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---------------------------------------------------------turbos and tantrums how formula 1 ripped itself apart in the 1980s ---------------------------------------------------------Jonathan Betts MBE Describes his work at the royal observatory greenwich and the genius of john harrison ---------------------------------------------------------blondie, bowie and life on the edge The photographer who captured new york’s early punk scene ---------------------------------------------------------the balancing act johannes jahnke shows us exactly how an automatic watch works ----------------------------------------------------------


Swiss movement, English heart


Bespoke ETA 2824-2 Jumping Hour automatic modification by Master Watchmaker Johannes Jahnke / Each piece, of only 250, personally assembled by Johannes and his team in Switzerland / 43mm, surgical grade stainless steel case with sapphire crystal and transparent case back / CITES certified, premium grade, Louisiana alligator deployment strap / 5 year movement guarantee E xc lu s i v e ly ava i l a b l e at


c h r i s t o p h er w a r d m a g a z i n e

Welcome to the latest edition of the Christopher Ward magazine. There’s a fair chance that if you’re reading this publication that you quite like watches. Indeed, some Christopher Ward customers (and er… owners) have a love of timepieces that goes well beyond what might be charitably described as “quite keen”. But for all this enthusiasm, how many of us really know how watches work? Could we tell the difference between a quartz, hand-wound or automatic movement? And what exactly is a barrel? Step forward Christopher Ward’s very own master watchmaker, Johannes Jahnke, whose brilliantly simple ‘How does a watch work?’ feature on page 38 is a great introduction to the subject. We’ll be testing your knowledge in the next issue… Another passion at Christopher Ward is motorsport. Our association with its many forms is well known, but in this issue we concentrate on the controversy that gripped Formula 1 during the late ’70s and early-’80s over the rise of the turbo engine. It’s a conflict that changed the sport for good, and helped propel a certain Bernard Ecclestone to his unassailable position at the top of F1. Read it on page 38. Away from motors, we interview photographer Christopher Makos about ’70s New York, and the singers, musicians, artists and freaks who came together there to form the punk rock movement. If that isn’t tempting enough, then be aware that the piece contains a picture of Blondie’s Debbie Harry looking very cool in a pair of sunglasses. Surely justification enough for a feature in its own right? Finally, Christopher Ward is expanding into the area of luxury goods with our first ever leather range, the Mowbray Collection. From iPad covers to chic document holders, they’re some of the most beautiful items you could ever own, and like our watches, the quality and value is unmatched. Read an interview with the Mowbray’s designer on page 16. That’s it for now, enjoy the issue.

Chris 1


c h r i s t o p h er w a r d m a g a z i n e , S ummer 2 0 1 4

5 CWorld

Christopher Ward at Baselworld, Ferrari watch in the offing, C65 Trident Classic launches, plus lots more from the CW universe

10 Turbos & tantrums: Formula1 at war

How the world’s premier motorsport franchise ripped itself apart over the turbo engine in the early 1980s

16 The Mowbray Collection

Christopher Ward moves into the luxury leather market with its first accessories line, the Mowbray Collection. See the best of the range and read how it all came about

20 Trash in the apple of his eye

How photographer Chris Makos captured New York’s punks

26 Classic Ward

Photo: Ken Copsey

Explore the rugged charm of the C6 Kingfisher

28 The timekeeper

Nick Toyas talks to Jonathan Betts, Senior Curator of Horology at the Royal Observatory, about John Harrison


Front cover: C60 Trident Pro Automatic

33 Timespan

The Beatles charm/shock the establishment with their 1963 Royal Command Performance

34 The race for the future

A look at the beautiful posters used to advertise cars in the early days of the automotive industry

38 How does a watch work?

Learn the science behind the movement with Johannes Jahnke

40 Timespan

The first World Cup to be televised in colour ended with a goal that encapsulated everything beautiful about Brazilian soccer

42 The hole story

We travel to Northamptonshire to the factory of Loake shoemakers where we uncover the manufacturing process behind that most British of shoes, the brogue

48 How we remember time

Professor Gal Zauberman demonstrates how events alter our perception of time passed

Christopher Ward (London) Limited, 1 Park Street, Maidenhead, Berkshire SL6 1SL, United Kingdom. Customer Services: Editor: Anthony Teasdale. Design and art direction: ToyasO’Mara. Colour reprographics: JP Repro.

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c h r i s t o p h er w a r d m a g a z i n e S U M M E R 2 0 1 4

The case for a classic







“It’s a fantastic achievement from a very committed crew” chris ward


Andrew Davies, FireballInternational


CW Challenger wins world title!









“This creates a classic dress watch with a decidedly sporty feel to it” Christopher Ward














The Christopher Ward watch range is set to get even stronger with the addition of the brand new C65 Trident Classic. Using the case of the much loved C60 Trident Pro, the Trident Classic is a timepiece with a more formal feel. “This is a new watch using the Trident case, but without the diver’s countdown bezel,” said Christopher Ward. “This create a classic dress watch with a decidedly sporty feel to it. It’s a self-winding automatic with a number of the C60 Trident design cues including the C60 hands and the tridentshaped counter balance on the second hand and a deep-etched trident engraving on the back-plate. ER PR O watch.” NisGnot a diving But be aware, this G LE The watch will be available to order from May for July availability.

CW Challenger Sam Brearey and sailing partner Christian Birrell achieved a stunning result in the Fireball Worlds event in Thailand in early April – taking the Fireball Worlds title. The pair competed in the 10-race championships in their CW-sponsored boat, Makaira, holding off a spirited late charge from British and Aussie crews in second and third places, and winning with a race to spare. A delighted Sam said: “We’re both so happy and thankful for all of your support! Without that support we wouldn’t have been able to do this. Personally, for me, it means a lot to have won the title with two separate partners and not been out of the top two for four years! Thanks so much for your faith and commitment to helping us!” The whole CW team were delighted. “It’s a fantastic achievement from a very committed crew,” said Chris Ward. “Retaining a title is even harder than winning the first and we’re delighted to play our small part in their wonderful achievement. They made a magnificent effort and the images of our brand racing across the waves was a real spine-tingler for everyone at CW HQ!” Everyone at CW sends their congratulations to Sam and Christian and we look forward to following their journey to reach 2016 Olympics in Rio.






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Nineteen-fifty-seven was a pivotal year for Jaguar’s motor racing division. That year, the British car company took five out of the top six places at Le Mans in the striking 3.8-litre D-Type, re-working its ageing XK engine to improve performance. Two teams benefited from this work, America’s Briggs Cunningham and Scotland’s Ecurie Ecosse, which, as Jaguar’s de-facto racing team, took the first two places. This monumental achievement – Jaguar’s performance the year before had been dismal – has been commemorated with the release of the C70 D-Type,a superbly detailed chronograph that’s dressed in the colours of the Ecurie Ecosse team. The watch will be available to pre-order from July for August delivery.



C70 D-Type takes pole position




A DE 000 /







A DE 000 /






Dress for less C5 Malvern goes slimline The search for the perfect dress watch just got that little bit easier with the release of the C5 Malvern Slimline – a trimmed-down version of the original C5. The key here is the hand-wound mechanical movement and a re-styling of the case which means that the watch is just 8.05mm deep. The watch is being released as part of the brand’s 10th anniversary celebrations, and follows several requests from Christopher Ward fans for a ’lite’ C5 Malvern. Pre-orders will be taken from April for June availability.

C 5 Malvern SLIMLIN E







Jumping Hour the third


There’s little doubt that the C9 Jumping Hour MK I/II watches are among Christopher Ward’s most ambitious timepieces, mixing classic style with


mechanical ingenuity…

The good news is that CW’s master watchmaker, Johannes Jahnke has been improving the complication’s accuracy further for launch of the third watch in the series. The new Jumping Hour cements the range’s position at the high end of the Christopher Ward collection. Christopher Ward’s Mike France said: “The main change to the watch is the dial. The Mk III is the first Jumping Hour to use numbers in the jumping hour aperture rather than Roman numerals. The aesthetic of the watch is derived from the new-look Harrison Collection, and Johannes has continued to work on the smoothness and precision of the change at the hour. This evolution of the CW JH is perhaps the most accurate jump ever created.” And how did Johannes manage to achieve this, Mike? “If I told you I’d have to kill you.” The new Jumping Hour will be available to pre-order from August for September availability.

Christopher Ward at Baselworld 2014 Company founder Mike France reports from Switzerland “Nothing prepares new visitors for the enormity of the Baselworld fair with its huge (and hugely expensive stands). It’s hard not to be impressed, if not overwhelmed. “Those of us who’ve been regular visitors over the years can still find the scale awe-inspiring, so a little gentle reflection is needed to retain perspective. This year,



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“This evolution of the CW Jumping Hour is perhaps the most accurate jump ever created”


ETA 2824-2 (Modification) E - CALIBR MAD 25.60mm EJ SS



ETA 2824-2 (Modific 25.60mm



that perspective was easier to come by as there was so little that was new or innovative on display that after two days I had to draw the conclusion that beneath the gloss, it was a disappointing show. “Yes, Tag Heuer unveiled its belt-drive tourbillon but when the guy presenting it couldn’t explain the benefits of a belt drive over a normal gear train I felt somewhat underwhelmed. Further investigation with Johannes confirmed there is none anyway! One positive note: Patek Philippe should be congratulated for its new stand and newer openness about its latest releases. “The only newness on show from Rolex was an interesting but ultimately limiting sapphire crystal with green in the mix which throws kingfisher-type hues onto a blue dial. The watch, called the Milgauss, is a homage to Carl Friedrich Gauss,

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“The most interesting stand, and in ETA 2824-2 (Modification) our view, possibly the most important, 25.60mm wasn’t even from a watchmaker. Hidden away in Hall 4 we found the future of watchmaking” MIKE FRANCE

the physicist whose law about electric flux simplified electric field calculations. Without it, Luke Skywalker wouldn’t have been able to launch himself into hyperspace. How pleased Herr Gauss would be about Rolex’s colourful watch can only be a matter of speculation, since he passed away in 1855. Perhaps they’re on sale in heaven or wherever it is physicists go to when they die. “The most interesting stand, and in our view, possibly

the most important, wasn’t even from a watchmaker. Hidden away in Hall 4 we found the future of watchmaking, and I’m not exaggerating here. For now it’s our (and Vacheron Constantin’s!) secret, and we’re not for sharing. So, no questions, please. “Despite the disappointing offerings from the supposed big players, this little find helped make Baselworld worth going to after all. And it’s this discovery that ensures we’ll be back again next year.” orderline 0844 875 1515 7


Swiss movement, English heart


In 1912 Malcolm Campbell christened his car “Blue Bird� and a legend was born. More than 100 years later this iconic name continues to challenge for world speed records using futuristic electric vehicles. Christopher Ward is proud to be Bluebird Speed Records Official Timing Partner and, in celebration, we have released this stunning timepiece in a limited edition of 1,912 pieces. E xc lu s i v e ly ava i l a b l e at


Service updates for USA and Europe <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Moonphase for CW?

Good news for our neighbours in the European Union (and we’re not talking about the quality of the cheese and wine) – CW has launched a new website specifically for customers across Europe who wish to buy from us in euros. Go to to check it out.

Rumours from Johannes Jahnke’s studio in Switzerland indicate that the master watchmaker is working on a moonphase complication. While the company refused to confirm or deny reports, rumours of a possible launch in 2015 were circulating around horological circles.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> For customers in the USA, Christopher Ward has recently introduced Fed Ex deliveries to America which means that delivery times have tumbled to just a couple of days and, in many cases, customers will receive their watch only a day after ordering. The world just keeps on getting smaller.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Finally, Kip McEwen, the Boston USA-based moderator of the Christopher Ward forum spent two days at CW’s HQ in Maidenhead recently. Rumours that he beat Chris at the CW ‘Name that watch’ quiz have not been confirmed.


C7 0 3527GT C HR O N O METER

1962 FERRARI 2 50 GT 962 FERRA RI 2 1 E –O 50 EC PI

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After the success of last year’s Aston Martin DBR1 special edition, there are rumours that Christopher Ward could be launching another unique automotive timepiece with the news that Chris has been spotted with a Ferrari GTO body panel in Switzerland. One of the world’s most expensive cars – a vintage model was recently sold for $52m – there’s talk that parts of this panel could find themselves in a very special Christopher Ward watch. Either that, or Chris is working at the world’s most exclusive scrapyard.


Ferrari GTO metal in future CW Watch?



C70 3527GT Chronom e te r RELEASE D ATE: AUGUST 2014



Win the very first CW watch! Christopher Ward’s debut timepiece, the fabled C5 Malvern

Automatic (Serial number #1) is likely to form part of the company’s 10th anniversary auction that was announced recently. Hugely sought-after, the first C5 Malvern caused shockwaves through the watchmaking industry thanks to its accessible price point and stunning craftsmanship. It’s one of the company’s most loved timepieces. All proceeds from the auction will go to training and educating young horologists in the Daniels method of watchmaking.



Turbos & tantrums: F1 at war

While rule changes have been the talking point of 2014’s Formula 1 season so far, the controversy is nothing compared to the bitter power struggle that defined elite motorsport in the 1980s, as Bruce Hales-Dutton describes


The unreliability of Mario Andretti’s Lotus 78 prevents the true significance of this car from being understood as well. Things are changing in Formula 1 – and it’s going to cause all sorts of bother. While the previous year’s intense Hunt vs Lauda contest had captured the public imagination, it had diverted attention from the efforts of race car designers to find F1’s next big thing. As Renault’s engineers were exploiting a provision in the F1 rules allowing forced-induction engines to be half the size of normally-aspirated ones, Lotus ➸

MPL picture Library

uly 1977, Silverstone, England – the British Grand Prix. Renault has just given the first ever turbocharged F1 car its low-key debut. It makes a premature exit from the race when a turbocharger fails in a cloud of smoke. This is to become a familiar story: in two seasons Renault will achieve just four finishes in 18 starts. “Only the F1 visionaries take it seriously,” says motorsport commentator Alan Henry today. But it isn’t the only car to make a premature exit at Silverstone that day.


this page: Mario Andretti in the revolutionary Lotus 79 at the 1978 Spanish GP in Jarama left: Renault RS01 Turbo, 1977


“It feels like it’s painted onto the road”

(Photo by Rainer W. Schlegelmilch/Getty Images)

F1 chaMP Mario ANdretti on his lotus 79, 1978

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Downforce meant better grip and faster times

above: The Lotus JPS 78 1977 below: Mario Andretti, 1980

were looking elsewhere. Since the introduction of ‘wings’, the inverted aerofoils which improved traction, braking and road-holding, designers had been seeking ways of using the airflow passing under the car to produce additional downforce. And downforce meant better grip and faster times. Colin Chapman of Lotus directed engineers to work on this new concept. The result was the 78 ‘wing car’ whose large side-pods helped it produce 15 per cent more downforce than its competitors. The following year’s 79 took the concept further. Its profiled underbody featured upswept side pod ‘tunnels’ which created a low pressure area to suck the car to the track. Sliding ‘skirts’ sealed the gap between car and track to maintain suction. “It feels like it’s painted to the road,” said a delighted Andretti. Lotus duly dominated the 1978 season, winning both drivers’ and constructors’ championships, but the cat was now out of the bag. The concept was revealed, and anybody could use it. It helped, though, to have the right engine. The Ford-funded V8 Cosworth lump powering most British cars, was sufficiently compact to facilitate effective under-car profiling. Williams and the French (but Cosworth-using) Ligier team both produced cars spectacularly superior to the Lotus. Yet it was Ferrari that emerged victorious from the 1979 campaign. Although its bulky flat-12 engine wasn’t ideal for generating ground effect, its power and reliability proved decisive. Turbo pioneer Renault’s first victory came, appropriately enough, at that year’s French Grand Prix. 12 orderline 0844 875 1515

Behind the scenes the ill feeling which had been simmering within the F1 community for many years was surfacing. Divisions widened between the governing body, the Paris-based Federation Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA), and the Formula One Constructors Association (FOCA) representing the (mainly British) constructors. Matters weren’t helped by the election of Jean-Marie Balestre as FISA president. Likened to Peter Sellers’ bumbling Inspector Clouseau in the Pink Panther movies by F1 journalist Nigel Roebuck, Balestre was a bombastic figure seemingly unable or willing to compromise on anything, or with anyone. FOCA was led by south London car

Photos: MPL picture Library, Getty images

dealer-turned-F1 team owner, Bernard Ecclestone, advised by Max Mosley, lawyer son of former British fascist leader, Sir Oswald. At the heart of the dispute was the distribution of cash earned from racing. FOCA also resented the influence wielded by the Italian Ferrari team. The two parties were gearing up for a fight. The FISA-FOCA war was characterised by a series of bad-tempered squabbles which boiled over into undisguised hostility in 1980. The main bone of contention was the way that ground-effects technology was increasing cornering speeds. Ostensibly, the issue was safety. But the ‘grandee’ teams led by Enzo Ferrari resented the way the British ‘kit car’ builders could now trump the power of their engines, which unlike most of the Cosworth users, they built as well as the chassis. “Downforce had pulled out a large lead,” Roebuck wrote as the reigning world champion Jody Scheckter failed to qualify his Ferrari T5 for the penultimate race of the season, the Canadian Grand Prix. FISA reacted with a ban on sliding skirts. This was widely perceived as aiding the turbo brigade which Ferrari was about to join. The dispute was seen as a threat to Britain’s motor racing industry. The sports minister protested to Balestre about

FISA’s action, and on several occasions Jonathan Aitken MP raised the matter in the Commons. “Referring to Bernard Ecclestone and his colleagues as ‘robust entrepreneurs’ was good theatrical stuff,” Alan Henry says, adding, “I’ve always made a mental note to treat anything I hear emanating from the House of Commons with some scepticism ever since.” Ferrari, Renault and Alfa Romeo then boycotted the Spanish Grand Prix over a row about drivers’ briefings, with some teams forbidding their stars from

attending these meetings as part of the FISA-FOCA dispute. An incensed FISA refused to sanction the race which went ahead but without world championship points awarded. FOCA responded with plans for its own championship in retaliation for the ban on sliding skirts but after one unsuccessful Grand Prix in South Africa in 1981, the idea was quietly forgotten. Meanwhile, some British constructors were working on ways of circumventing the sliding skirts ban. Over at Lotus, Chapman’s clever twin-chassis 88 was ➸

Squabbles boiled over into outright hostility

above: Max Mosley, Jean-Marie Balestre and Bernie Ecclestone meet in the pit lane at the 1981 Caesar’s Palace Grand Prix in Las Vegas, USA right: The turbo engine of Renault RE30B F1 car 13


“The Renault was a high-priced lemon beset with mechanical unreliability: ultimately, the team failed due to a lack of organisational cohesion”

rejected by the rule-makers before it could race but Gordon Murray at Brabham came out with a system that did get past the FISA suits. In short, his new hydro-pneumatic system provided a legal 6cm gap between car body and track when stationary, while at speed the airflow would press the car down to achieve a significant degree of downforce. Drivers disliked it but it was clear FISA was powerless to police this system. The British teams stayed ahead although Ferrari’s turbo won two against-the-odds victories thanks to the skill of Gilles Villeneuve. Renault, which had won three times in 1980, did the same in ’81. But today, Henry calls its car “a highpriced lemon beset with mechanical unreliability”, blaming the team’s failure on a “lack of organisational cohesion”. 14 orderline 0844 875 1515

As turbo power rose, it was clear the Cosworth runners needed to find a further advantage. The tweak for 1982 was water-cooled brakes, which exploited a rule enabling teams to top up lubricant and coolant levels before post-race weighing. By discharging brake-cooling water during the race a car could run underweight yet still be at the legal limit for the weigh-in. FISA outlawed it, and there was another race boycott by the British teams, this time of the San Marino Grand Prix. Ferrari won this particular race but Villeneuve claimed his teammate Pironi had violated an agreement not to pass if they were heading for an unchallenged 1-2 victory. Villeneuve was incensed. Whether this contributed to his death a fortnight later while practising for the Belgian Grand Prix isn’t known. But this and Pironi’s subsequent career-ending crash made for a tragic year. By 1983, some measure of agreement had been reached between FISA and FOCA though what became known as the Concorde Agreement. Cars now had flat bottoms and skirts were out. Yet Renault, the pioneers, were denied the honour of the first turbo driver’s championship. That went to BMW powering a chassis built by Brabham, a team then owned by Ecclestone. The 1.5-litre turbos dominated F1 until 1989 when there was a return to normallyaspirated engines. The turbo era was over – for a while.

left: Gilles Villeneuve and his Ferrari team-mate, Didier Pironi at the USA West Grand Prix, April 1982 above: The F1 hostilities were frontpage news for the motorsport press

The turbo tantrums had subsided. The FISA-FOCA dispute, which at times, according to Nigel Roebuck, had been characterised by “consummate acrimony”, was not really a clash of rival technologies. It had actually been about control of F1, its wealth and the potential that had become obvious through the drama and rivalry of 1976. Things have certainly changed since 1977. In the end, Max Mosley succeeded Balestre and Bernie Ecclestone became F1 supremo. And while turbos did dominate 1980s F1 racing, the teams that triumphed were not the grandees of Ferrari and Renault, but the British duo of McLaren and Williams. Thirty years on in March 2014 at the Australian GP in Melbourne, and there’s a sense of déja vu in the air. The new F1 rules requiring turbo-charged engines as part of a high-tech hybrid power unit have heralded a new era. The retirement rate is higher than usual, and the only Renaultpowered car to finish is disqualified because of a technical infringement. As people wonder whether the sport can survive unblemished this season, things are starting to look rather familiar.

Photos: MPL picture Library, Getty images, PA Images, Autosport ©Haymarket Publications

Villeneuve’s death and Pironi’s subsequent career-ending crash made for a tragic year

Ferrari’s Gilles Villeneuve in the pits at the 1982 San Marino Grand Prix 15


Mowbray Collection T

Christopher Ward launches luxury accessories range he modernist architect – and all-round good egg – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe famously said that the “devil was in the details”. What he meant by this was that the mark of an item’s quality could only be found by examining it close up. It’s this philosophy that is the starting point for our new luxury leather goods range, the Mowbray Collection. Named after the Leicestershire town in which the products were crafted (and the name of the company that made them), the range, aimed at men, is made entirely in Italian leather, specially treated for an aged look. It includes iPad cases, key fobs, wallets and a document folder. The person behind it is designer Monica Larkin, who’s created products for the likes of Burberry and Claridge’s, before arriving at Christopher Ward. “In my experience, men are far more particular than women when buying clothes and accessories,” she says. “I’m a real perfectionist so every detail is considered, from the more obvious big things like the raw material, right down to the stitch size.” Unwrapping the products from their brushed cotton pouch is a sensual experience, and one can’t help but smile upon seeing the familiar Chr. Ward logo embossed onto ➸

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Photo: Ken Copsey

from left: Card holder; wallet; document folder; key fob; iPad case 17


Swiss movement, English heart


Swiss made / Worldwide limited edition of 500 pieces / ETA 2824-1 self-winding certified chronometer / 38 hour power reserve / Satin finish titanium case / Water resistant to 500 metres / Internal countdown bezel / Helium release valve by FIMM / AR08 anti-reflective, museum grade sapphire crystal / Deep-etched back plate engraving / SuperLuminovaTM hands and indexes / High-density rubber dive strap E xc lu s i v e ly ava i l a b l e at


“I’m a real perfectionist so every detail is considered, from the more obvious big things like the raw material, right down to the stitch size” Monica Larkin

the leather. Luxury is all about making the owner feel special, and this range does that. “As it’s the first collection, the majority of my inspiration came from the brand itself,” says Monica. “I wanted the collection to be English and exquisitely made, just like the watches. The range needed to be luxurious but also functioning: they’re objects you can use every day and only improve with age.” They sound like the perfect accompaniment to our timepieces, then. The Mowbray Collection will be available from the Christopher Ward website soon. below: Monica Larkin, the designer behind the Mowbray Collection

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In the 1970s, New York City was a byword for urban decay and the death of the american dream. But this status also led to it becoming the home of punk rock, a music movement that would take over the world – and photographer Christopher Makos was there to document it all, as he tells Anthony Teasdale

ASH TinRThe Apple

of his eye


here are certain times in pop culture history when it pays to be in the right place at the right time. The particular location is unimportant: it could be New York in 1948, Soho in 1963 or even Manchester in 1988. For a short time, one place becomes the centre of the cultural world, a happy accident of ambition, opportunity and fate. And to be there when that spark ignites is to be fortunate indeed. Photographer Christopher Makos is one such individual. Raised in California, Makos moved to New York in 1969 with nothing in mind bar the feeling that Los Angeles was not the best place to cultivate his creativity. And that fate thing? That’s the camera he took with him, a birthday present that he felt he obliged to use – and which brought him into contact with some of the most creative, exciting people on the planet: Andy Warhol, ➸


New York was a cesspit of drunks, drug addicts, punks and rock’n’rollers

David Johansen of the New York Dolls and Richard Hell of Television backstage at CBGBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, New York

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“Blondie played at CBGB’s – in fact, anybody that was anyone had to play at CBGB’s”


i m a g e m aker | CW

Debbie Harry, Iggy Pop, The Ramones, Mick Jagger, David Bowie… you get the picture. To most of America, New York in the 1970s was the modern Gomorrah, cesspit of drunks, punks, drug addicts and rock’n’rollers. A city that had been strangled by the six-lane motorways of planner Robert Mosely, where ‘respectable’ families had moved to the safety of suburbia and the only people left were the poor, the blacks and the Hispanics. This wasn’t America, this was a city state all on its own. It was also – not coincidentally – perhaps the most creative place on Earth, spawning three music genres that would change popular culture for good: hip-hop (created in the ruins of the Bronx), the Latin beat of disco, and punk, the dirty, basic sound of a deserted downtown and the end of the American dream. In his job as staff photographer of Interview magazine, Chris Makos documented the punk scene, snapping the singers, artists, groupies and fans who made the movement so revolutionary. By 1977, Makos had taken so many great pictures for Interview, the

best were put together in a photo book, White Trash. Nearly 40 years on, the book has been reprinted (as White Trash Uncut), and Makos’ photos can be seen once more – not just as a slice of rock history, but as a relic of a time when anyone could pitch up in New York City and follow their dreams, no matter how much middle America disdained them. The pictures show people at the very edge of society: scruffy, alienated, drunk, but most of all, brimming with the excitement of being alive. Here, Chris speaks about meeting Andy Warhol, being mesmerised by John Lennon and why the New York City of today is in danger of becoming a sterile, rich man’s ghetto… HI Chris. You grew up in Los Angeles, but then went to New York in 1969. Why was that?

LA feels like a holiday, it never feels like a place you can get anything done. It was a great choice to come to New York when I did: I met artists and writers here, Tennesee Williams, Quentin Crisp, Andy Warhol… ballerinas, actors. Why did you start taking photographs?

Someone gave me a camera as a birthday gift, so I thought I had to do something with it. It wasn’t a lifelong passion, but I always liked to stare at things and absorb stuff with my eyes. My first published photograph was in the fledgling Rolling Stone magazine, in the art section in the front. Did this exposure lead to further commissions?

David Croland and Grace Jones wearing a Le Jardin shirt. New York.

“New York was like Beijing now – lots of energy and people coming to the city – with clubs, venues and galleries willing to take chances”

I did a few things here and there, but my serious photography career took off after I’d met Andy Warhol and I started working for Interview magazine. I had a column called In by Christopher Makos. It had anything in it I thought was interesting. At that moment, New York was like Beijing is now – lots of energy, people coming to the city, real estate wasn’t expensive, so you had clubs, venues and art galleries that could take chances with new artists or photographers. Very unlike today, when it’s so expensive. What was the nightlife like?

Christopher Macos

“I always had great equipment from the beginning: my first camera was a Nikon SLR… though it’s the eye that’s really important”

Basically, CBGB’s and the whole punk scene were a response to disco. It was simple two/three chord music. You didn’t have to be well schooled to play it. Having said that, Studio 54 was another one of these perfect places. Today, you have to be famous to get behind the velvet rope, but then you just had to be interesting, good

looking or even a geek. The people who couldn’t get in were the dull and boring ones. You took pictures of the likes of Iggy Pop, Bowie and Jagger – was it easy to get access?

At that time, there were no paparazzi, if you were in a situation where those people were, you were supposed to be there. I was usually there by myself, hanging out – I even went to the first Ziggy Stardust concert in New York City. In the same period, Bette Midler was performing at the Continental Baths with Barry Manilow as her keyboard player. People found ways to do things that were innovative – without resorting to sex or money. And of course you took that famous snap of Debbie Harry, where she just looks ice-cool…

She was in Blondie, and they played at CBGB’s. In fact, anybody that was anyone had to play at CBGB’s. It was a really funky place, not very charming. But it’s a place that gave birth ➸ orderline 0844 875 1515 23


Swiss movement, English heart


Made in Switzerland / Worldwide limited edition of only 500 pieces / ETA 251.233 COSC 1/10ths second split- timing / 316L marine-grade stainless steel case / Anti-reflective sapphire crystal / Unique serial number / “Toro Bravo” leather deployment strap E xc lu s i v e ly ava i l a b l e at

i m a g e m aker | CW

to Talking Heads, Television Now all the cool spots are highend clubs or stores.

from Interview magazine did and he took me to the Warhol’s Factory building later.

Was New York dangerous at the time – it had a very high murder rate…

Did you move on to better equipment?

It didn’t feel like that. I think now rich people take the real estate that people who could live here would want. And they don’t live here, it’s just an investment. Money has corrupted New York City culture in a way it never has before. These places are playgrounds for the rich. It was a different time then, there was a fertile ground for the arts to emerge, whether you were a musician, poet, actor or fashion designer. How did you get to meet Andy Warhol?

© Christopher Marcos

I’d been to an exhibition of his at the Whitney Museum with Dotson Rader, a writer who introduced me to Andy. I knew Warhol was famous and someone to deal with. He asked me to go Max’s [Kansas City, a nightclub] with him but I’m not a ‘fan’ type of personality. When I had my first exhibition, Step on It, I thought he’d be the perfect person to invite, but he didn’t come. However, Bob Colacello

I was lucky, the first camera I got was a great Nikon SLR. I always had great equipment from the beginning. My eye got better, but it’s not the equipment, it’s the eye. I trained my eye. You really have to stare and look and see. Are you still earning a living as a photographer?

Absolutely, I’m earning a very good living. I take pics all the time wherever I go, it’s sort of like being a fashion designer – how do you keep inventing the black dress? Well, you revisit it. People want to revisit my photographs, that’s why you’re interviewing me about White Trash, which first came out in 1977. One of the best things about getting older is getting smarter. If you can keep your wits together! Why did you decide rerelease White Trash?

Six months ago there was a show at the Metropolitan Museum of Art about punk, and my publisher, said, “Why don’t you reissue White Trash?

David Bowie, rock star. Los Angeles.

“White Trash is about fashion, music and young people spending money on clothes” Because it’s about fashion, music and young people spending money on clothes. Finally, out of all those people you shot, who made the biggest impression on your?

Elizabeth Taylor. Here’s a woman who was a movie star most her adult life. When you’ve been in the public eye that long you have a perspective that’s so unique. She was fascinating.

Also, the brief time I spent with John Lennon – incredible. He was a another person where so much culture went through him and his group. People like them see things, I like hanging out with these individuals more than anything. White Trash Uncut by Christopher Makos is published by Glitterati Incorporated,

Iggy Pop performing at the Palladium, New York City 25

Photo: Ken Copsey



The C6 Kingfishe r, re l e a se d AUTUMN 2007


The Kingfisher came in an assortment of colours, with visibility an essential part of the watch’s make-up


The diver’s watch is a horological staple, but what maDE Christopher Ward’s first diving timepiece, the C6 Kingfisher, such a favourite were the extra details it carried and its striking good looks. This wasn’t just a watch for divers, but for people who loveD to see boundaries of horology pushed to the limit…

Launched in Autumn 2007, and a full two years in development, the Kingfisher was inspired by Chris Ward’s own love of scuba diving. The watch came in five colours: black, white, yellow, burnt orange and perhaps unsurprisingly, ‘kingfisher blue’. Powered by a fivejewel Swiss quartz movement, the C6 Kingfisher had a diameter of 42mm and, thanks to its solid construction, 4.5mm-thick sapphire crystal and screw-in crown, was water-resistant to 300m. This was a watch that took diving as seriously as timekeeping. Of course, it being a Christopher Ward timepiece, the Kingfisher was never going to be ‘just’ an ordinary waterproof watch. On the back was a unique NDL (no decompression limit) chart that told divers how long they could stay in the water depending on what depth they’d reached. This was above and beyond the call of duty. The Kingfisher also came with a very distinctive countdown bezel with the five minute markers separated by channels of black IPK that reflected the equally unusual index design of the dial. In fact, it’s still considered one of Christopher Ward’s most handsome watches and there has been talk recently of a MK 2 automatic version appearing, although this has yet to be confirmed by the company. If a new Kingfisher does emerge, sadly, it certainly won’t be available at the 2007 price: just £150 for the silicon rubber strap version and £180 for a model with a stainless steel bracelet. It was a watch really worth going to the bottom of the ocean for.

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Jonathan Betts in front of the 28in refracting telescope, housed in the familiar â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;onion domeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich

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Photos: Jo Paterson



timekeeper The

Jonathan Betts, Senior Curator of Horology at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich has, for the past 35 years, been responsible for the conservation of what is arguably the most significant horological collection in the world. And at its centre are John Harrison’s marine timekeepers.


o mark the tercentenary of the Longitude Act of 1714, a major new exhibition at Greenwich’s National Maritime Museum, Ships, Clocks & Stars: The Quest for Longitude, tells the extraordinary story of the race to determine longitude at sea and how one of the greatest technical challenges of the age was eventually solved. But while Betts, the pre-eminent authority on Harrison’s work, would agree that the undoubted stars of this show will be Harrison’s masterpieces, (all of which he’s completely dismantled and studied) including H4 which eventually satisfied the Admiralty’s specifications, he contends that Harrison’s ‘starring role’ at the centre of the longitude tale in many ways obscures the role of others in an endeavour of almost unprecedented collaboration, and that, paradoxically, his true horological genius hasn’t been fully appreciated.

Jonathan Betts kindly invited Nick Toyas to his laboratory at the Royal Observatory to talk about his work and about the Harrison timekeepers which will soon move ‘down the hill’ to the National Maritime Museum for the exhibition which will display them in the context of the golden age of Georgian scientific enquiry. Hi Jonathan. The new exhibition stresses the complementary nature of the longitude challenge with advances in lunar measurement happening alongside the development of timekeepers. Was it felt that an astronomical approach was more likely to yield a solution to the longitude problem?

Well, the Royal Observatory was founded in 1675 specifically to carry out astronomical observations and “to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation”.

This was called the ‘lunar distance’ method for determining longitude and only years later, after it was proved that a chronometer could be made to solve the same problem, did the Royal Observatory become a testing site for marine timekeepers. Paradoxically, during the years of development of the marine chronometer, the lunar distance method became viable with the advent of more accurate astronomical tables. So they were very much complementary techniques for much of the late18th and early-19th century. Many people feel they know the story of Harrison and longitude, but the new exhibition appears to have a far broader reach, with names such as Isaac Newton, James Cook and William Bligh all featuring. So was Harrison’s contribution to the story of longitude not as great as we’d originally believed? ➸ orderline 0844 875 1515 29


“This exhibition is about so much more than the story of John Harrison’s work. It will present a fascinating period of scientific enquiry and cooperation in a truly groundbreaking way” I think it’s possible that many of the contributions to the longitude tale have been overshadowed by Harrison’s achievements, not to mention the slightly romantic side of his story, but his legacy as a watchmaker is unassailable. Having said that, some horological ‘experts’ have damned him with faint praise! In fact, his real achievements are only just beginning to be understood. What do you mean?

So when Harrison realised that a large and heavy, low frequency oscillator, so accurate in pendulum clocks, would not work if subjected to external disturbance, he decided to completely re-evaluate years of work on H1, H2 and H3, and create a watch rather than the large brass machines that came before?

That’s right. At the very beginning, he rejected the watch approach because, without

As the longitude story has become so well known it seems that certain myths have arisen about Harrison that have detracted from his achievements. Any others?

Well, one important one concerns the origins of the compensation balance. When designing a timekeeper for use at sea, not only did Harrison have

to contend with the constant motion of a sailing ship but also with significant changes in temperature. In simple terms, with an ordinary balancecontrolled clock or watch, when the temperature rises, the balance gets bigger and the balance spring gets weaker, both of which cause the timekeeper to run slow. In the successful chronometer, the solution to this problem was the creation of a balance which automatically compensated by changing its shape when the temperature changed. Received wisdom in most of the horological history books states that this brilliant idea of the compensation balance was first conceived by Pierre Le Roy around 1765. But again, it was in fact Harrison who was the innovator. Back in 1730 when creating his first timekeeper, H1, Harrison constructed the balances with the compensation built into them. And there’s strong evidence that Pierre Le Roy in France knew of the design of H1 and may even have seen it with his own eyes 30 years before designing his own compensation balance. Le Roy himself tells ➸ below: All of Harrison’s timekeepers will be displayed together, including H3, far left, the most complicated of his timekeepers, and H2, an improved version of H1 and the largest, weighing in at over 100lbs

© National Maritime Museum, London

Well, if we consider H4, probably the most celebrated watch in the history of precision timekeeping, most historians thought that we should be content with the received wisdom: ie, Harrison merely proved with H4 that it was possible that a marine chronometer could be devised to be sufficiently accurate for navigation at sea. They look at later chronometers by people such as Earnshaw and Arnold and elements of a chronometer by Pierre Le Roy, and see all the elements found in modern chronometers, and conclude that

they laid the practical foundation for the modern chronometer and H4 merely demonstrated the possibility. What they miss is the single element in H4 which enabled it to perform so well and that’s the ‘specification of the oscillator’ – the balance wheel. Harrison’s development of a balance which could be used in a watch-sized timekeeper is the breakthrough without which nothing that came after it would have been possible. If you’re wearing a mechanical wristwatch today it’ll contain a balance constructed along similar lines to that developed by Harrison.

his ingenious re-working of the balance, they were too inaccurate. Once he realised how to design a balance that would work well in a watchsized timekeeper he simply started again. Many people think that H4 is the result of perfecting the technology developed in the previous three timekeepers and miniaturising it to fit in what we recognise as a watch but that’s not the case. He abandoned years of painstaking work and took a direction he could have chosen at the outset, and though this must have been extremely frustrating, it was his new, high frequency, ‘high energy’ balance which made it possible for a chronometer to remain unaffected by the constant pitch and roll of life at sea. And it’s this fundamentally important invention that makes him one of the greatest horologists in history. This great achievement, I hope, will really come to life in the new exhibition.



“I think it’s possible that many of the contributions to the longitude story have been overshadowed by Harrison’s achievements, not to mention the slightly romantic side of his story, but his legacy as a watchmaker is unassailable. In fact, his real achievements are only just beginning to be understood ”

Jonathan Betts: a life in time “I always wanted to be a clockmaker. I was born into a family of retail watchmakers and jewellers so I caught the horological ‘virus’ early. There really was no hope for me! “As an 11-year-old, I worked during the summer in the family business, first taking watches between the workshops and shops, then setting up a little workshop in my bedroom taking watches and clocks apart. I’ve done that ever since. I sat the Horological Institute’s course in technical horology and started a clock-restoring business in Ipswich. “Five years later I was offered the position at Greenwich and have been privileged to work on some of the most fascinating projects. Perhaps most notably, I’ve worked on what I call the horological ‘Mona Lisa’, Harrison’s H4. “Of course, we all owe a debt of gratitude to Commander Rupert Gould who restored Harrison’s marine timekeepers in the 1930s. I wrote a biography of Gould which was published in 2006 and in many ways his story is as engrossing as that of Harrison himself. “I’ve now been Senior Curator of Horology at Greenwich for 35 years and this year I was installed as Master of the Worshipful Company of Watchmakers for 2014. This would have been very surprising for the 11-year-old me!’ orderline 0844 875 1515 31


it’s run constantly since its last major overhaul in 1961 without any attention. Did anything about this timekeeper surprise you as you dismantled it?

us that it was Harrison’s compensation curb in H3 and H4 – a bimetallic thermometer which adjusted the effective length of the balance spring as a function of temperature – that inspired the active component of the design he created. That became the standard solution for temperature compensation in later chronometers by Earnshaw and others. Another myth that has come about is that the rewards offered by the Admiralty for creating an accurate marine timekeeper were ‘prizes’. I know it sounds a little more exciting but the term

is a little misleading; we prefer to think of the awards more in terms of today’s research grants and as rewards for innovation. In 2009, you dismantled H1 to undertake some repairs on it: could you tell us why it’s so special?

Well, when H1 was made, almost no one believed such a clock was possible. Even Isaac Newton himself said it couldn’t be done. One of the remarkable design features of H1 is that it works without the need for any oil on its bearings, which means it never needs servicing. This is borne out by the fact that

Several surprises. One is simply how well H1 is made. For Harrison’s first clock made in brass, it’s extraordinarily well crafted. Another surprise is that despite nearly 50 years’ running, the timekeeper is virtually unworn, vindicating Harrison’s designs. The balances have oscillated about 1.5 billion times in those years and yet the bearing surfaces are unmarked. Oh, and one more tremendous surprise is just how many parts there are: in order to make H1, Harrison had to form well over 5,000 separate bits, nearly 4,000 of them in the little fusee chains alone. Was the process an enjoyable experience?

I suppose the most enjoyable thing about working on H1 is simply experiencing Harrison’s work so intimately. Unlike traditional clockmaking, Harrison’s timekeepers bear all the evidence of their construction, so taking the clock apart is a bit like having the great man himself present alongside you. It’s a fascinating experience. What are you working on at the moment?

The Marine Chronometers at Greenwich has been going on for over ten years and forms part of a series of works that document all the instruments in the large collections here. So far, there have been works on the globes at Greenwich, then the sundials, the astrolabes, and the sextants but this book, at over 800 pages, is by far the largest. It’s meant 32 orderline 0844 875 1515

completely taking apart each of the 220 chronometers in the collection – including the Harrison marine timekeepers Each piece had to be comprehensively documented, photographed and illustrated, relating its history along with a biography of its maker. It’s kept us very busy! You must have been very occupied with the forthcoming exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Will they really be the stars of the show?

Yes! Well I would say that, wouldn’t I? But what’s most exciting are the new ways in which we’re going to interpret the timekeepers. Many people will know them already but now we’ll be able to reveal, for instance, the construction of H4 and the beauties of this relatively small timekeeper. It’ll be completely dismantled and people will be able to see specific parts showing their individual beauties. H3 will have a different, but equally innovative, way of explaining and revealing what’s going on inside. I won’t say any more at this stage but this will be an extraordinary and very exciting display because H3 is by far the most complicated of all Harrison’s timekeepers. It sounds great…

And remember, this exhibition is about so much more than John Harrison’s work. It’ll present a fascinating period of scientific enquiry and co-operation in a truly groundbreaking way. It opens on July 11 and I’d say to anyone interested in adventure, travel, science, and, dare I say it, watchmaking, you simply must see it! Ships, Clocks & Stars: The Quest for Longitude opens at Greenwich’s National Maritime Museum on 11 July and will run until 4 January 2015. For more information, visit

© PA Photos Limited

left: Jonathan Betts uses a replica of H1 to explain John Harrison’s first attempt at creating an accurate marine timekeeper below: Betts holds H4, the horological ‘Mona Lisa’ which satisfied the Admiralty’s requirements and changed the course of history




8.03 minutes Photos: PA images

London, 1963 If the 1960s were about anything, they were about the whittling away of deference for one’s supposed betters. And nowhere was this better illustrated than at the 1963 Royal Command Performance when The Beatles made their one and only appearance. Anticipation was feverish for the Fabs – just three weeks before, the phrase ‘Beatlemania’ had been coined after they’d played the Sunday Night at the London Palladium TV show. The Royal Command Performance would see them play, not just for a TV audience, but for royalty, in the shape of Princess Margaret and the Queen Mother. And in 1963, royalty was still just a few levels down from God.

The group opened with From Me to You, then straight into She Loves You, two fast-paced chart-toppers with John, Paul and George playing catch-up with an on-fire, perpetually nodding Ringo. Things slowed for the ballad of Till There Was You, and then John Lennon took the mic. “For our last number I’d like to ask your help,” he said in his broad Scouse accent, a dialect unfamiliar to much of country. “The people in the cheaper seats clap your hands. And the rest of you, if you’d just rattle your jewellery. We’d like to sing a song called Twist and Shout.” The audience lapped it up, but the Queen Mum, unsure of how to react, gave a strange little wave from her vantage point up in the gods. No one had spoken to the symbol of the establishment like that in public before, and for those teenagers watching it on TV, it demonstrated that something was changing. Something that looked like an awful lot of fun. The Beatles, and the city that gave them their unique character, had put themselves firmly on the map. All they needed to do now was conquer the world. 33


above, CitroĂŤn C4. Anonymous; right,1927 Bugatti. Donnelli, 1912.


HISTORY M a ker s | CW

The r ace for the f u tu r e Motoringâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s golden era gave birth to some of the most fantastic advertising of the last century


n the last years of the 19th century, the car, that new wonder of the age, was defined by one underlying philosophy: freedom. Freedom to live away from where you worked, freedom to travel without having to rely on a railway timetable and later, freedom to move at unheard-of speeds. For manufacturers looking to increase sales of their miraculous new machines, that spirit had to come across in their advertising. Without TV or radio, the poster was the key form of advertising media, with car makers using the best commercial artists to place their products into a lifestyle that included luxurious hotels, exclusive bars and ocean liners. Today, the best of these works are celebrated in a beautiful new book, Car Posters, by Emmanuel Lopez As the book demonstrates, early posters from the likes of Daimler and Renault were keen to use women in their advertising, with be-hatted ladies being driven to town by portly chauffeurs â&#x17E;¸ 35

CW | watc HISTORY h MAK Make ERS rs

Swiss movement, English heart


Swiss made / Quartz chronograph movement / 1/10th second split timing function / Hand finished 316L stainless steel case / Anti-reflective sapphire crystal / SuperLuminovaTM hands and indices / Matt finish optic white one-piece dial / Italian leather strap with easy opening butterfly clasp / Diameter: 39mm / Calibre: Ronda 5040.D E xc lu s i v e ly ava i l a b l e at

HISTORY M a ker s | CW

Photos: Emmanuel Lopez Collection

above: Chrysler, 1930 above right: Renault cars, 1910 right, Ford V 8, 1933

to the delight (and envy) of those using less futuristic means to get from A to B. Not only were females now campaigning for the vote, they were hitting the open road, sometimes – gasp! – without the company of man. It wasn’t just car makers that saw the potential of advertising. Manufacturers of distinctly unglamourous accessories like tyres and oil got in on the act, too, commissioning artists to add personality to their products, such as the Michelin’s ‘Bibendum’ figure, who first appeared in 1898. As time moved on, posters and billboards increasingly played on the glamour of motor racing, combining abstract painting techniques to portray the Grands Prix of Monaco,

Budapest, Brussels and even New York. The future had arrived and it was wearing a white helmet and goggles, and moving at a blur. Lopez’s book looks at posters from the 1890s to the 1970s, a period in which the automobile completely changed the modern world. This was the age before traffic jams, motorways and urban sprawl all-too-clearly demonstrated the downside of mass car ownership – a time when art, engineering and aspiration were natural bedfellows. No wonder it looked it so, so beautiful. Car Posters by Emmanuel Lopez is published by Antique Collectors Club, priced £25, orderline 0844 875 1515


CW | watch Make rs

How does a watch work?

Curious about how your timepiece actually tells the time? Here, Christopher Ward’s very own horological genius Johannes Janke takes us through the basics of mechanical watchmaking, and shows that there’s a lot more to your watch than just a pretty face


hristopher Ward has earned a reputation for producing beautiful automatic watches at a fraction of the cost of its rivals. But what exactly is an automatic movement? And how does it differ from a quartz one? If that’s not puzzling enough, there’s the complications, which sound, well, complicated, and as for escapements… do they really help you escape, or do they do something else? The best person to answer these questions is Johannes Jahnke, Christopher Ward’s in-house watchmaker and the man responsible for the movements on such innovative timepieces as the C9 Harrison Big Day Date and the C900 Single Pusher Chronograph. Despite the fact he’s only just into his 30s, the German has been making timepieces for 18 years – and knows exactly just what makes a watch, well, tick. Here he takes us through the basics of automatic watches. Now, pay attention at the back…

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The automatic-quartz difference “A quartz watch uses a quartz oscillator to measure the time. To actuate this oscillation you need electric impulses – these are generated by an integrated electronic circuit and a battery. “An automatic watch has a self-winding mechanism. The ‘oscillator’ of mechanical wristwatches is a balance with a hairspring. The ‘actuator’ is the escapement driven by turning wheels from the power of a mechanical spring in the barrel.” Where the power comes from “In automatic watches, the spring gets its power from movements of the watch on the wrist. “Every change of the watch’s position accelerates the movement. The rotor (made of heavy metal) wants to stay in its old position, so when it turns around the movement, that powers the reduction gearing which in turn powers the barrel.” How the hour, minute and seconds hands work “Between the barrel (the slowest-moving wheel) and the escapement wheel (the fastest moving wheel) we generally have a gear transmission ratio of around 1:3,600 (1 revolution of the barrel to 3,600 revolutions of the escapement wheel).” “To arrive at this high gear ratio we need generally four ‘tooth’ systems. The engineers count the numbers of the teeth so that one wheel makes exactly one revolution per hour (minute wheel) and another wheel makes one revolution per minute (second wheel). “On the minute and second wheel you can directly install the hands on longer pivots, because the speed is already correct. For the hour hand it’s necessary to add an intermediate wheel which slows down the speed of the minute wheel with a gear ratio of 12 to 1. Keeping it accurate “The key to maintaining accuracy is the escapement system and the balance. Like a pendulum, the balance is an oscillating system where each oscillation takes theoretically the same time. The gearing is driven by the barrel – without the escapement the wheels would turn and discharge the barrel within a second. But the escapement blocks the escapement wheel so that the wheels can’t turn. Each pass of the balance through the middle position will let one tooth on the escapement wheel go. “All the wheels turn a little bit, until the next tooth of the escapement is blocked and waits for the next centre position of the balance. During the turning of the escapement wheel the balance gets a little hit each time to power the oscillation. “So for accuracy, it’s necessary to have a stable oscillating system and good gearing to ensure equal power hits to the oscillating system.” The complicated complication question “A complication is an additional construction to give more functions or better usability. “So the double barrel system is a complication to gain power reserve, while the stop-second is a complication to set the watch more accurately. The tourbillon is a

complication to reduce the influence of the Earth’s gravitational force to the oscillating system. And so on. “More common are complications which change the aesthetic aspects of the watch. There is a moon phase, day-date and full calendar indication, chronograph functions, jumping hour or jumping seconds, retrograde displays and power reserve indications. In short, lots of complications. “The effect of the design of the watch is often not in relation to the complication of the movement. With small things like day-date or small seconds you can change the view of the watch completely. But some complications like the double barrel or tourbillon can be hidden by the dial.” Producing cogs, wheels and springs “For prototypes and low-edition series we’re able to produce nearly everything in-house, though often we’ll

change existing parts to our requirements. But for all bigger series and more complicated systems we buy the parts from our partners here in Switzerland. In the last few years we’ve created strong relationships with the best manufacturers of watch parts. Some of these parts are so complicated that nobody can have all the best, newest equipment and know-how to make everything. There are suppliers who only make screws and others produce just pins and stems.” Working with designers on the watch’s look “The faces are usually created by designers, so engineers have to find solutions to fit the movement to them. There’s excellent communication between the designers in London and the engineers in Switzerland so we can make worthwhile final tweaks to both the watch and the movement. That’s teamwork.”

th e f o r c e pat h user surface Rotor handwinding

time setting


setting wheel

Reduction gearing

centRE wheel crown wheel intermediate wheel

minute pinion


hour wheel third wheel


second wheel


Balance 39





28 sec. Mexico City, 1970

When we think of football’s greatest goals, we picture the whirling, unstoppable genius of Maradona’s second strike against England in 1986 or Zinedine Zidane’s super-volley in the 2002 Champions League final. Yet, for sheer perfection, it’s hard to think of a better goal than the one Carlos Alberto scored in the 1970 World Cup Final for Brazil against Italy. Not just a great goal, but a great team goal. The move started with Brazil’s numberfive Clodoaldo’s dainty dribble in which he beat four Italian players with the nonchalance of a man out walking his dog. Roberto Rivelino received the ball, passed it up the left wing to Jairzinho, who nudged it to Pele, who in turn – after a short pause – rolled the ball to Carlos Alberto. Without breaking stride, the right back – the right back! – drilled the ball with vicious, stinging power into the corner of the net, making the score 4-1 and sealing a third World Cup victory for Brazil. A glorious moment. The first World Cup to be televised in colour provided us with the first great side of the modern age, a team that played with fluidity, freedom and intelligence, winning all six of their matches in Mexico. This goal was the crowning moment of that campaign. It was football for the space race. Football for the age of mass communication. Football as modern art.

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What is a brogue? The brogue is a British staple – a classic shoe style that never goes out of fashion. But what exactly is a brogue? And why is one covered in holes. First, the name. ‘Brogue’ comes from the Gaelic word ‘bróg’ meaning ‘shoe’ and came into usage in English around the 16th century. The distinctive holes are a legacy of the wetlands of Ireland and Scotland: perforations were made in rudimentary shoes to allow water to seep out when the wearer crossed marshland. As a formalised style, brogues appeared in the early 20th century but only as an outdoor walking shoe. Today, brogues – or ‘wingtips’ as they’re known in America – can be worn in both a business and casual environment.




story The brogue is perhaps the quintessential British shoe, and at Loake they use timeworn methods to create some of the very best, as Jim Butler discovers on a trip to Northamptonshire


here’s an adage that all men would be advised to take heed of: always own a good pair of shoes and a good bed, because if you’re not in one you’re in the other. Granted, they might not be the most stirring of words, but as a design for living it’s an aphorism for the ages. For British men of a certain temperament only one shoe fits the bill: the brogue. An enduring classic, it imbues all the qualities that ring true about the country’s identity – steadfast, humble, eccentric and loyal. That it cuts through class lines (another great British preoccupation) only serves to reinforce its

appeal. Indeed, you’re as likely to see a member of the landed gentry sporting a pair of Oxford wingtips as a modern, media man about town And in keeping with the shoe’s heritage, there’s another pleasing quirk tied up in its history. The centre of the brogue industry is not London, Manchester or Edinburgh. Nor is it some countryside idyll. No, the heartbeat of the British brogue business – in fact the entire UK shoe industry – is Northamptonshire. Quiet, unassuming Northamptonshire. So, why does this place boast such a venerable industry? According to Andrew Loake, managing director of Loake, one of ➸ 43


From start to finish, a pair of shoes takes eight weeks to make with about 75 people involved in its production 44


Northamptonshire’s most renowned manufacturers, it’s pleasingly linked to the historical properties of the area. Reaching back into time, there was an abundance of oak forests in Northamptonshire. The bark from these trees was good for tanning – as was the water. This meant there was a leather industry in situ before the emergence of a shoe industry. “There are no tanneries left in the area,” Andrew says. “There’s just the shoe trade left. But within a 15-mile radius of Northampton you’ve got everybody: John Lobb, Edward Green, Church’s, Crockett & Jones, Loake, Grenson, Tricker’s… we’re all here.” Andrew estimates there are about 200 separate operations involved in making a pair of classic English brogues in their factory in Kettering (its base of operations since the company’s formation in 1880 – in fact Loake still operates out of the same premises it moved into in 1894). From start to finish, a pair of shoes takes eight weeks to make and around 75 people will be involved in its production.

“Within a 15-mile radius of Northampton you’ve got everybody: John Lobb, Edward Green, Church’s, Crockett & Jones, Loake, Grenson, Tricker’s… We’re all here”

Today, this steadfast devotion comes at a price. Shoes can be made quicker, and cheaper elsewhere. A pair of Loakes used to be for the everyman. This, regrettably, is no longer the case. But there is no comparison when it comes to quality. “Nobody needs shoes from Loake or shoes from Northamptonshire,” Andrew says. “We all need shoes. But what we make here… we still believe there’s no better way to make a man’s shoe. “We know we can’t make footwear as cheaply as some other countries, so we have to make absolutely certain we can make it better.” Listening to Andrew talk about Loake, how his greatgrandfather John established the business with his brothers, Thomas and William, the below left: There are around 200 operations involved in the making of a brogue, and they’re all carried out by hand below right: Loake’s factory in the Northamptonshire town of Kettering

beauty of its brogues (“No man’s wardrobe is complete without a pair of English brogues”) and how the purchasing habits of men have changed over the past few years as they’ve become interested by style (“Men now buy shoes to wear with clothes, they don’t buy their clothes and their shoes as something separate), and it’s clear that here is a man in love with his job. As he freely admits, upon meeting someone for the first time after looking at their face he immediately looks down towards their feet. So it doesn’t take much to be swayed by his advocacy of the Goodyear method of shoe construction, something that Northamptonshire’s traditional shoemakers are defined by. In a nutshell, what this means is that a minimum amount of adhesive is used, and rather than attach the sole directly to the upper and insole, a strip of leather (the ‘welt’) is stitched to them. The sole is then stitched to ➸

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the welt. And because the shoes are made by hand, they can be taken apart and rebuilt by hand, too. “What you get,” Andrew says, “is a new shoe but using the uppers and insoles that have already moulded to the shape of your foot. It’s a fantastic thing.” This idea of craft and skill has made a welcome comeback recently. Mark Hooper, Editor of Hole & Corner, a new periodical dedicated to the reassuringly slower (and finer) things in life, is a fan of the brogue. He says, “There’s something comforting about putting on a pair of wellmade brogues. I love how they’re so understated but instantly show that you stand for quality and craftsmanship. They were originally designed for walking across bogland (hence the perforations), but the great thing about them is you can wear them with almost anything – except perhaps shorts.” This also chimes with the brogue extolling British virtues, and, naturally being a product made in this country. Loake has a Royal Warrant of Appointment, but more than that, its brogues are worn by an assortment of British characters, like Bill Nighy, Sir Steven Redgrave and Martin Freeman.

above left: Andrew Loake above centre: Shoes await

further work

“Actually making a handmade product in a craft industry with a lot of very skilled people is a wonderfully congenial way to make your living”

congenial way to make your living, I think.” The last word goes to Steve Sanderson, owner of influential menswear shop, Oi Polloi in Manchester. “Favoured by skinheads and English gents alike, Loake brogues are a bona fide classic. Like HP Sauce and Weetabix, these have been given the Royal Warrant, so if you want the same shoes as that old rogue Prince Philip, then look no further.” Now, about that bed.

above right: Hand-stiching

the leather uppers

“We’re making something that’s useful to people,” Andrew says. “I happen to think in its own way it’s beautiful. We’re using a natural material and that’s one part of it I absolutely love. It can be frustrating sometimes because there are all sorts of problems involved with leather, but they’re all the problems of working with a natural material that make the job absolutely fascinating. “We’re doing it in a relatively environmentally friendly way, at nobody else’s inconvenience or expense. And actually making a handmade product in a craft industry with a lot of very skilled people is a wonderfully 47


time Perception and Memory Markers Why do some events feel more distant than others, even when we know exactly when they occurred? by Gal Z au be rm an


ost of us can think about past events from our own lives — graduating from high school, our first day at work, our wedding, the birth of a child, or our first car accident — that seem like they just happened, and events that seem like they happened ages ago. What makes one event seem recent while other events seem distant? Not many research projects start with a casual exchange with your spouse, while walking the city streets. This project did indeed begin with a visit to Tel Aviv a few years ago when my wife and I were walking past the memorial of former Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, who was assassinated in 1995. My wife observed that Rabin’s assassination felt like it had occurred just yesterday, but when I asked how the 1995 birth of our twins felt, and she answered immediately that their birth felt very distant. Do some events feel more distant than others simply because you misremember the date of the events? In fact, even when you know exactly when two events occurred, one event may still feel more recent than the other. My wife certainly knew when both events happened, and still this subjective perception lingered. It’s this perception that my colleagues and I attempted to understand. While certain ideas about what would lead to these effects where available from prior research, like the emotionality or vividness of an event, we did not think that these could explain the temporal phenomena we had in mind. Our ideas focused instead on how characteristics of the

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time interval following the target event can affect these feelings of elapsed time. We argued that a time interval that is punctuated by a greater number of events triggered by the target event, what we term ‘event markers’, will make the target event feel more distant. We conducted several experiments to test this. In one study we found that political and cultural news events feel more distant when they are associated with more event markers. The target events include public events (eg, the appointment of Ben Bernanke as chairman of the Federal Reserve and Britney Spears’s decision to shave her head). For each event, people in our study first indicated their subjective feeling of elapsed time on a scale from “feels very recent” to “feels very distant”. They then rated the extent to which each target event “triggered subsequent events” using a scale from “feels

four of these events, which was intended to change the number of events they had in mind when making subsequent judgments Next, participants indicated their subjective feelings of elapsed time since receiving the admission letter. Supporting our predictions, the results show that only those prompted to think about a greater number of events caused by the letter felt that day had occurred longer ago; thinking about subsequent unrelated events did not alter feelings of elapsed time. In sum, across various settings we find that event-markers can systematically alter people’s feelings of elapsed time: if an event triggers a greater number of subsequent events, the more distant it will feel. Our perception of time therefore depends on the memories attached to it. This is important since feelings of elapsed time may be key inputs into decisions about timing behaviours.

We base our lives on the events that we observe, cause, or get caught up in, and our estimates of time are based on the nature of these events like it triggered few events” to “feels like it triggered many events”. This was our measure of event markers. Our results show that the more events people perceived a given event triggered, the more distant in time it feels. In another study we wanted to control how many and what type of events are triggered for an important life event and so we asked students to think about the day they received their college admission letter. Students were then asked to recall three types of events: either specific events triggered by receiving the letter, news events that had occurred since they received the letter, or simply any events that had occurred since they received the letter. They were then asked to write down either one or

For example, people may assess how long ago it feels that they last did something – donating to their favourite charity, buying a new watch – and use this feeling to decide whether it’s time to do it yet again. We base our lives on the events that we observe, cause or get caught up in, and our estimates of time are based on the nature of these events, and not only on the true passage of time. Professor Gal Zauberman studies consumer behaviour, time in judgment and decision making, and memory for emotions at Wharton: University of Pennsylvania. Recently, he’s been looking at how people evaluate forthcoming activities and how these activities affect special memories for past events

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Christopher Ward Magazine - Summer 2014  
Christopher Ward Magazine - Summer 2014