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The Saxon country houses in Transylvania Christina Gherman

A survey on the rural heritage, its present challenges and future possibilities

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The Saxon country houses in Transylvania - A survey on the rural heritage, its present challenges and future possibilities Saxiska byhus i Transylvanien - En undersökning av det rurala kulturarvet, dess samtida utmaningar och framtida möjligheter Christina Gherman Examiner; Tomas Tägil · Mentor; Christer Malmström AAHM01 · Degree Project in Architecture Department of Architecture and Built Environment · LTH · 2019

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Content

4 - 11

Introduction

6-7

Background

8-9

Method and goals

10 - 11

Process

12 - 85

Theoretical investigation

13 - 37

The region

14 - 15

What is Transylvania?

16 - 21

Historical Timeline

22 - 23

The people of Transylvania

24 - 25

The people & the heritage

26 - 27

A typical Saxon town

28 - 31

A typical Saxon village

32 - 33

A typical Saxon house

34 - 35

Organisation on a Saxon farm

36 - 37

Typologies on a Saxon farm

38 - 73

The village

40 - 43

What is Senereus?

44 - 49

Historical Timeline

50 - 51

The people of Senereus

52 - 53

Settlement pattern

54 - 55

The ethnic development

56 - 57

Senereus/Zendersch, village plan

58 - 59

The main components of a Saxon village, in Senereus

60 - 61 62-63

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The stream & street life The typical Saxon house of Senereus

64 - 67

Typologies in Senereus

68 - 73

The monument of Senereus

74 - 85

Social aspects of heritage

76 - 77

The diaspora Saxon community

78 - 79

The village, without the Saxons

80 - 81

Tourism of nostalgia

82 - 83

Possibilities of the future

84 - 85

The potential role of the architect


86 - 151

Practical investigation

88 - 117

Analysis

88 - 89

Senereus/Zendersch, village plan

90 - 91

The main components of the Saxon village

92 - 93

The green corridor

94 - 95

Areas of public importance

96 - 97

Flows within the village

98 - 101

The site and its surroundings

102 - 103

The site, Site A

104 - 105

The site, Site B

106 - 113

Site analysis, typologies & hierarchies

114 - 115

Building type summary

116 - 117

Zoning: privacy and usage, flow and usage

118 - 151

Visions & solutions

120- 121

The program, workshops and active tourism

122 - 123

The village, improving paths & connections

124 - 125

The site, restoring, adding & reprogramming

126 - 127

Rethinking the zones and flows

128 - 129

Site A, a closer look on...

130 - 131

The new (face) house, typology and footprint

132 - 135

The hybrid house, concept and design strategies

136 - 139

Relation to the surroundings, spatial structural and material

140 - 141

Materials, interpreting the tradition

142 - 143

The story behind the Saxon roof tiles

146 - 156

The hybrid house, floor plans, sections and elevations

158- 161

Summary

160-161

Epilogue

162-169

Sources

162-165

Sources

166-169

Illustrations & images

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Introduction

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Background

When I was a child, my family always had the same summer’s holiday destination. I shared a similar fate as hundreds of other Swedish children with immigrant parents. Every summer after the final day of school, a long and warm road trip lay before us. The refrigerator box was filled with sandwiches, the back seat was loaded with toys, and in the front seat my parents were passing a coffee thermos between eachother. We were on our way to my grandmother’s idyllic country house in southern Transylvania, a historical region located in today’s Romania. It is known for the dramatic landscape of the Carpathians, the endless forests and its Saxon heritage. When the monumental white church and its bell tower began to show behind the hills, we burst out in joyful cheering. It was the first sight of my grandma’s village, and the end of our long and dusty car trip. Soon we would arrive in the village with the great fortified church overlooking the Saxon houses down in the valley. It was a place seemingly frozen in time, where the hay was still mowed with scythe, horse carriages were a common sight on the roads, and shepherds were daily crossing the hills with their herds. Every summer, big white buses would arrive from Germany and Austria. - Vine Sașii! (The Saxons are here!), shouted the local children and ran after the cloud of dust, closely followed by their excited parents. The bells rang in the big white tower above the village to welcome the Saxon visitors. Yearly, they would come to see their old houses and friends.

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However, for every passing year, I witnessed how the visitors were fewer, how previous owners of their old houses changed, and how the contact with the Saxons started to fade. Today the visits are less frequent, the houses are increasingly distorted and the imposing fortified church stands empty and forgotten. The Saxon villages are characterized by their unique fortified churches and their settlement pattern which has remained unchanged since the Middle Ages. They are an important part of the cultural landscape in Transylvania, and seven of them are listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List; Biertan, Câlnic, Drâjiun, Preimer, Sashiz, Valea Viilor and Viscri. However, there is a great value in working for the preservation of many more. What I want to investigate within this project: Possibilities and strategies of lifting and safeguarding the Saxon architectural heritage My main questions: What can I do, as an architect, to have a positive impact? - How can I raise awareness about the rural Saxon architecture, locally and globally? -What can I do to prevent continuous maltreatment of the architectural heritage? - Can I use architecture as a tool to affect the future of the country houses and the life in the village both socially and economically?


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Aims and methods

The most important aim of this project is to highlight and raise awareness of the unique architectural heritage of Saxon Transylvania. The next important goal has been to find a modern way of pursuing architecture in the area for its future architectural development. I have divided my work into one theoretical part, focusing on telling the contextual story, and one practical consisting of a design suggestion. The contextual storytelling plays a crucial role and its purpose and aim, is to make the place accessible to the reader through a survey of the development, characteristics and main components of the architectural heritage in Transylvania. The practical part consists of analytical pre studies which investigates how the cultural heritage and the architecture combines with the daily life and habits in the village. It is then followed by a suggestion of program and design, aiming to provide a solution that allows for the existing cultural heritage, concerning both lifestyle and architecture, to live on. I started off with a solid research, collecting information from mainly historical books and academic writings, comprising not only the historical development of Transylvania, but also its complex current social and economical situation. I also searched the internet and social media to find actual activities and tendencies in the area. However, I understood quite early during my work that just simple research would not be enough to provide for a profound understanding of the place. To complement my traditional research method, I therefore planned and went on two field trips, each of three weeks duration. The main goal of the trips was to spend time on the Saxon farm belonging to my family, which I had chosen as my project site. While on site, I did a measuring survey, and the first drawings ever made of the existing houses. Meanwhile, I also analysed and reflected upon their organisational and constructional logics.

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During the field trips I continued to observe the way of living, being and thinking on the Transylvanian countryside. These experiences has further been complemented by conversations with locals and professionals working in the field of architecture and heritage. Through visits of early reference projects, such as the Guesthouse in Richis, the Interethnic Museum and its workshops in Altana, the restoration project in Filitelnic, and the tile factory in Apos, I created a wide collection of information and a better understanding of the place and its context. I have used this collection of information and experiences throughout the project, both as part of the information provided in the storytelling and as reference for the design suggestions. Therefore, if no source is being presented regarding a statement or picture, it would be correct to assume it is based on my personal experiences, observations and photos from my field trips. My main task: 1. Raise awareness of the Saxon heritage in Transylvania: 2. Investigate how the Saxon architectural heritage intertwines with the daily life and habits of the villagers. 3. Find a program and design concept that allows the existing cultural heritage (both social, lifestyle and architecture) to live on. What I have done: 1. Written a well illustrated report/survey, aiming to tell the story of the region and the typical architectural features. To give a more detailed understanding, I have also zoomed in on one specific Saxon village, connected to me personally. 2. Made field studies and analyses of the social aspects of the region and the chosen village, mapping the daily life, habits and activities. 3. A program and design suggestion, using the pre studies as guidance and inspiration


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Process

This project began as a simple wish to work on my family country house in a Transylvanian Saxon village. I was from the very beginning somewhat aware of the uniqueness of the area and its architectural heritage. However, little did I know about how this innocent master thesis project would grow into an exciting yet challenging personal journey. After a period of research done in the safety of my comfortable home, I had stared to form an early image and opinions about the region, its history and complex current situation. My first idea was to use rural and cultural tourism as a method for raising awareness about the endangered architectural heritage in the Transylvanian countryside, and simultaneously improve local economy. During the spring of 2019 I went on a three week long field trip to do measuring, documenting and observing every day life around and within the different types of buildings of a rural Saxon settlement. Besides the thick pile of drawings from my measurement survey, I gained a new and more profound understanding of the rhythm, organisation pattern and social norms that lies behind the daily use of the buildings. However, the more I learned to understand the social context of the place, the more doubts I had regarding tourism as a simple solution. What use could another coffee drinking westerner have for the community of the village..? Nevertheless, it was not until I took the step outside my childhood village, that real things started to happen. I was lucky enough to stumble upon a dedicated local restorer in the neighbouring village, who kindly guided me further on my journey, providing both invaluable

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information and crucial contacts. And so it went, one by one I discovered charismatic and dedicated key persons within a regional community of architects, restorers and craftsmen, dedicated to safeguard the architectural heritage of Transylvania. They all seemed to operate with help of a new kind of active tourism, organising summer camps and workshops for volunteers from all over Europe. During the euphoric state of mind that followed after discovering there was a whole active movement in the region, making real difference for its heritage, I suddenly found myself paying the advance for a ruin across the road from my project site. I had spontaneously decided to buy the house, make it a part of my project, and ultimately save it. It was partly an act of pure excitement and partly a genuine wish to enter the alternative lifestyle that had been revealed for me. However, I was well aware of the new dimension that the house would give to my work. It gave me the idea and the opportunity to invite an alternative kind of tourism into the village. In my mind I already saw how curious students from my home faculty would come to participate at summer workshops, helping to rebuild the Saxon country house and learning traditional and local building techniques together with the villagers. Meanwhile, the old Romanian ladies would cook hearty traditional dishes, and spontaneous evening gatherings would occur around the project site, making a more genuine exchange between different people possible. Maybe I had found a solution for an important aim with this project; to raise awareness about the unique architectural and cultural heritage and to find a relevant program that allows the place to survive the inevitable transition into globalisation and modernity.


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Theoretical investigation

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The Region TRA N SY LVA N IA

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What is Transylvania?

The Transylvanian plateau is the core of modern day Romania, surrounded like a fortress by the Carpathian Mountains. It is a region of rolling hills and open valleys. Most of the area is under cultivation with the exception of the higher altitudes, where woodlands cover the slopes. The earliest known settlements dates back to the Neolithic Period, and there are evidence that Romans founded some of their towns in the area. During the middle ages, the Saxons, the Magyar and the Szekler colonists established their settlements on the Plateau1.

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Transylvania

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Historical timeline

The Saxon settlements were interspersed with communities of other ethnicities. Due to the new Andreanum, established by the Hungarian King Andrew II, the non Saxon communities were moved to other districts. From now on property and land in the SiebenbĂźrgen area, was for Saxons only. Their isolation helped to maintain language, special customs, character and ethnic unity until modern times5

The Saxons came from the Rhine and Moselle regions in lower Germany, on the request of the Hungarian kings. Hungary had during late X century begun a gradual conquest of Transylvanian settlements established on the sites of old Daco-Roman centers2.

Transylvania SiebenbĂźrger territory

1224

1000

1100

The majority of the Saxons came in the XII century. They were invited to settle and protect the new borders to the East3. Like other German colonists they were led by their own locator and brought their own laws, municipal laws, trades and settlement structure4.

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1200


Saxon Siebenburgen territory achieved full autonomy. Legally and administratively the SiebenbĂźrgen were united in one community, the Universitas Saxonum Transylvaniae11.

The economic growth and emerge of urban structures began in the late 14th century and early 15th. Transylvanian towns developed around royal strongholds and episcopal residences. The Saxon settlements however, established from the outset as centers of craftsmen and merchants8.

Opening of trade routes linking Central and North western Europe with the South and Near East, which traversed Transylvania and the other Romanian regions. Together with the development of crafts, it brought prosperity back to the Romanian towns.7 During this century the fortifications was systematically applied in all Saxon settlements due to the threats of Turkish and Tartar attacks9.

1241

1431

1300

1400

Invasions by the Petcheneg, the Uzi, and the Cuman had caused serious damage on the urban development in the region, but the last devastating strike was the Tartar attack of 1241. A significant parts of the towns in Transylvania had been reduced to ruins6

Vlad the impaler, also known as Bram Stoker’s Dracula, was born in the Transylvanian Siebbenbßren city, Sigisoara10.

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Between the 16th and 18th century the Saxons in Transylvania served as administrators and military officers for the Habsburg Monarchy and Hungary’s warfare against the Ottoman Empire. When Transylvania came under Austrian-Habsburg control, a smaller third phase of settlement took place for a demographic revitalisation following the war12.

The Saxons adopted Lutheran-ism, which consolidated the separate character of the SiebenbĂźrgen and strengthen the ethnic coherent of its inhabitants11.

1500

20

1600

1700


The Ausgleich compromise between Austria and Hungary that followed did help to improve the position and political rights of the Saxons in Transylvania15.

By the end of the 18th century, the Saxon still had a position as a rich and influential group within Transylvania, but they had began to see themselves as being a minority opposed by nationalist Romanians and Hungarians. Their time as a dominant class started to decline14.

At the outbreak of World War I, Transylvania was still belonging to the Austro- Hungarian empire. Due to the German defeat and the disintegration of Austria- Hungary, Romanians in Transylvania proclamied union with Romania16.

1867

1800

1914

1900

The Gothic character of Transylvanian towns got Renaissance and Baroque elements during the modernisation process of the18th century. The old defence walls had lost their purpose and were erased or absorbed as the cities grew and evolved13.

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At the end of World War II, Romania was occupied by the Soviet Union. After mass demonstrations by pro communist and political pressure from the Allied, and their representatives from Soviet, a new government was installed in the country. It was Pro- Soviet with members from the Romanian Workers’ Party. The Socialist Republic of Romania was official. The country was now a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state20.

The Proclamation of the Union of Alba Iulia was adopted by the deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania, and supported one month later by the vote of the Saxon deputies. Transylvania was then united with the rest of Romania through the Peace Treaty of Versailles after World War I17.

The German military began withdrawing Saxons from Transylvania at the end of World War II, when Romania signed a peace treaty with the Soviets. 100,000 Saxons had succeed to flee before the Soviet Red Army, but 70,000 were still arrested by the Soviet Army and sent to labour camps in Ukraine19.

1944

1947

1956

1918

1920

After World War I a land reform was implemented in whole Romania, which meant a great land loss for many wealthy Saxons who recently had been promised full minority rights. Together with their overall declining position, and the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany, many became dedicated supporters of National Socialism18.

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1940

The collectivisation of land and property began. The communist regime confiscated all Saxon property, making it a part of the “colectiv”. A state owned company that was said to serve the people21.


After Romania membership in EU and NATO, Transylvanian Saxons have started to return. Visiting their maternal homes, friends and relatives. Many are also trying to reclaim property lost to the Communist regime, meanwhile others are starting up smaller enterprises. In addition, the Saxons in Romania are also represented by the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania, a political party that gave Romania its fifth and current president, Klaus Iohannis24.

The fall of the Eastern Bloc and The Socialist Republic of Romania23.

2019

1989

1960

1980

1990

During the last years of the 20th century the situation of the minorities in Romania had continuously developed to the worse. Numerous of Saxons started to emigrate for a better life in Germany. The German government considers the Saxons to be “Germans abroad�, which gave them the right to German citizenship. The outcome of the emigration was a dramatic decrease of the Saxon population in Transylvania22.

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The people of Transylvania Who were the Saxons, and how did they end up in Transylvania? The Saxons came from the Rhine and Moselle regions in lower Germany, on the request of the Hungarian kings. Hungary had during late X century begun to infiltrate Transylvania until they reached the eastern and southern Carpathians. In order to secure the new territory against Tartar and Turkish invasions, the Hungarians erected a number of fortified strongholds along the foothills of the Carpathian mountains. These chain of settlements or Burgen, gave name to the region which would later become the Saxon Siebenbürgen (Seven fortresses) Transylvania25. The majority of the Saxons came in the XII century, and like other German colonists they were led by their own locator and brought their own laws, municipal laws, but also their trades and settlement structure26. 1224 property in the territory of Siebenbürgen was limited to Saxons only, thus they could maintain their language, special customs, character and ethnic unity to this day27.

What happened with the indigenous Romanians? The population that is said to have been encountered by the Hungarian conquerors, was the descendants of the Daco- Romans. They were living in small feudal states characteristic of early phase European feudalism. These states enjoyed a certain economic independence because of their favourable geographic location in Transylvania’s fertile valleys, surrounded by mountains or hills28a. The next record of the indigenous population of the region mentions a pastoral people, living an either entirely nomadic life on the high ridges and crests of the Carpathians, or a transhumant life, moving between the mountains flanking Transylvania, and the lowland regions to the south and east Carpathians28b. The simplest conclusion to draw now, is that the Daco-Romans, often being perceived as the ancestors of modern Romanians, somehow transformed into shepherds. The ethnicity of the “indigenous” Transylvanian is a well debated subject, sometimes infected by political interests. It could however be a possible theory, that the indigenous Transylvanians, capitulated uphill as their land was slowly colonised. Maybe they adapted to a life of pastoralism, which then came to play an important role in the region, equal to the lowland agriculture.

Transylvania Siebenburger

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The Saxons came from the Rhine and Moselle regions in lower Germany, to colonise Transylvania on the request of the Hungarian kings

“The Romanians appeared at the threshold of history as people of peasants and shepherds� 29

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The people & the heritage How is the situation of the Saxon heritage today? After the Saxon exodus, the more or less empty villages were attributed by the state to citizens of other ethnic backgrounds, like Romanias, Magyars and Roma. The vernacular architecture is in a bad condition due to the lack of maintenance during the communist regime. Moreover, the local population seldom understands to benefit from preserving the uniform harmony and the uniqueness it represent. The new inhabitants are often poor, and has different cultures and references not necessarily linked to those of the Saxons. Therefore they are in most cases lacking an understanding of the characteristics and structural logics of their houses. Thus, the built cultural heritage in Transylvanian is at a great risk30.

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A typical Saxon town The Transylvanian Saxon towns all have some basic characteristics which are very well represented in the layout of Bistrita/Bistritz (at the bottom of the page). The original core of the city has the typical nucleated character. The ring, or the great wall, surrounds the settlement with the fortified church in the center of a rectangular square. A wide street crosses the town from gate to gate. A second street runs parallel to the main street, and bifurcates at the end of the square, where the southern fork is leading to a third gate. The two main streets are then crossed by a number of smaller side streets which is giving access to the houses and works for pedestrian purposes 31. In connection to the big central square, the important and public buildings, such as the church and the town hall, where gathered close to each other. Around them clustered merchant’s shops and artisans’ workshops. The houses were usually built of stone and consisted of a ground floor and an upper floor. For defence reason, and due to the lack of space, the houses where placed close

Plan of Bistrita (Bistritz),12th century

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together without any intervals, and the interior courtyards were small and narrow. Thus, each house was a miniature fortress 32. The streets of these medieval towns were paved with stone slabs or cobbles. The cathedral was the principal building of the town. It was an imposing massive structure, and often consisted of an reconstructed Romanesque church. The episcopal residence was located nearby, and was usually a spacious palace with vast grounds 33. The Gothic character of the Transylvania medieval towns was later mixed with Renaissance and Baroque elements, and during the 18th century, when the modernisation set in, the cities were gradually changed. The great defence walls that had lost their function, were build into the city and absorbed by new buildings. Streets were widened and small Gothic houses were replaced by large baroque buildings 34.


The stream

The great wall & Fortified church

Main streets & Settlement pattern

Each house was a miniature fortress. Placed close together without intervals, and with small and narrow interior courtyards.

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A typical Saxon village The Saxon settlers came together with their own Locator, who was in charge of organising the settlements and establishing land boundaries, ensuring the communication between settlers and the Hungarian royal court. The settlements followed a Flemish organisation pattern with tight groups of households, which increased community cohesion and later had an important role for their development 35. The church and the house of the community leader were build in the center of the village or uphill close to it. These villages that were established during the colonisation, are very easy to identify with their few streets, inner lawn or central square 36 . The Transylvania region was the subject for many conflicts, and a life in this area was affected by the constant local unrest, domestic and external threats. After the Tartar invasion during the 13th century and the later Turkish of 1491, all churches in crown land Saxon villages were fortified. The

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colonist had adopted the defence techniques from their native regions, were the whole community would abandon the village to invaders and take refuge in the fortification 37. A church fortification followed the same pattern and principle of town fortification. On the inside, structures such as storehouses, granaries, wells, a mill, a bread baking oven, a schooling place etc. were provided in order to enable a continuous every day life 38. The fortified churches became a community symbol for the village. And two centuries later, when they had lost their defence role, they continued to be the focus of the community. Public buildings such as the village hall, the confessional school, the common room, the parish house, the preachers’ houses etc. were positioned inside or around the churches. During this time, 18th century, the economy was prosperous, and it was at this point that the Saxon village developed their characteristic rows of pastel coloured facades alternating with high walls, and the yards were enclosed by monumental annexes 39.


The settlements followed an Flemish organisation pattern with tight groups of households, which increased community cohesion and later had an important role for their development.

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A typical Saxon village A traditional village spreads around one main street. The buildings and narrow properties are tightly placed facing the street, which is accompanied by an obligatory, water providing, stream. The stream may have streets on one or both sides, depending on the landscape and the size of the village 40.

Biertan

Noul Sasesc

32

Viscri


The stream

Main streets & Fortified church

Settlement pattern

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A typical Saxon village house The Saxon presence in Transylvania dates back to early medieval times, and their architecture and constructions has evolved and changed over the centuries. As in many other medieval European cities and villages, the Saxon houses would originally have been made of wood, but the transition to stone and bricks in Transylvania did not start until the 15th century 41. However, most of the Saxon country houses still standing, was build during the prosperous ages of 18th and 19th century. Often these houses are perceived as representative for the Saxon heritage in Transylvania today. Typical for the village houses are their closed street front, facades plastered in bright colours with ornaments, stuccoes, cornices and wooden shutters also painted in bright colours 42 . The domestic house in a Saxon farm consists of a massive construction placed on a foundation

of river stones. It has 2-3 rooms that is elevated about half a level above ground. The dimensions and construction elements are more or less oversized. Probably caused by the unpredictability of the quality of building materials and skills of the craftsmen. Thick massive brick walls and solid beams made of oak gives the impression of a small fortress, but they also ensures durability 43. The ornaments on the facades might be perceived as questionable in the rural areas, were every day life would consist more of surviving and providing food on the table, than showing off for the neighbours. However there are theories that the ornament would have a bigger purpose than the one of sheer decoration. It is said that the symbolism of the ornaments is supposed to provide protection against unwanted influence from the spiritual world 44.

A Saxon country house traditionally includes a vaulted cellar, an open stone wall as foundation with burned bricks and wood as the main building materials. The outside of the brick walls is plastered, decorated and painted 45.

There are theories that the ornament would have a bigger purpose than the one of sheer decoration. It is said that the symbolism of the ornaments is supposed to provide protection against unwanted influence from the spiritual world.

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Typical for a Saxon village is the closed street fronts 46, where bright coloured house facades are alternated by walls and monumental portals .

35


Organisation on a Saxon farm The houses, as well as the whole courtyard, has a well defined organisation of spaces. The main domestic house, fronting the street, has its 2-3 rooms organised with the biggest room and its windows placed towards the street. This “front� room was kept for official purposes, celebration and reunions. It was also the room containing the finest possession of the family, making it a space for representation of the social status of the farm 47 . The smaller room in the back of the house, which has its windows towards the courtyard, is the space where the family lives. In between the big room in the front, and the smaller in the back, lies a third room or entrance. A big door leads in and up to this multifunctional space which would once have been used as kitchen, with a smaller storage of wheat and corn flour and dry meat hanging form the wooden beams in the ceiling 48 . Underneath the domestic spaces of the house, lies the half buried basement. It is supposed to have two main purposes. Firstly as deposit of food an wine, but also to elevate the domestic spaces above ground level and give protection from humidity. The other buildings found on the farm, such as

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summer kitchen, stables and annexes do not have any basements. Instead, their foundations would be laid directly on the soil 49. Another distinct typology of the Saxon farm is the summer kitchen. It is placed on ground level and open towards the courtyard, and it was the place were basically all family activities would take place during the summer months. During autumn it would be used for preparing and canning food for the winter. In its proximity one would also find the dwell and occasionally the bread oven 50. The stables were placed in the very back of the building chain, and behind them, next to the dunghill, stands the outhouse. Lastly the momentous Annex provides closure to the courtyard. It is usually placed perpendicular to the other buildings and has one open side towards the courtyard, and one closed with planks towards the backyard. The annex itself, is a wooden construction, and usually consists of 6-8 oak plinths placed upon river stones, with beams and trusses. Behind the Annex, lays the garden where plantations and fruit tree orchards stretches out towards the green hills 51.


1

2

6

3

7

7 8

9 10

4

Street

Domestic zone

5

Agrarian zone

Cultivation zone

1. Official room 2. Entrance and multi-purpose room 3. Dormitory/room 4. Summer kitchen 5. Dwell 6. Bread oven 7. Stables 8. Outhouse 9. Annex 10. Garden and orchard

The houses, as well as the whole courtyard, has a well defined organisation of spaces and use.

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Typologies on a Saxon farm TYPE 1

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Elevated, status, lavished - Massive brick walls, plastered walls, often decorated - 2-3 rooms - High ceiling with visible/(or later covered) wooden beams. - Spacious attic with windows for ventilation - Spacious basement, half buried, with windows for ventilation. - Residential space 1/2 level above ground - Drawing room, dormitory, room - Placed in the front of the courtyard, facing the street, or lining behind another TYPE 1 building

TYPE 2

SERVICE BUILDING Accessible, practical, simple - Massive brick walls, plastered walls - 1 room - Lower ceiling with visible wooden beams - Simple attic - Foundation on ground, no basement - Entrance on ground level - Kitchen, summer kitchen, banking oven - Placed in the back, usually behind the residential building.

TYPE 3

ECONOMY BUILDINGS Lofty, weather protection, light and airy - Wooden skeleton. Pillars and beams of massive wood. Sometimes covered with wooden planks, sometimes completely or partly open. Occasionally features parts with massive brick walls. - Free space (1 room)/ with loft for hay - Very high ceiling (no attic) - Foundation on big river stones, upon which the wood pillars are placed. No basement. - Entrance on ground level, from either a big gate or smaller door - Storage of hay, crops, animals such as horses or pigs in small annexes. - Placed in the very back of the constructed area of the farm. Typically the barn is placed perpendicular to the other buildings, giving enclosure and protection towards the open garden behind.

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Type 1, Residential building

Type 2, Service building

Type3, Economy building

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The Village

SENEREUS/ZENDERSCH 41


What is Senereus?

Senereus is a small Saxon village, with a population of around 700 people 52. It is located between the two Transylvanian rivers Tirnava Mica and Tirnava Mare. The closest town, Tirgu Mures lays 30min away by car, and the closest airport approximately 2,5 h. Archaeological findings are showing that people have been settled on the site since the Dacian period. However, the first written records concerning the village dates back to 1430. The official village name was then Zenaweres and it has since changed its name to the Hungarian SzĂŠnaverĂśs, then back to Saxon Zendersch, and lastly to the Romanian name Senereus 53.

42


Senereus

43


Senereus/ Zendersch

1: 10 000 44


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Historical timeline

Dacia was a region inhabited by the Dacians in the north of the Danube (modern Romania). The kingdom of Dacia was the creation of king Burebistas (c. 80-44 BCE), who conquered and united several other Dacian principalities. Burebistas was eventually killed in the same year as Julius Caesar 55.

Approx. 100 BCE

Archaeological findings shows that people have been settled on the site since the Dacian period 54.

1100 1000

The majority of the Saxons came in the XII century. They were led by their own locator and brought their own laws, municipal laws, but also their trades and settlement structure 56.

46

1200


The first written records concerning the village dates back to 1430. The official village name was then Zenaweres 57.

1475 1430

1300

1400

Building of the first village church 58.

47


Records from the memorial book of the community confirms the existence of a school building as early as 1674 62.

A fortification of the village church was done by building the defence wall with its bastions and the big gate tower 60.

1673 1530

1500

1674

1600

1700

During a great storm the village was stroke by thunder and a big fire broke out destroying several houses 61.

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The decisions of building a new and more suitable church in a Neogothic style was taken. It was an incredibly ambitious project for such a small village 64.

The simple medieval church was demolished to give place for the new and bigger church 65.

On September 1871, when the roof was put on place, the scaffolding broke and 7 community members were killed and several more injured 66. Building of the old village school 63 Transylvania was united with the rest of Romania, and a wave of Romanian highlanders, the Motii, arrived in the village. They started to settle down on the west hills just above the Saxon houses 68.

1870 1811

1800

1865

1871 1887

1918

1900

16 years later, at the inauguration of the new church, the hard work of the Senereus villagers was finally acknowledged . It was called “the most beautiful and dignified” church of all churches built during the 19th century in the Schäßburger church district 67.

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Apuseni

Senereus The Motii

The school building and the parish house are reconstructed 69

Romanian highlanders, the Motii, arrived in the village. They started to settle down on the west hills just above the Saxon houses 71. My great grandmother, Zanfira Lazar, arrives in Senereus from the Apuseni mountains

A new school grade was created for the Romanian children, so they could join the school without mixing with the Saxon children 72.

A Romanian school was built closer to the Romanian settlements on the west hill side 73.

1916 1910

1900

After the end of the World War II, only 400 Saxons made their back to the village. Another wave of Apuseni mountain highlanders came and settled in the empty houses. This time it was because of the new rural reformations of the 6th of March. The Romanian state granted all war veterans a house and land 75.

1944

1919 1918

1934

1920

1945

1940 Just before the end of the Second World War, inhabitants of Senereus together with neighbouring communities, were deported to fight for Nazi Germany 74.

On the occasion of the World War I, the villagers were evacuated. Three days later however, they would return to their homes 70.

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The collectivisation of land and property began. The communist regime confiscated all Saxon property, making it a part of the “colectiv�, a state owned company 77.

Drilling for natural gas starts on the hills around the village 78.

1954 1956

The last Saxon villager still left in Senereus, bell ringer Andrei Gärtner, leaves the village 79

1974

1994

1958

1993

1960

The inauguration of the Romanian Orthodox church, also built in the nearby area of the Romanian settlements 76.

1980

The Saxons starts to emigrate to the free Western countries, in search for a better life 78.

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The people of Senereus In the beginning of the 20th century the villagers consisted only of Saxons. At the end of World War I, when Transylvania was united with the rest of Romania, a wave of foreign people arrived in the village and started to settle down, mainly on the west hills just above the Saxon houses. It was the indigenous Romanian highlanders, the Motii, that were moving down from the Apusenii mountains in the area of western Carpathians 80. Their traditional dispersed and random looking settlements are easy to detect next to the tight and street oriented Saxon pattern. The group of incoming Romanian settlers would, however, not be the last. In 1944 just before the end of the Second World War, the Saxon inhabitants of Senereus together with neighbouring communities, were deported to fight for Nazi Germany. They all wandered off to the Romanian- Hungarian Border, and were from there put on a week long train journey to Austria and Germany. When the war ended, the Senereus Saxons found themselves spread out across the war zones, as soldiers belonging to the defeated. Some of them were on Soviet Territory, and others within the American and British zones. Soviet authorities sent all their war refuges away, so the first to return back home to the village in Romania were the soldiers stationed in Soviet. The other two thirds of the deported Senereus Saxons remained in Germany and Austria, causing the Saxon population back home in the village to decrease dramatically 81. As the Saxon population was decreasing, another wave of Romanian Apusenii mountain highlanders came to the village. This time it was because of the new rural reformations of the 6th of March 1945. Following the end of the war, the Romanian

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state granted all war veterans a house, land and farming utility gears and sometimes even animals. In some cases, the properties that were handed out consisted of parts within already inhabited Saxon households 82. This new wave of Romanian settler caused, in combination with the dispersed Saxons, a decline of the previous Saxon domination in Senereus. The years went by and during the 60’s the Saxon war veterans from abroad came back to visit their home village, bringing information and influences from the West to their relatives still living in Senereus. They already felt greatly disrespected and wronged by the Romanian authorities. Reunited with their former community members, who came back with stories from the modern western Europe, the desire to emigrate for a better life was awoken. A desire, which would be intensified over the years to follow 83. Ultimately, in 1975, the Saxons started to leave one by one due to the constantly increasing difficulties, faced by all minorities living in Romania during the communist Ceaușescu regime. The emigration of the Saxon population continued rapidly until the 1990’s and by the time of the fall of dictator Ceaușescu, all Saxon villagers had left Senereus. The over 200 families living in the village had all left the country, and the Romanian state distributed the empty houses best they could to the Romanian and Roma population 84. Whether the Saxon families got compensated for their property is still a difficult subject.


In the beginning of the 20th century the villagers consisted only of Saxons. At the end of World War I, when Transylvania was united with the rest of Romania, a wave of foreign people arrived in the village and started to settle down.

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Settlement patterns

What distinguish the Saxon settlement? The street village typology was brought into Transylvania by the German and Hungarian immigrants. Situated in depressions surrounded by hills or mountains, many developed on the sites of old Roman towns already interconnected with roads. The villages are easy to recognize by their regular appearance and nucleated form. The houses are always facing the main road at right angles, side streets and second roads are often missing. These villages are found along the main river valleys of Somes, Bistrita, Mures, Tirnava Mica, Tirnava Mare and Niraj 85.

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What distinguish the Romanian settlement? The Romanian preference for highlands and pastoral life resulted in a settlement structure that was much more dispersed and loosely agglomerated in comparison to the compact and nucleated villages that predominated in the areas which where colonized by the Saxons. There were two types of indigenous settlements. The catun (hamlet) and the sat (village) or large village. The catun is the most frequent, and also the oldest kind of settlement. Whereas the Sat is less numerous and only found in treeless plains. The already dispersed layout of the Romanian village tends to be more scattered in the uplands where they would mostly be of type catun, and more nucleated in the plains where they would be of type sat 86.

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The ethnic development

During the 20th century, the demographic situation in the village changed significantly. The first figure is a plan from 1944, showing not only the urban structure of the village, but also the ethnicity of the inhabitants in each and every house. The Saxons are still a clear majority, living in the central parts, in a typical street village structure. However, on the west hillside a random house pattern shows the settlement of Romanian highlanders. Not far from the Romanian neighbourhood, lies the Roma settlement, right outside the village at the northern entrance.

Zendersch 1944 Saxons Romanians Roma

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Only thirty years later, the Saxon domination had come to an end. The second plan is from1978, showing the situation after the evacuation of WW2 and the new communist regime of the country. The emigration had started already, leaving houses empty in more central parts of the village. The previous Romanian neighbourhood on the west hillside is now inhabited by Roma villagers. The Roma settlement on the north outskirts is gone, and the inhabitants have spread out between the west hillside and the southern end of the village, though still living in the periphery. The Romanian villagers however, have taken a step up in the hierarchy, shearing the central areas together with the Saxons still left in the village.

Senereus/Zendersch 1978 Saxons Romanians Saxon/Romanians Roma

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Senereus/Zendersch Village plan Monument 1. 2. 5.

Fortified Saxon church; defence walls, bastions and gate tower. Saxon parish house Saxon cemetery

Romanian Orthodox church ensemble 6. 7. 8.

Orthodox church Orthodox chapel Orthodox cemetery

Public service 3. Elementary school 4. Community house 9. Dance pavilion 11. Kindergarten Commercial service 10. General Store 12. Bar 13. General Store Empty public buildings 14. 15.

Empty, previously fire station Empty, previously elementary school for Romanians

Private buildings Senereus/ Zendersch stream Green path Area with all public buildings

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15

7 6

9 11 8 12 14

13

10

3 2

4 1

5

Senereus/Zendersch, 2019

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The main components of a Saxon village, in Senereus

The stream

Main street & Fortified church

Settlement pattern

stream village house

village house

economy buildings

farm area

farm area

main street

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small path


stream village house economy buildings

farm area Fortified church ensemble secondary street

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The stream & street life Senereus/Zendersch has the characteristics of a smaller Saxon Village. It has one bifurcating main street accompanied by one, similarly shaped stream, also bifurcating in the southern end. Due to the smaller size of the village, the stream is followed by only one street. However, the bifurcation of the stream creates another situation in the centre of the village, where it gets accompanied with streets on both sides. The bigger main street on the west side and one smaller access street on the east riverside. A narrow walkway and a green ditch separates the houses from the main street. Together with the green area alongside the stream, these zones provides most of the vegetation and unique street life of the Transylvanian village. When the

evening comes, people will gather in front of their houses along the green ditches, sitting either on small benches or directly on the grass. Since Senereus is a small village with a remote location, these important social areas have survived modernisation and concrete paving. However, in many other villagers closer connected to the cities and the canalisation grid, concrete has been used even in and around the main stream. It is a great loss, not only for the street ambiance, but also for the unique street life of Transylvanian villages. The green areas close to the stream are small ecosystems. Like an oasis in the village, they gather freely walking domestic birds who are coming for the water, the insects and the flourishing wild flora.

walkway: random paving, concrete blocks

ditch: vegetation, grass and smaller fruit trees

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main street: unpaved, yellow soil


small street: unpaved, yellow soil

stream: vegetation, grass, bigger trees and fruit trees

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The typical Saxon house of Senereus The composition of the courtyards in Senereus differs from the ones typically found in the Transylvanian Saxon village. In Senereus, specifically in the central areas, the courtyards were inhabited by more than one, often several, families. The village was not placed on so called “royal soil”, which meant that the villagers until 1848, were bound to hand out a payment to the Nobles that owned the land they were farming and inhabiting 87. The payment however, was not calculated on the amount of persons living on the land, but on the land alone. Therefore, it was more affordable for several families to live together on a single farm and shear the burden of the fees. Another reason for the crowded farms, could have been the large number of children and the rapid population growth that followed during the18th and 19th century 88. The high number of people sharing one single court yard, resulted in several houses, stables and barns build on the same limited space. Sometimes it caused the impression of another smaller street, within the courtyard. When a visitor enters one of these courtyards

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they will have some difficulties finding their way around, and often ends up calling for a resident for guidance. In most cases however, they will soon realise that all the different types of buildings, appears twice 89. This situation has created another, more unique feature of the Senereus country houses, which does not occur in villages with single households. The facades in Senereus were decorated, not only towards the street, but also towards the courtyards. It was most likely a way for each family to differentiate and create a social representation of themselves, even though they did not have a house placed directly to the public street. The Senereus Saxons tells a story of a foreign man visiting the village to sell pottery, wine and exchange grain. As he was driving through the main street he did not encounter any villager, so he steered his car sideways into one of the courtyards where he bursts with joy “Here is the other street!” 90.


Family A Family B

Most of the present Saxon houses in Senereus were build between 1850 and 1940. The younger houses, mostly build during the1920’s, consists of three rooms. Meanwhile the older houses only have two rooms 91.

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Typologies in Senereus

Simple village houses, short gables towards the street

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When walking around the village, or looking through old photographs, there are some different types of houses to be found. I have divided them into four typologies. The first, and the most common, is the Simple village houses, characterized by their perpendicular position with the short gable towards the street, and the jerkins head roof. The second typology is the Bigger houses, with urban features. They often have an L- shape, placed with one long-side towards the street. The entrance can be placed either on one side, or through the middle section of the street side facade. These houses were often younger and inspired by the buildings found in the Saxon cities 92. The third category could probably also

be a subdivision of the Bigger houses, with urban features, the only thing that differentiates them is the fact that the long facade is combined with a short gable. Most of these have showed to be purposed for social service, such as the school, kindergarten and the former Romanian school. The fourth typology, and if I dare say, the second most common one, is the Disfigured village houses. The houses in this typology are all previous of the Simple village houses typology. However, they have been remodelled through recent renovations in a disfigurative way. What is interesting though, is that their new makeover have very similar aesthetic features.

Bigger houses, with urban features Long facade towards the street

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+ Bigger houses, with urban features Long facade combined with short gable

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Disfigured village houses, Similar modification features

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The Monument of Senereus The fortified church When approaching Senereus form north, the first thing that will struck the visitor is the imposing whitewashed church standing on a hill on the east side of the village. The church is surrounded by a ring wall which is reinforced by three towers. In 1870 the old church from the 15th century was demolished and the new, much bigger church that replaced it made it necessary to break through a part of the ring wall in the east. Thus, the back with the altar is resting freely upon the soft hill 93. As for many other Saxon communities, the church was a refuge during times of unrest, and became later, when it had lost its defence purposes, an important and unifying place for the community. In fact, it was so important that the village, during a community meeting on September 30, 1865 94 , took the decisions of building a new and more suitable structure. It was an incredibly ambitious project for a village of this size, and the project showed to be one of great sacrifices... The community council decided that every twentieth bucket from the annual harvest of must would be handed over to the church within the next three years. Also, every villager had to deposit 50 Kronen for the new church building on their wedding day 95. As if this were not enough

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for a person making their living mainly on small scale farming, every villager had to contribute with 2000 bricks beaten on their own expense 96 . But the sacrifices of the Senereus community did not only comprise purely material matter. On September 1871, when the roof was put on place, the scaffolding broke and 7 community members were killed and several more injured 97. Families were left without fathers and providers, children and heirs. Others were left with crippled relatives, making the struggle for the daily food harder. It was indeed a big tragedy for the whole village. On September 1887, 16 years later, at the inauguration of the new church, the hard work of the Senereus villagers would finally be acknowledged by Bishop G.D Teutsch. He expressed that it was“the most beautiful and dignified” church of all churches built during the 19th century in the Schäßburger church district. It shined as the “symbol of the perseverance and devotion of Zendersch’s children of the church” 98 . The new church was indeed shining bright in the sun. And with its unusual size, being a village church, it distinguished clearly in the hilly landscape.


...It was“the most beautiful and dignified” church of all churches built during the 19th century in the Schäßburger church district.

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The Monument of Senereus The medieval towers The oldest part of the church is the west tower. It is a typical gate tower, easy recognizable in its appearance as a Saxon defence archetype. The 28m high tower, also being the bell bearer, has a vaulted ground floor with an arched door. The vaults are supposed to prevent fire from spreading further up into the structure, where it has its four defence storeys. It is covered by a pointy pyramid shaped roof, under which there is a projecting truss walkway, open over the parapet. From here the surrounding hills and the landscape are clearly visible, making potential attacker easy to spot. The access up into the tower lays within the ring wall, from a simple wooden ladder which was pulled up in case of attack 99. Underneath the roof of the gate tower hangs two bells. The larger bell dates back to 1759, and the smaller is approximately 200 years younger. Their original function was to serve as a Sunday call to worship, which is the main use in the Reformative church. However, the bells also served as an

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invitation for prayer in mornings and evenings. Eventually this ringing became more of a signal that justified ending the day’s work, but it was also used for more serious matters, like announcing a fire or to honour the dead 100. Today the bells might ring upon the arrival of Saxon visitors, but they sometimes ring as well in case of approaching storms or heavy rains. Besides the tall and slender gate tower, there are two additional bastions, much lower and robust in their appearance. They both have a pointy pyramid shaped roof which covers the three stories within. Originally, the bastion towers served, at least with their basements, as storage and preservation of food, especially bacon. In case of a military blockade, a siege, good supplies of food was an important feature to defeat the simplest method of siege warfare, starvation 101. The church and its surrounding defence architecture, was supposed to be able to host the villagers during a possible attack, which could last a very long time.


Today, the bells might ring upon the arrival of Saxon visitors, but they sometimes ring as well in case of approaching storms or heavy rains.

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The Monument of Senereus The castle guard Much later, probably when there was no longer any need for defence, a castle guardhouse was built between the tall gate tower and the south bastion, to host the man employed to guard the pressured church. Today, the only thing that remains from the house of the previous castle guard, is the facade which blends in like an almost natural part of the ring wall 102. It would be easy to miss if it would not have been for the strange traces of window holes in the wall. The family Kadar has been recruited by the Saxon community to be the new custodian of the fortified church and its cemetery 103. They also manage the keys of the building, and makes one of the most important heritages of the Senereus Saxons accessible for visitors. The church interior Stepping inside the church, the harmony and simplicity of the space and its furnishing is striking. There are no carvings on galleries or stalls, and there are no paintings anywhere except the altarpiece. The reasons behind this bare interior aesthetics however, are purely economic. Considering all the sacrifices that the villagers had to pay and suffer for making the construction of the new church possible, they decided to take on a more special, but less costly, solution for

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the interior. After the emigration of the Senereus Saxons, the Neogothic decoration of the altar and the pulpit has been severely damaged and demolished. The wooden baptismal font was moved and is now located in the Transylvanian Museum in Gundelsheim/Neckar Germany. The altarpiece has disappeared without a trace, and to this day nobody is able to provide information about its whereabouts. The benches in the nave have been gradually stolen until there remained only seven. However, the benches in the choir and on the two galleries have been completely preserved. Then, comes the story of the church organ. Just before the end of World War I, the organ pipes which were made of tin, had to serve as war material. Miraculously they survived, and could be put back in use. However, new troubles would come in 1944/45 when the Senereus Saxons were evacuated due to the World War II. The organ was badly damaged and even years later after the evacuation, village children could be found blowing on an organ pipe in the streets. In fact, the dramatic journey of the fortified church, surviving storms, three earthquakes, and two World Wars, almost got to an end after the emigration of the last Saxon in 1993. Without the care from the community, the church fell victim to vandalism during the turbulent times following the collapse of the communist regime 104.


The benches in the nave have gradually been stolen, until there remained only seven. However, the benches in the choir and on the two galleries have been completely preserved.

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Social Aspects OF THE SAXON HERITAGE

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The diaspora Saxon community One day the sons and daughters of the Senereus Saxons that had settled abroad, found themselves at a breaking- point. When more and more of the pre-war and wartime generations passed away, it was a striking fact that with them died the only witnesses of their origin and legacy. The Saxon identity and heritage could simply end up being forgotten and disappear together with the elders. A couple of determined diaspora decided they had to do something before it was too late, and started to gather and documenting the memories of the elders for future generations 105. This first initiative led to a first Organized Committee 1976, which worked to organize the first big meeting for the dispersed former Senereus Saxons and their relatives. Crucial for making the meeting possible, was the hard work of collecting addresses 106. The Saxons were by then already spread out over the world, and one should bear in mind that it was not a virtual mailing list that they created. During a time when internet was not present to assist and connect people, it must have been a huge task to track down every person, find out about their position, and then write all the letters. A lot of letters. The goal was to create ta way of communicating within the community and a total of 19 circular letters were sent, spreading valuable information and lectures 107. Then, with the writings of an extensive work under the title “Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel” (Zendersch - a Transylvanian saxon community in Transition), written by one of the early initiators to the unification of the Senereus Saxons, Georg and Renate Weber (Munich 1985) the Zenderschern (Senereus Saxons) was finally given a scientific documentation of their home. It was not only a highly informative book, but also an anticipated summary of their remarkable past. Yet another writing was produced by Friedrich Wilhelm Schuller (Hainburg 1977), providing valuable insights into the everyday life and work of a living community before 1945. “Heimatbuch von Zendersch, einer Ge­meinde im siebenbürgischen

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Weinland” (Heimatbuch von Zendersch, a community in the Transylvanian wine country). The latest publication would be “Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit” (Picture stories of ZenderschTransylvania village life through the ages) by Dietlinde Lutsch, Renate Weber and Georg Weber, revealing photos from the community life, covering a period of 100 years 108. These writings and publications makes Senereus into one of the best documented Saxon villages of Transylvania 109. In their aiming to continue the strengthening and promoting of their Zendersch community, and in order to keep tradition and customs alive and to acknowledge origins and past, the diaspora Zendersch Saxons have accomplished a remarkable collection of cultural history. Why preserving an empty church? Thanks to generous donations made by former Zendersch Saxons spread out all over the world, a renovation work of the fortified church could be initiated in 2000. However, it was not an easy decision to prevent the predictable collapse of the church. They were asking themselves whether it would make sense to restore it, and go through all the troubles and costs for a building, mostly standing locked, empty and out of reach for the dispersed community. The option of just letting it become a ruin, and simply a place for remembrance, was tempting. It would not have been an unmotivated choice. Nevertheless, after extensive considerations the true and strong meaning of the fortified church to the Saxon community, revealed itself. They just could not let this church fall, it was more than just a memorial place. It was a symbol for their present identity as a minority and unique past 110. Diaspora Saxons have accomplished a remarkable collection of cultural history, making Senereus one of the best documented Saxon villages of Transylvania


“Our ancestors needed a lot of strength and courage, but also trust in God, in order to build this gigantic church during very difficult and poor times. They managed to give us a place of refuge and protection, but also a place for contemplation. Our job us to preserve it.� 111

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The village, without the Saxons Today, the rural areas in Romania has been left impoverished and empty, and a large part of its inhabitants have left to work in Western Europe. This makes the villages vulnerable, and easy to ravage by whoever wishes to do so. The Transylvanian villages, which is a crucial part of the regions’ unique cultural landscape, is not protected by anyone. This has resulted in wasted resources and destroyed natural and cultural environments 112. The state of the built heritage left by the Saxons is simply said, disastrous. Not only in Senereus, but in the whole region. There are very few Saxons left still living in Transylvania today, and in Senereus there is none. Their sudden emigration during late 20th century resulted in plenty of empty houses. In Senereus the houses were overtaken by Romanians coming from the Apuseni mountains, who previously used to live outside the Saxon community, on the west hillside together with the Roma. These two different cultural and ethnic groups moved into buildings belonging to a cultural heritage that was not their own. Bearing this in mind, the harsh renovations and changed appearance of the old and picturesque Saxon architecture, becomes somewhat more understandable. Also, it must not be forgotten that the people currently living in the Saxon heritage, just recently suffered the trauma of a totalitarian and oppressing state, which will take generations to recover from. Communism and post communism in Romania have successfully achieved to completely destroy peoples pride of originating form the countryside. The former preservers of traditional rural knowledge and conscience, have been replaced by, or turned into, rootless individuals 113 . This confusion surrounding identity does not only concern the villagers, but also the rural architecture. In general, rural societies, despite their traditional values, will strive to assimilate the building styles trending in the cities, and it has been so throughout history. In Romania however, after the fall of communism, even the architecture in urban areas is going through an identity crisis. In the villages the transition is even harder. The houses have to be, not only modernised in sense of comfort and function, but also adapted to the foreign living standards and demands of

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the European Union 114. It is clearly visible, not only in Senereus, that the traditional houses are starting to overtake features of the urban villas, being the superior building typology in the eyes of the villagers. And then, one neighbour will imitate the other. More and more families have relatives working in Western Europe, and the money are used to renovate the houses. Seen from this point of view, the rural community in Romania is still very traditional, and social status is represented through material possessions. The dramatical change however, lies instead in what the villagers consider as representative. Once it might have been having the most extravagant folklore costume, but today it is evidently represented by new industrial plastic framed windows and iron gates. This being said, it is clear that the urban architecture programme, is not the only feature brought and imitated in the villages. New industrial materials is introduced and used in reconstruction or renovation of traditional village houses, in order to show off the capital abilities of the family. Even though the new materials rarely make sense in the way, or the context, they are being used. Their popularity is not only putting the unique traditional architecture in danger, but also the local use of financial and human resources. There are many examples were money earned in Western Europe are spend on industrial materials from international businesses, instead of bringing benefits to the local producers, such as the village carpenter, bricklayer or blacksmith 115. The urgent problem of the architectural heritage in Senereus, and other Saxon villages in Transylvania, is also a bit of a dilemma. Does not the villagers have the same right as anyone else to be left in peace, and to freely build and express their visions and to quench their thirst of living like “modern city people”? Do they not have the same right, as people had in the richer West European countries, to experience all the aspects of industrialism, single-use items and prefabricated build environments? To binge plastics and white walls until they will reach the same urge for downshifting, that is the current trend in West today? Or could there be a way to learn from others’ mistakes, and save the unique rural environments that did not survive the modernisation in the Western countries?


WIP

Senereus/Zendersch Big Alley (GroĂ&#x;e Gasse) 1982, 2005 and 2009

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Tourism of Nostalgia A considerable number of the German tourists that visits Romania have links to the Saxon communities once living in Transylvania. Often, they are being hosted by elderly relatives or friends still living in the Saxon villages. If this, so to say“nostalgia tourism� is excluded, rural tourism in Romania would still be weak and far from being an effective economic alternative to emigration or urbanization 116.

are empty and unused, they are anchoring the dispersed Saxons to a place that they still seem to consider their real home. It is thus evident that the community is trying to hold on to places which they can consider their own, places they can visit and return to. Call it nostalgia or not, but there is clearly a need for spaces where this specific group could come, stay and feel like a part of their origin again.

The diasporan Senereus Saxons still have an active community, and gathers regularly at big meetings and events. Some take place in Germany, but there has been more or less regular visits to the village as well. In case of bigger events, the whole community would gather for festivities and for the joy of meeting each other, experience the place of their roots and meet old Romanian friends.

Some of the more active people in the diaspora Saxon community made an attempt to convert the Parish House next to the Fortified Church into a hostel for visitors, mainly Saxon, in Senereus. Proper plans where made, and an architect was hired who measured the house and made a proposal for the conversion. However, the plans were never put into practice. It was probably a question of other priorities and financial problems since another project besides the church and the cemetery, would probably be very costly.

The community also ensures for the continuous maintenance of the Fortified church and the Saxon cemetery. Yearly, the money donated from community members ensures to preserve the relics left in the village. Even though these places

Plan of the Parish house, -hostel conversion 1. entrance 2. kitchen 3. bedroom 4. guest room

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5. living room 6. office room 7.bathroom 8.chamber


Nostalgia or not, there is clearly a need for places, accessible, approachable and welcoming. Places and spaces where the ‘home’ turning diaspora could come, stay and feel like a part of their origin.

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Possibilities of the future As previously mentioned, the rural community in Romania is still in some ways very traditional . An example of that is how neighbours tend to imitate each other, in order to maintain their position in the social hierarchy of the community. The social status is usually being represented by material standards, and since more and more families have relatives working in Western Europe sending money back home, they tend to put even more emphasis on showing their improved life standard. The money is usually spend on renovation of the old village houses, since the house together with the car, represents the main symbol of success. Investing money on the improvement of the rural Saxon architecture could be a very good thing, if it would not have been for the, in most cases, disfiguring changes that has been done so far. However, considering the extension of this phenomenon it has a potential of being used as a powerful tool to save the built heritage. In Senereus for example, there are several younger families working at the local natural gas station. Their children has grown into young and well educated adults, and they also contribute to the family economy. It means that the material situation is improving and if one could succeed of changing the mentality regarding what kind of renovation is best representative of social status, one could achieve a brighter future for the architectural heritage. That is however, only if rehabilitated traditional houses would become a general trend, and foremost, an object of pride amongst the villagers. I have through my trips and visits around different villages in the region observed another phenomenon, which convinced me that a change of attitude is indeed possible. Changes has started to happen thanks to some local key persons, more or less professionally involved with architecture or heritage. In their strive to save the unique rural settings of Transylvania, they have attracted a new kind of target group to the rural areas. It might have started with rural tourism, but the people who came to visit has a tendency of staying. They typically buy an old Saxon house, which they carefully restore with help from the local experts. When more and more cases like this occurs, the ordinary locals already living in the villages slowly starts to change their mind regarding their own

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houses. They see strangers coming, often city people, sometimes from abroad, valuing their village. The result is that they also start to see things differently, understanding that the value of their old houses might be higher than they first thought. Now there are villages where even the locals have in some extent, started to cherish their traditional Saxon country houses. The new kind of rural settler that has emerged, often originating from urban environments, is seeking an alternative way of life. This 21st century villagers bring another way of thinking and other values, which paradoxically are more compatible with the forgotten values of the original rural ancestors. They are often well educated, well travelled, and consider the rural environment to be a better place to live. They are driven by a will to have a more simple and sustainable life, with less stress and consumerism. Downshifting might be a more commonly used world 117. My social media is bursting with romantic pictures from the Transylvanian countryside, showing young beautiful people dressed in reinterpretations of traditional Romanian blouses, living in refurbished traditional houses, earning their living on a small scale business, and eating home grown slow food. Despite this lifestyle branding, the average Romanians living in the rural areas have not overcome their complex of inferiority towards the city people, which has been induced in them since the 1950’s. It could probably be accomplished, all in good time, through an increased awareness of the quality of life available on the countryside 118. If the 21st century downshifting trend continues, it could actually be possible to slowly achieve a shift of attitude, which in the best case might lead to more than just a preserved heritage. We currently find ourselves at a special point where a new identity could be created from the encounter of the timeless traditional way of life, with the aware modern values of the 21st century. It will for sure change the village and create new patterns of living, were preserved customs and habits merge with the newcomers, into a new form of community .The 21st century could, with its changed values and priorities, unite global knowledge with the pre-existing local legacy 119.


We currently find ourselves at a special point, where a new identity could be created from the encounter of the timeless traditional way of life, with the aware modern values of the 21st century.

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The potential role of the architect The rural areas has historically not been the natural habitat for architects. Instead, the way of building on the countryside has evolved over time as rational responses to the needs and necessities of every day life, a natural evolution of building, impossible to design from a birds eye perspective. Knowing this, it is with a big dose of humbleness and openness, that the architect might approach this kind of environment. Considering the changes that are slowly happening within these areas, new people moving in and the existing community reevaluating their mindsets, it might be our duty to offer guidance through the architectural dilemmas of the transition. The Romanian architects have already got involved in the work of protecting valuable architecture in the rural areas. There are several workshops and summer schools held by the Romanian architect’s associate and other associations. Their aim is to raise awareness, but also to safeguard the actual buildings from decaying. Furthermore, a big archive has been made, documenting all Saxon villages and their houses. Its informative pictures has already proved to be of good use for guidance when restoring destroyed or maltreated houses. In every village, there is also a big sign trying to communicate to the locals the guidelines and regulations concerning the Saxon houses. However, a considerable part of the constructions in the countryside, are made without permission. Reaching out to the ordinary local villagers is therefore crucial for a real impact. In the specific case concerning Senereus, it is accurate for me to ask myself what I could contribute with, as an aspiring architect, very much connected to the place. Even though I already had a lot of knowledge about the village, I kept changing my mind during the process of this project. The time I spend actually observing and interacting with different people, showed to be crucial for finding the ideas both accurate and realistic.

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So what should I do, as an architect designing a project? Taking the confused situation of the rural Romanian architecture into consideration - Showing a possible conversion or extension of traditional houses, that is modern yet sensitive. - Suggesting restoration when appropriate, with traditional techniques and local knowledge Taking the powerful social mechanisms into consideration (Hierarchy, status, trends and traditions meeting globalisation) - Design places where the new “modern” villager can meet the ordinary local villagers in a casual way for a more genuine exchange. - Design inspirational examples of multifaceted yet appropriate architectural approaches to the traditional houses. - Use traditional techniques and local knowledge that might be at risk of disappearing. -Use local materials to promote local economy, awareness and pride. Taking the Saxon nostalgia into consideration - Design a genuine place to stay and connect to (small scale lodging) In Senereus, my role would first and foremost be to find a program that will enable the village to be visited by new people and to create situations where the old and the new social groups could meet in a genuine way. My second assignment would then be to give an alternative to the disfiguring conversions that is currently trending. A sensitive design from a “professional” could have a great impact on the mindset amongst the local villagers. The interventions therefore needs to show both a new yet accurate structure, and the equal value of keeping and restoring the old.


Considering the changes that are slowly happening within these areas, new people moving in and the existing community re-evaluating their mindset, it might be our duty to offer guidance through the architectural dilemmas of the transition.

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Practical investigation

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Analysis THE VILLAGE AND THE SITE

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Senereus/Zendersch village plan Monument 1. 2. 5.

Fortified Saxon church; defence walls, bastions and gate tower. Saxon parish house Saxon cemetery

Romanian Orthodox church ensemble 6. 7. 8.

Orthodox church Orthodox chapel Orthodox cemetery

Public service 3. Elementary school 4. Community house 9. Dance pavilion 11. Kindergarten Commercial service 10. General Store 12. Bar 13. General Store Empty public buildings 14. 15.

Empty, previously fire station Empty, previously elementary school for Romanians

Private buildings Senereus/ Zendersch stream Green path Area with all public buildings

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Senereus/Zendersch, 2019

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The main components of the Saxon village Three of the main components of a Saxon village; the Fortified Church, the main street and the stream, are somehow intertwining in the same spot where the site is located. The site consists of two courtyards which lies within a 200m radius from the Monument. They are placed on one of the main streets, and they are linked by the Senereus Stream, which runs like a spine on their east side.

MONUMENT- 200m radius Main street Senereus/ Zendersch stream THE SITE

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The green corridor The green areas along the stream provide the richest vegetation, and forms a green corridor throughout the village. It flourishes with birds, insects and wild flora. The fortunate position of the site makes it possible to create a design gesture that will emphasise this very important green oasis and ecosystem.

Green corridor Senereus/ Zendersch stream The site

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Areas of public importance

The areas of public importance are all gathered with a proximity to the heart of the village, right between the two churches and cemeteries. The site is also placed perfectly between the Romanian Orthodox church, and the Saxon fortified church, and it has an almost direct connection with the commercial area. The position is perfect for creating a meeting point for both visitors coming to see the Saxon monument, and the locals going to the orthodox church, or one of the public/commercial areas. Also worth taking into consideration, are the three lookout points upon the hillsides to the west, east and south. Their splendid views attracts people, who comes to take pictures, picnics or just a stroll. They are however, not provided with any paths or walkways which could have made them accessible also for the elderly, and visitors not knowing their way around.

MONUMENTFortified Saxon church ensemble Romanian Orthodox church ensemble Public and commercial service The site Lookout points

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Flows within the village The main street, leading to and out form the village, has the highest amount of traffic flows. On second place is the street leading to the Fortified church and the school. It has the same size as the main street, but has a slightly lower traffic flow, since no one uses the Fortified church anymore. However, it is still relatively well populated since it connects to other streets and provides the main passage to the school and the cultural centre. The site has a slightly more quiet location than if it was located on the main street providing passage in and out from the village. Nevertheless, it remains easy to discover due to the relative high frequency of people, and its location as a passing by for visitors on their way to the Monument.

Main street

Connecting streets

Secondary streets

Smaller, less agglomerated, streets or paths

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Main entrance. Paved road leading to the other villages in the municipal, and Tg. Mures city.

Small and long country road, eventually leading to another village Prod.

Small and long country road, appearing to end in the woods. 99


The site and its surroundings The very central position of the site should be taken into consideration. Especially that of Site B, since it is located right in between the commercial/public area of the locals, and the high interest Monument area of visitors. It would make sense to re-purpose the previous private houses on Site B into something of a more public character, that could be of interest for both locals and visitors. Site A could also somehow be connected, but in a more private manor.

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The site 13. Site A: My family’s houses 14. Site B: The “Ruin” Monument 1. Fortified Saxon church; defence walls, bastions and gate tower. 2. Saxon parish house

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Romanian church ensemble 5. Orthodox church 6. Orthodox chapel

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Public service 3. Elementary school 4. Cultural Center 7. Dance pavilion 8. Kindergarten Commercial service 9. General Store 10. Bar 11. General Store

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Empty public buildings 12. Empty, previously fire station

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The site and its surroundings Street view

The project covers two courtyards, referred to as Site A and Site B. The sites are located across each other, connected by the Senereus Stream, and divided by one of the main streets called Hum (Saxon) or Strada Principala (Romanian). Site A misses its “face�, the house facing the street, and its street side neighbors all have modernized their houses in a dis-figurative manor. Maybe, placing a new house on Site A, could function as a statement and example of alternative and sensitive methods of modernization.

On the other side of the street, Site B contributes with a typical Saxon country house, and the neighbors have done less damaging modernizations or non at all. I would prefer to simply restore the houses on Site B, to keep some traditional aesthetics on the street. It would also create an interesting dialog with the new house on Site A, and state an example of how the new can collaborate and connect with the old.

The Romanian Orthodox Church

Site A Site B Project site area

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The Stream Site A

The Fortified Church

The Stream Site B

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The site, Site A The overall state of the buildings on Site A is good. The houses have been relatively well maintained by my family. However, there have been some, not so great, modernizations done over the years. As I started to work on this project, Site A was my original site, and I spend almost three weeks doing a measurement survey, analysing and observing the life and daily usage of the site and its buildings.

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1. Cultivation area 2. Summer kitchen 3. Bathroom 4. Bedroom, living room and kitchen 5. Porch 6. Dwell 7. Lawn 8. Provisional garage 9. Porch 10. Storage, prev. Kitchen and bedroom 11. Storage, prev. “Official room� 12. Dormitory 13. Dormitory 14. Entrance and pantry 15. Storage prev. Dormitory 16. Prev. summer kitchen with baking oven 17. Annex, storage of grains 18. Chicken Pen 21. Corn storage 19. Annex, storage of materials 20. Kennel 22. Outhouse


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The site, Site B The houses on Site B have been empty for a long time and has not been victims of any damaging modernizations. However, they are currently in a severe state of decay, and even though they all appear to be alright at a first glance from the outside, the interior structural elements are collapsing. In their current state, it is impossible to enter the houses, and any attempt of making a measuring survey would be a great risk. Therefore, the drawings of Site B should be seen only as a diagrammatic representation of its spaces.

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1. Wild lawn 2. Ruin, prev. “Official room� 3. Ruin. prev. Room/dormitory 4. Ruin. prev. entrance and pantry 5. Ruin. prev. Room/dormitory 6. Ruin. prev. Kitchen/Room 7. Entrance 8. Prev. Summer kitchen 9. Small annex, hay storage


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Site analysis, typologies & hierarchies TYPE 1

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Elevated, status, lavished - Massive brick walls, plastered walls, often decorated - 2-3 rooms - High ceiling with visible/(or later covered) wooden beams. - Spacious attic with windows for ventilation - Spacious basement, half buried, with windows for ventilation. - Residential space 1/2 level above ground - Drawing room, dormitory, room - Placed in the front of the courtyard, facing the street, or lining behind another TYPE 1 building

TYPE 2

SERVICE BUILDING Accessible, practical, simple - Massive brick walls, plastered walls - 1 room - Lower ceiling with visible wooden beams - Simple attic - Foundation on ground, no basement - Entrance on ground level - Kitchen, summer kitchen, banking oven - Placed in the back, usually behind the residential building.

TYPE 3

ECONOMY BUILDINGS Lofty, weather protection, light and airy - Wooden skeleton. Pillars and beams of massive wood. Sometimes covered with wooden planks, sometimes completely or partly open. Occasionally features parts with massive brick walls. - Free space (1 room)/ with loft for hay - Very high ceiling (no attic) - Foundation on big river stones, upon which the wood pillars are placed. No basement. - Entrance on ground level, from either a big gate or smaller door - Storage of hay, crops, animals such as horses or pigs in small annexes. - Placed in the very back of the constructed area of the farm. Typically the barn is placed perpendicular to the other buildings, giving enclosure and protection towards the open garden behind.

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Typical Saxon farm

Saxon 2- family farm from Senereus

Senereus, Site A and B

Site A Site B

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Typologies & hierarchies

Type 1 Residential building Private, status, lavished

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Site B, House 1B House Maria

Site B, House 1A Pink house

- Massive brick walls, plastered walls - 2 rooms - Small entrance annex, linking the interior with the House barn which is built under the same roof. The entrance is probably a later construction. A porch is said to have existed in its place. - Ceiling without visible wooden beams. - Spacious attic - Basement, half buried, with windows for ventilation. - Residential space 1/2 level above ground, reached externally through a stair linked to the annex - Smaller entrance room and a spacious room/ drawing room - Placed in the front of the courtyard, aligning behind the Pink house.

- Massive brick walls, plastered walls, with decorative profiles towards the street. - 2 rooms and a hallway with pantry - Collapsed ceiling, and partly collapsed roof - Two windows for ventilation of the attic - Collapsed barrel vaulted basement, half buried, with three windows for ventilation. - Residential space 1/2 level above ground, reached internally through a stair in the hallway. - Drawing room (towards street), and dormitory/ room - Placed in the front of the courtyard, and is the only building actually facing the street with a typical Saxon gable front.


Site A, House 1A House Zanfira

Site A, House 1B Upper house

- Massive brick walls, plastered walls - 2 rooms - Features a long and elevated porch towards the courtyard - High ceiling with visible wooden beams. - Spacious, brick paved, attic with two windows for ventilation - Spacious basement, half buried, with three windows for ventilation. The basement is covered by brick vaults between iron i-beams - Residential space 1/2 level above ground, reached externally through a stair within the porch. - Smaller entrance room and a spacious room/drawing room - Placed in the front of the courtyard, but does not have a facade towards the street, since it was build behind another, now torn down, house.

- Massive brick walls, plastered walls - 3 rooms and a hallway with pantry - High ceiling without visible wooden beams. - Spacious attic - Spacious barrel vaulted basement, half buried, with three windows for ventilation. - Residential space 1/2 level above ground, reached internally through a stair in the hallway. - Spacious room/drawing room, dormitory (previously back room, but lately converted into residential space by my grandparents). - Placed behind House Zanfira, in the front of the courtyard.

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Site A Site B

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Typologies & hierarchies

Type 2 Service building Accessible, practical, simple

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Site B, House 2 Summer house

Site B, House 2 Little house

- Massive brick walls, plastered walls. The gables are left untreated - 1 room - Lower ceiling with one visible wooden beam, a modern fibre board covers what lays above. - Simple attic. - Foundation on ground, no basement. Brick paved floor. - Entrance on ground level - A chimney indicates usage as kitchen/ summer kitchen - Placed with a distance to the street, freely together with a small economy building. I is not placed behind a residential building as would be normal.

- Massive brick walls, plastered walls. The back gable is left untreated - 1 room, with an extension of 2 rooms build later by my grandparents. - Lower ceiling with visible wooden beams - Simple attic - Foundation on ground, no basement. - Entrance on ground level - Kitchen. The extension contains a modern bathroom and a summer kitchen. - Placed freely with a distance to the street, but not behind a residential building as would be normal.


Site A 2

Site B 2

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Typologies & hierarchies

Type 3 Economy building Lofty, protective, airy

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Site B, House 3B Little barn

Site B, House 3A Short shed

- Wooden skeleton. Pillars and beams of massive wood. No plank coverage, completely open on ground level - Free space - Very high ceiling (no attic) - Foundation on big river stones, upon which the wood pillars are placed. No basement. - Entrance on ground level, from three sides (one is covered by the Summer house). - Storage of hay - Placed in the very back of the constructed area of the farm. Typically the barn is placed perpendicular to the other buildings, giving enclosure and protection towards the open garden behind

- Wooden skeleton. Pillars and beams of massive wood. Covered with wooden planks, with a small opening towards the courtyard. Features a smaller brick construction within, connected to the residential house. - Free space (1 room), unusually short length, considering its width. The space is divided on ground level by a small room with brick walls. - Very high ceiling (no attic) - Foundation on big river stones, upon which the wood pillars are placed. No basement. - Entrance on ground level, from an open part in the plank cover. - Storage of hay, crops or/and animals. - Placed in the very back of the constructed area of the farm. Under the same roof as the residential building.


Site A, House 3A Food Shed

Site A, House 3B The (decapitated) barn

- Wooden skeleton. Pillars and beams of massive wood. Covered with wooden planks, featuring a part with massive brick walls towards the residential house. - Free space, with loft for hay. However, on ground floor it is divided by a brick wall into one bigger and one smaller space. - Very high ceiling (no attic) - Foundation on big river stones, upon which the wood pillars are placed. No basement. - Entrance on ground level, from either a big gate or smaller door - Storage of crops. The part enclosed by brick walls contains a big baking oven, thus having a kitchen/summer kitchen function. It might have been build to replace the service house next to it, which were transformed by my grandparents into a residential room. - Placed in the very back of the constructed area of the farm. Aligning directly with the residential building.

- Wooden skeleton. Pillars and beams of massive wood. Originally completely covered with wooden planks. Today it is partly open towards the courtyard. - Free space, previously with a loft for hay. - Originally very high ceiling, but the open gable roof was replaced by a much lower shed roof. - Foundation on big river stones, upon which the wood pillars are placed. No basement. - Entrance on ground level. Originally from either a big gate or smaller door. Today from an open part in the plank cover. - Storage of hay and pigs in a small internal annex on the back gable side. - Stands freely in the very back of the constructed area of the farm. Atypically placed aligning with the service building. Giving enclosure and protection towards the stream. It is said that a perpendicularly placed barn once existed as well.

3A 3A 3B

Site A Site B

3B

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Building type summary

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1 Residential building, Pink House, being the only house facing the street on the two sites, it is unique in its typology. However, its 2- room layout with access through a hallway with stairs and pantry, gives it similarities to the Upper House.

4 Residential building, House Zanfira, has a porch which makes it possible to save interior space by placing the stairs on the exterior, however protected under the porch. The porch on Saxon houses is a later invention, inspired by the traditional Romanian houses.

7 Economy building, Food Shed, a shed featuring a subdivision by massive brick walls. The room within the shed has a big baking oven and other massive cooking devices such as a smoke house and stove for cooking, features which would belong to the Service typology, the summer kitchen. However, since it was converted to residential space, it might have caused the mix between economy and service which characterizes the Food Shed.

2 Residential building, House Maria, has a small annex, with the access stairs placed on the exterior. Its 2-room layout without an interior hallway, gives it some similarities to House Zanfira. Moreover, it is said that the later build annex, replaced a previous porch much alike the one found on House Zanfira.

5 Residential building, Upper House, had originally 2 rooms and stairs placed on the interior, creating a hallway with a pantry. A typical Saxon layout. However, when my grandparents bought the farm, they choose to expand the residential house. They converted a former Service house and gave it the characteristics of a Residential. It is visible that this part is younger by the atypical window type and the shape of the differentiating cube shaped basement.

8 Economy building, The (decapitated) Barn, has a free standing position characteristic to the barns, however it is not perpendicularly placed. Instead of giving enclosure towards the garden, it does so towards the stream. The (decapitated) Barn was maltreated by my family, ignorant by the time, during a renovation. The impressive gable roof was de-constructed and turned into a disfiguring and out of context shed shaped roof.

3 Service building, Summer House , has much in common with the service building on Site A. They are both placed with a distance to the street, turning towards the residential buildings, giving privacy and enclosure from the stream. In combination with their easy-toaccess typology, they form a natural and intimate gathering point.

6 Service building, Little House ,originally had a one room layout just like the Service building on site B. It was extended by my grandparents with further service functions, such as bathroom and another kitchen. Behind Little House, it is said that a shed, economy building, was placed, furthermore emphasising the similarities between the two sites. Today however, the shed is replace by a temporary garage build by my parents.

9 Economy building, Little Barn, is completely open and uncovered by planks. It does the contrary to The (decapitated) barn, being a solid roof typology but without enclosure on ground level. It’s placing next to another building indicates a shed identity, but the fact that it is used for hay storage only, turns it into a mini barn. A complete opposite to the barn on Site A.


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10 Economy building, Short shed, stands out with its unusual proportions. Its length is very short considering its width and height. Also it is intimately connected directly to the Residential building, House Maria. The buildings are shearing the same roof and an interior connection through the later build entrance annex. It is possible that an update was made, similar to the one made on the Upper house, converting previous service/economy typology into a residential typology in order to expand the liveable area.

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11 Records shows here used to be a Residential house, facing the street. For some reason it has been torn down, leaving Site A faceless.

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12 Empty space, without any record of previous constructions

Type 1, Residential building Type 2, Service building Type 3, Economy building

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Zoning: privacy and usage, flow and usage The Saxon farm has a clear and distinct organisation of spaces and purposed usage. It would not matter if there was one, or three families living on the farm. The organisation and placement order of the building types would look more or less the same. The Type 1 (Residential buildings), being the representative and well decorated house, stands closest to the public space, facing the street. Even on the interior, the first room towards the public street would be adapted for the eyes of the community, and would only be used for official purposes. Thus, the spaces and buildings with immediate connection to the public street, seems to have a semi public character. They are ensured to be a representation of the family for community and visitors. From the representative space, the amount of privacy increases the further into the narrow farm you go. At the middle, you will find the core of the farm, where all domestic activities of the family will take place. On site B, the traditional organisation of spaces has remained intact and corresponding to the Saxon pattern. On Site A, on the other hand, there are some deviations. The cultivation area, normally being placed at the very back, has been moved to the front. It is now invading the space that is supposed to be the representative. Instead of having a building and a nicely organised area to receive visitors and neighbours, there is a farmland

with a bunch of tomato plants. Even though the tomatoes are fantastic, and the farmland is being kept flawless by my grandmother, this reversion of the organisation pattern is causing problems. Firstly, my family and grandmother are in a constant subconscious stress regarding the cultivation area in the front, treating it like it would actually be a representative space. Endless of hours are being spend, picking every tiny weed, and except the unnecessary amount of work that it evokes, it also creates a strange situation when receiving visitors. There is simply no space for receiving them. The domestic area is considered too dirty (not representative enough) and the private/dormitory spaces are considered as very intimate and off limit for anyone outside the family. Furthermore, there is a small dormitory squeezed into the domestic area of the summer kitchen. Since my grandmother, who lives on the farm all year round, have difficulties climbing the stairs to, and heating the big spaces of the Type 1 (residential) houses, she prefers the smaller and more accessible space of the Type 2 (summer kitchen) house. It works perfectly fine when she is alone, but as soon as the family or friends arrive to stay, all the activities and flows are evolving in and around the tiniest space of the whole farm, creating social friction.

Limitation built zone

Limitation built zone

limitation domestic zone

Aligning the street Typical Saxon farm

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limitation domestic zone

Aligning the street Saxon 2- family farm from Senereus


The poorly organisation of spaces have a direct impact on the behaviour of its inhabitants, creating unnecessary stress and friction. Today the very few spaces that are actually used are agglomerated, meanwhile the rest of the farm is a waste of potential. It is therefore clear that Site A is very much in need of a reprogramming and organisation of space, meanwhile site B has a great need of a new purpose of use.

Public street Presentable space

Private/dormitory Agrarian zone

Domestic activity

Farming zone

Private flow

Visitors’ flow

Limitation built zone

Limitation domestic zone

Aligning the street Aligning the street

Limitation domestic zone Limitation built zone

Senereus, Site A and B

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Visions & Solutions

PROGRAMMING AND DESIGNING

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The program, workshop and active tourism The choice to restore the houses on Site B, might have been an obvious one, but doing it with tourists is slightly more odd. In Transylvania however, it is not. Summer school, camps and workshops has started to be a more and more outspread strategy to safeguard the traditional heritage in a grassroot manor. At the beginning of this project I was already considering tourism as a possible way to affect, not only the positive development of the rural architecture, but also the community. During my first field trip however, I realised that another tourist coming around, drinking coffee and admiring the picturesque scenery, would probably not have any significant impact what so ever. What I needed was an activity that could actually affect the future of the village, not only by means of its houses, but also economically and socially. I was asking myself, what can I, as an architect do to contribute and have a positive impact? An important task is to find a new purpose for the old and empty buildings already existing. The new purpose should somehow attract both locals and new people. It should also provide for an environment where the two groups could meet and experience a genuine exchange.

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By bringing foreign people, tourists, students, visitors, etc. that stays in the village for a longer period of time, living like the locals, and engaging in an activity directly contributing to the village, one could create a sincere exchange. The newcomers would have a better understanding and a unique experience of the Saxon villages in Transylvania, which they can spread further to their own social communities around the world. Furthermore, the locals would benefit as well, receiving new impressions and perspectives. Besides the most obvious positive outcomes from having new people coming, needing places to sleep, food to eat, wine to drink and local guides, this alternative active tourism, might affect the cultural development as well. Having foreign people willingly coming to help rebuild local architecture, could help boosting the local pride, and feeling of self worth. Furthermore it would create a strong impression, which in the long run hopefully helps to change the mentality regarding the architectural heritage, and have an impact on future changes and modernisations in the village. Also, the new activities might spread ideas and inspiration of how these buildings, kept in their characteristic appearance, could be used as assets economically and socially.


“In my mind I already saw how curious students from my faculty would come to participate at summer workshops, helping to rebuild the Saxon country house and learning traditional local building techniques, together with the villagers. Meanwhile, the old Romanian ladies would cook hearty traditional dishes, and spontaneous evening gatherings would occur around the project site.�

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The village, improving paths & connections 1a Create a walkway along the stream to highlight its existence, ecological importance, and potential to become an enjoyable place. This gesture could also raise the issue of how to stop the ongoing pollution from private sewage and garbage dumps. This new waterside is placed where the existing road along the stream ends, and provides an alternative way, following the water through the northern part of the village as well. It runs along the two project sites and ultimately turns into an intersecting path, connecting the two northern parallel streets and reopening a former road and connection. 1b Another walkway along the stream could also be consider in the mid-east area, to create an alternative connection to the monument and the eastern lookout point.

2 An improved path upon the western hill could help connect the Romanian Orthodox cemetery and provide access to the western lookout point. The path starts in the north, through the segregated Roma settlement, goes up on the hills and then back down in the village at an isolated, but beautiful street in southwest. 3 Nearby the end of the second path, the third path begins. It would be a more challenging path, leading up to the south lookout point on a steep hill, called “Brazi” or “Burg-Berg”. From the lookout point it would continue further up on the crest of the hill and give the walker an experience of the surrounding landscape before returning downhill back into the village at southwest.

Possible strolling throughout the village Lookout points Potential connections and walkway/paths

Creating a walkway along the stream could raise awareness of its importance and potential

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The site, restoring, adding & reprogramming Site B 1 Restoration - Creating a semi- public space, which can attract new faces to the village through restoration workshops. - Open house spirit, new gathering point for locals and visitors.

Site A

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2 Addition Giving the site a new face, meanwhile containing service spaces for the workshops on Site B, and simple spaces for accommodation

5 Extension Private service building with a generous service/social space for the family

8 Minor Interventions The private 3- bedroom house will be equipped with a small bathroom (toilet and sink).

3 Outdoor space For spontaneous visitors, summer tenants, workshop participants, or bigger gatherings

6 Private outdoor space Only for the family, an intimate space with a pool and connections to the barn.

4 Reprogramming - The picturesque private house is to be adapted to be rentable during summer season - The Saxon diaspora is the main target group

9a Reprogramming -Revived baking oven, smoke house and space for wine making, and storage of wheat, corn etc. b - Space for a chicken coop with free access to the backyard

7 Reprogramming Recreation space for the family and friends. Connected to the outside space with pool, lounge and sport 10 New path equipment


10 9b

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9a 6 8

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10

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3 2

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1 Restoration workshops Type 1- Residential building Type 2- Service building

Pool Type 3- Economy building Outdoor space New path

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Rethinking the zones and flows The reprogramming and reorganisation of spaces aims to change their usage to the better. Site B will be slightly different since it will turn into a scenery of workshops and summer schools for years to come. It will be a construction site, more or less, but adapted to receive curious visitors and locals dropping by, even during low season (normally the workshops are held during spring, summer and early autumn). The frequency of flows and activities on this site will change dramatically, especially during high season. The activities from Site B will probably also spill over on Site A, since the new additional building, filling the gap towards the street, will be serving and hosting the workshop participants. House Zanfira, the first house directly behind the new addition, will be reprogrammed to host more general visitors, probably mostly Saxons. These

two buildings will create a semi- public and representable space in the front region of the farm. This space will further be connected with the new public path running along the stream. The new outdoor space, having a casual and natural character, is a crucial part of the “presentable space�. It is perfect for receiving spontaneous visitors. Moreover, the domestic zone has been enlarged to better suit the modern needs of the family, and the oversized agrarian zone has been reduced. Today, there are only poultry still kept on the farm, and life has become a bit more about socialising with the family and escaping from busy city lives. These changes should generate a more evenly spread flow of private activities on Site A, as well as giving a real space for visitors.

Public street Presentable space Domestic activity Private/dormitory Agrarian zone Farming zone Private flow Visitors’ flow

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26 25 19 23 22

18 24

20

17 16

21 20

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20 13

14 12

9

7

10 11

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6 2

5 4

3

1. Restoration workshop 2. Semi- public outdoor space/hangout 3. Official room/dining room 4. Kitchen 5. Changing room, toilets and showers 6. Storage and Garage 7. Porch 8. Kitchen and dining room 9. Bedroom 10. Storage 11. Technical space 12. Grandmothers bedroom 13. Entrance 14. Bathroom 15. Kitchen/dining room/ living room 16. Private outdoor space/patio 17. Pool 18. Lounge/outdoor dining space 19. Sport area 20. Bedroom 21. Entrance and toilet 22. Baking room 23. Storage of crops and materials 24. Lawn, and poultry area 25. Outhouse 26. Cultivation area

1

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Site A, a closer look on...

3

2

...the semi public outdoor hangout 1

1

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...the private extension 2

...the private outside space 3

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The new (face) house, typology and footprint The main focus of the design work has been to create a “new face� for Site A. It is the most interesting object within the new program, seen from an architectural point of view. It has a very exposed position, it is supposed to be representative for the site, and it is also unique. Nothing new, that is official and of architectural quality, has yet been build on this high impact position, in any Transylvanian Saxon village. Also, even though there are records showing the previous existence of a house on the particular position, there are no pictures or further information to be found. I have, with other words, an opportunity to do a free interpretation of the traditional rural Saxon architecture in a way that has not yet been explored.

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Furthermore, by choosing to give more attention to this house, I am prioritising the house with the highest visual impact, and greatest social potential. It can easily function as an example, inspiration and subject of debate among both locals and newcomers. The typology of the house is a hybrid of all three typologies found on a Saxon farm. It has to be representative, house people and official gatherings, like a Type 1 building. It has to be accessible, easy to enter and provide service spaces like Type 2. It also needs space for storage of materials, equipment, cars, etc. like a Type 3.

Type 1, Residential building

Type 2, Service building

Type 3, Economy building

Type ?, Hybrid building


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The hybrid house, concept and design strategies To help me navigate through the creative choices during my design process, I have been using a couple of design principles and strategies: 1. Use traditional techniques and local knowledge in a modern way, to keep them alive and uplift them as an up-to-date option. 2. Use local materials, to promote economy, awareness and pride. 3. Create something different, that answers to modern needs, but still has a sensitive relation to traditional rural architecture and lifestyle. 4. Use simple and pragmatic solutions, as far as possible, without loosing the playful and experimental approach.

Program

Type 1, Residential building

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The core of the hybrid is a massive brick wall, featured in both type 1 and type 2 buildings. The wall starts at the street front and enters the building, giving enclosure and necessary water resistance that is suitable to host the service spaces; Kitchen and bathroom. The main structure has the characteristics of the airy and material efficient Type 3. It is a structure of massive wood, preferably reused from other disassembled barns (which you can easily find free or for sale everywhere in the region). The whole ensemble is then covered by a protective, yet decorative, Saxon roof tile cladding, a modern spin on the traditional street front Type 1 house. The roof tiles have a long and unique tradition in the region, which I will explain further at the end of this chapter.

Organisation of spaces

Type 2, Service building

Materials and construction

Type 3, Economy building


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Relation to the surroundings, spacial, structural and material

The roof tiles are the only material that unites all Saxon building types. The whole village, fortified church to shed, is perfectly combined underneath different shades of terracotta.

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Length section 1:400

Courtyard side, Elevation 1:400

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Relation to the surroundings, spacial, structural and material

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Cross section 1:400

Street front, Elevation 1:400

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Materials, interpreting the tradition New 1

Existing/Traditional Roof tiles Manufactured by hand, from the local roof tile factory

2

Bricks Preferably reused.

3

Light effect through brick wall

4

Bricks - as flooring Preferably reused, or ordered from local private production

5

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Earthen floor


New

Existing/Traditional

6

Plastered - facades

7

Plastered - interior walls

8

Planks - exterior cladding

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Planks - Interior floor

10

Massive wood - constructive system Preferably reused from other disassembled barns (which you can easily find free or for sale everywhere in the region).

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The story behind the Saxon roof tiles My first real encounter with the roof tile phenomenon was when I spotted an unusual shaped tile in the neighbouring village, Filitelnic. I was given a tour around the fortified church, and was later told that the unusual shape was in fact not so unusual. Most Saxon communities in this part of the region, had wine making as their main occupation, when the wine season was on hold, they would shift into craft work such as roof tile and brick making. At the end of every work day, the last tile would be marked. In what way differs, but the most common marking or decoration, is a pattern created with a tool. Names and dating are also more often being found as well as floral motives. Small messages left by the craftsman also occurs, but they are more rare. Another interesting aspect of this material, is the shape of the tiles, creating different patterns on the roofs. The more spectacular shapes (like the ones seen on the picture to the right) have probably been made at a special command purposed for more costly projects. However, there are four different type shapes that are widely spread in the region.

The roof tiles used to be an issue at every renovation, since the production stopped. The only options was to either reuse old tiles, or turn to the industrial ones. The problem with the industrial tiles, is that their homogeneous appearance and lack of texture, is disturbing the harmony of any Saxon building ensemble. In order to revive the roof tile tradition, and meet the demand for more, a new roof tile factory was opened in a Saxon village, Apos, making hand manufactured tiles and bricks according to the tradition. The tiles coming from Apos are now very popular, frequently used at renovations, restorations and other building projects in the area. They are aging with the same beautiful texture as the original Saxon tiles. To further support the local development, the roof tiles used on the new hybrid building, will be ordered from Apos. Their tiles comes in three of the most common shapes, giving me an opportunity to play with different patterns. The four different type shapes

This tile was found at the renovation of the big Annex on my families farm, Site A. I have found out that the motives is very rare, since the most common motives were of floral character. However, I did not find anyone that could interpret the symbolic meaning. Maybe, it is a tower, clad with tiles? With a flag on the top? But the fluid shape underneath is a bit more tricky to understand.

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These characteristic roof tiles fascinated me, with their variety in shapes, decoration and sometimes even personal messages.

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The hybrid house, ground floor Workshop participants coming from the construction site, have a direct access to the bathroom, where they can wash up before entering the clean spaces of the house The main entrance is located to give a straight access to the stairs, leading up to the upper floors and the dormitories. A layout recognizable from the traditional Saxon residential house. Sliding doors makes it possible to open the “official space� towards the courtyard, and enables a flexible circulation between outdoors and indoors. A second back door gives quick access for transportation of materials, goods and food from the garage/ storage space in the back

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Plan 0 1: 100

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The hybrid house, first floor A beautiful view on the imposing Fortified Church, and the surrounding landscape.

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Plan 1 1: 100

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The hybrid house, second floor A beautiful view on the imposing Fortified Church, and the surrounding landscape. Overlook on the Workshop site and visual contact with the charming Pink house. Shaders, made of suspended roof tiles, creates that kind of light effect and atmosphere found on the attic of a Saxon building.

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Plan 2 1: 100

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The hybrid house, cross and length section

5 1

5

1 3

2

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Section A-A 1: 100

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Section B-B 1: 100

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The hybrid house, street side, and courtyard elevations Shaders, made of suspended roof tiles, creates that kind of light effect and atmosphere found on the attic of a Saxon house. Inspired by the traditional window shutters, they also provide privacy and shading. The tile pattern and its density, can easily be varied by using the three different type shapes from the Tile Factory in Apos.

4

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3 1

South elevation, street front 1: 100

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4

4 5

6 3 East elevation, courtyard 1: 100

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The tile shaders

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Summary

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Epilogue

What happens now? The examination project is over, and so is my time as a student. I am free to go off for a full time life in Transylvania, and turn this project into reality. In the best of worlds, that would have been my next move. However, during the last stages of this project, reality chased me down. To begin with, the buying process of my ruin has been put on hold due to some serious ownership problems. Meanwhile the sellers are working out their issues, I can only wait and hope for the best. I have however, considered other options. I got the suggestion to start the rescue work in beforehand, and save the house, regardless on what the sellers are doing. I gave it some serious thoughts until one of the sellers actually threatened me, and asked me to stop buzzing around the house. I have therefore decided to stay low for a while until they properly solve their internal disagreements. Another question mark was the fact that I will not be allowed to sign my own project as an architect in Romania until I have worked for two years and earned a certain certificate. I took a closer look on the system in Sweden, and discovered that I will be needing those two years of experience here as well. Without going further into my personal and economical situation, I am considering to use this spontaneous pause from the process, to start working and gaining some well needed experience and resources, both social and economical. By doing so, I hope I will be able to return to the project with more possibilities and power to continue the work. What happens with the program and design if the ruin will not get sold? I put a lot of thought into this question throughout the process. Meanwhile, the ruin was crucial for the process itself, generating thoughts and ideas, it is actually easy to replace with another empty and decayed house in the village. They are many... unfortunately. There is plenty of work and potential sites for the project within the village, but also in the neighbouring villages, and the whole region. The issue is more about where to start working. With this being said, I still think the project is accurate, with or without the ruin on the other side of the street.

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What is the next step? I am happy with the design proposal, and I am exited to take it further and consider some of the improving suggestions from the jury at the presentation at Lund School of Architecture. One example is the exact position of the house. In the current proposal, there is a small gap between the brick wall and the house, separating the two. However, I would like to try to bring the house closer to the street, and let it meet the brick wall. Exactly how this move would effect the design needs to be further investigated, and for that, and other possible improvements, I have plenty of time meanwhile I will be working on earning the necessary architect title. I will thus continue to perfect the design, but also take time off to continue travelling around the region, and meet the people who made this project possible. By showing me their own personal view on the colorful Transylvania, I got to see the area from my childhood with new eyes. I wish to thank them all, and I hope to be able to have them around further along this journey. To the reader; I know your wanderlust is high to the roof at this point, and I strongly suggest you to plan a visit. Take every day as it comes, and leave room for the unespected. Travel by bike, or rent a car, and spend your nights at the many guesthouses found around the villages. And if you want an even more intense experience, join one of the many workshops during the summer season. Below I have listed some projects and destinations worth checking out. Ambulanta pentru Monumente Bio- Haus pension, Nucet Casa Noah, Richis Cyclingromania.ro Experiencetransylvania.ro The Evangelic church, Filitelnic The Interethnic museum, Altana The Old Mill, Hosman Villa Abbatis, Equestrian Venter, Apos


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Sources

1. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 90 2. Stroe, Postlivaru, Kovacs, TRANSYLVANIAN VILLAGE SITES WITH FORTIFIED CHURCHES, 6 3.Ibid, 6 4. Ibid, 6 5. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 97 6. Ibid, 114 7. Ibid, 115 8. Ibid 9. Ibid, 116 10. Wikipedia,Vlad III Dracula 11. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 98 12. Wikipedia, Transylvanian Saxons 13. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 119 14. Wikipedia, Transylvanian Saxons 15. Ibid 16. Wikipedia, Transylvania 17. Ibid 18. Wikipedia, Transylvanian Saxons 19. Ibid 20. Wikipedia, Romania 21. Ibid 22. Wikipedia, Transylvanian Saxons 23. Wikipedia, Romania 24. Wikipedia, Transylvanian Saxons 25. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 93 26. Stroe, Postlivaru, Kovacs, TRANSYLVANIAN VILLAGE SITES WITH FORTIFIED CHURCHES,122 27. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 97 28a. Ibid, 113 28b. Ibid, 99-100 29. Ibid, 99 30. Terje, Safeguarding the Saxon Heritage in Transylvania. The PREM project final report, 8 31. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 98 32. Ibid, 116-117 33. Ibid, 118-119 34. Ibid, 119 35. Stroe, Postlivaru, Kovacs, TRANSYLVANIAN VILLAGE SITES WITH FORTIFIED CHURCHES,122 36. Ibid 37. Ibid 38. Ibid 39. Ibid, 123-124

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40. Terje, Safeguarding the Saxon Heritage in Transylvania. The PREM project final report, 22 41. Hülsemann, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania, 5 48. Ibid 49. Ibid, 9 50. Ibid 51. Ibid 52.Wikipedia, Senereuș, Mureș, 53. Senereus, Our Story 54. Ibid 55. Dumitru, Adrian, Dacia 56. Senereus, Our Story 57. Gross, Datele cronologice esentiale ale satului Senereus 58. Ibid 59. Ibid 60. Ibid 61. Ibid 62. Ibid 63. Ibid 64. Ibid 65. Ibid 66. Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 67. Ibid 68. Ibid 69. Ibid 70. Gross, Datele cronologice esentiale ale satului Senereus 71. Ibid 72. Ibid 73. Ibid 74. Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 75. Ibid 76. Gross, Datele cronologice esentiale ale satului Senereus 77. Ibid 78. Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 79. Ibid 80. Senereus, Our Story 81. Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 82. Senereus, Our Story 83. Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 84. Senereus, Our Story 85. Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 100-101 86. Ibid 87. Weber, Zendersch, 59-69

88. Ibid 89. Ibid 90. Ibid 91. Ibid 92. Hulseman, 8 93. Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 94. Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 95. Ibid 96. Ibid 97. Ibid 98. Ibid 99. Ibid 100. Ibid 101. Ibid 102. Ibid 103. Ibid 104. Ibid 105. Ibid 106. Ibid 107. Ibid 108. Ibid 109. Ibid 110. Ibid 111. Ibid 112. Vaida, Laughter, WEEPING, new houses, OLD HOUSES and other confessions, 68-70 113. Ibid 114. Ibid 115. Ibid 116. Iorio, Corsale, Rural tourism and livelihood strategies in Romania, 152-162 117. Racasan, The Rural Enironment, the Times, and the Architect, 60-63 118. Ibid 119. Ibid


Books and publications

Webbsites and online publications

Gutkind, Erwin Anton, International history of city development Vol. 8 Urban development in eastern Europe : Bulgaria, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., The Free press, New York, 1972

Dumitru, Adrian, Dacia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, published 28 April 201, https:// www.ancient.eu/dacia/ (Read 2019-10-11)

Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, Simetria , Sibiu, 2014 Iorio Monica, Corsale Andrea, Rural tourism and livelihood strategies in Romania, Journal of Rural Studies, 26, 2010 Nypan, Terje, Safeguarding the Saxon Heritage in Transylvania. The PREM project final report. A cultural heritage and development project in the Transylvania Region, Romania. Riksantikvaren archive, The Norwegian Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Oslo, Norway, 2006 Racasan, Horatiu, The Rural Enironment, the Times, and the Architect, ARHITECTURA, Rural, NR 1/2016 : 60 Stroe, Adriana, Postlivaru, Iozefina, Kovacs, Josef , TRANSYLVANIAN VILLAGE SITES WITH FORTIFIED CHURCHES, INDEPENDENT FILM, Bucuresti, Romania, 2007 Vaida, Eugen , Laughter, WEEPING, new houses, OLD HOUSES and other confessions, ARHITECTURA, Rural, NR 1/2016 : 68 Weber, George and Weber, Renate, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, Munich, 1985

Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch, https:// www.zendersch.de/geschichte/ (Read 2019-1010) Senereus, Our Story, Senereus, 3101- 2018, https://www.facebook.com/ pg/Senereus-174050436030810/ about/?ref=page_internal (Read 2019-10-10) Wikipedia, Romania, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, last edited 10-10-2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Romania (Read 2019-10-11) Wikipedia, Senereuș, Mureș, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, last edited 02-12-2017, https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Senereuș,_Mureș (Read 2019-10-11) Wikipedia, Transylvania, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, last edited 06-10-2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Transylvania (Read 2019-10-11) Wikipedia, Transylvanian Saxons, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, last edited 06-09-2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Transylvanian_Saxons (Read 2019-10-11) Wikipedia,Vlad III Dracula, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, last edited 08-10-2019, https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Vlad_III_Dracula (Read 2019-10-15) Other Gross, Alfred, Datele cronologice esentiale ale satului Senereus, 20-07-2015

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Illustrations & images All illustrations and pictures are made by the author, with exception of; Page/Fig.nr Source 11/3 Photographer Vaida, Stefan 11/4 Photographer Muresanu, Monica 15/1 Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 86 16/1+2 Transylvaniansaxon, WHO ARE THE TRANSYLVANIAN SAXONS? 16/3 Herédi, Monika, Sächsische Trachten aus Siebenbürgen 17/1 akpool.co.uk, Artist Postcard Schullerus, Siebenbürgen, Meschen, Burg, 17/2 Perez, Ink of Dracula, a comic tribute 18/1 Fortress press, Reformation basics 19/1 Wikipedia, Olahus, Romania between 1859 and 1878 20/1 Wikipedia, Original Photo National Museum of Union-Alba Iulia 21/1 Wikiwand, Emblem of the Socialist Republic of Romania 21/2 21/3 ipfs.io, Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania 22/1 Photographer Spinder, Stephen, spinderartphoto.com 23/1+2 Transylvaniansaxon, WHO ARE THE TRANSYLVANIAN SAXONS? 23/3 Ansichtskarten-center, Siebenbürgen Sächsische Bauernfamilie AK 1917 24/1 Transylvaniansaxon, MY FIRST ARRIVAL IN MESCHENDORF (TRANSYLVANIA, ROMANIA) 26/1 Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 98 27/1 Plaiurimioritice.ro, Arhitectura gotica pastreaza inca atmosfera targului de ev mediu in Bistrita 27/2 Edwards, Colourful and ancient houses line a medieval street view in Sighisoara, a saxon city in Transylvania, Romania 27/3 Zbor peste Transilvania, Bistrita 28/1 Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 101 29/1 Second Home Transylvania.com 29/2 Responsible Travel, ROMANIA HOLIDAY, TRANSYLVANIA AND ITS SAXON HERITAGE 29/3 Zbor peste Transilvania , zbor-pestetransilvania-biertan-09 32/1 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, 65

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32/2 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, 7 33/1 Ibid, 10 33/2 Ibid 33/3 Ibid 33/4 Kirchenburgen.org, Alma Vii, Almen 34/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, 1 35/1 Ibid, 8 35/2 Hellotransylvania.com, Fifth day: Malancrav 35/3 Ibid 37/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, 8 37/2 Ibid, 7 37/3 Ibid, 13 37/4 Ibid, 158 37/5 Icanvas.com, Close-Up Of Old Roof Tiles 37/6 Akeroyd, The Saxon Village – a wealth of landscape and eight centuries of unique history 37/7 Ibid 37/8 Photographer Matei, Ana 37/9 iStock.com, Traditional saxon village house facade in Crit, Transylvania, Romania stock photo 37/10 Akeroyd, The Saxon Village – a wealth of landscape and eight centuries of unique history 37/11 Bucharest Uncovered, Colorful Saxon house in the village of Crit, Transylvania 41/1 Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 86 44/1 Wikipedia, Dacians 44/2 Subscene.com, The Dacians Dacii 45/1 Drawing by Architect Fabini, Hermann 46/1 Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 46/2 Quatr.us, Medieval School – Europe 47/1 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, V 47/2 Ibid, 545 48/1 Gutkind, International history of city development Vol. 8, 86 48/2 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, V 48/3 Wikimedia Commons, Nicolae Iorga Neamul romănesc în Ardeal și Ţara Ungurească. Volumul 1 48/4 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, VI 48/5 Photo by TASS via Getty Images, World War II, 1944


49/1 Wikimedia Commons, 1962 Romania Completion of Agricultural CollectivisationWheatsheat-and-hammer-and-sickle-emblem 51/1 Lutsch, Weber, Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, 116 51/2 Ibid, 114 51/3 Ibid, 113 52/1 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, 84 53/1 Ibid 54/1 Ibid 55/1 Ibid, 85 62/1 Lutsch, Weber, Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, 35 63/1+2 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, 62 64/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi,10 64/2 Lutsch, Weber, Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, 33 64/3 Ibid, 35 64/4 Ibid 64/6 Ibid, 28 65/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi,10 65/2 Lutsch, Weber, Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, 31 65/3 Ibid, 33 65/4 Ibid, 42 65/5 Ibid, 31 66/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi,10 66/2 Ibid 66/3 Lutsch, Weber, Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, 34 66/4 Ibid, 40 66/5 Ibid, 41 66/6 Roth, Sopa, Zenderscher Kalender 2015 67/4 Lutsch, Weber, Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, 33 68/1 Drawings by Architect Feinweber, Michael, 69/1 Drawing by Architect Fabini, Hermann 69/2 Roth, Sopa, Zenderscher Kalender 2015 70/1 Drawings by Architect Feinweber,

Michael 71/1 Drawings by Architect Feinweber, Michael 71/2 Photographer Fritsch, Georg, 2015 71/3 Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 72/1+2 Ibid 73/1 Drawings by Architect Feinweber, Michael 73/2 Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch 77/1 Ibid 77/2 Ibid 79/1 Lutsch, Weber, Bildergeschichten aus Zendersch- Siebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, 26 80/2 Drawing by Architect Fabini, Hermann 81/1 Drawings by Architect Feinweber, Michael 83/1 Casa_noah_experience@Instagram 83/2 Photographer Stasinopoulou, Dimitra 107/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, 8 107/2 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, 62 108/1 Photographer Matei, Ana 111/1 Casa_noah_experience@Instagram 115/2 Drawing obtained from the Municipal of Balauseri 116/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, 8 116/2 Weber, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, 62 121/1 Ambulanta Pentru MonumenteTransylvania Sud, Photos 121/2 Ibid 121/3 Ibid 121/4 Ibid 121/5 Ibid 128/2 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/405675878936200677/?nic=1 128/3 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/405675878936200693/?nic=1 129/1 https://www.pinterest.ru/ pin/413416440794868293/?nic=1 129/2 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/306174474668604107/?lp=true 129/6 https://ar.pinterest.com/ pin/198158452326905190/ 130/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, 7 130/2 Ibid, 13 130/3 Ibid, 158

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131/2 Drawing obtained from the Municipal of Balauseri 133/1 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, 7 133/3 Ibid, 13 133/5 Ibid, 158 134/2 Icanvas.com, Close-Up Of Old Roof Tiles 134/3 Photographer Matei, Ana 140/3 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/548594798343019420/?lp=true 140/5 EARTH FLOORS,Eco friendly flooring solutions 141/1 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/127297126954482383/?lp=true 141/2 Arqa, São Lourenço do Barrocal, Hotel & Monte Alentejano 141/3 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/405675878935787730/?nic=1 141/4 Istockphoto, Ljus naturlig trä bakgrund - Bildbanksbild 146/2 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/493777546645371536/?lp=true 146/3 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/418271884142643766/?lp=true 146/4 EARTH FLOORS,Eco friendly flooring solutions 146/5 Istockphoto, Ljus naturlig trä bakgrund - Bildbanksbild 148/2 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/196117758760083311/?lp=true 148/3 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/405675878935750381/?nic=1 148/4 Arqa, São Lourenço do Barrocal, Hotel & Monte Alentejano 148/5 Istockphoto, Ljus naturlig trä bakgrund - Bildbanksbild 150/3 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/405675878935750381/?nic=1 150/4 Arqa, São Lourenço do Barrocal, Hotel & Monte Alentejano 150/5 Istockphoto, Ljus naturlig trä bakgrund - Bildbanksbild 152/2 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/405675878935787730/?nic=1 152/4 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/127297126954482383/?lp=true 153/2 Arqa, São Lourenço do Barrocal, Hotel & Monte Alentejano 153/3 Istockphoto, Ljus naturlig trä bakgrund

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- Bildbanksbild 154/2 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/548594798343019420/?lp=true 154/3 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/405675878935787730/?nic=1 154/4 https://www.pinterest.se/ pin/127297126954482383/?lp=true


Books and publications Gutkind, Erwin Anton, International history of city development Vol. 8 Urban development in eastern Europe : Bulgaria, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., The Free press, New York, 1972 Hülsemann, Jan, Casa taraneasca saseasca din Transilvania.Ghid pentru restaurarea caselor vechi, Simetria , Sibiu, 2014 Lutsch, Dietlinde, Weber, George and Weber, Renate, Bildergeschichten aus ZenderschSiebenbürgisches Dorfleben im Wandel der Zeit, Schiller Verlag, Hermannstadt, 2016 Weber, George and Weber, Renate, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, Munich, 1985 Webbsites and online publications Akeroyd, John, The Saxon Village – a wealth of landscape and eight centuries of unique history, medievaltours.com, http://www.medievaltours. com/the-saxon-village/ (Read 2019-10-17) Akpool.co.uk, Artist Postcard Schullerus, Siebenbürgen, Meschen, Burg, https://www. akpool.co.uk/postcards/123931-kuenstler-akschullerus-siebenbuergen-meschen-burg (Read 2019-10-17) Ambulanta Pentru Monumente- Transylvania Sud, Photos, https://www.facebook.com/pg/ ambulantapentrumonumente/photos/?ref=page_ internal (Read 2019-10-18) Ansichtskarten-center, Siebenbürgen Sächsische Bauernfamilie AK 1917, http://www. ansichtskarten-center.de/trachten-brauchtumrumaenien/1917-trachten-rumaeniensiebenbuergen-saechsische-bauernfamilie-ak (Read 2019-10-17) Arqa, São Lourenço do Barrocal, Hotel & Monte Alentejano, 30-03-2017, https://arqa.com/en/ architecture-en/sao-lourenco-do-barrocal.html (Read 2019-10-18) Bucharest Uncovered, Colorful Saxon house in the village of Crit, Transylvania, https:// unknownbucharest.com/transylvania-4-day-tour/ saxon-house-village-of-crit-transylvania/

Casa_noah_experience@Instagram, 2019, https://www.instagram.com/p/ BtoK1gSF7IS/?igshid=1jh9mwbtepczy (Read 2019-10-18) Completion_of_Agricultural_CollectivisationWheatsheat-and-hammer-and-sickle-emblem.jpg (Read 2019-10-18) Dekatrim.nu, EU- flagga, https://www.dekaltrim. nu/Products/Details/10430 (Read 2019-1017) EARTH FLOORS,Eco friendly flooring solutions http://earthfloors.co.uk/pricing_an_earth_floor (Read 2019-10-18) Edwards, Rhiannon, Colourful and ancient houses line a medieval street view in Sighisoara, a saxon city in Transylvania, Romania, 22-06- 2017, https://www.stuff.co.nz/travel/destinations/ europe/93952408/transylvania-an-imprompturoad-trip-through-dracula-country (Read 201910-17) Fortress press, Reformation basics, https:// fortresspress.com/reformation-basics (Read 2019-10-17) Heimatorts-gemeinschaft Zendersch, https:// www.zendersch.de/geschichte/ (Read 2019-1010) Hellotransylvania.com, Fifth day: Malancrav, http://www.hellotransylvania.com/ Transylvania%20tours%20in%20images.html (Read 2019-10-17) Herédi, Monika, Sächsische Trachten aus Siebenbürgen, https://i.pinimg.com/ originals/44/12/40/ 441240958a51fe420f22f924b854b33.jpg (Read 2019-10-17) Icanvas.com, Close-Up Of Old Roof Tiles, https://www.icanvas.com/canvas-print/ close-up-of-old-roof-tiles-rothenburg-ob-dertauber-germany-pim4708#1PC6-36x12 (Read 2019-10-17) Ipfs.io, Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania, https://ipfs.io/ipfs/ QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKL

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wHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco /wiki/Democratic_Forum_of_Germans _in_Romania.html (Read 2019-10-17)

01- 2018, https://www.facebook.com/ pg/Senereus-174050436030810/ about/?ref=page_internal (Read 2019-10-10)

iStock.com, Traditional saxon village house facade in Crit, Transylvania, Romania stock photo, https://www.istockphoto.com/sg/photo/ traditional-saxon-village-house-facade-in-crittransylvania-romania-gm491540676-75801085 (Read 2019-10-17)

Subscene.com, The Dacians Dacii, https:// subscene.com/subtitles/the-dacians-dacii (Read 2019-10-17)

Istockphoto, Ljus naturlig trä bakgrund Bildbanksbild, https://www.istockphoto. com/se/foto/ljus-naturlig-trä-bakgrundgm1041326026-278793994 (Read 2019-1018) Kirchenburgen.org, Alma Vii, Almen, https://kirchenburgen.org/en/location/almenalma-vii/ (Read 2019-10-17) Perez, Mirela, Ink of Dracula, a comic tribute, https://www.behance.net/gallery/61407615/ Vlad-Tepes-(Ink-of-Dracula) (Read 2019-10-17) Photo by TASS via Getty Images, World War II, 1944, https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/ news-photo/transylvania-romania-a-cossack-unitin-a-liberated-romanian-news-photo/522581274 (Read 2019-10-17) Plaiurimioritice.ro, Arhitectura gotica pastreaza inca atmosfera targului de ev mediu in Bistrita, 14-10-2012, http://www.plaiurimioritice. ro/2012/10/arhitectura-gotica-pastreaza-incaatmosfera-targului-de-ev-mediu-in-bistrita/ (Read 2019-10-17) Quatr.us, Medieval School – Europe, https:// quatr.us/medieval/medieval-school-europe.htm (Read 2019-10-17) Responsible Travel, ROMANIA HOLIDAY, TRANSYLVANIA AND ITS SAXON HERITAGE, https://www.responsibletravel. com/holiday/2633/romania-holidaytransylvania-and-its-saxon-heritage (Read 201910-17) Second Home Transylvania, https:// secondhometransylvania.com/listings/traditionalsaxon-house-for-sale-malancrav-malmkrog/ (Read 2019-10-17) Senereus, Our Story, Senereus, 31-

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Transylvaniansaxon, MY FIRST ARRIVAL IN MESCHENDORF (TRANSYLVANIA, ROMANIA), https://www.transylvaniansaxon. com/my-first-arrival-in-meschendorf-transylvaniaromania/ (Read 2019-10-17) Transylvaniansaxon, WHO ARE THE TRANSYLVANIAN SAXONS?, http:// www.transylvaniansaxon.com/who-are-thetransylvanian-saxons/ (Read 2019-10-17) Wikimedia Commons, 1962 Romania Completion of Agricultural Collectivisation-Wheatsheat-andhammer-and-sickle-emblem, https://commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1962_Romania_≈ Wikimedia Commons, Nicolae Iorga - Neamul romănesc în Ardeal și Ţara Ungurească. Volumul 1, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Nicolae_Iorga_-_Neamul_romănesc_în_ Ardeal_și_Ţara_Ungurească._Volumul_1.pdf (Read 2019-10-17) Wikipedia, Dacians, https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Dacians#/media/File:Dacian_symbols.png (Read 2019-10-17) Wikipedia, Olahus, Romania between 1859 and 1878, https://ro.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Fișier:Romania_1859-1878.png (Read 201910-17) Wikipedia, Original Photo National Museum of Union-Alba Iulia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Original_Photo_National_Museum_of_ Union-Alba_Iulia.jpg (Read 2019-10-17) Wikipedia, Romania, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, last edited 10-10-2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Romania (Read 2019-10-11) Wikiwand, Emblem of the Socialist Republic of Romania, http://www.wikiwand.com/en/ Emblem_of_the_Socialist_Republic_of_Romania (Read 2019-10-17)


Zbor peste Transilvania, Bistrita, 29-08- 2014 http://www.zborpestetransilvania.ro/bistrita/ (Read 2019-10-17) Zbor peste Transilvania , zbor-peste-transilvaniabiertan-09, 14-06- 2012, http://www. zborpestetransilvania.ro/biertan/zbor-pestetransilvania-biertan-09/ (Read 2019-10-17) Other Fabini, Hermann , Schäßburg, architect in Sibiu, 1992 Feinweber, Michael, Zenderscher architect, drawings published on page; 62, 546, 546 in Weber, George and Weber, Renate, Zendersch – eine siebenbürgische Gemeinde im Wandel, Munich, 1985 Roth, Anselm, Sopa, Ovidiu, Zenderscher Kalender 2015

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The Saxon country houses in Transylvania - A survey on the rural heritage, its present challenges and future possibilities Christina Gherman Examiner; Tomas Tägil · Mentor; Christer Malmström AAHM01 · Degree Project in Architecture Department of Architecture and Built Environment · LTH · 2019

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Profile for Christina Gherman

The Saxon country houses in Transylvania  

- A survey on the rural heritage, its present challenges and future possibilities

The Saxon country houses in Transylvania  

- A survey on the rural heritage, its present challenges and future possibilities

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