Suburbs  in  a  Global  Age”,  seventh edition,   Dittmar H and Ohland G (2004). The New Transit Town. Washington, D.C: Island Press  Dunphy  R.T.,  Cervero  R.,  Dock  F.C.,  McAvey  M.,  Porter  D.R.  and  Swenson  C.J.  (2004).  Developing  Around Transit. Strategies and Solutions That Work. Washington D.C.: Urban Land Institute.  Grimsey D., Lewis M. (2007), Public Private Partnerships: the worldwide revolution in infrastructure  provision and project finance, Edward Elgar Publishing.  Lowry  I.  S.  (1964)  Modello  di  una  metropoli,  traduzione  e  commento  di  A.  Fadini  e  F.  Forte,  Guida  Editori,Napoli.  Martinotti Guido, (1993), Metropoli. La nuova morfologia sociale della città, Il Mulino,Bologna.  Marvin  Splintering  Urbanism:  Networked  Infrastructures,  Technological  Mobilities  and  the  Urban  Condition  Moraci  F.  e  Bevilacqua  C.  ,  (2007)  Strategie  in  città.  La  riorganizzazione  dell'offerta  dei  servizi  nei  processi di trasformazione, Officina Edizioni, Roma.  Pushkarev, Boris S. and Jeffrey M. Zupan. (1977). Public Transportation and Land Use  20     


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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

Moses S., Lewis C.A. and Lastrape K. (2009). Moving Toward Implementation: An Examination of the  Organizational and Political Structures of Transit‐Oriented Development. Houston, Texas: Center for  Transportation Training and Research Texas Southern University  Nelson  D.,  Niles  J.  and  Hibshoosh  A.  (2001).  A  New  Planning  Template  for  Transit‐Oriented  Development. San Jose (CA): Mineta Transportation Institute  Nelson D. and Nygaard D. (1995). “Land use and Transit Demand: the Transit Orientation Index”, in:  Primary Transit Network Study. Portland, OR: Tri‐Met   Pill, Juri. (1988). Toronto: Thirty Years of Transit Development. In Transit, Land Use, and Urban Form.  Wayne Attoe, ed. Austin, Texas: School of Architecture, University of Texas at Austin.  Pushkarev  B.S.  and  Zupan  J.M.  (1982).  “Where  Transit  works:  Urban  Densities  for  Public  Transportation”, in: Urban Transportation: Perspective and Prospects, ed. By H.S. Levinson and R.A.  Weant, Westport, CT: Eno Foundation   − RICS Policy Unit (2002) Land Values and Public Transport: stage 1‐ summary of findings.  S. Mark White. James B. McDaniel, TRB Counsel for Legal Research Projects, (1999), The Zoning And  Real  estate  Implications  of  Transit  Oriented  Development  ,  TCRP  REPORT  102,  Sponsored  by  the  Federal Transit Administration.  Smith  J.J.  and  Gihring  T.A.  (2006).  Financing  Transit  Systems  Through  Value  Capture.  An  Annotated  Bibliography. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, September   Takatoshi Tabuchi & Jacques‐François Thisse, (2006). "Regional Specialization, Urban Hierarchy, And  Commuting  Costs," International  Economic  Review,  Department  of  Economics,  University  of  Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 47(4),  pages 1295‐1317, November.  Transit  Cooperative  Research  Program  (1996).  Transit  and  Urban  Form.  Washington  D.C.:  National  Academy Press  Transit  Cooperative  Research  Program  (2004).  Report  102,  Transit‐Oriented  Development  in  the  United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. Washington D.C.: www.TRB.org  Transportation  Research  Board,  Smart  Growth  and  Transportation  (2002).  Issues  and  Lessons  Learned. Conference Proceedings 32, September 8‐10. Baltimore, Maryland 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

Transit Cooperative  Research  Program,  TCRP  Project  J‐5,  “Legal  Aspects  of  Transit  and  Intermodal  Transportation Programs,” (AUGUST 2011), John L. Renne, Ph.D., AICP; Keith Bartholomew, J.D.; and  Patrick Wontor. James B. McDaniel, TRB  (book and book chapter)   Becattini G. (a cura di Carlo Carboni) , Modelli locali di sviluppo. Il Mulino, Bologna 1989.  Calavita, Nico. (1993). A Little Bit of Seaside Comes to Southern California. Planning 59,  9: 24‐25.  Calthorpe P. (1993). The next American Metropolis. Ecology, Community, and the American Dream.  New York: Princeton Architectural Press  Camagni R., (1992)Economia Urbana, Roma, NIS.  Camagni R., (1993)Principi di economia urbana e territoriale, Carocci.  Camagni  R.P.,  De  Blasio  G.  (1993)Le  reti  di  città:  teoria,  politiche  e  analisi  nell’area  padana,  Angeli,  Milano.  Cervero R. and Bernick M. (1997).  Transit Villages in the 21st Century. New York: McGraw‐Hill  (Website)  http://www.bart.gov/docs/planning/TOD_Guidlines.pdf  http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/how‐to‐SG.html, consult the 02/2012  http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/CS‐tod‐concord.html, consult the 12/2011  http://www.concordma.gov/Pages/ConcordMA_Bylaws/index, consult the 12/2011  http://www.regional‐studies‐assoc.ac.uk/events/2012/may‐delft/papers/pdfs/bevilacqua‐et‐al.pdf,  consult the 06/2012  http://www.sedcinc.org/about/docs/mar09/Item8b_Proposotion_1C.pdf  http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/community/village/index.shtml  http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/pdfs/us_ppp_case_studies_final_report_7‐7‐07.pdf  http://www.jacobscenter.org/about.html  http://www.sandiego.gov/planning/community/profiles/encanto/  http://www.planning.dot.gov/documents/casestudy/cities/returning_city.htm#sd 

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future  Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012     

http://reconnectingamerica.org/resource‐center/books‐and‐reports/2010/performance‐based‐ transit‐oriented‐development‐typology‐guidebook/ http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol8/issue3/wellman.html   

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Aesop 2012  

Smart Growth, Urban Regeneration, Public Private Partnership, Transit Oriented Development, Value Capture

Aesop 2012  

Smart Growth, Urban Regeneration, Public Private Partnership, Transit Oriented Development, Value Capture

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