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Index Activities ability to engage in, 171–172 coding and classification issues, 264–265 context influencing activity patterns, 264 day and time of day, 72 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, 73 investigation of specific activities, 263 location of, 71 media usage, 73 other aspects, 73 predictors of quality of life in elderly disabled persons, 176 psychological states, 73 secondary activities, 72 social partners during, 71–72 Activity coding biases in time-budget research on elders, 116–117 in diary surveys, 70 1985 national study location codes, 71 Activity data computer file format, 73,76 time diaries for collection, 19–20 Activity frequency and duration surveys, measurement approach, 4 Activity sequence, temporal measure from time-diary studies, 37 Activity settings activities and, Canada 1992,39 contextual analysis, 37–40 hypercodes, 39 integrating concept into sequence approach, 41

Activity systems approach, bridging gap between time-space and travel survey approaches, 13–14 Adoption, becoming parents, 163 Adult education, free time aspect, 53 Age, see also Disabilities, life with; Elderly; Time-budget research on elders impact on time use in disabled persons, 177 life cycle, 130–131 Allocation of time: see Life cycle Alzheimer’s disease existing resources for data collection, 252–253 interviewing individual, their family and friends, 253 probes for understanding context of experience, 254 process of understanding leisure ability, 252–255 progressive disease, 251–252 reviewing patient's charts, 252 Analysis issues activity dimensions of episode, 27-28 contextual analysis, 37-40 derived measures, Canadian Time-Use Study (1986),33–35 descriptive measures, 28_32 episode sampling, 41–42 participation, 32–36 primary and derived activity measures, meal preparation, 29 primary measures, 28–29 Canadian Time-Use Study (1986), 30–32 sequence analysis, 40–41 subjective dimensions, 28 269


270 Analytical approaches data collection, 93–103 direct measurement of subjective aspects, 98–100 discovery and development of new, 266 episode analysis, 96–98 sampling with analytic intent, 93–96 triangulation, 101–103 Anthropology, interest in time use research, 8 Aotearoa (New Zealand), see also Maori society age of enlightenment in industrial England, 215-216 asserting first time in declaration of independence, 218 colonial experience, 215–219 definition in Maori society, 212 development of unique New Zealand identity, 227–228 early contact between British and Maori, 217–218 influence of Maori and Pakeha cultures, 228 Ka Awatea, the dawning, 227-229 likening process of civilization to Te Po, night journey, 219 median total income by occupation, 221, 223 modem time/space distancing, 217 occupations of Maori and non-Maori men and women, 220–221,222 perception of time in Enlightenment age, 216 proportion of Maori within New Zealand population, 220–221 qualitative time in sociology realm, 226– 227 quality and sense of time closer to Maori condition, 228 quantitative nature of studies, 226 time and social order, English colonists, 216–217 and time use in contemporary New Zealand, 220–227 promised and lost, treaty of Waitangi, 218–219 time use methodology in " Testing Time" pilot, 226 pilot survey (1990), 223–226

Index Aotearoa (New Zealand) (cont.) traditional proverb, 228–229 traditional time, 212–215 unemployment rates, 221,223 Bacon, Francis, age of enlightenment, 215 Basic, level of abstraction for time-budget analyses, 116 Beepers collecting time use or activity data, 4 technique for validity of time diaries, 82 Biological and sociocultural perspectives biological needs impetus for time use, 190–191 comparison of Luckmann's and Fraser's temporal models, 193 concept of time beyond biological, 192 conversational model for interview, 202– 203 critical research paradigm, 195,197–198 data collection methods, 200–208 in-depth interviewing for data collection, 201–203 ethology approach, 194 examples of, 190 field observation for data collection, 201 gene-environmental action model, 194 history of ideas for data collection, 205– 208 influence of sociocultural forces and values, 192–194 integration of nature and nurture, 191 of research approaches, 198-200 qualitative research paradigm, 195,197 quantitative research paradigms, 195– 197 recognition of biological and sociocultural temporal integration, 192 research paradigms, 194-198 study example combining time use diary and in-depth interview, 203–204 temporary nature of, 190–194 time use providing data on, 189–190 useful information for social, political, and health planners, 198–200 Biological factors in activity participation model, 77/78 Birth statistics, Canadian crude birthrate (CBR),159–161


Index British: see English colonists Bureau of Labor Statistics, pilot national time use study, 6 Business administration, interest in time use research, 8 Camera monitoring of television audiences, validity of time diaries, 82 Canada regular data collection regimen, 7 time use studies, 6 Canadian crude birthrate (CBR), increase in, 159-161 Canadian General Social Survey (1986) leisure among men and women, 13 subjective measure of happiness, 12 Canadian Pilot Nationwide Survey (1981), diary study in Canada, 69 Canadian Time-Use Study (1986) derived measures, 33–35 primary measures, 30–32 Caregivers: see Elderly Child care concern in developed countries, 11 mean duration for life-cycle groups by day of week, 140 Children economic value concern in developing countries, 11 life cycle, 130–131 single parenthood, 131 time use, concern in developed countries, 11 Chinese, comparing Korean with, and Japanese elderly, 234–236 Chronic impairment, study using proxy data, 114–116 Chronological factors, in activity participation model, 78-80 Collection guidelines diary content, 24–25 design, 22–24 respondent population choice, 20– 21 sample size, 21 sampling of respondents, 20–21 time of year for collection, 21 time use data, 20–25 Comparative or cross-cultural analyses, time-budget data, 128–129

271 Computer file formats activity file, 73, 76 fixed-field format, 75–76 for time-diary data, 73–76 variable field, 73/75 variable fixed versus fixed field, 74 Contextual analysis, activities and activity settings, 37–40 Conversational model, in-depth interview, 202–203 Cook, Captain James, see also Aotearoa (New Zealand); English colonists early contact with Maori society, 217–218 Copernicus, legacy of, 215 Critical research paradigm, biological and sociocultural perspectives, 195, 197–198 Critical text analysis history of ideas, 205–208 research methodology, 205 Cultural events, free time aspect, 53 Data collection analytical approach, 93–103 descriptive approach, 92–93 issues with bearing on current and future research, 266 regular regimens for various countries, 7 Day and time of day example of time-of-day'differences, 72 regarding activities, 72 Days number in diary design, 23 random versus convenient in diary design, 23 Descartes, age of enlightenment, 215 Descriptive measures data analysis issue, 28–37 data collection, 92–93 duration, 36–37 frequency, 36 participation, 32–36 Diary, see also Time diaries background data, 25 closed versus open interval, 22 content, 24–25 design, 22_24 number of days, 23 open versus coded category, 22 personal versus telephone interview, 23– 24


272 Diary (cont.) random versus convenient days, 23 sample of completed time diary, 56,57 subjective dimensions, 24–25 yesterday versus tomorrow basis, 22–23 Diary data, see also Time-diary data family care time, 50–51 free time, 51–54 interrelations between four basic types of time, 50 personal care and travel time, 51 uses of, 48-54 work time, 48-50 Diary method: see Time-diary method Dimensions, data analysis issue, 27–28 Dining out, mean duration for life-cycle groups by day of week, 143 Direct measurement of subjective aspects, 98–100 Direct observation alternative to time estimates and time diaries, 62 data collection method, 178 qualitative method of time use studies, 4 Disabilities, life with appropriate sampling frame, 179 comparing activities before and after disability, 174–175 conceptual model of time use by persons with physical disability, 174 consideration of time use by rehabilitation professionals, 183 definition of disability issue, 179 impact at level of caregivers, 174 of demographic variables on time use, 176–178 impairment factors, 175 methodological considerations for examining time use, 178–183 procedures for collecting time use data, 180–183 reintegration of persons, 169–170 relationship between disability and use of time, 173-178 relationships among time use, health, and wellbeing, 171–173 between social support and time use, 175–176 between time use and outcomes, 176

Index Disabilities, life with (cont.) relevant variables for time use, 173 sample size issue, 179 sampling and data collection, 178–179 study of time use, 170–171 Time Use Questionnaire, 180,182 use of time or activity patterns, 170 validity and reliability of time use diaries, 181 Doers (participants), primary descriptive measure, 28–29 Domestic activities concern in developed countries, 11 mean duration for life-cycle groups by day of week, 139 Duration (time), data analysis issue, 36– 37 Ecological factors in activity participation model, 78,80 Economic accounts application of time use research, 9 interest in time use research, 8 mismeasurement of, 11 Economic value of children, concern in developing countries, 11 Education, social status factor in activity participation model, 78,79 Elderly, see also Alzheimer's disease; Gerontology; Leisure-time budget research; Time-budget research on elders comparing Korean to Japanese and Chinese in Canada, 234–236 daily activity patterns for caregivers and care recipients, 238–240 development of social environments for well-being of, 237–238 effect of institutionalization on activity, 249–250 quality of life in disabled persons, 176 therapeutic recreation increasing social, emotional, and physical abilities of,249–251 time budget and older persons, 247– 248 time budgets investigating degree of social integration of aged ethnic minorities, 233–234 Electronic trackers, alternative to time estimates and time diaries, 62


Index Employment status impact on life cycle, 148 leisure based on work status, 13 life cycle, 130–131 Endeavor, Captain Cook in New Zealand, 217–218 English colonists, see also Aotearoa (New Zealand); Maori society age of enlightenment, 215–216 perception of time, 216 time and social order, 216–217 Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during activities, 73 Episode sampling analytic approach, 96–98 data analysis issue, 41–42 primary descriptive measure, 28–29 processing and analysis of diary data, 26–27 Error sources, age-related, in time use studies,110–111 Ethnicity Anglo versus Italian in family support, 164–165 expression of attachment relations, 166 Ethnography, qualitative method of time use studies, 4,178 Ethology, holistic approach combining biological and sociocultural factors, 194 Eurostat Time Use Project, renewed multinational effort, 7 Event reporting relation to state, 120 tracking activities, 112–113 Experience sampling method (ESM) alternative to time estimates and time diaries, 62 stopping behavior and affect state at moment occurring, 121 tracking activities, 112 Family care time, use of diary data, 50-51 Family leave, federal legislation in U.S., 158 Family life cycle Anglo versus Italian comparison, 164– 165 becoming a parent, 159–161 construction of time, 155–156 flexibility, 165–166

273 Family life cycle (cont.) global reciprocity, 164–165 involuntarily childless, 162–163 long-term orientation and attachment, 156–157 on time and off time phenomena, 165 redefinition by double-income couples, 160–161 response to unemployment, 161–162 structural social context for family relations, 157–158 support of young-adult children, 162– 165 work and, balancing time, 158–159 Field observation, data collection method, 201 Fitness and sports activity, free time aspect, 53 Fixed field format, computer file formats, 73/75–76 Food preparation, mean duration for lifecycle groups by day of week, 139 Fraser’s temporal model, 192,193 Free time, see also Leisure; Leisure-time budget research activity scheme for diverse aspects of, 52, 53 adult education, 53 cultural events, 53 difficulty estimating, 54 fitness and sports activity, 53 hobbies, 53 home communication, 54 mass media, 53–54 versus nonfree time, 52/53 organizational activity, 53 social life, 53 use of diary data, 51–54 Frequency, data analysis issue, 36 Future directions applications, 261–264 context influencing activity patterns, 264 investigation of specific activities, 263 methodological issues, 265–267 overview, 259-261 theoretical issues, 264–265 understanding needs and issues of subpopulations, 262–263 understanding psychological dimensions of behavior, 263


274 Galileo, legacy of, 215 Gender impact on time use in disabled persons, 177 prominent variable in activity participation model, 77, 78 General Social Survey (GSS) data for life cycle study, 135–136 GSS Time Use Module (1986) diary study in Canada, 69 GSS Time Use Module (1992) diary study in Canada, 69-70 Gerontology, see also Elderly; Time-budget research on elders interest in time use research, 8 time-budget methodologies for, 236–238 Global reciprocity, family relationships, 164-165 Halifax Metropolitan Survey (1971–1972), diary study in Canada, 69 Health education interest in time use research, 8 relationships among time use and wellbeing, 171–173 History, development of time use studies, 5–8 History of ideas data collection method, 205–208 providing important issues for consideration, 207–208 research method to develop theory, 206 study of relationship between people’s occupations and health status, 206-207 Hobbies, free time aspect, 53 Holistic research, see also Biological and sociocultural perspectives importance of, 194,208 Holland, regular data collection regimen, 7 Home communication, free time aspect, 54 Household production, concern in developing countries, 11 Human behavior analysis of trade-offs, 128 expectations with days of week, 134–135 speculations into, from time-diary method, 58–59 Illness, chronic, see also Disabilities, life with reintegration of persons with, 169–170

Index Immigrant groups, comparing daily activities across, 234–236 Impairment, chronic, study using proxy data, 114–116 Income, social status factor in activity participation model, 78,79 Independent source, validity of time diaries, 82 In-depth interviewing data collection method, 201–203 study example combining time use diary and, 203–204 Industrialization, evolution of time use surveys, 66 Infertility, involuntarily childless, 162–163 Information technology, application to time-budget methodology, 231,240 Institutionalized elderly, see also Elderly; Time-budget research on elders therapeutic recreation, 249–250 International Association for Time Use Research (IATUR), 8 Interviewing in-depth data collection method, 201– 203 personal versus telephone in diary design, 23–24 study example combining time use diary and, 203–204 Japan first time-budget study, 5 regular data collection regimen, 7 Japanese, comparing Korean with, and Chinese elderly, 234–236 Judeo-Christian tradition, perception of time, 216 Kaizen principles, refinements in timebudget methodology, 238–240 Korea, regular data collection regimen, 7 Korean elderly, comparing to Japanese and Chinese in Canada, 234–236 Labor, sexual division of, concern in developed and developing countries, 11 Labor force analysis application of time use research, 9–10 measurement approach, 4 Laundry, doing, mean duration for lifecycle groups by day of week, 140


Index Leisure application of time use research, 12-13 mean duration for life-cycle groups by day of week, 143 measurement approach for general studies, 4 value of time allocation data, 13 work status variable, 13 Leisure-time budget research, see also Alzheimer's disease; Elderly age and stage of life cycle as predictors of time use, 248 application of time-budget methodology, 246–247 changes in activity upon leaving or entering stages of life span, 248–249 perspective on reallocation of time across life span, 249 process of understanding leisure ability in Alzheimer's patients, 252–255 studies investigating effects of aging, 245–246 therapeutic recreation, 249–251 turning points in activity involvement based on age, 247–248 Life, quality of, application of time use research, 11–12 Life cycle activity groupings, 136 amounts of discretionary time, 133 asymmetry and asynchronization of daily life, 146–148 characterizing time allocation, 133 biological age, 131 combination of four factors, 130–133 conceptualization of life-cycle categories, 132 daily life as system of behavioral tradeoffs, 149 data analyses, 137–145 distribution of discretionary (leisure) time, 142–145 of housework, errands, and child care, 138,141–142 of time to major daily activities, 135 employment status, 131 General Social Survey (GSS) data, 135– 136 impact of marital and employment status, 148

275 Life cycle (cont.) leisure grouping, 136 life-cycle groups, 136 limitations using single-item demographic variables, 130 marital status, 131 mean duration of each activity by day of week, 137,139–140,142–144,147 presence of children, 131 results of analyses of variance comparing groupings on selected activity categories for each day of week, 150– 151 single parenthood, 131 social and functional significance of weekly rhythms, 149–150 weekly distribution of work for pay, 138 workday-weekend dichotomy, 145–146 Liking scores, analysis of activities, 120–121 Living standards, measurement of, concern in developing countries, 11 Location of activities, 71 Locational or geographical factors, in activity participation model, 78/80 Locke, age of enlightenment, 215 Luckmann's temporal model, 192, 193 Mail-back sample data collection in 1985 time-use study, 84–85 Maori society, see also Aotearoa (New Zealand) definition of time, 212 early contact with British, 217–218 Earth mother and Sky father, 213 effects of process of civilization, 219 first time period, the nothingness (Te Kore), 212–213 Io, Supreme god, 212–213 Maori time, 227 period of enlightenment, broad daylight (Te Ao Marama), 213–214 second time period, the darkness (Te Po), 213 signing declaration of dependence, 218 time promised and lost in treaty of Waitangi, 218–219 types of time, 214–215 Marital status impact on life cycle, 148 in late life, influence on social participation, 233


276 Marital status (cont.) life cycle, 130-131 role factor in activity participation model, 79 young-adult children returning home after divorce, 164 Mass media, free time aspect, 53–54 Meaning and outcomes direct measurement of subjective aspects, 98–100 episode analysis, 96-98 sampling with analytic intent, 93-96 triangulation, 101–1 03 Media usage during activities, 73 Medical leave, federal legislation in U.S., 158 Medicine, interest in time use research, 8 Men, single versus employed fathers, distribution of housework, errands, and child care, 141 Microbehavioral approach, diary method, 62 Mondays, transition and readjustment day, 145–146 Mothers, working versus stay-at-home asymmetry between, 146–147 daily life as system of behavioral tradeoffs, 149 distribution of housework, errands, and child care, 138,141–142 understanding needs and issues of, 262 Multinational Time Budget Data Archive at Essex University, 7 Multinational Time Use Study ambitious, landmark study of time, 66– 67 importance of sociodemographic characteristics, 25 landmark in cross-national survey research, 6 open-interval approach, 22 Multiple classification analysis (MCA), multivariate analysis technique, 76–77 Multivariate analyses birth factors, 77–78 gender variable, 77 larger model, 77–80 locational or geographic factors, 80 multiple classification analysis (MCA) technique, 76–77 nationality or race, 78 role factors, 78/79

Index Multivariate analyses (cont.) social status indicators, 79 technology as factor, 80 temporal factors, 79–80 Mutual Broadcasting Corporation (1954), U.S. study, 67 Nationality or race, in activity participation model, 78 National time use studies, countries, 7 Newton, age of enlightenment, 215 New Zealand: see Aotearoa (New Zealand) Norway, regular data collection regimen, 7 Nursing, interest in time use research, 8 Nutrition, concern in developing countries, 11 Occupation, social status factor in activity participation model, 78/79 Occupational therapy, interest in time use research, 8 One-day diary approach, 63 On-site verification, alternative to time estimates and time diaries, 63 Organizational activity, free time aspect, 53 Outcomes and meaning: see Meaning and outcomes Pakeha culture, see also Aotearoa (New Zealand) influence on unique New Zealand identity, 228 Parenthood Canadian birth statistics, 159-161 role factor in activity participation model, 79 Participation, data analysis issue, 32–36 Personal care and travel time, use of diary data, 51 Personal interview versus telephone in diary design, 23–24 Personality state distinction from trait, 119 positive and negative affects, 119–120 Personality trait, 119 Personal sample, data collection in 1985 time-use study, 85–86 Physical education, interest in time use research, 8 Political science, interest in time use research, 8


Index Population, primary descriptive measure, 28–29 Positivism, influencing quantitative research approach, 195–197 Principle " the more, the more" of time allocation, 64 Psychology dimensions of behavior, applications of time use research, 263 interest in time use research, 8 relationship of well-being to time use, 117–122 state during activities, 73 Qualitative research paradigm, biological and sociocultural perspectives, 195,197 Quality of life, see also Psychology; Timebudget research on elders application of time use research, 11–12 in disabled elderly persons, 176 ideal result of improved methods, 122–123 indicators of quality time, 116–1 17 Quantitative research paradigm, biological and sociocultural perspectives, 195-197 Quasi-observer, validity of time diaries, 82 Race, in activity participation model, 78 Random-hour technique, alternative to time estimates and time diaries, 63 Readership surveys, measurement approach, 4 Recreation, interest in time use research, 8 Reliability of time diaries, 81 Respondent summary file, processing and analysis of diary data, 26 Retired persons, leisure based on work status, 13 Role factors in activity participation model, 78,79 Russia (Soviet Union) earliest sophisticated time use study, 5 time budget surveys, 6 Sampling, see also Collection guidelines analytic intent, 93–96 sampling respondents, 20–21 size considerations, 21 size issue for time use research of disabled persons, 179

277 Saturdays and Sundays, behavioral patterns, 145 Secondary activities during activities, 72 Sequence analysis data analysis issue, 40–41 integrating activity setting concept, 41 Sexual activity, specialized survey of, 54–55 Sexual division of labor, concern in developed and developing countries, 11 Shadow technique alternative to time estimates and time diaries, 62 testing validity of time diaries, 83 Shopping behavior concern in developed countries, 11 measurement approach, 4 Single parenthood, life cycle, 131 Sleep, mean duration for life-cycle groups by day of week, 142 Social, political and health planners, useful information by integrating research approaches, 198–200 Social change, application of time use research, 10–11 Social life, free time aspect, 53 Social partners, during activities, 71–72 Social status factors, in activity participation model, 78,79 Social time expectations for behaviors and attitudes with days of week, 134–135 human behavior along weekly lines, 133– 134 Sociocultural perspectives: see Aotearoa (New Zealand); Biological and sociocultural perspectives; English colonists; Maori society Socioeconomic status, impact on time use in disabled persons, 177–178 Sociology/anthropology, interest in time use research, 8 Soviet Union (Russia) earliest sophisticated time use study, 5 time budget surveys, 6 Sports activity and fitness, free time aspect, 53 Statistics Canada, data collection for Canada, 6,7 Stepfamilies, becoming parents, 163 Stratification analysis, time-budget data, 128


278 Students, leisure based on work status, 13 Subjective data, dimensions in diary content, 24–25 Subordinate, level of abstraction for timebudget analyses, 116 Superordinate, level of abstraction for time-budget analyses, 116 Survey Research Center, University of Maryland (1985) study, see also United States time-use projects modes of diary collection, 68–69 national 1985 study, 84–86 unlike 1965 and 1975 studies, 68 Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, see also United States time-use projects U.S. study (1965), 67–68 US. study (1975), 68 Te Ao Marama, broad daylight, period of enlightenment, 213-214 Technology factor in activity participation model, 80 impact of, concern in developing countries, 11 Te Kore, nothingness, Maoris first time period, 212–213 Telephone coincidental studies, alternative to time estimates and time diaries, 63 Telephone interview data from persons with disabilities, 180181 versus personal in diary design, 23–24 Telephone sample, data collection in 1985 time-use study, 85 Television changes on arrival of, 59 mean duration for life-cycle groups by day of week, 144 Temporal factors in activity participation model, 79-80 Temporal location, definition of, 37 Te Po, darkness, second Maori period of time, 213 Tesserae activity and state, 121,122 " the more, the more" principle of time allocation, 64 Therapeutic recreation definition of, 250 leisure-time budget research, 249–250

Index Time, see also Family life cycle; Time measurement balancing, work and family, 158–159 changes in becoming a parent, 159–161 measuring how people spend, 59–66 perception and meaning across cultures, 265 zero-sum property of, 59,84 Time allocation, see also Life cycle persons with disabilities, 170–171 "the more, the more" principle, 64 Time and technology, concern in developed countries, 11 Time-budget methodology, see also Gerontology application of information technology, 231,240 application of kaizen principles, 238–240 costly and time-consuming, 232 daily activity patterns for caregivers and care recipients, 238–240 for development of social environments for well-being of elderly, 237–238 differentiating between satisfying and non-satisfying activities, 237 for gerontology, 236–238 plethora of data for analysis, 232 reasons for under-utilization of, 232 recent studies employing, 233–236 recording multiple activities, 232,240– 241 refinements in, 238–240 surveys at regular specified intervals, 241 time-budget diaries, 236–237 Time-budget research advantages as social indicator, 128 classification toward life cycle study, 129 daily activity classification concerns, 129 literature review, 128–129 types of analyses, 128–129 Time-budget research on elders activity analysis by liking scores, 120–121 activity classification (coding) biases, 116–117 early research, 107–108 ESM (experience sampling method), 112 ESM for relating behavior and affect, 121 event reporting, 112–113 forms for studying time use, 108–109 ideal result of improved methods, 122–123


Index Time-budget research on elders (cont.) omitting population that most needs assistance, 112 personality state affect and activities, 119–122 potential related sources of error, 110– 111 psychological well-being versus time use, 117–119 refusal rates for all ages, 11 1 significance of objective event versus significance to individual, 118 state affect and activities, 119-122 study of chronic impairment using proxy data, 114–116 subject-selection biases, 11 1–113 techniques for inclusion of subjective states and linking to accompanying activity, 121–122 time diary, 108–109 time diary or yesterday interview by proxy, 113 yesterday interview, 108–109 Time deepening, 72 Time diaries activity data collection, 19–20 collecting time use data, 178–179 comprehensive data collection, 4–5 form for studying time use, 108–109 methodological properties of, 81–83 microbehavioral technique, 83–84 by proxy, 113 reliability of, 81 study example combining in-depth interviewing and, 203–204 validity and reliability for persons with disabilities, 181 validity of, 81–83 Time-diary data, see also Time use data analysis procedures, 71–77 blending of activities, 72 computer file formats, 73–76 data file editing, 25–26 day and time of day, 72 dependence on attendant background data, 25 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, 73 example of time-of-day differences, 72 file creation, 26–27 location of activities, 71

279 Time-diary data (cont.) media usage, 73 multivariate analyses, 76–77 preparation and organization for analysis,25–26 psychological states during activities, 73 secondary activities, 72 social partners during activities, 71–72 technique of multiple classification analyses (MCA), 76–77 variable fixed versus fixed field file formats, 74 Time-diary method, see also Diary data activity coding, 70-71 avoiding pitfaIls of estimate approach, 65 basic types of time, 58 example of, 56-57 features of, 54–59,64–66 limitations of reporting frame, 54–55 measurement logic of Multinational Time Budget Study, 64 measuring long-term societal changes, 55,58 respondents’ own words, 54 sample of completed time diary, 56,57 speculations about nature of human behavior, 58-59 structure and portrait, 49 Time-diary studies in Canada, 69–70 industrialization in late 19 century, 66 Multinational Time Use Study, 66–67 previous studies, 66–69 US. studies, 67–69 in Western countries, 67 Time (duration) data analysis issue, 36–37 primary descriptive measure, 28–29 Time famine, 72 Time measurement alternatives to time estimates and time diaries, 62–64 features of time diary and sample diary, 64–66 problems with time estimates, 60–62 Time-of-day differences in activity, 72 Time-of-year sampling issue for data collection, 21 Time-points file, processing and analysis of diary data, 26–27


280 Time use age and stage of life cycle as predictors, 248 psychological aspects of, 117–122 relationships among time use, health, and well-being, 171–173 Time use data, see also Analysis issues; Time-diary data analysis issues, 27–42 analytical approach, 93–103 applications of, 8–14 behavioral and subjective indicators, 12 collection guidelines, 20–25 data-file editing and creation, 25–27 descriptive patterns and meaning indicators, 92–93 discovery and development of new analytical approaches, 266 economic accounts, 9 importance of capturing contextual data, 266 labor force analysis, 9–10 leisure, 12–13 obstacles to accurate responses, 60–62 quality of life, 11–12 social change, 10–11 social indicators, 11–12 travel behavior research, 13–14 women's concerns, 11 Time Use Questionnaire for persons with disabilities, 180,182 Time use research, see also Disabilities, life with; Future directions activity coding and classification issues, 264–265 advances in methodology, 7–8 applications of, 261–264 challenge of showing usefulness in guiding policy, 261 context influencing activity patterns, 264 definition of, 3–5 descriptive patterns and indicators of meaning, 92–93 direct measurement of subjective aspects, 98–100 episode analysis, 96-98 investigation of specific activities, 263 methodological considerations for persons with disabilities, 178–183 methodological issues, 265–267 Multinational Time Use Study, landmark study, 6

Index Time use research (cont.) need to understand human time use, 259–260 persons with disabilities, 170–171 problem areas needing to be addressed, 261 sampling with analytic intent, 93–96 studying meaning and outcomes, 93–103 study of production, progress, and quality of life, 259 theoretical issues, 264–265 triangulation, 101–1 03 understanding needs and issues of subpopulations, 262–263 understanding psychological dimensions of behavior, 263 world societies undergoing radical transformations, 260 Time use studies, see also United States time-use projects historical development of, 5–8 providing critical information, 8 Travel studies behavior research application, 13–14 concern in developed countries, 11 measurement approach, 4 use of diary data, 51 Trend analyses, time-budget data, 128 Triangulation, optimizing understanding of meaning and outcomes, 101-103 Unemployment response of older workers, 162 responses by middle-aged workers, 161– 162 social support of family and friends, 165– 166 United Kingdom, first time use studies, 5-6 United States early time use studies, 5 major national studies by Institute of Social Research (ISR), 6 United States time-use projects comparison of 1965,1975, and 1985 studies, 87-88 mail-back sample for 1985 study, 84–85 personal sample for 1985 study, 85–86 1965 study, 86–87 1975 study, 86 1985 study, 84–86 telephone sample for 1985 study, 85


Index Unpaid work, concern in developing countries, 11 Unwed mothers, young-adult children returning home, 164 Urban planning, interest in time use research, 8 Validity of time diaries, 81–83 Variable field format, computer file formats, 73–75 Well-being relationships among time use, health, and well-being, 171–173 use of time budget data measuring, 265 Women, see also Mothers, working versus stay-at-home application of time use research, 11 daily life as system of behavioral tradeoffs, 149 understanding needs and issues of, 262263

281 Work, see also Unemployment and family balancing time, 158–159 role factor in activity participation model, 79 study of relationship between people’s occupations and health status, 206–207 Work, unpaid, concern in developing countries, 11 Work activities, mean duration for life-cycle groups by day of week, 137,147 Workforce analysis, application of time use research, 9–10 Work time, use of diary data, 48–50 World societies overall use of time, 260 radical transformations in structures and behaviors, 260 Yesterday interview form for studying time use, 108–109 multi-item state rating scale, 122 problems with proxy responses, 114 by proxy, 113


Index