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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

of cleantech in western Switzerland

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CleantechAlps Western Switzerland Cleantech Cluster c/o CimArk, Rte du Rawyl 47, CH - 1950 Sion +41 27 606 88 60

+41 27 606 88 69

info@cleantech-alps.com

www.cleantech-alps.com

CleantechAlps est une initiative des Cantons de Berne, Fribourg, Vaud, Neuchâtel, Genève, Valais , et Jura, soutenue par le Secrétariat d'Etat à l'économie (SECO)


Summary Editorial

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En route for a renewable future A spotlight on the know-how in western Switzerland

What is cleantech ?

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Focus on water sector

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Water treatment in western Switzerland 

Overview of the water treatment players

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An expert talks about...

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« North-South Partnerships » to improve drinking water quality and sanitation

Portrait 20 SMIXIN, using well what is important Reinhart Hydrocleaning prolongs the life of pipes  hepia, combining planting with water treatment DLK Technologies – an ecological approach with economical solutions 

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Summary Focus on photovoltaics sector

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Photovoltaic solar power in western Switzerland 

Overview of the players in PV energy

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An expert talks about...

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Research should be given the necessary backing to give photovoltaics the support it needs

Portrait 34 DuPont de Nemours : aiming for more durable solar panels The Swiss Solar Technology Hub – a community of industrial players  Sputnik Engineering AG, transforming solar energy into electricity Flexcell, solar panels made in Switzerland 

Focus on smart grids sector

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The smart grid in western Switzerland 

Overview of the smart grid players

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An expert talks about...

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Smart grids, an opportunity for industry

Portrait 46 Geroco, ready for the smart grid Schneider Electric  : meeting future energy needs through energy management HES-SO, involved with smart grids from their inception Saia-Burgess Controls, saving energy through automation

CleantechAlps, serving businesses and institutions

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Lexicon Cleantech

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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The key words to guarantee a secure energy supply are resource efficiency and cleantech.


© Conférence Innovation 2010

Editorial En route for a renewable future Switzerland is seeing the dawn of a new energy era. The Federal Council and the National Council have decided to abandon nuclear power progressively, in favour of further reinforcing renewable energy sources. This reorientation of the energy policy is necessary given that the whole of the electricity supply infrastructure – power stations, grids, connections – is to be renewed and adapted in line with the new prevailing conditions (technology, increased number of consumers, other production methods). At the same time, for reasons connected with climate policy and the use of resources, we should make every effort to find replacements for fossil fuels in the longer term and to increase energy efficiency. New technologies enable us to guarantee a secure, clean and economical electricity supply. The key words here are resource efficiency and cleantech. The Swiss economy is already well-prepared in this area, as we have a huge store of knowledge and a tradition of innovation. What we need now is to make even better use of this potential and to ensure an optimum position for Switzerland on the international stage. In order to promote innovation in the area even more effectively, the Confederation intends to combine forces from the scientific, economic and political environments. The Cleantech Master Plan adopted to this end is an ideal coordination instrument that will show the way in the difficult transformation process over the coming decades, as well as providing a useful reference for all interested parties. The road to be travelled will be laborious and full of pitfalls, but we will get there in the end because we know where we are heading. I am grateful for the support we receive from partners such as the CleantechAlps Cluster.

Doris Leuthard Head of the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC)

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Editorial A spotlight on the know-how in western Switzerland Since its launch in June 2010, the CleantechAlps platform has worked hard to increase the activities undertaken for the benefit of the institutions and companies in western Switzerland working with clean technologies. The aim is to fulfil the role of facilitator and portal for cleantech in the region, initiating and reinforcing links between the different players in the field. In the current environment, where the term “cleantech” is on everyone’s lips, it has been essential to take a step back, to define the framework for intervention and to clarify what is, and isn’t, cleantech. Having done this, the foundations are now in place for shifting the debate from the macroeconomic to the microeconomic level. Global allegations are being left behind in favour of verifying at individual organisation level, on the ground, the truth of the hypotheses and the various general pronouncements. It is against this background that we have drawn up this report, adopting the pragmatic approach of concentrating on three fields where western Switzerland is particularly strong: photovoltaic solar energy, water treatment and smart grids. This study would benefit from being pursued further as the opportunity arises.

The value chain and an overview of the technological players This report not only gives an overview of the enterprises and organisations active in these three fields, but also indicates their positions in the value chain drawn up for each field. These overviews are augmented by the opinion of a recognised expert in each field, who will provide a concrete illustration of the subject in question and highlight the know-how that exists in the seven cantons of western Switzerland. A gallery of company portraits will complete the picture. Nowhere near all the sectors are represented in this publication – we have deliberately chosen three, focussing not on the sector as a whole, but more specifically on the technological players, because of their impact on the future make-up of the economy. If this publication receives a favourable response, it will be followed by further studies for those sectors deemed to have priority, or to examine certain aspects of them in greater depth.

The first cleantech lexicon Finally, we offer you the first “Cleantech Lexicon”, the aim of which is to define all the organisations, projects, programmes and technical terms relating directly or indirectly to clean technologies. This inventory is not intended to be exhaustive, but should provide a basic reference point in a subject area that is currently experiencing some extremely lively debates, and one where a common basis is lacking. We considered it essential to fix a set of specific definitions and to list the major players in our region. This publication will enable CleantechAlps to highlight the excellence and the skills to be found in western Switzerland, and will ensure that the platform fulfils its role of inter-cantonal driving force behind the development of clean technologies. We hope that the following pages will give you a wealth of information, and we would of course be pleased to discuss any of the issues raised with you. Happy reading!

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

Eric Plan Chief Operating Officer of CleantechAlps


© Jenni Energietechnik

What is cleantech? Cleantech covers those technologies, products and services which provide for the sustainable utilisation of natural resources and the production of renewable energy. They aim in particular to reduce the consumption of these resources and to conserve the natural systems affected. The new technologies have a fundamental role here.

More than just technology However, clean technologies are not only about the simple utilisation of innovative technologies that safeguard natural resources. Cleantech reflects a set of ideas, an attitude, reactions and a way of life which inspire individuals and companies in all sectors and throughout all the continents to act in a way that conserves resources. Human activities and economic processes should therefore be rethought in order to incorporate the principle of the efficient, respectful use of raw materials, energy and water. These conditions pave the way for an era of true sustainable development, which rests on three fundamental pillars: the environment, the economy and society.

An important niche in the economy In Switzerland, the area of cleantech currently employs some 160,000 people, 4.5% of the total workforce. It generates a gross added value that varies between CHF 18 and 20 billion per annum, almost 3.5% of the gross domestic product.

And yet a field that does not formally exist... There is no specific industrial sector as such – we are talking of technologies, products or services that are connected with a number of areas of application, such as: Renewable energies (photovoltaic and thermal solar energy, wind power, small hydro, geothermal energy, etc.) – Energy efficiency – Energy storage – Renewable materials – Waste management and recycling – Sustainable management and treatment of water – Sustainable mobility – Sustainable management of agriculture and forestry – White biotechnology – Biomass energy – Smart grids – Industrial ecology – Environmental technology in the strict sense of the term (including measuring technology, cleaning up contaminated sites, filtering technology, etc.). Ultimately it is a crossover sector affecting the majority of the economy.

Note : If you are unsure of a term, you can look up the definition in the Cleantech Lexicon, from page 52.

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Focus on water sector Water treatment in western Switzerland

1. Introduction Not only famous for its chocolate, watches and banks, Switzerland also has a reputation as Europe’s water reservoir, a unique position which it shares with the neighbouring Alpine regions in France, Germany, Austria and Italy. In view of the scheduled withdrawal from nuclear power and the European Union climate policy, the objective of which is to integrate 20% renewable energies into the network by 2020, the importance of hydroelectricity has never been so great. The future of energy in Europe is exemplified by the concept of the Desertec foundation, namely the generation of electricity from all the renewable sources (wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, biomass, hydro and geothermal) at the places where these resources exist in abundance, and the transfer of the electricity from all the sources combined by high-voltage direct current lines. A simplified overview would envisage a future European energy system made up of wind power on the northern coasts, solar energy in the southern regions and hydropower in the centre. Hydroelectricity is thus used as an operating reserve to even out the intermittent production from the other sources, giving the Alpine countries a central role. Who says that Switzerland has no resources other than its know-how ? This may well be something to silence the country’s detractors, but is not the objective of this study. Let us leave behind the energy-related aspects, largely covered in the section on smart grids (p. 38...), and concentrate on water in itself.

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Switzerland benefits from an advantageous situation in terms of the supply and quality of its water, but this is not the case for the rest of the world. In the early years of the 21st century, an impending demographic explosion and an estimated population of over nine billion by 2050 mean that our society is facing two major challenges – water and energy.

An attractive opportunity for technological development Global demographic growth and the renewal of waterrelated infrastructures are significant challenges, not only technological in nature but also social (see in this context the article by Chris Zurbrügg on page 18). The water sector is without doubt on the threshold of a revolution. What will the water networks of the future be like ? Will we stick to centralised solutions, cumbersome and maintenanceCleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

intensive, or will decentralised distribution systems take over, as has been the case with telecommunications after the arrival of mobile technologies ? This is without doubt an attractive technological and commercial development opportunity for the enterprises of the region. Western Switzerland has a substantial ecosystem of technology enterprises in the area of water treatment, enterprises that are ready to face up to these challenges. The aim of this study is to take stock of the main players, but also to ascertain the value and relevance of this local industry as it relates to the global market.

2. Water treatment : definition and issues involved The field of water and the use thereof is huge. From the perspective of the CleantechAlps platform, dedicated to the development of clean technologies, the subject of water is approached from the angle of water conservation in the context of the sustainable development or our society. With regard to the fabric of the region’s economy and the observation made in the introduction, the focus of this study has been on the drinking water distribution and waste water treatment sectors. The other applications, connected with energy, irrigation, health, welfare and others, have not been addressed here. In the context of water treatment, it is relevant to recall that the availability of fresh water has not changed since the dawn of humanity – it represents around 3% of all the water available on earth, almost three-quarters of which is in the form of ice at the poles. This is a precious resource, to be conserved, and yet... Today, around the world, it is estimated that more than 90% of the volume of waste water remains untreated and is released to pollute the freshwater systems. This is in striking contrast to the situation in Switzerland, where almost all buildings are connected to waste water purification plants. 30% of the world’s population currently live in regions suffering from chronic water shortages, and in around fifteen years, more than 50% of the population will be living in regions with severe water problems. Implementing a water governance system is becoming a matter of urgency, to ensure the effective, fair management of this resource. The development goals of the United Nations Millennium Project (MDGs) directly address this worrying issue, and other programmes are in the course of preparation.


Good news... Despite the increase in water quality required for industrial processes, in certain industrial sectors (e.g. textiles), there is a will to reduce the ecological impact of production. This is particularly the case in India, where industries are applying the concept of « zero discharge », the objective of which is to design industrial processes that avoid discharging harmful waste into the environment. In terms of water, this takes the form of treating all waste water with a view to reusing it in the manufacturing processes or other applications, such as the water for sanitary systems in a property complex. This is a crucial element in the zero carbon society approach, which will become an increasingly widely discussed topic in future.

The economic potential of water treatment The water distribution networks are ageing. It is a worrying fact that fresh water losses of up to 30% are not uncommon in urban areas. The networks in Geneva (managed by the Services Industriels de Genève [SIG]) and Paris are textbook cases here, with losses of less than 5% demonstrating an almost perfect management and maintenance of the infrastructure. Significant sums have been earmarked in the coming years for the renovation of water networks worldwide. Straightforward diagnostic and management solutions will be of great interest in the sector in future, and the attendant business opportunities are on a scale with the challenges.

as highlighted recently by Jean-François Donzier, Director General of the International Office for Water (OIEAU) : « ...in a large number of countries, water is not a priority that is worthy of reform. The lack of skills on site makes it impossible to maintain, service or repair a network... »

New business models This observation indicates very clearly that the best way to improve the chances of commercial success in these markets is to adopt business models that integrate societal aspects right from the start of a project. This means that local governments are better placed to support their deployment. It is a matter of proposing technical solutions that the local population can take up, both in terms of use and of the impact on the activities of everyone. In general, the introduction or the implementation of a new system (water distribution, energy production, etc.) will inevitably mean a change to the local cultural ecosystem and affect the activities of the community. The key to success in this kind of situation, or at least one of the key elements, lies in the capacity to understand this ecosystem and to integrate behavioural changes or resultant altered responsibilities into the new functional model of the community. The company NV Terra, which provides decentralised solutions for the production of drinking water by treating surface water, applies precisely this approach. Its technological solution is extremely simple to utilise, with remote maintenance and involvement of local communities in the local development of water production.

A few figures... By way of example, the turnover of private operators in the water supply and purification sector in France was EUR 5 billion, while their expenditure on R&D was EUR 100 million (2006 figures). This indicates the potential for « cleantech » innovation which still remains to be tapped into in a traditional sector such as water. However, it is still not as « sexy » in the eyes of investors in comparison with other related cleantech areas such as solar or wind energy. In Israel, a country where water is a strategic element crucial to the country’s future, the water sector is extremely dynamic, occupying a leading position in the export markets. Israel has established this position on the basis of skills developed over the years. The export turnover was 1.4 billion dollars in 2008, and is estimated at 2.5 billion this year – a 60% growth in four years, a figure which can hold its own against those for the other sectors. This is all evidence of a promising segment, but one to which access is not necessarily straightforward. The water sector has its own dynamic ; the national western markets are very competitive and relatively closed. On the other hand, the markets in the emergent countries do not always have the necessary support from the authorities, a fundamental condition for their development,

An exceptional national environment It is therefore clear that water is a complex sector, and the appropriate solution is never primarily technological. Considerations such as the climatic, geopolitical, cultural and financial aspects have an important role to play in the development of the sector. Ultimately, it is probably know-how in all these areas that is the crucial factor for success. While also important, the aspects of R&D and technological development are relegated to a secondary role. It is for precisely these reasons that the Swiss water industry has an important part to play in the provision of answers to the problems of the future. It can draw on a national environment that is rich in experience, both of the management of infrastructures in difficult terrains (reliefs, etc.), of the management of natural dangers (landslides, alluvial deposits, etc.) and of the deployment of solutions on the ground around the world – experience gained over decades by the Swiss Agency for development and Cooperation (SDC) and by the Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit in the case of disasters such as earthquakes or typhoons. CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Focus on water sector Water treatment in western Switzerland

What makes a fertile ground... R&D in the field of water is indisputably led by EAWAG, the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, responsible for water supplies, waste water treatment and the protection of water courses, as the flagship. The rest of the fleet is distributed across specialised units within their field at the HES-SO, the EPFL and the universities, in particular in the sectors of chemistry and biology (micro-pollutants, contamination, etc.). On the other hand, the development of new technological solutions, or the integration of technologies into a specific solution, is mainly managed by private companies. A high level of expertise in the quality and control of water is also found in the cantonal official bodies, such as the cantonal chemists. The relevant industrial and communal departments also have proven skills in control and management.

water conservation. Its main aim is to initiate publicprivate partnerships in the field of water treatment and to support the other industrial sectors in India. It therefore offers industry and the municipal authorities a range of services related to the sustainable management of water. This agreement represents significant potential for the development of relations between Switzerland and India in areas such as training, technology and business. The ecosystem outlined above functions in perfect complementarity with the international organisations located in Geneva that are directly or indirectly active in the field of water, such as the WHO or UN-Water. Access to this ecosystem and its skills represents a very good reason for foreign companies to come to western Switzerland, as they can develop partnerships with local industry and will be able to tap into this concentrated know-how.

For innovative companies... The Technopôle de l’Environnement d’Orbe offers the providers of environmental technologies a framework for the initiation and validation of pilot installations, such as natural water purification. BlueArk at Viège, the incubator dedicated to water and renewable energies, has given a boost to the harnessing of drinking water for powering turbines with a study of the potential to be tapped in Valais.A good number of installations are currently being planned, and a pragmatic concept for gaining added value from drinking water in Alpine regions is available to interested parties. On the edge of western Switzerland, CEWAS, the International Centre for Water Management Services, a Swiss centre of excellence in the field of water treatment and the sustainable management of water resources in Willisau, completes the picture with services focusing more on the North-South relations in this field.

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Close coordination between the bodies involved has come about under the impetus of the SDC this autumn. The « Swiss Water Partnership » is an organisation that still needs defining precisely in terms of form, but which already brings together the interests of public, private and quasi-public bodies (NGOs) and other players in the field (research institutes, etc.). This is an initiative to follow with interest. Access to the export markets may be characterised by the approach developed towards India by Cleantech Switzerland. An agreement was signed this spring in New Delhi, in the presence of Federal Councillor J. Schneider-Amman, between the export platform Cleantech Switzerland and the CII-Triveni Water Institute of Jaipur. Established last July by the Indian Minister for Water Resources, Pawan Kumar Bansal, this institute is set to become a national centre of excellence for CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

Our region has developed special skills in the area of the supply, management and treatment of water by local providers, but what roles can these providers play in the development of the market for water, in Switzerland and abroad ?

3. The value chains of water treatment Taking account of the light we have just shed on the environment, and with the aim of proposing some ideas in response to the question posed above, we propose to analyse the composition of the economic fabric of western Switzerland, to take stock of the main players and to position them along the value chain. We have used the same approach for all three sectors covered in this study, which was undertaken with E4Tech and which focuses on the technological players. The choice was dictated by the observation that one factor in the growth of liberal societies is the close link with innovation, which itself is closely linked to the technological players. The second reason for focusing our approach on these players in particular lies in the fact that the technology providers represent the point of introduction of new technologies into the value chains. We have therefore chosen this option for the basis of Figures 3.1 and 3.2, in which we zoom in on the technological players in the region as well as a few major national players. These views are supplemented at the end of the study by a geographical overview (not exhaustive) of the major players identified, to which are added the R&D institutes and the engineering practices specialising in this sector (Figure 4).


A centralised sector with strong interconnections... The development of the water distribution networks has historically been centralised in the urban zones, facilitating the management of the supply and quality of the water distributed. Over time, an increasingly weighty infrastructure was implemented. Treatment of waste water was a later addition, and is still developing to this day. This centralised system of water treatment is made up more specifically of three interconnected branches, illustrated in Figure 1 : -- The production and distribution of drinking water -- The collection of waste water -- The purification of waste water

Production of drinking water

production eau potable

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6. NGL Cleaning T 7. Global Environe

34 8. AquaVision Eng

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37 28 36 27

9. Crystal NTE SA 10. Phragmi-Tech, 11. Pentair, Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 13. CSD Ingénieur 14. E-dric, Le Mon 31 29 15.EPTES 30 Sàrl, Ve

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17. CERT SA, Sion 18. PRA Ingénieur 19. Membratec, S 20. Planet Horizon 21. WRA Schweiz

23 24

10 22

6

14 9 22. Pall Int. Sàrl,24 F 8 11-1323. Triform SA, Fri 5 7 1-3 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C 15

6. NGL Cleaning T 7. Global Environe

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23

22

25. Samro SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA,

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21 5 1 2 419-20 17-18 7 3-4

27. Reinhart 6 Hydro 28. Biotec Biologie

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29. Labosafe SA, 30. Biol-Conseils S 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be DÉCENTRALISÉ 33. DLK /Technolog 1. Vestergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne VD

21 17-18

19-20 7

Purification of waste water

CENTRALIÉ 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 4. Befreetech SA, 5. Hach Lange Sà

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37 36

9. Crystal NTE SA 10. Phragmi-Tech, 11. Pentair, Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 13. CSD Ingénieur 14. E-dric, Le Mon 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve

6. NGL Cleaning T 7. Global Environe 8. AquaVision Eng 9. Crystal NTE SA 10. Phragmi-Tech, 11. Pentair, Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 13. CSD Ingénieur 14. E-dric, Le Mon 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve

16. Alpatec SA, M 17. CERT SA, Sion 18. PRA Ingénieur 19. Membratec, S 20. Planet Horizon 21. WRA Schweiz

16. Alpatec SA, M 17. CERT SA, Sion 18. PRA Ingénieur 19. Membratec, S 20. Planet Horizon 21. WRA Schweiz

22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 23. Triform SA, Fri 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C

22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 23. Triform SA, Fri 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C

25. Samro SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA,

25. Samro SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA,

27. Reinhart Hydro 28. Biotec Biologie

27. Reinhart Hydro 28. Biotec Biologie

29. Labosafe SA, 30. Biol-Conseils S 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be 33. DLK Technolog

29. Labosafe SA, 30. Biol-Conseils S 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be 33. DLK Technolog

34 8. AquaVision Eng

33 16. Alpatec SA, M 32

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D

CENTRALIÉ 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 4. Befreetech SA, 5. Hach Lange Sà

1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 4. Befreetech SA, 5. Hach Lange Sà

37 28 36 27

Three groups of players can be identified along the value chains. There are the technology providers, to the left of the diagram, who deliver the elements (products, systems, etc.) enabling the integrators to develop their solutions. These integrators are none other than specialist engineering practices, ranging from a private practice operating with just a small staff in a very specific field, to international groups. These solutions are implemented in the form of installations which they bring into service and transfer to the third group, the operators, who then manage and maintain the infrastructures and services to be delivered.

Collection of waste water

collecte des CENTRALIÉ eaux usées

assainissement des eaux usées

This diagram shows all the value chains. It sets out the positioning of the main players (technology providers, engineering and consultancy practices, service providers, etc.) and clearly shows the interconnection between the value chains relating to these activities.

2. Swiss Green Solutions, Lausanne / VD 34.The Watersolutions 34.(source: Watersolutions Figure 1 : value chains of centralised water treatment E4Tech) 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne / VD Instituts Instituts 4. Bulane SA, Genève ne / VD 5. Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne EFPL Lausanne / VD EFPL / VD 35. ProMinent 35.Lausanne ProMinent Dos / VD Dos rdon / VD6. NV Terra, Monthey / VS HEIG-VD YverdonSA / VD HEIG-VD Yverdon 36. Degremont 36. Degremont SA / VD 37. Aquafides Sch 37. Aquafides Sch bourg 7. Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS ICEN EIA Fribourg ICEN EIA Fribourg

34. Watersolutions 35. ProMinent Dos 36. Degremont SA 37. Aquafides Sch

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Focus on water sector Water treatment in western Switzerland

A separate decentralised structure Decentralised systems operate as islands and are suitable for small-scale solutions. They are currently observed mainly in emergent or developing countries, but the trend may change in the coming years. It is easy to envisage decentralised networks developing in the future ecodistricts of western towns and cities. The corresponding value chain is shown in Figure 2 for the treatment of drinking water. Fournisseurs en amont players This particular figure shows that the technological DÉCENTRALISÉ are facing a market controlled by various public or quasi-

public bodies. Depending on the configuration, they have to deal with governments or local authorities, or depend on development organisations such as the international institutions (UNO, WHO, etc.) or NGOs. Businesses should certainly develop specific business models, as referred to in the introduction, in order to deal successfully with these markets. The engineering or management partners like those in a centralised system only intervene at a later stage through the local players. DÉCENTRALISÉ

The main observations about the centralised water treatment value chain -- Western Switzerland offers a full range of skills in this sector, as illustrated by the even distribution of these players along the value chain. -- Although the value chain is made up of three distinct branches (drinking water production, the collection and treatment of waste water), the majority of the players are active in more than one of these branches. This indicates a significant level of similarity in the Fournisseurs de components, technologie systems and design of production units for drinking water and the treatment of waste water – an interesting characteristic that enables companies to expand their market by transferring their core skills. -- A more in-depth analysis shows that the industrial fabric is mainly made up of medium-sized businesses (SMEs and start-ups), representing an interesting force for innovation that reinforces the links with the major companies in the sector, as seen for example with the technological subsidiaries of the large international groups Veolia (Alpha UT) or Hach Lange (Züllig).

Production of drinking water

CENTRALIÉ 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 4. Befreetech SA, 5. Hach Lange Sà

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12

ne / VD rdon / VD

37 36

6. NGL Cleaning T 7. The Global Environe Figure 2 : value chains of decentralised water treatment (source: E4Tech) 8. AquaVision Eng 9. Crystal NTE SA 10. Phragmi-Tech, 11. Pentair, Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 13. CSD Ingénieur 14. E-dric, Le Mon 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve

4. A closer look at the technology providers 16. Alpatec SA, M 17. CERT SA, Sion 18. PRAview Ingénieur A detailed of the players involved along the 19. Membratec, S technological value chain is given in Figure 3.1 for 20. Planet Horizon 21. WRA Schweiz

centralised systems, and in Figure 3.2 for decentralised 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F systems. The diagrams show the positioning of each 23. Triform SA, Fri C 24. Aquadil Sàrl, of the players in the different links of this chain, ranging from physical-chemical/biological materials to complete 25. Samro SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA, installations (treatment plants), through the intermediary Hydro stages27.ofReinhart the production of components, systems and 28. Biotec Biologie treatment units. 29. Labosafe SA, 30. Biol-Conseils S 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be 33. DLK Technolog

34. Watersolutions CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland 35. ProMinent Dos 36. Degremont SA

-- The value chain is largely based on « implementation projects », where each project has its own characteristics and depends on the context in which it is implemented. The value added by the players in western Switzerland lies mainly in know-how, design engineering and the adaptation of technology. This is another of the main forces behind the fabric of the Swiss economy – its ability to offer turnkey solutions, without doubt a key element in the future implementation of Switzerland’s Cleantech Master Plan.


-- Innovation in itself, together with the application of high technology, is concentrated in certain specific niches, notably control systems and instrumentation, but also the production of biological equipment. The inventiveness and know-how of the integrators do the rest. -- Taking account of the national nature of the water legislation and the strong « implementation project and public market » dimension to water treatment units, the activities of this industry are initially oriented mainly towards the regional market. On the other hand, this characteristic of the market represents attractive business opportunities in connection with the licensing of technologies, solutions and services for the export markets. -- In the specific field of the treatment of waste water, western Switzerland offers a complete, relatively wellrounded value chain. This sector also puts to good use the skills present in Switzerland in the fields of high technology, precision manufacturing and cutting-edge manufacturing techniques. Finally, this value chain is reinforced by some key players located outside western Switzerland (Jakob AG, Grundfos, Aquafides, Aquametro, Endress+Hauser, etc.). Players from other sectors positioned upstream in the chain, or in the relevant enabling technologies (Cla-Val, Contrec, Egger Pumps) complete the picture. Production of drinking water Collection of waste water Purification of waste water

CENTRALIÉ 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L Physicochemical/ 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ biological materials Befreetech SA, 1. Aqua +4.Tech Sp 5. Hach 2. Techfina, Petit-LLange Sà

35 34 35 34 35

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37 36

Components

This last point illustrates perfectly the complexity of the subject of cleantech. It is not a matter of a specific industrial sector, but of solutions aimed at the sustainable use of resources. In order to achieve this, it is essential to integrate skills from a wide range of industrial and other sectors in order to deliver the optimum solution, especially from an economic point of view. The water treatment sector thus affects a very large part of the existing industrial fabric. It also offers business opportunities in the area of service provision. Let us take the example of the concept of the water footprint. The water footprint approach is really taking off at the moment. Its aim is to measure the environmental impact of all the products, services and activities of a company in terms of its water consumption, examining aspects such as the quantity of water consumed, the way in which it is consumed and in what locations on the planet. It would be no surprise to see this approach being applied more generally in corporate environmental risk analyses – a business opportunity that has not escaped the attention of regional enterprises such as the company Quantis, an offshoot of the EPFL. This company has developed strong skills in this field and currently has sites in Lausanne, Lyons, Paris, Boston and Montreal. Quantis has developed an inventory database for water, based among other things on the Water Stress Index, which has enabled it to confirm its place among the world leaders in life cycle analysis (LCA). Other companies in the region, such as SOFIES, also operate in the field of LCA and eco-design. Systems

Treatment unit

Treatment plant

Large 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ 6. NGL Befreetech SA,Cleaning T companies 1. Aqua +4.Tech Sp 7. Global Environe

5. Hach 2. Techfina, Petit-LLange Sà 8. AquaVision Eng 3. Belair Biotech S 9. Crystal NTE SA 6. NGL 4. Befreetech SA,Cleaning T 10. Phragmi-Tech, 7. Global 5. Hach Lange Sà Environe 11. Pentair, 8. AquaVision Eng Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 9. Crystal 6. NGL Cleaning T NTE SA 13. CSD Ingénieur 10. Phragmi-Tech, 7. Global Environe 14. E-dric, Le Mon 11. Pentair, 8. AquaVision Eng Lausa 15.EPTES Bonnard et Ga Sàrl, Ve 9. Crystal12. NTE SA 13. CSD Ingénieur 10. Phragmi-Tech, 16. 14.Lausa E-dric, LeAlpatec Mon SA, M 11. Pentair, 17. CERT SA, Sion 15.EPTES 12. Bonnard et Ga Sàrl, Ve 18. PRA Ingénieur 13. CSD Ingénieur 19. Membratec, S 14. E-dric,16. LeAlpatec Mon SA, M 20. Planet Horizon CERT 15.EPTES17. Sàrl, Ve SA, Sion 21. WRA Schweiz 18. PRA Ingénieur

13

SMEs

19.SA, Membratec, S 16. Alpatec M 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 17. CERT20. SA,Planet Sion Horizon Triform SA, Fri 21. WRA 23. Schweiz 18. PRA Ingénieur 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C 19. Membratec, S Pall Int. Sàrl, F 20. Planet22. Horizon 25. Samro Triform SA, Fri SA, Be 21. WRA 23. Schweiz 26.Sàrl, Alpha C UT SA, 24. Aquadil

21

0 7 1

Instituts EFPL Lausanne / VD HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD InstitutsICEN EIA Fribourg EFPL Lausanne / VD HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD utsICEN EIA Fribourg Lausanne / VD -VD Yverdon / VD EIA Fribourg

22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 27. Reinhart Hydro 25. Samro 23. Triform SA, Fri SA, Be 28. Biotec Biologie 26.Sàrl, Alpha C UT SA, 24. Aquadil 29. Hydro Labosafe SA, Reinhart Start-ups 25. Samro27. SA, Be 30. Biol-Conseils S

26. Alpha28. UT Biotec SA, Biologie 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be 29. Hydro Labosafe SA, 27. Reinhart 33. DLKSTechnolog 30. Biol-Conseils 28. Biotec Biologie 31. Adamant Tech 34.SA, Watersolutions 32. Madep Be 29. Labosafe SA, 33. DLKSTechnolog 30. Biol-Conseils 35. ProMinent Dos 31. Adamant Tech 36. Degremont SA 34.SA, Watersolutions 32. Madep Be 37. Aquafides Sch 33. DLK Technolog Figure 3.1 : 35. Distribution ProMinent Dos of the 36. Degremont SA 34. Watersolutions 37. Aquafides Sch 35. ProMinent Dos 36. Degremont SA 37. Aquafides Sch

Technology suppliers

Engineering practices

technological players along the value chain for the centralised treatment of water (source: E4Tech/CleantechAlps)

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on water sector Water treatment in western Switzerland

The main observations about the decentralised water treatment value chain -- The technological players in this value chain offer a strong concentration of skills in the development of components, systems and treatment units. They offer the potential for synergy, which should be leveraged. -- It has already been mentioned that, while the decentralised production of drinking water represents strong, growing demand at a world level, it is not in itself a buoyant market, as it responds to the needs of populations that do not necessarily have the purchasing power needed to guarantee a sufficient natural market. Consequently, international organisations and NGOs play an essential role in the value chain for these technologies, by ensuring that they have access to the markets in emergent countries, for example by means of donor-funded development programmes.

-- The presence of a group such as Vestergaard-Frandsen, a real driver on the humanitarian market, also offers some particularly attractive synergies. These types of company have the capacity to create the market, offering significant synergies with the innovation potential of technological start-ups and SMEs in western Switzerland. -- It should also be stressed that the decentralised water treatment sector is much newer than the centralised treatment sector, and therefore enjoys an even greater potential for innovation. -- Finally, numerous synergies exist with the related renewable energy sector, which can supply the power for the decentralised installations, in particular by means of solar photovoltaic and wind power.

-- The strong presence of these multilateral players in Geneva makes western Switzerland a natural cradle and catalyst for the development of technologies suitable for the programmes of these organisations.

14

Figure 3.2 : Distribution of the technological players along the value chain for the decentralised treatment of water (source: E4Tech/CleantechAlps)

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


5. Conclusion This analysis of the sector indicates that the water treatment ecosystem in western Switzerland is complete and coherent for the two market segments of centralised and decentralised water treatment. The national climate is extremely favourable for preparing the solutions of the future, thanks to the dynamism of private companies and initiatives such as the Swiss Water Partnership. However, there is still considerable potential for improvement in the area of public research along the lines of the link between the flagship EAWAG and industry via intermediary institutions such as the universities of applied science. This link could certainly be reinforced. Western Switzerland has all it needs to be able to derive optimum benefit from the significant potential markets in this sector, and we can be sure that we will see an increase in the installation of solutions that are « made in western Switzerland » in the near future.

15

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on water sector Overview of the water treatment players (fig. 4)

production of drinking water

production eau potable

collecte des CENTRALIÉ eaux usées

CENTRALIÉ 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 4. Befreetech SA, 5. Hach Lange Sà

1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 4. Befreetech SA, 5. Hach Lange Sà

assainissement des eaux usées

35

35

37 28 36 27

6. NGL Cleaning T 7. Global Environe 34 8. AquaVision Eng 9. Crystal NTE SA 10. Phragmi-Tech, 11. Pentair, Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 9 13. CSD Ingénieur .38 Le Mon 3114. E-dric, 29 15.EPTES 30 Sàrl, Ve

25

33 .39 37. M 3216. Alpatec SA, 38.

23 10 22

16

6

.42+18 35. .34

.3225 .36

21 .5 5 .1 1 2 419-20 17-18 7 2. .3-4-6 3-4

.27-28 23

25. Samro SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA, 27. Reinhart6Hydro 28. Biotec Biologie

16

29. Labosafe SA, 30. 3-4-5-6 Biol-Conseils S 31. Adamant Tech 1-2 32. Madep SA, Be DÉCENTRALISÉ 33. DLK/ VD Technolog 1. Vestergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne

2. Swiss Green Solutions, Lausanne / VD 34. Watersolutions 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne / VD Instituts 4. Bulane SA, Genève ne / VD 5. Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne EFPL Lausanne / VD 35. ProMinent Dos / VD rdon / VD HEIG-VD VD 36. Yverdon Degremont /SA 6. NV Terra, Monthey / VS 37. Fribourg Aquafides Sch bourg 7. Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS ICEN EIA

6. NGL Cleaning T 7. Global Environe .41 34 8. AquaVision Eng 9. Crystal NTE SA 10. Phragmi-Tech, 11. Pentair, Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 13. CSD Ingénieur 14. E-dric, Le Mon 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve

35

.43 37 36

.27 .44

.30

14 10. 24F .29 9 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, .16 8 11-13 11.523. Triform SA, Fri 7 .12-15 9. 1-3 24. 8.Aquadil Sàrl, C 22 .17-18 15

7.

6

37 28 36 .33 27

17. CERT SA, Sion 18. PRA Ingénieur 19. Membratec, S 20. Planet Horizon 21. WRA Schweiz

24

collection of waste water

21

. 17-18

19-20 7

.19

20.22

7

purification of waste water

CENTRALIÉ 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 4. Befreetech SA, 5. Hach Lange Sà 6. NGL Cleaning T 7. Global Environe 8. AquaVision Eng 9. Crystal NTE SA 10. Phragmi-Tech, 11. Pentair, Lausa 12. Bonnard et Ga 13. CSD Ingénieur 14. E-dric, Le Mon 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve

16. Alpatec SA, M 17. CERT SA, Sion 18. PRA Ingénieur 19. Membratec, S 20. Planet Horizon 21. WRA Schweiz

16. Alpatec SA, M 17. CERT SA, Sion 18. PRA Ingénieur 19. Membratec, S 20. Planet Horizon 21. WRA Schweiz

22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 23. Triform SA, Fri 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C

22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 23. Triform SA, Fri 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C

25. Samro SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA,

25. Samro SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA,

27. Reinhart Hydro .26 28. Biotec Biologie

27. Reinhart Hydro 28. Biotec Biologie

.23-25 29. Labosafe SA, 30. Biol-Conseils S 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be 33. DLK Technolog

29. Labosafe SA, source : CleantechAlps 30. Biol-Conseils S 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be 33. DLK Technolog

34. Watersolutions

34. Watersolutions

8 Instituts EFPL / VD 35.Lausanne ProMinent Dos HEIG-VD Yverdon 36. Degremont SA / VD 37.EIA Aquafides Sch ICEN Fribourg

35. ProMinent Dos 36. Degremont SA 37. Aquafides Sch

Institutes

16

A.

UNIGE, Genève / GE

Players on decentralised sector

B.

EPFL, Lausanne / VD

1.

Bulane SA, Genève / GE

C.

UNIL, Lausanne / VD

2.

Fondation Antenna Technologies, Genève / GE

D.

TecOrbe, Orbe / VD

3.

Vestergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD

E.

HES-SO, Delémont / JU

4.

Swiss Green Solutions, Lausanne / VD

F.

UNIFR, Fribourg / FR

5.

SwissINSO, Lausanne / VD

G. UNINE, Neuchâtel / NE

6.

Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD

H. BlueArk, Viège / VS

7.

NVTerra, Monthey / VS

I.

ETHZ, Zürich/ ZH

8.

Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS

J.

EAWAG, Dübendorf / ZH

9.

Smixin, Bienne / BE

K.

Cewas, Willisau / LU

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Players on centralised sector

production eau potable

1.

Aqua + Tech Specialities SA, La Plaine / GE

2.

Techfina, Petit-Lancy / GE

3.

Belair Biotech SA, Genève / GE

collecte des eaux usées

41. Watersolutions AG, Buchs / AG 42. Endress + Hauser, Reinhach / BS

production eau potable

collecte des CENTRALIÉ eaux usées

43. Aquafides Schweiz AG, Dietlikon / ZH

1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L assainissement 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ production collecte des des eaux usées4. Befreetech SA, eau potable eaux usées 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 5. Hach Lange Sà 2. Techfina, Petit-L production collecte des assainissement 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ eau potable eaux usées 35 des eaux usées assainissement 6. NGL Cleaning T 35 37 4. Befreetech 1. Aqua +SA, Tech Sp des eaux usées 37 production collecte des 7. Global Environe 28 27 36 5. Hach Lange Sà 2. Techfina, Petit-L 34 eau potable Eng eaux usées 28 27 production 36 collecte des 8. AquaVision assainissement 34 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ eau eaux usées despotable eaux usées 9. Crystal NTE SA 35 6. NGL Cleaning Befreetech 1.4.Aqua + TechT SA, Sp 37 35 10. Phragmi-Tech, assainissement collecte des production 7. Global Environe 37 5.Techfina, Hach Lange Sà 2. Petit-L 28 36 34 11. Lausaeaux usées des Pentair, eaux usées eau potable 27 assainissement production collecte des 8. AquaVision Eng S 28 27 36 3. Belair Biotech 34 12. Bonnard et Ga CENTRALIÉ des eaux usées eau potable eaux usées 35 9. Crystal NTE SASA, T NGL Cleaning 4.6.Befreetech 2537 13. CSD Ingénieur 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 25 10.5. Phragmi-Tech, 7. Global Environe assainissement Hach Lange Sà 28 27 36 14. E-dric, Le Mon 2. Techfina, Petit-L 34 35 des eaux usées 11. Pentair, Lausa 31 8. AquaVision Eng collecte des assainissement 29 15.EPTES Sàrl,31 Ve 3. Belair Biotech S 29 CENTRALIÉ 35 eaux usées 30 des eaux usées etNTE Ga SA 9.NGL Crystal Cleaning T 37 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 12.6.Bonnard 30 28 27 33 25 4. Befreetech SA, 34 13. CSD Ingénieur 10. Phragmi-Tech, 33 Global Environe 25 28 27 32 16. Alpatec SA, M 5. Hach Lange Sà 36 2. Techfina, Petit-L 14.7.E-dric, 34 Le Mon Pentair, Lausa 32 8.11. AquaVision Eng 35 31 17. CERT SA, Sion 29 37 Sàrl, Veet Bonnard 9.12. Crystal NTE SAGa 353. Belair Biotech S 15.EPTES 30 29 production collecte des 18. PRA Ingénieur 31 6. NGL Cleaning T 25 4. Befreetech SA, 37 28 27 33 36 13.Phragmi-Tech, CSD Ingénieur 34 30 10. CENTRALIÉ eau potable eaux usées 19. Membratec, S33 7. Global Environe 5. Hach 28 27 36Lange Sà 16.11. Alpatec SA,Lausa M Mon 32 31 14.Pentair, E-dric, Le 34 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 20. Planet Horizon 8. AquaVision Eng 29 32 25 17.12. CERT SA, Sion 15.EPTES Sàrl, VeTechfina, Petit-L Bonnard et Ga 2. 30 35collecte des23 21. WRA Schweiz 9. Crystal NTE SA production 6. NGL Cleaning T 18. PRA Ingénieur 25 assainissement 33 37usées 13. CSD Ingénieur 23 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ eau potable eaux 10. Phragmi-Tech, 31 des eaux usées 7. Global Environe 19. Membratec, 29 14 16.E-dric, Alpatec SA, 32 28 27 36 14. LeS Mon 4.MBefreetech 1. Aqua +30 Tech Sp 14 24 10 934 11. Pentair, Lausa SA, 31 8. AquaVision Eng 20. Planet 29 24 Petit-L 1022. Pall9Int. Sàrl, F Horizon 17. CERT SA, Ve Sion 33Techfina, 15.EPTES Sàrl, 25 5. HachetLange 2. 8 11-13 30 23. Triform SA, Fri 12. Bonnard Ga Sà 9. Crystal NTE SA 21. WRA assainissement 8 11-13 Schweiz 5 collecte 18. PRA Ingénieur 723 des 1-3 33 production 32 Biotech S 25 3. Belair 22 Sàrl,5C 13. CSD Ingénieur CENTRALIÉ 24. 7 Aquadil eau potable eaux usées des eaux usées 10.35 Phragmi-Tech, 1-3 23 31 19. Membratec, S Alpatec SA, M 29 SA,22 6. NGL T 1432 4. Befreetech 37Lausa 22.16. 14. E-dric, Le Cleaning Mon 1. Aqua 15 + Tech Sp 11. Pentair, 10 30 9 Pall Int. Sàrl, F 3124 6 29 20. Planet Horizon 6 15 14 CERT SA, Sion 7. Global 25.10 Samro SA, 15.EPTES Sàrl, Environe Ve Techfina, Petit-L 28 27 24 Sà 36et Ga 23.17. 9 Be 33 5. Hach Lange 12. Bonnard 34 8 11-13 assainissement 30 Triform SA, Fri 8. AquaVision2.Eng 21.PRA WRA Schweiz 18. Ingénieur 23 production des 25collecte 33 26. Alpha UT 11-13 SA, 7 32 3.35 Belair Biotech S 8 13. CSD Ingénieur 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C 1-3 5des 22 usées usées eau potable 19. Membratec, S9. Crystal NTECENTRALIÉ eaux 14eaux 37 SA, 7 16. Alpatec SA, M 4.SA 1-3 5 6. NGL Cleaning T 22 Befreetech 14. E-dric, Le Mon 6 31 1029 9 15 32 24 22.Planet Pall Int. Sàrl,10. F Phragmi-Tech, 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 20. Horizon 21 15.EPTES 7. Global Environe 23 27. Reinhart Hydro 17. CERT SA, Sion 28 5. Hach Lange Sà 36 Sàrl, Ve 21 6 15 6 34 8 11-13 27 25.21. Samro SA, Be 23.WRA Triform SA, 11. Fri Pentair, Lausa 30 2. Techfina, Petit-L Schweiz 8.6AquaVision Eng 23 uction collecte 5 14 19-20 5 28. Biotec Biologie 18. PRA Ingénieur 7 des 1-3assainissement 33 UT SA,Sàrl, 22 1 C Bonnard et3.Ga 24. Aquadil 10 5 Biotech S Belair CENTRALIÉ 9 9. Crystal NTE SA 2419-20 potable eaux usées 12. 17-18 35 26. Alpha 14 1 2 S 46. NGL des eaux 2usées4 19. Membratec, 7 Cleaning T 16. Alpatec SA, M 326 10 17-18 16 25 15 3-424 8 11-13 7 4. Befreetech SA, 1. Aqua + 37 Tech Sp Int. Sàrl, F 9 22. Pall 13. CSD Ingénieur 10. Phragmi-Tech, 16 3-4 29. Labosafe SA, 20. Planet Horizon 5 Global Environe 21 23 22 17. CERT SA, Sion 27. Reinhart 7 Hydro 28 27 25.Triform Samro SA,Fri14. Be E-dric, Le7. 1-3 36 8 11-13 5. Hach Lange Sà 2. Techfina,23. Petit-L SA, 34 6 11. Pentair, Lausa 21 30.Eng Biol-Conseils S 21. WRA Schweiz 8.Mon AquaVision 31 nissement5 18. PRA Ingénieur 28. Biotec duction 7 collecte des 14 12. Bonnard 29 26.Aquadil Alpha UT 1-3 5 6 15et 22 19-20 23 3. Belair Biotech S Biologie C 24. Sàrl,SA, 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 24Ga 106 Tech CENTRALIÉ aux 9 31.SA Adamant potable eaux usées 30 9. Crystal5NTE 4 17-18 19-20 19. Membratec, S35 2 usées 25 7 6. NGL Cleaning T 4. Befreetech SA, 6 15 14 12 1633 Ingénieur 17-18 3-4 24 10 8 Be 4 1. Aqua +37 Tech Sp 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 9DÉCENTRALISÉ 32. Madep SA, 11-13 5 13. CSD16 10. Phragmi-Tech, 21 20. Planet Horizon 7 29. Labosafe SA, 27. Reinhart Hydro 7. Global Environe 3-4 5. Hach Lange Sà 7 25. Samro SA, Be 16. Alpatec SA, M 32 DÉCENTRALISÉ 6 1-3 14. E-dric, Le Mon 8 11-13 22 2. Techfina, Petit-L 36 33. DLK Technolog 23. Triform SA, Fri 11. Pentair, Lausa 34 21. WRA Schweiz 1. Vestergaard Group SA, Lausanne / VD 28 27 31 production collecteFrandsen des 23 29 S 17.1.CERT 30.26. Biol-Conseils 19-20 5 5 28.Alpha Biotec Biologie inissement 8. AquaVision Eng 7 UT SA, SionFrandsen Vestergaard Group SA, Lausanne / VD 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 1-3 1 usées4 3. Belair Biotech S 24. Aquadil C 12. Sàrl,SA, CENTRALIÉ 15 eau potable usées Bonnard 6 et Ga 2. Swisseaux Green Solutions, Lausanne22 /7 VD 17-18 3530 eaux 2 21 31. Adamant 14 9. Crystal NTE SA 6. NGL Cleaning T Tech 18.2.PRA Ingénieur Swiss Solutions, / VD 33 16 25 37 6 4. Befreetech SA, 34. Lausanne Watersolutions 1. Aqua + Green Tech Sp 6 24 15 Lausanne / VD 13. CSD Ingénieur 9 3-4 3. Swiss INSO, 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 21 Madep SA, Be 29.Reinhart Labosafe SA, Instituts 10.SPhragmi-Tech, 19-20 7. Global32. Environe CENTRALISÉ 27. Hydro 19. Swiss Lausanne / VD5 16. Alpatec SA, M 32 6 SA,28Genève 5. Hach Lange Sà 36 25. Samro SA, BeINSO, 2.3.Membratec, Techfina, Petit-L 1 2Le Mon 8 11-13 14. E-dric, 34 4. Bulane 23. Triform SA, Fri 33. 27 31 19-20 4 17-18 Instituts DLK Technolog DÉCENTRALISÉ S4.Planet 30. Biol-Conseils 11. Genève Pentair, Lausa 8. AquaVision Eng production Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD assainissement 55 collecte 28. Biotec Biologie 7 20. Horizon Bulane SA, EFPL Lausanne / VD 17. CERT SA, Sion16 29 des/ VD 7estergaard 3-4 35. ProMinent Dos 26. Alpha UT SA, 3. Belair Biotech S 1 2 1-3 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 22 5. Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne C 24. Aquadil Sàrl, EFPL Lausanne / VD CENTRALIÉ 4 eau potable17-18 30 des eaux usées eaux 1.Schweiz Vestergaard / VD 31. 12. Bonnard et Ga Group SA, Lausanne 9. Crystal NTE SAAdamant Tech 35 wiss Green Lausanne / VD 7 usées23 21. Swiss Fresh Water,Frandsen Belmont-sur-Lausanne 21 16Monthey 33 6. NGL Cleaning T HEIG-VD Yverdon /Watersolutions VD 3-4 Solutions, 36. SASp / VD18. PRA Ingénieur 4.5.WRA Befreetech SA, 6. NV Terra, / VS 15 2537 6 1. Degremont AquaLausanne + Tech 34.29. Swiss GreenIngénieur Solutions, / VD 19. Membratec, 32.Labosafe Madep SA, 13. CSD 10. Phragmi-Tech, wiss INSO, Lausanne / VD SA, Be6. NV 2. DÉCENTRALISÉ Terra, Monthey /5 VS 21 S Instituts 19-20 HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD 7. Be Global Environe 37. Aquafides Sch 14 27. Reinhart Hydro 5. Hach Lange Sà 16. Alpatec SA, M ICEN EIASA, Fribourg 7. Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS24 25. Samro 28 6 32 Techfina, 36 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne / VD Petit-L 1 33.Biol-Conseils DLK Technolog 34 14. Le2. 11. Pentair, 30. Lausa ulane SA, Genève 27 S 7.Pall 1. Vestergaard Frandsen Group SA,10 Lausanne 9/ VD 22. Int. Sàrl, FE-dric, ICEN EIA Fribourg Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre /Mon VS 4 20. Planet Horizon 17-18 Instituts 2 production collecte des assainissement 8. AquaVision Eng 19-20 5 28. Biotec Biologie 31 7 17. CERT SA,3. Sion EFPL Lausanne / VD 26. Alpha UT SA, 35. ProMinent Dos 29 16 Belair Biotech S 4. SA, Bulane SA, Genève 1 2Solutions, 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve Bonnard31. et Adamant Ga wiss FreshGreen Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne VD Tech CENTRALIÉ 35 12. 2. Swiss Lausanne / VD/ 8 eau 23. Fri 3-4 eaux usées 11-13 des eaux usées 4 potable 21. WRA Schweiz 17-18 DÉCENTRALISÉ 23 9. Crystal NTE SA EFPL Lausanne / VD 6.Triform NGL Cleaning T Ingénieur 7 18. PRA 37 1633 2530 7 4. Befreetech SA, 3-4 Yverdon / VD Degremont SA Be 5. Swiss Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD 34.Madep Watersolutions 1-3 5 13. CSD36. Ingénieur V3.Terra, / VS 32. SA, Aqua + Tech Sp CFresh SwissMonthey INSO, Lausanne / VD 22 HEIG-VD 24. Sàrl, 1. Vestergaard Group SA, Lausanne / VD DÉCENTRALISÉ 21 10. Phragmi-Tech, Instituts 14 29.1.Labosafe SA, Environe 7.Aquadil Global Membratec, S/ VSFrandsen HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD 27. Reinhart Hydro 2810 5. Hach Lange Sà 36E-dric, 37.Le Aquafides Sch Techfina, 6. NV19. Terra, Monthey 6 16. Alpatec SA, M Solutions, 32 14. Mon 24 ICEN Fribourg 34 Sierre / VS DLK Technolog Petit-L 4.Vestergaard BulaneSàrl, SA,collecte Genève 27 EIA 9 Lausanne 22. /Pall 2. Swiss Green Lausanne VD Int. Sàrl, F 1. Frandsen Group / VD nquanetto des 11. Pentair,33. Lausa S 20.Eng 30.2.Biol-Conseils 8. AquaVision 31 6SA, Lausanne Planet Horizon 19-20 15 EFPL / VD 28. Biotec Biologie 29 assainissement ICEN EIA Fribourg 7. SA, Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS 35. ProMinent Dos 17. CERT SA, Sion 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 3. Belair Biotech S 8 5. Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD CENTRALIÉ 25. Samro Be le eaux usées 23. Triform SA, Fri 11-13 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne / VD 2. Swiss Green Solutions, Lausanne 30 / VD17-18 12. Bonnard et Ga35 31. Adamant TechDÉCENTRALISÉ 9. Crystal NTE des eaux 21. SA WRA Schweiz Instituts 5 7 23 7HEIG-VD 6. NGL Cleaning T / VD 36.Watersolutions Degremont SA Alpha UT 16usées 33 37 Befreetech 18. PRA Ingénieur 1-3Yverdon 25 34. SA,SA, NV Terra, / VS Tech Ingénieur Sp 26. 22 1. Aqua + CSD 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C 4. Bulane SA, Genève 3.6.Swiss INSO,Monthey Lausanne / VD 32.4.Madep Be 10. SA, Phragmi-Tech, Instituts 1. Vestergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD DÉCENTRALISÉ 29. Labosafe13. SA, 7. 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WRA 33.Aqua DLK S 23 HEIG-VD 1. +Technolog Tech estergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD30 11.Schweiz Pentair, Lausa 8. Ingénieur AquaVision Eng Sp 18. PRA 7 28. Biotec Biologie Yverdon / VD SA 26. Degremont Alpha UT SA, 33 Monthey / VS19-20 1-3 56. NV Terra, Aquadil Sàrl, C 31. Adamant Tech 36. 17-18 227 Techfina, wiss Green Solutions, Lausanne / VD 12. Bonnard et Ga 35 19.24. 14 9. 2. Crystal NTE Petit-L SA Membratec, S 37. Aquafides Sch 6. NGL T 16. Alpatec SA, M Cleaning 16 ICEN EIA Fribourg production 7. Aquanetto collecte des 32Sàrl, Sierre / VS 24 assainissement 6INSO, 15 10 25 37 9 22. Pall13. Int. CSD Sàrl, Ingénieur F 34. Watersolutions 32. Madep SA, Be 3. Belair Biotech S wiss Lausanne / VD 10. Phragmi-Tech, DÉCENTRALISÉ 21 20. Planet Horizon 29. Labosafe SA, CENTRALIÉ eau eaux usées Instituts despotable eaux usées 27. Reinhart Hydro Global Environe SA,7.Sion Samro SA,17. BeCERT 8 11-13 6 28 23. Triform SA, Fri Le Mon 3625. 33. DLK Technolog 34 4. 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SA, Alpatec 32 EIA Fribourg 8 14. E-dric, Le Mon 4.Sàrl, Bulane SA,/ VS Genève 23.+Technolog Triform SA, Fri21. 33. DLK 1. Aqua Tech Sp 4. 6. Befreetech SA, T dsen SA,11-13 Lausanne S Alpha UT SA, 30. Biol-Conseils26. 11. Pentair, Lausa WRA Schweiz 19-20 23 5 Group 5 / VD31 28. Biotec Biologie EFPL Lausanne /37 VD 29 35. Dos Global Environe 1-3 17. CERT SA, Sion 15.EPTES Ve ProMinent 5.7Swiss /Fresh / VD 28 22 CSàrl, 24. Aquadil Sàrl,Lange 2. Techfina, Petit-L 5. 7. Hach Sà 4 17-18 utions, Lausanne VD Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne Adamant Tech 12. Bonnard31. et Ga 30 14 34 7 27 16 HEIG-VD Yverdon 36 / VD Degremont SA 4ent 8.SAquaVision36. Eng 18. PRA Ingénieur 25 6. NV Terra, Monthey / VS 6 / VD 15 34. Watersolutions 3. Belair Biotech 24 10 33DÉCENTRALISÉ sanne 32. Madep SA, Be 9 13. FCSD Ingénieur 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, 21 29. Labosafe SA, ées Instituts 27. Reinhart Hydro 35 37. Aquafides Sch production collecte des 9. Crystal NTE 19. Membratec, S 6 ICEN EIA Fribourg 16. Alpatec SA, MTSA 32 7. Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS 25. Samro SA, Be 4. Befreetech 6.SA, NGL Cleaning 8 Vestergaard ève DLK Technolog 14.FriE-dric, Le33. Mon 23. S Triform SA, 11-13 37 30. Biol-Conseils 1. Group Lausanne / VD Lausanne / VD CENTRALIÉ 19-20 eau potable 5 SA,29 28. Biotec eaux usées 5 Frandsen EFPL 10. Phragmi-Tech, 20. Biologie Planet Horizon 17. CERT SA, Sion 26.Lange Alpha UT SA,Environe 1 2 31 35. ProMinent 5. Hach Sà 7. Dos Global 1-3 er, Belmont-sur-Lausanne 7 / VD 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve C 24. Aquadil Sàrl, 4 17-18 28 / VD22 31. Adamant Tech 2. Swiss Green Solutions, Lausanne 36 7 34 16 Pentair, Lausa 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 21. WRA Schweiz 18. PRA Ingénieur 3-4/ VD30 27 HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD 36. Degremont SA 23 8. 11. AquaVision ey / VS 34. Watersolutions 6 15 33 32. Madep SA, BeEng 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne 29. Labosafe SA, ALISÉ 35 production 21 des collecte Instituts 12. Bonnard etS Ga 2. Techfina, Petit-L 19. Membratec, 27. Reinhart Hydro 37. Aquafides Sch 6. NGL Cleaning T 9. Crystal NTE SA assainissement 14 ICEN EIA Fribourg Sierre / VS 16. Alpatec SA, M 32 25. Samro SA, Be 37 6 33. DLK Technolog 4. Bulane SA, Genève CENTRALIÉ 259 eau potable eaux 30. Biol-Conseils aard Frandsen Group SA, / VD 24 10 usées 13. CSDHorizon Ingénieur 3. Belair Biotech S 22. Pall Int.S Sàrl, F 20. Planet desLausanne eaux usées 19-20 EFPL Lausanne / VD 5 28. Environe Biotec Biologie 7. Global 10. Phragmi-Tech, 35. ProMinent Dos 17. CERT SA, Sion 26. Alpha UT SA, 2817-18 5. Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD 36 1. Aqua + Adamant Tech Sp Tech 31. 348 11-13 reen Solutions, Lausanne / VD 27 14. E-dric, Le Mon 4. Befreetech SA, 23. Triform SA, Fri 21. WRA Schweiz 8. AquaVision Eng 237 11. Pentair, Lausa HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD 36.SàDegremont SA PRALange Ingénieur 5 31Terra, 16 Monthey 34. Watersolutions 6. NV / VS 7 2. Techfina, Petit-LSA, Be 29 5.18. Hach 32. Madep NSO, Lausanne / VD 1-3 21 DÉCENTRALISÉ 22 15.EPTES Sàrl, 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C Instituts 29. Labosafe SA,27.et assainissement 9. Crystal NTE SA 12. Bonnard GaVe Hydro 30 Sàrl, 37. Aquafides Sch 19. Membratec, S Reinhart production collecte des ICEN EIA Fribourg 7.14 Sierre 6 / VS 3. Belair S 33.Biotech DLK Technolog SA, Genève 10 24 1. Vestergaard Frandsen SA, Lausanne / VD15 33Aquanetto des eaux usées 6 Group25 22. F SSàrl, 30. Biol-Conseils 10. Phragmi-Tech, 13. Pall CSDInt. Ingénieur CENTRALIÉ 35 EFPL Lausanne / VD eau potable eaux usées 19-20 Planet Horizon 5 9 28. 35. ProMinent DosBiotec Biologie 4. Befreetech SA, 6.20. NGL Cleaning T esh Water, 1 2 Belmont-sur-Lausanne 37 2. Swiss Green Solutions, Lausanne / VD 16. Alpatec SA, M 25. Samro SA, Be 23. Triform SA, Fri 31. Adamant Tech 4 7 8 11-13 532/ VD 17-18 11. Pentair, 14. E-dric, Le Aqua + Tech WRA1. Schweiz 7 23 Yverdon / VD HEIG-VD 36.Lausa Degremont SAMon 5. Sp Hach Sà 7.21. Global Environe 31 16 22 34.Lange Watersolutions a, Monthey3-4 / VS 1-3 29 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne / VD 17. CERT SA, Sion 28 26. Alpha UT SA, C 24. Aquadil Sàrl, 36 32. Madep 12. Bonnard GaSA, Be 34 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve Instituts 2. Techfina, Petit-L 27 SÉ 29. Labosafe 37. et Aquafides Sch 30 8.SA, AquaVision Eng 14 ICEN EIA Fribourg to Sàrl,6 Sierre / VS 25 assainissement 4. Bulane SA, Genève 18. PRA Ingénieur 15 33.Ingénieur DLK Technolog 13. CSD 33 des 24 35 10 3. Belair Biotech S Cleaning T d Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD 9 Pall Sàrl, S Int. 30. Biol-Conseils EFPL / VD 6. NGL 9.22. Crystal NTE SAF eaux usées 35. ProMinent Dos Hydro 21 Lausanne 37 Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD 19. Membratec, production production 27. Reinhart collecte collecte des Samro SA, Be 14. E-dric, Le25. Mon 16. Alpatec SA, M S 23. 8 5.11-13 4. Befreetech SA, 6 n Solutions, Lausanne VD 32des Triform SA, Fri Adamant Tech 7. Global 31 /eaux 10. Phragmi-Tech, Yverdon /31. VD 36.Environe Degremont SABiologie CENTRALIÉ CENTRALIÉ eau potable eau potable 5 Monthey5/ VS usées eaux usées 29 Terra, 28 27 19-20 34HEIG-VD Planet 7 6. NV 36 SA, 28. Biotec 26. Alpha UT SA, 34. Watersolutions 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 1-3 17.20. CERT SA,Horizon Sion 5. Hach Lange O, Lausanne / VD 22 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C 32. Madep Be 1 30 8. Sà AquaVision Eng Sch DÉCENTRALISÉ 11. Pentair, Lausa Instituts 37. Aquafides 1. Aqua +1.Tech Aqua Sp+ Tech Sp 17-18 7. Aquanetto2Sàrl,4Sierre WRA Schweiz 7 ICEN EIA Fribourg 33 18.21. PRA Ingénieur 16 Genève 3-4 6 SA, Lausanne 15 23 / VS 33. DLK Technolog 9. Crystal NTE SA 1. Vestergaard Frandsen Group / VD 12. Bonnard et Ga 2. Techfina, 2. Techfina, Petit-L Petit-L 21 Lausanne / VD EFPL 35ProMinent 29. Labosafe SA, 27. Reinhart 35. Dos Hydro production 16. Alpatec SA, M 32Solutions, collecte des 19. Membratec, S 6. SA, NGLBe Cleaning T 25 assainissement hssainissement Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne /14 VD 6 25. Samro 37 10. Phragmi-Tech, 2. Swiss Green Lausanne / VD 13.SCSD Ingénieur 3. Belair Biotech 3.Int. Belair SBiotech 24usées 10 usées 22. Pall Sàrl, F CENTRALIÉ eau9potable 30. Biol-Conseils S 19-20 HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD eaux 5/des Biotec es eaux usées eaux 36. Degremont SABiologie 17. CERT SA,28. Sion 20. Planet Horizon Global Monthey VSINSO, 26.E-dric, Alpha7.UT SA, Environe Watersolutions 28 Instituts 11. Pentair, Lausa 3. Lausanne / VD 14. Le Mon 36 4. Befreetech 4.34. Befreetech SA, SA, 4 Swiss 34 8 11-13 27 Aqua + 8. Tech Sp Triform SA, Fri 1. Adamant Tech 31 17-18 37.Ingénieur Aquafides Sch 18. PRA 21.23. WRA Schweiz AquaVision EngBonnard et31. 29 7 16 ICEN EIA Fribourg Sàrl, / VS 3-4 23 7 12. Ga 4.Sierre Bulane SA, Genève 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 5. Hach Lange 5. Hach SàLange Sà 1-3 5 Techfina, C 2. 24. Aquadil Sàrl, 32. Madep SA, Be 3022 29. Labosafe SA, 21 EFPL Lausanne / VD 25 DÉCENTRALISÉ 19. Membratec, S 9.Petit-L Crystal SACSD Ingénieur Reinhart HydroNTE13. 35. ProMinent27. Dos assainissement 14 collecte des 5. Swiss Fresh Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / 33 VD 6 production 3. Belair Biotech S 6 10 15 33. DLK Technolog S 30. Biol-Conseils 24 1. Vestergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD 9 20. Planet Horizon 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F CENTRALIÉ 10. Phragmi-Tech, eau potable des eaux usées 19-20 eaux usées 35 / VD 35 28.SA Biotec Biologie HEIG-VD Yverdon Degremont 14. E-dric, Le Mon 6. NV Terra, Monthey / VS 5 16. SA, M 32 6. NGL Cleaning 6.36. NGL Cleaning T Be 4. TAlpatec 182 11-13 Befreetech SA, 37 37 25. Samro SA, 31. Adamant Tech 31 4 17-18 2. Swiss Green Solutions, Lausanne / VD 21. WRA Schweiz 23. Triform SA, Fri 29 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 11. Pentair, Lausa 23 7ICEN EIA Fribourg 37. Aquafides Sch 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 7. Aquanetto 7 Sàrl, Sierre / VS5 17. CERT SA, Sion 16 7. Global 7. Environe Global Environe 3-4 Hach Lange Sà Alpha UT Be SA, 34. Watersolutions 32. Madep SA, 28 1-3 36 36 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne 22 NTRALISÉ C 5.29. 24.26. Aquadil Sàrl, 2. Techfina, Petit-L 12. Bonnard et Ga 34 Labosafe SA, 2728 27 / VD30 34 14 collecte Instituts 33 18. Ingénieur 8. AquaVision 8. AquaVision Eng EngPRA assainissement production des 25 24 33. DLK Technolog 10 9 4. Bulane SA, Genève Int. Sàrl, F ergaard 6 Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne 15/ VD 3. Belair Biotech S 13. CSD SIngénieur 30. Biol-Conseils 3522. PallEFPL 16. Alpatec SA, M 32eaux 21 CENTRALIÉ Membratec, S des usées eau potable eaux usées 9.Lausanne Crystal 9.NTE Crystal SA /SA VDNTE6.19. NGL Cleaning T Reinhart 35. ProMinent4.Dos 8 Solutions, Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD 23. 37 Triform SA, FriSamro 11-13 5Lausanne / VD s Green 25.27. SA, Hydro Be 6 5. Swiss Fresh Befreetech SA, 14. E-dric, Mon 31.Planet Adamant Tech Le17. CERT SA, Sion 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 20. Horizon 31 10. Phragmi-Tech, 10. Phragmi-Tech, 7 19-20 29 7. Global Environe 5 1-3 / VD Biotec HEIG-VD 36. Degremont 34. Watersolutions 22 6. NV Terra, Monthey / VS 28 CYverdon 24. Aquadil Sàrl, s INSO, Lausanne 26.28. Alpha UT Biologie SA,/ VD 32. Madep 5. SA Hach Lange Sà 15.EPTES Ve 36 SA, Be Sàrl, 34 DÉCENTRALISÉ Instituts 27 18. PRA Ingénieur 30 2. Techfina, Petit-L 21. WRA Schweiz 4 17-18 11. Pentair, 11. Lausa Pentair, Lausa 2 23 production 8. AquaVision Eng collecte 7 / VS 37. Aquafides Sch ICEN3.EIA Fribourg 7.des Aquanetto 15potable ne SA, Genève 1. Vestergaard ssainissement 16 33 / VDSàrl, Sierre 3-4 33. DLK Technolog 19. Membratec, S Frandsen Group SA,usées Lausanne Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ eau 12. Bonnard 12. et Bonnard Ga et Ga eaux EFPL Lausanne / VD NTE35 SA 14 29. Labosafe SA, 9. Crystal 16. es eaux Water, usées Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD 35. ProMinent Dos 25. Samro SA, 27.Be Reinhart Hydro s Fresh 6. NGL Cleaning T Alpatec SA, MPlanet Horizon 32 24 25 21 25 37 10 Lausanne 69 2. Swiss Green Solutions, / VD 20. 4. Befreetech SA, 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 13.30. CSD Ingénieur 13. CSD S 10. Phragmi-Tech, Biol-Conseils HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD SAIngénieur 19-20 26. Alpha UT36. SA,Degremont 5 28. Biotec Biologie Terra, Monthey / VS 7. Global Environe 17. CERT SA,21. Sion 34. Watersolutions 3. Swiss INSO, Lausanne 8 / VD11-13 28 WRA Schweiz 5. Hach Lange SàTechLe2.11. 23. TriformPetit-L SA, Fri 36 Techfina, 14. E-dric, 14. LeE-dric, Mon Mon 34 Instituts 27 Pentair, Lausa Adamant 4 37.31. Aquafides Sch 31 31 ICEN EIA Fribourg23 anetto VS assainissement 7 8. AquaVision Eng 18. PRA Ingénieur 29 5 17-18 SA, Genève 729 161-3 3-4 Sàrl, Sierre4./ Bulane Aquadil Sàrl, 3.24. Belair Biotech SC 15.EPTES 15.EPTES Sàrl,SA, Ve Sàrl, VeBonnard 14 22 21 Ga Madep des eaux usées 30 30 EFPL ENTRALISÉ 29.32. Labosafe SA, Be 12. 9. Crystal NTE SA 19.etMembratec, S 35Lausanne / VD 27. Reinhart6.Hydro ProMinent 24 25 10 5. Swiss Fresh NGL DLK Cleaning T 4. 35. Befreetech SA,Dos 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 15/ VD 9 33 6Water, 33Belmont-sur-Lausanne CSD Ingénieur Technolog estergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD 19-20 S 13. 30.33. Biol-Conseils 10. Phragmi-Tech, 20. Planet HEIG-VD37Yverdon / VD 28. Biotec Biologie 36. Degremont SA Horizon 8 11-13 6. NV Terra, 32 Monthey 32 / VS 23. Triform SA, Fri 7. Environe 25. Samro SA,Mon 5.14. Hach Lange SàBe 16.Global Alpatec 16. SA, Alpatec M SA, ME-dric, Le 17-18 31 28 5 36 wiss Green Solutions, Lausanne16 / VD 7 34 7 31. Adamant Tech 11. Pentair, Lausa 21. WRA Schweiz 27 37.Alpha Aquafides Sch 23 22 ICEN EIA Fribourg 7. Aquanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS 29 1-3 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C 8. Eng 26. UT SA, 17.AquaVision CERT 17. SA,CERT Sion SA,15.EPTES Sion Sàrl, Ve 34. Watersolutions wiss INSO, Lausanne / VD 29. Labosafe SA, 32. Madep SA, Be 12. Bonnard et Ga 30 14 35 NTRALISÉ 15 Instituts 9. NTEPRA SA Ingénieur 6. NGL Cleaning T 18.Crystal PRA Ingénieur 18. 37 33 69 25 24 10 ulane SA, Genève S Technolog 30. Biol-Conseils 33. DLK 13. CSD Ingénieur 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, 21 / VD ergaard Frandsen Group SA, Lausanne / VD 25. FSamro SA, Be 10. Phragmi-Tech, 27. Reinhart Hydro Global Environe EFPL Lausanne 19.35. Membratec, 19. Membratec, SDos7.16. SAlpatec SA, M 32 6 ProMinent 28 36 wiss FreshSolutions, Water, Belmont-sur-Lausanne / VD 8 11-13 31. Adamant Tech 34 14. E-dric, Le Mon 23. Triform SA, 2719-20 ss Green Lausanne 5 / VD 26.FriAlpha UT SA, 11. Pentair, Lausa 28. BiotecSA, Biologie 8.17. AquaVision Eng 31 20.36. Planet 20. Horizon PlanetSA Horizon 7 29 HEIG-VD / VD CERT Sion Sàrl, Degremont 1-3 5 V Terra, /1VS 32. Madep SA, 227 Yverdon 34.Be Watersolutions 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve C 24. Aquadil 17-18 ss INSO,Monthey Lausanne /2 VD 4 30 12. Bonnard et Ga 9. Crystal NTE SA 21. WRA 21. Schweiz WRA Schweiz Instituts 23 23 18. PRA Ingénieur 16 37. Aquafides Sch 3-4/ VD ICEN EIA 33 Fribourg quanetto Sàrl, Sierre / VS 33. DLK Technolog 6 15 25 21 dsen Group SA, Lausanne ne SA, Genève 27. Reinhart Hydro 13. CSD Ingénieur 29. Labosafe SA, 10. Phragmi-Tech, 6 Lausanne S SA, Be EFPL 14 14 35. ProMinent Dos 19. Membratec, 16. Alpatec SA, M 25. Samro 32 / VD 19-20 tions, Lausanne / VD10 ss Fresh Water, / VD 24 5 24 10 Belmont-sur-Lausanne 28. Biotec Biologie 14. E-dric, Le Mon S 30. Biol-Conseils 11. Pentair, Lausa 9 9 22. Pall Int. 22. Sàrl, Pall Int. Sàrl, F F 1 31 34. Watersolutions HEIG-VD Yverdon / VD 36. Degremont SA 20. Planet Horizon production eau potable

collecte des eaux usées

4.

Befreetec SA, Genève / GE

5.

Hach Lange Sàrl, Vésenaz / GE

6.

SOFIES, Genève / GE

7.

NGL Cleaning Technology, Nyon / VD

8.

Global Environmental Services SA (GES), Morges / VD

9.

AquaVision Engineering, Ecublens / VD

assainissement des eaux usées

10. Crystal NTE SA, Jouxtens-Mézery / VD 11. Phragmi-Tech, Pampigny / VD 12. Pentair, Lausanne / VD

13. Bonnard et Gardel, Lausanne / VD

14. CSD Ingénieurs Conseils SA, Lausanne / VD 15. Quantis Switzerland, Lausanne / VD 16. E-dric, Le Mont / VD

17. EPTES Sàrl, Vevey / VD

18. Aquametro AG, Therwil / BS et Vevey / VD 19. Alpatec SA, Martigny / VS

20. Amethyst Solutions Sàrl, Sion / VS

CENTRALIÉ 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ 4. Befreetech SA, 1. Lange Aqua +Sà Tech Sp 5. Hach 2. Techfina, Petit-L 3. Belair Biotech S 6. NGL Cleaning T 4. Befreetech SA, 7. Global Environe CENTRALIÉ 5. Hach Eng Lange Sà 8. AquaVision 1. Aqua + Tech Sp 9. Crystal NTE SA 2. Techfina, Petit-L 6. NGL Cleaning T 10. Phragmi-Tech, 3. Belair Biotech S CENTRALIÉ 7. Global Environe 11. Pentair, Lausa 4. Befreetech SA, 1. Aqua + Tech 8. AquaVision Eng Sp 12. Bonnard et Ga 5. Hach Lange Sà 2. Techfina, 9. Crystal NTE Petit-L SA 13. CSD Ingénieur Belair Biotech S 10.3.Phragmi-Tech, 14. E-dric, Le Mon 6. NGL Cleaning T Befreetech SA, 11.4.Pentair, Lausa 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 7. Global Environe Hach Lange 12.5.Bonnard et GaSà 8. AquaVision Eng 13. CSD 16. Alpatec SA,Ingénieur M Crystal NTE SA 9. 6.E-dric, NGL Cleaning T 14. Le Mon 17. CERT SA, Sion 10. Phragmi-Tech, 7. GlobalSàrl, Environe 15.EPTES Ve 18. PRA Ingénieur 11. Pentair, Lausa 8. AquaVision Eng 19. Membratec, 12. S Bonnard et Ga 9. Crystal NTE SA 16. Alpatec SA, M 20. Planet Horizon 13. CSD Ingénieur Phragmi-Tech, 17.10. CERT SA, Sion 21. WRA Schweiz 14. E-dric, Le Mon Pentair, Lausa 18.11. PRA Ingénieur 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 12. Bonnard etS Ga 19.Int. Membratec, 22. Pall Sàrl, F CSDHorizon Ingénieur 20.13. Planet 23. Triform SA, Fri 16. Alpatec SA, M E-dric, Le Mon 21.14. WRA C CERT SA, Sion 24. Aquadil Sàrl,Schweiz 17. 15.EPTES Sàrl, Ve 18. PRA Ingénieur 22. Pall Sàrl, F 25. Samro SA,Int. Be 19. Membratec, S Alpatec 23.16. Triform SA,SA, Fri M 26. Alpha UT SA, 20. Planet Horizon CERTSàrl, SA, C Sion 24.17. Aquadil 21. WRA Schweiz 18. PRA Ingénieur 27. Reinhart Hydro 19. Membratec, 25. Samro SA, Be S 28. Biotec Biologie 22. Pall Int. Sàrl, F 20. Planet Horizon 26. Alpha UT SA, 23. Triform SA, Fri 21. WRA Schweiz 29. Labosafe SA, 24. Aquadil Sàrl, C 27. ReinhartSHydro 30. Biol-Conseils Pall Int. Sàrl, F 28.22. Biotec Biologie 31. Adamant Tech 25. Samro SA, Be 23. Triform SA, Fri 32. Madep SA, Be 26. Alpha UT SA, AquadilSA, Sàrl, C 29.24. Labosafe 33. DLK Technolog 30. Biol-Conseils S 27. Reinhart Hydro Samro Tech SA, Be 31.25. Adamant 34. Watersolutions 28. Biotec Biologie AlphaSA, UT Be SA, 32.26. Madep

44. Grundfos Pumpen AG, Fällanden / ZH

37 36

33. DLK Dos Technolog 35. ProMinent 29. Labosafe SA, 27. Reinhart Hydro 36. Degremont SA 30. Biol-Conseils S Biotec Biologie 34.28. Watersolutions 37. Aquafides Sch 31. Adamant Tech 32. Madep SA, Be LabosafeDos SA, 35.29. ProMinent 33. DLK Technolog Biol-Conseils 36.30. Degremont SA S AdamantSch Tech 37.31. Aquafides 34. Watersolutions 32. Madep SA, Be 33. DLK Technolog 35. ProMinent Dos 36. Degremont SA 34. Watersolutions 37. Aquafides Sch 35. ProMinent Dos 36. Degremont SA 37. Aquafides Sch

21. CERT SA, Sion / VS

22. PRA Ingénieurs Conseils SA, Sion / VS 23. Membratec, Sierre / VS

24. Planet Horizons Technologies SA, Sierre / VS 25. Aquanetto, Sierre / VS

26. WRA Schweiz SA, Rarogne / VS

27. Degrémont SA, Fribourg / FR et Dübendorf / ZH 28. Triform SA, Fribourg / FR

29. Aquadil Sàrl, Châtel-St-Denis / FR 30. Samro SA, Berthoud / BE 31. Alpha UT SA, Nidau / BE 32. Smixin, Bienne / BE

33. RWB Holding SA, Porrentruy / JU

34. Reinhart Hydrocleaning SA, Courroux / JU

35. Biotec Biologie Appliquée SA, Delémont / JU

36. Labosafe SA, St-Blaise / NE

37. Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchâtel / NE

38. Adamant Technologies SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds / NE 39. MADEP SA, Bevaix / NE

40. DLK Technologies SA, Le Locle / NE

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

17


An expert talks about... « North-South Partnerships » to improve drinking water quality and sanitation

by Christian Zurbrügg Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec).

Diarrhoea kills more young children worldwide each year than aids, malaria and tuberculosis combined. However, with safe disposal and treatment of sewage, improved hygiene practice and a focus on drinking water quality, around 2.4 million deaths could be prevented annually. For a large proportion of the global population therefore, water and sanitation technologies, services and hygiene behaviour are priority concerns. Many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) agreed by the UN member states are closely related to water supply and sanitation. One goal specifically focuses on halving, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. While this goal is easy to formulate, achieving it is a complex matter, particularly in an urban setting. With the world’s urban population growing at almost twice the rate of the overall population, and the proportion of slum dwellers in the cities of developing and transition countries averaging 30–50 per cent, there is a clear need for effective, innovative approaches – not only in terms of technology, but also in planning, financing, sustainable operation, user acceptance and willingness-to-pay.

18

According to UN predictions, over the next two decades most urban growth will take place in small and mediumsized cities in the developing world (UN-Habitat, 2006 1); in other words, in cities that are least able to manage the challenges. One approach for scaling-up improvements, or at least to keep abreast of rapid growth, is to design more flexible small-scale approaches which build on an involvement of key local stakeholders, the local community and small businesses. In many settings, people may have access to sufficient quantities of water, but the water is unsafe to drink. This may include piped network systems, where variable water pressure, leakage, and unreliable centralised treatment are the main causes of serious contamination. CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

Where existing water sources are contaminated or not treated properly, household water treatment (HWT) solutions may play an important role in protecting public health. These include a range of technologies, devices and methods used to treat water at the household level. Household water treatment, if performed correctly and consistently by the household members, can significantly improve water quality at the point of consumption. Nevertheless, most HWT systems still face difficulties with large-scale coverage (Clasen 2009 2), as they involve behaviour change, hygiene awareness and social acceptance. Thus, besides using appropriate technology, such an approach must also offer equal access to service and supply chains, be affordable, and win institutional, legal and political support. Increasingly, new developments in the sector are also looking at business models where, for instance, water kiosks and small enterprises treat the water and then supply households with safe drinking water at a slightly higher cost than for other water not used for consumption. In sanitation, progress is unfortunately not keeping up with expectations. Planners and engineers often continue to default to the conventional approach of sewer network and wastewater treatment plant, even though this approach has often proved to be a failure. In most cases, the public is not involved in the planning process and cannot voice its needs, remaining a passive recipient. Alternatives to large-scale sewer networks are decentralised sewage management approaches. In fact, in many large cities in Asia and Africa, less than 20 per cent of households are connected to a sewer and instead use on-site sanitation facilities such as pit latrines or septic tanks that separate liquids from solids. These require improvement, particularly as regards treatment efficiency, reliable monitoring, and regular removal and treatment of separated solids. Again, technological development is only one small part of the puzzle when it comes to improving infrastructure functionality. An enabling legal, political and institutional framework, innovative business and service models, affordability, reliability and sustainable use of resources (nutrients, organic matter, water, energy, etc.) are key to the success of all these innovations.


As with all research and development activities, local stakeholders – entrepreneurs, experts, planners, and decision-makers in municipal authorities – must be able to access this knowledge so that it can be adapted and applied to their specific local context.

Here, Switzerland has a lot to offer - well-developed longstanding partnerships between Swiss Universities and local research centres in low and middle-income countries, technical expertise in innovative Swiss enterprises, and also the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), which supports research and can incorporate the results of research into its own projects or disseminate knowledge through its local partnership offices. All this enables Swiss researchers to interface well with policy makers and practitioners and through this play a relevant part in improving water and sanitation and combating poverty.

© Lars Osterwalder, Eawag

This knowledge transfer is no easy matter. It means involving local stakeholders in the early stages of a project, and outreach work among practitioners and policymakers with easy-to-use decision support tools. It is often useful to create partnerships within the country concerned or with international NGOs or development agencies 3.

Defluoridation community filter using aluminium hydroxide as filter media, in Tuchi Gragona, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

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1

UN-Habitat (2006) State of the World’s Cities 2006/7. UNHabitat, Nairobi. Clasen, Thomas F. (2009). Scaling Up Household Water Treatment Among Low-Income Populations. World Health Organization, Geneva. Zurbrügg, C. (2011). Combined efforts to improve sanitation. In: Healthy water resources - balancing the needs of humans and the environment. Eawag News 70e, June 2011. Dübendorf. 2 3

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Portrait SMIXIN, using well what is important

Saving water is the preoccupation driving Biennebased startup Smixin. Its hand washing system reduces water consumption by 90%, whilst achieving a higher standard of hygiene.

that during these measurements, the tap was turned off whilst the person was rubbing their hands. The use of a flow limiter on the tap reduces this to 0.8 litres. But Smixin goes even further. Its system requires just 0.1 litre of water, in other words, a 90% reduction. It is based on the simple principle of introducing the cleaning agent directly into the water and mixing the two.

A system that can be adapted to the applicable hygiene standards This system is intended for business and commercial applications, in places specifically for use by the public and for hand washing, such as washrooms in offices, shopping centres or restaurants. For professionals, it is compatible with the most rigorous hygiene standards. « We’re able to adjust the ratio of our soap-water mix, and also the time allowed for the different phases of hand washing, in order to comply with each company’s rules. In this way, we have the potential to increase ‘ compliance ’ among users. It’s also possible to incorporate an antiseptic soap to disinfect hands as well as wash them, and so tap the hospital market, especially during periods when there is a risk of a pandemic. » The system can be fixed or standalone, which makes it even more adaptable.

© Smixin

Developing internationally

Hand washing system : 90% of water consumption reduction

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Water is a field where there is tremendous potential for savings. The startup Smixin is well aware of this. Its idea is that hand washing is a simple activity that everyone performs several times each day, so it must be possible to reduce the large quantities of water used for this purpose. « This idea was born in 2004 within Creaholic », explains Denis Crottet, co-founder and CEO of Smixin. « We became aware that a generation from now, water would be one of the major concerns of our society. » Creaholic is a Bienne-based incubator for innovations founded in 1986 by Elmar Mock, one of the inventors of the famous Swatch. It specialises in the development and mass-production of products and technologies, and it was as a spin-off from Creaholic that Smixin, with its philosophy of making good use of what is important, was set up.

« Now, we’ve developed the technology and demonstrated the concept ; in the future, we’ll be supplying the technology on an international scale. » Smixin prefers to grow by developing partnerships with major soap manufacturers or with international health and hygiene companies. « We’re currently setting up an initial partnership with an SME that works with professionals in the catering trade. It’s a first step. » After marketing the system in western countries, Denis Crottet hopes to take it to emergent countries and offer access to a higher standard of hygiene in places where water resources are very limited.

SMIXIN™ SA 2009

A potential saving of 90%

1, but it benefits from the support of 25 people

Smixin offers a hand washing system that reduces water consumption by 90%. According to its tests, washing your hands requires 1.2 litres of water – it should be noted

115 Rue Centrale, CP 7016, 2500 Bienne 7, Switzerland

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

+41 32 366 64 24

+41 32 366 64 45

info@smixin.com

www.smixin.com


Reinhart Hydrocleaning prolongs the life of pipes

Based at Courroux in the Jura, Reinhart Hydrocleaning specialises in cleaning water, gas and oil pipelines. Its system reduces the quantity of chemicals required and also means that pipes are replaced less frequently.

From a cheese factory to an oil pipeline Although the company’s original business focused on cleaning water pipes, Reinhart Hydrocleaning has now diversified and cleans all kinds of installations, including gas pipelines and pipes in a cheese factory.

© Luca Reinhart

Regardless of the type of liquid flowing through them, all pipes are going to get dirty at some time. This means that the diameter of the pipe is reduced and results in a loss of flow rate in the network. In addition, if maintenance work is not carried out, there is a high risk that the pipes will rust and corrode. The Reinhart family has been cleaning water pipes since 1952, as Operations Manager Robert Reinhart explainns : « Our grandfather began by cleaning water pipes in the Ticino canton and then in Italy ». Today, the company is still family-run, with two of the founder’s sons and three of his grandsons managing the business.

press part of the deposits onto the pipe. » The Reinhart Hydrocleaning product consists of scraping components that are adapted to the needs of each client, plus a part required for propulsion. The aim is to increase the flow rate, but also to enable the pipes to be inspected. It involves working upstream to see which parts of the network are damaged. This means that instead of replacing all the pipes, only the damaged parts are renewed. An inspection carried out in this way on water pipes that had been installed in 1848 near Valencia, in Spain, showed that they were still intact.

Thanks to the pipe cleaning solutions designed by Reinhart Hydrocleaning, it is possible to extend the lifespan of pipes such as these 342mm diameter brine pipes.

According to brothers Roland (R&D Manager) and Robert Reinhart, it’s a definite advantage : « The experience of our father and our uncle, combined with our technical knowledge, is one of our company’s strengths. It enables us to be more responsive. »

Replacing only what needs to be replaced It should be noted that the company custom-designs machines for each of its clients. « We have to be very responsive », says Robert Reinhart, « because very often our clients have a deadline for inspecting the pipes that’s very close, and the pipes have to be cleaned before the inspection. » There are several techniques for doing this. The first, high-pressure washing, is limited by the length of the pipes. Another solution is to use pigs or scrapers. These are cleaning pads that push the dirt towards the end of the pipe. According to Roland Reinhart, this is not the best solution : « We’ve noticed that these solutions

The solution was even used to cool the tunnel-boring machine during construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel. An oil pipeline between Norway and the United Kingdom has been cleaned regularly via this system since 2007. « It took several operations to remove all the paraffin that had encrusted the pipes for years, » says Robert Reinhart, adding, « When we started, the pipe was due to reach the end of its estimated lifespan in 2020. Now, that lifespan has been extended to 2027. »

Reinhart Hydrocleaning SA 1996 17 of whom 7 are members of the Reinhart family 29 Rue de la Croix, 2822 Courroux, Switzerland +41 32 422 82 44

+41 32 422 21 38

info@rhc-sa.ch

www.rhc-sa.ch

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

21


Portrait hepia, combining planting with water treatment Alongside regional development, construction and the environment, water is one of the subjects of the interdisciplinary projects carried out by hepia – the Geneva University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland : Technology, Architecture and Landscape. The aim of these projects is to combine urban planting with a vertical water treatment system.

The prototypes indicate an enormous potential in terms of reducing pollution and noise as well as having a positive impact on the urban climate. Yves Leuzinger concludes : « The ultimate aim is to combine these two inventions to provide intelligent water management in towns, although we still have a way to go. »

The objective of the Hepia school in Geneva is to provide its students with strong interdisciplinary skills. One of the ways it delivers this is to give them the opportunity of working on specific interdisciplinary projects. « This means that students, even those with a basic qualification in a different field, are capable of understanding the value added by the other disciplines. » Yves Leuzinger, the Director of Hepia, states that it also enables students to respond better to the problems posed by resource management and conservation. Hepia came into being in 2009, as a result of merging the schools of engineering in Geneva and Lullier, EIG and EIL.

Vertical biobeds Concerned by the presence of agricultural pesticides in water, a team of agronomists from Hepia became interested in biobeds – installations for treating water that contains residues from phytosanitary treatment, made up of a trench filled with soil and straw. This substrate absorbs the pesticides, which are then biodegraded by the microflora in the soil. In order to reduce the space required and to avoid having to add straw regularly, the Hepia team invented the VG Biobed (Vertical Green Biobed). The same substrate as the biobeds is contained within a wall planted on all sides to maximise water evaporation, without the risk of volatilisation of the pesticides. The plants bring in fresh organic matter, eliminating the need to add more straw. « These biobeds may also be used to retain rain water and limit the risk of flooding. »

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A second project, which relates more specifically to an aspect of construction and planting, has the aim of creating conditions in which plants can live vertically. They should not only require little maintenance or water, but should also contribute to the thermal properties of the building. The team, made up of landscape architects, agronomists, heat engineers, architects, interior architects and a ceramicist, has therefore designed a new system for the planting of buildings, which consists of seeding a solid porous panel juxtaposed with a substrate. « The challenge was to obtain a vertical ground structure which served as support for vegetation, was even from top to bottom and was not affected by rain, while providing humidity for the habitat and a buffer against the temperature differences in towns. » CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

© hepia

Planted walls

These planted walls designed by Hepia are set to be installed in our towns in the next few years.

hepia (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture) 2009 280, with the addition of staff on temporary contracts 900 students Rue de la Prairie 4, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland +41 22 546 24 00 hepia@hesge.ch

hepia.hesge.ch


DLK Technologies – an ecological approach with economical solutions Based in Le Locle, the 20-year-old company DLK Technologies has become a benchmark in the treatment of water used for washing vehicles. The company treats industrial effluents using a variety of ecological processes.

Expanding the available water treatment processes As biological treatment is sometimes limited by the fact that not all effluents are the same, DLK looked into a specific treatment system for effluents polluted with metals (such as water from polishing processes or effluents from electroplating) called electrocoagulation. This involves passing the effluent over electrodes, iron cathodes and aluminium anodes. The electric current breaks down all the chemical bonds holding the metals in solution, and the aluminium produced by the decomposition of the anode promotes the coagulation of these metals. Unlike the classic physico-chemical systems, which require the addition of reagents, the electrocoagulation process only uses electric current and metal in solid form (so no transportation of water is involved), thereby substantially reducing the operating costs. In 2007, by buying the company Px Tech Environnement, then in liquidation, DLK acquired the additional facilities of membrane filtration technology and several small physico-chemical units that were missing from its range. Membrane filtration, involving reverse osmosis, enables pollutants to be separated from the effluent and concentrated, which reduces the size of the final treatment unit, thus limiting the treatment costs.

© H. Le.

A diagnostic and analysis service

In the DLK Technologies laboratory, Benjamin Reinhart, manager of the Bern branch, undertakes the analysis of all the effluent samples in order to propose the most appropriate water treatment solution.

« We have always fought to operate economically while using ecological solutions. » Marc Vuilliomenet, Managing Director of DLK Technologies, believes that using chemicals to treat the water used for washing vehicles is a real ecological aberration. Since its beginnings the company, based in Le Locle, has turned to nature for its solutions. The founder, Hans Joachim Leithner, originally manufactured fans, from where the name DLK (« Damit Luft Kommt », the German for « To make air come ») is derived. Later, together with the University of Heidelberg, he developed a water recycling system. Under the name FBR (Filter and Bioreactor) this system combined filtration with biological treatment. However, it did not enjoy the success he was expecting in Switzerland due to the low price of water. It was not until the FBR, which now stood for Fixed Bed Reactor, was adapted for the treatment of hydrocarbons in the water used for washing engine chassis, that DLK Technologies was finally able to establish itself with garage operators.

« We design tailor-made solutions for each of our clients, » says Marc Vuilliomenet. « Every machine is a specific model, some of which may require several years to perfect. » As effluents are rarely the same, the company has established a diagnostic service. In addition to the analysis of effluents in the laboratory, the technicians visit the client’s site with one or more machines, carrying out tests in real conditions. The objective is to find the best solution for each client’s environment.

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DLK Technologies SA 1991 between 8 and 12 at different times Ch. Des Aulnes 1, 2400 Le Locle, Switzerland +41 32 930 50 50 service@dlk.ch

www.dlk.ch

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on photovoltaics sector Photovoltaic solar power in western Switzerland

1. Introduction The deserts receive more solar energy in six hours than mankind could consume in a year... On the threshold of the announced withdrawal from nuclear power, it would be irresponsible not to derive the maximum benefit from this free resource. Good progress is being made with a number of scenarios that propose solutions for making up the electricity production deficit, and it seems extremely likely that the winning energy mix will include a good percentage of photovoltaic solar power. Apart from the fact that it is free, the sun is an abundant resource, and we should make better use of its potential than we do at present. Its energy is harnessed in the form of photovoltaic energy (PV) and thermal energy. Solar thermal energy denotes the conversion of solar radiation into thermal energy. This conversion may either be used directly (to heat a building, for example) or indirectly (such as to produce steam to drive alternators, thus producing electrical energy). Photovoltaic solar power refers to energy that is collected from sunlight and converted directly to electricity by photovoltaic panels. It is generated by the conversion of a photon into an electron in a semiconductor material. Although we have focused in this study on the area of photovoltaic energy because of its strong economic potential, as demonstrated by a recent analysis in western Switzerland, the importance of solar thermal energy should not be underestimated.

Boom time for solar thermal energy

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Flagship PV enterprises Let us return, however, to the subject of our study : the photovoltaic sector. Western Switzerland has a substantial ecosystem of technology enterprises in the area of photovoltaic energy, following the lead of key players such as Meyer Burger, Flexcell, Applied Materials Switzerland and Studer Innotec. These businesses are ready to accept the energy-related challenges facing industry in the future – a future that is already upon us, and which certainly offers interesting opportunities for technological and commercial development. The primary aim of this study is to take stock of the main players in this field and to ascertain the value and relevance of this local industry as it relates to the global market.

2. PV solar : definitions and issues involved The photovoltaic sector has three generations of technology, each with its own value chain : -- Crystalline photovoltaic modules (1st generation) : crystalline silicon cells are made up of fine plates of silicon, an abundant chemical element extracted from sand or quartz, which has a low environmental impact. The yields of these cells are increasing ; currently they stand at around 15% for polycrystalline cells and between 16 and 19% for monocrystalline cells. -- Inorganic thin film (2nd generation) and organic thin film and other advanced concepts (3rd generation) : thin-film cells are obtained by depositing one or more semi-conductor, photosensitive layers onto a glass, plastic, steel etc. medium. The cost of manufacture may be lower, but the yield of thin-film cells is currently less than that of crystalline silicon cells (5 to 13%), although here, too, yields are on the increase in laboratory-based pilot applications.

Between 1999 and 2006, the growth in the number of installations worldwide was 20%, with an installed capacity of 130 GW as at the end of 2006. Three years later, this figure was nearing 175 GW, and is estimated to reach around 320 GW in 2020. Western Switzerland is well in the running in this field, as proved by the number of companies there that are European leaders in their field, such as Jenni Energietechnik (storage tanks with integrated water heaters), which is just completing its new production facility at Oberburg (canton of Bern). An idea of the skills in the region can be gained from those at the forefront of innovation, such as SRB in Geneva (evacuatedtube solar panels derived from a technology developed at the CERN) or Energie Solaire in Sierre (canton of Valais), which offers a solution involving panels integrated into roofing materials. Finally, the various technologies are deployed by a range of companies which benefit, among

It is important to note that a comparison of yields should not form the sole basis for evaluating a cell. Account should equally be taken of the annual power it generates at the actual operating temperature, and measurements should ideally be taken over a period of time to determine the actual power produced throughout the year. This enables the determination of the sensitivity of the cells in question to diffused light. Estimates for new installations

other things, from installer training provided by the Sebasol foundation which has been in existence for almost twenty years. The story of solar thermal energy is one that is definitely worth detailed consideration, and may be covered in a future publication.

should take account of this parameter. This consideration could make flexible thin-film solutions, such as those sold by Flexcell from Yverdon-les-Bains (canton of Vaud), more attractive to clients than would be the case if only the gross yield were taken into account.

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Third-generation cells include solar cells inspired by photosynthesis, which are characterised by their suppleness and transparency. They are light and easily integrated into construction materials such as windows or faรงades, and will pave the way towards new applications in future. Continuing research begun around forty years ago by Professor Graetzel of the EPFL, the results are being concretised and the ultimate aim is getting closer. The intermediate results have been taken up and developed by several start-ups such as Solaronix in Aubonne (canton of Vaud), which sells coloured cells.

Different stages of development These various technologies are at different stages of development, as illustrated in Figure 1. It clearly shows that crystalline silicon technology has matured and its commercial deployment is well-established. Marketing of thin-film cells is under way, but they have not yet become fully established, while third-generation technologies are still at the development or pilot stage. An overview of the major players in the sector in Switzerland (see on page 30) shows the dynamism of our region in this sector, with the presence in each of these fields of enterprises that are active in research and/or marketing.

Technology continues to present challenges It is clear from current discussions throughout the world that the energy mix of the future will include photovoltaic solar power. However, at present there is no universal magic formula to solve the major challenge of the 21st century, namely to ensure sufficient energy provision for mankind with the lowest possible environmental impact in terms of global warming. The progress made during the last decade has been impressive, and has gone some way to providing a response to this problem. However, there are still a number of significant technological challenges to be overcome before these new solutions can be deployed en masse (with the maximum possible yields), and these are being worked on intensively by private and industrial research laboratories. There is no doubt that the development of the photovoltaic sector depends on this technological progress, but it is not immune to the rules of the market, and will not ultimately enjoy success unless long-term sustainable economic viability is assured. The response will be found in the solution to this equation.

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Figure 1: The progress to date of the various PV technologies (source E4Tech)

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on photovoltaics sector Photovoltaic solar power in western Switzerland

The market economy should take up the baton The impressive increase that we are currently observing in the installed photovoltaic capacity has only been possible due to voluntarist policies by the states concerned. This is one option for accelerating developments in the presentday field of energy production. In due course, however, the market economy should take up the baton, backed up where necessary by an adequate legal framework that is perhaps more restrictive than the one we have benefited from to date. Conversely, it is also easy to envisage certain aspects of the legal framework that should be relaxed. To this end, each region will need to implement a solution for energy production that is adapted to the locally-available resources, giving priority to the energy sources that are the most greenhouse gas-neutral and considering the medium-term economic viability. This will certainly comprise a “bundle” of solutions linked to local resources (local energy mix), but at any rate involving a substantial solar component, both PV and thermal energy. The rapid progress of technological developments makes it likely that the gap will close between the cost per kWh of photovoltaic energy and that obtained from the “conventional” electricity network. This equality may already have been achieved in certain markets, taking account of specific local conditions. The key ingredient lies in the precise content and in the time taken to establish these conditions.

An effective installation network In this context the global – and Swiss – market is facing a major challenge : despite falling cell costs, the cost of installation remains exorbitant in proportion. While the technology is developing rapidly and costs are falling due to production volumes and economies of scale, installation costs have remained high and represent over half of the overall costs. This situation is all the more marked in a country where labour is expensive and the currency is strong. In western Switzerland the benefits of large-scale deployment of PV mean it is necessary to ensure the rapid development of an effective network for the installation and set-up of these installations using local fitters.

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The economic potential of photovoltaic solar energy Photovoltaic solar energy is currently experiencing meteoric development worldwide. Since 1998 the number of PV solar installations globally has been increasing by 40% per annum. The global PV solar energy production capacity reached 22 GW in 2009, and the estimated projections for 2020 show that the installed capacity will be in excess of 300 GW. Germany is the uncontested leader in the field, with an CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

installed capacity of 17,000 MW in 2010. This is thanks to the government’s voluntarist policy to support the development of renewable energies, and photovoltaic solar power in particular. Italy is also showing potential for significant growth, with more than 700 MW installed in 2009 and almost double that in 2010 ; here, too, thanks to significant government and regional support initiatives. The growth in these countries is stronger than that observed on the American market, and the same can be said for the French market. In France the installed capacity in 2009 reached 440 MW, a growth of more than 600% since 2007. This production potential was increased by more than 700 MW in 2010.

The scope for development in Switzerland There is still significant scope for development in Switzerland. In 2010 new capacity of some 30 MW was installed, to achieve a total installed capacity of 100 MW. Meanwhile, projects equating to around 300 MW are “on the back burner” on the Swissgrid waiting list, awaiting support in the form of the reimbursement of cost price (RPC) scheme. It will be apparent by now that the European market for photovoltaic power is extremely dynamic. The strong growth in installed capacity recorded in our neighbouring countries is associated with significant know-how developments in the area of fitting and commissioning systems. The sector is promising, but the starting gun has already been fired for large-scale deployment and competition is fierce. Our region may have developed special skills in the area of the development and management of photovoltaic solar energy through local providers, but the question now is the extent to which enterprises from western Switzerland can play a significant role in the development of the sector, and indeed whether they are capable of cornering their share of the market thus generated.

3. The value chains of PV and the main players Taking account of the light we have just shed on the general context, and with the aim of offering a response to these questions, we propose to analyse the composition of the economic fabric of western Switzerland, to take stock of the main players and to position them along the value chain. We have used the same approach for all the three sectors covered in this study, which was undertaken with E4Tech and which focuses on the technological players. The choice was dictated by the observation that


one factor in the growth of liberal societies is the close link with innovation, which itself is closely linked to the technological players. A second reason for focusing our approach on these players in particular lies in the fact that the technology providers also represent the point of introduction of new technologies into the value chains. We have therefore chosen this option as the basis for Figure 2, in which we zoom in on the technological players in the region as well as a few major national players.

The main observations about the value chain It can be seen that the technological landscape of PV in western Switzerland enjoys a relatively large number of players. Around twenty technological enterprises (including technology-based service providers) have been noted. This ecosystem has the following characteristics : -- The majority of the enterprises identified are regional SMEs. Half-a-dozen of these have been bought up and now form part of large international groups – companies such as Flexcell, Applied Materials Switzerland (formerly HCT) or 3S Modultec, Pasan, MB Wafertec, MB services and 3S Photovoltaics, which belong to the Meyer Burger Group. This branch is therefore spread over all levels, locally and internationally, a characteristic that gives greater flexibility when it comes to adapting responses to the globalisation of the market.

The importance of engineering practices This view is supplemented at the end of the study by a geographical overview (not exhaustive) of the major players identified, which adds, alongside the technological players, the R&D institutes and the engineering practices specialising in this sector (Figure 3). The role of engineering practices and consultants is crucial in this sector, as Switzerland’s high labour costs mean that it is more likely to play a predominant role in integration, in the context of supplying turnkey solutions or systems. Enterprises involved in each of the three technology generations are active in western Switzerland, but the majority of these players are only involved in one of the three value chains. By contrast, the suppliers of associated downstream systems (inverters etc.) and services are often active in more than one of the value chains as a result of the generic services they provide.

-- There is a strong presence of multinationals in the PV sector (Metalor, Dupont, Trina Solar, Nanosolar, SunPower, Multi-Contact and Oerlikon), which are paving the way towards substantial international networks to tap external markets.

multi-nationales PME / Start-up

Multinationales

SME / Start-up

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Figure 2 : Distribution of the technological players along the PV value chain (source E4Tech/CleantechAlps)

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on photovoltaics sector Photovoltaic solar power in western Switzerland

-- A noteworthy aspect is the excellence of the research carried out in the region – this has attracted to Neuchâtel companies such as Roth & Rau and Oerlikon Solar, which have relocated some of their R&D operations to the canton. This puts them in close proximity to the Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory (a branch of the EPFL/IMT), allowing them to benefit from the researchers’ skills and from infrastructure synergy effects. -- The buying-up of enterprises by both foreign and Swiss companies indicates that this sector has reached maturity, as demonstrated by the recent integration of Roth & Rau into the Meyer Burger Group. -- Strong activity in the generation of intellectual property in the region has been observed ; however, the global consolidation phase that the photovoltaic sector is currently undergoing is not very conducive to the emergence of new entities. In this context, results generated by researchers will not necessarily lead to the creation of start-ups, but are more likely to be integrated into the industry by companies practising open innovation. -- The full value chain is covered, but the activities of the technological players in western Switzerland are concentrated on the extremities, with a group of equipment suppliers upstream and integrators and system equipment suppliers downstream. This characteristic is interesting from the point of view of the positioning of the region. The great diversity and wealth of players downstream of the chain is particularly noteworthy, with companies active in maintenance, such as Cleanfizz (an automatic PV panel cleaning system), the processing of electricity and injection into the grid (Sputnik, Studer Innotec, etc.), and the integration of PV solutions, such as Grove Boats, a company that was awarded the “Jury des Mariannes d’Or” prize in Lyons for its electro-solar passenger boat.

Western Switzerland, a strong player on the photovoltaic scene

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Switzerland is uniquely placed to play the role of integrator. Its concentration of enterprises and skills – many of them complementary – is ideal for the provision of turnkey solutions. These skills are available to local or foreign enterprises wanting to develop integrated “plug and play”type systems that are easy to install and manage. The technological enterprises in today’s PV sector in western Switzerland are prolific suppliers of “one off” products to the PV industry abroad. In the near future, good use of the potential synergies will no doubt enable them to offer CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

complete packages for solutions of the future – in the area of smart cities, for example. It is clear, therefore, that the PV sector in western Switzerland is experiencing growth. It is no coincidence that the Swiss Solar Technology Cluster has spontaneously come into being recently in the Trois-Lacs region. The mission of the cluster is specifically to develop the relations between the main players in the solar sector, encouraging in particular the links between companies and the IMT’s Photovoltaics-Laboratory (PV-Lab), the region’s flagship institute in this field. In its capacity of inter-cantonal facilitator for the main cleantech sectors (including PV), CleantechAlps highlights the importance of being able to rely on professional partners such as the Swiss Solar Technology Cluster to stimulate the activities of this community. It is also good to note the presence of non-profit-making organisations such as La Houille d’Or, whose aims are to democratise homeowners’ access to PV solar. These associations support producer-consumers when choosing their installations and advise them on the valorisation of the photovoltaic electricity they produce – yet another piece of the jigsaw that contributes to the dynamism of this sector.

4. Conclusion The technological overview of PV in western Switzerland is reinforced by the presence of significant players in German-speaking and Italian-speaking Switzerland. It would, however, be beneficial to strengthen the production aspect in order to maximise the region’s potential as a catalyst in the field. Solar Impulse … Planet Solar … the Icare Project … the Monte Rosa mountain hut … These are four flagship projects that will put paid to doubts expressed by sceptics about the skills and dynamism of the enterprises here in the region. It is indeed significant to see that the three most widely-reported projects for solar-powered circumnavigation of the globe all began on western Swiss soil. And the Swiss Club Alpin’s Monte Rosa hut, which includes the very latest energy concepts, is also located in the region, at the foot of the Matterhorn. This has already spawned a number of imitators, such as the Goûter refuge on Mont-Blanc. And it will come as no surprise that the latter’s architecture and engineering also had their origins on western Swiss soil...


Industrial showcasing The future of the Swiss PV sector inevitably involves showcasing the quality of the real-world technologies and know-how developed in the region. The ambassador projects described above are, of course, ideal means of communicating this message. However, the technologies they propose must be taken up by local providers in a series of industrial showcases to demonstrate the capacity for industrialisation. The public authorities can also play a significant role in this approach, by facilitating the establishment of large-scale photovoltaic electricity generation on public or quasi-public buildings. The PV systems installed on the roofs of the Stade de Suisse in Bern, the EPFL and Palexpo in Geneva are ideal from this point of view… at least they would be perfect if the products installed had been produced by local industry.

An abundance of solar roofs using local technologies ? We are confident that the public authorities will be more sensitive in the months to come and that we will see the “blossoming” of large-scale solar roofs such as those at the Palais de Beaulieu in Lausanne or the Y-Parc at Yverdon. And all this with technologies from Flexcell, 3S or Dupont, with the electricity fed into the grid via inverters by Studer Innotec or Sputnik Engineering, and temporary storage using the systems of Leclanché or Enairys Powertech. The next stage will, quite simply, be to export these showcase technologies, for example by integrating these products in “Green Embassies” such as the Swiss Embassy in Washington DC. Western Switzerland has all it needs to successfully tap the significant potential markets in this sector, and we are set to see an increase in the installation of solutions that are “made in western Switzerland” in the near future.

29

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on photovoltaics sector Overview of the players in PV energy (fig. 3)

.55

.53

.61 .60

.54 .56 .59 .41

.43 52..44 .40 42.45. .50 35-39. .34 18-19. .15 .17 .16 14. 12. 13.

11. 10. 6-7. 4-5. 3. . 9 1-2. .8

.51

57. .58 .62

.46 .49

.33

.32

.47-48

.20 31.

.23

.22 .21 .25 .29 .24 26-27. .28

.30

30

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

source : CleantechAlps


1.

Solpark Sàrl, Bernex / GE

43. Sputnik Engineering SA, Bienne / BE

2.

Yellow Print Sàrl, Confignon / GE

44. 3S Modultec et 3S Photovoltaïcs, Lyss / BE

3.

SunPower Systems Sàrl, Genève / GE

45. MTA Automation SA, Gals / BE

4.

Cleanfizz, Meyrin / GE

46. Sol-E Suisse SA, Berne / BE

5.

Pramac Swiss SA, Riazzino / TI et Meyrin / GE

47. MB Wafertec, Thoune / BE

6.

DuPont de Nemours, Genève / GE

48. MB Services, Thoune / BE

7.

ABCD Technology Sàrl, Genève / GE

49. Panotron SA, Worb /BE

8.

SES Société d’Energie Solaire, Plan-les-Ouates / GE

50. SolarCenter Muntwyler SA, Zollikofen / BE

9.

Sunwatt Bio Energie SA, Chêne-Bourg / GE

51. Megasol Solartechnik, Niederbipp / BE

10. Tentso SA, Nyon / VD

52. Solneva AG, Aarberg / BE

11. Solacem Sàrl, Begnins / VD

53. JuraSolar Sàrl, Boncourt / JU

12. Solaronix, Aubonne / VD

54. JMSC Sàrl, Courroux / JU

13. SunTechnics Fabrisolar, Morges / VD 14. Synova SA, Ecublens / VD 15. Applied Materials Switzerland, Cheseaux / VD 16. Solstis SA, Lausanne / VD

55. Multi-Contact SA, Allschwil / BS 56. Essemsolar, Aesch / LU 57. Komax AG, Rotkreuz / ZG

17. Fatem SA, Villars-Ste-Croix / VD

58. Nanosolar International, Zoug / ZG

18. Swiss-MSE SA, Yverdon / VD

59. Ernest Schweizer AG, Hedingen / ZH

19. Flexcell, Yverdon / VD

60. Trina Solar (Schweiz) SA, Zurich / ZH

20. Agena Energies, Moudon / VD

61. Flisom SA, Dübendorf / ZH

21. Solaire 1300, Gryon / VD

62. Oerlikon Solar, Trübbach / SG

22. Allani Sunlife Holding SA, Les Diablerets / VD 23. BEM, Monthey / VS

Institutes

24. Integrasolar, Martigny / VS

A.

EPFL / IMT (PV-Lab), Lausanne / VD

25. Valsol, Ravoire / VS

B.

EPFL / IMT (PV-Lab), Neuchâtel / NE

26. Studer Innotec SA, Sion / VS

C.

HES-SO, Delémont / JU

27. Sionic SA, Sion / VS

D.

Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen / AG

28. Solexis SA, Sierre / VS

E.

EMPA, Dübendorf / ZH

29. SolAlpes Energie Sàrl, Grône / VS 30. Sunnaplan, Susten / VS 31. Ammann Solaire, Châtel-St-Denis / FR 32. Net Nowak Energie et Technologie SA, St-Ursen / FR 33. Soleol Energy Systems SA, Estavayer-le-lac / FR 34. Swiss-Green Engineering Sàrl, Morat / FR 35. Iland Green Technologies SA, Neuchâtel / NE 36. Metalor Technologies SA, Neuchâtel / NE 37. Roth & Rau Switzerland AG, Neuchâtel / NE

31

38. Indeotec SA, Neuchâtel / NE 39. Pasan SA, Neuchâtel / NE 40. Planair SA, La Sagne / NE 41. Komax Systems LCF SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds / NE 42. Blaser Solaire, Hauterive / NE

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


An expert talks about... Research should be given the necessary backing to give photovoltaics the support it needs

An annual turnover of 2 billion for Swiss companies

By Prof. Christophe Ballif, Director of the photovoltaics laboratory at the Institute of Microengineering and Professor at the EPFL.

The end market for photovoltaics (PV) consists of the installation of complete systems, usually connected to the electricity grid, including photovoltaic panels, a mounting system and the inverter, which acts as a stabiliser for the network and converts the DC current to AC before feeding it into the grid. In 2010, in a market experiencing rapid growth, almost 200 million m2 of photovoltaic panels were produced, 85% using silicon wafers and 15% on the basis of thin-film cells. The PV end market in question is of interest not only to specialist installation companies, but also roofers and architects, who are increasingly moving towards considering photovoltaics as a standard construction element, both on roofs and façades.

Clean electricity for less than 5 Euro cents per kWh Globally, developments in the price of components mean that electricity at 20 cents, and, by 2025, between 10 and 12 cents per kWh, is a realistic prospect for Switzerland. This is provided there is an improvement to the legal aspects (e.g. planning permission, provisions for feeding into the grid) and system installation efficiency (based on the experience of installers). This also means that clean electricity should soon be produced for less than 5 cents per kWh in the areas of the planet that get the most sunlight, which could either be used to produce transportable fuel (H2 or methane) or would be transmitted over long distances by low-loss highvoltage DC lines.

32

At the same time, the photovoltaic market is in the process of forging strong links with that of stationary electricity storage systems and, every week, new solutions and new projects are announced involving systems which combine feed-in to the grid with local storage (batteries, compressed air, using electricity to produce other fuels, etc.).

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

Despite a PV installation market that is currently very weak, Switzerland has a number of companies which supply components such as electrical contacts (Multicontact), inverters and charge controllers (Sputnik Engineering AG, Studer Innotec), special mounting systems (3S Photovoltaics, E. Schweizer AG) and innovative modules (Flexcell, 3S Photovoltaics, Pramac). Switzerland has essentially benefitted from the photovoltaic boom because of its strength in the manufacture of production and characterisation equipment. It has achieved an overall annual export turnover of almost two billion Swiss francs (including components). This includes companies such as Meyer Burger and Applied Materials Suisse (leaders in equipment for cutting silicon wafers), 3S Modultec (laminators) as well as Oerlikon Solar, a company that sells production lines for silicon thin-film modules, and which guarantees very low production costs (EUR 0.5 per watt, i.e. EUR 50 per m2, for modules with a 10% yield). Switzerland also has a wealth of start-ups and companies that supply very specialised equipment, such as Synova and Solneva (laser systems), Pasan (solar simulators), Essemsolar (silk-screen systems), Solaronix, Indeotec, etc. A number of industrial groups in Switzerland and abroad (Oerlikon, Roth & Rau, DuPont, Von Roll) operate industrial laboratories. In addition, companies such as Flisom in Zurich are developing new, flexible technologies with high returns (see page 30 for a full overview of the PV situation in western Switzerland).

Little support for industrial development With its history and favourable « framework » conditions (universities, quality of life) Switzerland has been wellplaced to have certain technologies ready to offer on the PV market as soon as it began to develop. However, when support programmes for large-scale industrial development were implemented in numerous countries, little was done in Switzerland in terms of support for technology transfer and industrial development. There is therefore a risk that Switzerland will lose its position at the forefront of certain sectors, where others have the opportunity for massive investment, be it in the demonstration of new technologies or in the increase in production capacities with the facilitation of access to credit (e.g. credit of around EUR 30 billion granted by state-run banks to the major Chinese module manufacturers).


Key technologies developed in Switzerland

The solar technology hub at Neuchâtel

Switzerland’s academic laboratories mean that the country also has the opportunity to perfect the manufacturing processes for several key technologies (e.g. thin-film silicon technology and high-yield crystalline cells at the EPFL in Neuchâtel, CIGS and CdTe technology at the EMPA, and the emergent organic materials at the EPFL in Lausanne and the EMPA). In addition, several universities of applied sciences (Bern, Zurich, Ticino, Buchs, etc.) have specialist skills in system aspects of photovoltaics. The main risk is that the planned research budgets for photovoltaics are extremely limited (only CHF 1 million is officially allocated in Switzerland for 2012), with the required financing obtained by means of a multitude of project submissions in competition with subject areas not connected with energy. Switzerland is therefore without doubt one of the last countries not to have seriously considered establishing national centres for solar technology in particular, and for renewable energy in general.

The broader Trois Lacs region has a special status in Switzerland, as a number of PV-related high-tech businesses are located there. The IMT photovoltaic laboratory (PV-Lab) has a central role, forging links with a considerable number of these companies through commissions and direct contracts. The aim of the PV-Lab, which has a workforce of just under sixty, is to gain new knowledge ranging from the new photovoltaic materials to aspects of module design. It also provides advice and support for technological developments by numerous companies (involving processes or equipment) as well as educating both young scientists and industrialists by means of programmes such as the « Thin-film PV school », a programme which offers 40 hours of teaching on the basic principles of silicon thin film technology. The PV-Lab works directly with more than fifteen companies on the development of various aspects of PV technology.

Faced with this situation, the CSEM in Neuchâtel, supported by the EPFL, submitted a proposal to the Secretary of State for Research for the creation of a centre for photovoltaic technology, which would have as its mission the acceleration of developments resulting from research in partnership with the various Swiss academic laboratories, as well as providing support for the large-scale development of photovoltaics in our country. This would require careful consideration of aspects of integration into the grid (e.g. making use of localised and centralised storage, or using intelligent networks, etc.)

Perspectives Energy policy changes are emerging that will offer a unique opportunity to maintain and reinforce the role of Switzerland, in particular western Switzerland, in solarrelated cleantech developments. It is to be hoped that this change in direction will be accompanied by measures for giving increased support to these developments (research, development, technology transfer, demonstration projects), while promoting the creation of an internal market that will enable the latest technological developments to be tested and validated. Those involved in the sector in western Switzerland will then be well-placed to make a significant contribution to the emergence of a more sustainable society, while generating a sound knowledge base and substantial economic wealth.

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Portrait DuPont de Nemours : aiming for more durable solar panels In the relatively young photovoltaic market, the company is placing the emphasis on the research carried out at its state-of-the-art laboratory in Meyrin. Originally a chemical company, DuPont de Nemours has successfully effected the transition towards a wide range of innovative products in the agri-food, construction, communications, transport and renewable energy sectors. Having identified several macro-trends such as the need to increase the world’s food production, the reduction in dependence on fossil fuels, the protection of life and the environment, and the economic growth in developing countries, the company is now focusing its research and development activities on technologies that meet these needs.

led the way in the quest for « smaller, lighter and more efficient », and from the car industry, which has successfully replaced heavy materials with lighter, plastic materials. « These innovations will enable us to develop photovoltaic solutions that are suitable for the energy constraints in regions that lack a stable electricity supply, and would be the first to be interested in having energy produced locally, efficiently and at a lower cost. »

An industry that is still very young

© DuPont Photovoltaic Solutions

DuPont has worked on the development of materials for solar panels ever since the early days of photovoltaic systems, and is now the leader in the field. « Most of the photovoltaic panels manufactured in the world contain one or more materials designed by DuPont », says Simone Arizzi, Research and Development manager for DuPont Photovoltaic Solutions, adding that the company produces some materials that are critical to the composition of a solar panel, such as the conductive paste used in solar cells, or the backsheet films placed on the back face of the module and containing a UV-resistant film. « They’re the only materials that can demonstrate 25 years’ performance on the field. It’s still a very young industry, which started to take off in the 1990s when programmes to promote the installation of the panels began in Germany, and then in Japan. »

Placing the emphasis on research

34

Over the years, DuPont has acquired a high degree of trust by investing in research and development. « We’re using our experience to develop future generations of photovoltaic panels, which will be more efficient, less expensive and have a longer lifespan. » Today, over 80% of the solar installations in the world are situated in Europe, which is why DuPont opened a research centre at Meyrin in February 2010. « The number of panels installed is going to increase even more rapidly in the next few years. This requires a strong policy to support the development and financing of renewable sources of energy. »

Towards greater productivity and flexibility The company’s primary aim for the future is to increase the energy efficiency of photovoltaic panels in order to reduce the cost per watt installed. It also wants to make the panels lighter and more flexible. In this respect, the company is taking its inspiration from the electronics industry, which CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

Researchers at DuPont’s Meyrin laboratory aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic panels.

DuPont de Nemours International Sàrl 1802 59 000 worldwide 2, chemin du Pavillon - P.O. Box 50, 1218 Le Grand-Saconnex/Geneva, Switzerland +41 22 717 51 11 eu-info@che.dupont.com www.photovoltaics.dupont.com

+41 22 717 61 69


The Swiss Solar Technology Hub – a community of industrial players In the Trois Lacs region, a number of companies operating in the field of solar energy have formed an association, the Pôle suisse de technologie solaire (Swiss Solar Technology Hub). Their aim is to promote a local know-how base and technology transfer between universities and industry. « Around the Three Lakes, there is a large concentration of companies and institutions operating in various solar power-related sectors. » Daniele Oppizzi, chairman of the Swiss Solar Technology Hub and CEO of ILAND Greentechnologies, realised the importance of putting the region’s skills at the forefront. The Swiss Solar Technology Hub was therefore created in line with this principle on the symbolic date of 21 June 2010, the summer solstice.

Its aim is to promote activities aimed at raising awareness of and/or valorising skills in the field of solar technology. « For example, we organise themed days within companies with site visits, to enable people to see the local know-how for themselves. » Daniele Oppizzi clarifies their approach further : « People often look further afield for something that is actually right under their noses. We are committed to maintaining the fabric of the local economy. » It may be impossible to compete with the Asian market when it comes to mass production, but Daniele Oppizzi is convinced that added-value production should be retained in Switzerland as much as possible to prevent a brain drain abroad.

A dynamic region « Our products are more ecological and more profitable. » Daniele Oppizzi says that the grey energy needed to produce Flexcell flexible panels, for example, is amortised in 6 months, compared to 2 to 3 years on average for models produced in Europe and 5 to 6 years for Asian

models. He deplores the fact that consumers too often go for the cheapest product without taking account of the quality and ecological criteria. « We should preserve the image of a region that is dynamic in the field of solar. » The Microcity project in Neuchâtel, which will provide a new building to house twelve EPFL chairs from 2013, will create some 600 jobs, of which it is hoped a quarter will be solar-related. This will without doubt enable the region to continue to stand out in this sector.

Global reflections « It is important to consider the future energy supply on the same level as national security. » Daniele Oppizzi adds: « The Fukushima nuclear disaster has at least caused people to reflect on the energy supply. But is it really understood that renewable energies could replace nuclear

power  ? People should know that 100 square kilometres of solar panels will be enough to produce all the electricity Switzerland needs. » Solar power should be a part of the energy mix of the future (together with wind, biomass and hydroelectric power), and traditional mobility will probably also see some good alternatives, with vehicles such as tricycles and boats assisted by photovoltaic energy, for example. Considerations such as the production of hydrogen, inertia wheels, batteries, energy stored in the form of ice or hot water, intelligent networks show that, despite all the advances, there is still a lot of work to be done on the age-old problem of energy storage.

Swiss Solar Technology Hub 2010 26 members Ruelle DuPeyrou 4, CP 2353, 2001 Neuchâtel, Switzerland +41 32 720 09 00

+41 32 720 09 90

info@polesolaire.ch

www.polesolaire.ch

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

35


Portrait Sputnik Engineering AG, transforming solar energy into electricity

For 20 years now, Sputnik Engineering has been involved in making solar energy a commercially viable proposition. A proponent of Swiss quality, this startup business has become one of the world leaders in the manufacture of grid-connected solar inverters.

...but one which is on its way to conquering the world Since 2001, the company has always sought to establish its presence at an international level in response to the

© Sputnik Engineering AG

The history of Sputnik Engineering is the envy of many a start-up business. Founded in 1991 by three young engineers with the aim of transforming the energy obtained from sunlight into alternating current for feed into the grid, this company from Biel/Bienne has become one of the world leaders in the manufacture of grid-connected solar inverters. They design, develop and distribute inverters under the name SolarMax for every sphere of application,

at different sites throughout Biel/Bienne. A new 34,000 m² building is currently under construction, and when complete by the end of 2012, will house the full workforce, set to increase to some 500 by the end of 2015, under one roof. « The Biel/Bienne location offers excellent conditions for continuing our expansion. » To Christoph von Bergen, the town’s bilingualism, its long tradition of electronic and mechanical engineering know-how and its excellent infrastructure are just some of the advantages of the Biel/ Bienne location.

To guarantee Swiss quality, all inverters made by Sputnik Engineering International are tested for two hours at maximum voltage.

from individual domestic photovoltaic installations to solar power stations with production capacities of megawatts. In 2011 the power generated by the company’s products is set to reach 900 megawatts.

« Swiss made » – a real philosophy

36

From design to after-sales service, at Sputnik Engineering they set great store by Swiss quality. In the words of Christoph von Bergen, director and founder : « All our products are characterised by their Swiss quality  : optimum performance, safe, reliable use and a long service life. Our customer service also benefits from our 20 years’ experience and our own vision of Swiss quality. » It goes without saying that the company’s manufacturing operations are located exclusively in Switzerland.

requirements of the market. In 2010, 98% of the products it produced were for export. After Europe, this Swiss company is on its way to conquer the Chinese market. Christoph von Bergen believes that the new branch established in Shanghai has a promising future : « The Chinese market is only just starting to develop. I’m convinced that we will soon succeed in establishing our inverters there. » He believes that solar energy has a firm place in the energy mix of the future : « On 21 March 2011, for the first time, the total volume of solar panels installed in Germany produced more electricity than nuclear power stations on the German grid. That was a historic day ! »

Sputnik Engineering International AG

A company with close ties to its region...

1991

« When we founded Sputnik Engineering, our office was in a demountable building. » The portacabin has now become much too small for the 280 employees working at the Biel/Bienne site, and the development, production and management sides of the business are therefore located

330

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

Höheweg 85, 2502 Bienne, Switzerland +41 32 346 56 00 info-international@solarmax.com www.solarmax.com

+41 32 346 58 29


Flexcell, solar panels made in Switzerland

The company VHF-Technologies SA of Yverdon develops, manufactures and markets lightweight, flexible photovoltaic panels under the brand Flexcell, on the basis of the philosophy that solar power should be made accessible to all, while producing the minimum of grey energy. « The idea was born at the Institute of Microengineering (IMT). Diego Fischer, one of my colleagues at the University of Neuchâtel, was working on the development of a solar cell on a plastic roll, and developed a cell of 2 cm2. » As he speaks of the origins of his company, the features of Sébastien Dubail, CEO and co-founder of VHF-Technologies SA – better known by the name of the brand Flexcell – light up. « At the time we were thought of as idealists. With a price of two francs per kilowatt hour produced, you had to be mad to venture into solar. To achieve credibility we chose to put our efforts into the technology. » The name of the company was not chosen by chance – as its original objective was to develop for industrial production a technique for the deposition of amorphous silicon by means of very high frequency (VHF) plasma projection, it made sense for the company to take its name from the technology.

energy production between now and 2025 are already very promising for the solar sector – and the objectives could be much higher. According to Swissolar, 20% of electricity will be produced by solar in 2025. « Solar power is the energy of tomorrow, because it is simple to install, modular, does not have an adverse effect on the countryside and is something in which it is possible to invest progressively. »

The company was created on the basis of the philosophy that solar power should be made accessible to all, while producing the minimum of grey energy, a philosophy that is as valid as ever eleven years after the company came into being. « We produce panels that can be called sustainable on three counts. » Sébastien Dubail goes on to say that, apart from the fact that they supply renewable energy, the Flexcell products have the smallest carbon footprint on the market. By comparison with traditional crystalline cell production methods, this process requires 300 times less raw material, enabling high volumes to be manufactured with minimum energy consumption. The panels are no more than 2.5 millimetres thick. And finally, the company claims to be the only solar panel manufacturer to have kept the whole of its value chain in Switzerland. « We refused to have our panels made abroad. If we allow the high-tech aspects to go abroad, we will no longer have our finger on the pulse of what we produce and Switzerland will be no more than a location for the tertiary sector. » And so, in 2008, the company established a new production unit with a peak capacity of 25 MW per annum.

Solar, a solution for the future « At present we are still a little idealistic, but we are also very realistic. We have a responsibility towards our company and employees. » To Sébastien Dubail, the initial government forecasts which envisage a doubling in solar

© VHF-Technologies SA

A sustainable, responsible philosophy

A technique involving the deposition of amorphous silicon by means of highfrequency plasma projection makes the Flexcell panels by VHF-Technologies especially suitable for roofs that are only able to support lighter loads, which is the case with the majority of industrial buildings.

37 VHF-Technologies SA, Flexcell 2000 80 Rue Edouard-Verdan 2, 1400 Yverdon, Switzerland +41 (0) 24 423 08 90 info@flexcell.com

www.flexcell.com

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on smart grids sector The smart grid in western Switzerland

1. Introduction In the western world today, no-one questions the idea that electricity should be available at any time in virtually any place – it’s taken for granted.

The main aim of this survey is to list the main players and determine the value and the relevance of this local industry in relation to the global market.

2. Smart grid : definitions and issues

And yet, the blackouts on the European and American networks that we saw a few years ago have shown us that we are not immune from large-scale power failures. With the increase in energy consumption in general and electricity consumption in particular, the electricity production and distribution infrastructure is reaching its limits. On the one hand, the transmission capacity of high voltage lines is close to saturation. The failure of a single section for any reason (a thunderstorm, for instance) inevitably leads to excessive load on the rest of the

As you will have realised, the smart grid field does not represent a single clean technology, quite the reverse. It includes a very wide range of technologies and players whose aim is to make networks more intelligent than they were in the past.

network, which then struggles to cope.

and telecommunications technologies. The smart grid provides a real-time, bi directional flow of energy and data between all the players in the electricity system chain, from the generating station to the end user. We therefore talk about an « intelligent » network, where the aim is to have an infrastructure that can even perhaps manage itself and automatically make adjustments.

On the other hand, the planned phasing out of nuclear power, combined with the overall increase in consumption that we see in society, requires an increase in production. An ever-greater proportion of this increase is coming from the use of renewable sources of energy (solar photovoltaic systems, wind power, etc.). These forms of energy production, unlike conventional thermal or hydroelectric generating stations, are not centralised but are distributed geographically at the points where the sources are available (such as sunny regions) and the ability to generate electricity is subject to the geophysical conditions (day/night, sunshine, wind, etc.).

Strictly speaking, a smart grid means a network for the transmission and distribution of electricity, water, gas or another energy vector, that has complete integrated control, with new capabilities as regards information

A paradigm shift The 21st century has brought with it a real paradigm shift in the world of energy supply : we are now in a phase of transition from a static, centralised energy system towards a dynamic, distributed system.

Figure 1: A conventional electricity network

An attractive opportunity for technological development

38

Given this situation, it is not unreasonable to wonder whether the availability of electricity, like that of other forms of energy, or even of water, can be guaranteed in future. It is one of the major challenges of the future and one to which smart grids may be able to provide a practical response today. But it also provides the region’s players with an extremely attractive opportunity for technological and commercial development, as pointed out by Bruno Cosandey (see page 44). In western Switzerland, there is actually a significant ecosystem of technology companies in the smart grid field, companies that are ready to take up this challenge. CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

Originally, and until quite recently, the electricity network was almost completely designed and driven by the base layer, whose aim was to deliver electricity to users (figure 1). Its infrastructure had been designed in accordance with this philosophy, using an approach that planned for the needs of users who would be connected to the network in the future. Today, this model is a thing of the past, a network must now be flexible and modular to enable optimal integration of local electricity production and provide communication between all the players in the chain, including the end user. To put it in very simple terms, in the past, the network was designed to deliver power to users. As we have seen,


the context has now changed radically, and network management now requires additional layers for data and communications. Simply delivering energy is not enough any more. The system must, for example, delay the delivery of energy to certain users in order to shed load from the network. Managing the infrastructure in this context means that it is essential for the network to possess a considerably greater degree of intelligence than it has at the moment.

The economic potential of the smart grid Before going on to describe these additional layers that are being added to the network, it is worth taking a brief look at the economic potential of this sector. The various studies published to date all point towards significant future growth in Europe and the United States. According to GTM Research, the European smart grid sector could even achieve three-figure growth between now and 2016, increasing from 3 billion euros to almost 7 billion. In demand management alone, it is estimated that the North America market will be worth around ten billion dollars within 5 to 10 years. This sector has taken off amazingly ever since President Obama announced a massive injection of funds to develop the American smart grid. As for the smart metering and customer interface sector, this could reach around fifteen billion dollars in the next few years. The planned levels of investment in Europe, the United States and China are colossal. Leaving aside all the figures, it seems indisputable that the smart grid market is going to experience a very high rate of growth in the next decade.

Promising segments The reasons for this growth lie precisely in the observations made in the introduction : the network has to increase its efficiency and its ability to integrate a multitude of sources of renewable energy. Among the market segments identified as being the most promising are smart metering, integration of renewable energy, infrastructure automation, storage (including storage via electric vehicles) and dedicated IT solutions (security, data capture and processing, regulation, data analyses etc.). The question that therefore arises is to what extent the players in western Switzerland can play a role in the development of this sector and gain part of the economic value that will be generated there.

3. The smart grid value chain and the main players In order to provide some sort of answer to the question posed above, we propose to analyse the composition of the economic fabric of western Switzerland, list the players and position them along the value chain. We have used the same approach for all three sectors presented in this study, focusing on the technology players. This choice was dictated by the observation that one factor in the growth in liberal societies appears to be innovation, and that innovation mainly comes from technology players. We have therefore chosen this option in producing figure 2, in which we present the region’s technology players and also some major national players. At the end of the survey, this view is supplemented by a (non-exhaustive) geographic view of the major players identified, to which, of course, the R&D organisations must be added (figure 3).

A multi-layer system To give a better understanding of the illustration of the technology players along the value chain, it is worth returning to the description of the network and its multi-layer composition. We have already said that originally, the network was mainly designed to deliver power. The « communication » layer was partial, virtually mono-directional and was concentrated mainly in the « Production and Distributionpart » of the high/medium voltage sector. With the change in demand and, more recently, the integration of decentralised production from renewable sources of energy (wind, solar, biomass, mini-hydro etc.), managing and controlling the network requires not only detailed knowledge of its state at any point and at any time, but also, and above all, having the ability to take action anywhere in the network, including at the local medium/ low voltage network and end user level. To summarise, the smart grid is an interconnected multi-layer system comprising five main layers : power, communication, equipment and sensors, applications software and services (various social networks and systems for managing energy consumers). Nevertheless, in classifying the players, we have rejected an approach related to these layers, preferring one that consists of categorising the technologies according to the type of operations performed alongside electricity transmission.

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

39


Focus on smart grids sector The smart grid in western Switzerland

We have looked at the four categories presented below and placed the players along the technological value chain, going from a single component to the devices to the whole systems : 1. Interface with the production and storage of electricity ; 2. Transmission of electricity ; 3. Information and communication technologies (ICT) ; 4. Interface with the end user.

Multinationale

SME

voltage direct current (HVDC) technology, flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) and devices, superconducting materials and measuring systems such as phasor measurement units (PMUs). ICT (information and communications technologies) include systems and networks for communicating, processing, and using network data for operational and safety purposes. ICT are, in general, not specific to the smart grid but represent a very significant interface with this sector, via a multitude of dedicated products and services.

Start-up

Figure 2 : Distribution of the technological players along the smart grid value chain (source : E4Tech/CleantechAlps)

40

The interface with the production and storage of electricity brings together all the interactions between the transmission and distribution (T&D) networks and the systems that produce or store electricity. Whereas electricity production traditionally had an interface only with the transmission network, the smart grid will have interfaces throughout the T&D network, right down to individual household level. The technologies to be found in this category include smart inverters. Electricity transmission refers to the traditional T&D network, where smart grid technologies include high CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

The interface with the end user takes into account all the interfaces between the T&D network and the systems that use electricity. The technologies include, for example, smart meters and terminals for charging electric vehicles.

Main observations on the smart meter value chain : -- Unsurprisingly, the market for devices and systems is dominated by multinationals, which cover all the categories examined. A large number of the leaders in the global smart grid market have a presence in western Switzerland (Landis + Gyr – acquired by Toshiba, ABB, Alstom, GE Digital Energy, Schneider Electrics,


Siemens, Honeywell and CISCO). The presence of these multinationals offers, a priori, some potentially valuable synergies with local companies. Switzerland’s smart grid scene has very few SMEs and startups. -- On the other hand, those companies that are actively involved in smart grid systems are often leaders in their markets. Such companies include Sputnik Engineering, Studer Innotec and IHT, which sells alkaline electrolysers for the production of hydrogen at high pressure. -- SMEs and startups are concentrated around segments concerned with applications for interfacing with electricity production or storage, and user interface applications. Within this latter segment, there is a potentially valuable pool of expertise, focused around smart meter technology. This involves, in particular, companies such as Saia-Burgess Controls, STMicroelectronics, GWF, LEM, Riedo Networks (electricity usage monitoring – especially in data centres), Geroco, Silentsoft and eSMART. This is undoubtedly the segment with the greatest medium-term development potential for SMEs and startups to exploit. By analogy with the « long tail » phenomenon seen on the Internet, we should see a multitude of goods and services appear in the wake of the big players in the smart grid field. Watch this space! -- Another feature of the Swiss electricity market which should favour local companies is its fragmentation. The Swiss production/distribution sector consists of more than 800 electricity companies, a situation which is virtually unique in the world. However, this constitutes a golden opportunity for the regional players in terms of implementing and rolling out dedicated, specific solutions to cope with the complexity of this extremely fragmented market. -- By building into the equation the leading-edge R&D activities carried out in this field at the HES SO and EPFL, and also taking into consideration the engineering and consultancy firms that are capable of assisting with the rollout of these technologies (EQUADA, E4Tech, neo technologies, and others), the Swiss environment in the « user interface » segment has all the elements required for new talents in this field to blossom.

4. Links between cleantech and ICT The ICT and cleantech sectors work together in several areas of activity, including Green IT, and particularly the smart grid. Some of the generic skills available in western Switzerland will be relevant in exploiting the opportunity offered by the anticipated explosion in the smart grid sector. This is particularly the case in the following specific fields : -- Data security : the success of intelligent networks will be particularly influenced by the ability to transfer and store data in a reliable manner, with special emphasis on applications related to data security. -- Software : this involves developing systems for processing data, together with other relevant information (for example, climatic data, electricity consumption profile), and displaying the results, as well as decisionmaking algorithms. -- Services : Smart grid technologies are closely associated with the electricity trading service. Through the global hub in Geneva, Switzerland has a tremendous amount of expertise and activity in resources trading, including energy in general and electricity in particular. This is a skills pool which should be exploited in the context of rolling out the smart grid.

5. Conclusion It is evident from our analysis that the motor for the development of smart grid technologies at global level lies in the electricity companies’ need for intelligent network functionalities. The smart grid ecosystem in western Switzerland is relatively well-equipped to meet this need, with some of the sector’s leading-edge research organisations, particularly in the user interface segment. The field of data security, although at the margins of the smart grid sector, also has significant development potential.

41

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Focus on smart grids sector Overview of the smart grid players (fig. 3)

35-36.

38.

37. .30-32

34.

.39

.29 28.

.27

.33

26. 25.

11.

24. 10. .12 .13 . .8-9 6-7. 4-5. . 14 15-17

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18. 19-20.

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source : CleantechAlps

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Institutes

3.

4-5.

10. .12

18.

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An expert talks about... Smart grids, an opportunity for industry

By Bruno Cosandey, a graduate electrical engineer, Misurio AG, Visp.

During the second industrial revolution an important innovation was the invention by Taylor and Ford of intermediate storage, thereby desynchronising the supply of bought-in parts from the manufacturing process. This revolution has not reached the electricity sector, however – at any given moment the power obtained from the network has to be equal to the amount injected. This fact has been a constant guiding factor for engineers planning the electricity grid, and is the basis for the classic concepts of electricity networks – large-scale, powerful and reliable power plants, a redundant transmission network (mesh network), and lines with reserve capacities. The networks have thus been designed to guarantee the transmission and distribution of the energy produced, while minimising the risks and losses involved and offering the best possible availability. Solutions that can be classed as intelligent have already been applied, including : -- Voltage regulation ; -- The compensation of irregularities by means of operating reserves ; -- The management of the load on the distribution networks (centralised remote control) ; -- The correction and synchronisation of phases ; -- Protection measures to ensure the safety of the lines. Useful as they are, these measures are nevertheless applied in an isolated manner. The operation of the electricity network could be optimised – from both the technical and economic point of view – by coordinating these individual measures. This coordination is at the heart of the smart grid concept.

New requirements and opportunities

44

The opening-up of the market, together with regulation of the network managers, the multiplication of injection points (small producers) and the continued increase in consumption, are destabilising this traditional operational model and giving rise to new requirements :

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

-- Taking account of inverse energy flows (customer feed in to the network, low-voltage to high-voltage) ; -- Intelligent and predictive management of loads on the network in order to reduce peaks ; -- Collection of data on the networks overall, and identi- fication of the weak points/future problems by means of stochastic analysis of the data ; -- Management and simplification of the taxation on network costs, according to the analytical accounting model for financing the networks . These requirements give rise to opportunities for new products, the objectives of which may be as follows : -- Reducing consumption peaks by smoothing the load curve, thus preventing breakdowns due to overloads ; -- Carrying out commutation operations to adapt the topology of the network to the situation at any given moment ; -- Influencing consumers ; -- Influencing and guiding producers ; -- Managing the network locally, not passing problems up to a higher level ; -- Introducing decentralised storage using electric vehicle batteries ; -- Relieving loads to optimise the monitoring of programmes in review groups . Three main areas of activity can be identified in the field of smart grids : -- Customers, their behaviour as consumers, their moti- vation (and budget) and their infrastructure (meters, water and gas connections, information systems, etc.) ; -- The distribution infrastructure ; -- The management of demand, congestion, limitation measures, the regulation of the network ;

Universities in Western Switzerland are well-placed Numerous research activities have already been undertaken in the area of the customer (smart metering). In Switzerland, the EPFZ « Bits to Energy Lab » is a wellknown centre of excellence, which has been chosen by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy to study the impact of smart metering on Switzerland ; the guidelines for the deployment of smart metering should be drawn up between now and the end of 2011. On the other hand, in the field of the management of intelligent networks and the integration of production sites, developments are still in the initial stages and there are plenty of opportunities. Highly-developed countries such as the United States cannot serve as a model because the networks, in the hands of more than 3,000 managing bodies, have widely varying technical statuses, which


makes it very difficult to find a starting point for research and development projects on a sizeable scale. Taking account of their proximity to the engineers responsible for the hydraulic and electrical aspects of the power plants, the universities of Western Switzerland are well-placed to make the most of these opportunities.

Predictive intelligence Today’s networks are characterised by passive management, centred on the availability of supply and the safety of the installations (lines, equipment, etc.). In future, smart grids may have the following impacts : -- Local sources of production that inject renewable energy may disrupt network management in its current form (monitoring, etc.). These effects should be studied. A new generation of protection relays for lines and equipment is currently being developed, but it could prove to be insufficient: intelligent relays that use the results of the electricity flow calculations carried out in real time could be needed.

Innovative products Smart grids may represent an opportunity for the industries of the energy sector. A large amount of equipment currently in service should be replaced within a relatively short time frame, which will not only produce substantial investment budgets, but will also trigger the emergence of innovative products. Local industry may play a significant role in this phase of transformation if it can offer outstanding innovation. By optimising the production and distribution of a resource that is as indispensable as electricity, the new solutions will have a value well in excess of the equipment they are replacing. Innovation is the key element offering companies the prospect of success in an environment characterised by strong price competition and an unfavourable financial exchange rate.

-- The same real-time electricity flow calculations could serve to equalise the energy balance in the various parts of the networks. Predictive intelligence may serve not only to cut costs, but also to estimate the needs of the near future (short market) and as a result to manage the local production.

45

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Portrait Geroco, ready for the smart grid Valaisan startup Geroco wants to encourage householders to reduce their energy consumption and form an integral part of a real smart grid accessible to energy suppliers.

…to a real smart grid

From the germ of an idea…

A considerable potential for savings

Geroco was founded in October 2009 with the aim of providing a simple solution to meet the growing need among householders to understand and control their electricity consumption. Since September 2010, the company has been marketing a solution called Ecowizz. net, which combines a personal Internet account and a box that plugs into an electrical socket. This enables users to measure the consumption of their electrical appliances and programme them to switch off completely so that standby mode consumption is reduced. Users can access consumption information directly on the website and obtain advice about reducing their electricity bill. « We’ve seen real interest from energy suppliers, including Romande Energie, SIL and SIG, who are currently promoting the solution to their customers », says Vincent Balegno, COO and co-founder of the company. « We’re now offering our solution to businesses, because their potential for saving energy is significant. » The Ecowizz. net website is also a popular source of information about energy and sustainable development.

In the short term, the startup will offer distributors a remote switch-off service. In exchange for a preferential electricity tariff or financial incentives, customers who wish to do so can authorise suppliers to switch off certain items of equipment for the period of time required to manage peaks in demand. « We’ll simply have to press a button to switch off several hundred kilowatt-hours. » Fridges, freezers, or additional heating could then be switched off remotely. As Michael Dupertuis says, « In general, 15 to 30 minutes is enough. It’s systems like ours that will make it possible to find the necessary power to get through periods of peak demand without buying energy from other countries at very high prices, whilst at the same time significantly reducing consumers’ bills ! It’s a win-win situation for everyone. »

© Geroco S.A.

At a time when the Swiss Confederation is placing particular emphasis on energy saving in its Energy Strategy 2050, everyone has a part to play. In the domestic and business segment, the Valaisan startup Geroco aims to use the best in home automation technology to offer an affordable, easy-to-use product for reducing domestic energy consumption.

And Geroco doesn’t intend to stop there, as Michael Dupertuis, its CEO and co-founder makes clear : « Through our partnerships with energy distributors, we’re ready to become part of the new networks, the smart grids. To date, none of them has implemented this type of intelligent network, but we’re preparing for it. » Geroco is starting a dialogue between the distributor and the consumer. On one side, consumers are given real-time information about their usage and the cost of the electricity, and on the other, the supplier has direct access to its customers that it can use if necessary.

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GEROCO S.A. 2009 10 Rue Marconi 19, 1920 Martigny, Switzerland +41 21 731 12 00 contact@ecowizz.net

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

www.ecowizz.net


Schneider Electric  : meeting future energy needs through energy management From power stations to domestic electrical connectors, Schneider Electric has a presence at every point in the electricity value chain.

© Schneider Electric

In 1836, when Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France, two French industrialists, Adolphe and Eugène Schneider, bought the mines, forges and foundries at Le Creusot. Two years later, they formed Schneider & Cie. Having started out in metallurgy, heavy machinery, railway and shipbuilding, Schneider entered the electricity market in 1891. In the second half of the 20th century, the company reoriented itself towards the power and control industry, which became its core specialism, via a strategy of external growth (Merlin Gerin and Telemecanique in France, Square D and Modicon in the United States).

clean right away. Schneider Electric is therefore relying on energy management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions rapidly and efficiently and so, with Alstom, it jointly acquired Areva Transmission and Distribution in January 2010. This acquisition enabled Schneider Electric to become one of the leaders in medium voltage solutions, ready to meet the different challenges presented by the smart grid. By transforming the standard linear network into an intelligent, interactive network, the smart grid is about to revolutionise energy use. It makes energy more visible, and so gives everyone the opportunity to take action on their consumption. Through real-time management of the network, demand can be predicted and the offer adjusted accordingly.

Schneider Electric is supporting the work of the International Polar Foundation by providing components and engineering support for the electricity management systems at the research station Princess Elisabeth Antarctica.

To underline its established position within the electricity sector, it changed its name to Schneider Electric in May 1999. Then, from 2001 onwards, it used a wave of targeted acquisitions to achieve its aim of making the transition from power and control to energy management. With the acquisition of MGE and APC in secure energy, TAC in building management systems, Schneider Electric is now the leader in building automation and security, and also in energy measurement and control. The same strategy has also given Schneider Electric a presence in the renewable energy market. Its acquisition of several of the leaders in this field, including Xantrex, a Canadian company specialising in off-grid and backup power systems that use renewable energy, has enabled it to develop solutions for solar energy and all other forms of renewable energy.

For Schneider Electric, the current priority is to implement integrated energy management solutions into all industrial, commercial and residential buildings, which account for almost three-quarters of the world’s electricity consumption. This could produce energy savings of up to 30%.

Schneider Electric SA 1836

Managing energy consumption The stakes in this field are high : between now and 2050, the world has to halve its CO2 emissions, whilst coping with a doubling in energy demand, one of the main causes of these emissions. Although renewable energy is essential, there is not enough of it to make the energy mix

110,000, 1000 are in Switzerland Schneider Electric (Suisse) SA, Caudray 6, 1020 Renens, Switzerland +41 21 654 07 00

+41 21 654 07 01

lemont@ch.schneider-electric.com www.schneider-electric.ch CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

47


Portrait HES-SO, involved with smart grids from their inception

As well as its status as a high-quality higher education network, the HES-SO also makes a valuable contribution to scientific research with projects such as Smart Energy and Green Line. With more than 15,000 students spread over 33 campuses in western Switzerland, the University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland (HES-SO) is Switzerland’s largest professional higher education network. The teaching is based on essentially practical foundations to enable students to gain rapid acceptance into the higher echelons of the professional world. Apart from its educational mission, the HES-SO is also active in applied research and development. It promotes skills networking and technology transfer, cooperating with the worlds of science and the economy, which is how the HES-SO came to be involved in the idea of smart grids right from their inception.

Professor of Telecommunications at the ICT Institute of the HEIG-VD school, explains the project further : « On the basis of this information we will be capable of obtaining usage statistics for the residence which will enable automatic or semi-automatic intelligent decisions to be made without affecting the comfort of the consumer. It is fully realistic to expect energy savings in the region of 20 to 30%. » This interdisciplinary project is being undertaken by cooperation between the different schools in the network : at Yverdon work is being done at the physical level of the electronics, while Sion, which specialises in networks, is concentrating on routing the information. Fribourg is managing the information processing and artificial intelligence side, while Neuchâtel is working on the marketing aspects, to determine in particular who the target customers will be.

The SmartEnergy project – defining the concept Against a background of growing energy consumption coupled with limited production, the SmartEnergy project, carried out between 2008 and 2010, had the objective of developing dedicated economic and technological energy management modules. « This project took place during the early throes of development of what became known as the smart grid. » Dominique Gabioud, Professor at the HES-SO Valais, goes on to say : « We participated in the definition of the smart grid from a technical and economic point of view as well as that of Swiss regulatory policy. » He also explains that the smart grid is designed in particular to inform and involve consumers and to improve the global functioning of an electricity distribution network by improving the coordination of its elements, such as heat pumps, boilers, combined heating and power units, small-scale hydro generators. « When we discussed this project in 2007, we soon realised the information technologies would have to be standardised in order to link all the elements concerned in a simple fashion. » Dominique Gabioud believes that this first HES-SO interdisciplinary project has also given rise to some of the technologies that would, in time, come to be included in a smart grid, in particular that which led to the founding of the company Geroco.

The Green Line project – developing an information processing platform

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The subsequent Green Line project was set up to create a platform for processing information in the home. This involves gathering information on occupancy periods, humidity and temperature measurements, household appliance consumption, etc., and using the electricity network to transfer this data to a central platform which processes the figures in order to minimise the overall energy consumption within the home. Hervé Dedieu, CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, HES-SO 1998, 27 located on 33 campuses in the cantons of Fribourg, Genève, Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais, Vaud et Berne 3,000 employed 15,500 students HES-SO Headquarters, Rue de la Jeunesse 1, 2800 Delémont, Switzerland +41 32 424 49 00

+41 32 424 49 01

info@hes-so.ch

www.hes-so.ch


Saia-Burgess Controls, saving energy through automation

Part of the Johnson Electric group, Saia-Burgess Controls offers infrastructure automation solutions that give users more detailed knowledge of their energy consumption. Those most closely concerned by energy consumption figures – business and domestic consumers – generally have little knowledge of them. Although energy-saving is the order of the day, it is still difficult to find out which items account for most energy consumption and make reductions in these areas. Saia-Burgess Controls, based at Morat, is placing its weight behind smart metering and is marketing industrial systems and components to control and adjust energy consumption.

Adapting standard systems To make it easy to view energy consumption, SaiaBurgess Controls is developing products and technology that can be customised by integrators. The company is basing its systems on open standards for data exchange and communication, in order to ensure the best possible integration with systems already in place. « We are able to offer solutions which vary in capability, from simply reading electrical energy consumption to full smart metering of all forms of energy. » These solutions enable the SaiaBurgess Controls smart meters, as well as all energy meters, to be connected to automated systems and energy management scenarios to be created according to the users.

© Saia-Burgess Controls AG

Towards overall building design « I believe that the biggest problem today lies in the design of buildings. The reflex of designers is still to separate out the different aspects – water, lighting, electricity, heating, ventilation – to obtain simple packages that are easy to put out to tender. In the end, people hope that everything is going to work together and that everyone will have done what is required. » For Patrick Marti, a building should be thought of in its entirety and include some consideration of its lifetime cost. Only in this way will the building, its facilities and its automation be a sustainable and genuinely economical whole.

Saia-Burgess Controls touch screens make it easy for users – both domestic and industrial – to view their energy consumption.

Tremendous potential for savings « In general, when a company is trying to reduce its energy consumption, it doesn’t know where to start, because there is a lack of information, » says Patrick Marti, Corporate Sales Director at Saia-Burgess Controls. He uses his own company as an example of what can be achieved. By installing systems to measure energy consumption on its premises, it was able to reduce the energy bill for the building quite considerably. The aim of installing such systems is to ensure that consumption is matched by genuinely productive activity : « We realised, for example, that energy consumption at night and at weekends was almost the same as during peak working hours. In addition, we were able to pinpoint defects in equipment that considerably increased our electricity consumption. » Patrick Marti maintains that, in businesses and industry, 10 to 20% of savings can be made by simple initiatives, such as turning machinery off at weekends, taking action on lighting, and replacing defective machinery.

Saia-Burgess Controls AG

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1950 230 Bahnhofstrasse 18, 3280 Morat, Switzerland +41 26 672 75 07

+41 26 672 74 99

pcd@saia-burgess.com

www.saia-pcd.com

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


CleantechAlps, serving businesses and institutions CleantechAlps, the platform dedicated specifically to clean technologies in western Switzerland, was launched at the initiative of the seven cantons of western Switzerland. It is supported by the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO). The missions of CleantechAlps are as follows : � To ensure the reputation of and to promote western Switzerland as a European hub for clean technologies related issues. � To enable the introduction of cleantech players on international markets. � To develop synergies between regional and national cleantech stakeholders. CleantechAlps is the intercantonal driving force behind the development of cleantech and is the enabler at the interface of the economic, academic, financial and political worlds. In this context, CleantechAlps is definitively the main point of contact for coordination in western Switzerland of national initiatives such as the « Cleantech Switzerland » and Cleantech Master Plan».

Join CleantechAlps Businesses and institutions of western Switzerland who wish to join CleantechAlps and benefit from good visibility may do so simply by e-mailing info@cleantech-alps.com (free subscription). info@cleantech-alps.com www.cleantech-alps.com

CleantechAlps’ partner for export www.cleantech-switzerland.com info@cleantech-switzerland.com

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Lexicon Cleantech What are clean technologies ? What is the difference between CleantechAlps and Cleantech Fribourg ? What is biogas ? In order to provide a response to these and all manner of other practical questions, we present below a cleantech lexicon, the first of its kind in Switzerland. From Ademe to wood energy, this alphabetical list provides a definition of all frequently-used terms in the clean technology vocabulary. It also lists the organisations that operate in the field, as well as some of the main projects and programmes. Businesses and individuals have intentionally been left out of this lexicon to prevent it from becoming too long. While not claiming to be exhaustive, the following pages will hopefully be useful to all who are interested in clean technologies and their development in western Switzerland.

A

ADEME – Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie (organisation) : the French Environment and Energy Management Agency is involved in the implementation of public policies in the areas of the environment, energy and sustainable development. www.ademe.fr ADER – Association pour le développement des énergies renouvelables (organisation) : the French Association for the Development of Renewable Energy has the aim of stimulating the study and practical application of decentralised renewable energy production, providing support for the development of experimental installations to further the increased energy independence of various undertakings and promoting energy savings. www.ader.ch AEE – The Swiss Agency for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (organisation) : an umbrella organisation representing the main associations and businesses operating in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. It encourages dialogue and the coordination of interests between all those involved in energy policymaking. www.aee.ch Agrofuel (technical term) : see Biofuel. Alliance (organisation) : a consortium for the transfer of knowledge and technology in western Switzerland and Ticino. Involving 6,000 researchers, it forges links between laboratories and businesses, with the intention of increasing the transfer of technologies, in particular in the field of cleantech, for which it has a dedicated technological adviser. www.alliance-tt.ch Alp ICT (organisation) : a cluster in western Switzerland with the objective of creating synergies between those involved (businesses, institutes, etc.) in information and communication technologies. There are many interfaces and interactions with cleantech, such as the fields of smart grids or green IT. www.alpict.com

B BioAlps (organisation) : a cluster in western Switzerland that operates in the field of Life Sciences, in particular in the biotech and medtech (medical technology) sectors. It offers a unique environment for growth in medical technology and biotechnology. The interfaces and interactions with cleantech are numerous, in particular in the fields of white biotech, also known as industrial biotech (biomaterials, etc.), and green biotech. www.bioalps.org Biofuel (technical term) : a fuel produced from non-fossil organic materials, derived from biomass. One example is biodiesel.

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Biogas (technical term) : gas produced from the fermentation of organic animal or vegetable matter in the absence of oxygen, a reaction also known as methanisation. This fermentation occurs naturally (in marshes) or spontaneously in tips containing organic waste. It may also be induced artificially in digesters.

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Biomass (technical term) : designates all organic matter capable of being a source of energy. BioMobile (project) : a prototype vehicle with very low fuel consumption, aimed at advancing research in this field. It is made largely from green materials and is entered in international competitions such as the Eco-Marathon. This project is being developed at the HES-SO by the Hepia school in Geneva. www.biomobile.ch BlueArk (organisation) : designates one of the six technological sites of The Ark foundation. Located at Visp (canton of Valais), it is dedicated to engineering sciences. It is focussed on renewable energy, in particular small hydro, energy effectiveness, storage and smart grids. www.blueark.ch Brokerage event / B2B (technical term) : refers to events that facilitate face-to-face business meetings, in the form of pre-arranged meetings between commercial partners. The majority of cleantech brokerage events in Switzerland are organised by the EEN (European Enterprise Network), housed at Euresearch in Berne.

C CDEP-SO (organisation) : the Conference of the Ministers of Economy of Western Switzerland, which, with the support of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), has established four themed platforms (AlpICT, BioAlps, CleantechAlps and Micronarc) in order to implement its strategy for development in the sectors in question. Clean technologies (technical term) : technologies, products and/or services which have the aim of sustainable utilisation of resources or provide for the production of renewable energy. The new technologies have a fundamental role here. Synonym : greentech. Cleantech (technical term) : see Clean technologies. CleantechAlps (organisation) : a cluster in western Switzerland with the aim of promoting western Switzerland as a European hub for everything connected with clean technologies. A real inter-cantonal driving force, this portal for clean technologies in western Switzerland offers visibility and networking for institutes, start-ups and SMEs. It offers general support as well as providing a link to the Cleantech Switzerland export platform. www.cleantech-alps.com Cleantech Fribourg (organisation) : an initiative supported by the Fribourg authorities, which forms the link between business and universities, as well as promoting the development of clean technologies, all of which will benefit the reputation of the canton. www.cleantech-fr.ch Cleantech Master Plan (programme) : a master plan published jointly by the Swiss Federal Department of Economic Affairs (FDEA) and the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC), which has the aim of enabling the Swiss economy to improve its global position in the clean technologies market. Its initial version comprises 28 measures to be implemented by the Swiss Confederation and 22 recommendations for the cantons and various sectors of the economy. www.cleantech.admin.ch Cleantech Switzerland (organisation) : a national platform dedicated to Swiss cleantech businesses who want to develop their export operations. It provides information, services and contacts, with the aim of assisting SMEs to enter the most promising global markets. Official contact point in western Switzerland assured by CleantechAlps. www.cleantech-switzerland.com CREM - Centre de Recherches Energétiques et Municipales (organisation) : the Centre for Municipal and Energy Research is a research institute based in Martigny (canton of Valais), specialising in energy management in urban environments, with special skills in the management of energy flows (heat, electricity, water). It offers research and development (R&D), information, advice and training services. www.crem.ch CSEM - Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (organisation) : a private research and development centre with headquarters in Neuchâtel, which specialises in micro- and nanotechnology, microelectronics, systems engineering and communication technology. www.csem.ch

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Lexicon Cleantech CTI - Commission for Technology and Innovation (organisation) : a Federal agency that encourages applied research and development (AR&D), and promotes entrepreneurship and the development of new businesses. It supports all disciplines connected with science-based innovation, which include clean technologies. www.kti.admin.ch

E EAWAG (organisation) : the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology enjoys worldwide renown (aquatic systems, etc.). It is based in Dübendorf (canton of Zurich). www.eawag.ch Ecobalance (technical term) : see Life cycle analysis. Eco-design (technical term) : a term used to describe an approach for designing products and services with minimal environmental impact. This is a global approach with multiple criteria (taking account of the impact on water, air and soil quality, noise issues and the consumption of raw materials, energy, etc.) over multiple phases (taking account of all the phases of the life cycle of a product, from design, through use to disposal). Eco-district (technical term) : designates an urban development project that has the aim of integrating the objectives of sustainable development (reduction of energy and water consumption, transport management including limiting car use, limiting the production of waste, biodiversity, etc.). This type of initiative is being developed in various parts of western Switzerland. Eco-mobility (technical term) : designates the study and implementation of modes of transport that cause less pollution and have a reduced impact on the environment, generally in an urban context. This includes mobility plans with the aims of sustainable urbanism, establishing eco-districts and even zero-carbon towns. Eco-net (organisation) : a consortium initiated by the Swiss Confederation (CTI, FOEN) for the transfer of knowledge and technology in the field of the environment and energy. www.eco-net.ch EEN – European Enterprise Network (organisation) : a European network forming part of the EU strategy to improve economic growth and employment. Its objective is to bring together organisations that offer or seek to obtain research results that are useful to industry, technological innovations or solutions to technical problems. It comprises around 600 business support organisations in 49 countries, the aim of which is to assist SMEs to make the most of business opportunities on the European market. www.enterprise-europe-network.ec.europa.eu EMPA (organisation) : an interdisciplinary research and service institute within the ETH domain, dedicated to materials science and technological developments. Based in Dübendorf (canton of Zurich), it develops solutions for industry and creates the scientific foundations necessary for development. www.empa.ch Enabling Technologies (technical term) : a collective term for new processes and techniques that enable the development and improvement of existing technologies. Applications specific to cleantech include microfiltration and functional films. Energie-bois Suisse (organisation) : an association promoting the rational, environmentally-friendly, modern and effective use of wood energy, the second largest source of renewable energy in Switzerland. www.energie-bois.ch Energie-cluster (organisation) : an association that encourages new technologies and innovations that result in products and services with a high level of energy efficiency. It manages working groups with a strong technological orientation, launches R&D projects and offers continuing education courses for businesses, researchers and developers. It acts as a subsidiary in close collaboration with other organisations with similar objectives. www.energie-cluster.ch

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Energy effectiveness (technical term) : expresses the relationship between the energy service to be provided and the energy consumed. An effective energy system is defined by the lowest possible energy consumption for maximum service rendered. An increase in energy effectiveness therefore enables the energy consumption to be reduced for an equal service rendered. Controlling the energy consumption inevitably involves improving the energy effectiveness. If it is a matter of technical modifications to reduce the consumption for the same output (e.g. the improvement of an

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


industrial process), it is called energy efficiency. If the reduction in consumption results from a global modification (e.g. the optimisation of a service or technical or behavioural measures), it is called energy effectiveness. Energy efficiency (technical term) : expresses the relationship between the energy produced by a system for a specific purpose and the energy consumed. The increased energy efficiency of a system indicates an increase in its performance, without guaranteeing better global utilisation of the energy consumed. If it is a matter of technical modifications to reduce the consumption for the same output (e.g. the improvement of an industrial process), it is called energy efficiency. If the reduction in consumption results from a global modification (e.g. the optimisation of a service or technical or behavioural measures), it is called energy effectiveness. EPFL – Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (organisation) : based at Lausanne (canton of Vaud, this is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology. It has three fundamental missions: training, research and technology transfer. Recognised globally for the quality of its research, it operates in the field of clean technologies through a number of entities such as the EPFL Energy Center, the Institute of Microtechnology with its PV lab and a number of other laboratories (LEI, LESO, LENI, etc.). www.epfl.ch EPFL Energy Center (organisation) : an EPFL interdisciplinary initiative for innovation and valorisation, headed by Prof. Hans-Björn Püttgen, with the aim of promoting projects for the development of sustainable production, storage, transport distribution and energy use technologies. http://energycenter.epfl.ch Euresearch (organisation) : a Swiss network which provides support for European innovation and research, in particular in the field of energy and the environment. It has a central office in Bern and regional offices at every Swiss university. In particular it provides links with the European FP7 research programmes, as well as with Brussels, via Swisscore. www.euresearch.ch

F FFOEN – Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (organisation) : the office whose main responsibilities concern Swiss environmental policy, which is therefore closely involved with the development of cleantech. www.bafu.admin.ch FP7 (programme) : the abbreviation of the « Seventh Framework Programme », a European Commission research programme. The FP7 will last until 2013 and brings together under one umbrella all the EU initiatives connected with research. It is also concerned with clean technologies. http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/home_en.html Fuel cell (technical term) : a system or installation where the electricity is produced by oxidation of a reactant fuel (e.g. hydrogen) at an electrode, coupled with the reduction at the other electrode of an oxidant such as oxygen from the air. The principle of the fuel cell is the reverse of electrolysis. The chemical reaction produced by the oxidation and the contact of the gases produces electricity, water and heat.

G Green biotechnology (technical term) : refers to biotechnology as applied to the fields of agronomy and agriculture, with its operations rooted in sustainable processes such as biological soil treatment processes. Green IT (technical term) : designates an approach for reducing the detrimental effects of the manufacturing of IT equipment, its energy consumption (electricity) and the end of its life cycle (pollution, recycling of non-renewable resources such as rare earth elements). The main objective is to measure and improve the environmental and energyrelated performance of IT equipment. Greentech (technical term) : see Clean technologies.

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Lexicon Cleantech

H Heat pump (technical term) : a device that captures the heat present in an environment and transfers it to another. This type of device also works the other way round, by taking coldness from an environment and transferring it to a hot area which needs cooling. There are various different types of heat pump differentiated by their method of operation (air-water, water-water, etc.). HES-SO – The University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland (organisation) : a university of applied sciences with schools in the seven cantons of western Switzerland, making up the largest professional higher education network in Switzerland. It has around 15,000 students. Its research institutes are active in various cleantech fields (energy, construction, smart grids, environment). Hydropole ­­– Swiss Hydrogen Association (organisation) : an association bringing together the main players involved with hydrogen in Switzerland. An information and knowledge cluster in this field, Hydropole is also a platform for research and development in the industry. In its capacity as an energy carrier, hydrogen has an essential role in the area of energy storage.

I Icare Project (project) : a non-profitmaking project with the aim of completing a round-the-world tour between spring 2010 and autumn 2011 to discover CO2 compensation initiatives abroad. For over a year, two reporters will tour the world in an exclusively solar- and wind-powered vehicle. www.projet-icare.ch ICT (technical term) : Information and Communication Technology. IMT – Institute of Microengineering (organisation) : a research institute of the EPFL, based at Lausanne and Neuchâtel, particularly active in the field of clean technologies with its PV lab dedicated to the field of photovoltaics, headed by Professor Christophe Ballif. Industrial ecology (technical term) : the term used for an approach seeking to minimise the waste of materials in consumption and industrial production processes. Its objective is to promote the development of synergies between businesses to encourage the recycling of their production by-products (steam, water, waste, etc.) among themselves, thus optimising the use of materials. IPI – Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property (organisation) : the official registry for patents, trade marks and designs, and a Swiss Federal centre of excellence for all matters relating to intellectual property. Publishes the Swiss Cleantech Report. www.ige.ch

L Life cycle (technical term) : see Life cycle analysis. Life cycle analysis – LCA (technical term) : one of the most complete and effective methods for the systematic evaluation of the environmental impact of a product, a service or a process. The aim is to reduce the pressure of a product on resources and the environment throughout its life cycle, from obtaining the raw materials through to disposal. This approach is also known as « cradle-to-grave » analysis.

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


M Microcity (organisation) : the name of a new microtechnology building in Neuchâtel. The building, which will house around 700 people, is set for completion in October 2012. The concept is designed for sustainability and will satisfy the Minergie Eco standard. Micronarc (organisation) : a cluster in western Switzerland for micro and nano-technologies. Its mission is to add value and promote the scientific, technical and regional economy aspects of this field, including training, R&D and technology infrastructures, inward investment as well as the businesses operating in the sector. There are numerous interfaces with clean technologies due to the crossover nature of the microtechnology industry. www.micronarc.ch Micropollutants (technical term) : micro-elements forming part of the composition of a number of products in current use (medicines, detergents, cosmetics, etc.), which enter the aquatic environment through urban waste water or from a variety of other sources (rainwater drainage systems, runoff water from agricultural surfaces). These microscopic substances are eliminated by complex water treatment processes. Micro hydro (technical term) : see Small hydro. Mobil IT (organisation) : a competence hub for sustainable mobility technology, launched by the Jura department for economic development. A meeting point for the various players in the sector, it promotes sustainable technologies in the mobility sector. www.mobil-it.ch

O Öbu (organisation) : an association which develops projects that support the sustainable development of businesses. It acts as a reservoir for ideas and a reference point for all aspects of the environment and business management. www.oebu.ch OPET – Swiss Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology (organisation) : a Swiss Federal centre of excellence for all matters relating to professional education, universities of applied sciences and innovation. It forms the link between the needs of education and cleantech, and is therefore involved in the Cleantech Master Plan. www.bbt.admin.ch OSEC (organisation) : a centre of excellence for the promotion of the Swiss foreign economy, which assists Swiss businesses to develop their activities abroad. It was the originator of the Cleantech Switzerland platform. www.osec.ch

P Paul Scherrer Institute – PSI (organisation) : the largest Swiss research centre for natural sciences and engineering sciences. Based in Villigen (canton of Aargau), its research activities relate, among other things, to energy and the environment. Every year, more than 2,000 researchers from Switzerland and the rest of the world come to the PSI to carry out experiments on the installations there. www.psi.ch Pellets (technical term) : cylindrical granules obtained from the compression of sawdust, sometimes also including chips, products of sawmills and/or joinery shops that are often difficult to put to good use. They are a wood-based heating energy source used in special boilers. Photovoltaics (technical term) : see Photovoltaic solar power.

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CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Lexicon Cleantech Photovoltaic solar power (technical term) : refers to energy that is collected from sunlight and converted directly to electricity by photovoltaic panels. It is generated by the direct conversion of a photon into an electron in a semi-conductor (e.g. silicon). There are three different generations of technology in this field: crystalline PV (first generation), inorganic thin film (second generation), and organic thin film and other advanced concepts (third generation). PlanetSolar (project) : a project aimed at completing the first round-the-world voyage in a solar boat, powered by a motor driven exclusively by solar energy. With this project, the PlanetSolar team wants to demonstrate that the current technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency are viable and effective, and to make advancements in scientific research. The boat left from Monaco on 27 September 2010. www.planetsolar.org Platinn (organisation) : a public organisation which supports start-ups and SMEs with business innovation projects in western Switzerland, some of which are in cleantech-related fields. It thus contributes to strengthening their capacity for innovation and their competitiveness. www.platinn.ch Pôle Suisse de technologie solaire (organisation) : the Swiss Solar Technology Hub is an initiative by the Trois Lacs region (Neuchâtel, Bienne, Morat), with the aim of promoting campaigns that raise awareness of and/or valorise solar technology. www.polesolaire.ch ProKilowatt (programme) : a Swiss Federal Office of Energy instrument for the promotion of electrical efficiency. Projects which contribute to a more economical consumption of electricity in industry, service industries and households are identified by means of public calls for tender, and then benefit from financial support. www.bfe.admin.ch/prokilowatt Proofit (programme) : an online platform initiated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and implemented by the Öbu association for sustainable SMEs. It enables these businesses to develop sustainably and collates examples of good practice in the field. www.proofit.ch/fr Pro Pellets (organisation) : a group of interested parties established to promote pellet-fuelled heating. Its activities are implemented by the Swiss Energie-bois [wood energy] association. www.propellets.ch PV-Lab (organisation) : a photovoltaics and thin-layer electronics laboratory based at the IMT in Neuchâtel and recently integrated into the EPFL. It is one of the leading centres in Europe for research and development in the field of solar energy. http://pvlab.epfl.ch

R Performance (technical term) : the relationship between the actual efficiency of a machine or a system and the theoretical maximum efficiency that can be expected from this machine or system. Réseau Energie et Bâtiment (organisation) : the energy and building network is a platform for the exchange of ideas and cooperation with the aim of supporting businesses in the Fribourg region. Based at the College of Engineering and Architecture of Fribourg, the network’s aim is to support growth and competitiveness in the building sector, in particular in the fields of eco-construction and energy effectiveness. www.energie-batiment.ch

S SELF project (project) : the aim of this project, developed by the EMPA and other institutes, is to establish a totally selfsufficient « micro-house » for demonstration purposes. The SELF II module operates without drawing on any external energy source. The house will produce all the energy needed to live there, including enough to power an electric vehicle. www.empa.ch/self

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SFOE – Swiss Federal Office of Energy (organisation) : a centre of excellence of the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) for all matters concerned with energy supplies and energy use. www.bfe.admin.ch

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


Small hydro (technical term) : designates hydro-electric plants with an average gross capacity of no more than 10 MW. They are inexpensive energy sources which enable the decentralised production of renewable electricity (e.g. by setting up turbines in flows of drinking water or waste water). Smart Energy (technical term) : A term which refers to the intelligent management of energy in a global context. This concept relates to all the fields of activity, from energy production to distribution, including feed-in to the network and storage. It also refers to the use of energy by end consumers, and therefore the concept of energy effectiveness. Smart grid (technical term) : a term describing an electricity transmission and distribution network equipped with complete integrated control and new information technology and telecommunications capacities. This intelligent network provides a bidirectional flow of energy and information in real time between all those involved in the electricity chain, from the source to the end user. Smart grids offer benefits in terms of efficiency and operational stability, ensuring more stable networks while reducing costs. Smart meter (technical term) : an intelligent meter fitted with advanced technology enabling it to identify precisely, possibly also in real time, the energy consumption of a household, a building or a business, and to transfer the information to a data manager for the system. Smart metering (technical term) : the act of measuring the consumption of energy and reducing on-site meter readings, by using the latest technological methods. One of the objectives of smart metering is to provide the owners or tenants of buildings with efficient interactive tools for monitoring energy consumption. Solar Impulse (project) : a visionary project aimed at producing the first solar-powered aircraft capable of flying day and night, without fuel or polluting emissions. The ambition is to take the single-seater electric aircraft, driven solely by solar energy, on a completely self-sufficient flight round the world. Based in Payerne, the project is the brainchild of Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg. www.solarimpulse.com Solar heating (technical term) : designates the conversion of solar radiation into thermal energy. This conversion may either be used directly (to heat a building, for example) or indirectly (such as to produce steam to drive alternators, thus producing electrical energy). Suisse-Eole (organisation) : the association for the promotion of wind energy in Switzerland. It targets in particular electricity companies, authorities, engineering practices, investors and environmental protection associations. www.suisse-eole.ch SuisseEnergie (programme) : a programme promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy, administered by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). www.bfe.admin.ch Sustainable development (technical term) : refers to the rational management of human, natural and economic resources. It involves preserving the general balance between ecology, the economy and society. In other words, it is aimed at respecting the environment, preventing the exhaustion of natural resources, reducing the amount of waste produced and rationalising the production and consumption of energy. Sustainable Engineering Network (organisation) : a consortium initiated by the Swiss Confederation (CTI, OPET), which brings together Swiss companies and the country’s main institutes. Its aim is to reinforce the identification and support of innovative interdisciplinary projects operating in the field of sustainable development. www.sustainableengineering.ch SVUT – Schweizerischer Verband für Umwelttechnik (organisation) : the Swiss Association for Environmental Technology, based in Basel, offers an institutional platform for dialogue and assists export companies in gaining access to new markets. www.svut.ch Swisscleantech (organisation) : an economic association that safeguards the interests of Swiss cleantech businesses. A cleantech economic lobbying force, it issues recommendations and actively participates in the processes of opinionforming in national debates. www.swisscleantech.ch Swiss Cleantech Report (programme) : a report published for the first time in 2011, which provides detailed study on the use of clean technologies in Switzerland, observed from different angles. A number of major names in research, the economy and the public sector have participated in its production. www.ige.ch CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

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Lexicon Cleantech Swissolar (organisation) : a Swiss association of solar energy professionals. It has around 250 members and contributes to the following areas: framework policy conditions, quality assurance, training, standards and directives, projects, studies and expert reports. www.swissolar.ch

T TecOrbe (organisation) : a cleantech incubator which offers the infrastructure and services to enable the testing of new technological solutions in the field of the environment. Its full name is Technopôle de l’Environnement d’Orbe (canton of Vaud). www.tecorbe.ch The Ark Energy (programme) : a programme launched by the canton of Valais to support and finance the development of new technologies in the field of energy and energy effectiveness. It is backed by a number of academic partners in western Switzerland, including the EPFL, HES-SO, CREM and CSEM. www.theark.ch TTO – Technology Transfer Office (organisation) : designates the organisation established by the majority of public research institutes for the management of their intellectual property portfolio.

W White biotechnology (technical term) : refers to a practice that enables certain traditional industrial processes which have little respect for the environment (synthetic chemistry, petroleum-based products, etc.) to be replaced by processes rooted in sustainable development (renewable natural resources, waste water treatment, etc.). Wind turbine (technical term) : an installation that converts the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical or mechanical energy. Wood energy (technical term) : a type of bioenergy using a biomass made up of wood. It essentially involves using wood as a fuel, and may be a renewable energy provided the wood is produced by sustainable woodland management. Synonym : wood fuel.

Impressum Text CleantechAlps, Hélène Lelièvre (portraits)

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Translation Conchita-Plus, Sierre

Graphic Design CleantechAlps

Photography Confédération Suisse, Firms, CleantechAlps

Edition 2011 © CleantechAlps

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland


For a better understanding

CleantechAlps - For a better understanding of cleantech in western Switzerland

of cleantech in western Switzerland

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CleantechAlps Western Switzerland Cleantech Cluster c/o CimArk, Rte du Rawyl 47, CH - 1950 Sion +41 27 606 88 60

+41 27 606 88 69

info@cleantech-alps.com

www.cleantech-alps.com

CleantechAlps est une initiative des Cantons de Berne, Fribourg, Vaud, Neuchâtel, Genève, Valais , et Jura, soutenue par le Secrétariat d'Etat à l'économie (SECO)


Thematic study on clean technologies in western Switzerland