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The Cross Keys The Monthly Newsletter of Lodge Houstoun St. Johnstone

November 2013

Walking the Road / Seeking the Light

In this issue: Power Sir William Johnson The All Seeing Eye Scottish Connection in Florida Who are the Freemasons? Dunbartonshire Masonic Association Death of Masonic Halls

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Number 170

Power Throughout history, kings killed to get power and kings killed to keep power. In a real sense, Bro. George Washington had the power...and gave it up...twice. The first time was when he resigned his commission as General of the Continental Army in 1783. When the American-born painter Benjamin West was in England painting the portrait of King George III, the King asked what General and Bro. Washington planned to do now that he had won the war. West replied: "They say he will return to his farm." King George exclaimed: "If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world." Later, after serving two terms as President, Bro. Washington decided to return to his Mt. Vernon farm. This was similar to Roman leader Cincinnatus, who twice led the Roman Republic to victory in battle then returned to his farm, resisting the temptation to be dictator. The world watched in unbelief as President and Bro. George Washington delivered his Farewell Address, September 19, 1796, stating: "Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism who should labor to subvert these great Pillars..." Bro. Washington continued: "Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion< Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle< Morality is a necessary spring of popular government...Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation? . . . And of fatal put, in the place of the delegated will of the Nation, the will of a party; - often a small but artful and enterprising minority< They are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the Power of the People and to usurp for the themselves the reins of Government; destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. . . This leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism< Disorders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an Individual< (who) turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of Public Liberty< The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism... Let there be no change by usurpation...It is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed." Wor. Bro. George Washington was initiated on November 4, 1752 in Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Virginia. Brother Washington became Worshipful Master on December 20, 1788, and was inaugurated President of the United States on April 30, 1789, thus becoming the first, and so far the only, Brother to be simultaneously President and Master of his Lodge.

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Sir William Johnson founder of Johnstown Following on from last monthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s article about Norman Macleod, is Sir William Johnson his fellow freemason. Sir William Johnson was an English Baronet who was a very colourful and powerful figure in pre-revolutionary America. Born in Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland, he came to America to manage the holdings of his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter Warren, which were located about 24 miles west of Schenectady. Johnson soon developed trade with the Indians, treating them justly and fairly, cultivating their friendship and learning their language. He assumed many of their mannerisms and even their dress. His influence earned him the title Wariaghejaghe, which is interpreted to mean "he who has charge of affairs," and he was made a sachem of the Mohawk Tribe. He held the rank of Major General in the British Militia, distinguishing himself in the border warfare with the French. In February 1748 was placed in command of all New York colonial forces. On April 14, 1755, he was appointed "Sole Superintendent of the Affairs of the Six United Nations, their Allies and Dependents," He held that position until his death on July 11, 1774, at which time his nephew, Guy Johnson, replaced him in that office. Sir William became interested in Joseph Brant, the Mohawk Indian Chief, when Brant was about 17 years old. Brant served under Johnson at the Battle of Fort Niagara on July 25, 1759, and Johnson later took Brant's sister, Molly Brant, as his common-law wife. He was subsequently knighted for his service in the French and Indian War and given 100,000 acres of land in the Mohawk Valley where he founded Johnstown (west of NY). Sir William Johnson was raised a Master Mason on April 10, 1766 in Union Lodge No. 1, located in Albany, NY, (which is now Mount Vernon Lodge No. 3). On May 23, 1766 a Charter was issued to St. Patrick's Lodge No. 8 (now St. Patrick's No. 4) to constitute a regular lodge to be held at Johnson Hall in the County of Albany, Province of New York, in America. Its first meeting took place on August 23, 1766 with Sir William as Charter Master, his nephew Guy Johnson as Senior Warden, Daniel Claus as Junior Warden and John Butler as Secretary. Johnson's further Masonic offices include the titles of Provincial Grand Master of New York, and Master of the "Ineffable Lodge" at Albany, NY, which was probably the precursor to the present day Scottish Rite organisation. Sir William Johnson died on July 11, 1774.

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All Seeing Eye (Cover Page) Bro. Dr. Mackey interpreted the All-Seeing Eye as a symbol of God's omniscience, and in doing so had at the time (about 1870) the support of the Masonic students of his generation. The soundness of that interpretation need not be questioned in the sense that it represents the logical goal toward which any other possible interpretation may be aimed; but it is doubtful if it can be supported by Masonic history. Almost less is known about the symbol (and it is a symbol!) than any other; it did not once come into the purview of the studies on which this Supplement is based, and if any researcher has found anywhere solid data on the origin of the symbol it must be hidden in a book of more than average obscurity. There are a number of considerations based on other known data which throw some sidelights on the question :

1. During the long formative period of the Ritual from about 1717 to about 1770 Lodges were small, convivial, worked while seated about their dining table; they were serious, reverent, and the great majority of Masons were members of a church, but they were neither theological nor mystical, and they instinctively shrank from anything which bordered too closely upon the province of the Church. It is a sound rule in the interpretation of the symbols on the Tracing Boards used by those Lodges not to begin by assuming a theological meaning, because as a rule they shrank from theology. In Freemasonry before 1717 they shrank from it even more. They were a Brotherhood, a Fraternity, carrying on the traditions of the building craft, and they never had any consciousness of standing in the tradition of religion. Solemnity, seriousness, symbolism, ritualism, these do not betoken theology because they belong to man by nature and are found everywhere. Though the All-Seeing Eye is one of the religious symbols, it does not follow that the early Speculative Masons used it as a religious symbol. 2. The All-Seeing Eye may have denoted the Divine omniscience. Also, it may have symbolized any one or more of some five or six other truths or ideas. It may have denoted the sun originally, as it came up at dawn - it had been thus used by Shakespeare and many other writers. It may have meant the Grand Master or the worshipful Master, and been a reminder of the fact that wherever a man is and in whatever he may be doing he continues to be a Mason, and the eye of the Craft is on him. It may have stood for enlightenment, wisdom, intelligence ; and it may have been the Tracing Board representation of the Blazing Star in the Tessellated Pavement, in which case it was again the sun, or day-star, which shines on through day and night. (Note: Until modern astronomy made a number of its difficult facts familiar to everybody the majority of men did not see any necessary connection between daylight and the sun, because the day begins before the sun appears, and remains after it has sunk.) There are many omnisciences in addition to those known to theology and metaphysics-the omniscience of the law, the omniscience of the Government which keeps its eye on every citizen, etc.; if the first Freemasons had a symbol for omniscience it does not follow that it was therefore the Divine Omniscience that was meant.

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All Seeing Eye (ctd) 3. If their symbol signified the Divine Omniscience it does not follow that it would have had for them a depressing meaning, as if that Omniscience were for no other purpose than a final Judgment Day. Omniscience needs not search a man out in order to condemn him for sins he has tried to hide ; it may search him out to honour him for virtues he has tried to hide. The Sword Pointing at the Naked Heart is another emblem which need not have a depressing meaning; it should have, rather, a cheerful meaning, because when justice searches out every heart it means that men have security, live in civil order, and therefore can be happy. We could use the All-Seeing Eye as a symbol of the Divine Omniscience we could use it at the same time as a symbol for what ought to be the Fraternity's own omniscience (the word need not be defined so absolutely as many think it should) in the sense that it never loses sight of a man once that man has become a member, not even if he does not attend Lodge, or is confined at home by illness.

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A Scottish Connection in 18th Century Florida The 31st Regiment of Foot was an English regiment (to become East Surrey Regiment), but similar to many other regimental lodges had its charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland (GLoS). Why? Perhaps because it was stationed in Scotland when a lodge was formed or perhaps the Commanding Officer (who was often the master) was a member of a Scottish lodge. In the case of the 31st, it is likely that the lodge received its charter while stationed in Fort George in Inverness. This became Lodge Fort George No. 100 under the Scottish Constitution. With the formation of a second battalion in Glasgow, Scotland (to become 70th Foot), a second lodge received its charter as Lodge St George No. 108 in 1761 (also from the GLoS). These lodges were officially declared dormant in 1852 and 1816 respectively.

In 1761 the Commanding Officer of the 31st was Bro. James Adolphus Oughton, a member of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2 in Edinburgh. He became Grand Master Mason of Scotland in 1769 and eventually Commander-in-Chief of the Army in Scotland in1778. His affiliation with Scottish Masonry and the 31st may also have been influential in seeking a Scottish charter. It was not unusual for Scottish Grand Masters to have raised or be in charge of battalions.

In 1765, the 31st was sent to the Floridas and was garrisoned at St. Augustine and Pensacola (capitols of East and West Florida), and then to the island of St. Vincent. From records found in the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, it was found that St. Andrews Lodge No. 1 of West Florida was chartered in 1771 by the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Provincial Grand Lodge over the Lodges of the Southern District of North America, located at St. Augustine.â&#x20AC;? The charter was signed by James Grant, G.M. then Governor of the Province of East Florida, together with the other Grand Lodge Officers. Along with these two startling facts: a Florida Lodge as early as 1771, and a hitherto unknown Grand Lodge; was a third one, that the petitioners for the Lodge charter were to establish it in Pensacola, and that all the petitioners were members of Lodge No. 108 of the Register of Scotland, attached to the 31 st Regiment of Foot stationed at Pensacola.

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A Scottish Connection in 18th Century Florida (ctd) As nothing was known of the existence of a Provincial Grand Lodge at St. Augustine, and as the St. Andrews Lodge, a letter from Bro. Murray Lyon, Grand Secretary of the GLoS in 1898 clarified the whole matter, and which read as follows: “In searching our Grand Lodge records, I find under date of 15th March, 1768—having read a petition from James Grant, Esq. Governor of the Province of East Florida, Henry Cunningham, late Senior Warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and many other brethren residing in the Province aforesaid, craving a charter for holding a Lodge there by the style and title of “Grants East Florida Lodge” and also entreating the Grand Lodge to appoint the said James Grant Provincial Grand Master over the Lodges in the Southern District of North America, the Grand Lodge granted the desire of that petition, and authorized a charter to be made out accordingly, and likewise a commission appointing Governor James Grant Provincial Grand Master over the Lodges in the Southern District of North America.”

31st Regimental lodge in a later campaign.

In 1781, the Spanish conquered Pensacola and drove out Freemasonry. The Master, the Junior Warden and some of the members of old St. Andrews Lodge taking the Lodge's

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A Scottish Connection in 18th Century Florida (ctd) charter and other records fled to Charleston, S.C., then occupied by the English. From Charleston in 1782, they communicated with their Grand Lodge at St. Augustine and asked for authority to continue their work at Charleston as a Florida Lodge. This action was duly agreed although the following year the lodge moved under the GL of Pennsylvania as Freemasonry was stopped by the Spaniards in St. Augustine.

Lodge 108 in the 31st continued practising masonry wherever it was stationed from Britain, Gibraltar, Minorca and Malta. While in Malta, the lodge was conferring the Royal Arch degree and a superb certificate from 1810 is still in existence. The second battalion and lodge serving in the Peninsular wars and due to being disbanded after the Napoleonic war, the charter was returned in 1816.

The United States purchased Florida in 1819 and almost from the day on which the purchase was completed, Freemasonry began to flow back into the villages to the happy and successful Jurisdiction that exists in the 21st century.

Family Connections Do you have any family in Massachusetts? Try the following: is a collection of biographical, Masonic Lodge, district and other historical data for Freemasonry in the New England area, with a first emphasis on Massachusetts. This site is, and will continue to be, a work in progress. A volunteer team of Masonic researchers and editors continue to add information as sources are identified and examined. This information is displayed in a Wiki format, allowing collaborative update by our team of editors. The team would welcome participation from other jurisdictions. Contact our webmaster, R.W. Walter Hunt Grand Historian in the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts at Cross Keys Nov 2013

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Published by The Grand Lodge of Florida Cross Keys Nov 2013

Masters’ & PMs’ Association in PGL Dunbartonshire In 1924 what became the Founding Members of the Association held meetings on 21st January and the 2nd February when it was apparent that there was a desire for an Association by a goodly body of Qualified Brethren. A small Committee was appointed to draw up proposed Bye-laws for presentation to the first meeting which was on the 24th February 1924. Invitations were sent to all qualified to attend. At the meeting it was unanimously agreed to form the Association and adopt the proposed Bye-laws. Brother George Miller a Past Master of Lodge St. John Dalmuir who had a keen interest in all things Masonic was elected Chairman or President as the Brother in the Chair was termed and addressed as “Brother President” The first Secretary was Brother Thomas Montgomery a Past Master of Lodge Barns O’ Clyde Clydebank. When the Association celebrated 50 years it had been served by twenty two Presidents, nine Secretaries and four Treasurers all serving long terms. Each Lodge was entitled to elect one of their Past Masters as a Director and they with the Secretary, Treasurer, President and Past Presidents formed the Committee. during that time they were addressed by 94 Speakers and the venue for the meetings varied, the earliest being The Trades House Restaurant Glasgow in1924/25. The Royal Restaurant 1925/32, Central Halls 1932/3 and 1957/66, Cranston’s Bridge room Argyll Arcade 1945/49, Highlanders Institute 1949/57, then Freemasons Hall 100 West Regent Street. These venues would be chosen as they are midway in the Province. In 1940 it was decided that the Association should go into abeyance for the duration of hostilities. Brother Malcolm Currie who was President at that time wrote personally to all members at the end of the war and the association resumed on the 20th October 1945. Apart from the regular meetings Summer Outings and Theatre Nights were regularly held. Over the years the format changed to that still in use today. The meetings are held on a Saturday hosted by a Lodge with premises, generally the 3rd Saturday in January, the 3rd in February, the 3rd in March, the 3rd in April and the 2nd in September. The Lodges that normally host the meetings are, Lodge St. John Kilwinning No 28, Lodge Bonhill and Alexandria SARS No 321, Lodge Leven St John No 170, Lodge Cadder Argyle No 147, Lodge Cumbernauld St. Andrew No 199, The Athole Lodge No 384. Any Master Mason can be an associate Member but to be President or Vice President you require to be a Past Master and a Member of a Lodge in the Province. The aims of Association are the furthering of Masonic knowledge and in the discussion of all things Masonic to the enlightenment of its members. It is desirable that the papers presented have a Masonic connection but the Association is flexible and has Cross Keys Nov 2013

Mastersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; & PMsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association in PGL Dunbartonshire (ctd) papers presented have a Masonic connection but the Association is flexible and has had speakers such as the Past Moderator of the Church of Scotland, so subjects can be wide if appropriate. After the talk the Brethren have the opportunity to ask Questions which helps to expand and explain the subject presented. All are welcome to be present and you will find full details in the Provincial Grand Lodge of Dunbartonshire Year book or from an active member of the PROVINCE. We will be celebrating 90 years in 2014 and are the only such Association to survive out of the many from the past. We look forward to welcoming you. Angus N MacInnes Past President

Mormons In 1839 the Mormons left Missouri and settled in the area of Nauvoo, Illinois. On October 15, 1841, the Illinois Grand Master issued a dispensation to form a lodge at Nauvoo. On March 15th, 1842, Joseph Smith received his first degree and the others shortly after. Certain irregularities were reported - in five months the lodge initiated 256 candidates and 243 were raised. After investigation, the Grand Master revoked the dispensation, but the lodge continued to work. On April 5, 1844, the Mormon masons dedicated a Masonic Temple. Illinois Masons got in trouble for taking part in the ceremony. Opposition to the group and internal dissension led to the assassination of Joseph Smith and the removal of the Mormons from Illinois.

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GL News Once again the Grand Lodge of Scotland is delighted to host the Phoenix Choir for a Christmas Concert on Sunday, 8 December 2013. Doors open at 2.00 pm and the concert will commence at 2.30 pm. A complimentary refreshment will be available. The concert is sponsored by W. T. Dunbar Funeral Undertakers and the proceeds will go to the charities: The Princess Royal Trust and Prostrate Scotland. Tickets for the concert are available from Freemasons' Hall by telephone (call 0131 225 5577) or by calling in person. Credit and debit cards can be used for payment. Tickets are priced at £10.00 each.

PGL News Sunday 15th December, 2013—pick up Christmas parcels from Lodge Inchinnan between 11 and 12. Don’t forget extra parcels now £8 each. Monday 13th January, 2014—PGC in Lodge 307, Barrhead at 7pm. Saturday 25th January, 2014—Tri-Annual Communication and Annual Meeting of the PGL in Barrhead: seated by 2.15pm

Sportsman's’ Dinner at 242 On Friday 4th October, 2013 Bro. Alex Stobo PM held the annual dinner in the lodge. The speakers were John Gahagen and Kenny Clark. And the evening raised £1055 which along with the very generous donation from the OES Chapter of £2000, goes someway to covering the cost of the new boiler. Advance Notice for your diary—Sportsman's’ Dinner 2014: Friday 3rd October speakers Bro. Sandy Strang MM 772 (who came during the anniversary year) and Scott Glynn (professional rugby player).

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Continuing the series, this article entitled Seek and Ye Shall Find:

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The Church at Schonau

The construction of the church at Schonau in Germany is very interesting for a number of reasons. Look at the picture closely. In the top left hand corner, a number of masons are working away in the quarry

November Events in 242

Friday 15th: INSTALLATION at 7pm Thursday 28th—EA by OBs

Sir William Wallace RAC 21st November—EM at 7.30pm

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Another Masonic VC Winner Bro. Sgt William Traynor was so badly hurt during the rescue for which he was awarded the honour that the War Office mistakenly told his wife that he had died in battle. It was after 3 o'clock in the morning on February 6, 1901, when 2,000 enemy Boer soldiers launched a a surprise attack on the British camp at Bothwell in South Africa. They set horses loose to run wild through the camp and disorientate the British, fooling the troops into thinking they were under attack from the cavalry. Many were killed in their beds before they had even dressed to respond to the attack. Twenty-four officers were killed and 53 were badly wounded. But not so Sergeant Traynor. The soldier, of the 2nd battalion West Yorkshire regiment, threw himself out of his trench and into the battle. And when he saw a wounded comrade stranded on the battlefield, he rushed to his aid under heavy enemy fire. He was shot in the leg and chest but carried on - and with the help of a fellow soldier, he managed to drag the wounded man to safety. Officials prematurely sent his wife a telegram informing her that her husband had been killed in action. For gallant action, he was awarded the Victoria Cross. Happily, they were wrong, and Sgt Traynor went on to recover and reunite with his wife. But his army career was over - his injuries were such that they led to him being discharged from the army. Bro. Traynor was initiated into Military Jubilee Lodge No 2195 in February 1919, Passed in March 1919, and Raised in April 1919. He was Master in 1925 and remained a member until his death in 1954. He was a founder of Snargate Lodge No 6770 in November 1948 and also remained a member there until his death. Provincial honours came in 1935 with appointment to Provincial Grand Sword Bearer (Kent). He was the first member of Military Jubilee Lodge to be honoured with Grand Rank as Past Assistant Grand Sword Bearer in 1951. He was exalted into the Holy Royal Arch in January 1920, at the Military Jubilee Chapter No 2195, where he was First Principal in 1927 and 1928. He gained the rank of Provincial Grand Sword Bearer (Kent) in 1934. WBro Traynor had six children in all, and his twin boys joined the army, both reaching the rank of Major in the Royal Engineers. Both also became members of Military Jubilee Lodge. He died on 20th October 1954, at Buckland Hospital. The funeral was held at St Andrews, Buckland, and was attended by a large congregation, including the Mayor, many representatives of the Services and of Veterans and masonic Lodges.

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Death of Masonic Halls The Wall Street Journal had an interesting article recently on Masonic Temples being turned into luxury Condos. This process, is sadly occurring because Freemasonry in the United States is dying a slow death. Lodges who have only 25% of the members they had 50 years ago find it increasingly difficult to afford the beautiful, magnificent and sometimes classical monstrosities they housed themselves in way back then. Some of the blame for loss of membership must be placed squarely on the hands of Freemasons themselves who either refuse to treat race, religion and individuals with respect and tolerance or who refuse to police their ranks of those who exhibit such prejudicial behavior. The younger generations will not join organizations unless they are color blind, tolerant of all religions and respect the worth of the individual including basic civil rights and being treated with due process. One such building in Ohio, was sold by the lodge for $250,000 to a developer who is selling individual apartments for $150,000 to $450,000. Who is losing out here?!!!!

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Neat PM Jewel s The top front of this beautiful jewel is inscribed James R. Killian and on the back is a dedication that says: from M.W. Grand Lodge A.F & A.M. of Colorado - Grand Master From Sept. 1903 to Sept. 1904. It is cast in 12 kt gold and is attached to a double purple ribbon. The front of medal case is inscribed Bohm Allen Jewelry Co. Arapahoe and 16th Sts. Denver, Colo. The important symbolism on the front of this jewel is the point within a circle between the two parallel pillars and the Holy Bible at the top. This is a symbol of great interest and importance, and brings us into close connection with the early symbolism of the solar orb and the universe, which was predominate in the ancient sun-worship. The lectures of Freemasonry give what modern Monitors have made an exoteric explanation of the symbol, in telling us that the point represents an individual Brother, the circle the boundary line of his duty to God and man, and the two perpendicular parallel lines (in the above case the pillars), the Patron Saints of the Order--Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist.

Here is an absolutely pristine and very rare Scottish Past Masters Masonic Jewel with elaborate silver-gilt and enamel suspension fob and a gold thistle dress pin. This magnificent jewel comprises: a large, stone-set (probably cairngorm or dark topaz), engraved compass jewel of very heavy, 9K gold, fully stamped for BIRMINGHAM 1918 with maker's hallmark TLB. The inscription reads: BROTHER A.W.TRAILL, R.W.M. 1927 -1929. a fantastic central silver-gilt and enamelled suspension section fully stamped for BIRMINGHAM 1928 and maker's mark E & FB. The front inscription reads: LODGE No: 77, St Regulus, CUPAR (Scotland). Also shown is a beautifully engraved gold 'thistle' dress stick pin. This pin was used to attach the jewel to the Brothers lapel or coat. It has no gold stamp but is at least 9K gold.

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Thought of the Month "You know that being an American is more than a matter of where your parents came from. It is a belief that all men are created free and equal and that everyone deserves an even break." Harry S. Truman, US President, Past Grand Master

Court Ruling In Hammer v. State, 173 Indiana, 199 (1909), the Supreme Court ruled that it was a criminal offense to wear the emblem of any society or organization of which one is not a member. The court based its decision on the fact that the membership in such societies is the result of fitness and selection and that the wearing of such emblems by non-members is a deceit and false pretence.

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Thanks to Bro. Allan Stobo WSW for proof reading.

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Cross Keys Nov 2013

Cross Keys November 2013  

Scottish masonic magazine with articles relating to the Craft around the world.