2 : 2018
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Magazine for sharing smart solutions among Central European cities : Central Europe cities proďŹ les with their smart projects : smart solutions for city governance : city sources and city life
Priceless Prague. Choose unique over the everyday. „Here I love to escape from the rush on the Charles bridge. No one anywhere, running barefoot on the banks like these swans.“ TOLD BY EVA HERZIGOVÁ & PORTRAYED BY JAN SAUDEK .
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David Bárta : Chief Editor Smart City works conceptually with smart tools that make it easier to manage city agendas and related activities. From effective sharing of information and data to the city‘s internal agendas, through citizen participation, to visualization of measurement results from a variety of technologies in maps or augmented reality. The concept of Smart Governance aims to collaborate and share, builds on open data and digital tools. In this issue, we offer a conceptual view of the city of the future, on the strategy of smarter London, or the results of British demonstrators, i.e. realized Smart City pilot projects. In the city proﬁles, we aimed at examples of good practice of smart governance, including speciﬁc tools, and we also looked around Europe how these tools work. May we be your inspiration David Bárta
CITY:ONE magazine 2 issues per year (April/October) 10 000 printedissues in CZ/SK version and 6 000 printedissues in ENG Distributed in Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia, in electronicform in all EU/globally Publisher CityOne s.r.o., Královo Pole 34E, Brno, 612 00, Česká republika Chief editor and smart sources editor David Bárta / firstname.lastname@example.org Smart Governance editor Pavel Nácovský / email@example.com Smart living editor Tereza Škoulová / firstname.lastname@example.org Electromobility editor Jan Vejbor / email@example.com Water editor Petr Dolejš / firstname.lastname@example.org Deputy Editor in chief Slovakia Vladimír Jurík / email@example.com Deputy Editor in chief Slovenia and Croatia Zala Velkavrh / firstname.lastname@example.org Deputy Editor in chief Poland Mateusz Jarosiewicz / email@example.com
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Joost Van Iersel
Innovative public services
Copenhagen and Malmö Smart City
Smart Cities Polska
Smart governance city : one
Koper & Izola
Michalovce city : governance
Smart governance tools
CheckPoint citizen : one
Craft is in!
KOKOZA is sexy!
the Solidarita park source : one
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New concepts for the City of the Future Joost van Iersel The Hague 10 September 2018
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JOOST VAN IERSEL IS A FORMER DUTCH MP. DURING HIS CAREER HE WAS INVOLVED IN INDUSTRIAL AND VARIOUS SOCIALLY RELATED TOPICS. AS A MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE HE WAS INVOLVED IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, NOTABLY FOCUSING ON INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION AND ON CITY DEVELOPMENT.
: Introduction City regeneration has become a priority across Europe. For a long time there was a lack of a systematic approach to setting up agendas for the City of the Future. This overall picture is changing for the better.1 The smart city as a concept reﬂects in many regions the ambition of modernisation as well as a variety of individual projects, notably in the ﬁeld of ICT and digitalisation. A more appropriate notion, however, the City of the Future, represents more accurately a holistic concept and practice. Ideally, these embrace a broad spectrum of interrelated issues in a future-oriented urban ecosystem, in which all projects are presented and realised on the basis of and within an agreed common framework that is deﬁned to the beneﬁt of quality of life and quality of work of the people of the City and the region concerned. The reasons for the regeneration of the City are self-evident. In most countries the morose relations between urban and rural areas have blocked for a long time an open discussion. Huge factories that arose in these mass production centres across the continent as well as increasing population and very unequal living and working conditions over the last two hundred years are still silent witnesses in quite some regions. In parallel, trade and persistent commercialisation of proﬁtable economic activities emphasised the role of large Cities. In Western Europe a process of cleaning cities and proﬁt centres got decisive impulses since the 2nd world war. This process went in parallel with the building of the welfare state. Social progress turned out to be a determining factor. In Eastern Europe this process was blocked by communist domination. Following the liberation in 1989 in many regions a similar development was
started, often with tangible results. Professionalisation and holistic approaches to reinventing Cities are characterising a new phase in the process of urban renewal.
: Reinventing Cities The role of Cities is gradually newly deﬁned. More sophisticated production methods and services of all kinds get the upper hand. Industrial landscapes and society are changing drastically. Individualisation and increasing wealth make their mark on the way City authorities and developers steer processes. Due to reasons of job opportunity and self-realisation youth is unequivocally choosing for the City. Generational and demographic gaps as well as economic divergences are most visible in rural and urban areas. Old sites are increasingly destroyed which gives room to more open spaces and to the application of new concepts of urban development. Buildings, connectivity, and leisure reﬂect a completely different reality. Mixing living and working in city centres is becoming the rule of the game. Nonetheless, these processes take usually much time, if not decades. It takes much time to clean the remnants of the past. The differences between countries and Cities are noteworthy. In Western European countries like Germany, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia the adjustment of spatial development has started quite early. Positive results are quite remarkable. Other countries are lagging. In Eastern countries the burden of the communist era has been heavy. In these Member States adjustments started rather recently and it takes apparently
leader : one years before the desirable adjustments can be fully accomplished. As these processes require huge sums of money, the availability of ﬁnancial resources is a worry to all. Over the last decade the ﬁnancial crisis has slowed down necessary investments. Cuts in national budgets are usually hitting Cities most. It is sadly a widespread phenomenon across the continent to leave Cities to their fate. Meanwhile Cities are becoming spearheads of robust competitiveness. The concept of the smart city was born. The picture of Europe does not differ from the rest of the world, although our cities and city-regions are less populated than elsewhere. Apart from very vibrant London and Paris, the average population of European Metropolitan Areas (MAs) is not exceedingly big. The recent concept of MAs and city development in which a successful economy, social progress, and cultural expression are going hand in hand, are a fundamental change. It entails new methodologies to improve the conditions to live and work together. A holistic concept of MAs, including their hinterland, which means optimal interaction between urban and rural areas in the same ecosystem (!), is a recent phenomenon. Even at the start of the 21st century Member States nor the European Commission had clear ideas. The speciﬁc proﬁles of Cities were often badly deﬁned, while there was no convincing analytical or political set of indications how to move forward. It has taken a huge pressure from the famous Convenant of Mayors to foster successfully awareness of the signiﬁcance of Cities at European level. But beware! City-regions and MAs attract all kinds of people, they are like bee hives. They attract youth, competent people, the creative class, academics, investors and the lot. But they attract also criminals, drug dealers, as well as poor people – including immigrants – without any future, and one-parent families. If not managed well, these groups can be a heavy burden for the urban community, developing ghettos with damaging effects. I am used to qualify the modern MA as a laboratory of the world economy, with all the bright but also with all dark sides of society. The overall outlook is promising, but the future is a huge challenge and must be dealt with day by day with the active participation of all stakeholders.
: Strategy concerning the City of the Future It all started with the outstanding regeneration of Bilbao at the end of the 20th century with a daring cut down of the old industrial sites in the centre of the City. Since then there many examples of successful projects followed, based on an up-to-date spatial development strategy
and a holistic approach, see, notably, advanced projects in the majority European capitals. Besides, well-developed MAs and regional centres across Europe are following the same pathway. They are all interconnected via transport corridors and, notably, via airlines. Among many examples I point notably to the German Association of Metropolitan Areas. Due to historical reasons Germany is highly decentralised, for the better. Big German Cities have their own economic proﬁle, innovation centres, and a close interaction between the public and the private sector. Eleven German Metropolitan regions are identiﬁed to foster innovation and technology. Meanwhile, Vienna and Zürich are also members. These are functional urban areas in the right sense of the word, because they unite what belongs together in natural socio-economic basins, and urban-rural ecosystems. The success of this decentralised model is undisputed. France, Italy, and Poland are intending to promote comparable models of cooperation. Finally, it is noteworthy to mention the Pact of Amsterdam that at European level was adopted in 2016. In adopting the Pact, the Council recognises the value of direct engagement of the cities in their own right at EU-level, it has also opened opportunities for broad international cooperation between cities, and it has created a direct involvement of cities in the process of decision-making in Brussels concerning matters that are of special interest to them, notably, transport, low energy, circular economy, and digitalisation. This is a highly needed victory for regional forces. But it still requires much effort for successful realisation.
Two illustrative pictures of planned projects in Paris
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The strategy on successful urban ecosystems – the City of the Future - should embrace the following components anyway:
lasting commitment of all stakeholders, public and private, in the region, includingnational political support as well as commitment of business, social partners, NGO’s, and (higher) education institutions, the so-called Quadruple helix long-term planning based on holistic approaches, embracing solutions to the economic and social proﬁles and speciﬁcities of Cities, connectivity and mobility, and sustainable urban development holistic means an overall approach that ensures synergies, embracing connectivity and mobility, urban development, social inclusion, innovation and technology, creativity, competitiveness and cultural exposure up-to-date ICT, digital and inter-connective infrastructure, and platforms individual projects, for instance in the ﬁeld of mobility (electrical car) and transport facilities, renewable energies and circular economy or buildings and housing, must ﬁt in with the overall picture public – private partnerships with agreed shared responsibilities raising commitment of the general public by transparent communication and an open attitude to creative ideas.
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Among many new buildings in Rotterdam, the Market Hall (2014)is an eye-catching multifunctional project: a huge market and meeting place, combined with restaurants and numerous apartments, combined in one building
: Biennale Venice: Five Cities in the Netherlands and Grand Paris For the ﬁrst time a European project concerning the City of the Future will be presented this year at the Venice Architecture Biennale. It concerns two separate projects: the ﬁrst focuses on Five Cities in the Netherlands, the second is Reinventing Paris. Both reﬂect in methodology the criteria as described above. Both start from an overall complex picture of what should be done from the perspective of the development of the City at large in terms of social and economic development, improved mobility and interconnectivity, sustainability, low energy and circular economy as well as innovation and technology. All factors are interdependent. Consequently, each future individual project has to be seen and realised in the framework of this larger picture. As the environment is very complicated, this method requires strong leadership, interdisciplinary working methods, due commitment of all stakeholders, transparency, and effective communication. Two principles are worth to be mentioned: a. In all cases public authorities remain in charge of the management; b. via public-private partnerships co-responsibility of business is key, due to ﬁnancial participation as well as creative ideas. NGOs should also be duly included.
: The Dutch Five Cities The project concerning the Five Cities is a co-production of the Technical University of Delft, the Association of Dutch Architects, and the Ministry of Infrastructure. The ﬁve cities are: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht, and Eindhoven, a Dutch mix of logistic, service and brain centres.2 Ten interdisciplinary teams are invited to design for each of them an integral urban system for the future, in which various innovations and transitions are bundled and applied at various scales. It is about the interaction of policymaking and practice. Each project focuses on the development of one square kilometre that is characteristic for the speciﬁc City area at large. From there visions in view of a larger scale will be developed. The time horizon is 2040. All participating parties – academics, architects, urban developers, public authorities – are considered to work together as equal partners to ensure unexpected inventions and innovative results. The project runs from August 2017 to November 2018. Follow-up steps with authorities, stakeholders and business are foreseen for 2019.
: Reinventing Paris
In 2008 President Sarkozy launched a proposal to regenerate Paris. It was about Île-de-France at large, including also upgra-
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ding of the Seine and the ports of Le Hâvre and Paris for shipping as well as a canal between Paris and Antwerp. In 2014 President Hollande re-launched the programme Reinventing Paris in more concrete terms. The projects are assessed among the relevant stakeholders, guided by the agreed political priorities as deﬁned above. Governance is essential. The City of Paris is in charge of the project. Two thirds of the municipalities of Île-de-France have agreed to participate in it. This, of course, is a major achievement, as such agreement had to be brought about between urban and rural areas as well as between rival political parties in the municipalities concerned. It will be a huge operation over a long period of time in a very large and extremely complicated and diverse region with very much overdue maintenance as, for instance, big old industrial sites in the west and the banlieus in the north. From 2014 till 2016, following a competition among 273 internationally composed teams of experts and stakeholders a ﬁrst series of 23 projects were selected. The projects are very varied. They are underway in parallel. They concern simultaneously spatial development, infrastructure, and buildings and housing. At the same time, other current projects as well as projects concerning the Seine and the canal to the north, are also tackled.
: Conclusion The future of Europe will largely depend on the future of the European City. It is of great importance that Cities, representing
agglomerations and urban-rural ecosystems, are empowered to determine their destiny in order to ﬂourish nationally as well as in the European context and beyond. To that end they must be given sufficient tools. In most countries a serious discussion is desirable on decentralised responsibilities: exclusive top-down national approaches must be matched by bottom-up initiatives. Equally, successful local and regional spatial developments, as designed above, require shared responsibilities with a broad spectrum of stakeholders on the spot. It is recommendable to beneﬁt fully from the Pact of Amsterdam and from cross-border synergies. The authorities remain in charge of planning and overall management anyway, but public – private partnerships must systematically be put in place, and creative contributions from many sides must be duly integrated. These are basic conditions for successfully catching up with the complexities of the governance of future-oriented Cities.
1. See, amongst others, Saskia Sassen – The Global City, Richard Florida – Cities and the Creative Class, and Edward Glaeser – Triumph of the City 2. Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht are geographically very close. They form together the Randstad or Deltametropolis. Repeated attempts to bring them under one umbrella shipwrecked. However, Amsterdam and its environment east- and westwards is one single urban ecosystem, while, at the coast, the MA Rotterdam - The Hague is successfully developing a common public transport system. 3. http://www.reinventer.paris/2015-2016/en/ and http://urbanlab.parisandco.paris/Quartiers-d-Innovation-Urbaine/Qu-est-ce-qu-un-Quartier-d-innovation-urbaine
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This is London calling LONDON IS A MEGAPOLIS AND IN THE CONTEXT OF SMART CITIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE WE SHOULD RATHER TALK ABOUT A SMART STATE THAN A SMART CITY. THE CITY OF LONDON PUBLISHED ITS NEW SMART CITY STRATEGY IN JUNE 2018 WITH THE PHILOSOPHY THAT THE PROGRESS CAN BE MADE ONLY TOGETHER (SMARTER LONDON TOGETHER). DESPITE THE NOTION THAT LONDON IS FAR MORE DISTANT TO THE PROBLEMS OF CENTRAL EUROPEAN CITIES ONE SHOULD RECONSIDER THAT THE BRITISH ARE AN INSPIRATION TO MANY PROCESSES OF INNOVATIONS SUPPORT AT THE STATE/PUBLIC SERVICE LEVEL.
smart : one Their approach is methodological, focuses on the interconnection of technologies with real needs of the city and its citizens. It is also open, supporting flexibility of solutions and inventions of small and medium enterprises and also citizens.
Support a new generation of smart infrastructure through major combined procurements Promote common standards with smart tech to maximise beneﬁts
4: Enhance digital leadership and skills The seven challenges the strategy builds on show a wider spectre of Smart city concept understanding. They address three big civilization topics: inequality, climate change and aging. The challenges are active travelling and physical activities, electromobility, affordable housing, digital skills of citizens including ﬁnancial inclusion, social and healthcare focused on isolation as well as problems with dementia.
• • • •
To launch the city programmes London has set 5 medium term targets with the relevant activities:
Enhance digital and data leadership to make public services more open to innovation Develop workforce digital capability through the Mayor’s Skills for Londoners Strategy Support computing skills and the digital talent pipeline from early years onwards Recognise the role of cultural institutions engaging citizens in the digital world
5: Improve city-wide collaboration 1: More user-designed services • • • • • •
Leadership in design and common standards to put users at the heart of what we do Develop approaches to digital inclusion to support Londoners’ access to public services Launch the Civic Innovation Challenge to spur innovation from the tech sector Explore new civic platforms to engage citizens and communities better Promote more diversity in tech to address inequality
• • • •
Establish a London Office of Technology & Innovation (LOTI) to support common capabilities and standards for future innovation Promote MedTech innovation in the NHS and social care to improve treatment Explore new partnerships with the tech sector and business models Support better GLA Group digital delivery to improve effectiveness Collaborate with other cities in the UK and globally to adopt and share what works
2: Strike a new deal for city data •
Launch the London Office for Data Analytics (LODA) programme to increase data sharing and collaboration for the beneﬁt of Londoners Develop a city-wide cyber security strategy to coordinate responses to cyber-threats to businesses, public services and citizens Strengthen data rights and accountability to build trust in how public data is used Support an open ecosystem to increase transparency and innovation
3: World-class connectivity and smarter streets • •
Launch a new Connected London programme to coordinate connectivity and 5G projects Propose planning powers, like requiring full ﬁbre to the home for all new developments, to enhance connectivity in the future Enhance public wiﬁ in streets and public buildings to assist those who live, work and visit London
All the above-mentioned targets are supported by ﬁnancial and organizational tools of the city. The city is the coordinator of the activities aiming to bring innovations into the public services. As the city council is itself a closed ecosystem, it supports the innovations in the form of the challenges aiming at ideas collection and ﬁnancial support of the best.
: A programme example: Civic innovations Start-ups and SMEs when selected can gain a business support, mentoring from investor fund and innovation accelerator for social innovations BGV (Bethnal Green Ventures) supporting the tech for good, i.e. solutions for social problems of our days. The startups and SMEs selected for the programme will then work together with the challenge partners to pilot their solutions in the market. They will get access to a £15k grant from the GLA to support the pilot, with the potential for further funding and support from partners. More info you can ﬁnd at civicinnovation. london.
leader : one The London Civic Innovation Challenge is funded by the Mayor, the London Economic Action Partnership (LEAP) – via the London Growth Hub – and TfL. It is delivered in partnership with BGV.
In 2016 the British have provided a manual for public services provisioning for their cities and towns. As they can inspire our processes we are delivering them below.
Twice a year BGV runs its 12-week accelerator programme for a cohort of around 10 early stage tech for good startups, providing £20,000 investment in exchange for 6% equity plus access to a further £50,000, co-working space in London and intensive mentoring and support.
The Local Government Digital Service Standard suggests 15 point common approach for local authorities to deliver good quality, user centered, value for money, digital services.
An illustration of the basic supporting activity – announcing the targets/vision in connection with a supporting programme to people who could provide ideas and innovations to fulﬁl the challenge. I wish our public transport operator is able to do the same.
Research to develop deep knowledge of who the service users are and what that means for the design of the service.
1. Understand user needs
2. Have a multidisciplinary team Ensure a suitably skilled, sustainable multidisciplinary team, led by a senior service manager with decision making responsibility, can design, build and improve the service.
3. Use agile methods
: Reducing Pollution and Unnecessary Car Journeys
Create a service using the agile, iterative and user-centred methods set out in the Government Service Design Manual.
Challenge Partner: Transport for London (TfL) The shift away from the use of the car will be vital in creating a future London that is not only home to more people, but is a better place for all those people to live in. The Mayor has set an aim for 80% of all trips in London to be made on foot, by cycle or using public transport by 2041 – the current level is 63%.
4. Iterate and improve regularly
The TfL Active Travel Challenge is looking for start-ups and SMEs to develop solutions that make walking the most attractive option for journeys. TfL are particularly interested in solutions that help improve walking conditions across London. For example, these could be solutions that encourage more people to walk for part of their journey, remove barriers around safety and pollution, or provide better data on pedestrian ﬂow and behaviours in order to shape transport policy.
Evaluate what tools and systems will be used to build, host, operate and measure the service, and how to procure them, looking to reuse existing technologies where possible.
: British public services digital standard
7. Use open standards
The social change brought by globalization and digitalisation should be also visible in public services. Smart Cities focus on increasing the quality of life that is included in the services provided. One of the main differences between the West and the East consists in the quality of services, especially the public ones.
Build a service that can be iterated and improved in response to user need and make sure you have the capacity, resources and technical ﬂexibility to do so.
5. Evaluate appropriate tools and systems
6. Evaluate user data and information Evaluate what user data and information the digital service will be providing or storing and address the security level, legal responsibilities, privacy issues and risks associated with the service.
Use open standards, existing authoritative data and registers, and where possible make source code and service data open and reusable under appropriate licenses.
8. Test the end-to-end service Be able to test the end-to-end service in an environment similar to that of the live version, including all common browsers and devices.
smart : one 9. Make a plan for being offline Make a plan for the event of the digital service being taken temporarily offline, and regularly test.
10. Make sure users succeed ﬁrst time Make sure that the service is simple enough that users succeed ﬁrst time unaided.
11. Build a consistent user experience Build a service consistent with the user experience of government digital services, including using common government platforms and the Government Service Manual design patterns.
to problems. For example, instead of each service team getting a payment provider, they have created one payment product that can be used by everyone. Right now there are 5 components. These will be supported in the future, updated and expanded using research about what works for government users.
GOV.UK Verify GOV.UK Verify is a platform for identity assurance, so that individual users can access digital government services securely by proving who they are. You should strongly consider GOV.UK Verify as an option for identity assurance. For more see https:// govuk-verify.cloudapps.digital/.
GOV.UK Notify 12. Encourage everyone to use the digital service Encourage maximum usage of the digital service (with assisted digital support if required).
GOV.UK Notify is a product to keep users updated by helping government service teams to send text messages, emails or letters. For more see https://www.notiﬁcations.service.gov.uk/.
GOV.UK Pay 13. Identify performance indicators Identify performance indicators for the service, incorporating existing indicators and publishing to a performance platform, if appropriate.
14. Do ongoing user research Put a process in place for ongoing user research, usability testing to continuously seek feedback from users, and collection of performance data to inform future improvement to the service.
15. Test with senior manager Test the service from beginning to end with appropriate council member or senior manager responsible for it. More at https://localgov.digital/service-standard.
Components for public services Since 2016 the British goverment has launched several obligatory components for public services creators. Using common government components makes it easy to build user-centred services because you don’t have to invent your own solution
GOV.UK Pay is a product that allows users to make payments to government in the same way, regardless of what service they’re using. Whether they’re applying for a passport or renewing a licence, they’ll be using the same payment process. GOV.UK Pay allows service teams to manage payments, including things like reconciliation and refunds. For more see https:// www.payments.service.gov.uk/.
GOV.UK Platform as a Service GOV.UK Platform as a Service (GOV.UK PaaS) is cloud hosting that makes it easier and cheaper for teams across government to host applications, services and components. GOV.UK PaaS provides all the infrastructure you need for hosting services. This means individual teams don’t have to build and manage their own infrastructure. For more see https://www.cloud.service.gov.uk/.
Registers Registers are lists of information, and each register is the most reliable list of its kind. Each register is managed by a single person, known as a ‘custodian’, who is responsible for keeping it up to date and accurate. Other lists or datasets might not be properly looked after. Using these to build your service could mean you’re using data that’s incomplete or out of date. For more see https://www.registers.service.gov.uk/. : #David Bárta
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What type does your city belong to? CENTRAL EUROPEAN CITIES HAVE
Nicola Yates, OBE Chief ExecutiveOfficer, Future Cities Catapult
ALREADY BEEN TESTING NEW CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT. THE EXTRACT FROM THE WORK
“Future Cities Catapult works with cities in the UK and around the world to help deliver innovation at city scale. We know that to achieve such results cities must share knowledge, build partnerships and ultimately create an ecosystem where government, businesses and citizens can creatively collaborate.
OF BRITISH FUTURE CITIES CATAPULT MIGHT BE OF INSPIRATION FOR THEIR DEMONSTRATORS. MORE IT
A common approach to accelerating the development, testing and wider market creation for smart city solutions and services is through the creation of city-based demonstrators.
CAN ALSO SERVE FOR THE SUPPORT OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS DECISIONS ABOUT LAUNCHING A SIMILAR CATAPULT TO SUPPORT SMART CITY DEVELOPMENT IN A COORDINATED WAY. THE WORK CONSISTS IN 150 WORLDWIDE DEMONSTRATORS EVALUATION (90 BRITISH).
The aim of these demonstrators is to de-risk the development and scaling-up of solutions and services that are not yet ready for the mainstream market by providing safe environments for experimentation and innovation. For this reason, Future Cities Catapult has undertaken an extensive research exercise to understand what can be learned from previous demonstrators, to inform the next generation of city-based projects.”
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: The role of the Future Cities Catapult Future Cities Catapult accelerates urban ideas to market, to grow the British economy and make cities better. It brings together businesses, universities and city leaders so that they can work with each other to solve the problems that cities face, now and in the future. www.futurecities.catapult.org.uk
: Key demonstration areas evaluated CITY SERVICES : including traffic, parking, lighting, waste management and public safety demonstrators. SMART UTILITIES : including smart meters and smart grids demonstrators. SMART HEALTHCARE : including assisted living, remote health and preventative health demonstrators. CONNECTED AND AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES : including driver assistance and various levels of SAE autonomy demonstrators. LAST MILE SUPPLY CHAIN AND LOGISTICS : including ﬂeet management and drone delivery demonstrators. CONNECTIVITY AND DATA : including IoT, LoRaWAN™ and 5G test networks and various innovative city-focused data platforms.
: Examples of Key ﬁndings Beyond the demonstrator itself there are ﬁndings on the relevant activities of city organizations and good preparation of a demonstration project. Central European cities can have the brief insight on related problems. We are providing some of examples as speciﬁed in the FCC report to illustrate the ﬁndings.
Area: Local authority capacity and engagement Case study: SMART SYSTEMS AND HEAT DEMONSTRATOR (PHASE 2)
The Smart Systems and Heat demonstrator ran a competition to ﬁnd local authority partners, assessing applicants based on their motivation to understand the project and their capacity to deliver. Having received 10 well-informed bids, the demonstrator selected three authorities with which to work. However, aware that capacity will need to be built in other authorities if the solution is to scale up in the future, the demonstrator runsa ‘local authority forum’ which keeps over 20 local authorities engaged in the project and informs them of future plans.
Recommendations – results of demonstrators The FCC work has resulted in the following recommendations that could be of use also for Central European cities.
Engagement and Access Involve relevant asset owners as early as possible during the planning phase to secure buy-in, gain access to assets and enable the smooth deployment of demonstration equipment. Invest in user research and user recruitment to ensure that solutions address the needs of citizens and to provide innovators with an engaged cohort of users on which they can test their solutions.
Finance and Governance Consider ongoing funding and ﬁnancing options at the outset and build towards a sustainable operation rather than relying on additional grant funding. Create advisory boards comprising relevant stakeholders from the wider ecosystem (such as regulators, policy officials, etc. ), to ensure that demonstrators are exposed to current and anticipated market conditions.
Delivery Capabilities and Skills Invest in beneﬁts realisation and change management capabilities to ensure that all stakeholder aims and expectations are aligned, and that the required changes across the affected ecosystem are implemented, accepted and sustained. Staff test bed environments with the relevant practitioners to enable non-expert users to make use of the facilities. These environments are rarely able to operate under a ‘plug and play’ model.
Success Measurement and Scaling Put in place appropriate knowledge-transfer mechanisms to facilitate the scaling of solutions within a city and the replication of demonstrated solutions across locations. Work with partners that can provide a pipeline of commercial opportunities beyond the demonstrator period.
leader : one Area: Access to physical assets CASE STUDY: MILTON KEYNES COUNCIL
In order to facilitate the large-scale trialling of an autonomous pod public transport system, the team at Milton Keynes Council needed to secure regulatory changes to enable the pod vehicles to be tested on pavements in the public realm. Understanding that this change would take a considerable amount of time and impact project timescales, the team obtained a special trafﬁc order allowing roadside footways to be reclassiﬁed as an extension of the road. They then altered this order to exclude all traffic except pedestrians, disability vehicles and autonomous pods. This allowed the trials to start immediately.
Area: Access to data and digital assets CASE STUDY: THAMES WATER INNOVATION AND SMART TECHNOLOGY NETWORK (TWIST)
TWIST has used a section of its water network to test a range of pressure sensors, acoustic loggers, smart meters and ﬂow meters to detect leaks and visualise network energy usage. They enlisted the support of the University of Sheffield to develop tools, analytics and selﬂearning algorithms that allow them to turn data into actionable insights. However, TWIST found that the alarms generated were of limited use if not paired with response strategies and enough people to complete in-depth analysis. The ﬁnetuning between false positives and the number of alarms cannot be underestimated. They reported spending a signiﬁcant amount of time cleaningthe data to ensure it was of a sufficient quality and emphasised that innovators should not expect to have production-ready data available directly from collection.
: Cities supporting their ecosystem The report is also concerned with the new role of smart cities consisting in innovation support of its local ecosystem. The success of the city support can be measured by the ability of local innovative companies to expand. „It is critical for companies to be able to develop and test products and services which can scale to a larger market. A report by Willem van Winden identiﬁes three approaches that can be used to scale smart city solutions. These are:“
Description: Bringing a smart city solution to the consumer or business-to-business market, or applying the solution across the entire organisation Example: Smart energy meters introduced in the consumer market or the creation of a city data marketplace
Description: Adding more partners, users or functionalities to a smart city solution, or enlarging the geographical area in which the solution is applied Example: Enlarging the area of a smart lighting solution
Area: User research and engagement CASE STUDY: Smart Kalasatama
The Smart Kalasatama programme supported a start-up called Auntie who were developing a chat therapy service for those with worries and anxiety. While the business had a technical offering, they had never experienced servicing a real user. The living lab enabled Auntie to test several different service packages witha willing and diverse group of users to gain an understanding of the user experience and theeffectiveness of different digital channels. Six months after using the living lab, Auntie hadvalidated their service with real users and haddeveloped an understanding of who would be able to procure the service. They have since gone on to secure commercial deals with several insurance companies in multiple countries. This highlights how access to and input from people is as important as access to infrastructure in smartcity test beds.
Description: Replicating (exactly or by proxy) the solution in another context by the original partners involved in the pilot project, or by others Example: Replicating a tested last mile logistics solution in a new city
“What type your city belongs to?” # David Bárta
MAAS (Mobility as a service) We aim to provide complete, simple and smart solutions in MAAS (Mobility as a service) area that address clients’ needs. This aim was one of the reasons why in the past year we focused on new concept ČSOB Mobility that brings Smart mobility for cities and its citizens. We provide services connected to payments in public and personal transportation, complex solutions for payments and insurance and ﬁnancing of electric and hybrid cars in Czech Republic as well as abroad. We are the market leader in card payments in public transportation: over 750 ths tickets every month are paid by cards thanks to ČSOB. In the city of Ostrava, ČSOB provides contactless payments for public transport system. The system allows to “pay as you go” for tickets, enhanced with smart capping (allows you to travel as much as you like in a single day and limits the amount you pay for all your travel to that of a 24hour ticket). Where the system surpasses that of for example London public transport: season tickets can also be purchased with and uploaded to the clients’ payment card without the need for a separate smartcard. We have noticed that the introduction of contactless payments in public transportation has positive impact on card payments in local businesses, as evidenced in Ostrava, where card payments in the region increased by 30%. In 2018, we have further extended providing of our services abroad. We have introduced in cooperation with MasterCard and Slovak carrier Slovak Lines the contactless ticket machines in buses on the line Bratislava - Vienna. It was the ﬁrst project of contactless payments in public transport in Slovakia. The solution allows to pay amounts under 20 euros without necessity to enter PIN code which simpliﬁes and speeds up boarding. Our goal is to link contactless payments in public transport and parking system to one virtual ticket and provide complex solution of mobility for B2B and B2C clients.
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Innovative public services WHAT IS A SMART CITY AND WHAT DOES A SMART REGION MEAN? HOW DOES A SMART TRANSPORT COMPANY OR A SMART VILLAGE LOOK LIKE? RESPONSES
project, the Union of Towns and Municipalities of the Czech Republic sees a sense of its purpose, as it offers a comprehensive view of the use of smart technologies and approaches to towns and municipalities, regardless of their size,“ said Pavel Drahovzal, executive director of SMO ČR. The framework should be a structured catalogue of innovative public services.
IN THE FORM OF CONCRETE CONCEPTS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION ARE CURRENTLY BEING PREPARED BY THE PROJECT „SMART CITY STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK“ WITHIN THE UNION OF TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC (SMO ČR) WITHIN THE EU OPERATIONAL PROGRAM EMPLOYMENT OF THE CZECH MINISTRY OF SOCIAL AFFAIRS. „We live in a world of rapid change and digital technology, but the desire of people to live better, happier and in a better-quality environment remains. Cities are the key to the future development of the society and I therefore believe that this project will help us to launch a real and practically understandable smart concept of urban and municipal development in the spirit of the 21st century trends,“ says Marie Zezůlkova, the project initiator and director of the National Energy Savings Center. The project started in February 2018 and will be managed for 2 years, until February 2020. A coordinator was selected for its management who has set up a research team in cooperation with SMO ČR. A team of more than 20 experts from the transport, energy, water, public administration and communal services sectors will work together to deﬁne speciﬁc „smart“ public services and their synergies. „In the
: Smart City Strategic Framework „We understand Smart City as an attempt to organize and acquire public services (the quality of life of citizens) in the territory during exponentially growing opportunities given by knowledge and innovation in social and organizational schemes and technologies, including those we are planning or assuming so far,“ explains David Bárta and Pavel Nácovský, the authors of the project methodology. From the more advanced states, we can get the ﬁrst practical results. The UK government has supported nearly 100 demonstrators to enhance domestic innovations for cities; projects to prove the feasibility of the innovation and its social needs. The British have come to the logical conclusion that technological projects are not enough; the developer must also address organization-process, business and user needs. In order not to repeat the mistakes and to make use of the provided knowledge, there is a need in the Czech Republic for systematic support by well-thought demonstrators, demonstrators of services. Some demonstrators have already been introduced in Czech cities and towns, so the project will also be based on home-based experience from already functioning innovations such as BrnoiD: „Smart solutions are those that save people‘s time and money. That‘s why they can enjoy their lives according to their ideas. Especially thanks to the BrnoiD project it is possible to solve urban public transport, vote in a participatory budget, pay for waste or discounts for tourists from the comfort of home,“ added Petr Vokřál, Mayor of Brno.
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: Platform for Innovative Public Services The project aims at developing a uniﬁed template for describing an innovative service and its deployment and testing it on speciﬁc services of various ﬁelds proposed by the expert team. At the same time, the project prepares a crowdsourcing web platform for the subsequent sharing of results with others. „We realize that a good result can only be achieved by collective intelligence and its management in practice, so we are preparing a web tool for designing innovative public services as part of the project, with the possibility of conducting expert public debates on individual proposals, including vote by using “likes“. We want to open this tool to everyone at the right time, thus linking the innovation spirit with public administration,“ the project coordinator conceived. The proposed services to be agreed upon will be provided in the spring of 2019 as a basis for current funding opportunities from national or European sources or as expert proposals for ministries, cities or regions, or as an input for Operation programmes for the next programming period. From the proposed services that will not ﬁnd the necessary match, some will be selected for an open discussion at the URBIS trade fair held on 5-6th June 2019 in Brno. The practical knowledge of the implementing companies will thus be given the opportunity to be used both on the web platform and in the professional discussion at the fair.
about „Functional Urban Area“ and the cooperation of the inhabitants of the territories. Therefore, the project will also deﬁne the appropriate level of public administration that should acquire and operate the innovation in the Czech Republic. „It is clear from several service proposals that the most efficient acquisition and operation will be provided by the region, to all or selected municipalities at one and the same time. This will lead to signiﬁcant administrative, time and ﬁnancial savings, but will, above all, speed up the deployment of the service itself, which will allow subsequent innovation for regional leaders, mayors, entrepreneurs and citizens. The innovation is that the more sides proﬁt from it, the more successful and more viable it is. That is why one of the features of each demonstrator is also the provision of open data,“ says the coordinator. The ﬁrst results in the form of innovative public services will be presented by the project team at the planned SMO ČR conference, which will be held on December 13th at the Congress Centre in Prague. The project supports the education and implementation of innovations in public administration, which is possible only in an open environment and in cooperation with representatives of public administration, knowledge holders, solution providers, professional and lay public. It creates an environment that should help both small and large, cities and businesses, innovations and services. : # David Bárta
: Innovative services in the Smart City context Smart City as part of Digital Transformation is related to digitization of public services. If we want to digitize something, it is necessary to ﬁrst transform our own service, i.e. the existing service, to clean up the redundant organizational and procedural requirements of the legislation, to ﬁnd the necessary cleaned nuclei, and then digitize it into the innovation logic, i.e. with the idea not only of purchasing but of its operation and improvement. But ﬁrst we need to understand them. Although the name „Smart City“ indicates the city we are talking
Strategic Smart City Framework SMO CR Conference for Public Administration
Congress Center 5. května, 1640/65, 140 21 Prague 4
„In ČEZ ESCO, we have been working hard for the citizens in our cities and towns to live better and more comfortably. The Smart City concept, with an emphasis on smart energy, will also contribute to this. Clear rules, and especially the interconnection of all actors: municipalities, citizens, nonproﬁt organizations and the business community, is a necessity to create a better place for everyone to live,“ says Kamil Čermák, ČEZ ESCO, general partner of the fair.
13th December 2018 9.30–14.30
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Copenhagen PARTICIPANTS OF THE 4TH SLOVAKIA ON THE ROAD TO SMART CITIES CONFERENCE, ORGANIZED BY THE SLOVAK SMART CITIES CLUB, HAD A CHANCE, THROUGH JACOB LUNDGAARD’S LECTURE, TO LEARN ABOUT THE LIVING LAB ESTABLISHED BY GATE 21 IN COPENHAGEN AND ALSO ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF THE SMART CITY ACADEMY THAT IS BEING PREPARED WITH THE HELP OF THE SLOVAK SMART CITIES CLUB, AMONG OTHERS. THESE ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE DESIGNED NOT ONLY FOR DENMARK BUT FOR ANY MAYORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD WHO ARE INTERESTED.
The Smart Cities Summer School gave its participants – mayors, regional government representatives, and government officials – an opportunity to see in practice what a Living Lab looks like, what its function is and what it can offer to cities interested in its services. They also gained a practical experience of the Smart City Academy introductory lesson where they launched a debate on the challenges faced by Slovak Smart Cities. We touched upon topics such as regional strategy and urban cooperation model, regional and municipal governance, funding issues and cooperation between cities, businesses and academia. Perhaps the most complex issue was the question of how can the mindset
of all the above-mentioned actors changed to facilitate mutual support and cooperation. This was one of the main points of the Summer School programme and these topics accompanied us and we discussed them throughout our stay. At the Summer School, participants could learn about the Scandinavian approach to environmental protection, ways to reduce energy and water consumption, new technologies for the production of electricity from non-fossil sources, ambitious plans of the state administration of Denmark and Sweden, as well as the approach of local governments concerning improving citizens’ quality of life.
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and Malmö It seemed so simple that we had to ask ourselves: “Why don’t we do it like this too? Why do we have all these working groups, meetings, sessions and negotiations that often focus on clariﬁcation of competence disputes – where a clear line would be much more needed: To deﬁne the role of the state, of the regional and municipal governments in creating Smart Cities and Smart Regions, to be able to say how to build functional urban regions that will be able to
effectively deal with projects at the regional level.... how to engage the third sector, the business sector, academic and research institutions in the cooperation.” We are still not able to deal with the fact that many contemporary issues need to be addressed horizontally. We have not been successful in this kind of working together. Traditionally,
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we prefer vertical management structures that guide us to deal with competencies rather than the problem itself, forcing us to think about who will be responsible for what instead of looking for a solution to the problem as such.
: Cooperation is crucial We have seen examples of how the idea of Smart Cities can bring together the state departments with governments, universities, business sector, and non-proﬁt organizations to create a state concept represented by a single organization that can set a long-term goal and design a strategy to achieve this goal. Nobody talks about “conﬂicts of interest”, no government officials are stressed out by the idea of working with entrepreneurs.... We are talking about the State of Green organization we visited in Copenhagen. State of Green can be a good example for us and a valuable experience. An organization that can jointly meet state-level targets – the most important one is to reduce electricity production from fossil sources to zero by 2050. It also serves the interests of other stakeholders – as far as cities are concerned – to reduce costs, improve transport infrastructure, reduce emissions and the amount of municipal waste and to improve the quality of life of urban residents. There is also a beneﬁt for the business sector – new trends in environmental protection require new technologies and services. An entirely new – and quite huge – business domain has been developed. Denmark
is today a developer, producer and major exporter of environmental technology. It takes advantage not only of the 500 million European Union market, but it also exports technology to such advanced countries as the US or – and this is not a typo – China. There is no unemployment problem; school graduates remain at home in Denmark or in Sweden, and on the other hand, talented young people from all around the world come to work here.
: The quality of city life – an inspiration for us People like to move to places where there is a high quality of life, a chance for an interesting and well-paid job and good prospects. In the Greater Copenhagen area, there is another organization named Copenhagen Capacity that we visited and that contributes to these qualities. Its mission is to support foreign investments in the aforementioned area and one of its priorities is promotion of Smart solutions. The generous new housing concepts, such as the newly-developed Nordhavn smart quarter, are a result of a systematic process in Copenhagen and Malmö – a transformation of the shipyard in Malmö, which went bankrupt due to a lack of contracts at the end of the last century, into a real estate that combines residential housing with administrative and commercial premises. All of that followed municipal governments’ decisions, negotiations and bold plans – supported by a unique project to build the Öresund Bridge connecting both cities – a PPP project that had been paid up long before it was due.
smart : one We learned all of this and ﬁnally saw it “live”. A tour of Copenhagen was led by the former Mayor of the city – Mr. Asmus Kjeldgaard. We travelled both on foot and by boat – as ﬁts this city. Our guide not only explained to us, but also showed us a unique transport concept, a part of the Green Mobility project, thanks to which 40% of residents prefer commuting to work by bicycle to driving a car.
some raincoats “at hand”. What was important – none of us felt the stress of traffic. We really were on safe cycling routes.The only danger that we faced were the other cyclists – we did not totally adapt to the rhythm of life on city bicycle routes. But it is no wonder: Where would our experience be coming from? Here people do not go for a bicycle trip – these people go to their workplaces “to work hard” – and they have to be there in time!
: Malmö – environmental protection ﬁrst
Rounding off and evaluation of the trip, this is how we could describe our visit to the highest building in Scandinavia. Unique architectural work produced by the outstanding Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, welcomed us on the highest 54th ﬂoor. Here, almost reaching the clouds, after the ﬁnal lecture on the history and perspectives of the city’s development, we could ponder a little and organize our thoughts. In the discussions of Summer School participants, there was also room for sharing our feelings, inspiration and reﬂection on the best ways to implement our new knowledge into practice.
The City Mayor himself, Mr. Kent Andersson, offered us a view of the rapid development of Malmö, once a city in the shadow of Copenhagen. He showed us around the representative offices of the old City Hall, explained some of less-known context for the successful development of the city and patiently answered all of our numerous questions. This was followed by expert lectures that focused primarily on digitalization of city administration and reducing the energy intensity of urban IT infrastructure. We experienced life in Malmö ﬁrst-hand when we had a two-hour bicycle ride with expert commentary. It is unbelievable how large section of the city – from the historic centre, through parks, the former industrial estate, and current university district to the modern housing estate – can be seen in two hours on a bicycle. There is no better way to feel a vibrant city than by cycling through it. We even did not have to worry about a little rain on our way as our guide had
The Summer School was organized by the Slovak Smart Cities Club in cooperation with the Slovak Embassy in Copenhagen, with the support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic, the Slovak Embassy in Stockholm, the Swedish Embassy in Vienna and Swedish partner organizations that support the project in the long term. : www.smartcitiesklub.sk1 # Miloslav Jurík
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Smart Cities Polska THE MINISTER OF DIGITIZATION - MS ANNA STREŻYŃSKA IN 2015 ENTRUSTED THE CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC INNOVATIONS (POL. CENTRUM ROZWOJU INNOWACJI STRATEGICZNYCH) AT THE NORTHERN INSTITUTE, WHICH DEVELOPED THE FIRST STRATEGY OF POLISH SMART CITY 3.0 CALLED „NEW LIFE IN CITIES“ WITH THE PREPARATION OF A ROADMAP FOR POLISH CITIES. OTHER EXPERTS AND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS WERE JOINING THIS INITIATIVE PROGRESSIVELY. DURING THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CONGRESS IN KATOWICE, A VISION OF THE SMART CITY WAS PRESENTED PUBLICLY IN 2018 FOR THE FIRST TIME. ON THE BASIS OF THIS INITIATIVE, A NON-GOVERNMENTAL AND APOLITICAL THINK-AND-DO TANK CALLED SMART CITIES POLSKA WAS BROUGHT INTO EXISTENCE, WHICH GROUPS EXPERTS, POLITICIANS AND ENTITIES ACTING FOR SMART CITIES STRATEGY.
smart : one Our aim is to integrate and implement complex solutions for cities and regions, and create favourable conditions for bottom-up innovations through raising awareness of the representatives of the cities, as well as by education and supporting civic initiative. As deﬁned, a smart city is the city, which makes use of advanced technologies in order to improve the quality of life, preserve the principle of sustainable development and achieve the expected effects linked to an achievement of the more proﬁtable expenditures – outcomes relation in a long term perspective. Social, infrastructural (ICT) and enterprising capital are the factors of this success. Human being and possibility of his self-fulﬁlment to experience happiness and abundance in life are placed at the ﬁrst place of our decalogue of the smart cities. We believe, that based on sustainable development, circular economy, with the aid of the new collaboration methods (sharing economy), the living city may exist – the city, which is economically blooming and developing thanks to involvement, talents and creativity of its inhabitants. The smart city 3.0 is a speciﬁc ecosystem of live companies, persons and organisations, which share welfare and experience, and create something more than they are, namely a true city of the future. An implementation of the smart city strategies, both locally, as well as across the country, requires the smart leadership and the vision, which will provide inspiration and be attractive for all stakeholders who are indispensable for operations of a such city, thus politicians, scientists, social movements, both big, as well as local small business in form of start-ups, and so like. Therefore, the representatives of all these environments – having simultaneously many years of experience in collaboration with town authorities, representatives of an academic environment, social movements and organisations acting for an implementation of smart city strategies and company managers – were invited for a collaboration within the framework of this initiative. We also invited for collaboration the representatives of the agencies dealing with communication, PR, the organisers of specialised conferences and the representatives of co-working centres and numerous independent experts from various ﬁelds. Finding the ways to prevent the negative impact of environmental changes related to a vehement urbanisation through, inter alia, offering solutions in the ﬁeld of the new urban and domestic transportation systems, management and optimisation of a need
for heat, water and electricity, as well as the new solutions in the ﬁeld of digital administration, or e-government with use of the effects of sharing economy or new technologies e.g. block chain is one of the most urgent challenges we need to face. It is quite important to ﬁnd the sources of ﬁnancing for these initiatives. Governmental strategies pertaining to cities did not give considerations to support of the smart city conceptions so far. A lot of isolated actions were undertaken in consequence of an execution of the EU projects, in the high schools and start-up communities. All of them were acting a dispersed way, which contributed to the fact that we were unable to take advantage of the effect of scale and combine these initiatives. Local governments face the big challenge of acting without regulations, strategies and budget funds, which might make social and technological transformation possible, and building indispensable competencies within the town halls, as well as interdisciplinary teams, who would be capable to deploy the Smart City projects. Taking advantage of experience of the other countries, we would like to elaborate the required legal grounds and organisation, which will be able to provide relevant knowledge, resources and support a sharing of developmental experiences between cities and regions. We also want to take part in similar actions in neighbouring countries. Our concept, which we are currently developing, is shared creation of the centres within the territory of the Central and Eastern Europe (V4) that will support implementation and research regarding technologies for cities and they will enter into necessary partnerships and participate in ﬁnancial and competential support of the city transformation process. For the sake of its location in the heart of Europe, Poland will be an important link on Digital Silk Road. We want to bring brand new inspiration, ideas and solutions to the networks of smart cities. The experts who would like to collaborate with us in merits and institutions and companies that want to contribute to develop together a smart city market in the Central and Eastern Europe are more than welcome. firstname.lastname@example.org
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No smart city without smart governance SMART GOVERNANCE CAN REFER TO THE TOOLS GOVERNMENTS USE TO
dents and municipal services. Want to know where your nearest library is and what events are planned there? Need to top up your parking meter while your queueing in the shops? Bordeaux puts the power in your hands with this multi-faceted app.
WORK TOGETHER WITH BUSINESSES,
SYNERGIES WITH CITIZENS.
But communication works both ways – have you seen a pothole or a vandalised street sign? You can snap a picture and send it through the app, along with your coordinates, straight to the responsible municipal department. They’ll thank you and let you know when the problem has been ﬁxed.
It can come in the form of cross-departmental working groups, living labs, or even on-street interventions. Our member cities here at EUROCITIES are experimenting with various smart governance tools – experiments that present many advantages, but also come with pitfalls.
Apps can be more than a tool for passing on information, they can also be used for incentivisation. As part of Sharing Cities, Lisbon is developing the Digital Social Market (DSM), a mobile platform that gives citizens rewards for pro-social behaviour. Through the DSM, people can get points for walking or using shared mobility options instead of their private car, turning off their appliances at night, or even buying healthy food at the local store.
We take opportunities to support cities in this process. “At the start of our European lighthouse project Sharing Cities with the six cities, we focused on sharing practices about creating a governance structure which works for them. This is not an easy task. It includes, redesigning your city administration, dealing with cross-cutting issues and engaging with your citizens” explains Bernadett Köteles- Degrendele Smart cities project coordinator at EUROCITIES, replication lead of Sharing Cities
With their points, users can get discounts on certain purchases. However, a discovery of the research done in Sharing Cities by Politechnico Milan on smart governance and engagement is that people react far more to community incentives than personal ones. As such, putting points towards new bike lanes, improved facilities at local schools, or other causes that they would like to support if they had the time, is likely to be a far greater motivator than only discounts and the like.
Bordeaux, a city which is also participating in our European lighthouse project Sharing Cities, has capitalised on examples of other cities’ practices and has developed its own app ‘Bordeaux – my city in my pocket’ which cut out information asymmetries by creating direct lines of communication between resi-
To create sustainable cities, it is essential to have a central vision that all the city’s stakeholders are invested in. Smart governance tools can make it far easier to develop such a vision. The EUROCITIES-led podcasting arm of the project Smart Cities Information System has just released an episode of its
COLLABORATE INTERNALLY AMONG THEIR OWN DEPARTMENTS, OR CREATE
smart : one sharing scheme, more beds for hospitals, new cars for the municipal ‘eco-police’ – and the funding is distributed accordingly. Cities may be nervous about letting citizens share in one of their key competences but giving over a percentage of the budget to a public vote comes with at least two huge advantages. Residents provide an enormous resource of insight and fresh ideas. Any public venture should always begin by consulting experts. When it comes to street-level improvements, the experts are those residents who walk through the streets every day. This process also creates public buy-in and political will – two very important factors in new urban projects. The public are unlikely to criticise public spending when they themselves have a say in it. Meanwhile politicians, who may fear losing public support if they act on controversial ideas like pedestrianisation, will be given reassurance and ammunition to make the big moves necessary for building sustainable cities. podcast ‘Urban Reverb’ on the issue of governance and city vision. The podcast – which brings out the stories of EU funded energy and mobility projects – introduces the ‘multi-actor multi-criteria analysis’ (MAMCA) tool. This tool enables the simultaneous evaluation of alternative policy measures, scenarios and technologies. One begins by inputting information about different stakeholder groups – such as residents, businesses, and different government departments – including their preferences and the strength of those preferences. MAMCA can then be used to generate sets of scenarios for future city projects or policies, along with indicators of how well these scenarios match the preferences of different stakeholder groups. After choosing three or four scenarios that ﬁt both with the city’s ambitions and with the stakeholders’ priorities, the leading department can bring the different groups together to vote on their city’s future. This process creates free choice within a circumscribed set of priorities, and also creates goodwill among all operators. They understand that their needs and desires are heard and valued. It is also a great opportunity for them to meet each other and reach a strong consensus that will fuel urban progress. It doesn’t take a European project for governance to get smarter. Many EUROCITIES member cities are innovating with their own tools and techniques. Lodz, part of our Cities4Europe campaign, without being a lighthouse, has managed to be a leading light in participatory budgeting throughout Europe. In the ﬁrst phase, residents propose their ideas for projects. Once this list has been approved, the people of Lodz vote on their favourite ideas – a bike
So how do you launch a smart governance tool in your own city? One challenge is getting stakeholders involved – insufficient uptake is the death knell for citizen engagement. Solutions include informational letters and emails to residents, advertising through posters and online campaigns, and even information stalls at events or on busy streets. The digital option may sound like the most convenient, but those with low digital literacy or limited access to the internet should not be forgotten. It is always sensible to have both the option of an online platform, and a physical place where citizens can participate in the new avenues of governance. Whether digital or not, data can be difficult to deal with, but the ﬁrst step is to get your hands on it. Local government sometimes discovers that its private partners in, for example, public transport, can be reluctant to hand over the data they are gathering through the services they provide to the city. Making sure that all public procurement includes a clause giving the municipality access to data gathered within the city is the most effective way to nip this in the bud. Resistance to smart governance can come from within. Establishing steering committees and working groups that work across departmental silos will help to unite different sections of the municipality around a common approach. Without smart governance, there can be no smart city. Opening up channels of communication between all major stakeholders within a city is the only way to balance information asymmetries that separate knowledge from power. It is only by uniting these elements that cities can remain at the forefront, as major players in shaping Europe’s destiny.: # Anthony Colclough, editor at EUROCITIES
city : Brno
Brno Smart governance leader 1243
Jaroslav Kacer : Deputy Mayor of Brno for Smart City, strategy and ICT area (unique municipal position within the Czech Republic). He was born in 1977, graduated from the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Brno University of Technology. He has worked at many management positions in both commercial and public sector, e.g. he founded an advertising agency and worked as a freelancer in advisory and project activities. Since 2010, he has been a member of General Assembly of the City of Brno and in 2010â€“2014, he was a member of Brno-Bystrc District Council. Since June 21, 2016, he is the ďŹ fth Deputy Mayor of Brno for Smart City, city strategies, data processing and computerization of the Council area.
smart : one Brno is, as the natural center of the South Moravian Region (1.2 million inhabitants), a location with huge potential. Many universities and presence of more than 65,000 students gives the city its young spirit, creativity and dynamics. Universities with long tradition in many ﬁelds of expertise sponsor progressive researches, particularly in biological and medical science, information technologies, life sciences, electron microscopy or computer security and software development. A current ranking by Numbeo.com, a well-regarded server, states that Brno is a city with the highest quality of life in the Czech Republic. There are 4 technological incubators here. For example, South Moravian Innovation Center (JIC) has already supported more than 200 technological start-ups. The region’s high investments in research and development (17 billion CZK in science and science-research centers between 2011 and 2014) represents 1/5 of the overcall public research capacities of the Czech Republic. The presence of technological companies, that is more than 400 companies with their own science and research, means 17,000 stable jobs with high added value. “The most common mistaken belief about Smart City is that there is a universal solution that can be easily bought or acquired from a grant. You spend up to 80% of your time designing it and setting it right, only 20% is left for tenders and the implementation”, says Jaroslav Kacer. “For me, smart city means smart people. Brno has made a huge progress thanks to its people. Thanks to massive investments in high-quality scientists, managers and talents who, luckily, still keep coming here. I think that this would be a good time to transfer this positive effect into public administration. The whole story started in 2015, when Smart City Board under Brno City Council was established. That is when this broad agenda started to be taken care of. As its chairman, I both lead and actively co-created the Brno Smart City Concept the Council approved in October 2015, which described what principles the city should follow and what it should stay away from.”
: Change Management The main motto of the Brno Smart City Concept is “Change of the City’s Approach”. If we want to think about a smart city, we have to start with us, inside the Council itself, and change our approach to the world outside. A change is always seen as a threat and it is not easy and pleasant to manage it. You ﬁght different forms of protests or disagreement almost every step of the way. From common “this can’t be done” to “we don’t have enough people for this”. Only time will tell if it was a change for the better and experience from abroad shows that those standing at the beginning of the change do not always get all the glory. In our experience, preparation of a smart solution takes up to 80% of the time. It is not appropriate to skip this phase and reduce it to
a mere contract award. Companies can’t compensate for a point of view of future users and their speciﬁc needs and they are also happy to work with a contracting authority that knows what it wants. That is why we, according to the national methodology, have devoted the ﬁrst Smart City steps to set the internal and external city processes, i.e. smart governance.
: Smart governance Paper documents the Brno City Council approves every week were presented to the members, including all the copies for city departments and archiving. Piles of papers emerged with every point. Today, we have a computerized system that takes care of the signing and distribution and the change is visible. We also use video transmission that enables us to “invite” heads of units to City Council meetings. They can stay in their office and answer the questions through their laptops with webcams and we can also invite other experts from other cities. Therefore, they don’t have to spend the whole Council meeting waiting in the vestibule, just in case they were needed.
: City Identity: BrnoiD With this concept from a detached perspective, we approached the electronic passenger handling as a future platform of city communication with citizens. When we introduced the service in 2017, we already experienced one experiment from 1990s when most passengers bought a card with a printed photograph. However, the system didn’t work so they started sticking traditional coupons on the cards. Our philosophy was different and arose from an unexpected direction. In the framework of the MUNISS student competition (muniss.cz), an idea of Brno citizen’s card emerged, with data not saved on a user data carrier but in a central database. So, a single standard for the following services was deﬁned, costs were signiﬁcantly reduced and every user can choose their data carrier, e.g. a bank card. After one year of operation, there are over 66,000 users (15% of inhabitants). Currently, Brno iD portal can be used to pay the waste fee, the identity also serves as a tourist card and registered inhabitants of the city can vote in Dáme na vás participatory budget. From one account, users can start and manage dependent accounts for their children or share their account with other adults. Currently, a new module is being launched – a library card for a network of over 30 Brno city libraries. Therefore, we created a city identity that will improve the life of inhabitants and users of the city.
city : Brno
: Data Platform In March 2018, a data portal was launched for the purpose of development and data-based management of the city and raised awareness of the public about the place where they live, work or study. Even though we tried to publish as many open datasets as possible, we followed the advice of our colleagues from Leeds, England, who care a lot about the quality and sustainability of datasets. On data.brno.cz, there are not only datasets (over 120) and their applications (76 applications altogether) but also interesting interpretations and statistics on the integrated dashboard. For example, thanks to the mobile data, the city found out that there are actually 425,000 people living in Brno, which is 50,000 more than according to the official statistics. Soon after its launch, the portal became one of the most visited parts of the Brno website.
: City Ecosystem In order to involve the professional sector, the city has created a unique organization model; it extended the well-known “quadruple helix” with the non-proﬁt sector and the transregional level. This created a special city department with 6 workers who take care of the ecosystem development in every one of the areas. Apart from the city workers, every area has its ambassador, i.e. a respected representant of the sector, and guarantors of the individual city values. 1.
Science Brno – Brno Science Partners – BSP (Students, universities, research and development centers and Czech Academy of Sciences) 2. Business Brno – Brno Business Alliance – BBA (Freelancers, SMEs, large corporations, investors and business chambers) 3. Non-Governmental Brno – Non-Governmental Organizations – BNO (Non-governmental and non-proﬁt organizations, associations, foundations, endowment funds) 4. Active Brno – Brno Smart City Community – BSCC (Active citizens, experts and expats) 5. Brno Self-Government – Brno ManagingMembers – BMM (City municipality, city districts, political clubs, city companies and organizations) 6. Multi-Level Brno – National and European GovernmentalLevels – NEGL (Brno metropolitan area, South Moravian Region, regional, state and European institutions and companies, government and ministries) Since spring 2017, city of Brno is working on a new development strategy called #brno2050. It is based on VISION 2050 that contains 25 strategical values. 11 special events have been held so far with between 80 and 150 participants at every one of them. The
central topics are #brno2050 Vision, digital city and involvement of citizens. The city now works on a communication web platform for more effective management of operation of the city ecosystem.
: Support of Small Businesses Brno supports the ideas of companies with potential to change the market. It has allocated 26 million CZK for the SME Instrument Brno program that has supported 8 innovative companies with breakthrough technologies since 2016. These companies asked for support within the frame of the SME Instrument European funding program and got great ranking from European Commission, however, they didn’t get the funding. City of Brno has therefore decided to support these companies in the ﬁrst phase, i.e. in concept validation and creation of the feasibility study, because it considers the ranking of the European funding programme to be a relevant quality recommendation. For example, Optik Instruments (Nanovision) company has been ﬁnancially supported because it came up with a method of combining two previously incompatible types of microscope imaging. Furthermore, there is a project focused on the development of products for promoting the healing of chronic wounds or development of vertical axial wind turbine with folding blades that represents an alternative low-carbon energy solution for effective work in very bad and extreme weather conditions.
: Support of Creative Workers In 2010, a platform for networking and cooperation of companies and creative workers was created as a part of so-called Creative
smart : one ple a half-marathon or a concert, but the public needs to be interested in it and support it. This could be done either online where a project needs to get at least 150 likes or on a paper where at least 15 citizens have to sign the project to show their support.
: Smart City Vouchers
Brno project. The platform offers e.g. Creative Vouchers that have been implemented through JIC since 2015. Creative Center Brno project, which is supposed to represent the main infrastructure support for the development of creative ﬁelds, has become an official strategic city project and a position of specialist for the support of creative industries was established in the municipality in 2016.
: Participative Projects In Dáme na vás project, the citizens of Brno decide about a part of the city budget, namely the distribution of 30 million CZK. The project is supposed to enable the citizens to design their own projects for city revitalization in a simple and comfortable way and decide directly about what ideas the city will implement. A strong point of the project is the emphasis on the neighbourly, community approach to project creation supported by a series of public meetings. In the beginning of 2017, the city has launched the ﬁrst year of the project with 20 million CZK. Citizens have submitted 216 projects and 162 of them were supported. 83 projects advanced to the ﬁnal voting. Based on the citizens’ voting, 16 of them will be implemented. Every winning project is discussed with the submitter and the relevant city district so that all the sides agree on the ﬁnal form of the project. Most projects are now in the phase of the tender for a contractor. In the second year, 133 projects were submitted and 109 of them got the support. These projects are among others: building a playground, an outdoor exercise area, adjustments of sports grounds, classes for seniors, revitalization of gardens etc. The money can be also provided to an event organization - for exam-
Currently, many new companies are focused on technological trends; however, in order to implement them, the city needs to create appropriate conditions. These are usually created by city companies focused on operation, not innovations. For such companies, it is relatively difficult to prepare a project in Smart City area and deﬁne public tender demands in sufficient quality. That is why the city prepares so-called Smart City Vouchers connecting innovations and city companies through cooperation of city institutions and the academic sector. The current cooperation is not very intense yet, so the program is focused on the breakdown of the barrier. Currently, this project is piloted on “Wireless Brno” project (inspired by Bordeaux), where trams are equipped with batteries enabling them to run over the broader center without power supply.
: Flux Collective FluxCollective is a platform for the support of open innovations (so-called Open Innovation), minimizing barriers for potential users of the results. There is a complex system of support for established entities, however, searching and support of individuals in early stages is fairly limited. Founding members are community non-proﬁt organizations that actively and long-term participate on the creation of alternative innovation and start-up environment in Brno.
Base48: community hackerspace focused on electronics, information technologies and safety, open-source, industrial automation and robotics, SocialReactor: non-proﬁt formation dealing with re-activation of unused buildings and their implementation into city-creating processes, Koplac: open unformal coworking space holding business support events specializing in usage of satellite signals and cosmic technologies for industry and society, Vaizard: operator of INDUSTRA, a creative and cultural center in Brno with a mission to implement city creative/innovation ecosystem specializing in interconnection between ﬁelds and pivoting).
city : warsaw
Warsaw Marcin Wojdat : Warsaw‘s capital city secretary, responsible for, among others, the City Digitization Authority, whose structure also includes the Smart Cities project department. Graduate of the Institute of Applied Social Sciences at Warsaw University. Prior to joining the secretary, he was the Director of the Center for Social Communication of the Warsaw capital city and was responsible, among other things, for communicating with non-governmental organizations and with residents. As Secretary of the City, he performs tasks related to ensuring the effective functioning of the Office, in particular as regards the coordination of activities and the ﬂow of information among the Office‘s organizational units.
1 735 000
smart : one
An open, diverse and green city Warsaw is the main and largest city of Poland. At the same time, it is also the capital of the Mazovian Voivodeship. Officially, according to data from 2017, the population is more than 1.75 million, although the actual number is probably much larger. In the functional area of the city lives up to 3.5 million people, it is almost 10% of the countryâ€˜s population. Warsaw is not only the administrative capital of the state, but also a dynamically developing academic, scientific, cultural and business center. Over the last few years, thanks to financial means from the European Union, huge investments have been recorded, inter alia, with the development of transport infrastructure. The city panorama has also changed, its neglected areas near the center are rapidly turning into a business center with an impact on the whole of Central and Eastern Europe. The strong point of Warsaw is its open diversity for its existing and new inhabitants. Warsaw can also be described as a green city, with about 35% of the cityâ€˜s greenery, including nearly 80 parks.
: Warsaw City Contact Center 19115 For municipal administration in the capital, communication with the population has been one of the most important tasks for many years. The City Office, together with 18 district offices and a number of subordinate institutions, creates a complex structure in which residents often ďŹ nd it difficult to get through they want to solve even the simplest issues. To resolve this situation, the City Warsaw contact center was launched in November 2013 (Warsaw 19115 abbreviated). It turned out that it was a hit. The Center provided a new communication channel for citizens of the city with all local government, while retaining all previously available communication options. What is Warsaw 19115? It is a multi-channel call center that is available to residents 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Citizens are provided with a team of employees who receive reports. If possible, the answer is given directly by the consultant. If the matter is more complicated or falls within the area of municipal services, it is immediately transferred to the appropriate administrative department. Through Warsaw 19115 residents can obtain complete information about the services provided by the city and its organizations (e.g. public transport or document acquisition), report the problem (i.e. damaged road or incorrectly parked cars), which should be addressed through municipal services (e.g. municipal police) to propose an improvement in the functioning of the city. You can manage queries and submissions in different ways: by phone (19115), by e-mail, by mobile app, by web site, and by online chat. If necessary, residents can use contact with an interpreter to sign language. From the point of view of the development of Warsaw as an intelligent city, Warsaw 19115 is an extremely important component of the Warsaw 19115 system: free mobile applications (available on iOS, Android and Windows) and the Warsaw notification system. The app lets you send notifications in a simple and intuitive way. The user does this in three steps: takes a picture (you can attach a maximum of 3 photos), describes the problem and indicates where it is, on the map of Warsaw. This information is delivered to the Warszawa 19115 consultants and the user receives an automatic acknowledgment of receipt of the request and eventually feedback on the case. The application also contains other useful modules: push notifications, the ability to submit new tree planting sites, information on ongoing projects
city : warsaw
with a participatory budget, and current air quality data in Warsaw, along with any recommendations when the index exceeds legal standards. The Warsaw Notiﬁcation System is also a free city information system. Provides up-to-date information from various areas of Warsaw life. The resident can choose thematic categories of interest (official aff airs, culture, roads, greenery, sports, consultation, communication, participatory budget) and the city areas to be monitored. Additionally, the system automatically sends reports of local threats (e.g. related to weather anomalies). Notiﬁcations can be received either via SMS or as a push message in a mobile application. Warsaw 19115 is complemented by a functional website that offers several other features. The resident ﬁnds answers to hundreds of standard questions and doubts - all divided into 12 thematic categories and dozens of subcategories. In addition, the party redirects the user to many other public administration communications sites: to a page that allows visits to the office (without queues), government websites about government-provided services, open-city data, or the social services portal provided by the main city of Poland.
During the ﬁrst four years of operation of the Warsaw system, 19,115 inhabitants contacted the city using a system in almost 1.3 million cases. New reports arrived on average every 90 seconds, and consultations with residents lasted nearly 150,000 hours. In 2017, City Contact Center Warsaw 19115 won the Digital Transformation Award from the editors of the German magazine CRN.
: Deploying electric buses Since 2012, Warsaw has been testing the use of electric buses for public transport. In 2015, Miejskie Zakłady Autobusowe (MZA) bought the ﬁrst ten electric buses from Solaris Urbino 12 Electric to serve one bus line. Two years later, another 10 vehicles were purchased - the Ursus CitySmile 12 Electric brand, and in the spring of 2018, 10 new 4th Solaris Urbino 12 Electric buses were added. The 30 e-buses that are currently operating in the Polish capital are just the beginning.
smart : one In autumn 2017, the MZA signed a contract for the supply of another 130 low-ﬂoor electric buses by 2020 together with the construction of a modern and ecological depot. The device should be equipped with energy-saving heat pumps, LED lighting and extensive green on the roofs of buildings. Charging racks will also be equipped with end stops, which will allow recharging buses without the need to get into the depot. Investment, including the purchase of vehicles along with the accompanying infrastructure, was co-ﬁnanced by the European Union in the amount of PLN 180 million (more than 40 milion Euro). Investments by the Warsaw authorities into the ﬂeet of zero-emission vehicles have not only met the requirements laid down by law, but at the same time the purchase of these vehicles is part of the program‘s objective of resigning from bus service in the historic part of the city (Královská cesta). As a result, the exhalations and noise from the city center, the so-called salon of the capital city, which is popular among residents and tourists, will disappear. The city carrier MZA will have a total of 160 electric buses, representing more than 10% of the total ﬂeet of the company. At the same time, Warsaw will become the regional leader in electromobility in public transport.
: Veturilo The element of the Warsaw Mobility Improvement Strategy is to encourage people to use alternative forms of transport. One of them is also the use of cycling, although some bicycle infrastructure has not yet been built. It turned out that the launch of the free Veturilo urban bike rental network was launched in August 2012. The ability to easily rent the bike for a short period of time proved to be a great success despite a very limited network of roads and bikes. After 6 years of operation, Veturilo has more than 350 stations, 5,200 bicycles and more than 700,000 registered users. Residents can rent not only traditional but also electric bicycles... : photo: R. Motyl / UM Warsaw
city : Łódź
The 5G Łódź 1332
Ph.D. Anna Dyląg : one of our energy management experts and owner of company ABC Energia Robert Kolczyński : Director of the Project Management Department, City of Lodz Office Robert : I have been dealing with Smart City since establishing in the office structure in 2012. The Board of the New Center of Łódź, under which this topic was initiated in connection with the idea of creating a new urban space transformed into revitalized post-war areas. The ﬁnal result of these works was the adoption of the Master Plan for this program, which included smart solutions. After the creation of the Project Management Department in 2015 as the Deputy Director and then from 2016 as the Director of this Department, I am piloting the implementation of the idea of a modern city in the scale of the entire Łódź.
smart : one The city of Łódź has undergone signiﬁcant development over the last 200 years; the largest textile workshop in Europe today is interconnected by a network of modern streets full of highly prized industrial architecture. The centre also houses a prestigious ﬁlm school. And how is Łódź now developing and what future is waiting for? It will surely be the future of SMART! Proof of this is broad public involvement, e-government, modern transport management, the use of a shared economy concept, urban monitoring, a shared and friendly urban space and 5G internet.
: Intelligent transport One of the priorities is the location of ITS on the most important transport routes to improve the city‘s traffic. That is why the city introduces a traffic management system, the largest ITS project in Poland, regarding the number of junctions involved in the system (234 intersections). Using the system with a network of variable message signs: • • •
: History of SMART CITY and its formal formation
• • The idea of Smart city in Łódź has been continually being developed for many years, as evidenced by the following studies: The Integrated Development Strategy 2020+ for the city of Łódź (from 2012) and the Strategy for the implementation of the new Łódź program (from 2015). The ﬁrst of these documents demonstrates a conscientious approach to city development, responds to long-term development challenges, is a tool for urban investment planning, and is a means of communication between city government and administration. The priorities set out in the strategy mainly concern the improvement of the quality of life of the population, the creation of a sustainable transport network in Łódź and its metropolitan agglomeration, and the revitalization of urban space. Deﬁned development pillars are: economy and infrastructure, culture and society as well as space and the environment. The vision that has led to the strategy is to create a friendly, creative and dynamic city of sustainable development with stable living, working and investment conditions, while using historical, infrastructure and creative potential. The second document highlights the importance of innovation as a driving force for city development and deﬁnes the need to create smart places in the New Centre of Łódź through the gradual implementation of smart solutions aimed, among other things, at improving security, developing modern energy infrastructure as well as increasing the level of community involvement in key city decisions. It can be said that Łódź has successfully implemented the solutions that are declared in these documents.
The traffic ﬂow has improved, reducing the average driving time Road users will receive up-to-date information on disadvantaged conditions Public transport and ﬂeet use have been optimized while reducing transport costs. the number of passengers has increased by rail, which has led to a reduction in traffic congestion and has also contributed to improving road safety. Noise and vibration levels have been reduced the negative impacts of transport on the environment have been reduced.
Based on the concept of sharing economy, the Łódzki Rower Publiczny system was launched. It is a perfect addition to friendly public transport. What is even more important - citizens‘ demand for this „complement“ of transport has been met. Because the ﬁrst proposal came from the people in the „citizen budget“ in 2014. The private sector is actively involved in similar activities by introducing a system for sharing other means of transport such as electric scooters or hybrid cars.
: Security in the city Efforts to improve safety are based on effective communication and response. It provides a modern urban monitoring system, managed and operated by the Łódź City Police. Within the system, 444 cameras of the city police are installed at 170 locations + 91 traffic control cameras. The system is regularly developed and will be equipped with 607 cameras in 214 locations - residents will decide where these cameras are placed.
: Participation Smart City in the sense of Łódź means primarily listening to the needs of the people and giving them the opportunity to express their views on important issues. For these reasons, the Citizen budget has been created that encourages people to actively participate in local government decision-making. This initiative
city : Łódź has contributed to enhancing the competitiveness of the Łódź region and fostered its socio-economic development using modern information technology to create a new or expanding existing information society infrastructure. Secure backbone networks and broadband Internet access are addressed in the wider metropolitan area. The basis is communication with regional backbone networks through the connection of branches and organizational units of the city and municipalities (the network connects Łódź and 6 neighbouring municipalities), leading to better communication and faster services.
is one of the pioneering initiatives in Poland. It has been in place for 4 years now and is just as successful as before. In addition to the public budget, Vox Populi is also the ﬁrst platform in Poland to lead the local e-referendum. This revolutionary approach to the public consultation, in which the main emphasis is placed on the act of voting and the ability to express a binding opinion of the population that will be taken into account by the city/district government. „Vox populi“ allows residents to know about the problem before voting and to get acquainted with the arguments for different options of the proposed solution, the ability to read the opinions of experts, to participate in discussions and exchanges of views.
: Contact centre In accordance with the needs of the people of Łódź, the Łódź Contact centre was established, which enabled the provision of services to citizens via various channels of communication. The advantage of implementing the project is to enable issues and formalities to be solved in one place and one telephone number, thus shortening the time for citizens rather than getting into the office, thereby increasing the level of satisfaction with the new quality of service. Stimulating the company‘s information development through the project is an excellent basis for building eGovernment based on quick and easy access to information throughout the day from anywhere without the need to personally appear in the office. This is a great help for all those interested, especially those with disabilities, who prevent the digital exclusion of the people of Łódź.
: Fast internet The provision of high-quality public services is a major impetus for building a metropolitan Internet network. This initiative
In the information age, the emergence and promotion of innovations, activities and the satisfaction of the population is also driven by the openness of data, as it allows for free access. The successful widespread involvement of the public cannot be achieved without building the public trust that is taking place through the opening of the city and providing machine readable information about its activities. Under the „Łódź - Open City“ policy, the city management team has set up an Open Data Team, whose main task is to develop strategies and policies for open data sharing and systematically coordinate their publication. A modern, electronic publication of information in transparent and organized forms is an opportunity to strengthen the city‘s innovative image. Thanks to the above-mentioned initiatives, Łódź is dedicated to further developing „smart“ projects such as the central interconnection of major intersections, business support and scientiﬁc potential. Łódź, at the recommendation of the Minister for Digitization, became the ﬁrst city in Poland, where the pilot implementation of the 5G network will take place.
: Education of the future For the future deployment of autonomous services and autonomous vehicles, the basic requirement is the coverage of 5G networks and enough research background. The city will include the University of Łódź (the 5G sociological research potential), the Łódź Technical University with its own Competence Center and Technology Accelerator, and the University of Health (the potential for eHealth services). In the city, there is also a „Special Economic Zone“ for testing, and there is also a support cluster connecting IT companies, the leaders of change in the 5G area. The intelligent city is such a city that is primarily focused on an ordinary person and addressing his needs. In this way, it creates modern inhabitants who use modern services and technologies. :
smart : one
city : one
Alba Iulia 74 283
a smart city pilot with 100 projects and still counting
With the smart project, we want to open new perspectives, both for citizens and potential investors. At present, 35 private companies are involved in the project, with 103 smart solutions that are in the testing phase, functional or are going to be implemented in the next period. Alba Iulia is the capital of Alba County, Romania. The city is “The Other Capital” where at 1st of December 1918 the Great Uniﬁcation of “all Romanians and of all the territories inhabited by them with Romania”was accomplished.Alba Iulia was nominated in 2012 as a European Destination of Excellence http://vimeo.com/805131571 , by the EDEN program administered by the European Commission. With this great heritage, Alba Iulia is being called “the most historical city” in Romania. The city is one of the six county capitals in Romania whose resident population registered a great increase during the last 10 years given the rapid development of the city.
: Fundamentals of a visionary city The development strategy of Alba Iulia underlines the importance of the sustainable development of the local economy and improved quality of citizens’ life. This strategy has been the result of an important participatory phase, when citizens, City administration, employees, businesses’ representatives, different institu-
smart : one tions and local organizations, provided recommendations in the interest of the City. The strategy puts forward three important approaches for Alba Iulia: Alba Iulia of the residents : improving quality of life Alba Iulia of the tourists : cultural tourism development and advertisement of the town’s brand Alba Iulia of the investors : promoting businesses The Development Strategy for 2014–2020 was developed in a collaboration with the World Bank and has four pillars: 1. A smart, accessible and coherent city; 2. A green city with efficient public services; 3. A competitive and creative city; 4. A European cultural and tourism objective. Alba Iulia has received important ﬁnancial support from the European Union and has implemented European projects with a total value of more than 200 mil Euros in the last 10 years, while being the most important investor in the city in the period of economic crisis. Alba Iulia Municipality is focused towards the transformation of the local community into a “green city” by approaching its sustainable energetic future: 85 % of schools and kindergartens are thermally insulated, over 17 hectares of urban green areas have been landscaped in the last two years and more than 15 kilometres of bicycle routes have been built, 90 % of the city is connected to the sewage system and a new wastewater treatment station is currently under construction. The “green city” results are 1714 solar panels on 4 municipal buildings – 257 kw, 300MWh/year, 5142 square meters of solar panels, with savings of 80.000 Euro per year; new projects for intelligent public lighting are being implemented right now on 126 streets, replacing 56.37 % of the old public lighting system). We have one of the most modern urban public transportation in Romania (in 2017, the Public Transport Society of Alba Iulia has won the IRU Bus Excellence Award for best bus operator in Europe), being the ﬁrst city, which implemented (beginning with 2007) the e-ticketing solution in public transportation (42.840 e-tickets bought yearly). Besides the facts pointed above, Alba Iulia is also the ﬁrst Romanian city with a Branding manual, able to ensure strategic coherence and international visibility of the city http://www.apulum.ro/ pdf/ Alba%20Iulia%20Manual% 20De%20Brand_2014.pdf2 , it is the ﬁrst Romanian city with a Moody’s rating on transparency of public spending.
: The smart city project Alba Iulia Smart City is a unique pilot implemented by the Municipality of Alba Iulia in partnership with the Ministry of Communications and Information Society. All the smart city solutions
proposed by companies are implemented and tested on their costsand they ensure the interoperability with other smart city solution providers in the future.Alba Iulia Smart City pilot project has 102 smart solutions implemented in different stages of development.
: In partnership withOrange •
• • •
228 Wi-Fi hotspotsproviding secure Internet access in public areas such as bus stations, train stations, schools, and universities; 15 transport linesmanaged by the public transport authority in Alba Iulia, equipped with secure Wi-Fi for travellers and real-time access to information regarding location, speed, and direction available to local authorities; communicating with residentsvia Wi-Fi hotspots and the e-alba iulia application. It is an integral part of the e-democracy initiative for the city, through which people can give feedback to the City Hall regarding local issues; City Analytics solution (FullScreen Digital, Innovation Labs 2014 winner) to optimize the ﬂow of pedestrian and vehicle traffic; A LoRa WAN infrastructureto connect applications and smart objects; Measuring air quality: uRadMonitor provides information on the level of pollution in the city and its surrounding area; Promoting tourismthrough 250 beacons (Zoniz) installed in 225 popular locations (museums, the university, the city center, restaurants, statues, cathedrals etc.) to facilitate an interactive visiting experience; Management of public lightingvia 101 devices provided by the company Flash Net on street lamps to remotely monitor and control the light intensity and schedule. This also provides real-time information on public electricity consumption and alerts for malfunctioning lamps; A smart water management system enabled through 50 connected devices that will provide alerts and real-time information on public water consumption. Secure accessto all components of the platform and permanent monitoring via the Business Internet Security platform; Through the “Innovation Labs 2017” start-up acceleration program,developerswill be able to create new solutions and applications for the city, using the open data available through the platform; A digital classroomcontaining devices like tablets, digital educational content, and resources, as well as a digital class book. Internet access will be provided via secure and ﬁltered Wi-Fi; A Business Interner Security for the WiFi public hotspots.
city : one In partnership with Telekom • • •
Digital catalogue in 18 schools in Alba Iulia; Smart lighting LED system in a school in Alba Iulia; Smart video surveillance system (10 intelligent cameras).
In partnership with Microsoft •
Microsoft for Education: facilitating the digitalization of modern learning style (Windows 10, Office 365 Plus and Minecraft program for 10 PCs); Microsoft for start-ups: business consultancy regarding the use of Office 365, OneDrive and Microsoft Azure; Microsoft Software Asset Management: high level cybersecurity testing of the municipality IT infrastructure.
In partnership with Philips Lighting • • •
10 high power and quality (104W, 3000K) Digistreet LED luminaires; 8 control units, used with clasical luminaires, testing dimming capabilities for energy consumption; CityTouch - intelligent, centralized system control application.
In partnership with Siemens 1
Siemens and Alba Iulia Municipality agreed on including Alba Iulia within the global research project Smart Cities Research. The study provides a detailed analysis on ﬁnancial models and beneﬁts obtained on several axes using intelligent infrastructure, depending on the priorities of each city. Infrastructure axes analysed in this study including energy, buildings, trafﬁc management, public transport and public safety. For more information please see the Siemens Business Case: https:// w3.siemens.com/topics/global/en/intelligent-infrastructure/ Pages/smart-city-alba-iulia.aspx3
In partnership with Kauﬂand Kauﬂand donated an electric vehicle to the Municipality and installed the ﬁrst functional electric charger on the Kauﬂand parking lot.
Development of City Hall Main site, based on a more friendly approach and citizen’s feedback with e-citizen module – analysis of main point of interaction with citizens and ways to improve efficiency City Open data platform– main component of a future Smart City platform and usefull exercise on improving availability and visibility of data
smart : one •
Supplementary, IT Center for Community will help us to develop a dedicated site (albaiuliasmartcity.ro) to present solutions tested in Smart City pilot Industrial Software Incident reporting app on various problems to the City Hall dispatch with automatic routing to responsible departments or companies Public barometer app allowing active involvement of citizens in city life and decision making Budget incomes app will measure main ﬁscal parameters and based on historical data, will make prognosis and models for fostering city hall budget preparation
Direct One •
Illegal parking application will test sensors and a new LoRa communication system, able to survey those places where cars are parked affecting normal traffic; system will also test integration with other smart parking apps and alarm/ reports generation for abusive parking; an extension of this system, able to combine traffic – polution data is analyzed Smart Waste Management based on sensors placed inside containers, able to sense full state and trigger a signal to local waste company; solution will use new ultrasonic devices on a LoRa communication system Workload Infrastructure Management based on a combination of video, inductive and load sensors, will measure (in movement) weight of loaded trucks entering city; as a future development an integration with systems of city load traffic permits will be tested Video Analytics will use special video processing algoritms, able to detect unusual or emergency situations; special attention will be adressed to ﬁles compression and storage limitations, combined with emergency patterns and possibility of multiple video signals analysis
Delphi Electric Alba Iulia •
Intrarom • •
• • • •
• • •
Virtual Reality •
A 3D high deﬁnition virtual model of the city to be used for urban development, planning or tourism; solution will require a precise mapping using drones and a complex video processing A physical city scale model, ready for exhibitions or decisions regarding city development
Chat Pipper – a solution for real time chat with citizens, implemented at city dispatch, in a window of cityhall web page White RCPT – smartphone application for turists and locals, providing cost monitoring based on a simple scan of your bills IT Consultancy for Smart City development
free city tour exploration app which helps to discover authentic places and stories by going on a quest in Alba Iulia
Vegacomp Original inductive sensors for Smart Parking solutions and statistic reports app; Smart metering kits able to measure electrical energy, gas and water consumption using LoRa network;
Smart public lighting, based on 3 high efficiency, intelligent LED lamps Smart mobility, including 2 ultrasonic sensors for smart parking, each able to monitor 6-12 parking lots and 2 ultrasonic sensors for traffic monitoring WiFi module for public internet access Polution sensors in various conﬁgurations; option for noise monitoring Keychain bluetooth remote controls for lightning/ emergency situations Uniﬁed IoT Orchestration Platform (uiTOP) for system management
White City Code Alba Iulia
A termodymanic solar system for water heating, including a special solar panel, pump, compressor, heat exchanger and control unit.
CEWE mobile app to send virtual postal card in physical printed ﬁnal version to the dearest; Temporary exhibitions through Cewe PhotoBook; Smart DIGIPHOTOMAKER to print photos directly from smartphone.
: Conclusion We cannot speak about a smart city without underlying the extremely importance of IoT – the Internet of Things. Every platform, every app, every sensor produces a big amount of data to be used in developing strategies for a long-term vision of a city. We, in Alba Iulia, Romania, are focused on the local needs and how the new technologies and big data can improve and cover the needs of the community. :
city : novi sad
Novi Sad European Capital of Culture and IoT 1694
Dr. Dejan Drajic : works as Senior researcher in DunavNET company, and holds a PhD degree from University of Belgrade. His main research interests are future mobile networks (LTE and beyond LTE), WSN (Wireless Sensors Networks), M2M (Machine to Machine) communications, IoT (Internet of Things), and Smart Cities. From 2010 he is involved in FP7 projects related to these areas (SENSEI, LOLA, EXALTED, IoT6, SocIoTal, Citisense) and H2020 (WeLive, U4IoT).
: Novi Sad City Novi Sad was named 2021 European Capital of Culture, making it the ﬁrst city in a candidate country to ever hold this prestigious title (sharing this title with Timisoara, Romania, and Eleusis, Greece). The programme concept of “Novi Sad 2021“ comprised four areas fused together under the slogan “4 new bridges”. Among 200 cultural events taking place in Novi Sad every year, “the ﬁrst among equals” is EXIT Festival, which is the laureate of 2018 Best European Festival Award. City of Novi Sad and PUC (Public Utility Company) Informatika are jointly involved in several EU funded projects related to ICT- WeLive, CLIPS, eGovernment, Public Property Management etc. aiming to increase interaction between Public Administration and citizens in creating and monitoring development of the city. Informatika and DunavNET initiated Smart City as a concept for further city development. In January 2015, the Mayor of the City of Novi Sad initiated the procedure of drafting the City of Novi Sad Sustainable Development Strategy within the next ﬁ ve years. The document contains the fundamental vision, strategic goals and key priorities of development. The Strategy contains an action plan with the list of projects clearly connected with the identiﬁed goals, budget and sources of ﬁnancing, efficiency indicators and participants in projects responsible for its realization.
Apart from the Coordinating body (Member of the City Council and Heads of the City Administrations), the body important for drafting the Strategy is the Partners’ Assembly, assembled of directors of public utility companies, representatives of business and economic organizations, institutions founded by the City, state and provincial bodies, of the University and other relevant stakeholders from the civil sector.
: The concept of the “Smart City“ strategy aimed at deﬁning framework for: • • •
Smart City Open Innovation Public Administration Modernization (e-Government)
Smart City – the concept showcases development of infrastructure, whose aim is to improve and upgrade the utility services provided to the citizens by the City public companies, as well as to make them more efficient, less expensive and of higher quality. The concept envisages continuation of construction, as well as operationalization of the existing optical telecommunication infra-
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structure making the connection of the computer DATA Center (all is owned by “Informatika”) with numerous cutting-edge sensors to be implemented at various locations throughout the city, in order to perform various functions and to make the following readings: • • • • • • • •
pollution and quality of air, level of noise weather conditions in various parts of the city amount of traffic public transport (e.g. time of the arrival of the next bus) waste management (measuring the amount of waste in containers) measuring the amount of consumed water, its quality, etc. energy efficiency (public lighting management) and many more…
Open Innovation enables including the citizens as well as other (legal) persons within the process of read parameters’ and results’ exploitation. The results will be available through a developed portal pr.opendatanovisad.com, enabling to natural and legal persons, according to their needs and requirements, to deﬁne, design solutions in the IT area (software, smartphone applications, etc.) and capitalize their products on market, while on the other hand it will also further inform them of the quality of life and utility problems, etc. Finally, Public Modernization Administration relies heavily on successful projects realized by the City so far, starting from the
e-Government, with the aim to continue modernization, efficiency improvement of work, reaching out towards the citizens.
: Projects and activities Smart City is being built by different kind of partnerships, i.e. through European projects, regional and local projects, and in direct cooperation of local stakeholders. In the Figure below with violet rectangles main ﬁelds of Smart City participation are presented: • • • •
European FP7 and H2020 Smart City projects (SocIoTal, CLIPS, WeLive, MobiWallet) Regional Smart City conferences and co-operations Environment monitoring IoT courses, trainings, workshops …
: MobiWallet MobiWallet implements a vision where interoperability is no longer an issue, and cities can provide an electronic fare management system with unparalleled intelligence and functionalities that can be exploited by users and town hall officials alike. It is coupled with
city : novi sad a Smartphone-based electronic payment service and enhanced travel functionalities such as personalized trip planning services. MobiWallet addresses Interoperable Fare Management solutions through four key impact areas: Encouraging modal shift and facilitating ease of use of multiple transport options with a focus on handicapped users, improving efficiency and reducing energy consumption, enhancing sustainable mobility for all users and improving cross border transportation capabilities. The MobiWallet‘s app offers travel planning, information on bus arrival and bus location in real time. It also enables combining the bus transport service with Rent-a-bike city service, providing at the same time information about the major tourist landmarks for all visitors of Novi Sad.
SocIoTal SOCIOTAL addresses a crucial next step in the transformation of an emerging business driven Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure into an all-inclusive one for the society by accelerating the creation of a socially aware citizen-centric Internet of Things. It will close the emerging gap between business centric IoT enterprise systems and citizen provided infrastructure. SOCIOTAL establishes an IoT eco-system that puts trust, user control and transparency at its heart in order to gain the conﬁdence of everyday users and citizens. By providing adequate socially aware tools and mechanisms that simplify complexity and lower the barriers of entry it will encourage citizen participation in the Internet of Things.
CLIPS The CLIPS project develops a new approach to the delivery of public services through the use of the cloud. Its princi-
ple goal is to provide a framework that can be used for the implementation of cloud based public services which seek to overcome major issues associated with cloud adoption notable in architecture design and security. The definition and the implementation of new services follows a mash-up approach, to develop an ecosystem template (methodology and tool kit) where services are defined for the specific needs of one municipality. Pilot installation of public services in a “cloud” in the city of Novi Sad is done. Application Moj Grad for “crowdsourcing” community problems has been developed. After registration a user can report a problem by clicking on the corresponding category, inserting the adress where the problem is noticed, its description and a photo, if possible. Reported communal problems can be seen on the application homepage in the form of a list, with reporting time, address and current status. Users can also report disasters like ﬁre, earthquake, ﬂood, terrorism, weather disaster etc.
: Air Quality Monitoring Novi Sad has deployed devices equipped with sensors for CO, CO2, NO, NO2, O3, So2, Temperature, Air pressure, Humidity and Noise measurement that are installed in the main crossroads in the city center, thus allowing better insight of the air quality in the most polluted area. Devices provide real-time measurements of mentioned parameters, while these results are transferred to cloud-based storage, where measurements are stored and post-processing and visualization is performed. Results are visualized (web and mobile applications are available) for real-time, 1h and 24h values, and historical values for the period on 1 year. When measurement values are over the predeﬁned values over selected period of time, alarm notiﬁcations are generated. All measurements could be exported into CSV ﬁle. Based on the obtained results CAQI (Common Air Quality Index) and pollution maps are calculated. Devices are portable and could be moved on any other desired location.
: WeLive WeLive project aims at transforming the current e-government approach followed by most public administrations into we-government where all the stakeholders of public administration, namely citizens, local businesses and companies, are treated as peers (collaborators) and prosumers (providers) instead of the usual customer role associated to them. WeLive enables the so-called “t-Government” (Transformational Government) by providing stakeholders with the technology tools that enable them to create public
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value. In addition, WeLive is also thought to embrace l-Government (Lean Government), which aims to do more with less by involving other players, leaving the Government as an orchestrator around enabled platforms. Finally, WeLive fully adopts m-Government, i.e. an extension or evolution of e-government through utilization of mobile technologies for public service delivery. Consequently, WeLive proposes a new concept of e-Government, which provides the means, i.e. an environment or platform, analogously to the Web, and leaves others, all the stakeholders in a city or territory, to lead the innovation process and so turn public resource assets into artifacts to nurture economic growth and job creation. WeLive aims to bridge the gap between innovation and adoption (i.e. take-up) of open government services. For that, it contributes with the WeLive Framework, an ICT infrastructure which adapts, enhances, extends and integrates Open Innovation, Open Data and Open Services components selected from consortium partners’ previous projects. An Open Innovation Area is proposed where stakeholders collaborate in the ideation, creation, funding and deployment of new services. A Visual Composer will enable non-ICT users to assemble public service apps from existing blocks. Stakeholders will upload/sell and download/purchase the generated apps to/from the WeLive Marketplace, thus promoting economic activity around public services. For the WeLive Pilot Phase 1, the Novi Sad task force (DunavNET, Informatika and City of Novi sad) has implemented three
public service applications, and for Pilot Phase 2, two more applications are developed, namely: • • • • •
Safe City Trip Relocation Advisor Public Procurement Transparency My Local Community Culture Key
Applications are available to WeLive users through the WeLive Marketplace and through the WeLive Player app. They are actually Android apps and Safe City Trip and Relocation Advisor are also web versions of applications. The services offered within the three applications have been identiﬁed with the help of citizens during the engagement activities executed by the Novi Sad task force during the ﬁrst year of the project. Other two applications are developed based on the results of „Idea contest“ held in Novi Sad. Relocation Advisor is both web and android service which allows citizens and business people to ﬁnd an appropriate apartment based on open data-information on public utility infrastructure in relation to their residential purposes, citizens are able to get data about vicinity of parks, playgrounds, kindergartens, schools, as well as traffic congestion, noise, and other information related to environment and neighborhood of their place of interest. This information will give better insight about considered city area for living purposes. :
city : lublin
Mariusz Sagan, Ph.D. : Director of the Strategy and Investor Relations Department at the Lublin City Hall andMayorâ€™s plenipotentiary for the Special Economic Zone. Assistant professor at the Institute of Markets and Competition of the College of Enterprise Sciences at the Warsaw School of Economics; expert and practitioner in strategic management including city strategies.
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How does Lublin implement the Smart City concept in practice? : Lublin a 700-year-old city with a population of 340,000 inhabitants, is the largest economic and academic centre in Eastern Poland and the only city in the macro-region with a metropolitan proﬁle. Lublin, one of the most dynamically developing Polish cities, is currently perceived as a key business location in Eastern Poland - a perfect location for investments in the services sector and meeting industry, as well as one of the six largest IT ecosystems in the country. The city is distinguished by a very high level of investment outlays, both in the private and public sector. The city‘s academic character is shaped by 9 higher education institutions with 65,000 students population, making Lublin one of the country‘s leading academic centres.
: The idea of Smart City in
activities referring to the speciﬁcity of the city, while at the same time setting up an open door for more detailed target solutions. The vision of the city, developed with the help of participatory techniques involving various groups of stakeholders, outlines the scope of key changes desired for the development of Lublin. As far as the vision of Lublin in terms of Smart City is concerned, it focuses on a participatory model of city management supported by modern technologies. Lublin consistently implements the Smart City concept, in which the inhabitants co-create the city and have a real inﬂuence on decision making process. We treat all modern technologies as tools supporting the processes of city management, which ultimately improve the quality of life. One of the key activities supporting the implementation of the 2020 Strategy was the establishment of the Task Force for Smart City, composed of representatives of most of the organisational units of the City Hall and its subsidiaries. Thanks to this move, we have integrated the previously dispersed activities of the city in the Smart City concept.
strategic management of Lublin speaking about the role of Smart City in the model of city management, I will use an analogy referring to the concept of general intellectual efficiency of a human being, measured by the IQ level. Applying it, we can assume that the conscious process of raising Lublin‘s IQ began with the „Lublin Development Strategy for 2013-2020“. The main objective of the strategy development process was to move away from the traditional internal city document prepared with the help of external experts and to develop tools that would effectively involve a wide range of stakeholders in the process of active city development planning. The doctrine itself contains a description of the objectives and
We have already started preparation of a new document called Lublin Strategy 2030, in which the concept of an intelligent participation society will be even more widely applied. Through the communication tool Foresight 2050 for Lublin, we received a clear signal from the inhabitants that such an approach is right and necessary. The aim of the foresight research was to identify trends in the following areas and the expectations of the inhabitants and the identiﬁcation of opportunities and threats related to the socio-economic, environmental and technological development. Foresight resulted in developing 7 visionary alternative scenarios for the future of the city, which in turn will constitute a valuable contribution to the Lublin 2030 Strategy.
city : lublin
: Participatory solutions one of the key competences and strengths of the city are its participative solutions. Apart from the already commonly used participatory budget, we have gone one step further and as the ﬁrst city in Poland we have extended this instrument with the so-called green budget. It is an offer for those Lublin residents who have their own ideas for urban greenery. Apart from the ﬁnancial support, the inhabitants were also assisted by experts who advise them in the process of project development. The idea turned out to be a hit. This year we introduced another mechanism of urban democracy –citizen panel. A citizens‘ panel is a technique of making important decisions for the city with the direct participation of its inhabitants. Its speciﬁcity consists of several factors, including the fact that the panel participants are selected by means of a draw taking into account demographic criteria, such as place of residence, gender, age group and level of education. In the process of consultation with experts and in several stages of discussions, the panellists make decisions that are binding on the mayor and his administration and that concern solutions that are important for the city. In Lublin, a group of 60 residents participating in the panel resolved the smog problem. The experts presented to the panelists as many as 250 recommendations in the ﬁeld of heating, transport and urban space, 55 of which received very high, 80% support from the participants of the panel. According to the adopted rules, these recommen-dations will be implemented by the city authorities. At the technological level, Fix It! service provides the inhabitants with an inﬂuence on the shape of the city. The app allows registered users to report bugs observed in their immediate surroundings in public space. The basic function of the service is to describe a problem and tag its location on a map in order to inform about a bug of appropriate institutions responsible for solving speciﬁc categories of issues. The issues themselves are divided into categories such as infrastructure, security, nature, buildings and others. The tool succeed in practice. Thanks to the system in Lublin, approximately 10,000 bugs were ﬁxed.
: Urban transport solutions the main challengeof every development-oriented city is the organisation of transport. We are aware, what is conﬁrmed by research and rankings, that a comfortable life in a clean, green and noiseless environment, as well as the ability to move comfortably and safely, is one of the key needs and priorities of the inhabitants of modern cities. More and more often, we are consciously looking for an alternative to the car.We have focused in Lublin on public
smart : one transport and alternative modes of transport. Along with modern, ecological trolleybus and bus ﬂeet, we actively implement cycling standards together with the city bicycle system in the Park&Ride model and expand the cycling infrastructure by adapting streets to this form of traffic. At the same time, we promote pedestrian traffic and the concept of car and scooter sharing by supporting external operators for such means of transport. There are two complementary transport systems in operation in Lublin. The ﬁrst is the Lublin City Bike. Launched in June 2014, the solution has been appreciated by the residents since its inception. Currently, the system consists of 951 city bikes and 96 stations, with a total of 951 rentals. Since 2018, the city provides a system of renting electric scooters. This season, Lublin inhabitants have at their disposal 18 scooters running on the dockless system supported by the mobile application. It is worth noting that alternative ways of moving are reﬂected in the organisation of the City Hall, in which a Cycling Officer and a Pedestrian Officer were appointed. They are responsible for the promotion of alternative means of transport, environmental relations and the creation of cycling and pedestrian policy and standards. We want modern solutions to be present in every functional area of the city. They are present in the urban energy sector, where City
System Heat has been awarded the PreQurs certiﬁcate, which has signiﬁcantly improved the quality of the environment in the city. A similar impact has been achieved through the comprehensive installation of photovoltaic cells on the supply side of public transport vehicles. We also have implemented solutions that are not visible at ﬁrst glance to the residents, but signiﬁcantly improve the work of municipal services. These include a system for electronic recording and acknowledgement of receipt of all types of waste based on RFID technology. This makes it possible to effectively monitor and supervise the management of municipal waste on an ongoing basis. In Lublin, we constantly monitor and analyse Smart City solutions. We are observing global trends, and we are also looking attentively at local solutions, realizing that the process of increasing the intelligence of cities is rapidly accelerating. This is an op-portunity and involves huge challenges and constant changes not only in technology, infrastructure but, above all, in mentality. And although in practice and industry nomenclature there are many deﬁnitions of Smart City, I believe that one universal description of this concept does not exist. The idea of Smart City, adopted by cities of different levels of sophistication, has a common denominator deﬁned as friendliness and openness, though. Selecting particular components of this broad concept depends on the city‘s identity, economic, cultural, histo-critical and geographic conditions. :
city : rijeka
Emina Višnić : Chief Executive officer - Her career has been marked by widely known projects such as Urban Festival, MaManet. culture club, Pogon – the ﬁrst cultural institution founded through a partnerships between associations and the city government, management of the Kultura Nova Foundation, management of European cultural policies through Culture Action Europe etc. Today she is the head of RIJEKA 2020, and her main goal is to organise a system that must work in a uniﬁed and efficient manner on all levels – cultural, artistic and educational programmes, communications and marketing, international cooperation, project ﬁnancing, as well as all the things that are yet to come. She spends her days solving problems and creating an environment capable of avoiding future problems.
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: Meet Rijeka Rijeka, which means river in Croatian, is the administrative and cultural centre of the Primorje-Gorski kotar County. It is the principal port of Croatia and, with a population of roughly 130 000 people, the third largest city of this Mediterranean country. Due to its strategic position and excellent port conditions it has been an important port city throughout history. It served as the main port of the Kingdom of Hungary, which rivalled the Austrian Trieste, later it became the main port of Yugoslavia and lastly the principal port of Croatia. The status of an important port city has brought a strong industrial character to the city. As the economic situation in Croatia is changing, this old industrial character is in a dire need of revitalisation. Rijeka will become the European capital of culture in 2020, which is a great opportunity to reinvent the city as an important cultural hub on an international level.
Rijeka 2020 is not simply about being the EU capital of culture for a year, but also a vision of the future of Rijeka. Can you tell us more about this vision? I think the vision is, in short, best described by the slogan of the project, which is Port of diversity. For Rijeka is already a port of diversity as a city of various ethnic and religious groups that live together peacefully and in mutual respect. However, the slogan also says that Rijeka needs new kinds of diversity, that we need to test Rijeka‘s diversity of nations, of people, of culture and the diversity of opinions – which is also one of the burning issues for all of Europe. In a way this is a starting point of Rijeka 2020, as this was already the image of Rijeka in the broader region and among its citizens. In short, the project is really a test if we can move into another phase of diversity from different, even global perspectives. What are some of the themes you will be exploring?
: Main target goals of Rijeka 2020 • •
To strengthen and internationalise the cultural and artistic offer of the city in the long term. To include as many citizens as possible in the public life of the city, especially the excluded and disadvantaged. To contribute to the international recognition of the city of Rijeka and the surrounding region.
The project is built around three interconnected themes: Work, Water and Migrations. These themes shouldn‘t be understood only literally but also in a symbolic way. For instance, water can be understood in a way that Rijeka is a city of water with its sea and river, but also in terms of ecology and sustainability. The themes around work are focused on the question »What is work in the post-industrial world?« and what that means for us locally. Under Migrations we are talking about political migrations as we know them, but also about creating migrations – migrations of artists, people visiting different places etc. In terms of infrastructure we can see that the common theme is the revitalisation of old decrepit industrial objects for the purposes of cultural activities. Can we understand this as a statement? Deﬁnitely! It is an obvious statement and a logical solution. If you have so many spaces that are not used or are misused, you want to ﬁnd alternative possibilities, renovate them and put them to use. The other part is that these spaces are part of our industrial heritage and they have a symbolic and cultural value, so they need reinvention. So yes, it is a statement in the sense that we need to reinvent the city that we know and think about new futures. Also, very important for us is that these are not simply about preserving our cultural heritage, but also about putting these buildings into daily use for the residents and visitors. And third, in general I would say that in our region industrial heritage is not appreciated as much as the cultural heritage from older periods. Therefore, it is also a big statement, from our part, in the context of heritage management. We are saying that these old rundown buildings and a ship are not just some ugly objects, but that they have a value in themselves.
city : rijeka Would this be quite an important leap in terms of urban planning? Yes, in that sense it is also important to know that these buildings are not somewhere on the periphery, but right in the centre of Rijeka. For instance, the Benčić complex, which is a major investment within Rijeka 2020, is only 7 minutes walk from the Korzo, which is the central street of the city. With the development of the Benčić factory we are also trying to widen this central city area and inﬂuence how people understand the western border of the central town and how they move about it. Can you tell me more about your biggest infrastructural investment, the Benčić factory? The former Benčić factory is quite a big infrastructural project. It will function as a new Rijeka cultural district with four large investments. The ﬁrst one is the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Arts. The second is in the former Administrative building of the Sugar factory, which is an old heritage site par excellence and will host the Rijeka City Museum. The third one is the Brick House complex, which will host children’s programs and will function as a place where our youngest can get directly involved in creative processes. The last big investment is the new City Library that will be ﬁnished just after the 2020 programmes ends. You are also putting to use the boat Galeb that used to belong to the famous president of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito.
That is correct. The boat Galeb is also one of our key investments. Being Tito’s boat, Galeb is also a very important historical monument, and a big part of Rijeka 2020 is to present our rich history. Most of the space will be used for a new museum about the boat and historical moments connected to it. It will also have a space for film screenings, theater plays and other events, a hostel and a restaurant. It will be situated in a zone which is part of the „Sweet and Salt“ flagship project, led by Idis Turato. This area in the delta wasn’t really used before by the public, because it used to belong to the harbour. We think it will really be transformed by Galeb and the other interventions. We are pretty sure that urbanistically, what happens in this area will have the biggest impact on the city as a whole. This is a new approach to reinventing the city. The novelty is that we are talking about smaller interventions that activate different people in the city and reinvent the place in smaller steps and with much smaller investments. Rijeka, like many cities in the Balkan region, has encountered several social problems in the transition to the post-industrial economy. These include urban shrinkage, brain drain, unemployment etc. What can the project Rijeka 2020 to tackle such issues? What we can do is to strengthen the proﬁle of Rijeka as a unique cosmopolitan destination on the crossroads of Mediterranean, Balkan and Central Europe, famous for its innovati-
smart : one veness and creativity, openness and tolerance. We can help make Rijeka attractive for its citizens, investments and entrepreneurs, students, professionals, tourists and expose the city on the global map. To be frank, Rijeka is not very well known outside our region. In that sense this is our crucial role to strengthen Rijeka with our cultural programming, our branding, our communication, our marketing and ultimately build an image of Rijeka as an attractive city. What happens in 2021? How are you going to ensure that what has been done during the project will have a long-term effect? The most obvious legacy is, of course, the infrastructure. What is less obvious is the human infrastructure, so the investments that we put directly into the people and into their knowledge. We are also quite proud that we have already engaged many other stakeholders, that weren’t connected to the culture sector before. For instance, some of them saw culture as rather elitist or too conceptual. But we managed to pull them in, such as business community in our PartneRIBusiness Club that brings together local business interested in funding cultural and social projects. We purposefully gave up control of what they do and let them work on their own. Another thing that will stay are the international connections that are being made with artists and culture workers from abroad during the project, which will stay with the culture sector of Rijeka. These would be some examples, but in reality, there are many more.
How are you going to involve the local residents in the project? One of our ﬂagship projects, which is called 27 neighbourhoods, gathers 27 communities from the region of Primorje-Gorski Kotar and is basically a participatory program. In this case we are only helping the communities with their projects and connecting them with 27 communities from across Europe. Of course, it has its framework, but the decision-making process is shared between us and the community. In October we are launching a campaign for the inclusion of citizens in the Rijeka 2020 project in different ways. For instance, we want to organise a council of citizens, but not just as a proforma. We want this council to really be a decision-making body on citizen projects. We have made a small fund and will open a public call which we call Civil initiatives. The aim is to use this for different civil initiatives in the framework of Rijeka 2020. We will also offer to the citizens to get involved as volunteers. But again, not only for doing the most meaningless tasks, but to really get engaged within the organisation. :
“We want this council to really be a decision-making body on citizen projects.”
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Koper & Izola
Marko Starman : Marko Starman LL.M. has been the head of the Office for Spatial and Real Estate affairs at the Municipality of Izola since 2017. He is also a Senior lecturer at the Faculty of European Law and holds a law degree from The Faculty of Law at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He received his Master of Law from administrative and constitutional law at the University of Chicago, USA. Before he worked at the municipality he served as a deputy minister in three different ministries between 2000 and 2009 and later on as the director of the Strunjan national park on the Slovenian coast. As the deputy minister of environmental and territorial planning he was directly in charge of drafting a new law on spatial planning, that was adopted in 2007. As a nature park director, he worked on several EU funded infrastructure, monitoring and research projects. In just a few years he managed to build up a lot of support for the protection of the only marine park in Slovenia.
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From a busy road to a public beach
It is quite a rare occasion that such areas go through a process of renaturalization. What does the project mean for the wider region?
: About Koper and Izola
Is this project a consequence of a change in thought in terms of spatial planning for the region?
Koper and Izola are two neighboring towns on the Adriatic coast of Slovenia. Koper, with a population of 25 000, is the largest city and the most important cultural hub of the Slovenian Istria. The economy of Koper and the surrounding areas is tightly bound to the Port of Koper, which is the only Slovenian port and one of the most important commercial ports in the Adriatic. Izola, located only 6,5 km south of Koper, is slightly smaller and relies heavily on tourism, although fishing is still an integral part of the town dynamics. Both cities have a strong Venetian character, while Koper also served as the capital of the Venetian Istrian. The name Koper actually comes from the Italian name Capodistria which was derived from the original Latin name Caput Histriae, meaning “the head of Istria”.
We are really talking about a conceptual leap here. The whole coast of Slovenia has been understood very industrially for the most part. You can still see that now. Right on the shore we generally have parking lots and industrial objects. Now we‘re trying to move the industry inside and open up the shores to the public. This conceptual leap was the ﬁrst step that allowed everything else to happen.
: The Koper-Izola coastal road The coastal road between Koper Izola used to be, until 2017, the main transit route between the two towns as well as for travelers moving towards the tourist hotspots of Piran and Portorož or to the Sečovlje border crossing to Croatia. Until the construction of a highspeed road and the Markovec tunnel the road was under daily heavy congestion. After the construction of the new road, the coastal road lost its former function and the demands of the local population for its closure could finally be met. The coastal road has been quickly repurposed for sports and recreation as it was turned into separate bike lanes and a walkway. Now the coastal road awaits further development and new uses from the part of the city and its inhabitants. We talked about the project with Marko Starman, who is the current head of the Office for Spatial and Real Estate affairs at the Municipality of Izola.
In the wider context this really is somewhat of a success story. When I told my former colleagues from Italy that we’ve managed to close the coastal road and change its use for recreation, they told me that things like this just don’t happen in highly populated areas of the Mediterranean. They added that right now it is hard to imagine in Europe that you would close a road and turn it back into a beach. In this sense it is a great precedent and can serve as an example for the wider region.
How did the citizens react to the road closure? Here we can’t only talk about the local residents but also about visitors from elsewhere. The reactions were, of course, very positive. With the closure of the road we have given back a great stretch of public land to the people for the purposes of recreation and leisure. I have to say that the area went into full use very quickly. People use it daily for different purposes such as swimming, cycling, walks, playing with children and so on. There is not really that many public areas in our coastal region, so the people are indeed very happy about this change. The area was put to use very quickly after the closure. What has been done in the area so far? Very quickly we established bike lanes, benches and walkways as well as showers and toilettes for the swimmers. At the beginning of the road we built a parking lot for the visitors. In some parts of the area there are also places of easy access to the sea. On the Koper side of the old road they have put up street lights, which we’re following up on our side this year. So far there hasn’t been any real infrastructural projects. We have only established the necessary services that are needed for the primary function of the area, which are recreation and leisure. Have any future plans for the coastal road been agreed upon? So far, the two mayors of Koper (Boris Popovič) and Izola (Igor Kolenc) have passed an agreement to start with the preparation of a regional spatial plan for the area. Therefore, we are in the preparatory stages
city : one where we are evaluating what can be done. We are trying to ﬁgure out how to coordinate the different uses, which is not so simple. Because the area used to be a road we will have to renaturalisze it and maintain the natural processes of the coast, while making it suitable for swimmers. On the other hand, we have to take into account the cultural heritage in this area, such as the Rex shipwreck and the archaeological sites. So, apart from these processes of valorisation, the decisions on what will become of this area will depend on the cooperation of the two municipalities, the ministry and the public. What we know for sure is that the area will remain public and green.
the use of this area very early on. We have already started with workshops, but without paying attention to any of the limitations that might arise during the research phase, as they haven’t yet been established. In this process, some of the local NGOs, such as PiNA, are very important. What we are trying to achieve is that the local residents feel that whatever will be done belongs there and is in accordance with our understanding of space as well as our culture. When the local residents adopt the space, any visitor will also feel at home. So, the input of the local residents will be very, very important. What events and initiatives made the road closure possible?
What is the current timeline for the project? All in all, the procedure is already in motion and we are carrying out the primary studies next year. Therefore, we are counting on the year 2020, when we hope we will already be able to include the general public. However, we will start with different workshops, regarding more individual problems, much earlier. How are the residents going to be included in the decisions regarding the newly acquired public area? When the principal evaluations and parameters will be established and when we get all the professional opinions we will start with workshops to include the residents and visitors in the decision-making process. The idea is that we establish a dialogue about
The main thing was the diversion of the traffic through the newly built Markovec tunnel, which unburdened the road. But even with the diversion the road closure couldn‘t be taken for granted. Frist a large consensus had to be reached in the local community. Then the vignette system had to be changed so that the residents wouldn‘t need a vignette to use the Markovec tunnel. It wasn‘t simple at all. It is really a result of many efforts by the municipalities and other parties in the region. The ﬁrst talks about the closure started all the way back in 2006. In the end it is really this coordinated effort from all parties that brings you to such a result. Now we have a chance to make something really good. This is our responsibility now. The project is part of the EU Strategy for the Adriatic-Ionian Region. How has that helped?
smart : one The whole project of renaturalisation of the degraded coast is one of the priority projects of the EU Strategy for the Adriatic-Ionian Region (EUSAIR). In Slovenia, this macroregional strategy is coordinated by the Public institute for the promotion of entrepreneurship and developmental projects, which is based here in Izola. The institute also promotes this project and its importance in the wider region. The coastal road project has already been approved in the EUSAIR as a pilot project, which can serve as a precedent for the wider region. Being part of EUSAIR mainly allows us to do higher quality studies, but it also adds weight to the project, which makes it easier for us to apply for funding and helps us when we are cooperating with the government. In a way we are very lucky that we were already planning this project right at the start of EUSAIR. And for the future ﬁnancial prospective we are already looking for ﬁnancial opportunities for the ﬁnal realization of the regional plan in making. Hence, what happens there isabout much more than simply giving the road back to the people. It is about setting an example. Yes, that is exactly what we are trying to achieve with this project. We want it to be an example that others can look to and follow. So far, we closed the road, which is a step in the right direction. But now we have to manage the project well and ﬁnish it in a way that will make it an example of good practice. :
city : michalovce
smart : one A BREATH OF FRESH AIR FROM THE EAST? THE CITY OF MICHALOVCE BELIEVES THAT HIGH-QUALITY SERVICES IS THE RIGHT STRATEGY FOR A SMART CITY.
The city of Michalovce wishes to participate actively in the process of smart city creation. What lead you to this action? Smart city is a topic that has been intensively discussed not only in the developed part of Europe but also here in Slovakia, which lead us to try to ﬁnd out as much as possible about this issue and join the processes that may help our city in both the short and long run. These are the main reasons we joined the smart cities club, we want to use the platform to reach our goals. We imagine that it will allow us to gain an insight into the level of our city compared to other cities not only in Slovakia but also Europe, an insight into where we have to pick up the pace and what essential elements must be changed. At the same time, we are sure that also
it. Our seniors have also a number of other beneﬁts, that is for example lower MSW fees, the city’s funding of their lunches, senior cards with which they can get discounted or free tickets to cultural and sport events and public transport discounts. We increase the citizens’ safety by permanent extension of the city’s CCTV, using an alarm receiving center connecting not only objects of organizations within the city’s responsibility but also other contractors, and last but not least, signiﬁcant changes in the traffic infrastructure like roundabouts, speed bumps in collision road sections, lightning of pedestrian crossings and other elements increasing the safety of pedestrians. We are building an extensive geographic information system that includes also the already mentioned CCTV and many other layers in both the
: Interview with Viliam Záhorčák, the mayor of Michalovce we can be an example for some cities. We expect that it will allow us to use modern management processes more extensively with modern technologies on all the management levels including communication with citizens and other institutions, that it will allow us to satisfy their needs in modern and effective ways. Key points in the near future should be the safety of citizens on all the levels including traffic safety where we have already taken many steps, universal care for the elderly where we’ve also accomplished a lot and care for children and the youth. This area, despite all the work done, we see as with the biggest room for further dynamic growth.
authorized and unauthorized zone that help optimize the processes and selection decisions.
You mentioned the essential topics – safety, focus on children and the elderly. I am sure you didn’t choose the topics by chance. What do you want to focus on in particular?
When it comes to both our senior citizens and safety, we need to go further. Abroad, I had a chance to see what we could implement in Michalovce as long as we have enough ﬁnancial sources. There are so many options concerning modern ways of communication with seniors, increasing their safety, other changes in static and dynamic traffic, modern buses in city public transport, intelligent parking systems, intelligent intersections and pedestrian crossings and much more. The key part is to create strategies and projects – in practice, money is always found, sooner or later. In the beginning, we have to start with our own resources and gradually involve grant resources.
We have made a great progress with senior citizens. We have built an elderly care home where we implement some of the systems that make lives of clients and employees of the institution easier and we prepare many other measures. The same can be said about our nine day-care centers for the elderly and about the care services we provide to everybody who asks for
Even though we have done so much for our children, namely in schools and pre-school facilities, and even though we have done relatively a lot in housing estates, I still feel like we owe so much to our children. Therefore, we’d like to pay attention to this speciﬁc topic in the near future. More modern and safe playgrounds and sports venues in housing estates, a skatepark or
city : michalovce a central place with attractions for children in particular are one of greatest challenges we will have to face in the near future. Do you also know what locations you’d like to focus on? For a city playground that will represent a central, city, public, safe and inclusive place, we think that Na Hrádku is the most suitable location, assuming we will get the state-owned lands for this purpose. At the same time, we want to focus on revitalization of this area, namely the amphitheater that is not used and falls into disrepair, and gradually also on revitalization of all the other places associated with children so that the places become pleasant and safe. We want to do all of this in a coherent and conceptual way. So, will you also focus on housing estates? After all, the highest number of citizens and children lives in housing estates. Yes. We see housing estate localities as one of the most important ones. We already implement a lot from what needs to be done in the future. For a part of Sídlisko západ area, we got funding from European funds but we can’t use them yet, unfortunately, because of obstacles caused by an intermediary authority, that is the Košice Self-Governing Region. However, we believe that this will change after municipal elections. We want to apply the way we will reconstruct and change the mentioned Sídlisko západ to other parts of our housing estates and other public city areas. An example for us is the town of Senica that allocates a part of the town budget every year for revitalization of playgrounds and sports venues. Today, Senica is evaluated as a town with the safest and best maintained playgrounds. We like their effort and this is how we imagine our future. We will deﬁnitely try to use European resources primarily, but we don’t want to rely on those only. It is our children, which is why we are going to use also our money – from our budget. We believe that in the future, also members of the City Council will support us. We want to be a modern city our children and young people will build a relationship with and will want to live and work in. An important part of increasing safety of children in cities is increasing safety of traffic in cities. Do you know how you will deal with this problem? As I said, traffic safety in cities has been one of our priorities for a long time. We have done a lot in this area. There are nine roundabouts in the city and we are going to build more of them in localities where it is technically possible. On intersections where this reconstruction can’t be made, we want to use features of modern and smart light-signaling devices
or other modern and safe solutions. Apart from the intersections, we will also have to deal with pedestrian crossings to make them safe and apply modern and safety features and smart technologies to organize parking of motor vehicles in the city. In terms of increasing safety, safety of pedestrians in particular, all the public places are important. This is where most people are, all the age classes. Do you have an idea about how you will make changes in this area? Yes, we have an idea. So far, public places are “dominated” by cars, which is a problem we want to deal with in the future, too. We have a nice square that we want to improve and make more “inhabitable”. Also when it comes to public places, we’d like to work in a conceptual way. We have an overview of the places and we need to set our priorities and the process of their transformation in collaboration with an expert. This aspect has several options and much will depend on the money we will want to invest in it or the money we will be able to get from external resources. Either way, we will start working on the strategy of public places creation as soon as possible. We have gathered a lot of inspiration, now it is time for implementation. We will ask our citizens, too – we have to build on their experience.
smart : one We haven’t mentioned cycle traffic within and out of the city and public transport. It is important because the city of Michalovce and Zemplínska šírava reservoir are seen as signiﬁcant tourist localities. It is a shame that Šírava reservoir is only a summer tourist destination, even though it changes slowly, also due to the existence of Šírava Thermalpark. Therefore, it is important for Michalovce and its surroundings that all those people who commute to work and also visitors of our city experience adequate traffic comfort and guaranteed safety. Since a signiﬁcant part of the region is something like a peri-urban area in the summer, this issue needs to be paid more attention to. Smart systems in the organization and management of public and local transport are already considered to be necessary, which is in full applied also to transport vehicles operating this type of traffic including their interior equipment with features enabling comfort and safety also for people with disabilities. Apart from the integrated transport terminal with already constructed foundations, our network of bus stops and waiting rooms should also be completed and rebuilt. The greatest attention must be paid to the organization of city public transport in accordance with the modernized railway transport, organization of taxi services and developing cycle traffic that we see as another of great challenges for both the near and distant future.
In this area, we have to keep building city bicycle paths using the possibilities of already existing communications and building new sections that would allow their connection to regional bicycle paths that may emerge in the future around Zemplinská šírava reservoir. In this area, we will also be able to use modern smart features preventing collisions with pedestrians and cars in particular in sections where their routes cross – if they have to cross. Besides building bicycle paths, we also have to keep in mind to create conditions for bike sharing that is also a big thing in the developed world. You decided to follow the path of building a smart city. What is your vision and what can your citizens expect from this decision? How are you going to involve them? Smart city is a city of future. A city that is safe and comfortable for all its citizens, a city where you can get all the information you need on time, easily and pretty much everywhere. A city that can provide reliable services but also entertainment and relax, a city that welcomes its visitors and also a city that, if the weather is bad, can offer alternative activities for the visitors of Zemplínská šírava reservoir in a simple, transparent and safe way. :
city : governance
Smart governa THE TERM SMART GOVERNANCE CAN BE INTERPRETED AS AN EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF THE CITY. THESE ARE INTERNAL PROCESSES (EVIDENCE OF STATEMENTS
Digital platforms have a signiﬁcant impact on the timely and cost-effective management of the municipality and the city, enabling a wide range of contributors to be involved, as well as presenting seemingly unrelated data on a single map base. The following list presents key areas and provides examples of already-functioning tools.
AND EXPRESSIONS, COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION BETWEEN POLITICIANS, CITY DEPARTMENTS AND CITY COMPANIES), AS WELL AS EXTERNAL PROCESSES (I.E. COMMUNICATION WITH CITIZENS, COLLECTION OF IMPETUS AND MANAGEMENT). THESE PROCESSES CAN BE SUPPORTED BY TECHNOLOGICAL DIGITAL TOOLS THAT ALSO USE DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES OR SCAN THE IMPACTS OF POLITICAL DECISIONS AND MEDIA IMPACTS.
: Internal processes of city administration Digital Agenda #governance / City: Wien
Every modern mayor should have an electronic bulletin board, a so-called dashboard, to show the current state of the city and its trends. This bulletin summarizes all the city‘s agendas and serves for effective decision-making by politicians or officials. The market delivers it in many forms, such as information, map, data or control platforms.
Digital identity : Mobile ID #governance / Cities: Barcelona, Manresa
IN SIMPLE TERMS, THESE ARE TOOLS THAT ALLOW YOU TO INTERPRET DIFFERENT DATA INTO CLEAR GRAPHS AND EVALUATIONS THAT LEAD TO SPECIFIC ACTIONS BY POLITICIANS AND LEADERS.
The innovative Mobile Identification System (MobilID) is a new way for the citizen to access the necessary services within the city office from his mobile device. One-click service is supported by a secure mobile phone register, so this system allows citizens to sign in to access services using their mobile phones. It connects national authorities with electronic services, electronic submission and e-govern-
smart : one
ance tools ment.Digital identity also allows secure digital signing of documents using a mobile phone, access to a confidential digital user profile, or, for example, paying municipal fees or fines. http://www.mobileid.cat/en/
Open budget #governance / Cities: Kiev
As part of the city‘s Smart City project, the Open Budget project was launched. More than 2,000 citizens visit the „Open Budget“ project page daily. Kiev is the ﬁrst city in Ukraine to fully implement this program, which aims to ensure absolute transparency and free public access to information on the state of the city budget. The system automatically collects, downloads, and processes all the indicators in one environment. In particular, the ﬂow of data exchange between the local government and the state treasury is automated. https://kyivcity.gov.ua/
Digital asset management : SYMAP #management / Regions: Pardubický, Jihomoravský
SYMAP Ownership and Property is an online application that provides you with a current status report on ownership of land under roads and utility networks. It serves as a settlement tool for property-law relations. Updated data from the Land Register can be seen on the map andprovide clear data export of parcels and owners of their choice,helps calculate settlement costs and identiﬁes problematic asset locations.It can display the results of visual diagnostics of roads and other passports of roads and bridges. www.symap.cz
: External processes of city administration
Digital Passport (or Mobile 3D) : GisOnline #governance / Cities: Hodonice, Tasovice, Suchohrdly
GisOnline is a web map application that allows you to quickly work with a wealth of geographic data, including the current 12.5 cm resolution CR orthophotomap and a regularly updated land registry database. Data layers can be edited by users directly in the application over the Internet. A typical example is passport management. Data is edited directly via the GisOnline server, and changes in geometry and attributes are dynamically updated to all users. The Add-on module extends the capture and management of full-3D digitization data from panoramic images of mobile mapping. Tools allow both data digitization and object surveying. Intuitive tools make it easy for non proffessionals to work. www.Gisonline.cz
Digital Reporting Problems : Tell it to the mayor #citizen / Cities: Banská Bystrica, Bratislava, Košice and others
The portal is a project of a nonproﬁt NGO of the Institute for Well-Managed Society. It has the ambition to contribute to the improvement of local self-government and a more positive perception by citizens, thanks to enhanced communication from both sides.The platform offers room for reporting problems in the city and surroundings. Intentions are always discussed with the self-government, and their solution is under the common scrutiny of the public. Since launching the portal in 2010, more than 23,950 complaints have been resolved. http://Odkazprestarostu.sk
city : governance
Digital public participation : Maptionnaire #citizen / Cities: Stockholm, Lahti, Helsinki and others
Maptionnaire is the Finnish platform for public participation; an interactive map that answers questions where people are happy, where they feel relaxed, nervous, etc., and makes planning more effective. The earlier people are involved in the decision-making process, the less they oppose „top-down plans“. Maptionnaire works in the cloud so there is no need to install any application. People can easily create questionnaires, software collects and analyzes data, allows users to track the questions of other users who are collaborating and discussing on the map. Saving past discussions about speciﬁc locations is another useful feature of the software. Involving a large number of people in the organization in this way is cost-effective. https://maptionnaire.com/
smart governance. Mobile radio combines a cloud control panel without the need to install it on PC, tablet and mobile access, a clever database of contacts, and individual telecommunication channels with the ability to reach out to citizens directly. In addition, it is integrated into the nationwide application „We Improve Czech Republic“, which serves for simple sending of warnings or complaints to government, and is not dependent on the necessity to live in the village - it can also be used by tourists or weekenders. At present, Mobile Radio uses 450 cities and municipalities, with more than 250,000 citizens registered, with a monthly increase of about 10%.
Volunteering : Je m’engage #citizen / City: Paris
The Paris City Hall, in cooperation with Hachtiv, has developed an interactive map that allows every citizen to join a local association or non-profit organization. The principle is simple. Many associations work in all possible fields (cultural, educational ...) and need volunteers to help them in all kinds of missions of general interest (tutoring, organization, support ...). So, thanks to this service, every citizen can participate in the life of his/her city and its district by choosing volunteer activity for the benefit of the city, according to geolocation and interest. Both adults and students can register on the platform. You can search for pages from your computer, tablet, or smartphone. https://jemengage.paris.fr/
: Data-driven city administration Data platforms, open data, open access : London Datastore #technology / City: Londýn
Digital communication : Mobile radio #citizen / Cities: Zábřeh, Duchcov
Together with the initiativeImprove Czech Republic, we create an ecosystem of technologically advanced tools designed for effective municipal management, crisis communication and
The London Datastore Platform is the Greater London Authority (GLA) initiative that communicates almost all the data it produces. This is a free, open data sharing portal where everyone has access to the data about the capital. The site provides more than 700 datasets on a variety of topics, such as reports on the
smart : one
state of the city‘s environment, citizens‘ health or crime, in one place, and always in the same format. The goal of the platform is to enable a regular citizen, entrepreneur, researcher or developer to ﬁnd such city data to help them understand London. https://data.london.gov.uk/
Helsinki Region Infoshare #technology / Cities: Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa a Kauniainen
HRI is a web service for fast and easy access to open data resources between the Finnish cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen. The published data are predominantly statistical, providing a comprehensive and diverse view of various urban phenomena such as living conditions, economy and welfare, employment and transport. The bulk of the data material offered by the service is also displayed within GIS.
tion of remote devices, to inform the city on-line, to provide visualization of default data in the form of clear statistics and reports. At the same time, citizens have access to transport and parking, and have the opportunity to take part in decision-making. http://invipo.com/cs/
Citymatica #technology / City: Sandona
Citymatica is an Israeli platform that provides communities and governments with easy-to-use tools for the comprehensive management of all aspects of urban life. Citymatica enables public administration to create a common communication environment with citizens to understand their personal ideas and needs. One of the key features of the platform is city management, the ability to easily run targeted surveys on topics related to urban life, using interactive analytics and statistics, the ability to build communication campaigns through all available channels (push messages, SMS, e-mail) and many more. https://citymatica.com/
Digital standards : CitySDK Tourism API Data can be used in research and development, decision making, visualization, data journaling, and application development. Data can be used by citizens, businesses, universities, academia, research facilities, or municipal government. The data provided are ready for free use and have no limitations to visit the platform. https://hri.ﬁ/en_gb/
Digital management and decision making : Invipo #technology / Cities: Izmir, Legnica, Sibiu, Zlin
Flexible and open platform of the Czech company Incinity for integration and interoperability in smart cities regardless on how big a city is. Invipo connects data from different systems into a single unit and provides clear output tracking and effi cient control. It can evaluate them and simply display reports on one area of the city in the dispatch center. At city level, it can use smart scenarios to directly inﬂuence the opera-
#technology / Cities: Lisbon, Amsterdam, Lamia
CitySDK is an API for Access to Open Data that is provided by local municipalities in the areas of tourism, as well as participation and mobility. Tourism API can provide information about interesting places in the city, descriptions of future and past events, routes, for example, for planning of thematic walks, and other activities. By helping to design a single API and data representation, the CitySDK API creates the conditions for creating a single global application market. An application that was written to use the CitySDK Tourism API will be portable in all cities that provide this interface for their data. http://tourism.citysdk.eu/ :
# Julie Ostrenko, David Bárta
city : governance
Project Triangulum Prague 7 is inspired by senior care technologies SMART CITY USES MODERN TECHNOLOGIES AND PRACTICES AS A TOOL TO IMPROVE CITIZENSâ€™ QUALITY OF LIFE AND THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE CITY. ONE OF THE CHALLENGES FACED BY CITIES THAT CAN BE HANDLED WITH THE USE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY IS POPULATION AGEING. INCREASING NUMBERS OF SENIORS AND SICK PEOPLE ARE FORCED TO LEAVE THEIR HOME ENVIRONMENT TO RECEIVE HEALTH OR SOCIAL SUPPORT IN DIFFERENT CARE FACILITIES. THIS NOT ONLY LEADS TO AN INCREASE IN PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON CARE, BUT ABOVE ALL, IT IS A DIFFICULT SITUATION FOR SENIORS AND THEIR FAMILIES. HOWEVER, THIS IS NOT NECESSARY. MODERN TECHNOLOGY CAN SERVE AS A HELPER TO PROMOTE SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND INDEPENDENT LIVING FOR OLDER PEOPLE BY ENABLING THEM TO STAY AS LONG AS POSSIBLE IN A SAFE HOME ENVIRONMENT. THE TOPIC OF CARE FOR THE ELDERLY IN THE DIGITAL AGE WAS DEALT WITH BY THE INTERNATIONAL TRIANGULUM PROJECT, IN WHICH THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF PRAGUE 7 WAS INVOLVED AS A PILOT PARTICIPANT.
smart : one
source : lyse
: International inspiration, local innovation
: A wide range of technologies for seniors
The Triangulum project is funded under the European Horizon 2020 programme and focuses on innovation in the Smart Cities ﬁeld, particularly in the areas of ICT, mobility and energy. The intention is to promote the spread of innovation and good practice through “Lighthouse Cities” represented, for example, by Norwegian Stavanger, which demonstrate particular solutions and serve as inspiration and support for “Follower Cities”. Prague is in the position of a Follower City in the project and is represented by Prague Institute of Planning and Development (IPR Prague). IPR Prague faced the question of how foreign innovations can be applied in the Prague municipal district. It was necessary to focus not only on the technical proposal but also on the involvement of those for whom the solutions are intended. In addition to IPR Prague and the Municipal District of Prague 7, the project was joined by the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings of the Czech Technical University in Prague (UCEEB), a sustainable development research centre that designed the solutions to meet the needs of local actors situated in Prague 7.
The Strategic Plan of the Prague City as well as that of the Municipal District of Prague 7 mentions population ageing and the associated increasing pressure on services as one of the biggest challenges for the future. As studies show, institutional care is expensive and more costly than home care. Moreover, the data, conﬁrmed by interviews with seniors in Prague 7, show that people want to stay in their home environment as long as possible. Hence the question is: How can we help seniors to continue to live at home in a situation when their health deteriorates? With the support of modern assistive technologies, the use of intelligent housing elements, telemedicine services, or various video communication tools, this can be much easier. Telemedicine devices (such as watches, electronic scales) allow us to monitor and evaluate health data over the long term. Emergency care units, such as a smart bracelet or a mobile phone, give us a chance to intervene quickly in potentially life-threatening situations and, with the help of GPS localization, search for a senior when he
city : governance or she falls or pushes the SOS button. Smart housing solutions can help with household control (e.g. opening windows) for less mobile seniors or with assessing crisis situations.This can be, for example, a situation when water has been running or the lights have been on for a long time. In such cases, the information is sent to a contact person who checks whether the senior has not fallen or suffered another accident. Video calls with close relations, on the other hand, can help alleviate feelings of loneliness and isolation in less mobile seniors.
: Which technology is most useful for seniors? Let’s ask them! There are many possibilities for using technologies, but not all of them are ﬁnancially or organizationally feasible from the point of view of the city. The degree of applicability of the different solutions was crucial in the project; therefore a large number of groups were gradually consulted. One of the reasons was to make sure that the design of technology options for Prague 7 responds to the real needs of seniors living there, their families and other actors. Experts from UCEEB conducted a comprehensive analysis of the needs, attitudes and capacity of those involved in senior care. Seniors, their families, informal carers, state and non-state health and social care providers, doctors, businesses, experts and employees of the Municipal District of Prague 7 took part in the participatory design method. The initial solution design was veriﬁed by a workshop with experts, representatives of the municipal district, businesses and care providers, and interviews with seniors and their families. The purpose of the entire participatory phase is to develop a solution in cooperation with those for whom it is intended.
: Digital marketplace as a tool for ordering both services and video calls The ﬁnal proposal includes speciﬁc measures in ﬁ ve areas – a tool for service integration, Service Marketplace, Assisted Living services, Smart Household and Electromobility. The measures together form one interconnected whole, but they can also be implemented in a step-by-step manner. We can use the Digital Marketplace as an example, as it aims to integrate and present in a single place a comprehensive range of services designed (not only) for seniors. It is a combination of an information portal, an e-shop with the possibility to search for and request online services, and a portal for service eva-
luation. The marketplace responds to the problem many seniors and their families are faced with – the system of health care and social services is rather complex and it is not clear what services are available for this group, for what price, and how to order them. In addition to the services, it also contains information on leisure activities, current local information, or the possibility of linking seniors with local volunteers.It will also include a video communication tool that could be used to communicate with caregivers, families, volunteers or acquaintances, or allow online participation in discussion seminars and lectures. The service marketplace responds to the needs of seniors regarding the availability of information and the possibility of direct contact with various providers, spending leisure time or communicating with friends.
: And what’s next? Continue with pilot projects The analysis and design of the solution means one part of the project is completed, but the potential of using technologies in the care for the elderly in Prague 7 is still waiting to be exploited. The study was adopted by the Council of the Municipal District of Prague 7 in June 2018, and now the municipal authority is looking for ways to gradually implement the measures. The ﬁrst option is a pilot project with the Norwegian town of Stavanger and the municipal company LYSE that is willing to share the video solution it has developed. In addition, the city is negotiating with ICT Operátor, a municipal company that is in charge of developing smart city solutions in Prague and that is currently working on a project to improve information sharing among those involved in the system of care. Last but not least, there is again the opportunity to apply for participation in the European Horizon 2020 projects focused on the actual implementation. The gradual implementation of the solution has the potential to make social care more effective, to improve the quality of life of seniors and at the same time offers Prague 7 the opportunity to become an example and source of experience for other municipalities and municipal districts. Tomáš Lapáček, head of Strategy and Policy section at Institute for urban planning, IPR Praha: “International inspiration between cities in the Smart Cities domain has proved to be a good way to establish cooperation with scientiﬁc institutions, foreign partners and providers of speciﬁc solutions, and it will be very interesting to see what it will bring in the future.” # TRIANGULUM : UCEEB, IPR PRAHA, PRAHA 7
smart : one
city : governance
Smart Cities Need Smart Security THE SMART CITY IS SPARKING THE IMAGINATION OF PLANNERS, DEVELOPERS, GOVERNMENTS, BUSINESSES AND CITIZENS ALL OVER THE WORLD. SMART CITIES COMBINE PERVASIVE WEB CONNECTIVITY, SMART IOT DEVICES, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING. THEY COLLECT AND ANALYZE, IN REAL-TIME, MULTIPLE FORMS OF DATA IN ORDER TO CREATE AN INTERCONNECTED FABRIC OF DEVICES THAT DRIVE EFFICIENCIES ACROSS SERVICES CRITICAL TO THE CITY’S INFRASTRUCTURE SUCH AS UTILITIES, TRANSPORT, HEALTHCARE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES.
We’ve already seen smart cities improving citizens’ lives while realizing efficiencies and cost savings. Among the Czech smart cities we can name, for example, Kolín, who was voted the smartest city in the Smart City Hall competition organized by the Government Office. Smart regulation systems have helped the city of Songdo, South Korea, reduce water and energy usage to levels 30% below cities of similar sizes. Barcelona claims that IoT technology has helped it save $35 million annually on water. In addition to that, other potential examples of smart city applications include:
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Intelligenttraffic management systems, which regulate traffic ﬂows according to real-time volumes and incidents; Sensors that can manage energy usage to reduce consumption; Water pipes with sensors which can regulate ﬂow and instantly alert maintenance engineers to leaks; Health centers that incorporate IoT powered services like intelligent medication dispensers.
smart : one It’s no wonder that Gartner estimates that 2.3 billion connected things will be used in smart cities this year. Cyber criminals know that the infrastructure underpinning smart cities can be very vulnerable, due to a combination of software and devices that are not security-hardened. Whether it’s by hacking into systems – perhaps exploiting weak passwords or a similar vulnerability – or by using malware to infect networks and gain remote access to, and control over systems, smart cities are ripe for cyber-attacks. For example, last year, hackers were able to inﬁltrate the Bowman Avenue Dam in Rye Brook, New York, enabling them to manipulate the dam’s controls, causing a threat to ﬂood hundreds of homes in the area. Transportation systems are also vulnerable. In September 2016, networks used by the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA) had been infected with ransomware. The malware caused the barriers to open, giving free rides to passengers, while generating a lot of goodwill, it spurred substantial ﬁnancial losses for the city. In 2016, road sensors in Moscow were targeted with a Bluetooth-enabled device, enabling a security researcher to hack into roadside sensors, siphon data from the sensors and modify the data to manipulate traffic signals. Even then, it’s not always about money. Some cyber criminals are just digital vandals, causing disruption for disruption’s sake. Just a few months ago, the Dallas city warning system was hacked. All 156 emergency sirens started blaring, waking citizens up and overwhelming 911 operators. This sort of attack isn’t just a nuisance – it can genuinely endanger lives by scrambling emergency services and taking up unnecessary resources.
security. So if a device cannot be uniquely identiﬁed, it can be easily ‘spoofed’ and imitated, enabling an attacker to penetrate the network. Having strong device authentication mitigates this risk, and helps ensure data integrity and effective threat prevention. Network segmentation enhances IoT security by mitigating the risk of one part of the network having the ability to inﬂuence other parts of the network. It quarantines potential threats, limiting their ability to propagate laterally across a wider infrastructure. With proper network segmentation, a threat which inﬁltrates a smart city’s CCTV systems, for example, would not be able to spread to, say, the city’s traffic management systems. It makes handling of any breaches or security incidents more manageable, as the affected network segment is isolated from its neighbors. Threat prevention means blocking any attack before it enters the network rather than mitigating the risk after an attack was discovered. It provides business continuity — crucial for the daily operation of a smart city. Encrypting data communications and ﬂows across the smart city infrastructure helps to eliminate potential attacks like man in the middle attacks, where the integrity and validity of the information provided to and from devices on the network is compromised. Hacker and cyber criminals never sleep and will look to exploit any vulnerability they can ﬁnd in emerging systems. As cities get smarter, those interconnected networks and devices need security built in from the start, not as an afterthought – to protect both the cities and their citizens. : #Miloslav Lujka, Channel Team Leader : Check Point Software Technologies
: Securing the smart cities In this dynamic and complex risk landscape, cyber security and data protection needs to be central to smart cities’ strategies from day one. It is standard practice for urban planners to physically protect and control critical infrastructure – the same level of robust protection also needs to be applied to the digital infrastructure. Digital protection for the smart city would be built around four key principles: device discovery and access management, intelligent network segmentation, threat prevention, and data integrity. Device discovery and access management gives the ability to uniquely identify and strongly authenticate an IoT device on the network. One of the security weaknesses inherent in IoT devices is that they usually have minimal, if any, built-in
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Craft is in! Try manual work in a shared workshop TOGETHER WITH THE SURPLUS OF POOR-QUALITY PRODUCTS FROM CHINA, THERE IS A TREND OF RETURN TO CRAFT SKILLS. PEOPLE IN CITIES SLOWLY COME TO THE TASTE OF MATERIAL CONTACT. THE SCULPTURE RETURNS TO THE SCENE, FROWNED BY A MOMENT OF ENTHUSIASM FROM THE AVAILABILITY OF „WESTERN“ GOODS. CITY MAN TODAY HAS THE DESIRE TO REPAIR THE CHAIR WITH HIS OWN HANDS, TO WEAR AN ORIGINAL SHIRT, OR TO TRY OUT NEW TECHNOLOGIES. SHARED WORKSHOPS OF DIFFERENT TYPES ARE CREATED THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY.
Shared workshop or „makers place“ is a space equipped with different types of tools, depending on what the workshop is doing: technology, electrical, sewing, carpentry... Membership pays a hundred Czech crowns per hour (4 Euro/h), usually the more hours you prepay the less the cost per hour is. Shared workshops also include speciﬁc workshops: furniture repairs, upholstery, basic workﬂows, and so on. Everywhere you will receive trained staff if you are interested in learning something new. Shared workshops work on a simple idea: not to own the tools you need a few days a year when you can borrow it - and get to know other people with similar interests. Aside from a practical point of view, shared workshops also fulﬁl the community mission.
In Prague, half a year ago, the FutLab technological workshop opened its premises with automatic machines including a 3D printer, the ﬁrst workshop of its kind in our country. It is also the most versatile for both equipment and services. The sympathetic enterprise with motto „space for all enthusiasts in modern technologies, DIY, designers, bastllers, students and professionals“ is doing well. „There are diverse people, beginners and more experienced doctors. We have a large base of IT specialists, but also artists, engineers, printers, robotics specialists, or entrepreneurs and freelancers from different disciplines,“ says founder Daniel Gottwald. Thanks to the concept of a shared workshop, expensive machines can be used by people who can develop their talent and craft skills here.
: Daniel Gottwald: From Screwdriver to Sophisticated Software
„We opened the workshop because there was no such thing in Prague. The FutLab project makes sense to us, ﬁlls us and we have fun. We must discover and create a lot of things. On the one hand, it is difficult, and we often must show people why they should actually want to use such a workshop, on the other hand we are constantly facing new challenges,“ says Daniel Gottwald. The primary goal
Photo: Jana Němcová/Došito
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is to offer a workshop where almost anything can be produced. There are both modern and traditional technologies, the technology makers and the training centre of technology and companies can order production of prototypes, industrial parts or special parts that would otherwise be very expensive. Membership is paid for the number of visits, open every working day from 14.00 to 20.00, and every month there are four trainings for the public. In addition to the technology workshop where the 3D printer is available, there are several others: an electrode with a number of soldering stations, a sewing machine with a digital machine and a leather machine, a mechanical workshop with various types of drills and screwdrivers, a laser or a design workshop with a plotter and a projection screen. A sawmill with saws, grinders and milling machines and a wood working machine are the plan for the near future. „Workshop equipment is probably an endless process and I‘m not sure if I ever say that the workshop is already fully equipped. There are constantly new machines or technologies that I would like to have in the workshop and offer them either for members or custom-made. The basic equipment we put together in the ﬁrst months was funded with our own resources. We have a company that offers marketing, website creation and related activities. We have no rich sponsor, nor do we draw subsidies,“ explains Daniel. The whole concept of FutLab is based on community principles such as DIY, open source, CC (creative commons) and mutual transfer of knowledge and experience. In FutLab, one can print, engrave and laser cut, plastics, replicas, prototypes and various sculptures or props. „We are delighted that people are interested in the workshop and the activities we offer. We like the interest of diverse societies, such as modelers or artists. Someone prints various accessories to the apartment, another carves wooden inscriptions for their brand. One member here produces a printer cover, and another one makes a synthesizer here. We are fulﬁlling our dream,“ says Daniel. Equipment Finance: Own Resources (Entrepreneurship)
: Veronika Hradová: Classic Craftsmanship in Brno The public handicraft workshop or Hobbylab DIY in Brno has been in operation for two years. The head and heart of the project is Veronika Hradová. In its „workshop“ it offers the possibility of hand-made production of wood or metal and it is also properly equipped with tools for joinery, locksmithing and blacksmithing. Workshop equipment includes various types of saws and lathes, table drills, formatting saws, grinding and thickening milling machines, mortising machines and others. Among the workshops offered, you can ﬁnd a course of carving, a wood turning course or a knife forging. „It‘s not like we bought machines and people just walk here. There is a need for constant maintenance, cleaning of machines, tools and premises, purchasing materials for courses, just supplying the workshop. And like many non-proﬁt projects, we are on the edge of ﬁnance, so we do the special orders work,“ says Veronika Hradová. „People really have an interest in the workshop and that‘s what we are looking forward to, but it means more work and the associated human resources, the workshop supervisors are volunteers. We are also limiting our premises - we are in a rental relationship. However, when we talk about public craft workshops, we hear only enthusiastic responses. In two years of operation we have not heard a single negative opinion,“ says Veronika. Like Daniel Gottwald, he notes that various visitors come to the workshop with a rather younger age. „We thought that people who were over ﬁfty years of age who could work with wood or metal would come to us. But it turned out that older people do not understand why they have to pay for a workshop when they have tools at home. These are people around the age of thirty who work at the computer who are interested in crafting,“ says Veronika. In addition, the workshop opens three times a day for children from the age of eight, who want to get acquainted with the basic joiner‘s procedures.
citizen : one One-time entry to the workshop will cost you around a hundred crowns per hour (4 Euro/h) when you buy a credit of 1000 crowns or more, the hour comes out in half or less. There is always a trained supervisor in the workshop who will advise you on the operation of the machines, otherwise you will go alone. When making larger pieces (furniture), they will take you home from the workshop. „People most often make furniture, wooden bowls or hobbies, as components for hookahs, houses and scratches for pets, etc. The most common furniture for renovation is classic chairs,“ says Veronika.
old furniture, which is no longer owned by its owners, but the girls like to take it. Most often they are chairs, armchairs and tables. The idea behind the furniture workshop is: „More and more people are aware of our activity, which is about sharing, treating and recycling the old things in the neighbourhood, and supporting us in our activities, perhaps by giving us furniture. We are glad to show people that discarding should be the last option that we can inspire them and show more alternatives to a responsible approach to dealing with a speciﬁc type of waste,“ explains Barbora.
Equipment Finance: grant from the CEZ Foundation, crowdfunding campaign, subsidies from the South Moravian Region and the City of Brno
Equipment Finance: crowdfunding campaign
: Barbora Kocandová: Do not throw, repair, recycle The non-proﬁt organization Z pokoje do pokoje was created mainly as a place where old furniture comes to life under the hands of skilled people. Fixing for a long time was not a custom in the consumer society, rather a new piece was bought. But it is slowly changing. In addition, the NGO girls say that repairing furniture is not hard at all - they themselves prove it. „Our primary idea was not to repair the furniture at all. We wanted to be just intermediaries in the circle of things - what we get, we‘ll send it on. Finally, however, it turned out that some things deserve our attention, so we teamed up with the joiner who became our mentor. Step by step we learned the basics as well as more advanced things,“ explains Barbora Kocandova. The workshop they have available for their needs can also be used for DIY needs. Their motto is: Three girls who love old furniture and are afraid to take the grinder in their hand. „For us as three girls, the physical burden is also the most difficult, and we are not sure by some technological procedures, we are still learning about the existence of different types of tools and their use. We are not afraid of the grinders, but we do not have all the manual workmanship,“ laughs Barbora.
Photo: Vasso Novák
: Jana Němcová: Motivate design for handicraft work
In addition to the grinder in the workshop you will ﬁnd various types of saws, drills, grinders and milling machines. The price is 150 crowns per hour (6 Euro/h), or a preferential membership for a higher contribution. „We organized a crowdfunding campaign for the workshop equipment that we succeeded in. The people supported our idea, we have gained enough money and could begin to purchase the equipment. The campaign to prepare the workshop took us three months,“ recalls Barbora.
At the Petřiny residential area in Prague, Došito (Sew it) has its sewing workshop. Jana Němcová is a designer who makes original cuts available at workshops and teaches them to the public. „We like to spread the idea of sewing, slow fashion and keeping the tailor‘s craft. To make something for yourself and not buy it so much, and not depend on the clothing that is going to be offered,“ explains Jana‘s motivation.
Because the prime plays the furniture, the girls are renting pieces of furniture for the celebration. Every month there is a collection of
Several sewing machines are available, courses and workshops are organized in the workshop. Like in the Z pokoje
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Photo: Brno šije
do pokoje, they like to use old things to make new pieces: a four-hour snooze course really takes four hours, and you think you‘ll take one to two new things. Similarly, the workshop itself has started to exist: „The equipment we supplied from our own supplies, our own sewing machines, some even after our mothers and grandmothers, served us well in the beginning. And maybe our high „cutting“ table is made up of originally scaffolding construction, which we painted and furnished with boards. So, we have used the material that is no longer needed,“ says Jana.
The price for individual courses varies with time and focus. A four-hour re-use sewing course costs 1000 CZK (40 Euros), the course is also open to mothers with children. Free loose dresses designed by former lecturer Veronika Bijoková can be stitched in three lessons for which you will pay 2700 CZK (110 Euro). The offer also includes lingerie, and less reputable pillows or handbags are prepared. „The hardest part is that when you run a workshop, you do not have much time to sew it yourself,“ laughs Jana. „But it is amazing when people from different ﬁelds of different ages come together. On some courses we also had men‘s participation. I have a great feeling when I see the joy of a new hand-drawn model or when students send us photos of their creations,“ Jana concludes.
: Passion for recycling, upcycling and materials Brno šije (Brno sews) is the name of the shared sewing shop in Veveří. It was founded by FAVU classmates (Faculty of architecture) because they lacked a similar business in Brno. „We founded the workshop four years ago, the ﬁrst of its kind in the South Moravian Region. We have responded to overconsumption, which is deeply rooted throughout the Western world. People, however, long for true values, such as the ability to wear quality things to which they will have a personal relationship. We are gradually building a large sewing community in Brno and its surroundings,“ Svetlana says. The creative space of Brno is inviting coffee lovers of sewing and so-called slow fashion, a sustainable, quality fashion that does not burden the environment, nor does it impose inhuman demands on those who make it. Both founders had experience with sewing, both from home and later studies. The workshop was redeemed thanks to the crowdfunding campaign, and they are gradually retroﬁtting it. There are ten home sewing machines and ﬁve overlocks of different brands available today. The new machines are industrial machines, which the company Garudan from Boskovice loaned to workshop free of charge. „This year we would like to get support for the sewing workshop so that it can be open to the citizens of Brno daily and free of charge,“ plans Beata. You can use one of their sewing machines here for 50 crowns per hour (2Euro/h). For those who want to improve their sewing or to learn new techniques, sewing courses are prepared. The opening of a new textile branch at the Secondary School of Art and Design in Brno, Ekotextil design, in which they participated, is a great success. But of course, the biggest pitfalls in the sewing workshop are to cope with our families and another job, it is a true chore. Svetlana taught at the Secondary School of Art and Design, where she founded Ekotextil design. It originated from scratch just on the principle of sustainable fashion, everything organically grew hand in hand with the Brno šije project,“ explains Beata. Nevertheless, the workshop is entertaining. Not only because it promotes the idea of sustainable fashion and craftsmanship. „We are delighted to meet our graduates in the city or on the playground and wearing models that we have used with our help. We are also pleased that you will not meet with envy, but with sharing, you will not encounter anywhere else with plagiarism, but with creative attitude and originality. What we are doing is getting in many ways to others and back to us. We are glad that Brno is sewing!“ : Equipment Finance: crowdfunding campaign
Equipment Finance: Own Resources, Re-Use
# Tereza Škoulová
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KOKOZA is sexy! How two women changed the form of urban cultivation SHARED GARDEN. COMMUNITY COMPOST. SOCIAL ENTERPRISE FOR DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE. SPACE FOR A SUSTAINABLE WAY OF LIFE. KOKOZA (COMMUNITY COMPOST AND GARDEN) WAS CREATED IN 2010 WHEN TWO FRIENDS OVER A GLASS OF WINE SOUGHT OUT THE MEANING OF LIFE. THEY WON THE SOCIAL BUSINESS IDEA NATIONAL AWARD FOR THEIR IDEA IN 2010. TODAY, IT IS A THRIVING BUSINESS WITH PLENTY OF MEANINGFUL ACTIVITIES.
When Kristina Regalová and Lucie Lancešová founded KOKOZA, they did not know anything about composting - but they decided to brush up the knowledge. „Composting is simple and natural but we have somehow forgotten it. We all know compost from the gardens of our parents and grandparents. So we got information from our homes, others got to meet people from practice as well as academics, speciﬁc literature, or conferences on this topic,“ explains compost consultant Soňa Valčíková. „Our activities blend in with the idea of a closed cycle of food: the interconnection of healthy food, composting and growing. It makes us happy that we can contribute to more people seeing in vegetable skin shells a source
rather than waste and preferring to prevent organic residues from ending up in a landﬁll or incinerator,“ says Sonia. KOKOZA today provides consultancy, organizes workshops, and sells interior vermicompost in the e-shop (waste composting tanks not only for urban households). „We are intensively engaged in composting and vermicomposting, we have participated in the development of the Czech Urbalive vermicompost of the Czech company Plastia awarded with Red Dot Design, with which you can compost in the ﬂat, in the classroom or in the company,“ says Soňa. Their gardens function, among other things, as a processing area
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Part of KOKOZA team: Soňa, Anna, Lucie, Radka, Jakub, Míša, Monika
for biowaste, which makes it efficient to process and obtain good quality compost, or soil for its sprouts. „It is a matter of throwing our fruit and vegetable skins into the trash bin when it is a valuable raw material: it can be transformed into a quality fertilizer that is missing in the soil,“ Sonia adds. Workshop to produce domestic vermicompost takes place in KOKOZA every month. Composting is a way to recycle nutrients from discarded food residues that make up to 40% of all waste and get good ground for indoor plants - or for gardening. At present, KOKOZA operates two community gardens in the Southern Prague district and actively supports the emergence of other similar gardens. Kristina and Lucie have so signiﬁcantly changed the map of Prague‘s urban gardening, urban cultivation of vegetables and herbs, contributing to local production and strengthening community ties.
: Deeper sense: the social dimension of business Because KOKOZA has the experience of setting up community gardens, it helps to build similar green oases elsewhere: the edible garden in the form of planted elevated beds has already
designed and realized in the backyard of Bezobalu (Without-wrapping initiative), similarly helped to create a garden in a home for mothers with children, Kolping House. Cultivation of vegetables makes sense for the children who help the garden both enjoying themselves and enjoying the fruits of the garden. In addition, they adopt a certain pattern of behaviour and carry the idea of a sustainable lifestyle. KOKOZA does not end in its own garden; pop-up city gardens, raised public gardens, or community gardens for businesses offers all who are interested. „Individuals, groups, societies, cities, and businesses are turning to us about consultations or implementation itself. Throughout this time, we have helped dozens of community gardens at their inception. There are about twenty-ﬁve in Prague today,“ says Sonia. The social dimension of the business is natural to KOKOZA: Lucie has been a long-time social worker working with people with mental disorders, and KOKOZA offers the beneﬁt to people with a mental illness. It is convenient to add that KOKOZA is not a classical hierarchical organization, but a cooperative society. It is an association of people, each of whom has a task, runs his/ her project and is responsible for it. This is especially important for people with mental illness who can get lost self-conﬁdence here not only as members of the community but also as people capable of independent and meaningful activities.
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: Innovative, environmentally and sustainable Another activity of the socially beneﬁcial company KOKOZA, which today has roughly two dozen members, is an interactive map of urban gardens. In cooperation with Jakub Reichl Mapko.cz was created, where people put information about other similar places in Prague. You can ﬁnd community gardens in the apartment blocks, vegetable balconies, or compost owners who search or offer earthworms to the vermicompost. People can exchange not only the experience of urban cultivation, but also the grown vegetables, piece by piece, without the need for money. Thus, the application supports the local economy that prevents waste (money and food) and air pollution (transporting food by car, etc.) and makes it possible to use local resources efficiently. Vegetables do not have to travel long miles to the store but end up with a neighbour in the kitchen. Have lunch together. The team around KOKOZA produced both gardens and all the necessary equipment. When they talk about the design of their composts and gardens, they always keep in mind the people who use them. The so-called a person-centred design uses feedback from those involved. You can ﬁnd in the garden beautiful, simple wooden composters and raised beds that are suitable for urban cultivation. „We have a seven-chamber community composter in the Vidimov community garden, where all our neighbours can throw their biowaste,“ says Sonia.
: Ideal community garden?
creating a club are not for a short-term deal,“ says Ana Černá, the founder of the garden KZ Vidimov.
When Lucie and Kristina were looking for a suitable place for their ﬁrst garden, they consisted of a 300-500 m² plot of land with electricity or gas and at least a minimal background for the ﬁrst gardens. „Ideal dimensions are not subject to any exact number, but they depend on what you expect from a community garden. The community garden should ideally provide space for cultivation and people have a place to meet, work together and rest,“ says Soňa.
Of course, money is important. „There was no water in our communal garden of Vidimov, so we had to ﬁnance the water supply. Further investments were in the fencing of the plot, the production of raised beds, the purchase of big bags and the growing substrate. We‘ve got a ship‘s container to which we can store the tools and other things we need. In the garden we have a composting toilet. We talk about tens of thousands. We need to realize that we are building a community garden where there is usually nothing,“ says Sonia.
The ﬁrst KOKOZA garden was a community garden KC Garden in the southern Prague, where today there are ten beds spread over 200 m². Vidimov‘s second garden, also in Prague 11, is situated on a plot of about 1800 m² and therefore functions as a cultivator, providing facilities for meeting people from the neighbourhood. Currently, about ﬁfty families are grown here. „The biggest problem was to get out and lease the land. When you rent space from the city, the whole process can take up to a year. Communicating with the authorities, preparing and signing a contract, or
: From the deserted parcels a green oasis Community gardens are created on unused land, which is often neglected. If the space is used, the garden is an extension of the function of the site, such as a school garden or park. „Our KZ Vidimov was established in the area of the garden of the
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former kindergarten where Prague City district Hall is situated now, which has provided us with the unused garden. Another Prague Garden KZ Kuchyňka in Prague 8 was formed by an association of lands after the defunct gardening colony, which has been burning and decaying for years. The other community garden of Mečislavova is again in a publicly accessible courtyard,“ Soňa enumerates various land use options. In order for the community garden to live, the accessibility for the inhabitants is important, ideally within ﬁfteen minutes of walking. On the inaccessible outskirts of the city, the idea of meeting neighbours together and creating a community can easily disappear. The creation of community gardens in the unused and neglected corners of the city brings many positive aspects, including lesser criminality or a greener and cleaner look of the city. „Because the biggest hurdle for setting up a community garden is just ﬁnding the right space, it would certainly helpful if the city or city district itself deﬁne lands that they could offer to those interested or communities for that purpose,“ adds Anna Černá. : # Tereza Škoulová / Photo : Anna Šolcová
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On the way to a satisﬁed city through participation:
the Solidarita EFFORTS AIMED AT RENEWING PARKS AND TRANSFORMING PUBLIC OPEN SPACES SOMETIMES FACE DIFFICULTIES IN MEETING CITIZEN PREFERENCES.ONE WAY TO OVERCOME THESE IS PARTICIPATION. IT IS STRAIGHTFORWARD, EFFECTIVE AND DELIVERS SATISFACTION FOR EVERYONE INVOLVED.
Participation provides a tool for shaping the city to the satisfaction of the inhabitants.This is most relevant in revitalizing public open spaces.Local residents know the visitors to their park, the beautiful places as well as those which would beneﬁt from professional intervention.Yet, their inspiring ideas rarely reach those who ultimately decide on the revitalization of the park. The concept of participation is supported by numerous council architects and city planners.They know from their practice that expertise and the adoption of up-to-date trends are not enough for high-quality and lasting transformations of public spaces.The wishes of the residents need to be reﬂected as well.Opening a constructive dialogue and striking the balance between the specialist view of an architect and the interests of citizens as users of public open spaces is the goal.Experts and municipalities increasingly appreciate participation, which saves both time and money in the long run. Feedback from the public and opinion data are effective and make the outcome more sustainable than designs developed without mapping the situation on the ground.On the other hand, involving the public in the conversion of public open spaces is a challenge which needs to be handled well.
: Revitalizing a park after 70 years How does participation work in a case like this? The revitalization project for the central park of the Solidarita housing estate in the Strašnice district of Prague serves as an illustrative example.Solidarita was built shortly after World War II as one of the ﬁrst post-war housing estates in Prague with an emphasis on community living.Not only was its urban design unique, but its community character has been preserved even today.The centrally-located park still serves residents as a place for taking a rest, gathering, community activities, sports as well walking their dogs.Unfortunately, as the park had not been revitalized since its completion in the 1950s, its potential was not used in full. The Prague 10 City Council therefore decided to remodel the park to enable more than two thousand local households to enjoy the place in full and the way they need. A participatory project was launched, which was developed and run by D21.
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park : Preparation and involvement of the public: Questions, discussions and voting What were the project stages?The preparatory stage involved a detailed sociographic survey and mapping out the movement of residents in the area through an analysis of open and semi-open data.Many municipalities face a common problem of lacking current objective data on their public (such as the true number of residents or users of a particular public space), which leads to conclusions based on mere assumptions.A field survey among the locals, performed by professional inquirers, gathered basic information on the quality of life at the Solidarita housing estate. It was followed by a series of in-depth interviews with selected stakeholders regarding the location. The data collected in this manner and discussions with council architects of the Prague 10 district became the basis for developing the participatory project.The choice
of the project form was intended to inspire the citizens to respond and get involved.Prerequisites for the success of a participatory project include openness, trustworthiness and continuous communication with the citizens.It stands to reason.Who would like to take part in an untrustworthy project? When the right approach is taken, there is no risk that citizens would ignore the effort to upgrade their neighborhood. The participatory project had two main stages, in which the public had an opportunity to express their opinion by various means. The first one gathered ideas for developing planning studies.The second then sought to involve local residents in the process of commenting on and evaluating the competing studies submitted by architectural studios. The project was not confined to the park alone; it also focused on the data on the location and the local community in general.Understandably, a comprehensive revitalization of a park does not impact just the park grounds and its facilities but other aspects as well (such as the transport in the surrounding area).
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: Voices of the public and experts Moderated discussions at two public meetings provided a preliminary input for future revitalization efforts and a reﬂection of the current conditions.Yet, the conclusions from the gatherings were not sufficiently representative.The ﬁrst stage therefore culminated in online voting on the ideas brainstormed at the neighborhood meetings and obtained from the ﬁeld survey and earlier discussions. An anonymous online voting system that requires veriﬁcation via the entry of a unique PIN code was selected as the optimum solution.The PIN codes were distributed to the mailboxes of residents in the immediate vicinity of the park (area of concern) to ensure that those involved mainly comprise local residents who, according to the data, are the exclusive users of the park.The electronic poll took place on a web platform accessible from a computer or a mobile phone, where each
household had one vote.A total of 2390 households were contacted through letters distributed to their mailboxes.All of them comprised residents in the area of concern.The responses were developed into speciﬁcations, upon which three architectural studios selected by the Prague 10 City Council prepared studies for the park’s revitalization. Residents were again invited to give their opinion on these studies.The second stage began with another neighborhood meeting, where members of the three studios presented their studies of park transformation.Online voting on the three proposals followed, with the aim of gathering constructive feedback on the studies.The same polling method was used as in the vote in the ﬁrst stage. In the second participatory stage, people had the opportunity to explore how the proposals dealt with green areas, urban furniture, playgrounds and safety around the adjacent elementary and middle school.They also described the ways
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Step by step 1
A City Analytics process for the Solidarita locality: mapping it out using open and semi-open data
A ﬁeld survey performed by interviewers on the streets: a one-day survey on quality of life, with 113 respondents
Neighborhood meetings about the ideas: deﬁning the voting topics
Neighborhood meeting on the architectural studies: proposal presentations
Votes on the architectural studies: 205 households voting
Meeting on project conclusions
Overall, 10% of households took part
Voting on ideas for the architects: 297 households voting
in which they hoped to use the park and voted on the best proposal.Traffic and parking spaces proved to be of major concern to the public here.Information of this kind is usually invaluable for decisions to be taken inside the town hall.This applies not just to the revitalization of public spaces.
while fulﬁlling its long-term purpose and cultivating the community or city district as a harmonious place to live.In the long run, participation helps build the connection between the residents and the public authorities.It improves their communication and ultimately strengthens the trust in officers and elected officials. :
: Citizens’ contribution to decision-making The example of the Solidarita park demonstrates the power of participation in making decisions on complex issues which demand expert assessment but are intimately connected with the daily lives of citizens.Participation enables residents to improve the quality of life in their neighborhood while leaving technical matters to the experts.This combination upgrades the decision-making process to ensure that the transformation of the public space leads to residents’ satisfaction
# Lada Faldynová, D21 Participation Expert
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Digitalization penetrates water sector on IFAT 2018, Munich IFAT IS THE WORLD‘S LEADING TRADE FAIR FOR WATER, SEWAGE, WASTE AND RAW MATERIALS MANAGEMENT, AND IS A PLACE WHERE VISITORS CAN FIND STRATEGIES AND SOLUTIONS FOR USING RESOURCES IN INTELLIGENT CYCLES IN A MANNER THAT ENSURES THEIR LONG-TERM PRESERVATION. THE 20TH EDITION OF THE FAIR TOOK PLACE IN MUNICH, GERMANY, AND PRESENTED KEY
The targeted groups of visitors are industry leaders, research and development experts looking for inspiration, as well as suppliers and investors who ﬁnd common solutions to any range of technologies and services. In particular, representatives of municipalities and the public sector have the opportunity to see for themselves the new possibilities of optimizing the settings of the services of the water sector and to get acquainted with what can be demanded today and how high the requirements for public infrastructure management can be. More than 141,000 expert visitors from more than 160 countries came to Munich between May 14 and 18, 2018 (2016: 136,885 visitors). Above all, this means a rise of IFAT’s internationality. The highest growth came from (in this order): Japan, Russia, Australia, China and Slovenia. In total, 3,305 exhibitors from 58 countries presented their products and innovations for the booming environmental industry. The integral part of the IFAT fair are interactive panel discussions and expert forums dedicated to these main pillars this year:
TOPICS OF DIGITALIZATION, AUTO-
MATION AND WATER 4.0. THE CLEAR
MESSAGE LEFT - WATER SECTOR
ENTERS NEXT LEVEL OF DIGITAL •
Water sector policy development-strategies for trace pollutants and waste water recycling Maintenance of drinking water production and distribution facilities State of the experience and prospects of water management in Central and Eastern Europe New possibilities for monitoring the quality of drinking water Water 4.0 Digitization of the water industry / water management
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: Theme: The Resilience of the Water sector Resilience is a strong emerging theme within the water sector. From long term water resource availability and water quality impacts of droughts, to the need for resilience against disruptive events with little or no warning such as ﬂoods and earthquakes, these events not only disrupt water sector infrastructure and operations, they can also affect other infrastructure that a reliable water sector depends on. This includes electrical power supplies, telecommunications, and transportation as well as disruption to the supply chain and workforce. The cooperation between EWA (European Water Association), JSPWA (Japan Sewage Works Association) and WEF (Water Environment Federation) resulted in next outstanding event which was held in Munich as a part of IFAT accompanying conference program, these Sessions included: 1. 2. 3.
Social, Economic and Human Challenges for a Resilient Water&Wastewater Sector Infrastructure Management – Optimization, Rehabilitation and Retroﬁt for Resilience Water and Waste water Resilience to GeoEnvironmental Hazards
4. 5. 6.
Urban Flooding and Climate Change – Smart Strategies and Responses National and City Approaches for Water and Wastewater Resilience Resilience Planning – Strategic, Emergency Preparedness and Emergency Response
: Better identiﬁcation of customer needs The importance of digital change has been recognized in the ﬁeld of municipal water supplies – that was a clear ﬁnding in a survey of its members conducted by the Verband Kommunaler Unternehmen (VKU – the German association of public utility companies). More than two thirds of the companies rated digitalization as of high or very high relevance. And already one in two companies are either planning or implementing a digitalization strategy in Germany. “Digitalization underlines the beneﬁt to customers and citizens as a central impetus for change,” points out Michael Beckereit, President of the VKU. He adds: “Analysis of large volumes of data means we can recognize more easily what the customers need and better understand the processes. This in turn forms a good basis for developing new and even more suitable products and strategies.” :
“It is above all the consumers’ rising awareness and their demand for sustainability that make the industry boom.” #IFAT 2018 Final Report
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Zdroj: Lamiot / WikimediaCommons â€” CC BY-SA 4.0
THE CITY, VILLAGE, OR NEIGHBOURHOOD CAN FUNCTION AS ORGANISMS WITH THEIR OWN METABOLISM, WHICH CONSUMES AS LITTLE MATERIAL, ENERGY AND WATER AS POSSIBLE FROM THE OUTSIDE AND ELIMINATES AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE IN THE FORM OF WASTE. IN CULEMBORG, THE NETHERLANDS, THEY BEGAN BUILDING SUCH A QUARTER IN THE MID-1990S.
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City Metabolism - Inspiration from the Netherlands The project of the eco-friendly Eva-Lanxmeer district in Culemborg inspired the idea of cyclical use of substances. It was initiated and funded by Ecologisch Center for Education, Voorlichting en Advies as a sample project integrating various aspects of urban ecology. The district includes 320 residential buildings, 40,000 square meters of office space, schools, 2,5 hectares of city farms and other facilities, including a restaurant or tearoom. Because the neighbourhood was built on the territory of former agricultural areas that surrounded the buffer zone of drinking water sources, the projectâ€˜s goal was to manage water management as much as possible. In addition, energy and food self-sufficiency and ecological interconnection of individual residential elements were also taken into account when planning the project by creating so-called green infrastructure, a planned network of natural and semi-natural areas providing diverse ecosystem services. The project also uses environmentally friendly building materials and prefers non-motorized transport.
: Gentle handling of water Planning included adequate management of so-called grey water. This term refers to sewage effluent without faeces and urine, which can be effectively used for toilet flushing and gardens watering. In the EVA-Lanxmeer households, they use pre-separated water for potable and commercial water, which comes from grey water. Rainfall is collected in ponds and in a revitalized river arm, and its later use is the same as for grey water. Part of the water is cleaned in the root sewage treatment plant. It is an artificial natural biotope where dirty water flows through the roots of the plants. Even at the root of the wastewater treatment plant it is the interconnection of the different systems that belong to the already mentioned green infrastructure. Because water management is one of the biggest environmental problems today, Lanxmeer has become a model for other European cities.
: Waste and energy self-sufficiency The principle of reuse of materials and energy was most evident in combining cycles related to waste management, electricity generation and water puriďŹ cation. The authors of the project decided to use biogas to produce electricity and heat. They therefore set up a biogas station that was connected to a public sewer. For the production of gas, they use the black, waste water. To make the material processed in the biogas station strong enough, the biowaste from the kitchen and the local organic farm adds to the black water. The output of the biogas plant is gas in the quality of conventional fossil fuels, which is used in a thermal power plant to produce electricity. The product is also utility surface water available in the city for ďŹ‚ushing, irrigation and other purposes, and compost used in local gardens. This technology therefore also contributes to the sustainable treatment of kitchen waste. There are other ways of energy self-sufficiency, such as the introduction of solar systems for heat and photovoltaic panels for electricity, the lowest energy standard of buildings, the use of sustainable building materials such as wood or reed, and others. All these are the standards according to which the family houses must be designed, otherwise their construction will not be allowed.
: Food self-sufficiency and transport The neighborhood tries to reduce the overall energy footprint of its population as well as air protection by limiting individual car traffic. There are no cars in the neighborhood, parking is only possible on the edges. To make such a constraint possible, it is essential to offer alternatives. Other measures introduced in the neighborhood include the emphasis on attractive walking and cycling routes, or on housing, work and recreation in one place, ideally within walking distance.
city : sources To limit driving, it was also essential to ensure that local food is available to the public. Self-sufficiency is also helped by the local ecological farm. The district‘s inhabitants have contributed to the operation of the farm, in exchange for it, they can attend it at any time and take part in the beneﬁt of it.
: Participation as a condition of success The idea of creating a sustainable residence in the Netherlands was enforced by Marleen Kaptein, who has been professionally involved in sustainability. The project included professionals, officers and politicians. The most signiﬁcant assistance was the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, which even participated as a ﬁnancial donor in the EVA Foundation, the main developer of the project. City Culembourg has pre-funded the project. The essential measure for the success of the project was to include in its planning those who were interested in living in the future neighbourhood. By 1996, eighty families had signed up to pre-purchase contracts. Candidates and people interested in housing in Lanxmeer could participate in several workshops during their preparations to get involved in planning. The workshops were led by urbanists and architects, experts in permaculture, water management and energy. The public is continuously involved in the planning of all projects and is thus able to take part in deciding on the future development of the neighbourhood. However, the success of the project depends on the environmental awareness of local citizens, depending, for example, on what chemicals they send to runoff. The project‘s representatives are therefore trying to inform about how to behave ecologically and to encourage a sense of belonging to the place and the local community. Local people, for example, have jointly rescued the local orchards from the Vulens, the Culemborg water company, and are now organizing a common picking of apples regularly.
: Inspiration from municipalities in Czech Republic We do not ﬁnd an ecological urban area like EVA-Lanxmeer in the Czech Republic, but there are two organic villages. They are Jindřichovice pod Smrkem and Hostětín. In both villages, as in Lanxmeer, a number of sustainable measures have been built and an environmental infocentre operates here. Thanks to these, the municipalities also serve as examples of good practice, and the expert and lay public go on their excursions. Hostětín, like EVA-Lanxmeer, is located in the buffer zone of drinking water sources. In order to allow further construction, the local authorities had to introduce a root waste water treatment plant. The project was initiated by the Veronica Foundation under the direction of Miroslav Kundrata, and the Ministry of the Environment contributed ﬁnancially to the construction of the root plant. Even in Hostětín they are trying for energy self-sufficiency, they have bought a municipal wood chip boiler, three photovoltaic power plants and one passive house as an environmental awareness centre. More, they produce their own food - there are, for example, orchards where local traditional varieties of apples are grown. Jindřichovice pod Smrkem connects the production of heat and the economy of the village. The biomass boiler produces heat from wood chips, i.e. waste from surrounding lumbermills. The boiler room heats the municipal office and the close senior house, which is operated by the regional authority. The region then pays the village for heat. The village tries to go through the pilot projects and gets subsidies from the State Environmental Fund. In addition to biomass, it produces its own electricity from wind power plants. In addition, the village, for those interested in housing, built houses with a low energy standard. For projects in Jindřichovice there was the activity of the mayor Petr Pávek. Let us hope that in the Czech Republic we will ﬁnd in the future more and more political representatives who will have the courage and knowledge needed to make our municipalities and districts function as organisms with their own metabolism. # Radoslava Krylová a Petr Salamon, NESEHNUTÍ The original text was published on www.moudramesta.cz, where the non-proﬁ t organization NESEHNUTÍ presents examples of good practice of sustainable cities.
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