Page 1

PROCEEDINGS


Organization Committee Conference Chairs Sofia Morgado João Rafael Santos Conference Manager Inês Moreira Workshop Coordinators Maria Manuela Mendes Miguel Baptista-Bastos

Inês Simões José Beirão Support team Ana Branco Catarina Castro Cláudia Rosete Diogo Silvestre Inês Cabaça Inês Mota Manuel Vieira Maria Amélia Ferreira, Cláudia Gomes, Ana Cotrim

FA.UTL Offices Scientific Committee

Dulce Loução, FA.UTL, Portugal Fernando Moreira da Silva, FA.UTL, Portugal Gabriella Esposito Di Vita, CNR, Italy João Paulo Martins, FA.UTL, Portugal João Pedro Costa, FA.UTL, Portugal João Sousa Morais, FA.UTL, Portugal Jorge Spencer, FA.UTL, Portugal Marcello Magoni, DiaP, Polimi, Italy Matej Niksic, UPIRS, Slovenia Pedro George, FA.UTL, Portugal Sabine Knierbein, SKuOr, TU Wien, Austria Track Chairs Alexander Wandl, TU Delft, The Netherlands Magdalena Rembeza, GUT, Poland Manuela Mendes, FAUTL, Portugal Rossella Salerno, DiAP Polimi, Italy Sara Santos Cruz, CITTA/FEUP, Portugal Sara Sucena, U.F. Pessoa, Portugal Publication Credits [inclusive of proceedings book, full papers and any other document included in the CD-ROM] Sofia Morgado & João Rafael Santos Coordinators Inês Moreira Contents organisation Authors of abstracts and papers; others, where referred ISBN: 978-972-9346-28-6 CD-ROM Faculdade de Arquitectura, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Editor Lisboa, 2012



Institutional partners:

Sponsors:


THE TOPIC

11

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS

12

Ali Madanipour Carlos Dias Coelho Frank Eckardt José Pinto Duarte

SCHEDULE

15

NOT FOR TOURISTS WALKING WORKSHOP

19

Workshop 1 - Urban patchwork

19

Workshop 2 - Shared spaces, crossing cultures

20

Workshop 3 - Hills, valleys and climbing machines

21

Workshop’s get-together and the AESOP Thematic Group Public Spaces and Urban Cultures meeting

22

THE DEBATE

25

EMPTY CITIES

25

How uncertain is this project? instability and future of “Arco Ribeirinho Sul” project Ana Brandão Urban cohesion: a guiding concept for new urban realities Ana Júlia Pinto Antoni Remesar Redefining the border between public and private in ambiguous modernist areas: The case of Amsterdam Nieuw West Birgit Hausleitner Facing the Abandonment of Public Places: the case of the historical artisanal market area of Naples “Città Bassa” Claudia Trillo Gabriella Esposito Di Vita Stefania Oppido Creating Futures: Unpacking Scarcity Deljana Iossifova

28 30

32

33

35

Occupied abandoned buildings. Informalization as a revitalization factor of the city João Amaral The demographic decline within the arco ribeirinho sul area José Vargas Policy planning proposal for Chittagong, Bangladesh region to impede increase human and sex trafficking of children Florina Dutt Subhajit Das

36 38

40

The dynamic Polish suburban landscape created by SME sector Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek Olga Martyniuk

41

The future of compact and empty cities

43 5


M. Francisca Lima Event Infrastructure – Short-lived or Forever? Małgorzata Kostrzewska Magdalena Rembeza

44

Integrated model for the regeneration of historical urban space in Naples (Italy) Marina Rigillo Cristina Vigo Majello

45

Our School – an old space with a new role in the city Sónia Rafaela Salgueiro

47

COLLECTIVE SPACES

49

Public Spaces, Private art? Expressions of power through the contexts of production of art in public spaces Ágata Dourado Sequeira

51

Whose public goods? Public spaces and social change in Naples, Italy Andrea Varriale

52

Gentrifying Diversity? What future for Mouraria? Beatriz Padilla Tiago Chaves

54

Community Planning in Contested Public Places: the case of Belfast Gabriella Esposito Di Vita Claudia Trillo Alona Martinez-Perez

55

Collective or exclusive spaces? How Vienna’s culture-led image frames its future urban development paths Johannes Suitner Ambivalent subjectivities in a Secular Age Jorge Rivera

56 58

Networks for a Necessary Public Space: Intervention around the Circunvalación Road of the Cerro de Santa Catalina, Jaen (Spain) Juan Luis Rivas Navarro Belén Bravo Rodríguez

59

Nature and the landscape of informal spaces. A new urban paradigm? Maria João Matos

61

Using Publicness as a public space transdisciplinary analysis tool Miguel Lopes Sara Santos Cruz Paulo Pinho

62

(Un)public places. on shopping centres and public space in the contemporary city Miguel Silva Graça Changing ’inclusivity‘ of an urban park in the ambivalent historic urbanscape of Ankara Oya Memlük Müge Akkar Ercan

63

65

Toward a German Mosque Ossama Hegazy

66

New Urban Landscapes between materials structures and digital representation Rossella Salerno

67

LIVING INFRASTRUCTURES

69

The centrality of a peripheral route – the Taveiro node`s case Ana Margarida Tavares

71

6


Territories-in-Between Across Europe: Comparing the Permeability and Accessibility of Green Spaces Alexander Wandl The role of Public Private Partnership (PPP) in a spatial configuration of new urban poles defined by the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) rationale. The case studies of Concord and Somerville in Massachusetts Carmelina Bevilacqua Carla Maione Luciano Zingali Approaches for sustainable landscape urban structure formation of the linear city Elina Krasilnikova, Yulia Ivanitskaya PROXIMITY AND SEGREGATION. The ambivalent relation between the infrastructural network and the development of Lisbon’s metropolitan territory Inês de Castro Luís Lopes Moreira

73

74

76

78

Interfacing and infrastructural development in Lisbon metropolis (2001-2012) João Rafael Santos

80

Mobility Infrastructures, Ambivalent Spaces? A morphological approach João Silva Leite

82

To WISH and to HAVE – the dilemmas of achieving good quality public spaces in contemporary Poland. Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek Grzegorz Pęczek The ambivalent zone between sea and city –a new approach to collective spaces based on maritime identity of the cities by the sea Massimo Clemente Eleonora Giovene di Girasole The Tower: a brief architectural interpretation Miguel Baptista-Bastos The public space in the restructuring of the Portuguese metropolitan city: the Metro do Porto case Rodrigo Coelho The Águas Livres Aqueduct. Patterns of a living infrastructure. Teresa Marat-Mendes Andreia Bastos Silva

INDEX

84

85

87

89 90

93

7


8


THE TOPIC

9


10


THE TOPIC Ambivalence stands for the simultaneously contradictory and opposing perception of a given phenomenon, which despite disorienting in its manifestations, may be regarded as a condition from which to build renewed frameworks of analysis and criticism. Recent trends in spatial, social and cultural processes show a growing sense of this ambivalence – in the coexisting patterns of spatial polarization and shrinkage, in the informal public spaces patched under recombining networks of individual and collective exchange, in the increasingly difficult access to social and physical infrastructures that (used to) support modern cities. These are the landscapes of a changing urban Europe. No longer confined to the City, however even more dependent on stronger spaces of citizenship. Ambivalent landscapes are the common ground and the opportunity to address public space and urban culture in the face of an open and transdisciplinary perspective. Three tracks were designed to bringing together different approaches into a shared topic: Empty Cities, Collective spaces, Living infrastructures. This is an invitation to scholars to participate with original papers on a multiple disciplinary basis – architecture and urbanism, social sciences and landscape, design and technology. Welcome to Lisbon and enjoy a lively and plural debate on Public spaces and Urban Cultures!

The Conference Chairs Sofia Morgado and JoĂŁo Rafael Santos

11


KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Ambivalence of the in-between Ali Madanipour Professor of Urban Design, Director, Global Urban Research Unit, School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, Newcastle University

The current global crisis and the longer term structural changes in urban societies have created spatial and temporal gaps, which are ambivalent in nature, as they can be used as vehicles for moving simultaneously in different economic and social directions. The ambivalence of the in-between, of emptiness and ephemerality, may be used pragmatically, to focus on the mismatch between demand and supply of space, filling the gaps as an interim measure, or as a stepping stone to more stable arrangements. It can also be used as a transformative possibility, rethinking the character of urban space, developing a critique of the status quo, questioning fixed identities and arrangements, becoming a catalyst for change, and facilitating experimentation and innovation. Meanwhile, transience is reasserted as an inherent feature of modern urban life.

The Morphological Atlas of the Portuguese City and the Studies on Urban Form Carlos Dias Coelho

Professor of Urban Design, Coordinator of the PhD Programme in Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

The studies on urban form, which were tackled systematically from the interwar period, gained a particular importance for the discipline of Urbanism with the contribution of works done by architects such as Robert Auzelle or Saverio Muratori, who used urban morphology as a tool not only for understanding the city but also for its production. The development of the methodologies that were explored then may be an effective basis for the interpretation of emerging urban phenomena, many of which unrecognizable according to the stabilized concepts on urban form. Aiming to contribute to the study of the 12


Portuguese city specifically, the research group Forma Urbis lab has undertaken the Morphological Atlas of the Portuguese City project as a database that allows the development of operative research on the formal dynamics of the city in Portugal.

Ambivalent Landscapes: Researching the Unknown City Frank Eckardt Professor of urban sociology, Institute for European Urban Studies, Bauhaus-University Weimar/Germany

In the mid of deep crisis of the European economy, growing social problems and uncounted ecological challenges, the nostalgia of the European City as a success model for economic prosperity, social cohesion and the democracy of close relations becomes strong. Looking back to the different models of urban development nevertheless delivers a more balanced appreciation of the city as we have known it so far. By comparison, the European City can be contrasted with the fordist and the post-modern city. By discussion these models paradigmatically explained with the examples of Los Angeles and Detroit, we can identify the specific notion of European urban life. Our understanding of the cities in Europe however is challenged again by profound changes in the European societies. So, what will come next? In this presentation, the concept of the “authentic city� will be carefully discussed as a new reading of the current urban dynamic.

Architecture in the Digital era: research, teaching, and practice JosĂŠ Pinto Duarte

Professor of Architecture and Dean of the Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

The integration of computational resources in architecture has not been exactly peaceful. The meaning of the term itself is ambiguous and tends to fall in a simplistic way to the computer. The issue divides, so educators and professionals in general tend to position themselves at opposite poles. On one side we have those who attribute a central role to 13


the computer and on the other, those who refuse to give him any function. The reality, however, demonstrates that the computer can be instrumental in solving certain problems or project can be an obstacle in resolving other. Time and experience, however, allow you to categorize the problems and identify appropriate ways to use the computational resources in the design process. The presentation will describe briefly a set of examples of proper use of those means in research, teaching and professional practice in the realms of architecture, urban planning, and design. The underlying idea is that more than support or replace the designer, the use of computational resources can profoundly change the way in which we design.

14


SCHEDULE 6th of December 09.00 10.00 10.30 10.30 12.00

Registration President of the Faculty of Architecture, Director of CIAUD, Director of DPAUD and Conference Chairs Keynote Speakers - Ali Madanipour - José Pinto Duarte

Faculty of Architecture

Lunch (free; several options within the campus; please refer to map) 14.00 Meeting point – Martim Moniz Plaza 14.30 17.30 17.30 18.30 Evening

7th of December 09.30 11.00 Coffee break 11.30 13.00

Walking Workshops [3 themes] Urban patchwork Shared spaces, crossing cultures Hills, valleys and climbing machines AESOP Thematic Group Meeting [Coming together and Debate at Grupo Desportivo da Mouraria] Typical “not for Tourists” Conference Dinner at Grupo Desportivo da Mouraria

Mouraria/Lisbon

Parallel sessions Session 1.1 Session 2.1 Session 3.1 Keynote Speakers - Frank Eckardt - Carlos Dias Coelho

Lunch (free; several options within the campus; please refer to map) 14h30 Parallel sessions 16h00 Session 1.2 Session 2.2 Session 2.3 Coffee break 16h30 Parallel sessions 18h00 Session 3.1 Session 3.2 Session 3.3 Coffee break 18h30 Closing 19.00 Conference Chairs

Faculty of Architecture

[FYI: Slight changes may occur; for the detailed schedule please refer to registration’s documents available during the Conference]

15


16


NOT FOR TOURISTS WALKING WORKSHOP

17


18


NOT FOR TOURISTS WALKING WORKSHOP WORKSHOP 1 - URBAN PATCHWORK

Tutors Miguel Baptista-Bastos

Nikolai Roskamm

Inês Moreira

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

Technical University of Berlin

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

Avenue Almirante Reis offers a cross-section overview of Lisbon’s urban spatial development. Running through one of the main valleys of the city, from downtown to the mid-20th century districts of Areeiro, this axis is the common ground to a highly diverse mosaic of urban fabric and architecture. The valley of Almirante Reis bears a distinct character as a popular and often mislooked mirror of some of the most celebrated spaces Lisbon’s urban history. Since the medieval resettlement of the Moorish population in the valley and skirts of adjacent hills until the early 20th century fast growing and dense bourgeois development, this valley embeds the thresholds and inbetweens in which everyday practices shape the city. The challenge of the Walking Workshop theme 1 – Urban patchwork – is to find the fabrics around the valleys, its hidden spaces and an intertwined storyline of Lisbon’s urban shaping. The walk starts at Martim Moniz and follows the old waterline and path of Regueirão dos Anjos, as it crosses through the strait axis of Almirante Reis, up until Alameda, we have a glimpse over the transition to the 1930's and 1940's formal approach to urban design.

19


WORKSHOP 2 - SHARED SPACES, CROSSING CULTURES

Tutors Manuela Mendes

Nuno Franco

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

ARM- Associação Renovar a Mouraria

The relationship between Mouraria, Martim Moniz and the rest of the city of Lisbon is involved in a “historical fog” that goes back to the principle of its own existence. Their ethnic and cultural multiplicity comes from its marginal and peripheral status, compared to the rest of Lisbon. After the Christian conquest, the Moors were excluded and relocated outside the city limits of the wall that surrounded the metropolis: Mouraria. Located on the northern slopes and less appealing city, Mouraria deleted and omitted, by contrast, functioned as a site suitable for alternative cultures and social expressions - this characteristic remained submerged for centuries in this area, until today. The second theme of the Walking Workshop – Shared spaces, crossing cultures – challenges us to discover Mouraria and Martim Moniz’s diversity, multiculturalism and multiple origins of people, products and cultural services. They can be considered a "urban ethnic place" (Lin, 2011), configured as a local crossroads worlds, where it combines paradoxical dimensions, the typical neighbourhood, historic, cosmopolitan and exotic, but also segregated space and defamed, living in present times a rapid transformation. In this context, this visit will wonder around streets, alleys and corners of the neighbourhood, providing contact with key actors (Associação Renovar a Mouraria and Largo - Residências Artísticas e Turísticas) and projects of urban intervention (AiMouraria) betting not only on physical intervention, but also on the social fabric.

20


WORKSHOP 3 - HILLS, VALLEYS AND CLIMBING MACHINES

Tutors João Rafael Santos

Justyna MartyniukPęczek

Małgorzata Kostrzewska

Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Gdansk

Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Gdansk

Known as the city of seven hills, Lisbon’s unique urban character comes from the way how the city’s shaped open spaces – plazas, streets, walled sites – bear the interplay of the river Tagus with the exuberant topography around downtown and the valleys to the north. At the same that infrastructure and modern technology allowed for the city to grow beyond the boundaries of the seven hills, new possibilities to facilitate flow and movement were also introduced through a number of climbing machines: elevators, tramways, mechanical escalators, some of them classified as National Monuments. Recent programs for urban regeneration in the historical districts include new mobility links, renewing buildings and public facilities, promoting a three-dimensional interlocking between pedestrian movement, urban activities, transport interfaces and outstanding landscape features. The Walking Workshop theme 3 - Hills, valleys and climbing machines – traces the public realm shaped by the several layers of technological apparatus that make the contemporary city. The path will run between the hills of the Castle and Chiado, looking for the street patterns between them and the climbing machines which are now embedded in the urban landscape.

21


WORKSHOP’S GET-TOGETHER CULTURES MEETING

AND THE

AESOP THEMATIC GROUP PUBLIC SPACES

AND

URBAN

Discussants Ceren Sezer Gabriella Esposito Di Vita Inês Moreira João Meneses João Rafael Santos Manuela Mendes Miguel Baptista-Bastos Nikolai Roskamm Sabine Knierbein Sofia Morgado

The AESOP (Association of European Schools of Planning) Thematic Group on Public Spaces and Urban Cultures has been initiated in 2009 by Sabine Knierbein, Ceren Sezer and Chiara Tornaghi after the Annual Meeting of AESOP in Liverpool (UK) in 2009. In April 2010 the initiative has been recognized as a new Thematic Group Public Spaces and Urban Cultures by AESOP. The aim of the group is to settle the research and design focus on Public Space and Urban Cultures as well in other related disciplines. The Thematic Group brings together research in the following themes: 

Issues of artistic and intellectual practices and urban planning

Emerging urban cultures and socio-spatial practices in public spaces

Academic education approaches regarding urban cultures and public spaces that challenge sectorial rationalities of particular disciplines The first day’s workshop and meeting, the 6 th December, are

dedicated to discussing several of these issues in a plural way. The group invites researchers and scholars to join and contribute to this crosscutting debate. Welcome!

22


TERRITORIES-IN-BETWEEN ACROSS EUROPE: COMPARING THE PERMEABILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY OF GREEN SPACES

Alexander Wandl

TU Delft / Department of Urbanism Chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy, Delft, the Netherlands a.wandl@tudelft.nl

Many Europeans wish to live in the green; this individual desire is in conflict with societal aim of protecting the landscape around cities. This conflict is especially visible in large metropolitan landscapes where areas that blend urban and rural features are dominant. But also historically predominantly rural areas are more and more spatially characterised by a dispersed urban development. In both, Territories-inbetween (TIB), areas where new functions, uses and lifestyles arise as a result of the on-going interaction of urban and rural elements (Garreau 1991; Sieverts & Bölling 2004; Viganò 2001), are more and more visible. TiB cannot solely be explained as an intensification of urban functions in the rural environment, but have specific spatial and programmatic features that set them apart. This spatial phenomena was named Zwischenstadt (Sieverts, 2001), Tussenland (Frijters & Ruimtelijk Planbureau, 2004), City Fringe (Louis, 1936), Città Diffusa (Secchi, 1997), territories of a new modernity (Viganò, 2001), Stadtlandschaft (Passarge, 1968), Shadowland (Harmers in Andexlinger et al., 2005) Spread City (Webber, 1998) and Annähernd Perfekte Peripherie (Campi et al., 2000) from different researches across Europe. This variety of names is an indication of the diversity of TiB, which has to be considered when investigating this spatial phenomenon. So far comparative studies of dispersed urban development in Europe didn’t exceed morphological (Xaveer de Geyter Architecten, 2002) or land use studies (Couch, Leontidou, & Gerhard, 2007; Kasanko et al., 2006).This article adds a relational aspect because, the urban landscape we live in is an interconnected tissues, where function and uses are not a question of scale or vicinity but a matter of connectivity.

73


Therefore, the study uses two concepts, accessibility and permeability, to describe, measure and compare the spatial quality of TiB. Accessibility describes if certain areas and services are accessible, for whom they are accessible and in which quality. This means it describes a quality of a node to node relationship. Permeability describes the property of a territory to allow flows trespassing it. This means it describes the quality of a material. This paper presents two indicators: Accessibility of green open space and landscape fragmentation. Those two indicators were chosen as they describe the conflict between living in the green and the ecological connectivity of the landscape. Therefore, together they are a measure of ecological and social qualities of a TiB. To achieve this, the paper explains first the role of TiB in sustainable regional development and the most important regional planning tasks related to it. Secondly, the paper investigates the role of indicators in regional strategic planning. Thereafter an adapted version of Dupuy’s network urbanism approach is introduced to define relational criteria for the selection of the indicators. Landscape fragmentation and accessibility of green open spaces, described and their operability for regional planning and design is tested in two cases, South Holland (NL) and The Tyrol (A). Finally the adapted indicators are applied to ten case studies across Europe and the results are compared and discussed. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) IN A SPATIAL CONFIGURATION OF NEW URBAN POLES DEFINED BY THE TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD) RATIONALE. THE CASE STUDIES OF CONCORD AND SOMERVILLE IN MASSACHUSETTS

Carmelina Bevilacqua

Carla Maione

Luciano Zingali

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, Italy cbevilac@unirc.it

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, Italy carla.maione@unirc.it

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, Italy luciano.zingali@unirc.it

The paper intends to investigate how a new spatial configuration characterized by a functional adaptation of transit services to the urban form jointed with a mixing land uses and activities could be

74


empowered by different forms of public private partnership based both on

community

activation

and

local

economic

development

implementation. In the era of globalization, the urban systems are facing an increase of local specialization, mostly in the supply of so-called advanced services. The effect is easily recognizable in new geographical taxonomies in which new urban centers acquire the role of hub services (Bevilacqua, Moraci 2007). The

theoretical

framework

in

which

the

new

spatial

configurations arise comes from the principles of Smart Growth. The Smart Growth paradigm - born in United States and implemented through the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) tool rationale – is now becoming a paradigm to be followed also in Europe (EC 2010). The TOD is a �mixed-use community, that encourages people to live near transit services and to decrease dependence on their driving� (Still 2002, Bernick and Cervero 1997, p. 5), and also the practice of developing or intensifying residential land use near rail stations and housing, along with complementary public uses, jobs, retail and services, are concentrated in mixed-use developments at strategic points along the regional transit systems. (Cathorpe 1993, Boarnet and Crane 1998, Salvensen 1996). The aim is to recognize the TOD potential as catalysts for investment, which together with the PPP becomes the real force of change that raises property values by encouraging the transformation of the existing, in this context, governments, local governments and small private get benefits, both in raising revenues related to direct taxes, but also on subsequent choices for the community, resulting in a strengthening of the suburban districts, facilitating direct contact between people, and creating a more diverse social and cultural environment. (Duaney et al. 2001; Calthorpe and Fulton 2001). Based on some insights coming from the CLUDs project under 7FP Irses 2010, the paper intends to highlight two case studies about two important suburbs in Massachusetts, Concord and Somerville in

75


which the TOD rationale is successfully implemented. Concord and Sommerville are two urban HUB interacting at different levels, from global to local ones, playing the role of places in which the skills needed to ensure both new business and social services for a better quality of life, are empowered through strong partnership1.

APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE URBAN STRUCTURE FORMATION OF THE LINEAR CITY

Elina Krasilnikova,

VRPO “Association of Landscape Architects, Russian Federation, landurbanizm@gmail.com

Yulia Ivanitskaya

Volgograd State Architectural and Civil Engineering University (VSUACE), Russian Federation y.ivanitskaya@gmail.com

XXI century – is the century of landscape urbanism. The most ambitious large-scale urban projects are related with the urban structures of different hierarchical levels of interaction with the environment. Modern problems of urban development are becoming more closely linked with the need of comfortable living environment creation, because of inability of existing functional spatial organization of the territory to meet manifold demands of society. Analysis of the planning structure evolution allows to determine not only the main stages of the planning changes dynamics in the city structure, but also to identify the causes of these changes in order to understand the opportunities and ways of its perspective development. Today Volgograd is a city-planning structure, elongated the banks of the Volga river more than 90 km and 9 km in width. Nowadays Volgograd is a complex urban planning structure. We can notice its Acknowledgements: This presentation draws from the activities of the Cluds Research Program, funded within the framework of the EU IRSES MARIE CURIE 7FP. the research is led by Pau-University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria (Italy) and the participants are: FOCUS-university of Rome La Sapienza (Italy); SOBE-University of Salford (uk); Aalto University (Finland); Northeastern University of Boston (Usa); and San Diego State University (USA). 1

76


INDEX Ágata Dourado Sequeira, 51 Alexander Wandl, 2, 69, 73 Ali Madanipour, 12, 15 Alona Martinez-Perez, 55 Ana Branco, 2 Ana Brandão, 28 Ana Júlia Pinto, 30 Ana Margarida Tavares, 71 Andrea Varriale, 52 Andreia Bastos Silva, 90 Antoni Remesar, 30 Beatriz Padilla, 54 Belén Bravo Rodríguez, 59 Birgit Hausleitner, 32 Carla Maione, 74 Carlos Dias Coelho, 12, 15 Carmelina Bevilacqua, 74 Catarina Castro, 2 Ceren Sezer, 22 Cláudia Rosete, 2 Claudia Trillo, 33, 55 Cristina Vigo Majello, 45 Deljana Iossifova, 35 Diogo Silvestre, 2 Dulce Loução, 2 Eleonora Giovene di Girasole, 85 Elina Krasilnikova, 76 Fernando Moreira da Silva, 2 Florina Dutt, 40 Frank Eckardt, 13, 15 Gabriella Esposito Di Vita, 2, 22, 33, 55 Grzegorz Pęczek, 84 Inês Cabaça, 2 Inês de Castro Luís Lopes Moreira, 78 Inês Moreira, 2 Inês Mota, 2 Inês Simões, 2 João Amaral, 36 João Meneses, 22 João Paulo Martins, 2 João Pedro Costa, 2 João Rafael Santos, 2, 11, 21, 22, 80 João Silva Leite, 82

João Sousa Morais, 2 Johannes Suitner, 56 Jorge Rivera, 58 Jorge Spencer, 2 José Beirão, 2 José Pinto Duarte, 13, 15 José Vargas, 38 Juan Luis Rivas Navarro, 59 Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek, 21, 41, 84 Luciano Zingali, 74 M. Francisca Lima, 43 Magdalena Rembeza, 2, 25, 44 Małgorzata Kostrzewska, 21, 44 Manuel Vieira, 2 Manuela Mendes, 2, 20 Marcello Magoni, 2 Maria João Matos, 61 Maria Manuela Mendes, 2, 49 Marina Rigillo, 45 Massimo Clemente, 85 Matej Niksic, 2 Miguel Baptista-Bastos, 2, 19, 87 Miguel Lopes, 62 Miguel Silva Graça, 63 Müge Akkar Ercan, 65 Nikolai Roskamm, 19, 22 Nuno Franco, 20 Olga Martyniuk, 41 Ossama Hegazy, 66 Oya Memlük, 65 Paulo Pinho, 62 Pedro George, 2 Rodrigo Coelho, 89 Rossella Salerno, 2, 49, 67 Sabine Knierbein, 2, 22 Sara Santos Cruz, 2, 25, 62 Sara Sucena, 2, 69 Sofia Morgado, 2, 11, 22 Sónia Rafaela Salgueiro, 47 Stefania Oppido, 33 Subhajit Das, 40 Teresa Marat-Mendes, 90 Tiago Chaves, 54 Yulia Ivanitskaya, 76

93


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

The role of Public Private Partnership (PPP) defined by the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) rationale. The case studies of Concord and Somerville in Massachusetts Carmelina Bevilacqua*, Carla Maione**, Luciano Zingali*** * … Assistent professor in Urban Planning, Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Department PAU, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, (IT), 0965809506, +393358085836 cbevilac@unirc.it ** Phd Candidate “Urban Planning“, Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, (IT), carla.maione@unirc.it *** Phd “Urban Planning“ Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, Reggio Calabria, (IT), luciano.zingali@unirc.it ABSTRACT The paper intends to investigate how a new spatial configuration, characterized by a functional adaptation of transit services to the urban form jointed with a mixing land uses and activities, could be empowered by different forms of Public Private Partnership based both on community activation and local economic development implementation. The aim is to recognize TODs and Public Private Partnerships (PPP) as the real force of change that raises property values by encouraging the transformation of deprived urban areas. In the era of globalization, the urban systems are facing an increase of local specialization, mostly in the supply of so called advanced services. The effect is easily recognizable in new geographical taxonomies in which new urban centers acquire the role of hub services (Bevilacqua, Moraci 2007). The theoretical framework is based on Smart Growth priciples. The Smart Growth paradigm, born in United States and implemented through the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) rationale, is becoming a paradigm to drive the new strategies of Europe 2020 (European Community 2010). The aim is to recognize the TOD potential as catalysts for investment. The PPP becomes the real force of change that raises property values by encouraging the transformation of deprived urban areas. In this context, local governments and small medium enterprises get benefits, both in raising revenues related to direct taxes, but also on subsequent choices for the community, resulting in a strengthening of the suburban districts, facilitating direct contact between people, and creating a more diverse social and cultural environment. (Duaney et al. 2001; Calthorpe and Fulton 2001). Based on some insights coming from the CLUDs project under 7FP Irses 2010, the paper intends to highlight two case studies about two important suburbs in Massachusetts, Concord and Somerville in 1


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

which the TOD rationale is successfully implemented. Concord and Sommerville are two urban HUB interacting at different levels, from global to local ones, playing the role of places in which the skills needed to ensure both new business and social services for a better quality of life, are empowered through strong partnership. KEYWORDS Smart Growth, Urban Regeneration, Public Private Partnership, Transit Oriented Development, Value Capture

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

INTRODUCTION The paper aims at recognizing the join role of local public transport and Public Private Partnerships, as a founding element of the new geographical taxonomies, olso throught the news process of economic localization (Krugmann,1990). The paper intends to highlight how the polycentrism, based on new urban hierarchies and spatial polarity in which the nodes acquire the role of hub services, is able to produce local economic services and value captures, attractive for the private investors and therefore useful to arouse interest in Public‐Private Partnerships. Peter Calthorpe (1993) pioneered the Transit Oriented Development model. Calthorpe viewed TODs as a constellation of co‐dependent centers inter‐linked throughout a region by high‐capacity fixed‐ guideway transit services (Wolfe, 2009). The TOD is, by definition, a ”mixed‐use community, that encourages people to live near transit services and to decrease dependence on their driving” (Still 2002, Bernick and Cervero 1997, p. 5), and also the way of developing or intensifying residential land use near rail stations and housing, along with complementary public uses, jobs, retail and services, are concentrated in mixed‐use developments at strategic points along the regional transit systems. (Cathorpe 1993, Boarnet and Crane 1998, Salvensen 1996). The paper considers the TODs potential as catalysts for investment by encouraging the creation of “Transit Village District”, "a neighborhoods centered around a transit station planned and designed so that residents, workers, shoppers, and others find it convenient and attractive to patronize transit" (Transit Village Development Planning Act, Government of California,1994). Transit Village Districts are portion of area subject to “Effect Cluster”, that make them be “ a geographically proximate group of interconnected companies and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities” (Porte, 1998). The Transit Village Districts come from the creation of productive system specialized in a network of goods and services, and where the urban form becomes the result of the interaction between demand and supply of people, information and goods mobility. This process, implemented in specific urban areas, is generator to "Socialization of Profits", not as the classic concept of neo‐liberalism based on the "privatization of profits and socialization of losses". By contrast, it consists in the impact of the interaction between TOD and PPPs tool in local system, distributing benefits at the whole community.

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

The goal is to recognize the role of TODs as possible catalysts investment, through the virtuous dynamics of Public‐Private Partnerships that can make social, economic and enviromntal sustainable each initiative of urban transformation with a strong role played by the private sector. In this way, it is possible argue that the creation of property value can foster benefits distribution for the community. A Transit Oriented Development model through a strong process Public Private Partnerships, offers a multitude of environmental, social, and fiscal benefits (Arringhton and Parker, 2001) and the perceived value of these benefits is, to a certain extent, reflected in increased property values near transit stations (Nadine Fogarty, Nancy Eaton, Dena Belzer, Gloria Ohland, 2008). In a TODs context, governments, local governments and small private investors get benefits, both in raising revenues related to direct taxes, but also on subsequent choices for the community, resulting in a strengthening of the suburban districts, facilitating direct contact between people, and creating a more diverse social and cultural environment. (Duaney et al. 2001; Calthorpe and Fulton 2001).

Fig. 1 Logic scheme TOD+PPP

Transit‐Oriented Development (TOD) has attracted interest as a tool for promoting Smart Growth, leveraging economic development, and catering to shifting market demands and lifestyle preferences (Cervero and Arringhton, 2004). The Smart Growth movement represents an important contribution from North American planning theory on the issue of reduction urban sprawl (Daniels, 2001, Soule, 2006).

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

In the last two decades, Smart Growth implemented in almost all American States by the Transit Oriented Development rationale tool becomes also in Europe a paradigm to be followed. (European Community 2010). Smart Growth, is the umbrella (Robert H. Freilich, Neil M. Popowitz, 2010) where different approaches and theories can find a sort of protection, which share a common thread as revisiting the link‐density public transport in view of the pursuit of sustainable urban. The TODs model is divided into two principal schools of thought. The first is that of transportation by Robert Cervero through qualitative analyzes show a link between public transport and urban form, and the second, of the New Urbanism with Peter Calthorpe, which highlights the role of urban density as a factor for the configuration of space assets useful to encourage the use of public transport, and testing models of reference purely morphological, neglecting the quantitative aspects of the phenomenon. Two different schools of thought, but both point to the correlation between re‐ configuration space of the system of urban center and public transport, recalling the well‐known models of Christaller (1933). The paper is articulated into three different sections. The first provides an overview of the international literature on TODs in relation to the influence that they determine the formation of value capture, and in relation to the stresses that cause the real estate market encouraging the construction of Public‐Private Partnerships. The second part of the literature review aims to bring out the key factors which affect the construction of new urban centers that, in virtue of their specific spatial conformation, are capable to support the construction of balanced and livable communities. The third section, through the support of case studies, located in Massachusetts, in the metropolitan area of Boston, Concord and Somerville, discusses the activate factors of these dynamics in two very different contexts and offers an interesting discussion on the benefits at the community. 1.1 Transit Oriented Development and Public Private Partnership, that affecting on the new community urban? In the late 1990s and early 2000s, several books have made a link between TODs and sustainability principles.

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

The TOD theory is developed using an approach capable of integrating the urban and territorial transformation with instances of socio‐economic development, it acts on the spatial configuration of urban systems and defines new polarities, derived from the interaction with the economic processes of "localization" of services, according to the principles of the new economic geography (Krugmann, 1990). In 1826 the first studies on Location Theory, as the connection between spatial variation and economic return, are by Johann Heinrich Von Thünen, which was the first to propose an association between improved transportation and higher property values. The actions proposed from TODs models in specific urban areas of the stations are aimed at encouraging development "compact", throught the Public Private Partnerships, that to increase the economic return on investment in the transport system and to maximize the use of existing stations. The scientific litterature show that, “The key to success of the TODs are the Public Private Partnership”(John Stainback e Renata Simril, in 2001). In 1989, The National Council for Urban Economic Development in USA, argues that the Public Private Partnerships are, “designed to decrease the costs of operating or constructing public transportation systems, stations or improvements through creative public‐private financing arrangements”, it are also “…real estate transactions involving the development of private projects on publicly owned land or air rights” (Sedway Kotin Mouchly Group 1996). The need to attract business and industry along with reduced public resources has led to the communion of public‐private partnerships and urban regeneration. Today in urban regeneration policies, the concept of community is combined with that of partnerships, they are able to provide social services, but also to support the business and the agenda of governments (MacLeavy July, 2009: p.849). It is also recognized that in societies of people and communities, local authorities and private entrepreneurs have the power to direct their interest towards negotiation. However, according to Collin (1998), the PPPs tool can allow a public operator to have access to specific skills or to create a strong antagonism to improve competition in the local market. The PPPs tool, especially in the field of urban planning, has a number of complex variables that make the application of these procedures complex, but three factors seem to be relevant: the context, the actors and the balance between the partners.

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

Indeed, the PPPs depending on the context and according to the different laws in different continents, it is influenced by different cultures, as well at the different levels of democracy. For this reason, it is recommended a difference use on the urban system, between the PPPs in Europe (mainly used for the construction of infrastructure) and the United States (also used to enhance the urban economy and regeneration processes).

Fig. 2 Scheme employment TOD and PPP

In the United States in recent years, different No Profit Organization for example, Reconnecting America, in collaboration with Local Government, which aims to promote "the integration of transport systems with urban communities" (Reconnecting America, 2007), has demonstrated how benefits are generated, particularly in the areas of travel behavior and property value. Several positive effects are related to TOD (Arrington and Parker, 2001), in part for the benefit of public transportation agencies and local governments, where growth has a displacement of iron, resulting in a direct increase of earnings for transport companies, is also demonstrated by several studies (Cervero and Duncan, 2002; Huang, 1996) as this type of intervention can generate processes of capturing value in the areas of influence of stations, or to increase property values and land for different uses, resulting in a potential increase in revenues to local governments through the municipal tax base. Dittmar and Ohland 2009, have proposed five main goals and benefits of the TOD model and PPPs tool. The location efficiency that comprises density, transit accessibility, and pedestrian friendliness but also have choice in housing, retail, and employment, rich mix of residential and commercial choices, value capture relates to household and community cost savings associated with transit use, place making as the ability for TOD to create attractive, pedestrian friendly neighborhoods replete 7


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

with high‐quality civic spaces, similar to European cities, and the resolution of the tension between node and place, by Luca Bertolini and Tejo Spit, who evaluated the redevelopment of rail station precincts across Europe.

Fig. 3 The Goal of TOD

The principal benefits that TODs provide for communities are increases “location efficiency” so people can walk, biking, and take transit. Boosting the transit ridership and minimized the impact of traffic, provides a rich mix of housing, jobs, shops, and recreational choices, provides value for the public and private sectors, and for new and existing residents. 1.2 TOD and Value Capture: what are the benefits for the community? TODs are considerated a niche market in America. (John L. Renne, Keith Bartholomew, and Patrick Wontor, 2008). Numerous studies have demostated – forges partnerships that unlock the value of premium real estate near transit (Ian Carlton, Transact 2011) ‐, and the impact of transit on surrounding real estate, and have discovered that transit can generate a significant amount of value capture for nearby property owners. By a definition by Callies, David L. 1979, Robert M. Patricelli, “Although we cannot yet say that value capture will be unfailingly successful in defraying the capital costs of development in all U.S. cities, it offers a major untapped source of transit revenue.” An important article, by John Landis and Robert Cervero, 1990, introduced the concept joint development in the TOD theory ‐ the concept of Transit‐Joint Development (TJD) implies a quid pro quo between the public sector and private developer. Usually they are transit agencies and private

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

developers that work together under a common vision in order to create a successful economic development. TOD projects could be facilitated through joint development and value capture and that the public sector can reduce risk for developers (John Renne 2009 and Peter Newman, 1997). During the development phases, the public sector can help to expedite the approval process, provide oversight of the development, and begin transit service, and lease or sell building space (which depends on the agreement). The private sector should build the project and sell or lease buildings. A value capture mechanism can be linked to density bonuses, rate increases, tax increment financing, and a rail trust fund from parking revenue. In Planning Process, the principle “Benefits Received” are positively capitalized into higher land values, from particular infrastructure or service in the context of public transit, provision of or enhancements to public transit systems accrue a accessibility‐related benefits to the neighboring properties, (Shishir Mathur, Adam Smith 2012). The Public Sector the increased land value, that can be captured through various mechanisms, for example property tax revenues, the sale or joint development of public land in proximity to the transit system, lease or sale of air rights above transit stations, levy of special assessments, imposition of public transit impact fees, land‐value taxation, and capture of property tax increments through Tax Incrementing Financing. (Shishir Mathur, Adam Smith 2012) So, the role of the private sector is to establish goals, create a strong partnership with the local government, create a new system and analyze market flexibility, develop winning strategies with the public sector’s goals. Land‐based initiatives, assembly, swaps, land banking, and the sale or lease of development rights, in the respect to zoning, incentives such as density bonuses, performance zoning, inclusionary zoning, interim zoning, floating zones, planned unit development, specific plans, and transfer of development rights are all noted as important tools for TODs. In figure 3, represent a hypothetical example that illustrates how property values might increase over time as a result of new transit service, which is the estimated amount that a property owner near a new transit station could expect to realize with a good value capture strategy. 9


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

Transit Value

Other

Impact Transit Opens

Potential

Start Up New

additional

T

b

i

f

Initial value for

transit

Time

1.2.1 A comparison of American and European Experiences The first study of Transport Development Areas (TDA) is in 2000 by the RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors) in Great Britain. The TDA proposes a method for the application of TOD in England, together with a wide roundup of case studies of success. TDA is "a new integrated approach between the government and the government of the mobility of urban transformation that has been applied to public transport nodes and in all strategic locations with high accessibility" (RICS, 2002) and olso, “A Transport Development Area (TDA) is an integrated land use/transport planning approach operating around urban public transport interchanges or nodal points well served by public transport in which a more specific relationship between development density and public transport service level is instituted”. It can be argued that there is a little difference between the two models, USA and Europe ones. The TODs are tied to specific interventions of transformation, not always contextualized in the regulatory framework or in the territorial system, however the TDA approach is "oriented to transform urban high accessibility "(Hine 2005). The TDA approach is part of an integrated planning at all levels, national, regional and local. The approach comes from the need of local authorities to cooperate and engage stakeholders to act towards urban sustainable processes. 10


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

In the last few years, in Europe, for example in France and Bodensee, in Oberschwaben (Germany), in Stedenbaan (Holland), it’s so prevalent the need to use transit stations to connect a multipolar system for regional economic development. Dino Barri and Fiorenzo Ferlanino argue how this new division of rail transport has redesigned the urban geography and planning, facilitating the establishment of new communities around the areas of the existing stations, bringing improved public transport services, and integration between the stations and the urban environment, through also bike‐sharing services, and the creation of greenways and pedestrian access, and also introducing structures devoted to business. 1.3 Research Methodology The discussion of the literature proposed in the previous section showed how the theory of TODs enables the development of a potentially successful approach, not only to catalyze the interest of private investors in urban transformation, due to the increase in land values, but also in encouraging community building balanced and livable, with its emphasis on factors such as the social and functional mixitè the basis of morphological principles underlying the design of urban TODs. In order to see how the theory of TOD act as a activate in positive interaction between stress in the housing market and construction of new urban communities, were examined two case studies, both located in the metropolitan area of Boston, characterized by different situations. The selection of the two cases has been directed to identify two urban contexts characterized by poor conditions or deprivation in which it was possible analysed how physical transformation has been implemented and embarked to improve physical environment and also socio‐economic regeneration. The case of Concord is located in a second metropolitan ring, and is served by a railway line, which connects to the city center and in particular to the metro line that connects the station to Harvard. The case of Somerville is located in the environs of the city center, in an area that started a regeneration process that was emblematically defined "Slumville". Both cases have in common from having focused on the implementation of the theory of TOD as a catalyst for sustainable regeneration, in both cases, the successful implementation of initiatives designed was the result of an effective synergy between the public and private sectors. The study is part of a larger research project, the CLUDs project, which unfolds over a period of three years and involves several European and U.S. units. The first year, just completed, this project has

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

been focused on the study of the functioning of Public‐Private Partnerships in urban regeneration, by analyzing thirteen case studies in the Boston area. The two case studies referred to in this paper are included in this selection. The analysis of the case studies was conducted with a primarily qualitative methodology, through the analysis of secondary sources and through direct surveys. First of all, it was carried out a systematic analysis of planning documents and planning involving the two areas over the past decade. Were collected and analyzed the main socio‐economic indicators and real estate market of the area in question, properly compared with those of the wider context. An extract of the indicators analyzed is shown in the discussion of case studies. Were administered semi‐structured interviews with key stakeholders involved in the process of urban regeneration, following a strict protocol in line with the ethical issues of the host institution. In the description of case studies, whenever we refer to a given taken from the interviews. Finally, analyzes were conducted several times on the field going places and conducting a thorough photographic survey, which aims to record not only the physical environment but also the behavior of the users. On the occasion of visits, were held short informal conversations with users of the sites. 1.3.1 Description Case Study Concord Commons Commuter Rail Concord Commons Commuter Rail, is a model of Transit Oriented Development, a mixed‐use community that encourages people to live near transit services and to decrease dependence on their driving” (Still 2002, Bernick and Cervero 1997, p. 5). The success key of the TOD are Public Private Partnership, “designed to decrease the costs of operating or constructing public transportation systems, stations or improvements through creative public private financing arrangements” (The National Council for Urban Economic Development 1989 transit facility” (Cervero et al. 1991). The strategy is Local property owners and developers have always worked with local government, and, today, the resulting Concord Common development comprises three mixed use buildings with retail space, office space, a 180 seat restaurant, and 20 rental apartments. With the final agreement between the Town and Developer, required that he provide four affordable units at another location in the Town, allowing all the units at the station to be rented at market rates, with the purpose to

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

encourage the small retail and hinder the Global Market, and to keeps rents of the local stable in the time. Somerville The Assembly Square district is Somerville’s largest commercial and industrial district with the greatest potential for redevelopment. Over the past two years, the City undertook an aggressive planning and redevelopment effort designed to convert this former industrial district to a transit oriented mixed use “urban village”. The City completed a planning study of the district that recommended a total build out over 20 years of at least 6 million square feet of commercial and residential uses. Various public improvements are planned, including a new Orange Line MBTA station within the district, roadway improvements, renovations and expansion of a waterfront park, and improvements to pedestrian and bicycle access. The planning and redevelopment strategy for Assembly Square is to reduce reliance on retail use by encouraging higher density office, R&D, and residential uses. The aim of the project is to revitalize an area that is of particular importance in the development plan of the city. Its proximity to Boston and Cambridge make Somerville a gravitational center capable of attracting tourism and new investment. This is the goal to achieve with this project, which not only create a new district but also a new use and capable of generating new functions for the city needed for its management and the possibility of developing through specific programs, the infrastructures that will enable the city to become a truly strategic hub in the Boston metropolitan area. The Public Private Partnership between the city and Develop allowed to share a journey to reach this goal within a few years that will change the face of the whole area. The resulting plan envisions a vibrant, mixed use, urban neighborhood and commercial center providing significant local and regional benefits including 19,000 new jobs, increased tax revenues, market rate and affordable housing, improved access to transportation. Furthermore, the proximity to the shores of the Mystic River, allows ownership by the citizens of new recreational spaces opening the city to its waterfront. The key industries in Somerville are health services, retail, business services and creative design. Somerville's local economic base is heavily influenced by three factors: its dense residential population, the nature of its commercial and industrial building stock, and its proximity to Boston. 1.3.2 Discussion of case study Through statistical surveys analysed on two empirical case studies, Concord and Somerville, we can say that in this last decade, in this context, there have been many benefits for the community. 13


AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

The table 1 shows clearly the differences that exist between two concrete case studies. Concord is a project ended in 2004, which saw the change in the strength of PPP for the benefits to the community; Somerville shows a draft vision for the future. Through the interaction between PPPs and TODs wants to produce employment and economic development for the urban areas around the stations from time fragmented or degradated. Table 1, The role of public and private in case studies.

Concord

The role of Public

The Public Sector has always In 2000, the Somerville Redevelopment Authority (SRA) gained title to the 9.3 worked with the local acre of former railroad parcel in community to identify goals Assembly Square and filed a Request for Proposal for the developers. At the and develop a vision for the same time, the City initiated an extensive public planning process, future of the city. producing the "2000 Planning Study" which set out a new vision for Assembly Square.

Sector

Somerville

The role of Real

Period Realty Trust is responsable

estate

for

In 2005, the Federal Reality Investment the

(FRIT) purchased the Assembly Square

acquisition of properties and

Mall and other properties adjacent to

right‐of‐way required for the

the

construction, operation and

footretail/industrial complex.

mall;

220,000‐square‐

maintenance, management and ongoing administration of

joint

contracts

development and

leases

including parking. This function includes collection of income from agreements, invoicing, billing, property inspections and property management

The

role

private Developer

of

Collaboration between the

The Developer, in partnership with the

Developers who listened to

City

community

leaders

and

designation of the site as an Economic

integrated

housing

and

Development District pursuant to the I‐

of

retail

Cubed Program in order to secure $50

revitalization entities.

of

Somerville,

proposes

million in state financing toward an estimated $111.5 million for Public Infrastructure Improvements.

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

Based on some insights coming from the CLUDs project under 7FP Irses 2010, the statistical data have been correlated with the forms of PPPs for each initiative ‐ case study selected. The aggregate indexes of Cluds Model – demographic fragmentation, education and per capita income and housing– have been associated to four grade of values – high medium, medium low, low – through cluster analysis technique, based on finding similarities between data according to the characteristics found in the data and grouping similar data objects into clusters.

fig. 4: Demographic fragmentation index (elaboration from Census Data 2000‐ 2010)

fig.5: Income per capita index (elaboration from Census Data 2000‐2010)

fig. 6 Education index (elaboration from Census Data 2000‐2010)

By dividing the PPPs forms from Cluds Project models, emerges thet Concord and Somerville are in the cathegory of PPP‐TOD, indeed, it is a “led reached a medium and high level of performance for per capita income, a medium and medium low level for demographic fragmentation and education but a contrast result about unemployment”.

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

In Conclusion, through investigation and analysis on case studies, we can say that the results are divided into three points:  Increased competitiveness urban through the application of a TOD model.  Increased capitalization of investments for private, and it is generator to "Socialization of Profits", and consists mainly in the distribution of positive impact for the whole community.  Increased the role of transport, which have the task of maximizing the cost‐effectiveness of services, adding value to local entrepreneurs, so that increases the retail sale of products local. Experience in this case studies have demonstrated that implementing TOD can result in significant benefits to individuals, communities and entire regions by improving the quality of life for people of all ages and abilities to live, work, shop, learn and play. Conventional development often consumes acres of land, requires extensive investments in infrastructure, and perpetuates dependence on private vehicles. TOD reduces travel time, shortens journeys and provides no motorized trip options, helping to reduce our reliance on the automobile. The case studies have illustrated how transit supportive policies, planning and coordinated investment in land use and transportation, and the Public Private Partnerships, can create opportunities and benefits for the community.

Competitive

Community Benefits

High level of urban

Transit Activness

Low level of

Uncompetitive

Transformation

Weak PPP

PPP Strong PPP

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

So, the papers want to recognize the TODs potential as catalysts for investment, in any urban context the European and American, throught a strong Public Private Parthnership, and supported by an integrated planning, they becomes the real force of change, that raises property values by encouraging the transformation of the existing, with the goal of obtaining as positive impact a “Socialization of Profits” and distribute equally of rhe services. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This presentation draws from the activities of the Cluds Research Program, funded within the framework of the EU IRSES MARIE CURIE 7FP. The research is led by Pau‐University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria (Italy) and the participants are: FOCUS‐university of Rome La Sapienza (Italy); SOBE‐ University of Salford (uk); Aalto University (Finland); Northeastern University of Boston (Usa) and San Diego State University (USA). REFERENCES (journal article) 1000 Friends of Oregon (1993). “The Pedestrian Environment Model Modifications”. Vol. 4A and Vol. 6. Portland, OR: LUTRAQ Bertolini L, Dijst M (2003) Mobility environments and network cities, Journal of Urban Design, 8, 1:23‐43 Boarnet M, Crane R (1998) Public Finance and Transit Oriented Planning: New Evidence from Southern California Journal of Planning Education and Research 17:206‐219 Boarnet M.G. and Compin N. S. (1999). “Transit‐Oriented Development in San Diego County. The incremental Implementation of a Planning Idea”, Journal of American Planning Association, Winter 1999, N. 65, pp. 80‐95 Cervero R. and Kockelmann K. (1997). “Travel demand and the 3 Ds: density, diversity and design”, Transportation Research, Part D2, 2 (3), 199‐219 Cervero R. (2002). “Built environments and mode choice: toward a normative framework”, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 7 (4), pp. 265‐284

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Davidoff P. (1965) “Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning”, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 31, 4, November Dematteis G. and Governa F. (2002) “Grandi infrastrutture e sistemi locali. Il valore aggiunto territoriale delle infrastrutture di trasporto”, Scienze Regionali Italian Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 3/2002, Franco Angeli, Milano Krizek K.J. (2005). “Book Review: The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit‐Oriented Development”, Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 19, pp. 349‐ 350 Lund H. (2006). “Reasons for Living in a Transit‐Oriented Development, and Associated Transit‐Use”, Journal of American Planning Association, Vol. 72, pp. 357‐366 Peter Newman&Jeffrey Kenworthy,(2006)Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence, An International Journal of Suburban and Metropolitan Studies, : Vol. 2: No. 1, Article 3. Renne, J. (2009). “From transit‐adjacent to transit‐oriented development”, Local Environment Vol. 14, N. 1, January, pp. 1‐15 (conference paper) Belzer D. and Autler G. (2002). Transit Oriented Development: moving from Rhetoric to Reality . Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy and The Great American Station Foundation Bernick, Michael and Peter Hall. (1990). Land Use Law and Policy for Maximizing Use of CaliforniaÕs New Inter‐Regional Rail Lines. IURD Working Paper number 523. Berkeley, California: University of California IURD. http://www.uctc.net/papers/343.pdf Bernick, Michael and Michael Carroll. (1991). A Study of Housing Built Near Rail Transit Stations: Northern California. IURD Working Paper number 582. Berkeley, California: University of California IURD. Bernick, Michael and Peter Hall. (1992). The New Emphasis on Transit‐Based Housing throughout the United States. IURD Working Paper number 580. Berkeley, California: University of California IURD. Bernick, Michael, Peter Hall, and R. Shaevitz. (1992). New Planning Strategies for Transit‐Based Housing in Northern California. IURD Working Paper number 582.

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Berkeley, California: University of California IURD Curtis C., Renee J. and Bertolini L. (2009). Transit Oriented Development. Making it Happen. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Hale C. and Charles P. (2007), “A Step‐by‐Step Approach to Transit Oriented Development Project Delivery”, 11th World Conference on Transport Research University of California, Berkeley, 24‐28 June Landis, John, Robert Cervero and Peter Hall. (1991). Transit Joint Development in the USA: An Inventory and Policy Assessment. Environment and Planning C:Government and Policy 9: 431‐452. Rullani E., (2001),"Il distretto industriale come sistema adattivo complesso", paper presentato in occasione degli Incontri pratesi "Lo sviluppo locale", Villa medicea di Artimino, 10‐14 settembre 2001, p. 6. I.R.I.S. TABUCHI, Takatoshi & THISSE, Jacques‐François, (2003). "Regional specialization, urban hierarchy, and commuting costs," CORE Discussion Papers 2003060, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE). Luisa Debernardi, (2005), Distretto della cultura, dello sport e del loisir della citta’ di torino e delle sue valli alpine, uno sguardo alla teoria e alla letteratura Working paper n. 1/ (book) Ache P. and Andersen H.T. (2008) “Cities Between Competitiveness and Cohesion: Discourses, Realities and Implementation”, in: Ache A., Andersen H.T., Raco M. and Taşan‐Kok T. (eds.) Cities between Competitiveness and Cohesion, Springer, London Ball M. (2003), Synergy in Urban Regeneration Partnerships: Property Agents’ Perspectives, Urban Studies, Vol. 40, No. 11 pp. 2239–2253 Bernick, Michael. (1990). The Promise of CaliforniaÕs Rail Transit Lines in the Siting of New Housing. Report to the California Senate Transportation Committee and the Senate Housing and Urban Affairs Committee. Bertolini L. (2008) Station areas as nodes and places in urban networks: An analytical tool and alternative development strategies, in Bruinsma et al. (eds.) Railway Development: Impacts on Urban Dynamics, Physica‐Verlag a Springer Company

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

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AMBIVALENT LANDSCAPES Sorting out the present by designing the future Public Spaces – Urban Cultures Conference | FAUTL | Lisbon, 6th and 7th December 2012

http://reconnectingamerica.org/resource‐center/books‐and‐reports/2010/performance‐based‐ transit‐oriented‐development‐typology‐guidebook/ http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol8/issue3/wellman.html

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