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CITIZENSHIP The Police Community Clubs

Issue 15 September 2013

magazine for schools

Is social media affecting how we forge friendships? Latest News In Education

Community Education Awards 2014

What is Friendship? Â

New Plans to Raise School Standards


Contents

Welcome from the Editor

REGULAR ITEMS

Welcome to our latest edition of Citizenship Magazine.

Police Community Clubs of Great Britain: News

5

Education News

6

FEATURES Community Education Awards 2014

12

What is Friendship and Do

26

We Need a Best Friend? Is Social Media affecting friendships?

30

Government Plans to Raise School Standards

34

LESSON PLANS A Rough Guide to Being a Good Friend

20

Grow Your Own: Garlic

36

Friendships: Worksheets

40

Notice to Advertisers Whilst every care is taken to ensure that the contents including advertisements are accurate, the publisher cannot assume responsibility for errors.

Editor

Andrew Davies

Design

Joanne Hewitt

I hope you enjoyed the summer break and are refreshed ready to take on another academic year! During the summer, much has been written and spoken on a number of issues surrounding teaching which we look to re-cap in this issue. A notable story which has raised both eyebrows and questions is that of the possibility of a reduced summer break being implemented by schools. We take a look at the pros and cons of the possible changes to the current academic restructure. As is the case with each of our magazines, we carry an underlying theme which in this instance will be ‘friendship’. Encouraging positive citizenship can help children make friends and utilise important PSHE skills which can in turn help them in later life. We explore the importance of making friends at a young age and the social qualities it can promote. As part of our in depth look into the subject of friendship, we also take time to examine the different ways children now make their friends and ask if social media is indeed a positive or negative factor in developing children’s relationships. Accompanying these features are lesson plans and ideas which can be used in your classrooms to assist the teaching of citizenship and PSHE. Regular items such as Grow Your Own return for another term ensuring there is more than enough insight and information to whet your appetite for another year. The Community Education Awards 2014 are back once more rewarding schools and individuals across the country! Be sure to get your nominations in as soon as possible by visiting www.communityeducationawards.co.uk and follow @CommEdAwards on Twitter for the latest news on the Awards. Please also take a moment to check out our website for our latest blogs, follow our Twitter updates (@Citizenship_Mag) and apply for our free subscription service. And if you have any suggestions on how to help develop citizenship and PSHE teachers, email me at andrew@thecitizenshipmagazine.org Enjoy this issue! Andrew Davies, Editor

Advertising 01244 316629 support@thecitizenshipmagazine.org Publisher

Community Initiatives Associates 0800 783 5805

Police Community Clubs of Great Britain Barry Jones MBE Po Box 160 Bideford Devon EX39 9DL 01237 474 869 www.thepolicecommunityclubs.org

© All rights reserved. No part of The Citizenship Magazine for Schools may be reproduced or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form without the written permission of the editor. Copyright2009 ISSN Applied For. The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 3


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The Citizenship Magazine for Schools


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The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain NEWS

As I write this news update I wonder how the time flies! I trust that you are or have enjoyed the interlude of good weather which we Brits call summertime. The last few months have continued to be busy and all the strands of our work in the community have progressed and forged stronger links with those we serve and those who assist us. Touching on a few of our projects, I can report that our partnership with Bradford FE & HE College continues to grow and we are seeking further joint working/sporting links with them. A tri-party concept has been agreed around a football project. The next few months will see the Police Clubs staging a football tournament within Doncaster Prison which will see the prison (prisoners) team pitched against the Football Academy at Bradford College and a new member of the Police Clubs, Clovelley Football Club from North Devon. Staged over one weekend, we hope to replicate such tournaments across the UK. In this way we will be providing an insight into life ‘behind the bars’ whilst at the same time allowing the prisoners to meet those who devote a great deal of time to their local schools and communities. Our ‘Uchooze’ programme which addresses four major areas of concern to communities across the UK- Anti-Social Behaviour, Alcohol Abuse, Knives and Gangs is now being rolled out widely. Both myself and Steve Arkley are meeting all the Police & Crime Commissioners and other significant players in this field. The programme offered sees the training of trainers in our entire repertoire around the four main subjects and addresses it for audiences at Key Stage 2 through to adults. I would like to welcome three new clubs into our family; Holy Apostles Sports Club (London); Walsall Police Boxing Club (West Midlands) and Poseidon Boxing Club (Portsmouth). Welcome aboard. ‘The Clubs’ have recently appointed a National (Police Community Clubs) Boxing Coach and National Team Manager in Michael Hunter (Metropolitan Police) and Tom Fisher (City of London Police) respectively. Under their guidance we look forward to seeing regular teams representing ‘The Clubs’ across the globe.

Barry Jones MBE

As we are currently planning new programmes of citizenship with our new partners ‘Ladbrokes’ I hope to bring news and features around these in our next issue. Our all new Police Clubs exclusive citizenship programme aligned to non-contact Olympic-style boxing called The Contender Plus+ Coaches course continues to be rolled out throughout the country. This delivers instruction in all the skills elements of the sport together with material to deliver our citizenship programmes to any group in any suitable environment. All successful coaches are free to deliver their own Contender Am-Box programme whilst being fully insured by The Clubs. Anyone interested in discovering more about this programme should contact our office or email: policecc@aol.com Our one year pilot delivering boxing coaching qualifications in prisons under the Ministry of Justice continues to fulfil its potential and numerous exprisoners are now placed within sports gymnasiums in their home town whilst being supported by our Development Manager(s). We have over ten other prison establishments showing great interest in this programme so we are anxious to ensure that the current programme is acknowledged by the MOJ and we are allowed to widen our prison deliveries. We are convinced that this is a magnificent initiative which will address all those issues that it was designed to address. A further reminder that our Child Trafficking manual is now available at our website www.policecommunityclubs.org. The manual provides invaluable information and advice for professionals and lay persons alike. We would like to take this opportunity to again thank all who have supported us through advertising which has then enabled us to produce this publication. In closing, I would like to thank all of our sponsors, partners, clubs and volunteers for their continued support. Barry T Jones MBE Founder of the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 5


PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AT RISK OF ABUSE

TOP STORY A national charity has revealed the disturbing statistics around children suffering from sexual abuse. More than 1 in 10 children who contact ChildLine because they have been sexually abused or fear they will become a victim are primary school age, new figures revealed and in nearly all cases they knew the offender. Last year 1,020 children aged 11 years-old and under had counselling sessions about sexual abuse with the round-the-clock helpline. For more than 40 per cent of them this was the first time they had ever told anyone what had happened. The figures highlight the risk to the very young something the NSPCC is attempting to tackle through its Underwear Rule campaign which helps parents have conversations with their children about keeping them safe from sexual abuse. Statistics show there were over 9,100 contacts about sexual abuse where children gave their age and 11 per cent of these were 11 years-old or younger. Of these more than nine out of 10 knew the offender with just six per cent saying it was a stranger. ChildLine  counsellors are often the first people children talk to about their problems. This is particularly so with those under 12 who suffer sexual abuse. They are three times as likely not to have told anyone before speaking to ChildLine, compared to other forms of abuse. Sue Minto, Head of ChildLine, said: “It’s incredibly important that we protect children from the risk of sexual abuse as soon as possible, and this can be done through simple conversations with children at a young age. It can

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be done in a way that doesn’t scare them but gives the right level of information and confidence so they can speak to a trusted adult about anything that makes them feel uncomfortable. “It’s a sad reflection on society that children of primary school age are being abused in this way but it’s a reality we have to face and prepare for. We can’t just sit idly by and hope it never happens- that will simply put more children at risk of harm. “The good news is that many young children feel confident enough to contact us for help and advice and understand that sexual abuse is never acceptable.” The Underwear Rule campaign helps parents teach their children that their bodies are private and the NSPCC has developed a Talk PANTS guide to help parents explain and children remember: • Privates are private • Always remember your body belongs to you • No means no • Talk about secrets that upset you • Speak up, someone can help Since its launch in August the Underwear Rule campaign has received the backing of government and the UK’s Children’s Commissioners. The campaign ran until the end of the summer and materials will continue to be offered to parents through the ChildLine Schools Service and GP surgeries across England, Scotland and Wales and online at nspcc.org.uk/ underwear.


EDUCATION NEWS RISE IN BIRTH RATE IN THE UK PUTS PRIMARY SCHOOLS UNDER PRESSURE Thousands of parents struggled in finding a state primary school for their children for the start of the new school year which began in September. A survey completed by 59 of the 150 local councils in England in July revealed that more than 3,600 parents were still on their books as having not yet accepted a state school place. A handful, just over 100, had not even been offered one. If this picture were reflected across the country it would mean that about 9,000 parents faced a dilemma over school places for their children. Statisticians say a rise in the birth rate has created the need for an extra 256,000 primary school places by 2015. The Department for Education insists that an extra 190,000 places will have been created by this September, and £5 billion is earmarked for new school places by 2015. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, announced in the Spending Review that a further 500,000 school places would be created between 2015 and 2021. Margaret Morrissey, of the parents’ pressure group Parents Outloud, said: “I’ve been involved in education for 20 years and every year it gets slightly worse. What is so soul-destroying and so distressing is that it doesn’t seem to matter which party is in control – none of them are interested enough to go on and solve this.” Local authority officials pointed out that many of those still on their books might have abandoned their search and decided to opt for an independent school, or to educate their child at home – an alternative which has

grown in popularity with up to 80,000 parents now doing it. Some officials argued that, as they were still keeping places open at schools where parents had refused to send their child, it was wrong to say those children did not have a school place. However, Mrs Morrissey said: “That sounds like Stalinist Russia speaking – there is this school place and you will go to it even though we know you don’t want to send your child there.” The figures fuelled the controversy over the shortage of primary school places which re-emerged over the summer with a highly critical report from the influential Commons Public Accounts Committee. This said that many schools had been forced to abandon library spaces, music rooms and playgrounds to build emergency classrooms. The report criticised the Department for Education under successive regimes and councils for not responding quickly enough to rising birth rates between 2001 and 2011. Some applications for a school place remain unsettled because local authorities are not convinced they are bona fide, believing the parent may have put down a false address or rented a property near the school to get their child into a school with a good record. A spokeswoman for the Department for Education said: “We are building more free schools, letting the most popular schools expand and intervening to drive up standards in weak primaries which have thousands of empty places simply because parents don’t want to send their children there.”

CAMPAIGN FOR YOUTH SOCIAL ACTION GAINS SUPPORT Earlier this summer, HRH The Prince of Wales led a meeting of politicians and leaders across the youth, voluntary, business, education and faith sectors to secure their support for a new Campaign for Youth Social Action. Social action is practical action in the service of others, and an important element of citizenship education.  The Campaign for Youth Social Action (CYSA) aims to double the number of young people engaged in social action to over 50 per cent by 2020: an additional 1.7 million young people.  According to the Cabinet Office, only 29 per cent of young people in the UK currently engage in social action, compared to over 58 per cent in Canada. More could be involved, but there is often a lack of support from adults. For example, there are currently 30,000 young people on the Scouts waiting list because of a lack of adult volunteers. The campaign aims to ‘transform our society by encouraging, recognising and valuing the contribution young people make, and by supporting those who can galvanise a new culture of participation’. It sets out the long-term vision and formally engages with the principal institutions of the state and civic society, with the

leadership of HRH The Prince of Wales. HRH The Prince of Wales said: “I have always been convinced that practical action in the service of others is of benefit both to the individual and the community. So much incredible work has already been done in the UK. This campaign is a concerted and long term effort across all sectors to join together with young people to create more opportunities for their social action.” CYSA is the result of a cross sector review, set up by the Prime Minister and led by Dame Julia Cleverdon and Amanda Jordan OBE. The review concluded that an independent campaign with a long term vision which partners with business, education and the voluntary sectors, will provide the necessary stimulus. The Minister for Civil Society, Nick Hurd MP, also announced new funding for youth organisations running programmes that engage young people in social action. This separate Government initiative will complement the wider campaign by supporting quality youth social action activity, testing new ways to encourage participation and by evaluating this work. The knowledge resulting from the evaluation will be given to the CYSA and made publicly available. The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 7


OBESITY WARNING OVER LIFTS TO SCHOOL Parents should be banned from driving their children to school gates in a bid to cut down on a rising tide of childhood obesity, Britain’s leading public health expert has said. Professor John Ashton, who has taken over as president of the Faculty of Public Health, said that if parents must drive their children to school they should have to drop them off a few hundred yards away so children get a small amount of exercise. In an interview with The Times, Prof Ashton said fears of a ‘nanny state’ should not stand in the way of strong Government action to improve health. “We’re used to the idea that our children are not going to be as well off as we have been,” he told the newspaper. “But I don’t think anybody has really expressed yet that they may not be as healthy either. “One of the things we really should be doing is strictly prohibiting cars stopping outside school to drop kids off but have drop-off points, if at all, a few hundred yards away so at least the children get to walk a quarter of a mile each day from the dropping-off point... it would make a difference.” He also praised efforts by councils to ban fast food outlets near schools. The latest figures suggest one in three children is overweight or obese by the time they

leave primary school. Prof Ashton, who is director of public health in Cumbria, added: “We have had 100 years of progress in statistics of longevity and health and wellbeing, and there is evidence now that things are stalling. “The golden generation, now in their 90s, have really benefited from traditional lifestyles - walking to school and work, not going everywhere in the car, not having junk food - but that has been coupled with the benefits of modern medicine. “What we’ve now got is generations coming through where there has been a deterioration of lifestyles.”

COMMUNITY EDUCATION AWARDS 2014 The Community Education Awards programme continues to go from strength to strength and are ready to accept nominations for 2014. High schools, primary schools and pupil referral units from across the UK can enter the Awards by selecting one or more of the 13 categories on offer and completing a brief online form. Areas covered by the Awards include anti-social behaviour, bullying, internet safety and sports projects, as well as individual roles such as outstanding citizenship/ PSHE teacher and pupil referral unit learning mentor. In association with the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain the Awards aim to demonstrate the most innovative and effective approaches currently in use and encourage the development of more projects that will have a positive impact on pupils. Kelly Griffiths, Awards Coordinator, highlighted the community focus of the scheme which was originally launched by Awards Ambassador, Esther Rantzen, in 2011. “The Community Education Awards have consistently recognised the work of schools in preparing children to become community members in the widest possible sense. They are designed to cover a range of areas crucial to community life from money management and careers to the environment and attitudes to alcohol.”

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A panel of judges will consider entries before seeking further information in order to select the winning entrants. For 2014, the Awards hopes to recognise once more the efforts of schools and individuals who have helped play a pivotal role both in school and in the wider community. The nomination process will begin as of September with winners being announced next May. That gives you plenty of time to think of a person or project you would like to see rewarded. Citizenship Magazine editor, Andrew Davies, commented: “We are delighted to be a part of the Community Education Awards. With our magazine associated with crowning an ‘Outstanding PSHE/Citizenship Teacher’ we look forward to hearing about the fantastic work carried out by teachers to promote citizenship and PSHE education.” To find out more about the Community Education Awards plus a list of all of the 2014 Awards, visit www.communityeducationawards.co.uk


EDUCATION NEWS CITIZENSHIP NEEDS INVESTMENT, SAYS FOUNDATION A ‘dry bones’ citizenship curriculum needs investment and a more humane school environment to bring it to life, according to the Citizenship Foundation. After a wait of three years and a disparaging critique in the Curriculum Review, the subject of citizenship has been reformulated for the new National Curriculum. But it needs much attention to revive its status. The new content for the curriculum, like that of many other subjects, has been ‘pared down to the bare bones of knowledge needed to induct our next generation into their role as effective citizens’. In a statement, the Foundation said: “Knowing how society works is only part of what makes an effective citizen. Michael Gove, the Secretary of State for Education, knows the subject needs to be brought to life, just as bare bones need muscle, flesh and spirit to become human. Teachers need to supply the relevant extras to bring this curriculum to life. “But, for citizenship, the flesh and spirit is weak right now as top-down change has sapped much of it from the workforce. “That workforce now needs support and endorsement. Passionate classroom teachers across the country are crying out for it, and they need it now more than ever. “Citizenship as a subject, although it goes by many names, is vital to the revival of our nation: our economic, political, democratic and civil society needs individuals to

recognise their place in the big scheme of things; to appreciate the big ideas that have shaped the past in order to apply their energy to shape our future in a fast-changing world. “Citizenship education is also vulnerable for understandable systematic reasons. Being the last subject into the curriculum, it is not yet sufficiently established to keep priority among the many changes happening in schools. The subject is being taught through fewer explicit lessons and so it’s delivery is watered down. “Fewer teachers are joining the profession to develop the specialist skills to do it justice. Further, the growing emphasis on academic learning is often seen to be in tension with ‘learning for life’, a facet of education which is currently on the back-burner, as many schools reposition themselves for the academic emphasis. “Accordingly it is in danger of being the subject taught badly by teachers enlisted into one or two lessons per week. This all adds up to a situation where it’s low priority, low-emphasis delivery will diminish its value and achieve the very opposite of what the Secretary of State intended by leaving it in the curriculum. “It is now time for action to put the flesh and spirit into citizenship and to bring the dry bone curriculum alive. That is why we are calling for urgent attention and reinvestment from government and school leaders.”

SCHOOL FLEXIBILITY COULD SEE CURRICULUM CHANGES The Department for Education (DFE) has confirmed its intention to disapply elements of the National Curriculum for a time limited period. The DFE says that this is in order to give schools greater flexibility to manage the transition from the existing National Curriculum to the new one. This will mean that while maintained schools will still be required to teach National Curriculum subjects, they will not be required to teach the current programmes of study (or use attainment targets as part of statutory assessment arrangements) from September 2013 for the following subjects: • English, mathematics and science for pupils in year 3 and year 4 • all National Curriculum foundation subjects for pupils at key stages 1 and 2 • all National Curriculum subjects for pupils at key stage 3 and key stage 4. Schools can choose to continue to teach the current programmes of study or they may use the flexibility that disapplication provides to adapt their curricula to ensure that pupils are well-prepared to start the new programmes

of study which will be introduced from September 2014 (or September 2015 for key stage 4 English, mathematics and science). ACT recommends that schools continue to build their curriculum around the existing key stage 3 and 4 Citizenship programmes of study for the academic year2013-14. This also means teachers continue with existing  arrangements for assessment, recording and reporting pupil progress and attainment to parents, including using the eight level scale as the standard against which to assess pupil performance. It is unlikely that the current curriculum turbulence will have subsided by September 2013 and therefore in order to ensure that pupils have the best quality curriculum, teaching and learning, ACT suggest Citizenship teachers should continue their usual practice. Teachers will also want to take the opportunity to look at the revised National Curriculum and begin to plan any necessary changes in teaching and provision. This approach will also help parents feel confident about how their children will be taught and assessed during the period of disapplication in 2013-14.

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The Community Education Awards are back for 2014 and are once again seeking out the people and projects that have gone above and beyond to make a difference within their community. Following the success of the previous two Awards programmes, the Community Education Awards are offering teachers the chance to nominate potential winners across a wide range of subjects. Whether it is a sports club, an individual teacher or even a community member who has contributed to a school’s success, nominations are now being accepted. Back in 2011, a black tie ceremony was hosted by Esther Rantzen at Chigwell Hall, Essex where winners were announced at a special Awards Dinner. The following Awards programme saw winners personally visited and presented with their Award at specially arranged assemblies which could be enjoyed by the whole school and community partners. With both methods of presentation proving to be highly popular, a decision has not yet been made on whether there will be a black tie event for when the winners are announced next May. Here at Citizenship Magazine, we have once again agreed to be involved in the organisation of these Awards. As in previous years, there will be a ‘Citizenship Magazine Outstanding PSHE/Citizenship Teacher Award’. We are already looking forward to hearing the stories of those going the extra mile to promote positive citizenship and PSHE. Here, we give an overview of the Awards list for 2014. If you believe you know someone who should receive one of the following Awards, go to www.communityeducationawards. co.uk and submit your nomination. A shortlist of nominees will be drawn up based on the information provided in the simple nomination form that can be accessed by clicking on the ‘Nominate’ button on the site. If the nominee is selected to appear on this list, the nominator will be asked to provide additional information about the nominee’s work which will help the judges to select the award winner. Keep up to date on the latest news regarding the Awards by following them on Twitter @CommEdAwards or find them on Facebook ‘Community Education Awards’.

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FEATURE – BY ANDREW DAVIES

The Green Schools Sustainability Project Award With the environment under threat, it is incumbent upon schools to encourage children to make responsible choices and develop a sustainable lifestyle. The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain would therefore like to commend those schools that have provided a positive example to pupils and used projects to educate children on topics such as food production and growing your own.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  A garden/nature space project  Has become sustainable  Has had impact on school and/or wider community  Has been researched, developed and implemented with pupils heavily involved in each stage.

Green Awareness Award for an Eco Team or Club Environmental awareness can be hugely beneficial in ensuring children can go on to be good citizens. Therefore this award aims to highlight the positive steps taken in schools the promote awareness of environmental issues and the innovative way the subject can be taught.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  A team or club  Started and organised by pupils  Implemented campaigns/schemes to raise eco-awareness  Evidence of work carried out by the eco-team or club in the community

If you believe you know someone who should receive one of the following Awards, go to www.communityeducationawards.co.uk and submit your nomination The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 13


The Action Against Anti-Social Behaviour Award Anti-social behaviour is a serious problem that affects many communities. The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain thus wish to recognise the efforts of schools that have initiated effective educational projects designed to tackle the issue. Projects should address both the causes and consequences of anti-social behaviour and have an impact on participants’ attitudes.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  Created positive links between schools and the communities that they serve  Shown dedication to tackling anti-social behaviour within their school and community  Installed effective measures to tackle anti-social behaviour  Have seen a reduction in anti-social behaviour as a result of their actions

The Barney and Echo Action Against Bullying Award Bullying can have a devastating effect on a young person’s life. Schools therefore play an important role in eradicating this problem. Projects that attempt to prevent incidents of bullying, that raise awareness of the problem and that offer support for victims will all be welcomed.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  Dedication to tackling bullying  Innovative way of tackling issue  Evidence of planning and development of anti-bullying strategies  Involvement of the wider community or third parties (e.g. police community support officers) If you believe you know someone who should receive one of the following Awards, go to www.communityeducationawards.co.uk and submit your nomination 14 The Citizenship Magazine for Schools


FEATURE – COMMUNITY EDUCATION AWARDS 2014

The Internet Safety and Cyber Bullying Project Award The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain wishes to recognise the work being done within UK schools to ensure that children are able to safely use the internet. Nominated projects should be innovative, practical and up-to-date, while also reinforcing the positive aspects of using the web as a resource.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  Raising awareness about the internet  Dangers of sharing personal information  Look to engage and educate the wider community  Installed measures to ensure the internet is used safely and responsibly

The Outstanding Sports Project Award The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain recognises the positive impact that sports projects can have on young people, helping them to stay fit whilst also learning important lessons about teamwork, discipline and dedication. We would like to commend projects that have brought the best out of participants and combined quality coaching with a fun and inclusive approach to participation.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  Structure  Plan  Application  Content  Outcome  Legacy If you believe you know someone who should receive one of the following Awards, go to www.communityeducationawards.co.uk and submit your nomination The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 15


The Personal Money Management Award The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain recognises the importance of financial education within schools and wishes to commend projects that teach children valuable lessons about money management. Nominated projects should demonstrate an innovative approach to tackling the subject, encourage a responsible attitude to money and have a strong focus on practical application.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  Innovation in the way pupils manage their money  Showed a strong focus on practical application  An initiative or project promoting a responsible attitude to money  Evidence of how the school have benefited from such a project or scheme

The Healthy Lifestyle Initiative Award In recent times, maintaining a healthy lifestyle has become one of the most talked about issues in society. This award recognises the role schools play in the promotion of healthy eating and exercise along with the benefits a balanced diet can have on children’s health now and as they become adults.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  Shown commitment to encouraging healthy eating  Have evidence of posters, leaflets, etc promoting the subject  Involved the wider community in trying to deliver its message  Shown innovation in the teaching of the subject

If you believe you know someone who should receive one of the following Awards, go to www.communityeducationawards.co.uk and submit your nomination 16 The Citizenship Magazine for Schools


FEATURE – COMMUNITY EDUCATION AWARDS 2014

The Action Against Drugs and Alcohol Project Award Alcohol misuse and drugs are significant problems amongst young people in the UK and the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain therefore welcome school projects designed to tackle the issue through education. Nominated projects should provide children and young people with the facts about alcohol abuse as well as practical advice on how to stay safe and seek help.

Judging The judging panel will consist of headteachers, an industry expert, one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following criteria:  Gave an understanding of the effects of alcohol  Improved perceptions and reducing binge drinking  Educated on the health condition surrounding smoking/drugs  Evidence of campaigns/projects used to deliver the message

The Lord John Stephens Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement Award This award is open to any individual who, while working within a UK school or pupil referral unit, has made an outstanding contribution to helping children become positive community members.

Judging The judging panel will consist of one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following categories:  Innovation  Dedication  Expertise  Outcome  Legacy

If you believe you know someone who should receive one of the following Awards, go to www.communityeducationawards.co.uk and submit your nomination


FEATURE – COMMUNITY EDUCATION AWARDS 2014 The Citizenship Magazine Award for Outstanding PSHE/Citizenship Teacher Citizenship Magazine wishes to commend the outstanding work of teachers who deliver PSHE and citizenship education, and celebrate the positive impact that they have on pupils. Nominees for this award category should demonstrate a combination of dedication, innovation and expertise in their work that has resulted in successful outcomes for their students.

Judging The judging panel will consist of one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following categories:  Innovation  Dedication  Expertise  Outcome  Legacy

The Barry Jones MBE Award for Outstanding Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) Mentor For those pupils who do not attend a mainstream school, pupil referral units offer an invaluable means of continuing their education. The learning mentors attached to such units work tirelessly to help children to overcome whatever barriers they may face. Founder of the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain, Barry Jones MBE, wishes to commend those learning mentors who have shown the most dedication to their roles.

Judging The judging panel will consist of one representative each from the Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates as well as one brand ambassador. They will base their evaluation of each nominee on the following categories:  Innovation  Dedication  Expertise  Outcome  Legacy If you believe you know someone who should receive one of the following Awards, go to www.communityeducationawards.co.uk and submit your nomination 18 The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 18


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LESSON ACTIVITY

A ROUGH GUIDE TO What makes a good friend? Below is a list of attributes which pupils like in their friends. These can be shared with a class and be added to during a group discussion.  show an interest in what people do  are good at giving compliments without going over the top  go around school with a smile on their face  laugh at people’s jokes  are kind  ask, not demand, to join in conversations or games  offer to help others with work or carry things for them  invite people to do something  hang around places where other students are  are welcoming to new students in the class  are good at thinking of something interesting to do  are willing to share  are humorous and tell jokes  are fair  are good at organising games or activities

How not to make friends… Now here is a list of traits which can be associated with those who perhaps are not good friends. Once again these can be discussed and each trait can be explained why they are not characteristics of a good friend. 20 The Citizenship Magazine for Schools

 being bossy  telling others how to play  telling others they are doing things wrong  talking about yourself all the time  being mean  talking about other students behind their backs  being negative and sarcastic  being too intense or serious all the time  boasting too much  moaning all the time  being a bully  claiming credit for something you haven’t done  lying or cheating


Making friends and keeping those relationships strong can be tough. Here we try and provide some helpful hints and tips that could see pupils in your class be a good friend to others as well as identifying traits in people that would make them want to be friends with that person.

BEING A GOOD FRIEND… Are you a good friend? Ask pupils to think about their friendships and how they make new friends. When they are trying to make friends, do they:  have good eye contact? Looking in a pleasant way at people show shows you are interested in them.  listen to what the other person says? Listening is an important skill. Everyone likes other people to pay attention to what they say - it makes them feel good.  look friendly? No one wants to be around someone who is angry and emits unfriendly signals. Sometimes you may need to act friendly, even if you don’t feel that way. You may have to be an actor and pretend.

Who do you want to be friends with? Everyone is different. One person’s friend maybe another person’s enemy. Below are a few examples of what some pupils may look for in their friends. This can be used as a discussion topic in which pupils may find they have common interests with others. A friend could be someone who:  enjoys the same music, computer games  enjoys camping or outdoor type activities  would be a friend at lunch and break times  would like to come over to your house  is a person who is kind and thoughtful  was not too loud or boisterous  liked to laugh

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LESSON ACTIVITY Little steps towards making a new friend You don’t need to rush up to someone and say “can you come over to my house tomorrow night for tea and then on Saturday we’ll go swimming and afterwards we can have a burger and.....”. The other person might be quite put off. Emphasise to pupils that in many cases, friendships take time. The first step is to start a conversation. This can be scary and nerve wracking. Adults sometimes say that any intelligent thought they’ve ever had vanishes and they become blithering idiots when beginning a conversation with someone they hardly know. Make children aware of this and it can settle some nerves knowing that their parents (and teacher) have shared the same experience. What they might need are some phrases or two that get you over that first hurdle. In groups, discuss how you might begin a conversation if you were looking to make friends. These could be something like:  Did you see the programme last night about........?  What did you think of it? Since most people watch television, this could be a common starting point.  What did you think about the homework we had last night?  I liked your drawing. What kinds of things do you like to draw?  What did you do over the school holidays (or at the weekend)?

Changing behaviour to make friends Some pupils may find it difficult to make friends and as a result have to change their habits if they want to build friendships. Common habits which could be changed are:  having a quick temper  being bossy or refusing to share  being rude  not listening when people are talking to you

There may be a variety of reasons thrown up by class members but it’s important to hear them all and discuss them. This can go a long way towards teaching children the importance of being tolerant towards others.

Falling out with Friends It’s important to recognise that friendships won’t always go according to plan. You may try to be friends with someone, but occasionally it just doesn’t work out for reasons you can’t do anything about. It could just be that you can’t find anything in common. It might be that you used to be friends but now enjoy doing completely different things. Or a friend may have personal problems and just want to be left alone for a while. Friends also may decide to do something which you do not want to do such as bullying someone. Remind pupils to keep in mind that real friends do not force people to do things that are harmful to themselves or to others. So if a friend says “let’s steal from the shop and if you don’t I’m not your friend anymore” or “if you don’t join in bullying that kid, then our friendship is over”, the friendship wasn’t worth anything. Some friendships come and go. Some will last a lifetime, others could last only a day. If you’ve tried your best, that’s all you can do and true friends will appreciate that.


LESSON ACTIVITY Broadening horizons, making new friends Children can increase the number of people they are friends with by developing skills and interests. If you like sports, it can be useful to find out about Saturday sports clubs or after school lessons. Encourage pupils to look into swimming, dance, tennis and gymnastics classes. Check out the local Scout and Guide groups as well as acting or martial arts classes. For those who are interested in music, the taking of music lessons or learning to play the guitar can be an excellent way to meet people who share your interests. Not only will these things increase a child’s self-confidence, they will give them a whole new group of people from which to find friends.

Keeping your friends Tell the class that whatever you do, don’t throw away old friends when you make new ones. This message can be emphasised by adopting the class motto ‘Fickle friends break many a heart’. Being someone’s friend and having friends of your own can be an excellent way of stamping out bullying. Having people you can trust to go to if you are being bullied is important and can help give you the confidence to approach a teacher to talk about it. So don’t sit back and let the bullies win. Get out there and make friends!

Finally, re-cap on what you could do to make friends…  Smile, be pleasant and say ‘hello’ to people. We are all more attracted to nice people.  Make the first move. Reach out and don’t always wait for someone else to say hello or ask you to do something.  Learn to be a good listener. Everyone likes to be listened to and it is one of the things people value most in a friend.  Don’t expect everyone to be just like you. It is better to have friends who have their own ideas and opinions. It would be boring if we all thought and acted the same.  Ask lots of questions. A good way to let other people know you are interested in them is to ask about what they like and what they think.  Don’t moan all the time. If you only use your friends to talk about your problems, they will get tired of hearing constant tales of woe. Talk about good things, as well.  Beware of false friends. Sometimes we stay with friends because there is no one else around. Watch out for ‘friends’ who try to make you do things you don’t want to do or which they know are wrong.  Don’t bug people - if they don’t want to be friends, move on to someone else. Not all friendships work out.


WHAT IS FRIEN DSHIP AN D DO WE NEED A BEST FRIEN D?

When children are asked about what they think is important in their lives, playing and friends is usually at the top of the list.

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t the start of every academic year, it doesn’t matter if you are in nursery school or beginning university, friendships will be formed. They can be friendships which last a few weeks, a few months or remain through to adulthood. Encouraging pupils to make friends from an early age can give them crucial social skills which will stay with them as they grow up into positive community members. For parents, they all want their child to make friends and enjoy close, lasting and genuine relationships. Everyone enjoys watching their friendships with other children flourish, sharing in their joy as they make special bonds with other children, and seeing how their friendships enhance their confidence and social skills. Friendship can be described as

FEATURE - BY ANDREW DAVIES a type of relationship between two people who care about each other. However, such a basic definition doesn’t necessarily do the concept of friendship justice. Finding friendship at a young age could help build trust and loyalty. In the time that follows, that friend or group of friends will be there to share in experiences both good and bad. In May this year, a headteacher of a leading primary school said young children should not have best friends because it could leave others feeling ostracised and hurt. Parents of children at the private day school in south-west London were told it’s not good for their offspring to have best friends. Instead they should be encouraged to have “lots of good friends” to avoid overly possessive relationships and upsetting fall-outs, headteacher Ben Thomas was quoted by the

Daily Telegraph as saying. This wasn’t the first time schools have been reported to suggest a “no best friends” policy. Last year, Gaynor Sbuttoni, who provides counselling for children in London, said it was increasingly common for teachers to encourage pupils to play in large groups instead of developing tight-knit bonds. But does that then mean children should grow up without a ‘best friend’? Many disagree with Mr Thomas’ view point on the issue. Judith Mortell, an educational psychologist, told The Sunday Times some schools view the policy as a waste of valuable curriculum time, while others see it as part of a holistic approach to eduction. National Association of Teachers general secretary, Russel Hobby,

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FEATURE - WHAT IS FRIENDSHIP? added: “I don’t see how you can stop people forming close friendships. We make and lose friends throughout our lives.” Many qualities are necessary for a good friendship, including honesty, trustworthiness, loyalty and unconditional acceptance. A friendship should make both people in the relationship happy; both people should have fun when they spend time together. There can be interventions whereby supposed ‘triangle friendships’ which see’s one child left out are avoided. But surely there will always be a part of our make up which will see a ‘best friend’ emerge from a group no matter how much effort is put into making sure a child has a wide group of friends as oppose to just one individual. This isn’t an issue for the UK alone. In 2010, the New York Times reported there was trouble ahead for the classic best-friend bond, after a number of schools and summer camps had signalled their intent to discourage children from pairing up.

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Critics have said banning best friends to ensure that no-one is left out prevents young people from learning about the ups and downs of life. “If children are stopped from getting these negative experiences, they will end up being emotionally stunted - they need to learn to cope with being snubbed and other normal emotional experiences,” said Dennis Hayes, professor of education at the University of Derby. The notion of not becoming reliant on one close relationship can be put down to adults looking at their own experiences, like break-ups and divorces, and making the mistake of treating children’s emotions as if they were adults, which is an argument made by Mr Hayes. And by putting the spotlight on the negative aspects of close friendships, such as the friendship breaking down, adults are simply exaggerating day-to-day experiences. Mr Hayes is said to recognise the importance of a teacher having a

“chat with children in the corridor” if they are experiencing problems. But, beyond that, he believes there shouldn’t be too much intervention. “The danger is if adults direct everything, children will be less able to form their own relationships in later life,” he has commented. It will be interesting to see how the development of children’s friendships adapts in the future. Whether that ‘best friend’ is replaced by a group of good friends. I personally have my doubts and believe that there will always be a single person you confide in more and enjoy the company more than anyone else. For whatever friendships develop, the importance of making friends should never be understated. Whether it be a large circle, or one person you call your best friend; pupils should be encouraged to make the most of the friendships they make. If they do, it can only help every friendship they make going forward.


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FEATURE - BY ANDREW DAVIES

Is social media affecting how we forge friendships?

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rowing up, I remember the interaction with fellow pupils. I remember making friends and enjoying spending time developing social skills that would be needed during the transition phase of childhood when you began high school. Being a member of a football team, I was lucky that I was able to interact with lads from other schools so that when I did progress to secondary education, I did so knowing that I would be going to meet my mates there. Fast forward to now and it concerns me somewhat that things have changed so much. Socialising is no longer done in the playground, it’s done in the chat room. Making new friends is not achieved through a personal approach and a face to face conversation, it is done through a click of a mouse and a ‘friend request’. Technology as we all know, is very much here to stay. Despite its benefits though, when it comes to how we socialise particularly

at a young age, there is a dark side. And although the study of social media effects on children is relatively new, evidence has been found that there are problems as well as pros. With more than a billion users chatting, sharing photos and playing games, there is simply no getting away from Facebook. It can be a terrific platform for keeping in touch but what about when a dependency to know what everyone is up to becomes a depression? ‘Facebook Depression’, is a growing phenomenon which also includes anxiety, other psychiatric disorders, and a range of unhealthy behaviours. One of the most comprehensive studies  to date found that Facebook overuse among teens was significantly correlated with narcissism. Among young adults, Facebook overuse was also associated with Histrionic Personality Disorder, Anti-social Personality Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Sadistic, PassiveAggressive, Borderline, Paranoid, and Somatoform Personality

Disorders. This study also explored the strength of Facebook use as a predictor of these psychiatric disorders and found that, even when demographics, such as age, gender, median income, ethnicity, and education were controlled, Facebook use was one of the three strongest predictors. That may seem extreme. In a Huffington Post article, it was reported that an analysis of 15 studies found that increased media exposure, including television, movies, video games, and the internet, was associated with violent behaviour and isolation. It reported that children who watched violent shows were not only more likely to be more aggressive, but also to have fewer friends and to be more secluded socially. The researchers concluded that children who are aggressive will have fewer friends and be more likely to be bullies (because they are more aggressive) or victims of bullying (because they are isolated). In another study of adolescent girls, it was found that the more The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 31


they used texting, instant messaging and other social media to discuss their problems, particularly romantic difficulties, the more depressive symptoms they presented. The researchers argued that the ease and frequency that technology affords children to communicate allows them to ‘co-ruminate,’ that is, dwell on their problems without providing any solutions. There is also a wider concern beyond Facebook and that is ‘internet addiction’. This is commonly characterised as excessive use of the internet that interferes with daily functioning and that can lead to distress or harm. A review of research from the past decade has found that adolescents who demonstrated internet addiction scored higher for obsessive-compulsive behaviour, depression, generalised and social anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, introversion, and other maladaptive behaviours. At the moment there is considerable debate within the mental-health field about whether 32 The Citizenship Magazine for Schools

dependence on technology is a true addiction, like alcohol, drugs, or gambling. But while that debate goes on, there can be clear adverse effects of depending on the internet to make and maintain friendships at an early age. On the flip side of the argument, studies have shown that more time spent with social media is related to increased ‘virtual empathy,’ meaning that expressed through technology, and ‘realworld empathy’ (considered a related, but separate factor). The best predictor of virtual empathy was the time spent on Facebook and the use of instant messaging. More of both forms of empathy means more social support, always a good thing for children. The use of social media can be a perfect way for those children who are shy in the classroom to have the confidence to interact online. It can take away the awkwardness of talking to someone for the first time and can be a way of developing social skills ‘at a distance’. A Facebook status is a lot easier a way to say how you feel than to speak to someone at

times and within an instant you can find a number of friends offering support and advice. Often with topics such as this there is a call for balance and parent responsibility. This is no different. My concern however is that whilst social media may provide an outlet for a shy person to get over their shyness, it doesn’t provide a solution to overcoming it. Job interviews, the working environment, university and college; they will be experienced without the help of a keyboard introduction. Those first few interactions can develop the skills which could see a first impression secure a university place or dream job. In my opinion, social media can be great for friendships but as a way of keeping and staying in touch with a friend. Call me old fashioned, but when friends recall how they met at school it can be a wonderful tale and a show of how far the friendship has come. I don’t think a friend request through a ‘people you may know’ option on Facebook quite has the same effect.


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New Government Plans aim to raise standards in our Primary Schools

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his summer, the government announced plans for higher standards along with a “bigger pupil premium” for primary schools. Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg, and Schools Minister, David Laws, launched an online consultation setting out proposals to reform the way primary schools are held to account and raise standards for all in July. The new system is said to be more ambitious, setting out clear expectations of what every child needs to achieve to be ready for secondary school. In 2010, 60 per cent of 11-yearolds needed to clear a “low bar” at the end of primary school. As more and more children have surpassed this basic level, primary schools will now be asked to raise their game. Proposals put forward by the coalition government say that from 2016 primary schools will need to have at least 85 per cent of their 11-year-olds above a new more stretching threshold and ready for secondary school. In order to help schools reach this ambitious goal, the Deputy Prime Minister announced the

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biggest ever rise in the pupil premium for primary schools. It will be increased to £1,300 per disadvantaged primary school pupil in 2014/15, up from £900 per child this year. This will help to make sure that more pupils are able to achieve higher standards. Nick Clegg said: “Every primary school should strive to make its pupils ready for secondary school by the time they leave. All the evidence shows that if you start behind, you stay behind. A better start at secondary school is a better start in life. “I make no apology for having high ambitions for our pupils. But for children to achieve their potential we need to raise the bar - in terms of tests, pass marks and minimum standards. I am confident that primary schools and their pupils will meet that challenge. “To help more children achieve this, I am delighted to announce a significant increase in the pupil premium at primary level. This increase in money for every eligible primary school child, alongside our reforms to the national curriculum, to statutory assessment and to school accountability for primary schools will help ensure that all pupils are

ready to reach their full potential in secondary school. This is a higher bar but with more money to help children over it. This combination will allow all our children to get the best possible start in life.” Schools Minister, David Laws added: “It is vital that we set high aspirations for all schools and pupils. Our new targets will prepare children for success. At the moment, pupils are being asked to reach a bar that too often sets them up for failure not success. “So that all children – whatever their circumstances - can arrive in secondary school ready to succeed, we are giving significantly more money to primary school pupils eligible for the pupil premium. This will support this step-change in ambition.” The consultation document published outlines proposals for: • higher ‘floor’ standards. These would still be based on a combination of pupil attainment and progress. It is proposed that the attainment element is set considerably higher – with at least 85 per cent of a school’s pupils (except those with particular


TALKING POINT special needs) expected to reach a good level of attainment. But progress will be a key element to reflect the challenging intakes of some schools, and schools will need to be below both measures to be below the floor. • updated tests for 11-year-olds, in line with the higher expectations of the new national curriculum. The tests would be in maths; reading; and spelling, punctuation and grammar. The science test for a sample of pupils would also remain. • higher expectations of what pupils should achieve. There would be a new “scaled score”, which would be the same for all tests and remain the same over years. It would be set at the level at which 11-year-olds would be considered “secondary ready”. These scaled scores are used in international tests, including PISA, PIRLS and TIMSS. The old system of levels – with level 4 the expected level – will be removed and not replaced as they are unambitious, too broad and do not give parents a meaningful picture of how their children are performing. • new school-led systems of assessing pupil performance. In line with the freedom to develop their own school curricula, and the removal of the levels system, schools will be given the freedom to design their own systems of measuring pupil performance, and reporting this to parents, such as through clearer school reports. Ofsted will need to see evidence of pupils’ progress but inspections will be based on whatever pupil tracking data schools choose to keep. • a new reporting method which would see each pupil compared against their peers nationally. Each pupil would be placed in 10

per cent bands, or deciles. Pupils’ positions will only be made available to parents and schools. A baseline assessment is needed to measure the progress that has been made by 11-year-olds. The consultation makes no recommendations on this point, and invites suggestions from interested parties on when to take a baseline. For instance, this could be at age seven, as now, where teachers assess pupils; or a simple check of a child’s ability in the early weeks of a child’s career at school. If a school falls below the floor target, they are prioritised for rapid improvement and an Ofsted inspection is triggered. Next year, a primary school will be below the floor if: • fewer than 65 per cent of its 11-year-old pupils achieve level 4 or above in reading, writing teacher assessment, and maths • it is below the England median for progression by 2 levels in reading, in writing teacher assessment, and in maths This year, a primary school will be below the floor if: • fewer than 60 per cent of its 11-year-old pupils achieve level 4 or above in all of reading, writing teacher assessment, and maths • it is below the median for progression in reading, writing teacher assessment and maths There is strong evidence that higher ambition and higher floor standards lead to higher standards. • in 2010 the government changed the floor standard to 60 per cent attainment with a progress element. That year (even though a quarter of primary schools did not administer tests for 11-year-olds),

962 schools were below the floor • in 2011, when the standard was the same, 1,310 were below the floor • last year, that had fallen to 476 schools were below the floor The new “secondary ready” bar will ensure all primary schools have high aspirations. Statistics show that currently many pupils achieve a level 4 – but only at the lower end (level 4c). But the difference between academic achievement at secondary school between these pupils and those who manage a “good” level 4 (level 4a or 4b) is significant: • 81 per cent of pupils who had scored in the top third of the level 4 mark range in both English and maths went on to achieve at least 5 A*-C GCSE grades including English and maths last year • 72 per cent of pupils who had scored in the top or middle third of the level 4 mark range in both English and maths went on to achieve at least five A*-C GCSE grades including English and maths last year but 47 per cent of pupils who did not score in the top or middle third of the level 4 mark range in both English and maths went on to achieve at least five A*-C GCSE grades including English and maths last year In 2012, only 68 per cent of 11-year-olds eligible for the pupil premium achieved the expected level in English and maths. Eighty-four per cent of all other pupils aged 11 achieved that. Will these proposals help raise standards? Join the debate on Twitter by following @Citizenship_Mag

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GROW YOUR OWN - LESSON PLAN

GrowYour Own

Garlic We hope that the summer saw plenty of outdoor teaching and the weather provided an opportunity for pupils to grow their own fruit and vegetables. Now the new academic year is underway, it does not mean that outdoor learning should be shelved. Once again we provide another Grow Your Own guide which could be used in your class. This time around, we look at growing garlic.

36 The Citizenship Magazine for Schools

Garlic is a really healthy vegetable, and is popular in Mediterranean and Asian cooking, so it’s hardly surprising it has become popular to grow at home. Garlic is simple to grow and you’ll get plenty of fat, juicy garlic bulbs, if you grow in a sunny site. Don’t be tempted to plant garlic cloves from the supermarket though, buy from a garden centre or mail order supplier.

Plant • Garlic grows well in any sunny, fertile site. For every square metre add 50g (2oz) of general-purpose fertiliser before planting. • It is best not to plant garlic cloves bought from a supermarket – they may carry disease and may not be suited to the climate. Instead, buy them from a garden centre or mail order supplier. • Garlic is best planted in late autumn or early winter; the general rule of thumb is to plant cloves before Christmas. • Break up the bulbs and plant individual cloves just below the soil surface 15cm (6in) apart and in rows 30cm (12in) apart. • Prevent birds from pulling up the cloves by


covering the rows with horticultural fleece.

Grow • Garlic casts no shade and is vulnerable to being smothered by weeds. You can avoid this by removing weeds regularly before they become established. • Garlic does not need additional watering, although during spring and early summer an occasional thorough watering during dry spells will improve yields. Don’t water once the bulbs are large and well-formed, as this could encourage rotting. • Snip off any flowers that form – they seldom do.

Harvest • Green leaves can be gathered green and used as a garnish or in salads, but the bulbs are harvested once the leaves have turned yellow. • Carefully lift them with a fork or hand fork. • Lay out the bulbs to dry in an airy place. When rustling dry they can be stored in ventilated containers until you’re ready to use them. • Often ‘top sets’ or garlic cloves form on the stalk. This is due to changeable weather in spring. Gather and use the top sets in the usual way.

that survives in the soil for a long time. There is no chemical control. • Leek rust: This is a fungal disease causing bright yellow spots on the leaves. It is often worse in long, wet spells. Remedy: Mild attacks of rust won’t affect the plant, but serious infections may cause leaves to shrivel and affect yield. There is no control for rust once you have the infection. Make sure you don’t crowd plants as this increases both humidity and the likelihood of infection. Dispose of any badly affected plant material, and don’t grow garlic, leeks or onions in the same spot for three years. • Birds: These can be a problem, pulling the shallow-rooting plants out of the ground. Remedy: Place chicken wire, fleece or plastic netting over plants to keep the birds off. They are usually not such a problem when the plants are older and growing strongly Source: Royal Horticultural Society www.rhs.org.uk

Varieties • ‘Solent White’ AGM: Very attractive bulbs that are well adapted to the British climate. The bulbs store well into the following spring. • ‘Purple Wight’: An early garlic with purple-streaked bulbs. It is best used fresh as it doesn’t store well. • ‘Arno’ AGM: An attractive garlic with ivory-white skin covering pink cloves. Stores well. • ‘Spanish Roja’: An old cultivar with a strong flavour. The cloves are easy to peel and store well.

Problems • Onion white rot: This fungus causes the leaves to wilt and turn yellow. Under wet conditions, the plants may not wilt but will become loose in the soil. If you lift them, you will see a white fluffy growth on the bulbs. Remedy: Throw out any infected bulbs, and don’t grow leeks, onions or garlic in that spot again for at least eight years. This is a very persistent fungus The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 37


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38 The Citizenship Magazine for Schools

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CITIZENSHIP The Police Community Clubs

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ONLINE WWW.THECITIZENSHIPMAGAZINE.CO.UK There’s much more to our website than just the latest issue… News – Our news section provides you with all of the latest developments in PSHE and citizenship Twitter – Social media enthusiasts can follow the @Citizenship_Mag account and have updates sent straight to their own home page Blog – Our editor, Andrew Davies, offers advice, reflections and insights e-Subscription service – We offer a free subscription service that enables readers to receive a round-up of the latest news as well as links to new features and resources

Our website also makes it even easier for you to get in touch and contribute to Citizenship. We welcome anyone who wishes to provide feedback, suggestions or resource contributions. All methods of contact can be found on the site.

The Citizenship Magazine for Schools 39


LESSON PLANS

PSHE - FRIENDSHIPS Will you be my friend?

You may have asked someone this question. Someone may have asked you the question. What does it mean? What do you want them to do for you? What sort of person do you want them to be? Fill in the table below about what you expect from a friend This is my friend This is my friend I want them to be willing to… I want them to be the sort of person who is …

Now compare your list to two other people so there are three in the group. What things are the same? What are different?

Class Discussion Will you be my best friend? Why is this question different to the first question? What are the good things about having a ‘best’ friend? What can go wrong when you have a ‘best’ friend? How can we stop best friend problems arising?

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How good a friend am I?

Can you think of three things that make you a good friend? 1_____________________________________________ 2_____________________________________________ 3_____________________________________________

Now think of three things that could make you a better friend: 1_____________________________________________ 2_____________________________________________ 3_____________________________________________ Think about what you need to do to look after your friendships _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

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BARNEY & ECHO FROM THE POLICE COMMUNITY CLUBS

CITIZENSHIP PROJECT The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain in partnership with Community Initiatives Associates helps to educate children on environmental issues by delivering the Barney & Echo Citizenship Project to schools.

Sparky's Big Idea poster set


Sparky’s Big Idea: Barney Says Let’s Talk about The Environment is the latest title in the range of Barney and Echo educational resources for schools. The book was developed to help teachers and parents introduce primary school children to the topic of the environment in an ageappropriate manner, enabling pupils to understand both the nature of the problems the environment faces and also the importance of sustainability. With the environment under threat, it is incumbent of schools to encourage children to make responsible choices and develop a sustainable lifestyle. Aimed at pupils in key stage 1-2, Sparky’s Big Idea aims to educate children on the importance of protecting the environment and using sustainable energy. Sparky’s Big Idea is the sixth book in the series. Living in a forest, there appears to be an endless supply of wood but as the animals use it up without planting new trees the forest starts to die. Sparky Fox tries to tell everyone to recycle and save energy but nobody will listen until the Treetop Forest

Council announce that they will need to cut down an area of forest to supply wood for the winter. This includes cutting down Echo Squirrel’s home. It’s time for change and with Sparky’s help, Echo starts an Eco Club. The mixture of puzzles and activities that punctuate the narrative then offer them the chance to consider their own thoughts on the issues raised which they can then discuss with others in the group. In addition to the resource itself, all schools will benefit from the Sparky’s Big Idea schools programme pack including colourful and informative posters, a dramatisation of the book and extra lesson plans to be found online on our dedicated website www.barneyecho.co.uk. There are also five other books in the series. The Magic Mirror addresses the dangers of drugs, tobacco and alcohol in a fun but informative way by looking at how a group of friends cope with harmful substances. A Friendship Made tackles issues relating to bullying and vandalism, and examines what life would be like

For more information please go to

www.barneyecho.co.uk To see additional projects that The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain are involved in visit www.policecommunityclubs.org

in a society where people have no respect for each other or the environment. Echo’s New Watch approaches the dangers of knife crime within the social environment of children. Caught in the Web tackles internet safety and The Bad Apples looks at anti-social behaviour. These stories are intended to not only warn children about the dangers that they might be confronted with in everyday life, but also to educate children and their carers on numerous subjects relating to the promotion of life skills. Included with each title is a play based upon the narrative of the book which pupils can use as part of their lesson plan, and posters which convey the message of each resource booklet. As part of promoting the citizenship programme, The Police Community Clubs of Great Britain and Community Initiatives Associates hold instructive conferences at which schools and organisations involved in sponsorship and support of the programme can come together and share ideas.


Citizenship Magazine - Issue 15  

Our latest edition focuses on the role friendships can play in a child's personal development and also brings you up to date with the latest...

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