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THE ILLUSTRATORS

THE BRITISH ART OF ILLUSTRATION 1837-2011


THE ILLUSTRATORS T H E B R I T I S H A RT OF I L L U S T R AT I ON 18 3 7 -2 0 1 1

CHRIS BEETLES 8 & 10 Ryder Street, St James’s, London SW1Y 6QB Telephone 020 7839 7551 Facsimile 020 7839 1603 gallery@chrisbeetles.com www.chrisbeetles.com


Copyright Š Chris Beetles Ltd 2011 8 & 10 Ryder Street St James’s London SW1Y 6QB 020 7839 7551 gallery@chrisbeetles.com www.chrisbeetles.com ISBN 978-1-905738-40-3 Cataloguing in publication data is available from the British Library Written and researched by David Wootton With contributions by Alexander Beetles, Chris Beetles, Alison Brisby, Eleanor Hall, Giles Huxley-Parlour, Jill Laurimore and Helena Murray Edited by Catherine Andrews, Fiona Nickerson and David Wootton Design by Jeremy Brook of Graphic Ideas Photography by Julian Huxley-Parlour Reproduction by www.cast2create.com Colour separation and printing by Geoff Neal Litho Limited Front cover: Giles (1916-1995) The Picnic [268] Front endpaper: Alfred Bestall (1892-1986) Rupert Annual 1949 [286] Frontispiece: Peter Cross (born 1951) Sparks at Christmas [483] Title page: E H Shepard (1879-1976) Make this a Pooh Christmas [178] (detail) Title verso: Ronald Searle (born 1920) So here is Cedric, known already to the discerning few for his sensitive poems [412] Contents: Peter Cross (born 1951) The Illustrators 2011; Quentin Blake (born 1932) A Celebration on Stilts [461] Back endpaper: Emma Chichester Clark (born 1955) It was a Lovely Day [490] Back cover: Arthur Rackham (1867-1939) The Fish King and the Dog Fish [77]


CO NTENTS

T H E NI N ET EENTH C ENTU RY 1

Victorian Illustrators

8

2

John Tenniel

22

3

Victorian Cartoonists

38

4

George Du Maurier

44

T H E T W EN T IETH C ENTU RY 5

Edwardian Illustrators

56

6

Edwardian Cartoonists

80

7

The Robinson Brothers

97

8

Cartoonists between the wars

117

9

Ernest Howard Shepard

138

10

Post-war Illustrators

152

11

Edmond Kapp

168

12

Post-war Cartoonists

180

13

Rupert

211

14

Kathleen Hale

224


CON TEN TS

15

Edward Ardizzone

236

16

Lilliput

248

17

Eric Fraser

259

18

Sherriffs

267

19

Feliks Topolski

275

20

Ronald Searle

286

21

Norman Thelwell

298

T HE TWENTY- F IRS T C ENTU RY 22

Contemporary Illustrators

306

23

Jane Pinkney

338

24

Paul Cox

350

25

Amanda Hall

356

26

Contemporary Cartoonists

364

Select Bibliography

379

Cumulative Index

380

Index

383


THE NINETEENTH CENTURY


THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

1 VICTORIAN ILLUSTRATORS GEORGE CRUIKSHANK (1792-1878) WILLIAM EDWARD FROST (1810-1877) RICHARD DOYLE (1824-1883)

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CHARLES DOYLE (1832-1893) WALTER CRANE (1845-1915)

G E ORG E CRU IKS HA NK George Cruikshank (1792-1878) George Cruikshank was the leading caricaturist and illustrator of his generation who, in a long and prolific career, managed to temper his style from Regency rumbustiousness to Victorian gentility. The second son of the caricaturist Isaac Cruikshank, George Cruikshank was born in Bloomsbury, London on 27 September 1792. Like his elder brother, Robert, he received a basic education at a school in Edgware. Working with his father from an early age, Cruikshank began to publish in 1806. Then, following his father’s death from alcohol abuse in 1811, he supported the family through work as a graphic artist, gradually becoming the leading political caricaturist of his day. He completed James Gillray’s last work for the publisher Hannah Humphrey, and collaborated with the radical publisher William Hone, as well as producing many caricatures of his own. Turning to book illustration in 1820, he worked with his brother, Robert, and the writer, Pierce Egan, on Life in London (1820-21), which surveyed the capital’s highs and lows through the lives of two friends, Tom and Jerry. Throughout the 1820s, Cruikshank became increasingly conservative, moulding his grotesque style to the sense of humour of a respectable middle-class public. William Makepeace Thackeray wrote that it was Cruikshank who ‘brought English pictorial humour and children acquainted’, and this was achieved in great part by his edition of the Grimm brothers’ German Popular Stories (1823). Almanacs were issued from 1835 to 1853 under the artist’s name and these were succeeded by George Cruikshank’s Magazine (1853-54). But he did not exclude the seamier side of life from his visual world, and showed great sensitivity towards misery, vice and crime in Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist (1838) and the romances of Harrison Ainsworth. Cruikshank’s conversion to the teetotal cause in the late 1840s gave a focus to his moral outrage and invigorated a flagging reputation. He worked intensively in the last thirty years of his life, primarily for the Temperance League, producing such striking images as the series of prints, The Bottle (1847) and The Drunkard’s Children (1848), and the vast masterpiece, The Worship of Bacchus (1863, Tate). The critic, John Ruskin, did not appreciate this turn in Cruikshank’s career and tried to assist him, artistically and financially, by encouraging him to illustrate a new edition of Grimm. Yet his work on this project seemed coarse to Ruskin and it was never completed. A widower from 1849, Cruikshank married Eliza Widdowson in 1850. She was a niece of the publisher Charles Baldwyn, who had commissioned the first volumes of German Popular Stories. However, the apparent harmony of their household would prove deceptive. In 1854, the housemaid, Adelaide Attree, admitted she was pregnant, and Eliza dismissed her without realising that George was the father. George set up Adelaide in his nearby studio, and is believed to have fathered a further ten children with her during the next twenty years. Maintaining two households put a strain on his finances, and on his death, Eliza discovered that he had left his entire estate to Adelaide while actually being insolvent. Cruikshank died at home of an acute respiratory infection on 1 February 1878. First buried at Kensal Green, his body was later removed to St Paul’s Cathedral as an acknowledgement of his work for the temperance movement. His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum, The Courtauld Gallery and the V&A; and the Morgan Library & Museum, New York Public Library, Princeton University Library and the University of Delaware Library.


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Further reading: John BuchananBrown, The Book Illustrations of George Cruikshank, Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1980; A M Cohn, George Cruikshank: A Catalogue Raisonné, London: The Bookman’s Journal, 1924; William Feaver, George Cruikshank, London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1974; Ruari McLean, ‘Cruikshank (3) George Cruikshank (b London, 27 Sept 1792; d London, 1 Feb 1878)’, Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 8, pages 217-218; Robert L Patten, ‘Cruikshank, George (1792-1878)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 14, pages 520-528; Robert L Patten, George Cruikshank’s Life, Art and Times, Cambridge: Lutterworth, 1992 & 1996 (2 vols); John Wardroper, The Caricatures of George Cruikshank, London: Gordon Fraser, 1977

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The Merry Wives of Windsor. Act V. Scene V ‘For Shakespeare, Cruikshank seems to have felt a tender reverence … In 1857 came the Cruikshankian series of etchings for R B Brough’s “Life of Sir John Falstaff ”. This series exhibits great skill and conscientiousness; the critic of “The Art Journal” (July 1858) was able to suppose them “actual scenes”.’ (Wilfrid Hugh Chesson, George Cruikshank, London: Duckworth, 1908, page 187) In 1857, George Cruikshank prepared a set of illustrations on The Life of Sir John Falstaff, a detailed exploration of one of Shakespeare’s most immortal characters. His last illustrated book, it was published by Longmans in the following year with a supportive text by Robert Barnabas Brough, a writer with strong theatrical credentials.

01 THE MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR. ACT V. SCENE V FALSTAFF. MRS FORD. MRS PAGE . SIR HUGH EVANS & C ( AS FAIRIES ) ( SONG ) PINCH HIM FAIRIES , MUTUALLY; PINCH HIM FOR HIS VILLAINY; PINCH HIM , AND BURN HIM ,

The present watercolour may be an alternative, unused version for Plate 18 of that book, the image entitled Sir John Falstaff and the Fairies at Herne’s Oak. Certainly, one of the two closely related studies for this watercolour – in the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington DC – is marked ‘not engraved’.

AND TURN HIM ABOUT

The published composition shows Falstaff lying in isolation before Herne’s oak, with those pretending to be fairies dancing at the margins. However, the main distinction between that and the present image is the silhouette of Windsor Castle on the horizon. This topographical touch probably led to its being preferred for print. A large watercolour sketch and other studies for that version are in Princeton University Library.

signed watercolour 7 x 10 inches

A much larger variant of the composition, painted in oil on canvas, was exhibited at the British Institution in 1857, as no 446: Herne’s Oak from The Merry Wives of Windsor, V, v. More intense but less sparkling than the present watercolour, it was once the property of the American Shakespeare Theater at Stratford, Connecticut, and is now in the collection of the Yale Center for British Art.


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

WILLI AM ED WA RD F RO S T William Edward Frost, RA (1810-1877) William Edward Frost was one of the most popular Victorian painters of the nude, appreciated for a purity of approach and elegance of execution. His subjects ranged from generalised recreations of the ancient world to representations of specific episodes from classic English poetry. William Edward Frost was born in Wandsworth, then in Surrey, in September 1810. He showed artistic talent from an early age, and was encouraged in this by his father: first by his arranging drawing lessons with a Miss Evatt, a neighbouring amateur, and then, in 1825, by his introducing him to William Etty, who became his mentor. On Etty’s recommendation, he entered Henry Sass’s School for Drawing and Painting at 6 Charlotte Street, in 1826, and spent three years there, while also studying at the British Museum each winter. He was then accepted into the Royal Academy Schools and gained first class medals in every subject except the Antique, in which Daniel Maclise was a competitor.

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Specialising in portraiture from about 1830, Frost painted more than 300 portraits during a 15-year period, and showed some as his first exhibits from 1836. However, a series of successes with mythological and allegorical subjects, often inspired by Spenser and Milton, led him to change his focus. In December 1839, he received the Academy’s Gold Medal for Prometheus Bound by Force and Strength (exhibited at the RA in 1840). Four years later, he won a third-prize premium for Una Alarmed by the Fauns and Satyrs (V&A), his entry for the competition to decorate the New Palace of Westminster, while his academy exhibition picture, Christ Crowned with Thorns, was selected by a prize-holder of the Art Union Society. This early development of his reputation culminated in his election as an Associate of the Royal Academy of Arts in November 1846. Frost attracted a ready patronage among middle-class industrials and aristocrats and, indeed, from Queen Victoria, who paid £420 for Una Among the Fairies and Wood Nymphs (1847), and subsequently commissioned two more pictures. However, his work was popular with all levels of society, as a result of the wide circulation of engravings of his paintings made by Peter Lightfoot, among others. Frost shared several of his patrons with Etty, and his work was inevitably compared to that of his mentor. However, some contemporary critics did distinguish between the two, William Sandby writing that Frost differed materially from Etty, ‘in the chastely correct and highly-finished manner in which he depicts the undraped nymphs in his pictures’ (Sandby 1862, vol 2, page 221). As Frost was intimately familiar with Etty’s methods and ideas, he became a principal source for the older artist’s biography. He was also knowledgeable about the work of Thomas Stothard, collecting a large number of engravings of the artist’s work. In addition, he collaborated with Henry Reeve on a catalogue of the art collection of Hugh Munro of Novar, which was privately printed in 1865. After a gap that surprised and irritated him, Frost was elected a full academician in 1870. Yet, at the time of the exhibition of his diploma work, Nymphs and Cupid, two years later, he voluntarily retired from the RA. He had also exhibited regularly at the British Institution. Never marrying, Frost lived with Elizabeth, his unmarried sister, latterly at 40 Fitzroy Square. On his death on 4 June 1877, she became his sole executor. Almost a year later, on 14 March 1878, Christies held a sale of the remains of Frost’s studio, including a hundred of his works, as well as his copies after old masters.

02 THREE GRACES watercolour with bodycolour 6 x 4 inches (including arched top) Exhibited: ‘Bliss was it in that Dawn to be Alive, 1750-1850’, October 2008, no 185


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His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum; and the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford) and The Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge). Further reading: Robyn Asleson, ‘Frost, William Edward (1810–1877)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 21, pages 70-71; Philip McEvansoneya, ‘Frost, William Edward (b London, Sept 1810; d London, 4 June 1877)’, Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 11, pages 804-805.

The Witches Painted by 1854, W E Frost’s oil is apparently based on Charles Kean’s famous production of Macbeth, performed in London in 1853. In 1850, Kean began to manage the Royal Princess’s Theatre, Oxford Street (where the HMV megastore now stands), and a year later ran a Shakespearean season to coincide with the Great Exhibition. In the season of 1852-53, he chose Macbeth as the play to represent Shakespeare in a mixed repertoire. Following a royal command performance at Windsor Castle on 4 February 1853, it opened on 14 February, and ran until 31 August at the rate of three performances a week. Performances lasted about four hours.

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Kean attempted an archeologically accurate production, explaining on a playbill essay that, as little was known of ‘the dress worn by the inhabitants of Scotland in the eleventh century’, he had ‘borrowed materials from those nations to whom Scotland was constantly opposed in war’, notably England and the Scandinavian countries. Similarly, Kean’s designers drew on pre-Norman architecture to create the interior scenes. The result was spectacular, though for some spectators overly so with the visual element threatening to overwhelm the action. Notable among the cast members were Kean himself and his wife, Ellen Tree, as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, and eight year-old Kate Terry as Banquo’s son, Fleance. According to custom, men played the three witches: Edward Phillips Addison (circa 1806-1874), Drinkwater Meadows (circa 1793-1869) and Horatio Saker (1824/25-1861). All were notable comic actors, and Meadows and Saker had played the same roles in previous productions, Meadows to William Charles Macready’s Macbeth at Covent Garden in 1838.

03 THE WITCHES signed and inscribed with title on label on reverse oil on wood 7 3⁄4 x 5 3⁄4 inches Provenance: Fidelis Morgan Exhibited: Midland Counties Art Museum, Nottingham Castle, 1886, no 119


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

RICHAR D DOY L E Richard Doyle, sometimes known as ‘Dick Kitcat’ (1824-1883) One of the most inventive illustrators of the Victorian period, Richard Doyle achieved a fine balance between observation and imagination, and so was able to work equally well as a Punch cartoonist and an illustrator of fairy subjects. His incisive draughtsmanship was complemented by the fine stippling of his watercolours. Richard Doyle was born in London in September 1824, the second son of the Irish caricaturist, John Doyle (‘HB’). Educated at home, he showed an early talent for drawing, and was encouraged to observe and memorise the London scene and work the results into paintings. To counterbalance such demands he filled many sketchbook pages with ‘nonsense’ figures and, in 1840, illustrated his own diary. (It was published in 1885 as A Journal Kept By Richard Doyle in the Year 1840.) His first published book, providing a comic interpretation of the medieval-inspired Eglington Tournament, appeared in the same year to wide acclaim.

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The combination of fantasy and observation that comprised the work of his childhood set Doyle in good stead for his employment by Punch in 1843. The decorations and initial letters that he first produced extended the playful images of his sketchbooks, while the cartoons that he began in March 1844 were all the better for his father’s training; the series ‘Manners and Customs of ye Englishe’ (1849) was instrumental in making him a household name. Resigning from Punch in 1850 because of its anti-papism, Doyle devoted the rest of his career to illustrating books and painting in watercolour. Projects of the 1850s centred upon such contemporary subjects as

Richard Doyle’s exhibition watercolours: The Woodman and the Elves and The Foxhunter’s Nightmare Richard Doyle made his name as a fairy illustrator in 1846 with The Fairy Ring, John Edward Taylor’s translation of tales from the Brothers Grimm. However, he had collected folk legends and stories from childhood, and had such a strong imagination that he developed his own vision of fairies and fairyland. This vision culminated most famously in the set of images that were published as In Fairyland (1870), but also fired the series of watercolours that he exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery between 1878 and 1883. Though the present watercolours cannot be identified among the titles of the Grosvenor exhibits, they are typical of those that were shown. The Woodman and the Elves, in particular, is one of a group of works in which a human observes – or is observed by – an assembly of fairies or

Thackeray’s The Newcomes (1854-55) and his own comic novel, The Foreign Tour of Messrs Brown, Jones and Robinson (1854); but his illustrations to Ruskin’s The King of the Golden River (1850) gave a better indication of the course that his work was taking. Making use of both black and white and colour, he began to create a complete fairy world, best known through his images for In Fairyland (1870), with verses appended by William Allingham. However, his fairy world is shown at its most atmospheric in his exquisite independent watercolours. These paintings – built up from small stippled strokes or structured by ink cross-hatching – depict families of subjects, such as fairies sitting in the branches of a tree or various versions of The Altar Cup of Aagerup. Doyle also produced landscapes and views of country houses, such as Longleat, that he visited as a house guest, but these were less well received and he gave them up when he became ill. Devoted to Blanche Stanley, who became the wife of Lord Airlie, he never married. He died at his home – 7 Finborough Road, West Brompton – on 11 December 1883. His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum and the V&A; and the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, MA). Further reading: Rodney Engen, Richard Doyle, Stroud: Catalpa Press, 1983; Rodney Engen, Michael Heseltine and Lionel Lambourne, Richard Doyle and his Family, London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1983; Michael Heseltine, ‘Doyle, Richard [pseud. Dick Kitcat] (1824-1883)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 16, pages 841-843.

other supernatural figures in a woodland setting. Here, a woodman actually disturbs figures dressed in green, a colour identifying them variously as fairies, imps or pixies to the folklorists of the day. Richard’s collaborator, William Allingham, wrote in his most famous poem of ‘Wee folk, good folk,/ Trooping altogether; Green jacket, red cap,/ And white owl’s feather’, and both Richard and Charles Doyle often followed this tradition in representing fairy folk. The Foxhunter’s Nightmare shows this supernatural world at its sparest and most haunting, but injects it with a degree of humour, akin to that employed by Doyle in his social cartoons, for a Victorian gentleman is dreaming of being carried away by a literal ‘night-mare’.


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‘In Oberon’s court, he would at once have been appointed sergeant-painter’ Austin Dobson (Leslie Stephen (ed), Dictionary of National Biography, London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1888, vol 15, page 416)

04 THE WOODMAN AND THE ELVES signed with monogram watercolour and bodycolour with pencil 8 3⁄4 x 12 inches

05 A FOX-HUNTER’S NIGHTMARE watercolour 12 x 18 inches

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THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

CH AR LES DOY L E Charles Altamont Doyle (1832-1893) Charles Doyle was one of the most distinctive fairy painters of the Victorian period, at turns high-spirited, sharp-witted, disturbing and melancholy. However, he was little known in his lifetime, at first overshadowed by his brothers, and later confined to a series of psychiatric hospitals.

For a biography of Charles Doyle, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 10. His work is represented in the collections of the V&A; and The Huntingdon Library (San Marino, CA). Further reading: Michael Baker, The Doyle Diary, London: Paddington Press, 1978 (a facsimile of Charles Doyle’s sketchbook for 1889); Rodney Engen, Michael Heseltine and Lionel Lambourne, Richard Doyle and his Family, London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1983; Daniel Stashower, Teller of Tales. The Life of Arthur Conan Doyle, London: Penguin Books, 1999; Robert R Wark, Charles Doyle’s Fairyland, San Marino: The Huntingdon Library, 1980

Nos 06-12 are taken from a sketch book of the 1880s, which is inscribed ‘Ida with Mama’s love’ and dated ‘11th April 1899’ on the inside front cover. Ida was the nickname of Doyle’s youngest daughter, Jane Adelaide Rose.’

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06 OTIAM CUM DIG SOFA AS I CAN SEE WAYWARDNESS QUEER PLANT MAXIMUM IN MINIMUM IF A GENTLEMAN COULD FLY, HOW HE WOULD LOOK TO GO AHEAD, INFLAME BEHIND inscribed with titles pen and ink 7 x 6 1⁄2 inches


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‘My father, Charles Doyle, was in truth a great unrecognised genius. His mind was on strange moonlight effects, done with extraordinary skill in watercolours; dancing witches, drowning seamen, death coaches on lonely moors at night, and goblins chasing children across churchyards.’ (Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, quoted in Stashower 1999, page 154) 08 THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF IT inscribed with title pen and ink, 2 3⁄4 x 2 1⁄2 inches

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09 A SELF-PORTRAIT: SUMMONED BY DEATH 07 EMBRACING HIS CROSS inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 4 1⁄4 x 2 1⁄2 inches

PUSSIES feintly signed, inscribed ‘Pussies’ and feint extensive caption, and dated ‘4 July 1888’ pen and ink 7 x 6 3⁄4 inches


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

10 AND ON HIS WAYHOME WITH HIS PREY HE MET FAIRIES – DOESN’T THE BIRD LOOK DEAD inscribed with title pen and ink 7 x 9 3⁄4 inches

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11 WHAT IS IN THIS CIST I DON’T KNOW BUT I KNOW THE GIRLS DESERVE TO BE THEMSELVES KIST FOR CARRYING IT SERVE HER RIGHT CONFOUND THAT FLEA! SHAKING HIMSELF AFTER THE ABOVE SCRATCHING MISS HOWLET GUARDIANS AND CHARGE inscribed with titles pen and ink 7 x 9 3⁄4 inches


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12 A SOU-WESTER A NORTH-EASTER DUCKS FALLING OUT inscribed with titles pen and ink 7 x 5 3⁄4 inches reverse: PANEL OVER DOOR TO EDZELL CASTLE COURT THE SUBSTANTIALITY OF THE DESIGN , NO LESS THAN THE INGENUITY OF THE CONSTRUCTION ARE ADMIRABLE

inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 7 x 5 3⁄4 inches

Panel Over Door to Edzell Castle Court Edzell Castle (now in Angus, Scotland) is eight miles northwest of Sunnyside Royal Hospital, Charles Doyle’s home between 1885 and 1892. He is likely to have visited it under supervision. His drawing shows the coat of arms of Sir David Lindsay, Lord Edzell, and his wife, Dame Isabel Forbes, which commemorates the laying out of the garden in 1604. He may have done it from memory rather than observation as he has allowed himself some artistic licence. For instance, the shield does not actually break into the date below. Founded in 1520 by David Lindsay, 9th Earl of Crawford, and expanded by his son, Sir David Lindsay, the castle remained in the family until 1715. However, by the mid eighteenth century it had so fallen victim to military campaigns and asset stripping that it was little more than a ruin. At the time of Doyle’s visits, it was owned by John Ramsay, the 13th Earl of Dalhousie, and managed by a caretaker.


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

WALTER C R A N E Walter Crane, RWS RI ROI (1845-1915) Though he considered himself primarily a painter, Walter Crane was a wide-ranging artist and theorist who, allied to the Arts and Crafts Movement, developed as a significant and influential designer and illustrator. His groundbreaking ‘toy books’ of the 1860s and 1870s, printed by Edmund Evans, increasingly emulated the flat colour and asymmetrical compositions of fashionable Japanese prints. Later, William Morris employed Crane to work for the Kelmscott Press, and encouraged him to turn to Socialism. For a biography of Walter Crane, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 18.

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Key work illustrated: The ‘House That Jack Built’ Alphabet (1865) (the first of Crane’s books, printed by Edmund Evans) Key work written and illustrated: Flora’s Feast (1889) Key work written: Of the Decorative Illustration of Books Old and New (1896) His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the V&A; Manchester Art Gallery; Aberdeen Art Gallery & Museums; the Musée du Louvre (Paris); and the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, MA). Further reading: Alan Crawford, ‘Crane, Walter (1845-1915), H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 13, pages 996-998; Christopher Newall, ‘Crane, Walter (b Liverpool, 15 Aug 1845; d Horsham, W Sussex, 14 March 1915)’, Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 8, pages 121-122; Gregory Smith and Sarah Hyde, Walter Crane: Designer and Socialist, London: Lund Humphries/Manchester: Whitworth Art Gallery, 1989; Isobel Spencer, Walter Crane, London: Studio Vista, 1975 Hermann and Dorothea ‘As demonstrated by his illustrations for socialist publications and for children’s books like The Child’s Socialist Reader [(1907)] and Frederick James Gould’s Pages for Young Socialists (1913), Crane remained committed to socialism until the end of his life. In its obituary for Crane, the London Times wrote, “More even than [William] Morris, he was the artist of the Socialist movement.”’ (Julia L Mickenberg and Philip Nel (eds), Tales for Little Rebels. A collection of radical children’s literature, New York University Press, 2008, page 98) ‘It is for the good of Humanity that most of the maids and lads on earth should love in the pleasant days of courtship, and join their lives in wedded partnership, for “there is nothing real in the world but love.” In the ill-built houses of our towns and villages, and while the struggle for bread is so bitter, a pure and noble courtship is not easily experienced by any, and millions never know its happiness. The Socialist Commonwealth will seek to give all young folk a happy love-time and a happy home, and Goethe’s poem of Hermann and Dorothea (here given in a short and simple story) will picture for us what a noble wooing should be like.’ (F J Gould, Pages for Young Socialists, Manchester/London: The National Labour Press, 1913, page 249, Introduction to ‘At the Wayside Spring’) 13 HERMANN AND DOROTHEA signed with monogram and inscribed with title pen and ink with bodycolour 7 x 5 inches Illustrated: F J Gould, Pages for Young Socialists, Manchester/London: The National Labour Press, 1913, page 249, ‘At The Wayside Spring’


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Nos 14-15 and 17 are all illustrated in Arthur Kelly, The Rosebud and Other Tales, London: T Fisher Unwin, 1909, ‘The Lawn Tennis Ball’ Provenance: Arthur Kelly, and by descent

The Rosebud and Other Tales The author, Arthur Maitland Kelly (born 1874), was the son of the Rev Maitland Kelly, Rector of Plympton St Maurice, Devon, and descended from the Kelly family, Lifton, in the same county. Educated at Winchester and Oxford, he lived variously in London and Devon, and spent time as a magistrate for the latter. He wrote two volumes of original fairy stories about familiar objects, which were published by Charles North: The Lump of Coal (1905) and The Soap Bubbles and Other Tales (1906). Two years later, Kelly commissioned Walter Crane to illustrate a new [extended] edition of these stories as The Rosebud and Other Tales, published by T Fisher Unwin in 1909. Of the 21 drawings produced by Crane, 20 appeared in the book. For the first time in Crane’s career, they were reproduced with photographic colour half-tone printing. Isobel Spencer states that, These show him beginning to take advantage of the subtle effects the process [plate] afforded by the bright colour and strong design, plus the way they are mounted on dark paper, ensures they do not detract from the unified concept of the whole book. (Spencer 1975, page 139) The Scotsman described it as ‘a volume that few young children will be able to resist’ and The Ladies’ Field as ‘a beautifully-bound treasure house of delight for the child who is fortunate enough to possess it’. ‘The Lawn Tennis Ball’ is a fable with the motto: ‘A sorrow’s crown of sorrows is remembering happier things’. A conceited tennis ball has his moment in the limelight when two boys choose to use him for a game. As he flies through the air, he mocks a caterpillar crawling on the ground. However, the boys soon lose him, and he spends a wet summer in the garden. Late in the season, he is visited by the Admiral butterfly who, proud to ‘command the aerial navies of the fairy king’, vaguely remembers being mocked by the tennis ball in an earlier life. 14 THE CONCEITED TENNIS BALL signed with monogram pen ink and watercolour 9 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: facing page 49

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THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

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15 ‘I AM AN ADMIRAL! I COMMAND THE AERIAL NAVIES OF THE FAIRY KING’ signed with monogram pen ink and watercolour 8 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: facing page 60


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16 THEY SEARCHED LONG AND DILIGENTLY, BUT THE TENNIS BALL WAS NOT TO BE FOUND signed with monogram pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 8 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Provenance: Arthur Kelly, and by descent Drawn for but not illustrated in Arthur Kelly, The Rosebud and Other Tales, London: T Fisher Unwin, 1909, ‘The Lawn Tennis Ball’

17 THE BOYS TOOK UP THEIR RACQUETS, READY FOR THE FRAY signed with monogram pen ink and watercolour 8 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: facing page 52


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

2 JOHN TENNIEL

JO H N T E NNIE L Sir John Tenniel, RI (1820-1914) While best remembered as the illustrator of Lewis Carroll’s Alice books, John Tenniel contributed greatly to the look of Punch during the later nineteenth century. Beautifully drawn and highly allusive, his political cartoons remain startling in presenting fantastic imagery with classical polish. For a biography of John Tenniel, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 24. For an essay on the critical reception of Tenniel’s work, please refer to The Illustrators, 1996, pages 127-131.

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Dressing for an Oxford Bal masqué On the 25 November 1864, Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881), then a Conservative back bencher, gave a speech in Oxford at a meeting for the augmentation of small benefices. The speech was in favour of supporting local diocesan institutions in the Church of England. The chair of this meeting was the Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce (1805-1873). Wilberforce was famous at the time for his role in a debate on evolution, held at Oxford University Museum on 30 June 1860 (Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species having been published in November 1859). It was at this debate that Wilberforce was said to have asked biologist, Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), whether it was through his grandmother or grandfather that he was descended from a monkey. ‘The Question is this: Is man an ape or an angel? My lord, I am on the side of the angels. I repudiate with indignation and abhorrence the contrary view, which is, I believe, foreign to the conscience of humanity’ (Disraeli, 25 November 1864)

18 DRESSING FOR AN OXFORD BAL MASQUE ‘ THE QUESTION IS , IS MAN AN APE OR AN ANGEL ? ( A LAUGH ) I AM ON THE SIDE OF THE ANGELS .’ ( CHEERS ) MR DISRAELI ’ S OXFORD SPEECH , NOV 25 1864 signed with monogram and dated 1864 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 10 December 1864, page 239

NOW


2: JOHN TENNIEL

Key works illustrated: Thomas Moore, Lalla Rookh (1861); Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865), Through the Looking-Glass (1872); chief political cartoonist of Punch (1864-1900)

The notes on Tenniel are written by Alexander Beetles. All Tenniel’s pictures (18-33) are Provenance: Mary Green (née Tenniel), the artist’s sister and thence by descent.

His work is represented in the collections of the British Museum and the V&A. Further reading: L Perry Curtis Jnr, ‘Tenniel, Sir John (1820-1914)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 54, pages 131-134; Rodney Engen, Sir John Tenniel: Alice’s White Knight, London: Scolar Press, 1991 The Derby, 1867. Dizzy wins with ‘Reform-bill’ Having played a part in defeating the proposed Reform Bill of Prime Minister Earl Russell (1792-1878) in 1866 and fearing the Conservatives were in danger of being seen as an anti-reform party, Disraeli introduced his own Reform Bill as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1867. The Bill gave the vote to every male adult householder living in a borough constituency, some 1.5 million men. Lord Cranborne (later the Marquess of Salisbury) (1830-1903) resigned in protest at this extension of democracy, but Disraeli was able to persuade his party to vote for the Bill on the basis that the newly enfranchised electorate would be grateful and vote Conservative at the next general election. However, the Bill ultimately aided the Liberals, who returned to power in 1868. The Epsom Derby had been run three days prior to the publication of this cartoon. It was won by Hermit, a horse owned by Henry Chaplin (see The Illustrators, 1999, page 67), who would later become President of the Board of Agriculture under the Marquess of Salisbury.

19 THE DERBY, 1867, DIZZY WINS WITH ‘REFORM-BILL’ MR PUNCH . ‘ DON ’ T BE TOO SURE ; WAIT TILL HE ’ S WEIGHED !’ signed with monogram and dated 1867 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 25 May 1867, page 215

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Rival Stars The defeat of the Reform Bill in 1866 and the subsequent resignation of Lord John Russell and his administration left the Liberal Party, now the opposition, in the hands of the former Conservative politician, William Gladstone (18091898). The Conservative Earl of Derby, Edward Smith-Stanley, became Prime Minister, with Disraeli as Chancellor of the Exchequer. By early 1868, the Earl of Derby was in poor health and, on 27 February, Disraeli took over as Prime Minister. By March 1868, both parties had new leaders, neither of whom had faced a general election. This was the latest chapter in a rivalry that had begun in 1852 with a debate on the budget and would last until Disraeli’s retirement from politics in 1880.

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Five days before this cartoon was published, Ambroise Thomas’ opera Hamlet had opened at the Salle Le Peletier in Paris, with the lead role played by French baritone Jean-Baptiste Faure. A portrait of Faure in the role of Hamlet by Edouard Manet shows him wearing the same costume worn by Disraeli, suggesting that the opening of this production was the inspiration for Tenniel’s cartoon.

20 RIVAL STARS MR BENDIZZY ( HAMLET ). ‘“ TO BE OR NOT TO BE , THAT IS THE QUESTION :” – AHEM !’ MR GLADSTONE ( OUT OF AN ENGAGEMENT ). [ASIDE.] ‘“ LEADING BUSINESS ,” FORSOOTH ! HIS LINE IS “ GENERAL UTILITY !” IS THE MANAGER MAD ? BUT NO MATTER - RR – A TIME WILL COME –’ signed with monogram and dated 1866 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil, 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 14 March 1868, page 115


2: JOHN TENNIEL

25

21 RIVAL CONJURORS PROFESSOR BOB . ‘ THERE IS NO DECEPTION – THE BAG EMPTY. HEY, PRESTO, PASS ! ( PRODUCES THE EGG ) SURPLUS !!!’ PROFESSOR BEN . ‘ WHY, WE COU ’ D HA’ DONE THAT – ( PAUSES ) IF WE ’ D ON ’ Y THOUGHT ON IT.’ signed with monogram and dated 1869 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 6 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 24 April 1869, page 169

IS

Rival Conjurors In December 1868, the Liberals returned to power under Gladstone. Gladstonian Liberalism would become characterised by the introduction of a number of policies intended, amongst other things, to loosen economic constraints. One of Gladstone’s first targets was the minimisation of public expenditure. Overall, national public expenditure was reduced from £71 million in 1868 to £67 million in 1870 and 1871, although it rose again to £74.6 million in 1874. In 1867, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Disraeli had succeeded in producing a surplus of £1.2 million for the Conservative government’s budget. Between 1868 and 1874, under Chancellorship of Robert Lowe (1811-1892), Gladstone’s administration was able to produce five surpluses each year, amounting to £17 million.


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Versailles. Octr 5 1870 Following the defeat of Napoleon III (1808-1873) at the Battle of Sedan on 1 September 1870, Wilhelm I (1797-1888) led his Prussian forces to Paris, signalling the beginning of the end of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). The investment of Paris was begun on 15 September and, three days later, Versailles was taken. Inaugurated as a museum in 1837 by Louis-Philippe (1773-1850) and dedicated to ‘all the glories of France’, Versailles was used as Wilhelm’s headquarters for the remainder of the war and it was here that Wilhelm was declared the first Emperor of the newly unified Germany on 18 January 1871.

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22 VERSAILLES. OCTR 5 1870 GHOST OF LOUIS XIV ( TO GHOST OF NAPOLEON 1 ST ) ‘ IS THIS THE END OF “ALL THE GLORIES ”?’ signed with monogram and dated 1870 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 15 October 1870, page 161


2: JOHN TENNIEL

Aut Caesar, Aut Nihil! Tsar Alexander II of Russia (18181881) ascended the throne during the Crimean War (1853-56), a war that left Russia exhausted, corrupt and humiliated. A period of radical reform followed, with the intention of restoring strength and pride to the country. These reforms included the freeing of serfs in the Emancipation Manifesto of 1861, the introduction of universal military conscription (1874) and the introduction of Zemstvos, local self-governing councils, firstly in rural districts (1864) and then in large towns (1870). Despite these reforms, Alexander II was required to suppress the ‘January Uprising’ of Poles (1863-64) and declare martial law in Lithuania in 1863, which would last for the next 40 years. Alexander II was the target of assassination attempts in 1866, 1879 and 1880. On 13 March 1881, Alexander II was assassinated by the Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will) movement.

23 ‘AUT CAESAR, AUT NIHIL!’ signed with monogram and dated 1879 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 3 May 1879, page 199

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24 ‘FINANCE A LA MODE!’ ( AFTER HOGARTH – A VERY LONG WAY.) ‘ IT WILL SCARCELY BE POSSIBLE TO GO ON CARRYING FORWARD LIABILITIES IN THIS INDEFINITE WAY.’ – TIMES . OCT 1 1879 signed with monogram and dated 1879 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 6 1⁄4 x 8 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 11 October 1879, page 163

‘Finance à la Mode!’ By 1878, Benjamin Disraeli was a man in his mid-seventies, leading a tired administration beset by a host of economic and colonial problems. Trade-union statistics showed that industrial unemployment had risen from 6.8% in 1878 to 11.4% in 1879 and an agricultural depression had led to a famine in Ireland. In Africa, a war with the Zulus that many felt had been preventable ended in August 1879, but not before British forces had suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Isandlwara in January. In Afghanistan, an uprising in Kabul resumed hostilities in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, a conflict that further damaged the reputation of Disraeli’s government. In the general election of 1880, Disraeli’s defeat to Gladstone’s Liberals signalled his retirement from politics. Tenniel’s inspiration comes from an engraving of The Tête à Tête, originally one of six paintings by William Hogarth (1697-1764) in a series called ‘Marriage A-la-Mode’, which chronicles the disastrous results of an ill-conceived marriage for money.


2: JOHN TENNIEL

‘Kismet!!!’ Headed by Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898), the Congress of Berlin was held between 13 June and 13 July 1878 with the intention of reorganising the Balkan states in accordance with the distinct interests of Britain, Russia and Austria-Hungary. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1877-78), Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of San Stefano (1878), which agreed upon a large, independent Bulgaria under Russian protection. However, the other European powers were concerned with the dominant position of Russia in the Balkan region. Therefore, the Congress of Berlin recognised a much smaller independent Bulgarian state under Ottoman suzerainty. Other states, such as Macedonia, were returned outright to the Ottomans upon the condition of reform.

25 ‘KISMET!!!’ signed with monogram and dated 1880 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 17 July 1880, page 19

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26 ‘DOCTOR BISMARCK’ signed with monogram and dated 1882 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 6 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 12 August 1882, page 67

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‘Doctor Bismarck’ The Unification of Germany in 1871 brought with it great economic prosperity, despite the ‘Long Depression’, which hit Europe in 1873. Germany invested and industrialised heavily throughout the 1870s and 1880s and, during this period, Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) aimed to stimulate economic growth by working with big industries to give workers greater security. A secondary concern was the rise of Socialism that came with the growth in the German working class. Two attempts on Kaiser Willhelm’s life in 1878 were the catalyst to Bismarck introducing antiSocialist Laws, denying Socialist organisations the right to assembly and publication. By aiding the German workers, Bismarck would erode support for the Socialists. He opened debate on the subject in November 1881 in the Reichstag, using the term practical Christianity; his focus was on insurance programmes to increase productivity. The first bill was the Health Insurance Bill, passed in 1883. The programme was established to

provide health care for the largest segment of the German workers. He later passed the Accident Insurance Bill (1884) and the Old Age and Disability Insurance Bill (1889). ‘The real grievance of the worker is the insecurity of his existence; he is not sure that he will always have work, he is not sure that he will always be healthy, and he foresees that he will one day be old and unfit to work. If he falls into poverty, even if only through a prolonged illness, he is then completely helpless, left to his own devices, and society does not currently recognize any real obligation towards him beyond the usual help for the poor, even if he has been working all the time ever so faithfully and diligently. The usual help for the poor, however, leaves a lot to be desired, especially in large cities, where it is very much worse than in the country.’ (Bismarck, March 1884)


2: JOHN TENNIEL

‘Question Time’ From 1880 to 1882, Gladstone simultaneously held the positions of Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer. From 1882 until the fall of the Liberal government in 1885, the position of Chancellor was passed to the former Secretary for War, Hugh Childers (1827-1896). Under Childers, Gladstone’s government struggled with a shortfall in the budget and failed in an attempt to implement a conversion of government bonds in 1884. A year later, Childers attempted to resolve the shortfall by increasing alcohol duty and income tax. Childers’ budget was rejected by Parliament and Gladstone’s government, already unpopular over the death of General Gordon in Khartoum, was forced out. The name Micawber, from Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield (1850), has become synonymous with someone who lives in hopeful expectation. Tenniel’s portrayal of Gladstone is as a man who frequently asserts his faith that ‘something will turn up’.

27 ‘QUESTION TIME’ MR GL - DST- NE ( AS MR MICAWBER , ‘ FOR THIS OCCASION ONLY ’). ‘ I AM DELIGHTED TO ADD THAT I HAVE NOW AN IMMEDIATE PROSPECT OF SOMETHING TURNING UP. I AM NOT AT LIBERTY TO SAY IN WHAT DIRECTION ’.

DAVID

COPPERFIELD

signed with monogram and dated 1884 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 10 May 1884, page 223

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32

Calling them Home The death of General Charles Gordon (1833-1885) in Khartoum, Sudan, in 1885 made Gladstone’s position as Prime Minister untenable, forcing his resignation. The Conservative Lord Salisbury (1830-1903) took over the premiership, but because the electoral rolls had not yet been compiled, the general election was postponed until November. As a result, the Liberals still held the most seats in the House of Commons, with the balance of power held by the Irish Nationalists, led by Charles Parnell (1846-1891), who held 63 seats. Rumours circulated in the press that Gladstone had ‘converted’ to supporting Irish Home Rule, a move to win the support of the Irish Nationals in the House of Commons. Although the Liberals failed to win a majority in November 1885, Gladstone’s son, Herbert, confirmed his father’s support of Irish Home Rule in December 1885, in what the press dubbed ‘flying the Hawarden kite’ (so named after Hawarden Castle, Flintshire, the Gladstone family estate). On 27 January 1886, Irish voting defeated Lord Salisbury in the Commons and Gladstone returned to power.

28 CALLING THEM HOME signed with monogram and dated 1885 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 21 November 1885, page 247


2: JOHN TENNIEL

The Grand Young Man!! From the late 1870s, Lord Randolph Churchill (1849-1895) rose to prominence as the advocate of a new form of Conservatism that would become known as ‘Tory Democracy’. Churchill declared that Conservatives ought to adopt, rather than oppose, popular reforms; that the claims of the Liberals as being champions of the masses should be challenged, following on from the social reforms passed by Disraeli between 1874 and 1880. An ardent critic of the Conservative front bench, Churchill was appointed Secretary of State for India in 1885 and, following an active role in the failure of Gladstone’s Home Rule Bill in 1886, was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons under Lord Salisbury in August 1886.

29 THE GRAND YOUNG MAN!! SHADE OF ‘ DIZZY ’. ‘ DEAR ME ! QUITE REMINDS ONE OF OLD TIMES !!’ signed with monogram and dated 1886 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 7 August 1886, page 67

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34

Sink or Swim!! After Irish support in the Commons ensured his return to office in February 1886, Gladstone told his Liberal party he intended to enquire into the possibility of Home Rule for Ireland. However, the introduction of the First Home Rule Bill on 8 April 1886 led to the resignation of the President of the Local Government Board, Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914), who desired a legislative body for Ireland, in favour of an independent parliament. Chamberlain, along with Secretary of State for War, Lord Hartington (1833-1908), held meetings with Liberals and Irish MPs in an attempt to dissuade them from voting for the Bill. The split in the party led by Chamberlain saw the Bill defeated by 24 votes. 93 Liberals had voted against it and Gladstone once again stepped down.

30 SINK OR SWIM!! signed with monogram and dated 1886 inscribed with title on original mount pencil 8 1â „4 x 6 1â „4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 10 April 1886, page 175


2: JOHN TENNIEL

A Waiting Game The First Home Rule Bill of 1886 had split the Liberal Party, resulting in the formation of the Liberal Unionist Party under the former Secretary of State for War, Lord Hartington (1833-1908), and Joseph Chamberlain. The failure of the Bill also saw the return of Lord Salisbury’s administration, with Lord Randolph Chamberlain as the new Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. After the general election of 1886, Lord Hartington declined the opportunity to become Prime Minister, preferring instead to hold the balance of power in the House of Commons.

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31 A WAITING GAME H - RT- NGT- N . ‘ HULLO, RANDOLPH ! WHAT ’ S YOUR LITTLE GAME NOW ?’ R - ND - LPH . ( ASIDE – SOTTO VOCE ). ‘ALL RIGHT ! WANT HIM TO SHOW HIS HAND !’ signed with monogram and dated 1886 inscribed with title and publication details on original mount pencil 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 18 September 1886, page 139


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36

The Eleventh Hour In 1899, having failed to persuade the British government to send more troops to Africa, Commander-inchief of the British Army Lord Wolseley (1833-1913), sent Colonel Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) to the Cape Colony in an attempt to raise troops and supplies. In addition to this, Baden-Powell was also charged with resisting the expected Boer invasion of the Natal Colony and with drawing troops away from the coast to allow for the arrival of potential reinforcements. Baden-Powell felt that the most effective way of tying down Boer troops was through defence rather than attack, and so chose to hold to town of Mafeking, located near the colony border. He successfully held the town for 217 days before the army of Field Marshall Lord Roberts (1832-1914) fought their way into the town and relieved the beleaguered defenders. ‘At present it is impossible for us to leave our trenches in order to give battle to the enemy, but we are still buoyed up by the hope of being able before long to take up the offensive. In the meantime, most of us live with our rifles in our hands, our bandoliers round our shoulders, existing upon food of the roughest kind, peering over sandbags at the distant position of the Boers’ (Baden-Powell, 1900)

32 THE ELEVENTH HOUR COLONEL BADEN-POWELL (TO MAFEKING). ‘ALL RIGHT! CHEER UP! “BOBS” IS A MAN OF HIS WORD!’ signed with monogram and dated 1900 pencil, 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 9 May 1900, page 33


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37

Across the Dark Continent By late 1899, Britain was at war at opposing ends of the African continent. The Sudanese Mahdists had revolted against Egypt in 1881 and by 1885 had taken the Sudanese capital city of Khartoum. The British General, Charles Gordon, was killed in the process, much to the outrage of the British press. However, on 24 November 1899, the Anglo-Egyptian forces under the command of General Reginald Wingate (1861-1953) defeated the last of the Mahdist forces at the Battle of Umm Biwaykarat, killing the Khalifa Abdallahi Ibn-Mohammed (1846-1899) in the process. Meanwhile, a Boer advance on British-held Natal on 11 October had begun the Second Boer War. Commanding the 1st Infantry Division, Lord Methuen (1845-1932) marched on Natal in November 1899, defeating the Boer forces at the Battles of Belmont and Gaspan.

33 ACROSS THE DARK CONTINENT GIPPY. ‘ BRAVO, CAPE !’ TOMMY. ‘ BRAVO, CAIRO !’ signed with monogram pencil 6 1⁄4 x 8 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 6 December 1899, page 271


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3 VICTORIAN CARTOONISTS

CH A RL E S KE E NE Charles Samuel Keene (1823-1891) Becoming associated, from the 1860s, with his Punch cartoons of urban street life, Charles Keene developed a great reputation as a draughtsman, and was revered by many of his contemporaries. For a biography of Charles Keene, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 27.

CHARLES KEENE (1823-1891) SPY (LESLIE WARD) (1851-1922) PHIL MAY (1864-1903)

Key works illustrated: Douglas Jerrold, Mrs Caudle’s Curtain Lectures (1866); contributed to Once a Week; chief social cartoonist of Punch (1864-90) His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum, the National Portrait Gallery, Tate and the V&A; and the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford) and The Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge). Further reading: Simon Houfe, Charles Keene. ‘The Artist’s Artist’ 1823-1891, London: Christie’s/Punch, 1991; Simon Houfe, ‘Keene, Charles Samuel (1823-1891)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 31, pages 29-32; Simon Houfe, The Work of Charles Samuel Keene, London: Scolar Press, 1995; Derek Hudson, Charles Keene, London: Pleiades Books, 1947; Lewis Johnson, ‘Keene, Charles (Samuel) (b London, 10 Aug 1823; d London, 4 Jan 1891)’, Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 17, page 877

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‘the greatest artist in black and white England ever produced’ (Harry Furniss, quoted in Bryant and Heneage 1994, page 85)

34 BEWARE! HE ( POETICAL ): ' OH

AMANDA ! WHY DO

YOU SHRINK FROM MY EMBRACE AS THE STARTLED FAWN TREMBLES AT THE RUSTLING OF THE AUTUMN LEAVES ? WHY

–'

SHE : ' CAUSE I ' VE JUST BEEN VACCINATED !'

signed with monogram pen and ink 7 x 4 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 10 March 1883, page 110


3: VICTORIAN CARTOONISTS

35 PRESENCE OF MIND CONSTABLES ( IN CHORUS ): ' HOY ! HULLO ! STOP ! TURN BACK THERE ! CAN ' T COME THROUGH THE PARK .' ELDERLY FEMALE ( IN A HURRY TO CATCH A TRAIN ): ' P ' LICEMAN , I ' M THE ' OME SECRETARY !!!' SERGEANT OF POLICE ( TAKEN ABACK ): ' OH , I BEG YOUR PARDON , I ' M SURE , MUM ! ALL RIGHT – DRIVE ON CABBY !' ( OLD LADY SAVES THE TRAIN ) inscribed ‘P’liceman, I’m The ‘Ome Sec’etary!!’ and ‘Oh I beg yer pardon I’m sure Mum all rt drive on cabby’ inscribed with title on original label pen and ink 4 1⁄4 x 7 inches Illustrated: Punch, 18 May 1867, page 202

36 THE ENEMY HORRID BOY ( TO NEWLY- APPOINTED VOLUNTEER MAJOR , WHO FINDS THE MILITARY SEAT VERY AWKWARD ): ' SIT FURTHER BACK , GENERAL ! YOU ' LL MAKE HIS ' EAD ACHE !' signed with monogram pen and ink 5 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, Almanack for 1884, [unpaginated]

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SPY

His work is represented in the collections of the National Portrait Gallery.

Sir Leslie Ward, RP (1851-1922), known as ‘Spy’

Further reading: Peter Mellini, ‘Ward, Sir Leslie [pseud. Spy] (1851-1922)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 57, pages 325-326

For almost forty years, the caricaturist, Leslie Ward, was synonymous with the society paper, Vanity Fair. His ‘character portraits’ were invariably well observed and witty, but rarely cruel. For a biography of Spy, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 37. Staff caricaturist of Vanity Fair (1873-1911)

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Lord Stanley of Alderley Henry Stanley, 3rd Baron Stanley of Alderley (1827-1903), was a historian specialising in European exploration and expansion of the sixteenth century. He was Vice-President of the Hakluyt Society, which published his editions and translations, including Ferdinand Magellan’s The First Voyage Round the World (1874). Fascinated by all things oriental from a young age, Stanley showed an interest in Arabic while at Eton and – as a confident linguist – began to read it at Cambridge. Leaving university after a year, he became précis writer to Lord Palmerston, the foreign secretary, and worked in various positions in the diplomatic service for over a decade. In 1859, he left the service in order to travel in the Near East and Asia, and reached as far as Indonesia. It was also rumoured that he visited Mecca in order to convert to Islam. Continuing to travel through the 1860s, he made a secret Islamic marriage in 1862, to a Spanish woman, Fabia Fernandez Funes. (They underwent further marriage ceremonies at the register office at St George, Hanover Square, in 1869, and at St Alban’s Roman Catholic Church, Macclesfield, in 1874. Only after her death in 1905 was it discovered that Fabia was a bigamist, who had already married in 1851, and whose husband did not die until 1870.) In 1869, Stanley succeeded his father as the 3rd Baron Alderley and took his place in the House of Lords. However, while intending to announce his conversion to Islam, he seems not to have done so and, despite speaking on questions relating to religion and to India, failed to impress his fellow peers. As a result of his Muslim principles, he closed the public houses on his Cheshire estate, and ensured that churches built or restored on his land, such as that at Llanbadrig, Anglesey, used exclusively geometrical glass. He was also buried according to Muslim rites. His nephew, Bertrand Russell, described him as ‘definitely stupid’, but Muriel E Chamberlain, writing in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, has countered that he was ‘brilliant, eccentric, and unstable’ (Matthew and Harrison 2004, vol 52, page 214) 37 LORD STANLEY OF ALDERLEY signed inscribed with title and dated ‘Oct 1st 1883’ below mount watercolour with bodycolour 10 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄4 inches Drawn for but not illustrated in Vanity Fair


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Colonel William Cornwallis West MP William Cornwallis West (1835-1917) was born in Florence, the youngest child of Frederick West of Ruthin Castle, Denbighshire. Following his education – at Eton and Lincoln’s Inn – he returned to Florence and developed his talent as a painter, gaining a reputation as a copyist, and also collecting. On the early death of his elder brother, Frederick, in 1868, he succeeded to the estate of Ruthin, and four years later married seventeenyear-old Mary Fitzpatrick, who would become a leading socialite (and have an affair with the Prince of Wales). They shared their time between Ruthin and 49 Eaton Place. West became High Sheriff of Denbighshire (1872), Lord-Lieutenant of Denbighshire (1872-1917), a Justice of the Peace and Honorary Colonel in the 4th Battalion of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, and was awarded the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Officers’ Decoration. In 1885 he was returned to Parliament for Denbighshire West, a seat he held until 1892, first as a Liberal and then as a Liberal Unionist. On the death of his mother in 1886, West came into possession of Newlands Manor, Lymington, Hampshire, and attempted to develop the resort of Milford on Sea in emulation of the Duke of Devonshire’s project at Eastbourne. His children included George, who was the second husband of Jennie Jerome, mother of Winston Churchill, and then the second husband of the actress, Mrs Patrick Campbell; Daisy, Princess of Pless; and Constance Edwina, Duchess of Westminster.

38 COLONEL WILLIAM CORNWALLIS-WEST MP signed watercolour with bodycolour 15 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Vanity Fair, 16 July 1892, Statesmen no 595, ‘Denbighshire’

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P HI L M AY Philip William May, RI RP NEAC (1864-1903) Sometimes referred to as the ‘grandfather of British illustration’, Phil May was one of the most influential black-and-white artists of his generation. Earthy, street-wise, and redolent of the music hall, his work is the antithesis of that of Aubrey Beardsley. For a biography of Phil May, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 38. For a caricature of the artist by E T Reed, see The Illustrators, 1999, page 46; for a photograph of the artist, see The Illustrators, 1992, page 70; for self-portraits, see The Illustrators, 1991, page 52, and 1999, page 60. Key works illustrated: William Allison, ‘The Parson and the Painter’ (serialised in St Stephen’s Review, 1890); Phil May Annual (1892-1904); contributed to Punch (from 1893), Guttersnipes (1896) His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum, the National Portrait Gallery, Tate and the V&A; Leeds Art Gallery; the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; and the National Library of Australia (Canberra).

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Further reading: David Cuppleditch, Phil May. The Artist and His Wit, London: Fortune Press, 1981; Simon Houfe, ‘May, Philip William [Phil] (1864-1903)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 37, pages 556-558; Simon Houfe, Phil May. His Life and Work, 1864-1903, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002; James Thorpe, Phil May, London: Art and Technics, 1948

Work by Phil May in the M W Ingram Collection Michael Ingram was great grandson of Herbert Ingram (1811-1860), the founder of The Illustrated London News. A collector of drawings and watercolours, he inherited part of the significant collection of his uncle, Sir Bruce Ingram (1877-1963) and, it would seem, the Phil Mays owned by his grandfather, Sir William Ingram (1847-1924). Sir William Ingram was not only Managing Director of The Illustrated London News, but also one of the founders, in 1893, of The Sketch, which frequently commissioned work from Phil May. In 1914, he placed over five thousand original drawings at the disposal of the department of Engraving, Illustration and Design at the Victoria and Albert Museum, in order for it to make a choice. However, many of the Phil Mays must have been retained by the family. Many thanks to Simon Houfe for help in compiling this note.

39 EASTER MONDAY ’ ARRY: ' DO YOU PASS ANY PUBS ON THE WAY TO BROADSTAIRS , CABBY ?' CABBY: ' YES , LOTS ' ’ ARRY: ' WELL DON ' T !' signed and dated 98 inscribed with title and part of caption, and stamped with M W Ingram Collection mark below mount pen and ink 7 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄4 inches Provenance: M W Ingram Illustrated: Punch, 6 April 1898, page 171 Literature: R E Williams (ed), A Century of Punch, London: William Heinemann, 1956, page 198


3: VICTORIAN CARTOONISTS

40 OVERHEARD AT A COUNTRY FAIR ’ ERE Y ' ARE ! ALL THE JOLLY FUN ! LIDIES ' TORMENTORS TWO A PENNY !' signed and dated 99 inscribed with title and stamped with M W Ingram Collection mark below mount pen and ink 9 1⁄4 x 6 3⁄4 inches Provenance: M W Ingram Illustrated: Punch, 27 September 1899, page 147

43

41 THE MAJOR: 'YES, BY JOVE. ALL THAT CONFOUNDED DRINK. THE ONE LOWERING THE OTHER!' signed and dated 1901 inscribed with title below mount inscribed with alternative titles on reverse pen and ink 9 1⁄4 x 6 3⁄4 inches Provenance: H P Vacher; M W Ingram Illustrated: Tatler Exhibited: Leicester Galleries, November 1912, no 96


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4 GEORGE DU MAURIER

G E O RG E D U M AU R I E R George Louis Palmella Busson Du Maurier (1834-1896) Equally talented as artist and writer, George Du Maurier developed a cartoon format for Punch that balanced text and image in order to record and satirise the fashions and foibles of society. For a biography of George Du Maurier, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 30. Key works written and illustrated: Trilby (1895); chief society cartoonist of Punch (1864-96) His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum and the V&A.

44

42 WHY SHOULDN’T GIRTON RINK, WHEN CAMBRIDGE ROWS? signed, inscribed ‘To Mrs Monica Neave with best wishes’ and dated ‘May 1878’ pen and ink 9 3⁄4 x 12 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 15 April 1876, page 150


4: GEORGE DU MAURIER

Further reading: Leonée Ormond, ‘Du Maurier, George Louis Palmella Busson (1834-1896)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 17, pages 177-180; Leonée Ormond, George Du Maurier, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969; Leonée Ormond, ‘Du Maurier, George (Louis Palmella Busson) (b Paris, 6 March 1834; d London, 8 Oct 1896)’, Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 9, page 384

45

43 TRUE TACT MRS SILVERTONGUE

( WHO

HAS BEEN CHATTING

MOST AGREEABLY TO MR WILKES FOR THE LAST TWO HOURS ). ‘ O, DON ’ T TALK TO ME OF UGLY MEN , MR WILKES ! I MAKE A POINT OF NEVER EVEN SPEAKING TO ONE !’

( MR

WILKES , WHO IS RATHER SICK OF BEING

TOLD BY WOMEN THAT THEY ON THE WHOLE OBJECT TO GOOD LOOKS IN THE MALE SEX , APPRECIATES THE REMARK IMMENSELY )

signed and signed with initials, inscribed with title and caption and ‘To Miss Gertrude Talbot Grey with kindest wishes from her sincere friends Emma & George Du Maurier’, and dated ‘Feb 1873’ and ‘July 16th 1874’ pen and ink 9 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 15 February 1873, page 73


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

44-57 are all illustrated in Punch, Almanack for 1892, [unpaginated], ‘Tom Noddy’s Christmas Nightmare’

Tom Noddy’s Christmas Nightmare The phrase for a foolish or stupid person, ‘Tom Noddy’ entered the English language in 1828, and gained in popularity through at least two works: T H Bayly’s farce, Tom Noddy’s Secret (1838), and the Rev R H Barham’s comic poem in The Ingoldsby Legends (1840) that begins, ‘My Lord Tomnoddy got up one day’. Perhaps as the result of his involvement with the various editions of The Ingoldsby Legends, John Leech chose the name, Tom Noddy, for a character he included in his own cartoons from the mid 1850s. As M H Spielmann explains in The History of Punch, Leech’s ‘ridiculous little man’ was based on ‘the estimable Mr Mike Halliday, sometime clerk of the House of Lords, and latterly poet and successful artist’, who ‘was as pleased as Punch himself at the distinction conferred upon him and his doings by the artist’ (page 426). While the phrase, ‘Tom Noddy’, was in common usage by 1860, Stanley Kidder Wilson believes that it was Leech’s character that provided the ‘prototype of the “cad”’ as drawn by later Punch cartoonists, and specifically George Du Maurier’s snobbish Cockney ’Arry, Mr Belleville. (Wilson was writing an introduction to the Catalogue of an exhibition of works by John Leech held at the Grolier Club in 1914.) However, Du Maurier’s Tom Noddy is surely a more refined yet less secure type. Martha Banta has seen him as Du Maurier’s own ‘hapless alter-ego’ whose narrative works through

46

a series of Victorian phobias about social contacts … : sexual anxieties (Tom wishes to win the hand of the lovely Vera Gilpin but fears he’s a fool in her eyes); race antipathies (a vulgar, flamboyantly rigged-out man with a monstrous nose as possible rival for Vera’s favor; the heterogeneous crowd populated by grotesquely featured individuals); class tensions (Tom is menaced by ‘the beastly cabman’ because he has no money, receives jeers from irreverent street urchins, and is embarrassed by a guest-list filled with ‘Royalty – Ambassadors – Bishops’ who witness the public humilation of a rattled young man attired only in a nightshirt, top hat and umbrella).

44 I SUDDENLY WAKE UP AND REMEMBER TO-NIGHT’S MRS BONAMY’S SMALL & EARLY, AND THAT VERA GILPIN WILL BE THERE. THINK I’LL GO inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘Illustration to a dream’ and with the caption to an unrelated cartoon on reverse pen and ink 6 1⁄4 x 4 1⁄2 inches

(Barbaric Intercourse: caricature and the culture of conduct. 1841-1936, The University of Chicago Press, 2003, page 106) If anything, that ‘nightshirt, top hat and umbrella’ make him seem an innocent abroad, and a possible precursor to the popular image of John Darling, the elder of Wendy’s two brothers in J M Barrie’s play, Peter Pan, which was first performed on 27 December 1904, just over a decade after the publication of Tom Noddy’s Christmas Nightmare.


4: GEORGE DU MAURIER

‘I felt like Lord Tom Noddy in one of George Du Maurier’s nightmares’ (George Grossmith, GG, London: Hutchinson & Co, page 12)

47

45 NEEDN’T PUT ON EVENING DRESS. THERE’S NO STIFFNESS ABOUT THE BONAMYS. GO JUST AS I AM. FINE NIGHT. NOT VERY LATE. MAY AS WELL WALK THERE AND SMOKE A CIGAR. AWFUL NUISANCE IF THEY’RE ALL GOT UP TO THE NINES! signed inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 5 1⁄4 x 6 inches

46 COMES ON TO RAIN. STUPID NOT TO HAVE PUT ON MY GOLOSHES; SO MUDDY, TOO! inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 6 1⁄2 x 2 1⁄4 inches


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

48

47 GETS DARKER AND DARKER. CAN’T SEE MY WAY A BIT. HAPPY THOUGHT – HANSOM! POLICEMAN SAYS IT’S A COLD NIGHT, AND SEEMS TO THINK I OUGHT TO HAVE PUT ON A CAPE, OR A COMFORTER, OR SOMETHING. THOUGHTFUL OF HIM. DO FEEL RATHER CHILLY. GOT MY JAEGERS ON, FORTUNATELY! inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 5 3⁄4 x 6 3⁄4 inches

48 GETS LIGHTER AGAIN. BEASTLY NIGHT, THOUGH. CAPITAL HORSE. WONDER WHETHER I OUGHT TO HAVE PUT ON DRESS-CLOTHES AFTER ALL. TOO LATE NOW; BUT ONE IS ALWAYS SAFE IN EVENING DRESS, WHATEVER HAPPENS! inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 5 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches


4: GEORGE DU MAURIER

49

49 CONFOUND IT! LEFT ALL MY MONEY AT HOME IN MY WAISTCOAT POCKET! THAT’S THE WORST OF NOT DRESSING! CABMAN INSOLENT. ROW signed inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ and with the caption to an unrelated cartoon on reverse pen and ink 5 1⁄2 x 4 1⁄4 inches

50 LARGE PARTY! RED BAIZE! ROYALTY! WISH I’D DRESSED! ‘ERE’S A SWELL AS CAN’T PAY HIS CAB, AND AIN’T GOT NO DRESS CLOTHES SHIME!’ signed inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 4 1⁄2 x 3 3⁄4 inches


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

50

51 NO IDEA THE BONAMY’S LIVED IN SUCH STYLE. WISH TO GOODNESS I’D ONLY DRESSED. MUST EXPLAIN TO MRS B ... SHE’S A WOMAN OF THE WORLD. SHE’LL UNDERSTAND signed inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 5 1⁄4 x 3 1⁄2 inches

52 SPLENDID PART. ROYALTY, AMBASSADORS, BISHOPS, ALL THE LIONS OF THE SEASON. NO TIME TO EXPLAIN TO MRS B ... BESIDES, SHE NEVER NOTICES MEN’S DRESS. TOLD ME HERSELF inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 4 1⁄2 x 4 3⁄4 inches


4: GEORGE DU MAURIER

51

53 ASK A YOUNG MASHER IF HE THINKS IT MATTERS MUCH ABOUT DRESS. HE SAYS NOT, SO LONG AS ONE LOOKS LIKE A GENTLEMAN. SAYS HE’S A GENTLEMAN OF BLUE BLOOD HIMSELF, AZURE ON A FIELD OR signed inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 5 3⁄4 x 4 inches pencil drawing of two figures watching a rowing boat on reverse

54 ASK HIM TO TELL ME, AS A GENTLEMAN, IF I LOOK LIKE A GENTLEMAN. SAYS HE’S NOT QUITE SURE. SO THERE’S A ROW. HE BLEEDS GULES ON A FIELD ARGENT, AS I THOUGHT HE WOULD. I DON’T BLEED ANYTHING WORTH SWAGGERING ABOUT signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 5 1⁄2 x 5 inches


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

52

55 WHEN THE ROW’S OVER, I’M PRESENTED TO HRH PRINCESS FREDEGUNDA ZU DONNERHAUSEN VON BLITZENSTEIN. THE BAND STRIKES UP ‘DREAM FACES’, AND HRH INVITES ME TO WALTZ. WISH I’D GOT ON MY NEW MAUVE PYJAMAS WITH THE SILVER FRINGE, INSTEAD OF THOSE BEASTLY JAEGERS signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 5 1⁄2 x 6 3⁄4 inches

56 THERE’S NO STIFFNESS ABOUT ROYALTY, ANYHOW. SHE GETS BIGGER AND BIGGER, AND TELLS ME THAT I AM ‘ZE ITEAL OF HER KIRLISH TREAMS.’ THIS IS ALL VERY WELL; BUT I’M ENGAGED TO MARRY VERA GILPIN, AND VERA GILPIN HAS JUST ARRIVED! signed inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 5 1⁄4 x 5 1⁄2 inches reverse (not illustrated): WHAT AN ARTIST’S WIFE HAS TO PUT UP WITH

inscribed with title and caption pencil, 6 1⁄2 x 5 inches


4: GEORGE DU MAURIER

53

57 BESIDES, WE’RE MAKING A SENSATION, AND EVERYBODY STARES, WHICH I HATE; AND VERA GILPIN HAS GOT TEARS IN HER LOVELY EYES! SO I MANAGE TO GIVE HRH THE SLIP AND CRAWL UNDER THE PIANO – AND THERE, CONFOUND IT! I MEET THAT BEASTLY CABMAN, WHO ACTUALLY DARES SAY THAT I – signed inscribed with title and ‘(to be continued in Punch’s Almanac for 1893)’ below mount inscribed ‘A dream’ on reverse pen and ink 6 1⁄4 x 10 1⁄4 inches


THE NINETEENT H CENTURY

54

58 THE RED ORDER CHANGETH LADY BETTY ( PROUD OF THE OLD ANCESTRAL

MANSION WHERE THE

FAMILY HAVE LIVED EVER SINCE THE REIGN OF HENRY THE EIGHTH ): ‘ JUST FANCY WHAT PAPA ' S HAVING DONE ! HE ' S HAVING THE ELECTRIC LIGHT PUT IN !’ PROSAIC SISTER IN LAW FROM CHICAGO : ‘ I ’ M GLAD TO HEAR IT. IT ’ LL BE THE MAKING OF THE PLACE !’

signed, inscribed with artist's address and dated ‘Dec 93’ inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink 9 1⁄2 x 6 inches Illustrated: Punch, 30 December 1893, page 302

59 THE POETICAL TEMPERAMENT: ‘ THERE WERE AT LEAST A THOUSAND BOATS ON THE ROUND POND WHEN I WAS HERE IN THE SUMMER , AUNTY SYLVIA , AND NOW HERE ISN ’ T ONE !’ ‘ HARDLY A THOUSAND, GEOFFREY !’ ‘ OH WELL ! EXAGGERATING , QUITE A THOUSAND, YOU KNOW !’ signed signed and dated ‘Jan ’96’ below mount pen and ink 10 x 7 inches Illustrated: Punch, 11 April 1896, page 179


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

5 EDWARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS WARWICK GOBLE (1862-1943) ALAN WRIGHT (1864-1959) & ANNE ANDERSON (1878-1930)

56

SIDNEY HERBERT SIME (1864/67-1941) BEATRIX POTTER (1866-1943) FLORENCE HARRISON (1877-1955)

WARWICK G O BL E Warwick Goble (1862-1943) Warwick Goble was a significant contributor to the art of the Gift Book, the beautiful illustrated volumes of classic stories that were published during the early twentieth century. As a result of his interest in Asia, and of travels in that continent, he was often called to illustrate its traditional stories, and did so elegantly, even exquisitely, as a late exponent of Aestheticism. Warwick Goble was born in Dalston, London, on 22 October 1862, the son of a commercial traveller. He was educated at the City of London School, where he revealed an early talent for watercolour painting. He was then employed for several years by a printing firm that specialised in chromolithography and commercial design work, while taking evening classes at Westminster School of Art. He contributed illustrations to various newspapers and periodicals before joining the staff of the Pall Mall Gazette and the Westminster Gazette and was considered an accomplished black and white artist. Nevertheless, his reputation rests mainly upon the charm of his colour book illustrations, which were influenced by Oriental art. In 1909, he became resident illustrator for Macmillan, beginning with Charles Kingsley’s The Water Babies, and then notably with Dinah Craik’s The Fairy Book (1913). His work for A & C Black, illustrating Constantinople (1906) and Turkey (1911), show at once that he based his Orientalism on first hand experience and that he could work in pastel as equally well as in watercolour. He exhibited at London societies and dealers, especially at the Fine Art Society (1909, 1910, 1911) and Walker’s Galleries. During the First World War, he was employed in a drawing office at Woolwich Arsenal, and later worked for the British Red Cross. From the mid 1920s, he gradually gave up illustration in order to pursue favourite recreations: cycling, sculling and travelling. He died at his home at Shepherd’s Hill, Merstham, Surrey, on 22 January 1943.

ARTHUR RACKHAM (1867-1939) JOHN HASSALL (1868-1948) ERNEST ARIS, FSZ SGA (1882-1963) HELEN JACOBS (1888-1970) HARRY CLARKE (1889-1931)

60 THE LAND OF YOMI signed pen ink and watercolour on paper laid on board 13 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄2 inches Provenance: The John K Mclaughlin Collection Illustrated: Grace James, Green Willow and Other Japanese Fairy Tales, London: Macmillan, 1910, page 180


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

57


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

ALAN WRIGHT AND ANNE ANDERSON Alan Wright (1864-1959) and Anne Anderson (1878-1930) Through her use of line and watercolour, Anne Anderson produced a bright, yet delicate nursery world, which proved particularly popular during the 1920s. She often collaborated with her husband, Alan Wright, who was a distinctive illustrator in his own right, with a particular talent for animal subjects. Anne Anderson was the daughter of James Anderson, a junior director of Henry Balfour & Co, an engineering firm based at Leven in Fife, Scotland. Born in Walworth, London, while her father was on business, she spent her early years in Scoonie, near Leven, and attended the local school. When her father travelled to Argentina to work on an engineering contract for its government, the family, including Anne, went too. There she made a close friend in Olive Hockin, the daughter of another expatriate.

58

On returning to Britain, Anderson lived for a while with Hockin’s friend, Guinevere Donnithorne, at Palace Gardens, in London. All three friends studied at the Slade School of Fine Art. Though first influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites and Hockin’s interpretation of them, Anderson soon looked to such contemporaries as Jessie M King and Mabel Lucie Attwell as she decided to become an illustrator. At the outset of her career, she settled at Little Audrey, the gatehouse to Audrey, the home of Hockin’s family, at Burghfield Common, in rural Berkshire. While illustrating books for Henry Froude and Hodder & Stoughton, Anderson met Alan Wright, a fellow illustrator who would become her husband. Wright was born on 30 September 1864. He spent his childhood near Chard, in Somerset, before moving with his family to Hampstead, in London. He studied at St John’s Wood School of Art, and exhibited an oil painting at the Royal Academy in 1889. He shared rooms in Hammersmith with Gleeson White, the first editor of The Studio, and began to produce a prolific number of illustrations, including those for G E Farrow’s ‘Wallypug’, a series originally worked on by Harry Furniss. His introduction by Gleeson White to the self-styled Baron Corvo led in 1898 to his illustration of a story of Corvo in The Wide World Magazine. As a result, an all-out personal attack by the press on the homosexual Corvo detrimentally affected his own career. From about 1890 until 1910, he shared a studio-flat in Holland Park with George Vernon Stokes, and his wife, and he and Stokes collaborated closely on several books. However, his fortunes really improved only in 1911, on meeting Anderson. Anderson and Wright married in June 1912, and then lived together at Little Audrey, where they embarked on a working partnership. If Wright’s early work had affected a woodcut style, with Celtic and Gothic emphases, he suppressed a degree of his originality in order to collaborate with his wife, as exemplified by the animals and birds needed in her compositions. In addition to illustrating more than a hundred books, Anderson produced postcard images and designed nursery china tea sets. She also exhibited paintings and etchings at the Royal Society of British Artists. After her death, Wright produced hunting and coaching scenes for calendars and greetings cards. Further reading on Alan Wright: Maleen Matthews, ‘An Illustrator of the ’Nineties’, Book Collector, winter 1979, pages 530-544

61 'TEA-TIME TALES' BY NATALIE JOAN signed pen ink and watercolour on tinted paper 10 1⁄4 x 8 1⁄4 inches Preliminary design by Anne Anderson for Natalie Joan, Cosy-Time Tales, London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1922, front cover (from the original mock-up) Drawn on the reverse of a copy of the dust jacket of The Betty Book, London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1917


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

The Strange Adventures of Pedlar Mole Alan Wright originally wrote and illustrated the serial, ‘Pedlar Mole’, for the newspaper, the Sunday Pictorial. It appeared there during 1935, under the pseudonym, ‘Aubrey Little’, which Maleen Matthews has suggested might be a pun on ‘Little Audrey’, the home that he shared with Anne Anderson (Matthews 1979, page 542). The success of the serial led him to consider publication in book form, and even a series in emulation of Beatrix Potter.

62-65 were all drawn by Alan Wright for the unpublished volume, Aubrey Little [Alan Wright], The Strange Adventures of Pedlar Mole

59

62 THE STRANGE ADVENTURES OF PEDLAR MOLE, BY AUBREY LITTLE pen and ink on tracing paper 6 3⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Design for front cover

63 THE PEDLAR WAS THERE IN THE BAR-PARLOUR TALKING AWAY TO THE LANDLORD HOUSEMOUSE inscribed 'Alternative front cover' and with typed title label below mount pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 5 1⁄2 x 4 1⁄2 inches Drawn for ‘Pedlar Mole's Apple Wine'


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

60

64 RAG-A-MUFFIN RAT HAD A MUG OF GOOSEBERRY BEER AT THE CHEESE INN signed with monogram inscribed with title and 'Front cover' below mount watercolour and pencil 5 1⁄4 x 4 1⁄4 inches

65 PEDLAR MOLE DROPPED THE LID AND STARTED BACK signed with monogram inscribed with title below mount watercolour and pencil 5 1⁄2 x 4 1⁄2 inches Drawn for ‘Pedlar Mole's Forty Winks’


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

66-69 are all preliminary drawings, from the original mock-ups, for Alan Wright and Anne Anderson, The Patsy Book, Being The Adventures of Patsy, Patty and Pat, London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1919

61

66 PATSY & PAT GO TO VISIT PATTY pen ink and watercolour with pencil 9 x 7 inches

67 PATSY, PATTY & PAT HELP ON THE FARM pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour and pencil 9 x 6 1â „2 inches


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

62

68 MAKING HAY pen ink and watercolour with pencil 8 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄4 inches

69 THE PLOT pen ink and watercolour with pencil 8 1⁄2 x 6 3⁄4 inches


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

S ID N EY SI M E Sidney Herbert Sime (1864/67-1941) Initially influenced by the work of Aubrey Beardsley, William Blake and Gustave Doré, Sidney Sime developed as one of the leading fantasy illustrators of the early twentieth century, working particularly closely with two maverick literary figures, Lord Dunsany and Lord Howard de Walden. For a biography of Sidney Sime, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 48. Key works illustrated: became the proprietor and co-editor of The Idler (1899-1901); Lord Dunsany, Time and the Gods (1906) Further reading: Simon Heneage, ‘Sime, Sidney Herbert (1864x7-1941)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 50, pages 630-631; Simon Heneage and Henry Ford, Sidney Sime: Master of the Mysterious, London: Thames & Hudson, 1980

70 STAR CHILD signed pen and ink with bodycolour and pencil 11 x 8 3⁄4 inches 70 reverse (not illustrated): CARICATURE HEADS pencil 11 x 8 1⁄2 inches

63

‘Sidney Sime is an almost legendary name in the world of illustration. He grew from poverty and obscurity to become “the Greatest Living Imaginative Artist”, in the view of such patrons as Randolph Hearst. Uncompromising to the last, he rarely exhibited his work but his “strong personality and powers of conversation could astonish his audience”’ (Heneage, in Matthew and Harrison 2004, vol 50, page 631)


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

BE ATR I X POT T E R Helen Beatrix Potter (1866-1943) Beatrix Potter’s picture books remain a landmark in the history of the genre. Originally published in a variety of forms, each volume had its appearance tailored to a particular text, and the integration of word and image was carefully considered. Though Potter made use of a basic anthropomorphism, she tended to eschew further fantasy, and the great success of her illustration often lies in the sense it gives of a particular place. Key work written and illustrated: The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1900)

64

Further reading: Anne Stevenson Hobbs, Beatrix Potter: artist and illustrator, London: Frederick Warne, 2005; Margaret Lane, The Tale of Beatrix Potter, London: Warne, 1946; Anne Carroll Moore, The Art of Beatrix Potter, London: Warne, 1955; V A J Slowe, ‘Potter, Helen Beatrix (b London, 28 July 1866; d Near Sawrey, Cumbria, 22 Dec 1943), Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 25, page 372; Judy Taylor, Beatrix Potter, artist, storyteller and countrywoman, London: Warne, 1986; Judy Taylor, ‘Potter [married name Heelis], (Helen) Beatrix (1866-1943)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 45, pages 10-11

There once was an amiable guinea pig … This sketchbook sheet comprises the drawings that Beatrix Potter made in February 1893 when she borrowed guinea pigs from her friend, Miss ‘Nina’ Paget, to use as models. Potter described these ‘sittings’, and an unfortunate circumstance that arose from them, in her diary: First I borrowed and drew Mr Chopps. I returned him safely. Then in an evil hour I borrowed a very particular guinea-pig with a long white ruff known as Queen Elizabeth … this wretched pig took to eating blotting paper, pasteboard and string and other curious substances, and expired in the night. I suspected something was wrong and intended to take it back. My feelings may be imagined when I found it extended a damp – very damp disagreeable body. Miss Paget proved peacable. I gave her the drawing. (The Journal of Beatrix Potter, London: Frederick Warne, 1966, page 304) It is believed that Potter was originally inspired by the following verse in making these drawings: There once was an amiable guinea-pig Who brushed back his hair like a peri-wig He wore a sweet tie, as blue as the sky, And his hat and coat buttons were very big. And, though she gave this particular sheet to Miss Paget, she returned to the compositions when she illustrated the verse, with an amended last line, for the project, Book of Rhymes, which was developed from 1902 and published as Appley Dapply’s Nursery Rhymes in 1917. The revised, published drawings are more detailed but otherwise very similar. One version of the second vignette is held in the Linder Bequest at the V&A, while one of the fourth vignette is in a UK private collection. However, what is particularly fascinating and unusual is to see the intended original order of the five vignettes and five Potter watercolour illustrations on one piece of paper. Many thanks to Derek Ross for help in compiling this note.

71 (detail)


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

65

71 THERE ONCE WAS AN AMIABLE GUINEA-PIG, WHO BRUSHED BACK HIS HAIR LIKE A PERIWIG – HE WORE A SWEET TIE, AS BLUE AS THE SKY – AND HIS WHISKERS AND BUTTONS WERE VERY BIG

signed with initials and ’93 watercolour with bodycolour 5 x 7 1⁄2 inches Provenance: Elizabeth Ann Paget Similar to five illustrations in Appley Dapply’s Nursery Rhymes, London: Frederick Warne & Co, 1917


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

F LO R E NCE HA RRIS O N Florence Susan Harrison (1877-1955) While the late Pre-Raphaelite illustrations of Florence Harrison have always stood out from those of her contemporaries, too little has been known of her life, and much of that inaccurate. In the light of new research, which has been aided by members of her family, it is now possible to present an improved biography of the artist. Florence Harrison was born on board the Windsor Castle, a ship bound from London to Brisbane, Australia, on 2 November 1877. She was the second daughter of Norwood Harrison, the ship’s captain, and his wife, Lucy. Though her father retired from active duties in 1882, Florence seems to have had a fairly peripatetic childhood. According to the official censuses: in 1881, she was staying at Rockhill House, Folkestone, Kent, a girl’s school run by Elizabeth Harrison, her maiden great-aunt; while, in 1901, she and her family – including two younger brothers were living at 29 Colworth Road, Leyton, Essex. For at least two periods – 1908 to 1914 and 1918 to 1920 – she was based in Bruges, Belgium, a city which inspired many of her townscapes. There she met her close friend, the Irish writer, Enid Maud Dinnis, and followed her by converting from Anglicanism to Roman Catholicism.

66

In 1905, Harrison began to work as an illustrator of her own poetry for children. The books were issued by Blackie, her chief publisher throughout her career. At this stage her illustrations combined Pre-Raphaelite influences with the practices of fin-de-siècle poster artists, and may be compared to those of such contemporary women illustrators as Jessie M King and Anne Anderson. At best, the colour plates have the luminosity and strong outlines of stained glass, while the line drawings have a decorative efflorescence. In 1910, Harrison began to publish her illustrations to Romantic literary texts, including poetry by Christina Rossetti, Lord Tennyson and William Morris. Yet, at the same time, she contributed to popular annuals, appearing alongside Anne Anderson, Honor Appleton, Agnes Richardson, among many others. A turn to more overtly fantastic imagery was signalled by the appearance of her Elfin Song in 1912. Continuing to publish until the early 1940s, Harrison moved from London to Hove, Sussex, during the Blitz, and becoming companion and carer to her cousin, Mary Isobel Harrison. Following Mary’s death in 1943, Florence lived on in the rented flat until her death on 5 January 1955. Mary Jacobs should be acknowledged for her instrumental role in providing an accurate record of the life and work of Florence Harrison. Further reading: Mary Jacobs, ‘Florence Susan Harrison’, Studies in Illustration, Imaginative Book Illustration Society, no 46, winter 2010, pages 22-59 (with a bibliography of published illustrations)

72 EXTINGUISHING THE TORCH pen and ink 9 1⁄2 x 4 inches Illustrated: Alfred Lord Tennyson, Guinevere and Other Poems, London: Blackie & Son, 1912, page 157


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

67

73 OTHERS TO THE DAIRY THRONG pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Florence Harrison, In The Fairy Ring, London: Blackie & Son, [1908], ‘Pixy Work’


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A RTHUR R ACK H A M Arthur Rackham (1867-1939) First and foremost among illustrators of the Gift Book, Arthur Rackham had a particular affinity for the northern literary tradition, from Andersen to Wagner, and developed a perfect visual response in his intensely observed characterisation and atmospheric depiction of setting. The images tend to be remembered as grotesque and spine tingling but, wide-ranging and always apt, their mood is as likely to be humorous or tender. For a biography of Arthur Rackham, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, pages 97-98; for essays on various aspects of the artist’s achievement, see The Illustrators, 1997, pages 124-125; The Illustrators, 1999, pages 98-99; and The Illustrators, 2000, pages 14-15. Key works illustrated: S J A Fitzgerald, The Zankiwank and the Bletherwitch (1896); [R H D Barham], The Ingoldsby Legends (1898); Mrs Edgar Lewis

(tr), Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm (1900); Washington Irving, Rip Van Winkle (1905); J M Barrie, Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens (1906); William Shakespeare, A Midsummer-Night’s Dream (1908); Richard Wagner (tr Margaret Armour), The Rhinegold and The Valkyrie (1910); Richard Wagner (tr Margaret Armour), Siegfried and The Twilight of the Gods (1911); Charles S Evans, Cinderella (1919); Edgar Allan Poe, Tales of Mystery and Imagination (1935) His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum and the V&A; and the Butler Library (Columbia University), The New York Public Library and the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (University of Texas at Austin). Further reading: James Hamilton, Arthur Rackham: A Life with Illustration, London: Pavilion Books, 1990; James Hamilton, ‘Rackham, Arthur (b Lewisham, London, 19 Sept 1867; d Limpsfield, Surrey, 6 Sept 1939), Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 25, pages 835-856; James Hamilton, ‘Rackham, Arthur (1867-1939)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 45, pages 718-721; Derek Hudson, Arthur Rackham: His Life and Work, London: Heinemann, 1960

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74 LONG STORIES OF GHOSTS, WITCHES AND INDIANS signed pen and ink 6 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Washington Irving, Rip Van Winkle, London: William Heinemann, 1916, page 5


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75 IN THE BROAD WALK YOU MEET ALL THE PEOPLE WHO ARE WORTH KNOWING signed and dated 06 pen ink and watercolour with pencil 7 1⁄2 x 13 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: J M Barrie, Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1906


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76 THE WITCHES’ SABBATH signed watercolour with pen and ink 11 x 15 inches Illustrated: Washington Irving, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, London: George G Harrap & Co, 1928, pages 56-57 (in black & white) After publication this illustration was reworked and coloured by the artist.


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77 THE FISH KING AND THE DOG FISH: ITS HEAD WAS PATTED GRACIOUSLY signed and dated 04 pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 3⁄4 x 9 inches Provenance: Alexander Mann,and by descent to Lady Pickthorne Illustrated: Little Folks, February 1905, page 109, ‘Adventures In Wizard-Land’ by Mrs M H Spielmann (in black and white); Mrs M H Spielmann (ed), The Rainbow Book. Tales of Fun & Fancy, London: Chatto & Windus, 1909, frontispiece (in colour) and page 53 (in black and white) After publication this illustration was reworked by the artist.


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78 ... WHERE OFTEN YOU AND I UPON FAINT PRIMROSE-BUDS WERE WONT TO LIE, EMPTYING OUR BOSOMS OF THEIR COUNSEL SWEET signed and dated 08 pen ink and watercolour 14 3⁄4 x 10 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: William Shakespeare, A Midsummer-Night’s Dream, London: William Heinemann, 1908, opposite page 12


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

JO HN HASSA L L John Hassall, RI RMS (1868-1948) John Hassall was one of the key members of the London Sketch Club, and his characteristic style, with its flat coloured planes and black outlines, so epitomised the early twentieth-century poster school that he became known as ‘king of poster artists’. John Hassall was born in Walmer, Kent, on 21 May 1868, the son of Royal Navy Lieutenant Christopher Hassall. However, his father died when he was only eight years old, and he and his younger brother, Owen, were brought up by their mother and her second husband. He was educated in Worthing, at Newton Abbot College and then for three happy years at Neuenheim College, Heidelberg. Twice failing entry to Sandhurst, he migrated to Manitoba in Canada in 1888 to study farming with Owen; however, he returned to London two years later when he had drawings accepted by The Graphic. At the suggestion of Dudley Hardy, he studied art in Antwerp, under Charles van Havermaet, and in Paris, at the Académie Julian, under Bouguereau and Ferrier; during this time he was influenced by the poster artist Alphonse Mucha. From 1895, he worked as an advertising artist for David Allen & Sons, a career that lasted 50 years and included such immortal projects as the poster Skegness is SO Bracing (1908). Making use 79 TOM TOM THE PIPER’S SON LEARNT TO PLAY WHEN HE WAS YOUNG signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 9 3⁄4 x 7 inches Illustrated: The Old Nursery Stories and Rhymes, London: Blackie and Son [1904], [unpaginated]; Walter Jerrold (ed), Mother Goose’s Nursery Rhymes, London: Blackie & Son, 1909, facing page 208 (in colour); Blackie’s Popular Nursery Rhymes, London: Blackie and Son [1921], [unpaginated] 80 THE OLD WOMAN OF GLO’STER THERE WAS AN OLD WOMAN OF GLO ’ STER WHOSE PARROT TWO GUINEAS IT COST HER , BUT HIS TONGUE NEVER CEASING , WAS VASTLY DISPLEASING TO THE TALKATIVE WOMAN OF GLO ’ STER signed pen and ink 6 1⁄4 x 3 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Walter Jerrold (ed), Mother Goose’s Nursery Rhymes, London: Blackie & Son, 1909, page 316

of flat colours enclosed by bold black lines, his poster style was equally suitable for picture books, and he produced many delightful volumes of fairy stories and nursery rhymes, such as Mother Goose’s Nursery Rhymes (1909) [79-84]. In 1901, Hassall was elected to the membership of both the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colour and the Royal Society of Miniature Painters. He also belonged to several clubs, including the Langham (until 1898), the Savage, and the London Sketch Club (of which he was a President 1903-4). David Cuppleditch has called him ‘the epitome of a good all round English clubman’ (1994, page 78). In 1900, Hassall opened his own New Art School and School of Poster Design in Kensington, with the help of his former teacher Van Havermaet; he numbered Bert Thomas, H M Bateman and Harry Rountree among his students. In 1908, the school amalgamated with Frank Brangwyn’s London School, but was closed at the outbreak of the First World War. In the post war period, he ran the very successful John Hassall Correspondence School. He died on 8 March 1948. Hassall was father to the poet, Christopher Hassall, and the illustrator, Joan Hassall [see pages 160-162]. Further reading: David Cuppleditch, The John Hassall Lifestyle, London: The Dilke Press, 1979

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81-84 are all illustrated in Walter Jerrold (ed), Mother Goose’s Nursery Rhymes, London: Blackie & Son, 1909

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81 MOTHER GOOSE HAD A HOUSE; IT STOOD IN THE WOOD WHERE AN OWL AT THE DOOR AS SENTINEL STOOD signed pen and ink 3 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches

82 THE SHEPHERD AND THE SHEEP signed pen and ink 3 1⁄2 x 6 3⁄4 inches

83 WILL YOU WALK INTO MY PARLOUR?’ SAID THE SPIDER TO THE FLY signed pen and ink 3 1⁄2 x 7 inches

84 I HAVE WITHIN MY PANTRY GOOD STORE OF ALL THAT’S NICE signed pen and ink 3 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄2 inches


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

E R N EST AR I S Ernest Alfred Walter George Aris, FSZ SGA (1882-1963) As a prolific writer and illustrator for children, Ernest Aris created simple tales about anthropomorphic woodland animals. For a biography of Ernest Aris, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 69. Further reading: Dudley Chignall, Ernest Aris (1882-1963). The Man Who Drew for Beatrix Potter, London: Lulu Enterprises, 2010

‘One of Ernest’s earliest collaborations was with prolific author May C Gillington, later to become Mrs Byron. Together they penned several stories around the theme of The Hole in the Wall/Bank/Tree … Ernest also illustrated four books for May in her ‘Twinkletoes’ series published by Cassell & Co in August 1915. The illustrations are gloriously colourful, full of detail and with plenty of interest to match the narrative. She had a commercial eye and used some of the best illustrators of the age; Cecil Aldin, Mabel Lucie Attwell, Chloe Preston and Arthur Rackham. Ernest was in good company.’

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(Chignall 2010, pages 46-47)

85 IN RUSHED MOUSIE CRUSOE signed and dated 14 inscribed ‘LMC’ below mount stamped ‘12 April 1915’ and ‘15 Feb 1915’ on reverse pen ink and watercolour, 6 1⁄4 x 5 inches

Illustrated: May Byron, Little Mousie Crusoe. A Picture Story-Book for Children, (The Twinkletoe Series no 2), London: Cassell & Company, 1915, facing page 68


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86 reverse: BUNNY ASLEEP stamped ‘12 April 1915’ pen ink and watercolour 5 x 5 inches Drawn for but not illustrated in May Byron, Little Bunny Gulliver. A Picture Story-Book for Little Folks, (The Twinkletoe Series no 4), London: Cassell & Company, 1915

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86 BUNNY CAPTURES THE ENEMY’S GUNS signed and dated 15 pen ink and watercolour 6 1⁄4 x 5 inches

Illustrated: May Byron, Little Bunny Gulliver. A Picture Story-Book for Little Folks, (The Twinkletoe Series no 4), London: Cassell & Company, 1915, facing page 23


5: ED WARDIAN ILLUSTRATORS

H ELEN J ACO B S Helen Mary Jacobs, BWS (1888-1970) Talented in both draughtsmanship and watercolour painting, Helen Jacobs soon established herself as a children’s illustrator. Though best known for the precision, energy and imagination of her early fairy subjects, she responded well to a variety of commissions; and, as a primary teacher, she seemed an ideal interpreter of textbooks and primers. For a biography of Helen Jacobs, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 11.

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87 THE MERMAID GIRL signed pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour, pastel and pencil 18 x 14 1â „2 inches


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H AR RY C LARK E Henry Patrick Clarke, RHA (1889-1931) Harry Clarke’s ability to work with equal distinction as a book illustrator and a stained-glass artist has led to his reputation as a leading figure in the Arts and Crafts movement, not only in his native Ireland but internationally.

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The son of a leading church decorator and stained-glass artist, Harry Clarke was born in Dublin on 17 March 1889 and educated at the Central Model School, Marlborough Street, and then by the Jesuits at Belvedere College. On the death of his mother in 1903, he spent some time in the office of the architect, Thomas McNamara, before entering his father’s studio. Falling under the influence of the work of Aubrey Beardsley and Edward Burne-Jones, he developed skills in stained-glass design before winning a scholarship to the Metropolitan School of Art, Dublin (1908), and three consecutive National Gold Medals from the South Kensington Board of Education (1911-13). A travel scholarship enabled him to study stained glass in the French province of Ile de France in 1914. He returned to Ireland to establish himself as a stained-glass designer, with the window executed for Honan Chapel, Cork (1915-17). He also worked as an illustrator, producing a series of books that began in 1913 with Hans Andersen’s Fairy Tales and culminated in 1923 with a second, full-colour

edition of Edgar Allan Poe’s Tales of Mystery and Imagination [88]. In addition, he taught illustration at the Metropolitan School from 1918 to 1923. Following his father’s death, in 1921, Clarke extended the family business and served as its managing director and principal designer. Meanwhile his glass, which was widely exhibited, had gained an international reputation, and his illustrations were acclaimed. The climax of his career came four years later with major exhibitions in London and Dublin, and his election to the Royal Hibernian Academy (ARHA 1924, RHA 1925). Though never received, the Geneva Window (1928) was designed as a gift from the Irish Free State to the League of Nations; a glowing world of colour, it consolidated Clarke’s work as a designer and illustrator. From about 1925, overwork had begun to take an increasing toll on his health. In 1929, Clarke visited Switzerland, where he was diagnosed as having tuberculosis. He died in Chur, in the province of Graubünden, on 6 January 1931. Further reading: Nicola Gordon Bowe, The Life and Work of Harry Clarke, Blackrock: Irish Academic Press, 1989; Martin Moore Steenson, A bibliographical checklist of the work of Harry Clarke, London: Books & Things, 2003

88 THE COLOSSAL WATERS REAR THEIR HEADS ABOVE US LIKE DEMONS FROM THE DEEP signed with initials pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour 15 x 10 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Edgar Allan Poe, Tales of Mystery and Imagination, London: George G Harrap & Co, 1923


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6 EDWARDIAN CARTOONISTS EDWARD TENNYSON REED (1860-1933) THOMAS EDWARD DONNISON (1861-ACTIVE 1907) MAX BEERBOHM (1872-1956)

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BERT THOMAS (1883-1966) HENRY MAYO BATEMAN (1887-1970)

E D WARD T E NNYS O N RE E D Edward Tennyson Reed (1860-1933) Preferring pencil to pen and ink, E T Reed developed into a superb draughtsman, using his confident line to express a rich imagination. Known equally for his political caricatures and his Punch series, ‘Prehistoric Peeps’, his range of subject and allusion was astonishingly wide. E T Reed was born in Greenwich, London, on 27 March 1860, and educated at Harrow. On leaving school, in 1879, he travelled to Egypt and the Far East with his father, Sir Edward Reed, Chief Naval Architect and Liberal MP for Cardiff. Four years later, he took up drawing, receiving encouragement from Edward Burne-Jones and studying for 18 months at Frank Calderon’s Art School. However, he failed to get a place at the Royal Academy Schools, or to establish himself as a portrait painter, and so began work as a cartoonist and illustrator. His first published work illustrated his father’s book, Japan: Its History, Religion and Traditions (1880). Reed made his first contributions to Punch in June 1889, and was elected to the staff in the following year by its editor, F C Burnand. He soon became an established part of the periodical, introducing his ‘Prehistoric Peeps’ series into its Almanack in 1893, and following Harry Furniss as parliamentary caricaturist in 1894, a post he held till 1912. (As the son of an MP, he had long been familiar with the House of Commons.) Without obscuring his uncanny ability to capture individual likenesses, he restored to Punch the spirit of grotesque. Yet, despite this early association with one particular publication, he contributed some of his best political and legal cartoons elsewhere, including The Sketch (from 1893) and The Bystander (to which he moved in 1912). His work was exhibited at societies and dealers in London, including the Leicester Galleries and Fine Art Society, and also in the provinces. He was also a talented lecturer. He died in London on 12 July 1933. Further reading: Shane Leslie (ed), Edward Tennyson Reed, London: Heinemann, 1957 The notes on Reed are written by Alexander Beetles


6: ED WARDIAN CARTOONISTS

The Bing-Bang Boys are Here Again! In July 1916, two new appointees, David Lloyd George (1863-1945) and the Lord Derby, 17th Earl of Derby Edward Stanley (1865-1948), headed the British War Office. Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1908 and 1915 and Minister of Munitions between 25 May and 9 July 1916, had been appointed Secretary of State for War, following the death of Lord Kitchener on 5 June 1916. After losing his seat in the Commons in 1905 and subsequently entering the House of Lords, Lord Derby was invited to return to government by the Prime Minister H H Asquith (1852-1928) as Under-Secretary of State for War in July 1916. Following the resignation of Asquith in December 1916, Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister and Lord Derby was promoted to Secretary of State for War in Lloyd George’s place. Illustrated in The Passing Show, a popular British weekly that ran during the First World War, The Bing-Bang Boys are Here Again! was inspired by the programme cover of the comedy revue The Bing Boys are Here, which opened at the Alhambra Theatre in London on 19 April 1916. Starring George Robey, Alfred Lester and Violet Lorraine, The Bing Boys are Here was the first in a series of three revues written by George Grossmith Jr, which ran between 1916 and 1918.

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89 THE BING-BANG BOYS ARE HERE AGAIN! signed with initials pen and ink 8 x 10 inches Illustrated: The Passing Show, July 1916


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Not in the Original Programme In 1911, the Prussian military historian Friedrich von Bernhardi (1849-1930) published his book, Germany and the Next War. In it, he stated his belief that war was a right and a duty, a biological imperative sanctioned by the findings of Darwin. Bernhardi believed that negotiating conflicts of interest with other powers was a sign of weakness, and thus advocated the necessity of an aggressive war with an urgency bordering on panic. However, by 1916, the German Empire found itself struggling with war on three fronts. 1916 saw the beginning of the battles of Verdun and the Somme on the Western Front and the launch of the Brusilov Offensive in the East. After the Treaty of London in 1915, the Italian army opened a third front to the south. Neither Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) nor his eldest son Crown Prince Wilhelm, who commanded the German 5th Army at Verdun, had desired war, but now faced the combined armies of the British Empire, France, Russia and Italy. 90 NOT IN THE ORIGINAL PROGRAMME THE ALL - LOWEST ( SILLY WILLY ): ‘ I SAY PAPA ; I DON ’ T REMEMBER ANYTHING IN BERNHARDI ABOUT THREE OR FOUR

“ STEAM

ROLLERS ” GOING OVER US ALL AT ONCE , DO YOU ?!!’

signed with monogram pencil 15 3⁄4 x 13 inches Illustrated: The Bystander, 12 July 1916, page 51


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83

Talk about ‘Winter Sports’! The post-war period of the early 1920s brought with it great economic prosperity, and saw the rise of the ‘flapper girl’. Inspired by the fashions of Coco Chanel and American jazz music, these young women pioneered a collection of new hairstyles, such as the ‘Bob’, ‘Eton Crop’ and ‘Finger Curls’. Inspired by this new ‘era’ of hairstyles, ET Reed demonstrates the new popularity for curls on writer and humorist, Israel Zangwill (1864-1926), Secretary of State for the Colonies and future Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965), stage and silent film star Owen Nares (1888-1943), novelist and journalist G K Chesterton (1874-1936) and sculptor Jacob Epstein (1880-1959). In June 1921, the International Olympic Committee granted its patronage to a first Winter Sports week. This became the first Winter Olympic Games, held in 1924 in Chamonix, France, the same year the Summer Olympics were held in Paris.

91 TALK ABOUT ‘WINTER SPORTS’! inscribed ‘We can do a bit of “Curling” at home.’ and with picture captions pencil 8 3⁄4 x 11 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Bystander, 18 January 1922, page 115


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Anxious to leave the ‘Empire’ In the years following the end of the First World War, the British Empire began to struggle with countries and politicians agitating for independence. By early 1922, Ireland, Egypt and India had all made varying degrees of progress towards this end. The Irish Republic had made a declaration of independence at the first meeting of the Dáil Éireann, the Republic’s revolutionary parliament, in January 1919, which was followed by a little over two years of conflict in the Irish war of Independence, led by the IRA. After both sides agreed a ceasefire in July 1919, the head of Dáil Éireann, Éamon de Valera (1882-1975), met with Prime Minister Lloyd George in August 1919 and, although no agreement was reached, the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921 established a free Irish state, with de Valera as President of the Republic. During the Paris Peace Conference that followed the First World War, an official Egyptian delegation, led by statesman Saad Zaghloul (1859-1927), demanded British recognition of an independent and united Egypt and Sudan. In turn, Britain demanded that Zaghloul end his political agitation. When he refused, Zaghloul was exiled to Malta, just as Egyptian nationalist Ahmed Orabi had been exiled to Ceylon in 1882. Zaghloul’s exile caused a series of disturbances in Egypt between April and July 1919, which left eight hundred Egyptians dead. When Zaghloul returned to Egypt in 1920, his attempts to hinder the establishment of a British-friendly government resulted in a second deportation, this time to the Seychelles. In February 1922, Egypt received limited independence, with Zaghloul returning in 1923.

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92 ANXIOUS TO LEAVE THE ‘EMPIRE’ BRITISH LION : WELL , IF SOME PEOPLE ARE SO ANXIOUS WOULDN ’ T QUEUE UP ON MY TAIL ! signed with monogram pencil 13 1⁄2 x 10 inches Illustrated: The Bystander, 8 February 1922, page 275

TO GET OUT, I WISH TO HEAVEN THEY

Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) returned to India from South Africa in 1915 and began to promote a movement of non-violent civil disobedience against British rule. Despite this, Gandhi actively recruited for the British war effort and India contributed hugely in terms of supplies and personnel. In February 1922, Gandhi’s non-violent movement ended abruptly when angry citizens set fire to a police station in the town of Chauri Chaura, killing 23 policemen. As a result, Gandhi was forced to call off his movement of mass disobedience, fearing that further violence would undo his efforts towards independence.


6: ED WARDIAN CARTOONISTS

‘In the Spring –’ When Lloyd George replaced H H Asquith (1852-1928) as Prime Minister in December 1916, Asquith and most other leading members of the Liberal party refused to serve in Lloyd George’s coalition government. Asquith remained as leader of the Liberal party but found it difficult to conduct official opposition to Lloyd George during the war. He was joined in the opposition by, amongst others, Sir John Simon (1873-1954), who had been Home Secretary under Asquith, and Sir Edward Grey (1862-1933), who had been Foreign Secretary. In the aftermath of the ‘Maurice Debate’ of 1918, in which Major-General Sir Frederick Maurice (1871-1951) accused Lloyd George’s government of misleading the House over the strength of the army on the Western Front in order to cover up a move to send British troops to Palestine, the Liberal party openly split into Lloyd George and Asquith factions. When Lloyd George ceased to be Prime Minister in 1922, he was forced to make an uneasy truth with Asquith and his allies. The resolving of issues would allow a united Liberal ticket to run against Stanley Baldwin in the election of 1923. 93 ‘IN THE SPRING –’ OR, SERENADING A SYNDICATE ROMEO ( LLOYD GEORGE ): ‘ OH - H - H LOOK YOU ’ – THREE JULIETS ! WELL WELL WELL RATHER HEAFY FOR THE PALCONY I ’ M THINK - ING ! AND WHERE IS MACLEAN TOO - OO ? I SUPPOSE THEY WILL BE SITTING ON HIM !’ signed with initials and inscribed ‘Almost an “Embarras De” Juliets! Romeo (Lloyd George) on arriving in the garden, finds the balcony almost overcrowded! Juliet (Sir John Simon – Mr Asquith – Sir Edward Grey)’ pencil, 15 x 11 inches Illustrated: The Bystander, 14 March 1923, page 612

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86

A Rotten Row-deo On 14 June 1924, John ‘Tex’ Austin’s (1886-1938) ‘King of the Rodeo’ exhibition began at Wembley Stadium in London. Running until 5 July and organised by theatre manager C B Cochran (1872-1951), the rodeo was the first to be performed in England, having previously toured Chicago, Hollywood and New York’s Madison Square Gardens. The rodeo was challenged by animal rights activists, who claimed that the performances were unnecessarily cruel. These protests eventually led to the passing of the Protection of Animals Act of 1934, which effectively made rodeo illegal in Britain. Despite the rodeo losing $20,000, it returned in 1934, and was even performed in front of King George V.

94 A ROTTEN ROW-DEO OUR ARTIST ’ S IDEA OF HYDE PARK

ON A SUNNY SUNDAY, IF THE THRILLING

PERFORMANCES THAT MR C B COCHRAN IS INSTITUTING AT WEMBLEY, SHOULD CHANCE TO PROVE INFECTIOUS

signed with monogram pencil 12 x 19 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Bystander, 23 April 1924, page 228


6: ED WARDIAN CARTOONISTS

The Slave to Habit The toastmaster is responsible for the running of public speaking events, keeping proceedings on schedule and introducing guests and speakers. In 1884, toastmaster William Knightsmith introduced wearing a red tailcoat, in order to distinguish himself from the guests and other speakers. As the sobriety of the toastmaster was of utmost importance, many used the ‘toastmaster’s glass’, a vessel designed to look similar to the other glasses used at a particular event, but that had a much lower capacity due to an almost solid interior. As recognition of the importance of the toastmaster grew, small toastmaster clubs began to form in the United States after 1904. In October 1924, Toastmasters International was formed in California, the first permanent organisation dedicated to the development of toastmasters.

95 THE SLAVE TO HABIT OUR ARTIST GIVES US A TRAGIC EXAMPLE OF HOW THE DUTIES OF A PROFESSIONAL TOASTMASTER MAY AFFECT THE EVEN TENOR OF HIS WAY TO A QUITE REMARKABLE EXTENT

signed with monogram and inscribed with extensive captions inscribed ‘A day in the life of a Toastmaster (we are creatures of habit)’ on separate panel pencil 15 x 11 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Bystander, 30 July 1924, page 289

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88

When you get what you want, you don’t want it By 1924, both India and Egypt had achieved concessions from British rule. Egypt had attained independence in February 1922 and although India had not yet achieved independence, the Government of India Act of 1919 had given it greater control of provincial affairs. However, despite the nationalist Saad Zaghloul becoming Prime Minister in early 1924, protesting and unrest continued in Egypt, where many demanded that Britain relinquished control of the Canal Zone and Sudan. This disorder culminated in the assassination of the British Governor-General of Sudan Sir Lee Stack in Cairo in November 1924, forcing Zaghloul to resign. In India, Mahatma Gandhi’s incarceration for sedition in March 1922 had begun to cause division in the Indian National Congress. Although Gandhi was released after a little under two years, for an appendicitis operation in 1924, two factions had already emerged, one favouring party participation in legislatures, the other opposing it. Furthermore, co-operation between Hindus and Muslims, while strong at the height of Gandhi’s non-violence movement, was breaking down. Gandhi attempted to bridge these divides on his release from prison through several methods, including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924, but he achieved only limited success.

96 WHEN YOU GET WHAT YOU WANT, YOU DON’T WANT IT JOHN BULL : WANT A REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT, DO THEY ? WHY, I KNOW

I

SHOULD BE PRECIOUS GLAD TO GET ONE MYSELF THAT EVEN REMOTELY REPRESENTED ME – AND LOOK AT THE ONE I ’ VE GOT signed with monogram pencil 14 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Bystander, 3 September 1924, page 538


6: ED WARDIAN CARTOONISTS

T HO M AS ED WA RD D O N N I S ON Thomas Edward Donnison (1861-active 1907) Originally a solicitor, T E Donnison became a professional cartoonist and illustrator around the turn of the century. T E Donnison was born in Liverpool, Lancashire, in 1861, the elder son of the merchant, Thomas Donnison (18121880), and his wife Jane (née Oldaker) (1824-1889). By 1870, the family was living at 196 Grove Street, Liverpool. (Donnison has been described as Irish by more than one historian of cartoons, but there is no evidence for this.) Donnison was educated at Rugby School, leaving in 1878, and then studying law, while also taking lessons in art. He spent some time in chambers at 3 Furnival’s Inn (the address being inscribed on the reverse of the present work). The 1881 census records that he was unmarried, working as an articled clerk and living at 83 Bedford Road, Tranmere, Cheshire – across the Mersey from Liverpool. In 1882, he exhibited a work at the Walker Art Gallery, probably in the Liverpool Autumn Exhibition, while in 1883 he was listed in This Year’s Art as living at Rock Ferry, which is close to Tranmere. Both his parents died in Rock Ferry during the 1880s, his mother in 1889 at 13 Queens Road, which was possibly his own address by that time. His brother, James Oldaker Donnison, left Rugby in 1880, and joined the shipping trade, becoming manager of a steamship line in 1891. Having been admitted as a solicitor in July 1884, Donnison practised for 15 years, then becoming a full-time cartoonist and illustrator. He contributed to a number of periodicals, including Boys’ Own Paper (1895-1907), Fun, Judy, Longbow, Moonshine, Puck and To-Day. His ‘pre-history’ cartoons in the last have been compared to those of E T Reed and George Morrow.

97 RETRIBUTION inscribed with title signed and inscribed ‘3 Furnival’s Inn’ and ‘Schizodactylus Monstrosus (India)’ on reverse pen and ink 6 1⁄2 x 5 inches

Increasingly, Donnison specialised in illustrating books, the following being a preliminary checklist: The Jaw-Cracking Jingles, London: Duckworth & Co, 1899; Old Friends in New Frocks. Verses by Nora Chesson, London: Raphael Tuck & Sons, [circa 1900]; Odds and Ends and Old Friends, London: Raphael Tuck & Sons, 1902; Old Fairy Legends in New Colours, with verses by Nora Chesson, London: Raphael Tuck & Sons, 1903; ‘Pure Fun’ for Boys of All Sizes, London: Boy’s Own Paper, 1903; Eastern Fairy Tales: Aladdin, Ali Baba and Blue Beard, London: Griffith, Farran, Browne & Co, [circa 1906]; Home Fairy Tales: Puss in Boots, Beauty and the Beast and Jack and the Beanstalk, London: Griffith, Farran, Browne & Co, [circa 1906]

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MA X B EER B O H M Sir Henry Maximilian Beerbohm, IS NEAC PS (1872-1956) Equally valued as a caricaturist and writer, Max Beerbohm sustained an elegant detachment in art and life. Though the tone of his drawings is often lightly wicked, it is also affectionate, for he hated to wound his subjects, most of whom he knew and liked. As a result, he was on safest ground in satirising artists and writers of the past, and in making many self-caricatures. For a biography of Max Beerbohm, please refer to The Illustrators, 1997, page 154. For caricatures of the artist, see The Illustrators, 2002, page 88 (Vicky), and The Illustrators, 2007, pages 222 (Bohun Lynch) and 228 (Kapp). Key work illustrated: Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen (1896) Key work written: Zuleika Dobson (1911)

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His work is represented in the collections of The Courtauld Art Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, Tate and the V&A; the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), Charterhouse (Godalming) and Merton College Library (Oxford); and the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (University of Texas at Austin), the Lilly Library (University of Indiana, Bloomington), Princeton University Library and William Andrews Clark Memorial Library (University of California at Los Angeles). His archive is held by the Houghton Library, Harvard University (Cambridge MA).

Further reading: S N Behrman, Portrait of Max: an intimate memoir of Sir Max Beerbohm, New York: Random House, 1960; Alan Bell, ‘Beerbohm, Sir (Henry) Max(imilian) (b London, 24 Aug 1872; d Rapallo, 20 May 1956)’, Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996, vol 3, pages 493; Lord David Cecil, Max, London: Constable, 1964; N John Hall, ‘Beerbohm, Sir Henry Maximilian [Max] (1872-1956)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 4, pages 817-821; N John Hall, Max Beerbohm: A Kind of Life, London: Yale University Press, 2002; N John Hall, Max Beerbohm. Caricatures, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997; Rupert Hart-Davis, Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London: Macmillan, 1972; Rupert Hart-Davis (ed), Letters of Max Beerbohm 18921956, London: John Murray, 1988; Rupert Hart-Davis (ed), Max Beerbohm, Letters to Reggie Turner, London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1964 The notes on Beerbohm are written by Alexander Beetles

‘the greatest caricaturist of the kind – that is, portrayer of personalities – in the history of art’ (Edmund Wilson, 1954, quoted in Behrman 1960, page 262)


6: ED WARDIAN CARTOONISTS

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman leading the opposition Neither for Kruger nor his enemies Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1836-1908) succeeded Sir William Harcourt (1827-1904) as leader of the Liberal Party and leader of the opposition in February 1899. Within a matter of months, the Second Boer War (1899-1902) had begun and Campbell-Bannerman was faced with the difficult task of holding together a party that had split into Imperialist and Pro-Boer camps. Struggling to maintain order, CampbellBannerman lost the general election of 1900, known as the ‘khaki election’ after the uniforms of the Boer War, to Conservative Lord Salisbury (1830-1903). Campbell-Bannerman was eventually able to reunite the Liberal Party over their opposition to the Education Act of 1902 and in 1905 he replaced Arthur Balfour (1848-1930) as Prime Minister. After resigning in 1908 due to ill health, Campbell-Bannerman died before he had left Downing Street. He remains the only former Prime Minister to have died at No 10. Affectionately known as ‘Uncle Paul’, Paul Kruger (1825-1904) was President of the South African Republic between 1883 and 1900. After becoming internationally known as the face of Boer resistance to the British, Kruger was forced to flee South Africa in October 1900 following the British advance towards Pretoria. He died in exile in Switzerland on 14 July 1904. 98 SIR HENRY CAMPBELL-BANNERMAN LEADING THE OPPOSITION NEITHER FOR KRUGER NOR FOR HIS ENEMIES signed inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 11 1⁄4 x 7 3⁄4 inches Provenance: Philip Guedalla; R R Feilden Literature: Rupert Hart-Davis (compiler), A Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London: Macmillan, 1972, no 236 Exhibited: Carfax & Co, 1901, no 8; ‘Exhibition of Works by Sir Max Beerbohm from the Guedalla Collection’, The Leicester Galleries, September 1945, no 21

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Count Fitchay attributed to Maclise Clyde Fitch (1865-1909) was a popular American playwright, who wrote and directed plays on both sides of the Atlantic. One of the first American dramatists to be taken seriously in England, Fitch was a well-known dandy and correspondence from the time hints at a brief relationship with Oscar Wilde. Beerbohm’s comparison is with Alfred d’Orsay, Count of Orsay (1801-1852), who moved from France to England in 1829 after marrying Lady Harriet Gardiner, daughter of Lord Blessington. Also a famed dandy, d’Orsay became friends with Edward Bulwer-Lytton and Benjamin Disraeli and, in the 1830s, he was drawn by the Irish painter and illustrator Daniel Maclise (1806-1870), which acted as the inspiration to Beerbohm’s drawing.

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99 COUNT FITCHAY ATTRIBUTED TO MACLISE inscribed with title pen and ink 10 3⁄4 x 7 1⁄2 inches Provenance: Philip Guedalla; R R Feilden Literature: Rupert Hart-Davis (compiler), A Catalogue of The Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London: Macmillan, 1972, no 545 Exhibited: New York, 1912; ‘Exhibition of Works by Sir Max Beerbohm from the Guedalla Collection’, The Leicester Galleries, September 1945, no 87


6: ED WARDIAN CARTOONISTS

… Giving Place to the New Introduced to retail at a young age, American Harry Gordon Selfridge (1858-1947) joined successful Chicago department store Field, Leitner & Company as a stock boy aged 19, working his way up to junior partner by the age of 35. After leaving the company in 1903, Selfridge visited London with his wife and was distinctly unimpressed by the standards of the English stores, which had not adopted the latest selling techniques being used in the United States. Selfridge therefore decided to invest £400,000 in his own department at the ‘unfashionable’ end of Oxford Street. The opening of Selfridges on 15 March 1909 was accompanied by the largest advertising campaign London had ever seen, promoting ‘experience of shopping’ and encouraging browsing and sightseers. Selfridge enjoyed such success that in 1921, three years after his wife had died in the Influenza Pandemic of 1918, he moved into Lansdowne House in Berkeley Square, London. Lansdowne House had originally been built as a family home for the 1st Marquess of Lansdowne (1737-1805). Previous residents had included the Prime Ministers William Pitt the Younger (1759-1806) and the Earl of Roseberry (1847-1929). In 1935, Lansdowne House became home to the Lansdowne Club, which it remains today. In Beerbohm’s cartoon, Selfridge is being shown around the house by the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice (1845-1927). 100… GIVING PLACE TO THE NEW LORD LANSDOWNE ( TO MR GORDON SELFRIDGE ): ‘ STATIONARY, SIR ? MAJOLICA , PAINTINGS IN OIL , ALL THE LATEST EIGHTEENTH - CENTURY BOOKS – THIS WAY.’ signed, inscribed with title and dated 1921 watercolour and pencil on tinted paper 13 1⁄2 x 10 1⁄4 inches Literature: Rupert Hart-Davis (compiler), A Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London: Macmillan, 1972, no 899 Exhibited: London 1921, The Leicester Galleries, May 1921

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BE RT THOM A S Herbert Samuel Thomas, MBE PS (1883-1966) Though Bert Thomas has become best known for his war cartoons – gaining a national reputation with one entitled ’Arf a mo’ Kaiser – he was wide ranging in his subjects and technically versatile.

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The son of a monumental sculptor, Bert Thomas was born in Newport, Monmouthshire, on 13 October 1883. He was educated in Swansea and, at the age of 14, began to serve an apprenticeship to a commercial metalengraver. At the same time, he sold music-hall cartoons to the Swansea Daily Leader, Daily Post, News and Echo. On the recommendation of the popular music-hall comedian, Albert Chevalier, he joined a London advertising agency in 1902. Greatly influenced by Phil May, he depicted urban society in lively broken line. Working rapidly, he used his mirror image as a model and referred to photographs to confirm particular details. He was technically versatile and made use of pen, pencil, chalk, charcoal and, increasingly, brush. Becoming a member of the London Sketch Club, he made a close friend of his Pinner neighbour, William Heath Robinson, who later compared Thomas to Charles Keene. After working in a freelance position for Pick-me-Up and Ally Sloper’s HalfHoliday, he began a long association with Punch (1905-48) and London Opinion (1909-54) – contributing political and social cartoons and latterly the popular series of a ‘Child’s Guide’ to celebrities. Thomas gained a national reputation with his ’Arf a mo’, Kaiser (1914), a cartoon drawn for the Weekly Dispatch to advertise a tobacco fund for soldiers. It depicted a grinning Cockney soldier lighting his pipe before engaging the enemy. During the First World War, Thomas himself served as a private in the Artists’ Rifles (1916-18). He was also official artist for the War Bonds campaign, producing for it Britain’s largest poster, depicting Drake facing the Spanish Armada, which covered the face of the National Gallery (1918). His contributions to the war effort earned him an MBE (1918). After the war, he published several volumes of cartoons and also took to book illustration. He drew for the Radio Times during the 1920s. In the Second World War, he again produced memorable posters, including the series ‘Is Your Journey Really Necessary?’ for the Railway Executive Committee (1942). He died on 6 September 1966. His work is represented in the collections of the British Museum, the National Portrait Gallery and the V&A; and the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury).

101 BILL: ‘THIS BLINKIN’ SEA’S ORFUL’ ‘ARY: ‘OH – I DUNNO. ITS NICE TO SEE FROTH ON SOMETHINK THESE DAYS!’ signed, inscribed with title and dated 1918 signed and inscribed ‘Whitelands Hatch End’ on reverse pen and ink 13 x 7 inches


6: ED WARDIAN CARTOONISTS

H EN RY M AYO BAT E M A N Henry Mayo Bateman (1887-1970) H M Bateman established his inimitable style before the First World War when, as he put it, he ‘went mad on paper’, by drawing people’s mood and character. It reached its zenith with ‘The Man Who …’, his famous series of cartoons dramatising social gaffes. For a biography of Henry Mayo Bateman, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 72; for an essay on the revolutionary and reactionary aspects of the artist’s work, see The Illustrators, 2000, pages 21-22. Further reading: Anthony Anderson, The Man Who Was H M Bateman, Exeter: Webb & Bower, 1982; John Jensen, ‘Bateman, Henry Mayo (1887-1970)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 4, pages 299-301 His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum.

102 DRESSING FOR THE DANCE signed and dated 1909 pen ink and watercolour 14 x 9 3⁄4 inches

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96

103 THE COCONUT SHY pen ink and monochrome watercolour with pencil 9 3â „4 x 9 inches


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

T HO M AS HE AT H RO BIN S O N Thomas Heath Robinson (1869-1953) Skilled as a painter and printmaker as well as an illustrator, Thomas Heath Robinson was one of the leading black-and-white artists working at the turn of the century. Thomas Heath Robinson was born in Islington, North London, on 19 June 1869. He attended local schools before studying at Islington School of Art (from 1885). Following the profession of his father, Thomas Robinson, he published his first illustrations in summer 1893, to a story by Mrs M E Braddon, in The Pall Mall Magazine. Two years later, George Allen gave him his first commission for a book, Frank Rinder’s retelling of legends from Old World Japan. He rose to the occasion on this and subsequent projects, soon becoming one of the leading black-and-white artists of his age. Specialising in historical subjects, which he represented with both care and flair, he illustrated over 30 books and contributed regularly to magazines during the first decade of his career. His hard work continued to prove successful until the outbreak of the First World War, and his family life – in Hampstead (from 1902) and then in Pinner (from 1906) – was happy. But he then succumbed to such hardships of war as paper shortages and slackening demands for books. While his fortunes were slow to revive, he continued to paint and etch, as well as illustrate, and was an active member of the Langham Sketching Club. He even taught himself Greek. From 1926, his skill as an illustrator was again in demand, though mostly for children’s annuals and cheap productions. Following the death of his wife, in 1940, Robinson moved to St Ives, in Cornwall, dying there in February 1953. Further reading: Geoffrey Beare, The Brothers Robinson, London, Chris Beetles Ltd, 1992

104-108 are all illustrated in William Canton, A Child’s Book of Saints, London: J M Dent & Co, 1898 104 A CHILDS BOOK OF SAINTS pen and ink with watercolour and bodycolour 11 x 8 inches Illustrated: title page

7 THE ROBINSON BROTHERS THOMAS HEATH ROBINSON (1869-1953) CHARLES ROBINSON (1870-1937) WILLIAM HEATH ROBINSON (1872-1944)

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98

105 A GAUNT, DARK FIGURE, FAR UP IN THE BLUE ASIAN SKY pen and ink 14 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 51, ‘The Hermit of the Pillar’

106 THEY WON THEIR LONG SEA-WAY HOME pen and ink 14 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 111, ‘The Seven Years of Seeking’


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

99

107 AND FOUR GOOD ANGELS WATCH MY BED, TWO AT THE FOOT AND TWO AT THE HEAD signed and dated 98 inscribed with title and book title on reverse pen and ink 14 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 121, ‘The Guardians of the Door’

108 AND AGAIN IN THE KEEN NOVEMBER pen and ink 14 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 127, ‘On the Shores of Longing’


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CH AR LES RO BIN S O N Charles Robinson, RI (1870-1937) Charles produced distinctive illustrations and watercolours, evolving his style from the influences of Pre-Raphaelitism and Art Nouveau, Japanese prints and the work of Old Masters.

109-113 are all illustrated in Walter Jerrold (ed), The Big Book of Fairy Tales, London: Blackie & Son, 1911

For a biography of Charles Robinson, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 53 Further reading: Geoffrey Beare, The Brothers Robinson, London: Chris Beetles Ltd, 1992; Leo de Freitas, Charles Robinson, London: Academy Editions, 1976

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110 THE HEADS CHATTERED TOGETHER inscribed with title and story title below mount pen and ink with watercolour 3 x 4 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 280, ‘Bushy Bride’

109 THE KING PUT HIS HEAD OUT OF THE WINDOW overwritten ‘The Golden Budget of Fairy Stories’ by another hand inscribed with title and story title below mount pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 11 1⁄4 x 8 inches Illustrated: facing page 180, ‘Puss in Boots’


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

111 IN LESS THAN A QUARTER OF AN HOUR HE RETURNED WITH IT WELL FILLED inscribed with title and story title below mount pen and ink with watercolour 3 3⁄4 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 247, ‘The Fair One with Golden Locks’

112 THE KING LEAVING HIS TRAIN AT SOME DISTANCE RODE ON inscribed with title and story title below mount pen ink and watercolour 10 3⁄4 x 8 inches Illustrated: facing page 148, ‘Valentine & Orson’

113 THE CAT BECAME A GREAT LORD, AND NEVER RAN AFTER RATS AND MICE BUT FOR HIS AMUSEMENT inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 1 1⁄2 x 5 inches Illustrated: page 184, ‘Puss in Boots’, tailpiece

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102

114 THE THIEF APPEARED; WHICH WAS INDEED A LION signed with initials pen ink and watercolour 12 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Walter Jerrold, The Big Book of Fables, London: Blackie & Son, 1912, facing page 114, ‘Jupiter and a Herdsman’


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

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115 THE THIRD MAN PRONOUNCES JUDGEMENT pen ink and watercolour 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Walter Jerrold, The Big Book of Fables, London: Blackie & Son, 1912, facing page 146, ‘Two Travellers find an Oyster’


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WILLI AM HE AT H ROB IN S O N William Heath Robinson (1872-1944) Heath Robinson is a household name, and a byword for a design or construction that is ‘ingeniously or ridiculously overcomplicated’ (as defined by The New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1998, page 848). Yet, he was also a highly distinctive and versatile illustrator, whose work could touch at one extreme the romantic watercolours of a Dulac or Rackham, at another the sinister grotesqueries of a Peake, and at yet another the eccentricities of an Emett. For a biography of William Heath Robinson, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 147. Essays on various aspects of Heath Robinson’s achievements have appeared in previous editions of The Illustrators: on his illustrations to Rabelais in 1996, pages 112-113; on the relationship of his illustrations to those of Arthur Rackham in 1997, pages 124-125; on his illustrations to The Arabian Nights Entertainments, in 1999, pages 73-74; and on one of his illustrations to Twelfth Night in 2000, pages 17-18.

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Key works illustrated: H N Williams (intro), The Poems of Edgar Allan Poe (1900); The Works of Mr Francis Rabelais (1904); contributed to the Bystander (from 1905) and the Sketch (from 1906); Hans Andersen’s Fairy Tales (1913); Shakespeare’s Comedy of A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1914); Walter de la Mare, Peacock Pie (1918) His work is represented in the collections of the British Museum, The Cartoon Museum, and the V&A and The West House and Heath Robinson Museum Trust. Further reading: Geoffrey Beare, The Art of William Heath Robinson, London: Dulwich Picture Gallery, 2003; Geoffrey Beare, The Brothers Robinson, London: Chris Beetles Ltd, 1992; Geoffrey Beare, Heath Robinson Advertising, London: Bellew, 1992; Geoffrey Beare, The Illustrations of W Heath Robinson, London: Werner Shaw, 1983; Geoffrey Beare, William Heath Robinson 1872-1944, London: Chris Beetles Ltd, 2011; Langston Day, The Life and Art of W Heath Robinson, London: Herbert Joseph, 1947; James Hamilton, William Heath Robinson, London: Pavilion Books, 1992; Simon Heneage, ‘Robinson, William Heath (1872-1944)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 47, pages 428-431; John Lewis, Heath Robinson. Artist and Comic Genius, London: Constable, 1973

Key works written and illustrated: The Adventures of Uncle Lubin (1902); Bill the Minder (1912)

116 CHARACTER HEAD STUDIES FROM RABELAIS – ‘GARGANTUA & PANTAGRUEL’ pen and ink, 7 x 11 inches

Illustrated left to right: Vol I, page 29; Vol I, page 1; Vol II, page 278


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

The Chris Beetles Gallery has mounted a number of significant exhibitions of the work of William Heath Robinson: 1. ‘William Heath Robinson (18721944)’, Chris Beetles Gallery, March 1987 (with a fully illustrated catalogue) 2. ‘The Brothers Robinson’, Chris Beetles Gallery and the Royal Festival Hall, February 1992 (with a fully illustrated catalogue) 3. ‘William Heath Robinson (18721944). 50th Anniversary Exhibition’, Chris Beetles Gallery, September 1994 4. ‘The Gadget King’, Manchester City Art Galleries, Heaton Hall, MayOctober 2000 5. ‘W Heath Robinson’, Dulwich Picture Gallery, Linbury Room, November 2003 (to complement Dulwich’s own exhibition of William Heath Robinson) 6. ‘Heath Robinson at Nunnington Hall’, National Trust, Nunnington Hall, North Yorkshire, July 2005 7. ‘Contraptions. William Heath Robinson (1872-1944)’, Chris Beetles Gallery, June-August 2007 (to launch a cartoon collection published by Duckworth) 8. ‘William Heath Robinson 18721944’, Chris Beetles Gallery, May-June 2011 (with a fully illustrated catalogue)

116-121 are all illustrated in The Works of Mr Francis Rabelais, London: Grant Richards, 1904, 117 THE EARLE SWASH-BUCKLER signed and inscribed with title pen and ink 23 1⁄2 x 17 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Vol I, The First Book, Chapter XXXIII, page 69

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106

118 ALL VERY BUSILY EMPLOYED IN SEEKING OF RUSTIE PINS signed inscribed ‘The Usurers in Hell’ below mount pen and ink 22 1⁄2 x 14 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Vol I, The Second Book, Chapter XXX, page 241

119 RONDIBILIS signed pen and ink 22 x 15 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Vol I, The Third Book, Chapter XXXI, page 361 Literature: John Lewis, Heath Robinson. Artist and Comic Genius, London: Constable & Co, 1973, page 87


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

107

120 HEAR-SAY signed inscribed with title and publication details below mount pen and ink 21 1⁄2 x 17 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Vol II, The Fifth Book, Chapter XXXI, page 289

121 LET US GO BACK signed inscribed with title, ‘I pray you’ and publication details below mount pen and ink 16 x 11 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Vol II, The Fifth Book, Chapter XXXV, page 295


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122-127 are all illustrated in W Heath Robinson, Railway Ribaldry, London: Great Western Railway, 1935

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122 BUILDING THE FIRST LOCOMOTIVE signed inscribed with title and book title below mount pen and ink 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 11


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

109

123 THE FIRST WAITING-ROOM signed inscribed with title and book title below mount pen and ink 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 31


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110

124 THE COMPANY STARTS STEAMER SERVICES signed inscribed with title and book title below mount pen and ink 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 49


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

111

125 THE FIRST SMOKING CARRIAGE signed inscribed with title and book title below mount pen and ink 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 55


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112

126 AN EARLY TYPE OF ENGINE FOR CLEANING TUNNELS signed inscribed with title and book title below mount pen and ink 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 59


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

113

127 TAKING SEATS FOR LUNCH ON ONE OF THE FIRST TRAINS TO BE EQUIPPED WITH RESTAURANT CARS signed inscribed with title and book title below mount pen and ink 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 73


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114

128 INTERESTING INSTANCE OF COOPERATION BY THE CALIFORNIAN TREE SNAKE inscribed with title pen and ink, 5 x 5 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 1, ‘Introduction’

129 COURTSHIP. SYNCHRONISING HEARTBEATS inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 4 3⁄4 x 3 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 19, ‘Mating’

130 THE COMMUNAL SPIRIT OF THE PILTDOWN MAN inscribed with title pen and ink 5 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 5, ‘The Communal Spirit’


7: THE ROBINSON BROTHERS

128-133 are all illustrated in W Heath Robinson and Cecil Hunt, How to Run a Communal Home, London: Hutchinson & Co, 1943

132 TO AVOID TEMPTATION AND EMBARRASSING SITUATIONS ON ST VALENTINE’S MORN inscribed with title pen and ink 3 3⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 81, ‘Rites and Ceremonies’

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131 SELECTING A MATE – WHICH SHALL IT BE inscribed with title pen and ink 4 x 6 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 22, ‘Mating’

133 QUICK SHAVING MACHINE IN A COMMUNAL HOME inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 5 3⁄4 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 103, ‘Anno Domini’


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116

134 THE CHRISTMAS PIPER pen ink, watercolour and gold paint 20 x 14 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Nash’s Magazine, Christmas Number, 1927


8: CARTOONISTS BETWEEN THE WARS

8 CARTOONISTS BETWEEN THE WARS POY (1874-1948) GEORGE BELCHER (1875-1947)

P OY Percy Hutton Fearon (1874-1948), known as ‘Poy’ Having been trained in the United States, Percy Fearon injected a particular rigour into his political cartoons for English newspapers. A cast of recurring characters and familiar symbols are brought to life through his rapid, confident lines. For a biography of Poy, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 66. His work is represented in the collections of the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury). Further reading: Mark Bryant, ‘Fearon, Percy Hutton [pseud. Poy] (1874-1948)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 19, pages 210-212 The notes on Poy are written by Alexander Beetles.

DONALD MCGILL (1875-1962) FRANK REYNOLDS (1876-1953) GEORGE ERNEST STUDDY (1878-1948) LAWSON WOOD (1878-1957) BATT (1892-1945)

Rolling paper skills much more fun than moulding budgets Appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947) in November 1924, Winston Churchill (1874-1965) announced in his first budget that Britain return to the Gold Standard. The return to the Gold Standard led to deflation, unemployment and the miners’ strikes that led to the general strike of 1926. Churchill would later regard this decision as the worst mistake of his life. Churchill remained as Chancellor until the Conservatives were defeated in the General Election of 1929, only returning to mainstream politics at the outbreak of the Second World War as First Lord of the Admiralty. 135 ROLLING PAPER SKILLS MUCH MORE FUN THAN MOULDING BUDGETS signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 5 1⁄2 x 3 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Evening News, circa 1924

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Carry On! As a war that many had predicted would be over by Christmas 1914 continued, Britain’s soaring war budget caused a rapid rise in inflation. Massive demand forced shortages of many consumer goods, sending prices sky high. As a result, many companies profited hugely from the war. War profiteering was a public scandal, but the British government rarely intervened in the major firms, instead tending to favour large, centralised industries over smaller ones. By contrast the German government allowed the military takeover of the Daimler motorcar works after the company was found to be padding costs on war production contracts. In the United States, 21,000 millionaires were made during the First World War. ‘John Citizen’ is one of Poy’s most famous characters, representing the ordinary man on the street. Not only did ‘John Citizen’ have to struggle through a period of inflation and austerity, but he also was expected to drive the British war effort, aiding the profiteers in the process.

118

136 CARRY ON! SUPERMAN : ‘AH YES , MR CITIZEN , WAR signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink with pencil 11 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Evening News

IS A ROUGH ROAD, BUT

CARRY ON !


8: CARTOONISTS BETWEEN THE WARS

119

‘Turned’ to Good Use Following stalemate at the Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915, British Commander-in-Chief Field Marshall Sir John French (1852-1925) blamed the failure upon a shortage of shells and munitions. As a result, the government faced strong criticism from the public, leading to what became known as the Shell Crisis of 1915. When H H Asquith (1852-1928) formed his coalition government the same year, Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George (1863-1945) was appointed the first Minister of Munitions. This position was created to co-ordinate the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort and although Lord Kitchener remained in office as Secretary of State for War, he lost control of munitions production to Lloyd George. In response to the shortage, factories in Britain and the British Commonwealth were reorganised in order to provide adequate shells and other materials for the remainder of the war.

137 ‘TURNED’ TO GOOD USE DAVID : ‘ SORRY TO UPSET THINGS , BUT AIMING AT !’

YOU KNOW WHAT WE ’ RE

MR LLOYD GEORGE HAS ANNOUNCED THAT THE GOVERNMENT WILL TAKE POWERS TO COMMANDEER FACTORIES AND DIVERT THEM TO IMPORTANT PURPOSES OF WAR

signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 6 x 12 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Evening News, circa 1915

...

THE ALL


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Cuthbert’s Farewell to Grandpa On 4 August 1914, when Britain declared war on Germany, the British regular army consisted of approximately 250,000 men, with another 150,000 in reserve. To put this number into perspective, the Battle of the Somme (July-November 1916) claimed the lives of over 350,000 British soldiers. As conscription was politically unacceptable, Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener (1850-1916) called for an army of volunteers, aiming for around 100,000 men aged between 19 and 30, at least 5’3” tall and with a chest size of at least 34”. To encourage volunteering, ‘Pals Battalions’ were established, allowing men to fight alongside friends from the same area. By the end of August 1914, around 30,000 men were enlisting every day and by midSeptember, 500,000 had volunteered, with another 500,000 joining before the end of the year.

120

During the war, Poy served in the National Guard on air-raid duty. His character ‘Cuthbert’ the rabbit was created as a symbol of those who refused to join the war effort, either by refusing to get involved at all or by securing a post in the government or civil service.

138 CUTHBERT’S FAREWELL TO GRANDPA signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 9 1⁄2 x 8 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Evening News


8: CARTOONISTS BETWEEN THE WARS

United Again! Following their declaration of war in April 1917, the USA drafted approximately 2.8 million men into the army and by the summer of 1918, was sending 10,000 soldiers to France every day. Although the United States were never formally a member of the Allied forces, entering the war as a self-styled ‘Associate Power’, this was the first time that Britain and the United States had been allied in war since the American Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776.

121

139 UNITED AGAIN! JOHN : ‘ TODAY ’ S THE DAY YOU LEFT ME , SAM – SAM : ‘ YEP, JOHN – FREE TO COME BACK !’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink with coloured pencil 12 1⁄4 x 11 3⁄4 inches

THE DAY THAT MADE YOU FREE .’


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The Sink of Iniquity On 27 March 1917, having just discharged over 1,000 sick and wounded passengers at the port of Avonmouth, HMHS Asturias, a hospital ship, was hit with two torpedoes from a German U-Boat. Although it was not sunk, 31 people were killed and the Asturias was declared a total loss. The fact that the Germans had attempted to sink a hospital boat – by sheer fortune not full of injured passengers – caused outrage amongst the British public. It was the indiscriminate nature of Germany’s submarine warfare that caused the United States to enter the war a little over a week later, on 4 April 1917.

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140 THE SINK OF INIQUITY signed and inscribed with title on reverse pen ink and coloured pencil 10 x 8 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Evening News, March 1917


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Prussian Militarism Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) had been a victory for aggressive militarism, and it became an assumption in Europe that military strength must be the chief factor in national preservation. When war broke out in August 1914, the USA considered it a European conflict and stated their desire to remain neutral. However, following the sinking of the British passenger ship, the Lusitania, in May 1915, in which 128 Americans were killed, President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) demanded that Germany stop attacking passenger ships and cease unrestricted submarine warfare. Contrary to this demand, Germany declared in January 1917 that all ships heading to Britain would be destroyed. Following a number of subsequent attacks on American merchant ships, the United States declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917.

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The image of ‘Uncle Sam’, a creation of American illustrator, James Montgomery Flagg (1877-1960), was seen for the first time on the cover of the magazine, Leslie’s Weekly, on 6 July 1916, with the caption, ‘What are you Doing for Preparedness?’. Between 1917 and 1918 over four million copies of the image were printed. The famous ‘I Want You’ image of Uncle Sam was modelled on a 1914 poster of the same design featuring Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener, and was used throughout both the First and Second World Wars. 141 PRUSSIAN MILITARISM signed pen ink and coloured pencil 9 1⁄2 x 10 inches Illustrated: Evening News


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GEORGE B ELC H E R George Frederick Arthur Belcher, RA (1875-1947) George Belcher was best known for his elegant drawings, in chalk or charcoal, of gently humorous exchanges, often between working-class protagonists. George Belcher was born in London on 19 September 1875, the son of Dr Joseph Belcher. He was educated at King Edward VI School, Berkhamstead, and then studied at Gloucester School of Art. Beginning to work as a portraitist and caricaturist in a variety of media, he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1909, and gained the rare distinction, for a humorous artist, of becoming an Academician (ARA 1931, RA 1946). Contributing regularly to Punch (from 1911), and to The Tatler and Vanity

Fair, he became so well known for his studies in chalk and charcoal that he was described by Fougasse as ‘Phil May in chalk’. However, his work was more genteel than that of May, and his working-class subjects were more kindly but less vigorously drawn. It is probable that he was more at home with the social standing of such sitters as H G Wells, and his pastimes – of hunting and fishing – were certainly those of the country gentleman. Living for some years in Knightsbridge, Belcher spent his later life at Chiddingfold, Surrey, and died there on 3 October 1947. In his retirement he had begun to paint still life and flowers in oils. His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the V&A; and Worthing Museum and Art Gallery. Further reading: An Exhibition of Comic Drawings by George Belcher RA 1875-1947, London: Langton Gallery, 1986

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142 IF YOU’VE GOT ‘ALF A CROWN ON YER I’VE GOT 2 SHILLINGS. WE’LL GO AND BUY A PAIR OF BOOTS signed 12 1⁄2 x 8 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Tatler


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143 ‘YES MRS SNOGAN I ’OPED AS WELL AS THEY WOULD GET TARIFF REFORM AND MAKE THE FOREIGNER PAY, WE GOT ONE IN OUR TOP FLOOR BACK BUT ’AD NOTHINK OF HIM FOR 6 WEEKS NOW.’ signed inscribed with title below mount charcoal, 12 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Tatler

144 FRIEND: ‘YOU GOING TO CHURCH MRS TWINNING’ MRS T: ‘YES I BE MRS GREEN. THEY DON’T GIVE NO SNUFF AND TEA AWAY AT “THE SPOTTED DOG” CHRISTMAS TIME.’ signed inscribed with title and ‘Tatler’ on reverse charcoal 14 x 10 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Tatler


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145 VISITOR: DO YOU KNOW WHAT REGIMENT IT WAS PASSED BY JUST NOW? NATIVE: I DON’T RIGHTLY KNOW SIR. I THINK IT WAS THE WEST SOMETHING VISITOR: WEST RIDING? NATIVE: NO SIR THEY WAS A WALKING – WASNT ’EM JARGE? signed and inscribed with title pencil with watercolour 17 x 11 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Tatler

146 ‘I AIN’T ’AD A BITE FOR TWO DAYS KURNEL I AIN’T STRAIGHT’ ‘AREN’T YER – WELL STEP INSIDE’ signed inscribed with title below mount charcoal and watercolour 12 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Tatler


8: CARTOONISTS BETWEEN THE WARS

D ON ALD M CG I L L

‘I never go to the seaside – and I never send people cards!’

Donald Fraser Gould McGill (1875-1962) Dubbed the ‘Picasso of the Pier’ by the writer, Dennis Potter, Donald McGill devoted his working life, from 1904, to designing comic cards for the postcard industry. Donald McGill was born in Regent’s Park, London, on 28 January 1875, the son of a stationer. He grew up in Blackheath, and was educated at Stratheden House and Blackheath Proprietary School, where, at the age of 17, he received a serious injury in a rugby match, which eventually resulted in the amputation of his left foot. He studied at Blackheath School of Art, but left after a year because ‘he did not like the syllabus’, and instead joined the correspondence course run by John Hassall’s New School of Art. His first published work appeared in The Joker. Working in the office of Maudsleys, a firm of naval architects, between 1893 and 1896, McGill then entered an apprenticeship with Thames Ironworks, Shipbuilding and Engineering Company. While remaining with the company until 1907, he also began to produce postcard designs, from 1904, for the Pictorial Postcard Company. Those designs were often inspired by jokes that he heard at music halls, including the Parthenon Theatre of Varieties, Greenwich, which had been owned by his father-inlaw, Alfred Hurley. He worked full time as a postcard artist from 1908, and two years later began to sell designs to Joseph Ascher, a German immigrant entrepreneur. When Ascher was interned as an enemy alien at the outbreak of the First World War, McGill moved to the Inter-Art Company, and worked as a staff member for the next 17 years, producing an average of nine cards a week. He resigned in 1931, in response to the company’s ‘clean-up’ campaign after which ‘they would not let me draw people with red noses, women in bathing costumes with cleavage’, and again worked as a freelance artist. In the same year, he and his family moved to 5 Bennett Park, Blackheath (an event that is now marked by a blue plaque). In 1934, Ascher returned to England, as a refugee from Nazi Germany, and set up the firm of D Constance Ltd in Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row, near St Paul’s Cathedral. Two years later, it began to employ McGill and introduced a ‘New McGill Comics’ series. However, in 1939, the struggling nature of the postcard industry encouraged him to retire to Guildford, Surrey. Through most of the Second World War, he worked as a clerk for the Ministry of Labour, beginning to draw for Ascher again from 1944. He was possibly encouraged in this by George Orwell’s now famous essay, published in Horizon in 1941, which stated that ‘McGill is a clever draughtsman with a real caricaturist’s touch in the drawing of faces’ and that his postcards are ‘so completely typical’. Before Ascher died in 1951, he had made McGill a nominal director of D Constance Ltd, and gave him a flat at 36 Christchurch Road, Streatham

(Donald McGill)

Hill (the company having moved to the same street at the outbreak of war). Following Ascher’s death, McGill and Ernest Maidment attempted to manage the company together, and deal with financial complications and issues of censorship. McGill himself died a decade later at St James’s Hospital, Balham, on 13 October 1962. Further reading: Elfreda Buckland, The World of Donald McGill, Poole: Blandford Press, 1984; Arthur Calder-Marshall, Wish You Were Here, London: Hutchinson, 1966; Denis Gifford, ‘McGill, Donald Fraser Gould (1875-1962)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 35, pages 401-402 In 2006, Chris Beetles Gallery mounted the sell-out exhibition, ‘Donald McGill. The Michael Winner Collection’. It was accompanied by a very popular illustrated catalogue.

147 A SCOTSMAN’S GREETING (detail) I WISH YOU A MERRY CHRISTMAS AND THEN A GLAD NEW YEAR A HAPPY BIRTHDAY ALSO

( MY

WURRD ! THESE CARDS

ARE DEAR !) GOOD LUCK ATTEND YOUR WEDDING FINE BAIRNS

THOUGH NOT

TOO MANY I THINK THAT ’ S ALL I HAVE TO SAY

BANG GOES ANOTHER PENNY !!

signed and inscribed with title and caption watercolour and pencil 10 3⁄4 x 6 3⁄4 inches

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148 I’VE GOT COSTUMES OF EVERY SORT FOR TENNIS AND BATHING AND ALL KINDS OF SPORT. BUT THE ONE THAT YOU’D LIKE BEST I KNOW, IS JUST THE ONE THAT I CAN’T SHOW! inscribed with title on reverse watercolour 10 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches

149 THE GIRL WHO GOES TOO FAR TRAVELS BY CAR THE GIRL WHO MAKES A FUSS TRAVELS BY ’BUS! signed and inscribed with title inscribed with title on reverse watercolour and pencil 10 x 6 inches


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150 WHAT YOU DO IS YOUR BUSINESS WHAT I DO IS MY BUSINESS WHAT SHE DOES IS HER BUSINESS WHAT SHE AND I DO IS NOBODY’S BUSINESS! signed inscribed with title on reverse watercolour 10 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches

151 YOU CAN’T EAT OYSTERS WHEN THERE’S NO R IN THE MONTH AND YOU CAN’T GET STRAWBERRIES AND CREAM WHEN THERE IS BUT THANK GOODNESS GIRLS ARE ALWAYS IN SEASON! signed and inscribed with title signed with initials and inscribed with title on reverse watercolour and bodycolour, 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

F R AN K R EY N O L D S Frank Reynolds, RI (1876-1953) Drawing mainly from memory, Frank Reynolds was much admired for his direct characterisation of middle-class and low-life types and situations. Frank Reynolds was born in London on 13 February 1876. The son of an artist, he studied at Heatherley’s and, during the 1890s, began to contribute pen and ink work to a number of periodicals including Judy, Longbow, Pick-me-up and The Playgoer. He produced particularly strong cover designs for Sketchy Bits, around 1900, and made his name with fullpage humorous drawings in The Sketch. He played a good deal of cricket at this time and, on joining the London Sketch Club, proved to be a good bowler in its matches, which were known as ‘The Married Men’ versus ‘The Single Men’. He was President of the London Sketch Club during the year 1909-10.

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Reynolds was advised by John Hassall, a fellow member of the London Sketch Club, to try the softer media of pencil and crayon and, as a result, became greatly accomplished in many branches of draughtsmanship, including watercolour. He was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colour in 1903, and scored a great success with his watercolour illustrations to novels by Dickens (1910-12). His Humorous Drawings for the Press (1947) placed a great stress upon clarity at the expense of aesthetic finish. Drawn mainly from memory, his own work was much admired for its direct characterisation of low-life urban types and situations. Originating in the work of Keene and May, his style was often considered a reaction against the ‘prettification’ of Punch, while Fougasse saw it as foreshadowing the free drawing of the 1950s. A contributor to Punch from 1906, Reynolds joined the staff in 1919 and, a year later, succeeded his brother-in-law, F H Townsend, as art editor, a post he retained for over a decade. Much of his best work for Punch appeared in colour in the Almanacs and Summer Numbers, including some memorable pastiches. In 1933, he resigned his membership of the RI and moved to Thames Ditton, apparently to retire. But as his popular creation ‘The Bristlewoods’ attests, he continued to illustrate throughout the 1930s and into the period of the Second World War. He died on 18 April 1953. Further reading: Percy V Bradshaw, The Art of the Illustrator: Frank Reynolds, London: Press Art School, [1918]; A E Johnson, Frank Reynolds, London: A & C Black, 1907

Lossiemouth Myths: The Face at the Window Born the illegitimate son of a farm labourer and a housemaid in Lossiemouth, Scotland, Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) became Prime Minister of a minority Labour government in 1929. In a relatively strong parliamentary position, MacDonald was able to raise unemployment pay, pass a housing act focusing on slum clearances and also passed the Coal Mines Bill. This bill, published on 12 December 1929, proposed to reduce miners’ working hours from eight to seven and a half a day and to introduce a national board to protect wages. The Liberal party, led by David Lloyd George (1863-1945), sought to harass the government into making concessions in the direction of rationalisation. The note on Lossiemouth Myths is written by Alexander Beetles. 152 LOSSIEMOUTH MYTHS: THE FACE AT THE WINDOW signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink with bodycolour, 10 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 8 January 1930, page 31


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153 THE TYRANNY OF SLANG MISTRESS ( TO NEW MAID ) – ‘ MARY, YOU HAVEN ’ T HALF DINING ROOM ’ MARY ( HIGHLY GRATIFIED ) – ‘AH ! NOT ’ ALF I ’ AVENT !’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 11 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 11 April 1923, page 341

DUSTED THE

154 THE DANCING LESSON EXASPERATED WIFE : MY DEAR MAN – YOU LEARNT TO DRILL IN THE ARMY – WHY CAN ’ T YOU PICK THIS UP – ITS A PERFECTLY SIMPLE STEP ANY ONE WOULD THINK YOU WERE MENTALLY DEFICIENT HUSBAND : ALMOST THE SERGEANT ’ S OWN WORDS signed inscribed with title and caption below mount pen and ink 10 x 8 inches Illustrated: Punch, 15 February 1922, page 125

DEAR


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GEORGE ER NE S T S T U D DY George Ernest Studdy (1878-1948) Studdy evolved his most famous character within the pages of The Sketch. ‘Bonzo’, the mischievous white puppy, first appeared with that name on 8 November 1922, and became so popular that he was reproduced in many forms beyond books and postcards, from clocks to mascots.

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G E Studdy was born at Stoke Damerel, Devon, on 23 June 1878, the son of a lieutenant in the Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders. He was educated at Clifton College, Bristol and Dulwich College, London (which he left in 1896). A childhood accident prevented him from following a military career, but he worked as an apprentice engineer for Thames Iron Works and then as a stockbroker before becoming a cartoonist. Encouraged by an aunt to develop his interest in art, he took evening classes at Heatherley’s and spent a valuable term at Calderon’s School of Animal Painting. From the turn of the century he contributed regularly to such periodicals as Comic Cuts and produced drawings for advertisements. He joined the London Sketch Club in 1905 – was elected as its President in 1921 – and was later a member of the Savage Club. He also acted as a tutor for Percy Bradshaw’s Press Art School. By the First World War he was working regularly for The Sketch, The Tatler, The Bystander, The Graphic and The Illustrated London News. He also produced animation shorts for Gaumont, the films appearing monthly under the title ‘Studdy’s War Studies’ (1915-16). Early in his career, Studdy made several drawings of comic dogs for advertisements and periodical contributions. However, he evolved his most famous canine character within the pages of The Sketch. ‘Bonzo’, the mischievous white puppy, first appeared with that name on 8 November 1922 and became so popular that he was reproduced in many forms beyond books and postcards, from clocks to mascots. He was also used to advertise a variety of products from the Eclipse safety razor to Woolwena pure down quilts. His ‘stage debut’ occurred in Battling Butler at the Adelphi Theatre (1923), when George Atterbury, dressed in a velvet dog costume, played opposite Jack Buchanan. A year later, he featured in ‘A Sausage Snatching Sensation’, the first of 26 animated films collectively known as Bonzoland. The craze for Bonzo peaked in the late 1920s, at the very time that he appeared in advertisements for Ackroyd Brothers Limited. It rapidly declined after Studdy’s death from lung cancer on 25 July 1948. Further reading: Paul Babb and Gay Owen, Bonzo: The Life and Work of George Studdy, Shepton Beauchamp: Richard Dennis, 1988 155 THE GHOST STORY signed inscribed with title on reverse watercolour 17 1⁄2 x 11 inches Published as a print by Welbeck


8: CARTOONISTS BETWEEN THE WARS

L AWSON W O O D Clarence Lawson Wood, RI (1878-1957) Lawson Wood was an accomplished cartoonist and poster designer. He gained great popularity with his humorous illustrations of animals, including dinosaurs and monkeys. The ginger ape, Gran’pop, proved a particular favourite on both sides of the Atlantic. For a biography of Lawson Wood, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 69. Further reading: Percy V Bradshaw, The Art of the Illustrator: Lawson Wood, London: Press Art School, [1918]; A E Johnson, Lawson Wood, London: A & C Black, 1910

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156 WHY WON’T THIS ONE DO? signed watercolour and bodycolour 15 x 12 inches


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

157 ‘NOW THAT WE HAVE ZE PEACE, IF ANY MORE GERMAN HE TRY TO COME AND STAY IN FRANCE, I WILL BLOW HIS NOSE FOR HIM – BY DAMN I AM!’ signed and dated /18 inscribed with title below mount watercolour with bodycolour 11 3⁄4 x 8 1⁄2 inches

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158 WHAT ABOUT A CLAM-BAKE? signed inscribed with title on reverse watercolour with bodycolour 15 x 12 inches

159 WITHHOLDING TAX signed inscribed ‘Gran’pop – Still on Top – Giving it the Once-Over’ on reverse watercolour and bodycolour 15 1⁄4 x 12 inches Design for an Advertisement Card for the Clapp Machinery Company, March 1946


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135

160 LATE FOR THE BOARD MEETING signed inscribed with title on reverse watercolour and bodycolour 14 3⁄4 x 11 3⁄4 inches

161 WHEN POP PAPERED THE PARLOUR inscribed with title on reverse watercolour and bodycolour 14 3⁄4 x 11 3⁄4 inches


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

BAT T Oswald Charles Barrett (1892-1945), known as ‘Batt’ While producing a wide range of drawings and paintings, Oswald Barrett became best known for his biographical portraits of great composers, which he signed ‘Batt’. Oswald Barrett was born in London to a father who was ‘an authority on Oriental art’ and ‘steeped in the lore and history of London’ (Charles Benjamin Purdon, How Should We Rebuild London?, London: J M Dent & Sons, 1945, page ix, a book that was illustrated by Batt).

Barrett was educated at St George’s School, Ramsgate, and began his studies at Camden School of Art, Dalmeny Avenue, publishing his first drawing in The Bystander in 1911. During the First World War, he served with the 1/1st Kent Battalion on the North-West Frontier. Returning to his studies at the Heatherley School of Fine Art, 75 Newman Street, and then Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, he shared a studio for a while with Eric Fraser. Illustrating Current Literature for two years, from 1926 to 1928, Barrett began to contribute to The Radio Times in 1930, and continued to do so until his death 15 years later. He also illustrated a number of books, including Percy Scholes’ The Oxford Companion to Music (1938). He remains best known for his portraits of musicians, the drawings of composers which he did for The Radio Times being so popular that the BBC published special issues for framing. Twenty years after his death, an exhibition of his ‘musical work’, including all The Radio Times portraits, was held at the Royal Festival Hall in London.

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To My Nurse-mate, from a nouveau-né ‘Emodus Gogai’ Before he decided to use ‘Batt’ as a pseudonym, Oswald Barrett toyed with the more esoteric name, ‘Emodus Gogai’. This derives from two places in present-day Pakistan that he would have encountered on military service at the North-West Frontier during the First World War: Gogai, a settlement in Balochistan, and the western end of the Himalayas, the classical name for which is Emodus. Here he depicts himself, dressed as a mountaineer and standing atop of a mountain, holding aloft the embodiment of his new alter-ego. 162 TO MY NURSE-MATE, FROM A NOUVEAU-NE ‘EMODUS GOGAI’ signed, inscribed with title and dated ‘Oct 1927’ charcoal 14 1⁄2 x 10 1⁄4 inches


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137

163 G K CHESTERTON signed pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 16 1⁄4 x 12 1⁄2 inches


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

9 ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

E RNE S T HO WA RD S HE PA RD Ernest Howard Shepard, MC OBE (1879-1976) While E H Shepard is now best remembered for his immortal illustrations to Winnie-the-Pooh and The Wind in the Willows, he was a wide-ranging illustrator, with an unsurpassed genius for representing children, and an underrated talent for political cartoons. For a biography of E H Shepard, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 199; for essays on various aspects of the artist’s achievement, see The Illustrators, 1999, pages 151-152; The Illustrators, 2000, pages 28-32; and The Illustrators, 2007, pages 199-200.

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Key works illustrated: contributed to Punch from 1907, becoming second cartoonist in 1935, and chief cartoonist from 1945 until 1949; A A Milne, When We Were Very Young (1924); E V Lucas, Playtime and Company (1925); A A Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh (1926); Everybody’s Pepys (1926); A A Milne, The House at Pooh Corner (1928); Kenneth Grahame, The Wind in the Willows (1931); Richard Jeffries, Bevis (1932); E V Lucas, As the Bee Sucks (1937) Further reading: Arthur R Chandler, The Story of E H Shepard: the man who drew Pooh, West Sussex: Jaydem, 2001; Rawle Knox (ed), The Work of E H Shepard, London: Methuen, 1979; C A Parker (rev), ‘Shepard, Ernest Howard (1879-1976)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, pages 230-231 His work is represented in the collections of the V&A; and the Shepard Archive at the University of Surrey (Guildford). The notes on Shepard are written by Alexander Beetles.

164 INDIGNANT LADY ‘’ ORACE , I ’ D AVE YER KNOW THIS IS THE – BANANAS IF YER LIKE , BUT ORANGES – signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 10 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 4 May 1921, page 349

UPPER CIRCLE , NOT THE GALLERY NO.’


9: ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

165 DEAR OLD LADY ‘ MY DEAR , MY BEGONIAS HAVE DONE SO BADLY THIS YEAR AND I ’ M SURE IT IS DUE TO THE DAYLIGHT SAVING BILL ; YOU SEE , THE MORNINGS ARE SO COLD – I HAVE FELT IT MYSELF.’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 7 3⁄4 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 23 July 1919, page 99

166 AUNT JULIA ‘WELL ROBERT AND WOULD YOU LIKE TO RUN UPSTAIRS AND PLAY?’ BOBBY (WHO HAS BEEN LUNCHING OUT, AND FARED DAINTILY BUT INADEQUATELY) ‘PLEASE I’D LIKE TO GO HOME TO MY DINNER!’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 9 1⁄2 x 14 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 8 March 1922, page 193

139


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140

167 TAILOR ‘A LITTLE ON THE EASY SIDE MADAM, BUT HE’LL SOON FILL THEM OUT’ SISTER ‘MUMMY, THE GENTLEMAN HAS FILLED HIS CLOTHES OUT VERY NICELY’ pen and ink 8 1⁄4 x 11 inches Illustrated: Punch, 3 May 1922, page 354

168 THE TATTERSALL MALE VOICE CHOIR PUNTER WITH MUSICAL TASTES SEIZES HIS CHANCE OF DOING A LITTLE CONDUCTING

signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 7 1⁄2 x 10 inches Illustrated: Punch, 24 June 1925, page 692


9: ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

141

169 PROBLEMS OF ETIQUETTE FOR ANIMALS signed pen and ink 12 1⁄4 x 9 inches Illustrated: Punch, 14 November 1928, page 557


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142

170 LADY (WEDGED IN TUBE CROWD) ‘OH DEAR, HAS ANYONE SEEN MY HAND?’ POLITE STRANGER ‘IF IT HAS SOME PARCELS ATTACHED TO IT, I THINK IT’S OVER HERE’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 8 x 11 inches Illustrated: Punch, 19 December 1928, page 684

171 FIRST SUN BATHER. ‘HEAVENS! MY WRIST WATCH!’ SECOND BATHER. ‘WHY DID YOU BATHE WITH IT ON?’ FIRST BATHER. ‘IT’S NOT THAT; IT’S SPOILING MY SUNBURN’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 8 1⁄2 x 12 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 21 August 1929, page 210


9: ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

172 FREAK HATS. ETON AND HARROW MATCH

signed and inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 7 x 10 inches Illustrated: Punch, 6 July 1932, page 26

173 SHOPPING NOTE IT IS WONDERFUL TO SEE WHAT A GREAT ADVANCE HAS BEEN MADE IN THE ART OF WINDOW DRESSING OF RECENT YEARS . TASTE COMBINED WITH INGENUITY OFTEN GIVES AN EFFECT OF ABSOLUTE REALISM

signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 8 1⁄2 x 13 inches Illustrated: Punch, 14 September 1932, page 297

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144

174 THE WALK signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 12 x 9 inches Illustrated: Punch, 27 February 1935, page 243

175 THREE MICE pen and ink 2 1⁄2 x 4 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Kenneth Grahame, The Golden Age, London: John Lane at The Bodley Head, 1928, page 6, ‘Prologue: The Olympians’


9: ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

176 SHE RECEIVED UPON HER CHEEKS SALUTES inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink 4 3⁄4 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Charles Dickens, The Holly Tree and Other Christmas Stories, London: W Partridge & Co, 1925, ‘The Haunted House’

145

177 THEY MIGHT DABBLE IN THE POND ALL DAY signed with initials inscribed with title and ‘The Olympians’ below mount pen and ink 6 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Kenneth Grahame, The Golden Age, New York: Dodd, Mead & Co, 1928, page 3


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146

178 MAKE THIS A POOH CHRISTMAS signed with initials and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 6 3⁄4 x 12 1⁄2 inches

179 ARCADIA AND BETHLEHEM signed with initials inscribed with title below mount 4 1⁄2 x 6 inches Illustrated: Patrick R Chalmers, The Cricket in the Cage, London: A & C Black, 1933


9: ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

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180 HE STEERED FOR THE OPEN COUNTRY, ABANDONING THE TOW PATH signed with initials pen and ink 7 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Kenneth Grahame, Wind in The Willows, London: Methuen & Co, 1931, page 238

181 THE BARGE-WOMAN WAS GESTICULATING WILDLY AND SHOUTING, ‘STOP, STOP, STOP!’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink, 5 x 4 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Kenneth Grahame, Wind in The Willows, London: Methuen & Co, 1931, page 239


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148

The Sign: V for Victory The Nazi invasion of France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands began on 10 May 1939 and by 14 June Paris had been occupied. Following the Nazi invasion of Western Europe, numerous resistance movements were founded, dedicated to fighting the occupying forces and collaborating governments. On 14 January 1941, Victor de Laveleye (1894-1945), former Belgian minister of Justice and director of the Belgian Frenchspeaking broadcasts on the BBC, suggested in a broadcast that the Belgians use a V for victoire as a rallying emblem during the Second World War. Within weeks, Vs began appearing on walls throughout Belgium, the Netherlands and Northern France. By July 1941, the use of the V had spread through occupied Europe and on 19 July, Winston Churchill put the British government’s stamp of approval on the V for Victory campaign in a speech and began using the hand sign. 182 THE SIGN: V FOR VICTORY pencil, 12 1⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Preliminary drawing for Punch, 23 July 1941, page 69; Punch, 13 February 1952, page 233

The Great Protector As Field-Marshall of the Luftwaffe from 1938, Hermann Göring (1893-1946) was at the forefront of the German advance through Europe from 1939. Under him, the Luftwaffe had been developed into one of the most powerful and advanced air forces in the world. The German invasion of Poland began in September 1939 and was complete by October. The Luftwaffe played a significant role in this victory, protecting the advance of the German ground forces and defeating the Polish air force in just two weeks. However, the Battle of Britain would take place between July and October 1940, in which the British RAF gained air superiority over the Luftwaffe. 183 THE GREAT PROTECTOR ‘ FIELD - MARSHALL GOERING HAS CONFISCATED ALL PROPERTY IN ORDER TO SAFEGUARD IT ’ pencil 12 1⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Preliminary drawing for Punch, 21 January 1940, page 127

IN POLAND


9: ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

Tri Juncta in Uno Having received royal assent on 18 July 1947, the Indian Independence Act led to the dissolution of the British Indian Empire. Overseeing the transition from British India to independence was Lord Mountbatten (1900-1979), appointed the last Viceroy of India by Prime Minister Clement Attlee on 21 February 1947. On 15 August 1947, British India was officially divided into the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on the basis of religious demographics. As a result, the partition displaced up to 12.5 million people as Muslims moved to Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs moved to India hoping for the relative safety of a religious majority. The division was intended to forge strong relationships between Britain and the two new states, as depicted by E H Shepard’s British Lion and the Bengal Tiger, the national symbol of India, now representing both India and Pakistan. However, neither new government was able to cope with the scale of migration and religious tensions led to violence that caused the deaths of no fewer than several hundred thousand people and possibly as many as one million.

184 TRI JUNCTA IN UNO signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 11 1⁄4 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 23 July 1947, page 85

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185-186 are both illustrated: in Collins Young Elizabethan, November 1954, ‘Operation Wildgoose’ by Ronald Pertwee

185 SEIZING HER BAG, BRIONY LEAPT ASHORE signed with initials and inscribed with title below mount also inscribed ‘This is Entrancing. RP’ by author, Ronald Pertwee, below mount pen and ink 5 x 7 inches Illustrated: page 17

186 WHICH OF YOU IS WHICH? (below left) inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 5 x 4 1⁄2 inches

150

187 SIX MONTHS LATER WE STUDENTS PRODUCED ANOTHER THEATRICAL VENTURE OF QUITE A DIFFERENT KIND inscribed ‘Theatrical venture of quite a different kind’ below mount signed and inscribed with artist’s address on reverse pen and ink, 5 3⁄4 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Ernest H Shepard, Drawn from Life, London: Methuen, 1961, page 161


9: ERNEST HOWARD SHEPARD

151

188 THE SHIP WAS CROWDED AND WE PILED OUR LUGGAGE IN A CORNER inscribed ‘Piled our luggage in a corner’ below mount pen and ink 6 1⁄2 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Ernest H Shepard, Drawn from Life, London: Methuen, 1961, page 111

189 HE TOOK MY ARM AND WE CHARGED FROM ROOM TO ROOM inscribed ‘Charged from room to room’ below mount pen and ink 5 1⁄4 x 4 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Ernest H Shepard, Drawn from Life, London: Methuen, 1961, page 204


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10 POST-WAR ILLUSTRATORS SALOMON VAN ABBE (1883-1955) GERALD GARDINER (1902-1959) JOAN HASSALL (1906-1988)

152

CYRIL WALTER HODGES (1909-2004) BETTY SWANWICK (1915-1989)

S A LO M O N VA N A BBE Salomon Van Abbé, RBA ARE (1883-1955) Dutch-born Salomon Van Abbé developed a range of skills at a number of London art schools, and established himself as a very English illustrator. He is now best remembered for his etchings of legal subjects and his illustrations for popular classics. Salomon Van Abbé was born in Amsterdam on 31 July 1883, the son of a diamond dealer, and elder brother of the illustrator who worked as ‘Joseph Abbey’. He moved to England with his family when he was five years old, and was educated in London. He studied art at Toynbee Hall, Whitechapel; the People’s Palace, Bow; the Central School of Arts and Crafts and the LCC’s School of Photo-Engraving and Lithography, Bolt Court, Fleet Street (the last under Walter Bayes, Cecil Rae and Walter Seymour). At Bolt Court, he met fellow etcher, Edmund Blampied, who later married Van Abbé’s sister, Marianne. Working initially as a periodical illustrator, Van Abbé contributed regularly to various newspapers and magazines including The Illustrated London News. However, he is more renowned for his work on books, designing covers for the publishers Ward Lock & Co, among others. He made extensive tours to France, Spain, Italy and, of course, Holland and Belgium, to observe the scenery and inhabitants, gathering stocks of material for use in future illustrative compositions. Although his style was relatively conventional and representational, it was often marked by finely-hatched shading, echoing his skills as an etcher, which came to the fore in the 1920s and 30s with his many legal subjects. While developing this style, he became preoccupied with exploring people’s gestures and facial expressions, resulting in the highly animated characterisations that we see in his book illustrations. These were often line drawings; however, his prodigious ability to use colour is demonstrated in his illustrations for Louisa M Alcott’s Little Women (1948) and Good Wives (1953). He sometimes worked under the pen names ‘J Abbey’ and ‘C Morse’. Van Abbé exhibited regularly at London societies, including the Royal Academy, as well as abroad, and was elected an Associate of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers (ARE) in 1928 and a member of the Royal Society of British Artists (RBA) in 1933. A member of the London Sketch Club – where he was known as Jack – he was its President in the year 1940-41. Living in Streatham for many years, he died in London on 28 February 1955. The biography of Van Abbé is written by Eleanor Hall.

190-195 are all iIllustrated in Louisa M Alcott, Little Women, London: J M Dent & Sons, 1948


10: POST-WAR ILLUSTRATORS

153 191 SO LAURIE PLAYED AND JO LISTENED signed inscribed ‘he played remarkably well and didn’t put on any airs’ below mount ink with bodycolour, 12 1⁄2 x 11 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 70

190 I’M GLAD IT’S OVER, BECAUSE WE’VE GOT YOU BACK signed inscribed with the title and ‘whispered Beth, who sat on her father’s knee’ below mount ink with bodycolour 12 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 285

192 WE ARE DYING TO KNOW WHAT HE SAYS signed inscribed with title and ‘cried Jo bugging her sister’ below mount ink with bodycolour 11 1⁄2 x 10 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 81


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154

193 A GENERAL OUTCRY AROSE, FOR ALL HER ABUNDANT HAIR WAS CUT SHORT signed inscribed ‘as she spoke, Jo took off her bonnet’ below mount pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 11 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: frontispiece

194 ... A CRY THAT MADE JO’S HEART STAND STILL signed inscribed ‘something held her and turned her round, just in time to see Amy throw up her hands + go down, with a sudden crash’ below mount pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 3⁄4 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: facing page 105


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196-198 are all iIllustrated in Louisa M Alcott, Good Wives, London: J M Dent & Sons, 1953

155

195 AFTER DINNER, AMY HAD TO READ ALOUD ... signed inscribed with title below mount pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 11 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: facing page 281

196 FLO AND I, FOR THE FUN OF IT, ORDERED A HANSOM CAB ... signed inscribed ‘Now then, Mum (a London cab driver in a hansom)’ below mount stamped ‘12 Dec 1952’ on reverse pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour, 12 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: front dust jacket and facing page 90


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156

197 DEMI ... ENTERED, WITH HIS LONG NIGHT-GOWN FESTOONED GRACEFULLY OVER HIS ARM signed pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 13 1⁄2 x 9 inches Illustrated: facing page 182

198 CAN YOU MAKE A LITTLE PLACE IN YOUR HEART FOR OLD FRITZ? signed inscribed with title on reverse pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 13 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: facing page 276


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GER ALD GA RD IN E R Gerald Gardiner, RWA (1902-1959) Though he was born in London, Gerald Gardiner had an intense feeling for nature, which shows throughout his work as a painter, pastel artist, printmaker and illustrator. Gerald Gardiner was born in London on 17 January 1902. Studying at Beckenham School of Art, under Percy Jowett (1919-23), and the Royal College of Art (1923-27), he exhibited landscapes in oil at the Royal Academy, the New English Art Club and elsewhere, including the provinces. He moved from Farnborough, Kent, to Gloucestershire in 1927, and lived first at Up Hatherley, near Cheltenham, and from 1934 at Lower Nash End, Bisley, Stroud. Employed as second master at Cheltenham School of Art, in charge of the drawing and painting department, he later became Painting Master, a position he retained until his death. During the Second World War, Gardiner served in the Home Guard, but continued to paint, completing three large murals for the Cheltenham Services Club in 1943. After the war, he made several painting expeditions to Argyll, Scotland. He was elected to the associate membership of the Royal West of England Academy in 1949, becoming a full academician five years later. Following his death in 1959, the Cheltenham Group of Artists mounted a memorial exhibition in March 1960 at Cheltenham Art Gallery and Museum, his work being shown alongside that of Edith Payne (1875-1959).

199 THE LITTLE PIG signed with initials and dated 1944 inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 4 x 5 1⁄4 inches

As an illustrator, Gardiner may be compared to Rowland Hilder and Charles Tunnicliffe. Even when working in pen and ink or scraperboard, all three produced images with the appearance of a wood engraving, and thus suggestive of a particular ethos, that in which artistic values of tradition and craftsmanship are considered a metaphor for a national way of life. For instance, Gardiner’s illustrations to Jesse and His Friends support a text rooted in an unchanging rural present. Each element, including areas of light and shadow, is precise and clear yet knits with the others into a harmonious entity. No note of discord is admitted. His work is represented in the collections of Cheltenham Art Gallery & Museum

199-205 are all illustrated in Fred Kitchen, Jesse and His Friends, London: J M Dent and Sons, 1945

200 HEDGEROW INHABITANTS signed with initials inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 4 x 5 1⁄4 inches

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Preliminary Checklist of Books Illustrated by Gerald Gardiner 1943 Max Crombie (ed), The Spirit of England, Northwood: Knights Press From circa 1943 Max Crombie (ed), The Lute Lyre and Lotus Series of Minithologies, Northwood: Knights Press: The Chaffinch on the Bough. A Miniature Anthology in Praise of the English Scene The Changing Year. A Miniature Anthology of Four Seasons (no 26) English Pastoral The Proud of Heart: a miniature anthology in praise of English character (no 6) The Sun and The Earth. Passages from the Works of Richard Jefferies (no 30) Words on the Wing. A Miniature Anthology of Bird Poetry

158

1944 Penelope Tree, Strength for Today [poems], Northwood: Knights Press

201 THE THRUSHES MOVE signed with initials and dated 1944 inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 4 x 5 inches

1945 Fred Kitchen, Jesse and Friends, London: J M Dent and Sons 1947 Kenneth Green, The Cotswolds. An Introduction, Bristol: Garland Press (Garland of England Series) 1951 Levi Fox, Oxford. A Book of Drawings, Bristol: The Garland Press (Garland of England Series)

202 THE WRONG ROOST signed with initials and dated 1944 inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 4 x 5 1â „4 inches


10: POST-WAR ILLUSTRATORS

204 STRANGE FRIENDS signed with initials inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 4 x 5 1⁄4 inches

203 LAMB INSPECTION signed with initials and dated 1944 inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 8 x 5 inches

205 FARMERS DON’T CALL THEIR LAND ‘FIELDS’ inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink 3 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄4 inches

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JOAN HASSALL Joan Hassall, OBE RE (1906-1988) Working as a wood engraver, illustrator and typographer, Joan Hassall developed a sensitive style and meticulous technique reminiscent of Thomas Bewick. Joan Hassall was born in Notting Hill, London, on 3 March 1906, the daughter of John Hassall [see pages 73-74] and his second wife. She was educated at Norland Place School, Holland Park, and Parsons Mead School, Ashtead, Surrey.

160

With talents in both art and music, she had hoped to train as a musician, but her parents persuaded her to become a general teacher, and she studied at the Froebel Education Institute, Roehampton. In 1927, she spent some time working as secretary to her father, while he was running the London School of Art. However, she soon turned to art herself and studied art at the Royal Academy Schools (1928-33), winning a Landseer Scholarship in her third year, and developing as a portrait painter under the guidance of Gerard Kelly. Enrolling at the LCC’s School of Photo-Engraving and Lithography, Bolt Court, Fleet Street, in 1931, she studied wood engraving under R John Beedham and, inspired by the work of Thomas Bewick, became involved in the revival of the medium. As her first commission, she produced a wood-engraved title page to Devil’s Dyke (1936), a volume of poems by her brother, Christopher Hassall. Her illustrations to Calling for a Spade (1939), included here, indicate how her experience of wood engraving affected her work in pen and ink. During the Second World War, Hassall taught book production at the Edinburgh School of Art, though was relieved of her position in 1943 as a result of ill health. On returning to England, she created some of her most characteristic illustrations, informed by historical study, for such works as Miss Mitford’s Our Village (1946). Her attentive method culminated in the Folio Society’s edition of Jane Austen (1958-63). She also produced bookplates and designs for the BBC and London Transport. Elected to the membership of the RE in 1948, and acting as the first woman Master of the Art Workers’ Guild in 1972, she was awarded an OBE in 1987. Having visited Malham, North Yorkshire, regularly since the 1930s, Hassall retired there late in life and died there on 6 March 1988.

206-211 are alI illustrated in Richard Church, Calling for a Spade, London: J M Dent, 1939

206 HAS YOUR LITTLE BOY GOT AN OWL? signed with monogram inscribed with chapter title below mount pen and ink 9 1⁄2 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: facing page 122


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207 THEN THE NIGHTINGALE CAME inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 2 x 3 inches Illustrated: page 53

161

208 COWERIN’ BEASTIE signed with monogram inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 1 1⁄2 x 3 inches Illustrated: page 35

209 ALAS! POOR YORICK signed with monogram inscribed with title below mount stamped with artist’s address on reverse pen and ink 10 x 7 inches Illustrated: facing page 78


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210 A CITY IN SPLINTS signed with monogram inscribed with title below mount stamped with artist’s address on reverse pen and ink 2 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄2 inches

162

211 AN IMPORTANT TRAFFIC PROBLEM signed with monogram inscribed with title below mount stamped with artist’s address on reverse pen and ink 2 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄2 inches


10: POST-WAR ILLUSTRATORS

CYRI L WALT E R H O D G E S Cyril Walter Hodges (1909-2004) Cyril Walter Hodges maintained high standards throughout his long and prolific career as an illustrator, while also developing as a leading scholar of the Shakespearean stage. Cyril Walter Hodges was born in Beckenham, Kent, on 18 March 1909, the son of an advertising manager. He was educated at Mount Pleasant School, Southbourne, and Dulwich College (1922-25). During his studies at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, under E J Sullivan (1925-28), he began to be fired by the theatre, and first designed for the Everyman, Hampstead (1928-30), before working as an illustrator. Like Eric Fraser, he soon joined the agency of R P Gossop and began to contribute regularly to The Radio Times (from 1931). He was greatly supported by his wife, Greta. While living in New York (from 1936), he started to write his own children’s books, including Columbus Sails (1939), a work indicative of his care for both historical accuracy and full integration of picture and text. In this early period he also painted murals, designed exhibitions and produced educational films.

After the Second World War, in which he served in the army, Hodges continued to develop as an illustrator while lecturing at Brighton Polytechnic School of Art (1959-69). He and his family lived in Bishopstone, near Seaford, and later in Lewes. As a practising Quaker, he was a member of Lewes Meeting House and involved in prison visiting. His theatrical interests began to bear fruit in his advisory position in the building of the Mermaid Theatre (1951) and his classic books, Shakespeare and the Players (1948) and Shakespeare’s Theatre (1964), the second of which was awarded the Kate Greenaway Medal. Receiving an Honorary Doctorate in Literature from the University of Sussex in 1979, he went on to advise Wayne State University, Detroit, on its proposed rebuilding of the Globe Theatre. Working mainly in pen and ink and watercolour, he illustrated more than 90 books, the last of which demonstrated his continuing preoccupation with Shakespeare: Enter the Whole Army: A Pictorial Study of Shakespearean Staging (1999) and illustrations to the New Cambridge Shakespeare. Hodges died in Moretonhampstead, Devon, on 26 November 2004. Further reading: Nicholas Tucker, ‘C Walter Hodges. Author-illustrator and Shakespeare Scholar’ [obituary], Independent, 1 December 2004

163

212 SHERBURN ... JUST STOOD THERE, LOOKING DOWN inscribed with title pen and ink 4 1⁄2 x 7 inches Illustrated: Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, London: J M Dent & Sons, 1955


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213-217 are all illustrated in Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, London: J M Dent & Sons, 1955

164

213 A DISTANT SIGHTING pen and ink 5 x 6 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: headpiece

214 HA’NTED WITH WHISKY inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 6 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 191

215 THE BLACK AVENGER STOOD WITH FOLDED ARMS, LOOKING HIS LAST UPON THE SCENE inscribed with title below mount pen and ink with bodycolour 4 1⁄2 x 7 inches Illustrated: page 98


10: POST-WAR ILLUSTRATORS

216 LET ME IN – QUICK! inscribed with title below mount pen and ink with bodycolour 4 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 201

217 THEY CAME FLOCKING DOWN IN THOUSANDS inscribed with title below mount pen ink and bodycolour 6 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 215

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BE T TY SWA N W I C K Ada Elizabeth Edith Swanwick, RA RWS (1915-1989) Very early in her career, Betty Swanwick established herself as an illustrator and designer of great wit and invention, so complementing her friend and teacher, Edward Bawden. Later, she produced an extraordinary series of visionary watercolours and drawings in the tradition of William Blake and Samuel Palmer, which led to her election as a Draughtsman Member of the Royal Academy. For a biography of Betty Swanwick, please refer to The Illustrators, 2008, page 84. Her work is represented in the collections of the Royal College of Art and Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery.

166

Further reading: Brian Murphy, The Art of Betty Swanwick, Oxford Polytechnic, 1989; Paddy Rossmore, Betty Swanwick. Artist & Visionary, London: Chris Beetles Ltd, 2008 In publishing and promoting Paddy Rossmore’s monograph, Betty Swanwick. Artist and Visionary, Chris Beetles has done much to revive interest in this highly imaginative and quintessentially British artist.

218 THE COMPLIMENT Inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 22 1⁄2 x 14 1⁄2 inches Provenance: Acquired from the Estate of John Darcy Noble, the first curator of The Doll and Toy Collection of The Museum of the City New York and a pupil of the artist in the 1940s


10: POST-WAR ILLUSTRATORS

167

219 THE CRYSTAL GAZER watercolour 17 1⁄2 x 25 1⁄2 inches Provenance: Phyllis Hallett

Literature: Paddy Rossmore, Betty Swanwick. Artist & Visionary, London: Chris Beetles Ltd, 2008, Catalogue Raisonné: D10 Exhibited: The Little Gallery, 1950


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11 EDMOND KAPP

E DM O ND KA P P Edmond X Kapp (1890-1978) Edmond Kapp developed as an experimental artist, in the best sense of the term. Rather than restrict himself to the tenets of any particular ‘ism’, he essayed a variety of style, medium and subject matter, and was in turn respected by a diversity of figures. His work as a portraitist is at once central to his art and encapsulates his catholic approach and wide interests: here represented by exponents of politics, science and the arts, especially music, which was a particular love. For a biography of Edmond Kapp, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 224; for an essay on the context of his portrait-caricatures, see The Illustrators, 2007, pages 213-215. His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the National Portrait Gallery; The Barber Institute of Fine Arts (University of Birmingham), The Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge) and Manchester Art Gallery; and Albright-Knox Art Gallery (Buffalo). Further reading: Edmond Kapp. a retrospective exhibition of paintings and drawings 1911-1961, London: Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1961

168

Edmond Kapp with his Legal Portraits, 1925


11: EDMOND KAPP

[220-234] are all Provenance: The Estate of Edmond Kapp

‘He has a lean face; high cheek bones, hollow cheeks, an aquiline nose, deep set blue eyes, and an earnestness of manner that reaches the quality of solemnity’ (An observer in 1925, quoted in R F V Heuston, Lives of the Lord Chancellors. 1885-1940, Oxford: Clarendon, 1964, page 298)

Lord Buckmaster Stanley Buckmaster (1861-1934) was a lawyer and Liberal politician. Following his appointment as King’s Counsel in 1902, he developed his interest in politics and sought election as a Liberal member of parliament. In the Liberal landslide of 1906, he was appointed the member for Cambridge, and gave a controversial maiden speech, ‘defending Mr Justice Grantham against allegations of pro-Conservative bias in the hearing of two election petitions’ [William Goodhart in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography]. He also opposed his party in objecting to the Criminal Appeal Act of 1907. Though, in the following years, he rarely spoke in the House of Commons and was frequently absent, he was highly regarded by the Liberal leadership. Therefore, when he lost his seat in 1910, he was found another at Keighley, which he won in 1911, a success that increased his professional and political activity. Knighted in 1913, he served as Solicitor-General (1913-15) and, less successfully, as Director of the Press Bureau (1914-15).

169

In May 1915, the Prime Minister, H H Asquith, was forced to form a coalition government with the Conservatives, who insisted, among other things, that Lord Haldane be replaced as Lord Chancellor. Buckmaster was appointed as Asquith’s second choice, sworn to the Privy Council and raised to the peerage as Baron Buckmaster, of Cheddington in the County of Buckingham. However, he held the appointment for only 18 months (until Asquith was forced to resign), and made his mark more as a member of the wartime cabinet. It was he who rejected the plea – made by the Archbishop of Canterbury – to repeal the death sentence that had been placed on Roger Casement for treason. His greatest achievements occurred in his later career as social reformer and judge. Becoming one of the leading orators of his day, he spoke on a wide range of issues in the House of Lords, most notably divorce reform, and became more radical as he aged. He was appointed GCVO in 1930 and was made Viscount Buckmaster in 1933.

220 LORD BUCKMASTER (LORD CHANCELLOR 1915-16) signed and dated 1915 inscribed with title below mount pencil and charcoal 14 x 9 1⁄2 inches


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170 222 PORTRAIT OF EDMUND KAPP BY BERTRAM PARK signed on original mount silver gelatin print 8 x 6 inches

221 BERTRAM PARK PHOTOGRAPHER signed and dated ’22 inscribed with title below mount charcoal on tracing paper 10 x 8 1⁄4 inches

Bertram Park Bertram Park (1883-1972) was one of the most successful society photographers of his day. He knew Kapp by the early 1920s, and they seem to have focussed on many of the same sitters and subjects. Park developed his interest in photography while working in the family firm, which manufactured artist’s materials. Becoming a portrait photographer, he joined the Royal Photographic Society and helped found the London Salon of Photography, both in 1910. In 1915, financial backing from Lord Carnarvon enabled him to set up his own studio at 43 Dover Street, off

Piccadilly, with Yvonne Gregory (1887-1970) as his assistant. They married a year later, and she too became a photographer. In 1919, Park invited Marcus Adams (1875-1959) to join them at Dover Street and run their Nursery Studio for children. Together they were known as the Three Photographers. Park was so popular that he scheduled five sittings a day, and photographed many of the crowned heads of Europe annually at his studio. In his spare time he became a noted grower of roses, publishing books on the subject and acting as President of the Rose Society.


11: EDMOND KAPP

‘Few pianists can lay claim to have attained such popularity in England as Benno Moiseiwitsch’ (Musical Courier, 31 December 1925, page 11)

171

223 BENNO MOISEIWITSCH AT THE PIANO signed, inscribed with title and dated ’25 pencil and charcoal 18 x 14 inches

Benno Moiseiwitsch Ukrainian-born pianist, Benno Moiseiwitsch (1890-1963), was best known for his interpretations of the late Romantic repertoire, especially the works of Rachmaninoff. He made his English debut at Reading Town Hall in 1908, and his brilliant London debut at the Queen’s Hall in 1909. He married the Australian violinist, Daisy Kennedy, in 1914, and she gave birth to the first of two daughters – the theatre designer, Tanya Moiseiwitsch – in the same year.

They later settled in the capital, taking a house in South Kensington. However, Kennedy divorced Moiseiwitsch in 1924 in order to marry the writer, John Drinkwater. Moiseiwitsch became a British citizen in 1937. In December 1925 – the year that Kapp made this drawing – Moiseiwitsch was in England to make some of his first electrical recordings, including works by Chopin: at the Queen’s Small Hall, Langham Place, and Studio A, Hayes, Middlesex.


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Nigel Playfair Nigel Playfair (1874-1934) had a significant influence on theatrical life in Britain, particularly through his role as actor-manager of the Lyric Hammersmith. Educated at Winchester, Harrow and Oxford, Playfair worked as a barrister before entering the theatrical profession. He made his professional debut at the Garrick Theatre in 1902, as Mr Melrose in Eden Phillpotts’ comedy, A Pair of Knickerbockers, and two years later starred in the Mermaid Society’s well-received revival of Congreve’s The Way of the World. He went on to act under William Poel and Harley Granville-Barker, experiences that must have influenced his own decision to move beyond acting into direction and management.

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In 1918, Playfair formed a syndicate, with Arnold Bennett and Alistair Tayler, to purchase a long lease on the Lyric Hammersmith, the late Victorian theatre designed by Frank Matcham. While opening in the December with A A Milne’s children’s play, Make Believe, it became best known for eighteenth-century comedies and contemporary revues. In 1919, Playfair was invited to direct the opening production at the Shakespeare Festival Theatre at Stratford-upon-Avon, and in response presented the first modern interpretation of As You Like It, with designs by Claud Lovat Fraser. It was briefly revived at the Lyric in the following year, but soon superseded by a phenomenally successful production of John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera, also designed by Lovat Fraser, which ran for 1,463 performances. Later successes included The Way of the World (1924), Sheridan’s The Rivals (1925) and the revue, Riverside Nights (1926), which Playfair wrote with A P Herbert. Knighted in 1928, he retired from the Lyric in 1932.

224 SIR NIGEL PLAYFAIR signed and dated ’26 inscribed with title below mount pencil 14 x 10 inches

From 1923, Playfair developed a parallel career, as a radio producer for the BBC. He received overall control of the first plays by Shakespeare to be broadcast in Britain and commissioned Richard Hughes’ Danger (1924), the first British play for adults specifically written for radio. Kapp was a friend of Playfair, and made a number of drawings of him, including one that was reproduced in Playfair’s The Story of the Lyric Theatre Hammersmith (1925). He also played his Dolmetsch recorder [see 228] in Playfair’s production of Moliere’s Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1926).


11: EDMOND KAPP

173

Sir Thomas Beecham and the London Philharmonic Orchestra Sir Thomas Beecham (1879-1961) formed the London Philharmonic Orchestra in 1932, at the prompting of his fellow conductor, Malcolm Sargent. Beecham conducted its first concert at the Queen’s Hall on Friday 7 October, in a programme of some of his favourite composers: Berlioz (Carnaval Romain), Mozart (Prague Symphony), Delius (Brigg Fair) and Strauss (Ein Heldenleben). During the following eight years, the orchestra performed frequently at the Queen’s Hall, played for Beecham’s opera seasons at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, and recorded more than 300 gramophone records. When Beecham was advised by doctors to take a break from music, in 1939, he raised large sums of money to help the orchestra’s members form themselves into a self-governing company. Kapp made a number of drawings of Sir Thomas Beecham, from at least as early as 1919. In 1944, he exhibited a selection of drawings at the RBA Galleries, made from the 70 commissioned and acquired by the London Philharmonic Orchestra.

225 BEECHAM CONDUCTING SECTIONS OF THE LONDON PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA inscribed with title pen and ink 8 1⁄2 x 14 inches


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174 226 MAXIM LITVINOFF signed and dated ’35 inscribed with title below mount pen and ink on tracing paper 9 x 11 1⁄2 inches

Maxim Litvinov Maxim Litvinov (1876-1951) was a Russian revolutionary and prominent Soviet diplomat. He was Soviet Ambassador to the United States for two periods: 1918-19 (under Lenin) and 1941 (under Stalin). He was also People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union through the 1930s (under Molotov). It was in this latter capacity that Litvinov attended sessions of the League of Nations Council in Geneva during 1935, and acted as President of the 86th Session in May, which was called to discuss the Abyssinian Crisis. As the Soviet Union wanted to isolate Nazi Germany by encircling it with allies, Litvinov gave a speech on 21 May that avoided criticising Italy’s invasion of Walwal, in Abyssinia.

The league resolved only to meet again to continue the discussion, which it did in July and September, finally exonerating both Italy and Abyssinia of the Walwal incident. As a result, Italy continued its invasion, provoking Abyssinia to declare war. On 7 October, the League declared Italy the aggressor and began to impose sanctions, but the development of events seriously undermined its credibility. Kapp made drawings of Litvinov at the League of Nations in Geneva during 1935, probably at the 86th session in May. There is a similar drawing – in black chalk on tracing paper – in the collections of the V&A.


11: EDMOND KAPP

175

227 LISTENING TO LANDOWSKA, ST LEU-LA-FORET signed, inscribed with title and dated 18.7.38 and ’38 pen and ink, 7 1⁄2 x 12 3⁄4 inches Wanda Landowska As performer, teacher and writer, Polish-born Wanda Landowska (18791959) did more than anyone to revive interest in the harpsichord during the early twentieth century. Following studies in piano in Warsaw and Berlin, she married the Polish folklorist, Henry Lew, in 1900, and moved with him to Paris, where they became French citizens. She took up a position as keyboard teacher at the Schola Cantorum and, almost immediately, received critical and popular acclaim for her public performances. By 1903, she was playing items by Bach on harpsichord during her piano recitals. Developing her interest in authentic approaches to early music, she published Musique ancienne, with Lew, in 1909. In 1913, she and Lew returned to Berlin, and she established a harpsichord class at the Hochschule für Musik, at which she had previously studied.

Following her husband’s death, Landowska moved back to Paris, in 1920, and five years later settled in the suburb of St Leu-la-Forêt, where she established the Ecole de Musique Ancienne. Among her pupils, she numbered Denise Restout, who became her assistant, editor, biographer and companion. Not devoting herself exclusively to early music, she attracted the attention of leading contemporary composers, some of whom wrote works especially for her, including Falla (concerto, 1926) and Poulenc (concert champêtre, 1928). Her discography includes the first ever recording of Bach’s Goldberg Variations to be played on the harpsichord (1933). Following the Nazi invasion of Paris in 1940, Landowska – who was of Jewish descent – emigrated to the United States, with Restout, and re-established her career.


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228 DOLMETSCH CONCERT inscribed with title and dated ‘April ’39’ pen and ink 7 1⁄2 x 12 3⁄4 inches

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Carl Dolmetsch Carl Dolmetsch (1911-1997) was the youngest child of Arnold Dolmetsch (1858-1940) and, like him, became one of the foremost pioneers in the early music revival. He was born at Fontenay-sous-Bois, France, while his father was working in Paris for Gaveau, the keyboard manufacturer. The family returned to England in 1914, and three years later settled in Haslemere. There Arnold established his own workshop in order to make copies of a wide range of historic instruments, and encouraged his children to develop musical skills. Carl became proficient on the viol and the violin, which he studied under Carl Flesch and Antonio Brosa, but he focussed his attention on the recorder. Arnold built his first recorder in 1918, and completed a full consort of recorders in time for the family to play together at the 1926 Haslemere Festival, which he had founded the year before. Carl went on to raise the status of the recorder, becoming the first musical director of the Society of Recorder Players, in 1937, and commissioning works from leading composers for recitals at the Wigmore Hall. Following the death of his father, Carl took over the family business, and invented the first plastic school recorder, which would hold an essential place in British music education. As a result, he was awarded a CBE in 1954.

‘[Kapp] was keenly interested in early music and a great admirer of Arnold Dolmetsch whose portrait he drew … Dolmetsch and his family, who made as well as played these replicas of ancient instruments, lived in Haslemere where we visited them quite often … Dolmetsch gave [him] one the four (numbered) first recorders ever produced in his workshop, a fine tenor of boxwood.’ (Yvonne Kapp, Time Will Tell. Memoirs, London: Verso, 2003, page 83)


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229 MARY KESSELL AT WORK – WITH ALICE, HER MOTHER, READING signed and dated ’41 inscribed with title below mount pen and ink, 11 3⁄4 x 16 inches

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Mary Kessell Painter, illustrator and designer, Mary Kessell (1914-1977) was one of only three female Official War Artists to work outside Britain during the Second World War. Training at Clapham and Central schools of art (1935-37; 1937-39), she began to work professionally as both illustrator and painter while still a student, and produced a mural at Westminster Hospital in 1939. From the evidence of the present drawings, she and Kapp were friends by this time. Like Kapp, Kessell received a short-term contract from the War Artists’ Advisory Committee, headed by Sir Kenneth Clark, to work as an Official War Artist. As a result, she spent six months in Germany in 1945, making drawings at Belsen, and in Hamburg and Berlin. Arriving at Belsen four months after liberation, she found it had become a holding camp for displaced persons waiting to return home, many of them Belsen survivors. She produced a series of drawings, ‘Notes from Belsen Camp, 1945’, and kept a diary about her experiences in Germany, extracts of which were published in The Cornhill Magazine in 1946. Her meeting with Kenneth Clark resulted in a long affair. In 1947, Kessell received a commission from the Needlework Development Scheme to prepare designs to be worked by embroidery artists in Britain (staff and students of Bromley College of Art being chosen for the task). Described as ‘the Kessell experiment’, this project gave rise to an exhibition and a book. Following her first solo show at the Leicester Galleries in 1950, she exhibited regularly and, from 1957, taught Drawing and Design at the London School of Printing and Graphic Art, under its Head of Design, Tom Eckersley (her husband from 1966).

230 MARY SKETCHING signed, inscribed with ‘Beginning of a painting that will have no end (Waterloo Station)’ and dated ‘2 Nov 39’ inscribed with title below mount pen and ink 12 1⁄2 x 7 3⁄4 inches


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178 231 ISAAC STERN pen and ink 14 x 11 1⁄4 inches

Isaac Stern The Ukranian-born violinist, Isaac Stern (1920-2001), was one of the twentieth century’s most renowned musicians, becoming as well-known for his many campaigning activities as for his unsurpassed performance skills. Though born in Krzemieniec, in western Ukraine, he moved to San Francisco with his family when he was just a year old. From the age of eight, he focussed exclusively on the study of the violin, receiving lessons at the San Francisco Conservatory, notably from Naoum Blinder, and also from Louis Persinger. In 1936, at the age of 15, he made his public debut, playing Saint-Saëns’ third violin concerto with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra under Pierre Monteux. Following his second appearance in New York, in 1939, he launched his full-time career, becoming one of the busiest touring musicians of the period. He made his first recording in 1945 – of Wieniawski’s second concerto – and his film debut a year later, when his hands and skills aided John Garfield’s performance as a violinist in Humoresque. In August 1948, Stern made his European debut at the Lucerne Festival, playing Mendelssohn’s concerto in E minor under the direction of Charles Munch. Later the same year, he performed in London for the first time, performing Tchiakovsky’s concerto under Jascha Horenstein. Kapp’s drawing is likely to have been made around this time.

232 SIR JULIAN HUXLEY AT WORK signed, inscribed ‘Unesco’ and dated 1947 inscribed with title below mount pen and ink, 17 1⁄4 x 14 inches Julian Huxley A member of the distinguished Huxley family, and brother of the writer, Aldous Huxley, Julian Huxley (1887-1975) was a leading evolutionary biologist, humanist and internationalist. He was Secretary to the Zoological Society of London (1935-42) and a founding member of the World Wildlife Fund in 1961. His honours include a knighthood in 1958. In 1946, Huxley was appointed the first Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), based in Paris. He proved a great success in the position, but the USA delegation, perhaps suspicious of his left-wing tendencies, ensured that his term of office was reduced from six years to two. Between 1946 and 1947, Kapp fulfilled a commission from UNESCO to work as its official artist, and produce a series of portraits for the archive. Other sitters included the great Sinologist, Joseph Needham, who became the first head of the Natural Sciences Section, and the psychical researcher, Theodore Besterman, who worked on international approaches to bibliography. A related drawing in the collections of the V&A was exhibited in ‘Edmond Kapp. a retrospective exhibition of paintings and drawings 1911-1961’, held at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, between April and May 1961.


11: EDMOND KAPP

179 233 SEGOVIA signed, inscribed with title and dated ’58 pen and ink 17 1⁄2 x 14 inches Andrés Segovia The Spanish guitarist, Andrés Segovia (1893-1987), was one of the most influential classical performers of the twentieth century, who did more than anyone to raise the status of his instrument. Growing up in Granada, Andalucía, he began to learn the guitar at an early age, and gave his first recital in that city in 1909. Following his move to Madrid, in 1913, he acquired his first guitar of quality and gave significant early recitals at the Ateneo, in the capital, and at the Palau de la Musica, Barcelona. Alongside national and international tours, he began to edit guitar music for publication and transcribe works by Bach. Leaving Spain at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, he lived in Montevideo, Uruguay, and later in the United States. Following the end of the Second World War, he returned to Europe to perform and record, producing his first long-playing albums in Britain in 1949. His repertoire included many works written especially for him, by such composers as Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Mompou, Ponce, Rodrigo and Villas-Lobos. In 1958 – the year that his drawing was made – he won the Grammy Award for Best Classical Performance by an Instrumentalist for the recording, Segovia – Golden Jubilee.

234 ARTUR RUBINSTEIN pen and ink 12 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches pen and ink drawing of Artur Rubinstein’s head on reverse Artur Rubinstein Polish-born Artur Rubinstein (1887-1982) was widely considered one of the greatest classical pianists of the twentieth century, and especially an outstanding interpreter of the works of Chopin. Recognised as a prodigy at the age of four, he studied in Warsaw and Berlin, before making his debut with the Berlin Philharmonic under Joseph Joachim in 1900, at the age of thirteen. Moving to Paris in 1904 to develop his career in earnest, he made his American debut, in New York, in 1906, and then toured internationally. However, his early career was less than successful so that, in 1908, he made an attempt on his own life while staying at a hotel in Berlin. The attempt and failure had a positive effect, making him feel ‘reborn’. Following his London debut in 1912, he was welcomed into the musical salon of Paul and Muriel Draper, and made the city his home during the First World War. Between the wars, he continued to tour extensively and, from 1928, made the first of many recordings for RCA Victor. Increasingly, his career centred on the USA and, in 1946, he became a naturalized American citizen. Kapp’s drawing of him seems to have been made about 20 years later.


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12 POST-WAR CARTOONISTS DAVID LOW (1891-1963) ROWLAND EMETT (1906-1990) OSBERT LANCASTER (1908-1986)

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REG WOOTTON (DIED 1995) VICKY (1913-1966) EMMWOOD (1915-1999) GILES (1916-1995) LARRY (1927-2003) GEOFFREY DICKINSON (1933-1988) LESLIE GIBBARD (1945-2010)

DAV I D LO W Sir David Alexander Cecil Low (1891-1963) David Low was considered the most outstanding British political cartoonist of his generation. Able to capture recognisable likenesses with great economy, he produced the definitive image of a number of leading figures of the day. And he did so with a subtle combination of ridicule and insight, rather than exaggeration and condemnation. A key feature of his approach was the use of such symbols as the strong but stubborn TUC carthorse and the reactionary Englishman, Colonel Blimp. David Low was born in Dunedin, New Zealand, on 7 April 1891 of Scottish-Irish parents. Educated at the Boys’ High School, Christchurch, he made his debut with the Christchurch Spectator at the age of 11 and, in 1908, became the paper’s political cartoonist. Later, he moved to the Canterbury Times (1910) and then the Sydney Bulletin (1911). At the Bulletin, his technique benefited from the influence of Will Dyson and Norman Lindsay, so that his lampoon of the Australian Prime Minister, entitled The Billy Book (1918), proved to be a bestseller. The success encouraged Low to move to England, in the following year, where he began to work for the Star, evening stablemate of the Liberal Daily News. He established himself with the device of the two-headed Liberal/Tory Coalition Ass. In 1927, he became political cartoonist for the Evening Standard and, though a Socialist, was given full independence on what was a very Conservative publication. This freedom led to the creation, in 1934, of his most famous character, Colonel Blimp, the epitome of British Conservativism. During the 1920s and 30s, he also produced two series of literary and political caricatures for the New Statesman. On leaving the Evening Standard, he spent a short, unhappy time at the Daily Herald (1950-53) where, however, he did produce another of his most controversial images: the TUC cart-horse. With some relief, he was taken on by the Manchester Guardian in 1953 and remained there until his death in London on 19 September 1963. Low’s popularity as a newspaper cartoonist created, from very early on, a market for books of caricatures; those published around the period of the Second World War are particularly impressive examples of his incisive criticism. He has total command of his medium, both artistically and intellectually, and was considered the most outstanding British political cartoonist of his generation. This position was officially acknowledged in 1962, when he was knighted. For a drawing of the artist by William Rothenstein, please refer to The Illustrators, 1997, page 238. His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum, the National Portrait Gallery and the V&A; and the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury). His papers are in the Beinecke Library (Yale University). Further reading: Colin Seymour-Ure and Jim Schoff, David Low, London: Secker & Warburg, 1985 The notes on Low are written by Alexander Beetles.


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Foster Mother The first Italian fascist youth movements were formed in the aftermath of the First World War, such as the Avanguardia Gionvanile Fascista (1919) and the Gruppi Universitari Fascisti (1922). As Il Duce, Benitio Mussolini (18831945) wished to reorganise youth both morally and physically. The Opera Nazionale Balilla was set up for eight to eighteen year olds, but other clubs and organisations were set up for children as young as six. In Germany, the Hitler Youth was formed in 1922 for boys aged fourteen to eighteen. By 1930, the Hitler Youth had over 25,000 members and had set up a junior branch, the Deutsches Jungvolk, for ten to fourteen year olds. Founded in 1922, the Young Pioneer Organisation of the Soviet Union was the youth movement of the USSR, accepting children from the age of eight.

235 FOSTER MOTHER IN ITALY TRAINING IN THE ARTS OF WAR NOW BEGINS AT THE AGE OF SIX ; IN GERMANY AT TEN . THE USSR REPLIES BY MAKING IT EIGHT

signed and inscribed with title and caption pen ink and coloured penciln 13 1â „2 x 21 inches Illustrated: Evening Standard


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236 ALICE MEETS THE CHESHIRE CAT signed ‘Low after JT’ and inscribed with title and extensive caption pen and ink 12 x 18 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Evening Standard, 26 January 1932

Set up to press for the British Empire to become a free trade bloc, Beaverbrook’s Crusade attacked MacDonald’s minority government and Conservative leader Stanley Baldwin’s protectionist policies, viewing them as insufficient. The group extended Beaverbrook’s early tariff reform sympathetic to ‘whole hog’ protectionism.

Alice meets the Cheshire Cat Following the resignation of the government of Stanley Baldwin (18671947) on 24 August 1931, former Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) agreed to become Prime Minister for a second time, at the head of a National Government formed of all parties.

A regular contributor to Punch as a political cartoonist, Sir John Tenniel (1820-1914) is perhaps best known for illustrating Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, published in 1865. Just as he often adapted wellknown images, so his iconic illustrations and cartoons have inspired the work of subsequent cartoonists. (For information on John Tenniel, please refer to page 22)

An influential figure in British politics through his media empire, Lord Beaverbrook (1879-1964) founded the Empire Free Trade Crusade in 1929.


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Nuremberg On the 20 November 1945, the ‘Trial of the Major War Criminals’ began in Nuremberg, where 24 of the most important leaders of the Nazi Party were tried before the International Military Tribunal. The judges and prosecutors consisted of the victorious allied powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the USA. Four indictments were entered by the prosecution against the accused: 1. Planning in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace; 2. Planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace; 3. War Crimes; 4. Crimes against Humanity. By the end of the trial on the 1 October 1946, 12 of the 24 had been sentenced to death; seven received prison sentences and three were acquitted. Those portrayed in the cartoon are: Front Row (left to right) 1. Hermann Göring (1893-1946), Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe. Was sentenced to death but committed suicide in prison before his execution. 2. Rudolf Hess (1894-1987), Hitler’s deputy in the Nazi Party in the 1930s and early 40s. Sentenced to life imprisonment. 3. Joachim von Ribbentropp (18931946), Foreign Minister of Germany. Was sentenced to death and hanged. 4. Willhelm Keitel (1882-1946), German Field Marshall, head of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces and de facto War Minister. Sentenced to death and hanged. 5. Unclear. In photographs it is Ernst Kaltenbrunner but the cartoon figure is more likely to be Walther Funk

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(1890-1960), Reich Minister for Economic Affairs. Sentenced to life imprisonment. Back Row (left to right) 1. Karl Donitz (1891-1980), Grand Admiral of the German Navy. Sentenced to ten years. 2. Erich Raeder (1876-1960), Preceeded Donitz as Grand Admiral of the German Navy. Sentenced to Life Imprisonment. 3. Baldur von Shirach (1907-1974), Head of the Hitler Youth. Sentenced to 20 years.

237 NUREMBERG ‘ NO DRUMS , NO TRUMPETS ,

NO BANNERS

PAH ! HOW MUCH

BETTER WE WOULD HAVE DONE IT ’

signed, inscribed with title and caption, and dated ‘Low original Nov 22 1945’ pen and ink with pencil 13 1⁄2 x 16 inches Provenance: The Jeffrey Archer Political Cartoon Collection Illustrated: Evening Standard, 22 November 1945 Exhibited: ‘Images of Power: From The Jeffrey Archer Cartoon Collection’, Monnow Valley Arts, September-October 2011


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238 LOW’S CHRISTMAS CARDS signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 12 3⁄4 x 18 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Manchester Guardian, 21 December 1954 Low’s Christmas Cards Published just before Christmas 1954, Low’s Christmas Cards is an insight into the state of the world at the time. NATO, created in 1949, had rejected a request for membership from the Soviet Union in 1954 and was overseeing an uneasy truce in Europe following the new US presidency of Dwight D Eisenhower (1890-1969) and the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953. Dag Hammarskjöld (1905-1961) was the UN Secretary General from 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1961. China had been a founding member of the United Nations in the aftermath of the Second World War but,

following the rise of the Communist Party of Mao Zedong (1893-1976) in 1949, the newly formed People’s Republic of China closed its borders and only maintained diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union. Following the division of Germany after the Second World War, West Germany formed its first federal government in September 1949, with Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) as Chancellor. In East Germany, Wilhelm Pieck (1876-1960) was appointed President of the German Democratic Republic, a Communist state established by the Soviet Union. In France, Pierre Mendes-France (1907-1982) had become Prime Minister following the defeat of French forces at the hands of Vietnamese Communists in June 1954, which had forced the resignation of the previous Prime Minister, Joseph Laniel (1889-1975). A strong opponent of French colonialism, Mendes-France negotiated an armistice with the Vietnamese and withdrew from Indochina, having received backing from the National Assembly. However, the public was outraged, subjecting Mendes-France to anti-Semitic abuse on account of his Portuguese-Jewish ancestry.


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

RO WLAN D E M E T T Frederick Rowland Emett, OBE (1906-1990) Rowland Emett established himself as the creator of elegant and whimsical cartoons during the 1930s, while working as an industrial draughtsman. In 1951, he reached a wider public with his designs for The Far Tottering and Oyster Creek Railway, which was sited at Battersea Park during the Festival of Britain. Gradually, he converted more of his illustrations into increasingly complex three-dimensional machines. Both drawings and inventions helped cheer a nation fed up with years of austerity. For a biography of Rowland Emett, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, pages 74-75

His work is represented in the collections of The Cartoon Museum, Tate and the V&A. His open air sculptures can be seen at the Victoria Centre, Nottingham and Eastgate Shopping Centre, Basildon; and at the Mid America Science Museum (Hot Springs, Arkansas) and the Ontario Science Center (Toronto). Further reading: Jacqui Grossart, Rowland Emett: From ‘Punch’ to ‘ChittyChitty-Bang-Bang’ and beyond, London: Chris Beetles Ltd, 1988; John Jensen, ‘Emett, (Frederick) Rowland (1906-1990)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 18, pages 404-406

Key works illustrated: contributed to Punch (1939); Walter de la Mare, Bells and Grass (1941)

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239 PORTER’S HALF HOLIDAY signed and inscribed ‘For John F Taylor, from Rowland Emett’ and ‘Original Drawing from “Far Twittering” pen and ink 5 x 5 1⁄2 inches Provenance: From the Autograph Book of John F Taylor

240 TO AND FROM THE BATHING BEACH signed pen and ink 7 3⁄4 x 10 inches Illustrated: Punch, 19 June 1946, page 521; Rowland Emett, Home Rails Preferred, London: Faber & Faber, 1947, [unpaginated]


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241 ‘ORDERED A NEW CAR SIX YEARS AGO, AND IT’S JUST ARRIVED. NOT QUITE THE MODEL I SPECIFIED ...’ signed and inscribed with title pen and ink with bodycolour 11 x 12 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 25 October 1950, page 396 Literature: Rowland Emett, The Forgotten Tramcar (and Other Drawings), London: Faber & Faber, 1952; Alarms & Excursions and Other Transports Transfixed by Emett, London: John Murray, 1977

242 THE TRAIN SET signed pen ink and monochrome watercolour with bodycolour 9 x 10 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 20 November 1950, page 36; Rowland Emett, The Forgotten Tramcar (and Other Drawings), London: Faber & Faber, 1952 Exhibited: ‘Rowland Emett. From Punch to Chitty Chitty Bang Bang and Beyond’, 1988, no 51


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243 ANYTHING TO DECLARE? signed and inscribed ‘For J A Leedham with best wishes from Rowland Emett’ pen ink and watercolour 13 x 15 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 28 March 1951, page 388


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244 NEW YORK, THIRD AVENUE WHERE SHOULD YOU REQUIRE A SEDAN CHAIR , A COMPLETE SET OF CIGAR STORE - INDIANS , A GENTLEMAN ’ S DECORATED CHINA PLEASURE - CAT OR A SHRUNKEN JAVANESE HEAD, YOU CAN BE INSTANTLY ACCOMODATED OR , WITH OLD - WORLD COURTESY, PERSUADED TO ACCEPT A LOUIS - THE - FOUTEENTH MILKING - STOOL INSTEAD. OVERHEAD FLUTTERS THAT INSPIRED PIECE OF BRIC A - BRAC , THE ELEVATED RAILWAY, WHICH , UNFORTUNATELY, IS NOT FOR SALE

signed pen and ink with watercolour 14 1⁄4 x 10 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Life, 5 July 1954, ‘An Answer to Yorktown’


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245 THE HONEYWELL-EMETT ‘FORGET-ME-NOT’ (PHERIPHERAL PACHYDERM) COMPUTER signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 16 x 25 inches


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246 THE ‘LITTLE-WITWATER’ HOME GOLD MACHINE FORSAKING ALL THAT TIRESOME REEF - DIGGING & CRUSHING , THIS COMPACT HOMELY DEVICE EFFICIENTLY RECAPTURES THE GLORIOUS OLD PROSPECTOR DAYS . IT HAS A CLOSED CIRCUIT OF PURE MOUNTAIN - STREAM ACTIVATING A SMALL , SUNNY, RICH ALLUVIAL CREEK . THE WATER - WHEEL IS COMPOSED OF ACCEPTABLE , NOSTALGIC OLD - TIME PANNING - UTENSILS & A GRATIFYING END - PRODUCT CAN USUALLY BE EXPECTED. ( UPON REFLECTION , JUDGING BY THE PROSPERITY ONE SEES AROUND, PERHAPS QUITE A NUMBER OF PEOPLE HERE HAVE SOMETHING LIKE THIS ALREADY !) signed and inscribed with title and subtitle pen and ink with pencil 15 1⁄2 x 22 inches Exhibited: ‘Rowland Emett. From Punch to Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang and Beyond’, 1988, no 94


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

O SB ERT LAN C A S T E R Sir Osbert Lancaster (1908-1986) Through the influence of John Betjeman, Osbert Lancaster cultivated his passion for architecture and, in the mid 1930s, began a series of learnedly satirical works on the history of architecture and design. At the end of the decade, he introduced ‘pocket’ cartoons into the pages of the Daily Express, as a commentary on the social, political and cultural concerns of the day. Their principal characters, Maudie and Willie Littlehampton, were much loved by the public. For a biography of Osbert Lancaster, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 118 Further reading: Richard Boston, Osbert, London: Collins, 1989; Bevis Hillier (rev), ‘Lancaster, Sir Osbert (1908-1986)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 32, pages 366-367; James Knox, Cartoons & Coronets. The Genius of Osbert Lancaster, London: Frances Lincoln Publishers, 2008; Edward Lucie Smith, The Essential Osbert Lancaster, London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1988 The notes on Lancaster are written by Alexander Beetles.

‘Now suppose we drop the term “overdraft” altogether and start talking about a new facility for sterling’ The cost of the Second World War and the loss of Empire had adversely affected the British economy in the first 20 years after the war. In September 1949, the pound sterling was devalued by 30.9%. By the early 1960s, the pound’s exchange rate against the dollar was still considered to be too high. The Conservative government under Harold MacMillan (1894-1986) had unsuccessfully attempted to prevent inflation without snuffing out economic growth. The Labour government of Harold Wilson (1916-1995) also failed to find a solution to Britain’s low economic growth and on 18 November 1967, despite spending the first three years of their term trying to avoid it, the Labour government bowed to economic pressure and devalued the pound by 14.3%. 247 ‘NOW SUPPOSE WE DROP THE TERM “OVERDRAFT” ALTOGETHER AND START TALKING ABOUT A NEW FACILITY FOR STERLING’ signed and inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with coloured pencil 9 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Express, 10 July 1968

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248 ‘HOW COMES IT THAT THE AMERICANS, WITH ALL THEIR EXPERIENCE ALWAYS ASSASINATE THE WRONG PRESIDENTS?’ signed and inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with coloured pencil 9 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Express, 30 October 1973

192 249 ‘TELL ME, DARLING, IS THERE MUCH OF THIS SORT OF THING IN THE LORDS?’ signed and inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with coloured pencil 9 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Express, 10 July 1975 ‘How comes it that the Americans, with all their experience always assassinate the wrong presidents’ The Watergate Scandal began with a break-in at the Democratic National Committee Headquarters at the Watergate complex on 17 June 1972 and, following the Nixon administration’s attempted cover-up of its involvement, ended with Richard Nixon (1913-1994) resigning the presidency on 9 August 1974. Osbert Lancaster’s cartoon was published ten days after the ‘Saturday Night Massacre’, during which both Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Rucklehaus resigned in protest at an order from Nixon to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox. When Nixon successfully fired Cox through Solicitor General Robert Bork, Congress reacted with fury, considering it a gross abuse of presidential power. A poll taken shortly after the ‘Massacre’ showed that a plurality of 44% of Americans favoured the impeachment of Nixon. America has experienced the assassinations of four presidents, Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), James Garfield (1831-1881), William McKinley (1843-1901) and John F Kennedy (1917-1963).

‘Tell me, Darling, is there much of this sort of thing in the Lords?’ In 1966, Prime Minister Harold Wilson introduced the ‘Wilson Doctrine’, banning the tapping of the phones of UK MPs and Peers. This was in response to a spate of scandals involving alleged telephone bugging of MPs. However, these scandals persisted and throughout Wilson’s two terms as Prime Minister – 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976 – he remained convinced that he and others were being bugged. It later emerged that this was indeed the case, with Wilson under surveillance by MI5, under the codename ‘Henry Worthington’.


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250 ‘MRS RAJAGOJOLLIBARMI HAS JUST BEEN EXPLAINING THAT THE OPPOSITION ARE NOT REALLY IN PRISON – THEY’VE JUST BEEN GIVEN TIME OFF FOR TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION.’ signed and inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink 9 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Express, 22 July 1975

251 ‘NOW REMEMBER, DARLING, THAT WE MADE A NEW YEAR RESOLUTION TO KEEP AN OPEN MIND ABOUT MRS THATCHER!’ signed and inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink with coloured pencil 9 1⁄2 x 6 inches Illustrated: Daily Express, 6 January 1976 ‘Mrs Rajagojollibarmi has just been explaining that the opposition are not really in prison – they’ve just been given time off for Transcendental Meditation’ After ongoing allegations from political opponents that the Indian Nation Congress had practiced electoral fraud when winning the 1971 elections, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) was found guilty of misuse of government machinery for her election campaign on 12 June 1975. Although the election was declared null and void, Indira Gandhi was acquitted of more serious crimes such as election malpractices and bribing voters. As a result, strikes in labour, trade, student and government unions swept the country in protest. On 26 June 1975, a State of Emergency was declared and Gandhi, granting herself extensive powers, launched a crackdown on civil liberties and political opposition. The government used police forces across the country to arrest thousands of protestors and strike leaders. By the time the State of Emergency was lifted in 21 March 1977, approximately 140,000 people had been arrested. ‘Transcendental Meditation’ was a form of mantra meditation introduced in India in the mid-1950s by Maharishi Makesh Yogi (1914-2008). By the mid-1970s, it had achieved global popularity.

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‘Now remember, Darling, that we made a New Year resolution to keep an open mind about Mrs Thatcher!’ A Member of Parliament from 1959 and Education Secretary from 1970 to 1974, Margaret Thatcher (born 1925) challenged Edward Heath (1916-2005) for the Conservative leadership following the party’s defeat to Harold Wilson’s (1916-1995) Labour in the 1974 General Election. Heath was defeated after the first ballot and resigned the leadership. Thatcher then defeated Heath’s preferred successor, William Whitelaw (1918-1999), in the second ballot, becoming the party leader on 11 February 1975. On 4 May 1979, she became Britain’s first female Prime Minister, serving three terms until her resignation on 28 November 1990.


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REG W OOT TO N Reginald Wootton (died 1995) As a newspaper strip cartoonist, Reg Wootton remains best known for the creation of ‘Sporting Sam’. The known details of the life of Reg Wootton remain scant and uncertain. Steve Holland (on his blog, Bear Alley) has suggested that he may be Reginald Clifford G Wootton, who was born on 13 December 1908 and died in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, in 1995, aged 86. More certainly, Wootton grew up in Barnet, Hertfordshire, on the northern edge of London, and attended Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, for which he played cricket, rugby and soccer. As a keen sportsman, he also played for Totteridge Cricket Club.

Wootton first worked in the print industry as a lithographer and etcher, drawing cartoons in his spare time. He produced sport and news sketches for the Express group from 1931, and two years later created his famous strip, ‘Sporting Sam’. The strip appeared in the Sunday Express every week over decades, with the exception of one occasion during the Second World War, when the artwork was mislaid. After the war, Wootton continued as a freelance artist, creating the characters of ‘Sporty’ (Knockout Comic, from 1949, and then Valiant, from 1963) and ‘Tubby the All Round Sportsman’ (Buster, 1967-68).

Sporting Sam Sporting Sam was the muchloved pint-sized British hero, with perfectly brylcreamed hair, pin-prick eyes, button nose and determined stance. Throughout his comic-strip fame the sportsman never broke his silence, relying instead on timeless visual gags reminiscent of silent movie slapstick. He was, perhaps, the Charlie Chaplain of the cartoon world.

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Unfortunate yet irrepressible, Sam became a working-class hero, and was to football fans chasing the dream what Reg Smythe’s ‘Andy Capp’ was to many a hen-pecked husband, complaining down the local about ‘’er indoors’. The note on Sporting Sam is written by Helena Murray.

252 THE CHASE signed and inscribed ‘Specially drawn for John Pickles’ pen and ink with pencil and watercolour 9 1⁄2 x 13 1⁄2 inches


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253 IMPORTANT POST AT THE CITY GROUND inscribed ‘Sporting Sam Sunday Express, Fleet St EC4’ and dated ‘Aug 17 1947’ below mount pen and ink 3 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 17 August 1947

254 TIED UP IN THE TACKLE inscribed ‘Sporting Sam Sunday Express, Fleet St EC4’ below mount pen and ink 3 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 29 February 1948

255 HEADER GOALIE! inscribed ‘Sporting Sam Sunday Express, Fleet St EC4’ below mount pen and ink 3 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 23 October 1949

256 STITCHED UP inscribed ‘Sporting Sam Sunday Express, Fleet St EC4’ below mount pen and ink 3 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 18 November 1951

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VICKY Victor Weisz, FSIA (1913-1966), known as ‘Vicky’ Four years after his arrival from Germany in 1935, Vicky prepared for his work as political cartoonist of the News Chronicle by making a year’s study of English culture and society. Developing a brittle and biting pen line, he then drew for the Daily Mirror and the Evening Standard, for which he created ‘Supermac’, his highly memorable caricature of Harold Macmillan. Vicky was born in Berlin of Hungarian-Jewish parents on 25 April 1913. At the age of 11, he studied with the painter Tennstedt. Following the

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suicide of his father, in 1928, he supported his family by becoming a freelance caricaturist. He worked as sports and theatre cartoonist for the radical anti-Nazi journal, 12 Uhr Blatt, until, in 1933, the paper was taken over by the Nazis. Saved by the possession of a Hungarian passport from early incarceration, Vicky left Germany for England, arriving in London on 9 October 1935. He contributed cartoons to a wide variety of periodicals, including the Evening Standard’s ‘Londoners Diary’ and the Daily Telegraph’s Peterborough column; the ‘Cockalorum’ series to World Film News, the strip ‘Vicky by Vicky’ to the Sunday Chronicle, the ‘Funny Figures’ series to the Daily Mail and the ‘Nazi Nuggets’ series to the Daily Mirror. For six years, between 1937 and 1943, he produced cartoons for the independent weekly, Time and Tide. In 1939, his talents were recognised by Gerald Barry, the editor of the News Chronicle, who sent Vicky on a year’s study of English culture and society before allowing him to join the newspaper as political cartoonist. Sharing a room with Richard Winnington, the Chronicle’s film caricaturist, had a decisive effect upon Vicky’s style: he shed the influence of Low and began to use a pen line both more brittle and more biting. He moved to the Daily Mirror in 1954, and then the Evening Standard, in 1958, for which he produced ‘Supermac’, his highly memorable caricature of Harold Macmillan. He also contributed to the New Statesman and, as ‘Pierrot’ to L’Express. Suffering from depression, he committed suicide at his home in London on 23 February 1966. His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the National Portrait Gallery; and the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury). Further reading: Ritchie-Calder (rev), ‘Weisz, Victor [pseud. Vicky] (19131966)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 57, pages 958-959; Russell Davies and Liz Ottaway, Vicky, London: Secker & Warburg, 1987 Revival During the Second World War, Britain had depleted much of its gold reserves purchasing munitions and weaponry. Winston Churchill had been convinced of the impracticality of returning to a pre-war style gold standard and, by the time Clement Attlee (1883-1967) became Prime Minister in July 1945, Britain was on the verge of bankruptcy. The Bretton Woods System, signed in the United States by all 44 allied nations, fixed their exchange rates relative to the US dollar. The US promised to fix the price of gold at approximately $35 per ounce. As a result, all currencies pegged to the dollar had a fixed value in terms of gold. However, the British government did not ratify this agreement until they had agreed the Anglo-American Loan, which was signed on 15 July 1946, allowing Britain to borrow $4.33 billion from the United States, with the aim of boosting the British economy.

257 REVIVAL AFTER HIS SUCCESSFUL ' GOLD RUSH ' OUR CLEM NOW APPEARS IN ' CITY LIGHTS '

signed and inscribed with subtitle inscribed with title below mount pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 13 1⁄2 x 12 3⁄4 inches

The note on Revival is written by Alexander Beetles.

Clement Attlee is portrayed as ‘The Tramp’, the down-on-his-luck Charlie Chaplin character seen in such films as The Gold Rush (1925) and City Lights (1931).


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

E MM W OOD John Bertram Musgrave-Wood (1915-1999), known as ‘Emmwood’ and ‘Jon’ ‘Emmwood’ produced regular illustrations to The Tatler’s theatre reviews and a series of caricatures entitled ‘Emmwood’s Aviary’. Executing similar work for Punch, he moved to the Daily Mail, and became the newspaper’s political cartoonist, one of the last of a classic generation. For a biography of Emmwood, please refer to The Illustrators, 2002, page 90. His work is represented in the collections of the National Portrait Gallery; and the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury). Further reading: Mark Bryant, ‘Wood, John Bertram Musgrave[pseuds. Jon, Emmwood] (1915-1999)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 60, page 118

‘A flick through the back pages of Punch in the 1950s reveals that Musgrave-Wood was not only a superb humorist artist, but that his images capture a specific historic period in popular culture.’ (Dennis Gifford, Guardian, 29 September 1999, ‘Obituary’)

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Who Said That? ‘It is not much of a game. A quotation – pithy or paradoxical – is flashed on the screen and the panel is invited to name the author. The members rope through the centuries and their stock of literary knowledge, suggest Wilde, Dr Johnson, Shaw and Freud, are prompted to success by the chairman, and are then asked to say whether or not they agree with the great man’s words.’ (Bernard Hollowood, Punch, 10 August 1955, page 170) This television forerunner of Radio 4’s Quote Unquote had as its panel: poet, John Betjeman (1906-1984); journalist, Nancy Spain (1917-1964); translator and journalist, Joanna Kilmartin (19292005); and broadcaster, Gilbert Harding (1907-1960).

258 WHO SAID THAT? JOHN BETJEMAN – NANCY SPAIN –

JOANNA KILMARTIN

GILBERT HARDING

signed and inscribed with title and subtitle pen and ink with watercolour 7 1⁄4 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 10 August 1955, page 170, ‘On The Air: Man’s Hour’


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Climbing the Himalayas ‘“Because it’s there” fails utterly to satisfy me as the reason why anyone should go to the trouble of climbing a Himalaya but it is a reason which, I imagine, Dr Charles Evans would give without hesitation. The programme in which he described the ascent of Kangchenjunga, the third highest mountain in the world, opened with magnificent shots of an avalanche of snow and promised an excitement which failed to materialise. Dr Evans and Sir John Hunt carried the programme along but refused to dramatise the expedition in any way. The chatty film commentary they provided between them was not the most effective way to recognise its success, even though it suited the temperament of the climbers. David Attenborough, the producer, did well to persuade them to appear at all. I suppose he did it because television is there, and that, in spite of the almost painful understatement which brought us a little closer to the private world of men who climb mountains because “they like it.”’ (Bernard Hollowood, Punch, 31 August 1955, page 256) 259 CLIMBING THE HIMALAYAS DR CHARLES EVANS – SIR JOHN HUNT signed and inscribed with subtitle pen and ink with watercolour, 7 1⁄2 x 9 inches Illustrated: Punch, 31 August 1955, page 256, ‘On the Air: Quick on the Ball’

198 Joan Regan – Alma Cogan – Ruby Murray The television variety show, Sunday Night at the London Palladium, was originally launched as part of the first weekend of ITV, during September 1955. Though some critics initially thought it lacklustre, its eighth episode, on 13 November, managed to gather together three of the most popular female artistes working in Britain at the time: Alma Cogan (1932-1966) made her name as a singer in 1953, with her first appearances on the BBC radio comedy programme, Take It From Here. She then had many chart successes, often covering American hits, and reaching no 1 with ‘Dreamboat’ in 1955. Her success was greatly helped by her understanding of the importance of television. Between 1956 and 1960, readers of the New Musical Express voted her ‘Outstanding British Female Singer’ for four out of five years. She rose to become the highest paid British female entertainer of her era. Emmwood’s image alludes to her penchant for flamboyant hooped dresses.

260 JOAN REGAN – ALMA COGAN – RUBY MURRAY signed and inscribed with title pen and ink with watercolour, 8 x 9 inches Illustrated: Punch, 23 November 1955, page 616, ‘On the Air: On Safari in the Heavens’

Joan Regan (born 1928) achieved a number of Top 20 hits for Decca, most of which were covers of American songs, such as ‘If I Give My Heart to You’ (1954). The resident singer on the BBC television programme, Quite Contrary, she was later replaced by Ruby Murray. However, she went to have her own show, Be My Guest, which ran for four series. In 1957, she married Harry Claff, joint general manager and box office manager at the London Palladium. Ruby Murray (1935-1996) had her first hit single with ‘Heartbeat’, which reached no 3 in December 1954. In the following year, seven of her singles reached the Top 10, including her first no 1, ‘Softly, Softly’.


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

Keith Miller – Peter May – Peter Ustinov – Yehudi Menuhin – Humphrey Lyttleton ‘Television often disappoints, but from time to time it manages to compress half a dozen programmes of exceptional merit into a single evening. Between eight and ten o’clock the other night we were introduced to Keith Miller, Jack Fingleton, Peter May, Humphrey Lyttleton, Peter Ustinov and Yehudi Menuhin – all of them at the top of their form. A breath of Australian summer, trumpet, clarinet, dogs, Ustinov and delicious mime, and finally a session of Menuhin and stringed genius. Riches.’ (Bernard Hollowood, Punch, 14 December 1955, page 718) Keith Miller (1919-2004) and Jack Fingleton (1908-1981) were Australian test cricketers, while Peter May (1929-1994) played against them for England. Humphrey Lyttleton (1921-2008) was a jazz musician, playing trumpet and clarinet, and leading his own band (though only becoming chair of I’m Sorry I Haven’t a Clue two decades later). Peter Ustinov (19212004) was a wide-ranging writer and performer, and Yehudi Menuhin (1916-1999) one of the twentieth-century’s greatest violinists. 261 KEITH MILLER – PETER MAY – PETER USTINOV – YEHUDI MENUHIN – HUMPHREY LYTTLETON signed and inscribed with title pen and ink with watercolour 7 3⁄4 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 14 December 1955, page 718, ‘On the Air: Drama for the Million’

Trans-Antarctic Expedition ‘The programme “Trans-Antarctic Expedition,” marking the return of the reconnaissance party, mixed first-rate film of the Theron’s adventures with rather muscle-bound studio talk from Dr Fuchs, Sir Edmund Hillary and David Attenborough. The explorers seemed too anxious to belittle their achievements, and their commentary, which should have been factual and precise, was awkwardly reticent and casual. All the same the programme made fine viewing until its last thirty seconds when the various speakers were seen hurrying to take up position for a fade-out, The BBC loves these ridiculous tableaux, and strains wind, limb and credulity to achieve them. It is neither edifying nor dignified to see important visitors having to toe the chalk-line in an artificial tail-piece.’ (Bernard Hollowood, Punch, 18 April 1956, page 468)

262 TRANS-ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION SIR EDMUND HILLARY – DR VIVIAN FUCHS signed and inscribed with title and subtitle pen and ink with watercolour 9 1⁄2 x 11 inches Illustrated: Punch, 18 April 1956, page 468, ‘On the Air: Actuality Problems’

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At Home ‘In “At Home” those two highly efficient TV speakers, Peter Scott and Hywel Davies, played hideand-seek with cameras, cables, monitor sets and a host of tiptoeing personnel. Every viewer was aware, well aware, of the unseen presences and paraphernalia, but the painter-ornithologist and his interviewer had clearly been instructed to play it the hard way, without so much as a nod to their millions of guests. They chatted cosily enough, ambled from room to room with a hand-microphone, turned the pages of picture-books to pre-selected illustrations which appeared as if by magic on the screen (and also on the monitor-sets just out of vision), looked out of dark windows at stretches of sunlit marshland … And, naturally enough, all this hocus pocus had its effect on the quality of the interview: it lost its freshness and zest, and, flagging, became riddled with preciosity.’ (Bernard Hollowood, Punch, 3 July 1957, page 28) 263 AT HOME HYWEL DAVIES – PETER SCOTT signed and inscribed with title and subtitle pen and ink with watercolour 7 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 3 July 1957, page 28, ‘On the Air: Chez Nous, Chez Vous’

200 264 BACKGROUND MUSIC inscribed with title pen and ink with watercolour 7 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 18 September 1957, page 340, ‘Background Music’

Marcel Marceau ‘Describing the mime of Marcel Marceau Radio Times pulled on its learned sock, stretched its brow and dipped its pen into prose of majestic dignity. “Marcel Marceau,” it said, “is one of the greatest exponents of the art of pantomime in the world to-day. His acute observation of people and situations, usually funny, sometimes sad, but always poetic, is equalled only by the skill with which he interprets the fantastic characters he has created.” … how many of these terms would ever be used to describe the regular standby comics of radio and television, even in obituary notices?’ (Bernard Hollowood, Punch, 4 December 1957, page 674)

265 MARCEL MARCEAU signed and inscribed with title pen and ink with watercolour 8 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 4 December 1957, page 674, ‘On the Air: Tightrope Walkers’


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

GIL ES Ronald Giles, OBE (1916-1995), known as ‘Giles’ and ‘Carl Giles’ Having been lured to Express Newspapers by Lord Beaverbrook in 1943, Giles introduced his immortal ‘Family’ to the public in a cartoon at the end of the Second World War. The regular appearance these characters and their anarchic affairs in the Express established the cartoonist as a household name and had a great effect on British culture. His use of beautifully detailed panoramic settings also influenced his younger contemporaries, Jak and Mac.

For a biography of Giles, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 122 His work is represented in the collections of The Cartoon Museum. His archive is held by the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury). Further reading: John Jensen, ‘Giles, Ronald [Carl] (1916-1995)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 22, pages 232-234; Peter Tory, Giles: A Life in Cartoons, London: Headline, 1992

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266 DAILY EXPRESS COMMENT: ‘IN HALF AN HOUR IN A COUNTRY PUB THE RUSSIANS WOULD LEARN FAR MORE ABOUT THE BRITISH THAN IN ALL THE MUSEUMS AND TRADING CENTRES IN THE LAND.’ ‘I’LL SAY THEY WOULD.’ signed pen and ink 10 x 14 inches

Provenance: The Jeffrey Archer Political Cartoon Collection Illustrated: Daily Express, 26 February 1963; Giles Annual no 17 Exhibited: ‘Images of Power: From The Jeffrey Archer Cartoon Collection’, Monnow Valley Arts, September-October 2011


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267 BERT’S GOT A POINT THERE – IF YOU’RE SO KEEN ON THE EXPRESS STOPPING HERE WHY CAN’T YOU USE YOUR MISSUS INSTEAD OF HIS? signed pen and ink on board 13 x 20 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 24 June 1962


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268 THE PICNIC signed watercolour, bodycolour and pen and ink 14 x 19 inches Provenance: Edward L Matto, who worked as a designer for Express Newspapers Illustrated: The Daily Express Calendar for 1951, ‘July’


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269 HAPPY BIRTHDAY FROM GRANDMA (detail) signed and inscribed ‘To SH Happy Birthday with our continued admiration and affection. Carl & Joan Giles’ pen ink and coloured pencil 4 1⁄4 x 3 1⁄4 inches

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270 THIS ISN’T ‘MY FAIR LADY‘ signed pen ink and charcoal on board 16 x 14 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: St-Martin-in-the-Fields Christmas Matinee programme, 5 January 1960, (in aid of refugee children) The Giles Family members from left to right are: Carol, Ann, George, Mother, Vera, George Jr (speaking), Father, the Twins, Grandma and Bridget


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

L ARRY Terence Parkes (1927-2003), known as ‘Larry’ Larry was the cartoonist’s cartoonist, highly respected by his peers for his consistently funny work, and cherished by them for his affability. In the autobiographical Larry on Larry (1994), he wrote, ‘I seem to have the reputation for being a beer-swigging Brummie cartoonist’, and while each particular of that statement may have been true to the letter, its overall spirit suggests an essential modesty. He even expressed some reservations about the increasing seriousness with which cartooning was being taken, and yet was steeped in the history of his profession and, more widely,

in the history of art. This combination of the easygoing and the erudite informed much of his work, in content and draughtsmanship, and he will long be remembered for both his frequent depiction of an Everyman figure, ‘Larry’s man’, and his parodies of famous works of art. For a biography of Larry, please refer to The Illustrators, 2003, pages 219-220. His work is represented in the collections of the British Museum; and the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury).

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271 TEAR GASSED signed pen ink and watercolour 10 1⁄4 x 14 inches


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272 CUBIST PERIOD signed pen ink and watercolour 5 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄4 inches

206 273 RODIN’S THROW-IN DISPUTE signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 6 1⁄2 x 6 inches

274 DOCTOR GACHET WITH A GIN AND TONIC signed pen ink and watercolour 8 x 10 inches


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

276 MUSICAL CHAIRS pen ink and watercolour 7 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 1996

207 275 STEALTH BOMBER – ELIZABETH FRINK pen ink and watercolour 5 x 3 1⁄2 inches

277 THE POSTMAN ROULIN STEAMING ENVELOPES OPEN signed pen ink and watercolour 10 x 14 inches


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278 BRUEGEL. THE GUEST ARTIST signed pen ink and watercolour 11 3⁄4 x 14 inches


12: POST-WAR CARTOONISTS

GEOFFR EY D ICK IN S O N Geoffrey Samuel Dickinson (1933-1988) Geoffrey Dickinson is now best remembered for his exuberant and inventive covers for Punch, which reveal his painterly aspirations and wide-ranging illustrative talents. Geoffrey Dickinson was born in Liverpool on 5 May 1933, the son of Albert Dickinson, a master coach-painter. On leaving school, he studied at Southport School of Art (1950-53) and the Royal Academy Schools (1953-57), intending to become a landscape painter. He taught full-time at Tavistock Boys’ School, Croydon (1957-58), and then part-time at Selhurst Grammar School, Croydon (1958-67), where his pupils included Martin Honeysett. While at Selhurst, he produced graphics and animated cartoons for BBC television, on a freelance basis. Dickinson began to contribute to Punch in 1963, and produced a number of covers, one of which won first prize at the Congress of the International Federation of Periodical Publishers, held in Rome in 1965. This led to his being offered the position of Deputy Art Editor, and becoming a member of the Punch Table. While at Punch, he contributed to a wide range of magazines, and sat as a member of the jury at international cartoon festivals, including 3rd Salão de Humor de Piracicaba, Brazil, in 1976. In 1984, Dickinson left Punch and joined the Financial Times, producing a daily pocket cartoon and comic illustrations for the weekend supplement. He died four years later at King’s College Hospital, London, on 21 March 1988. His work is represented in the collections of the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury).

279 ALAN COREN SKIING signed and inscribed 'to Barry Took 1975' pen ink and bodycolour with pencil 13 1⁄4 x 9 3⁄4 inches Provenance: Barry Took, a present from the Artist Illustrated: Punch

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L ES GI B BAR D Leslie David Gibbard (1945-2010), sometimes known as ‘Spike’ While the cartoons of Les Gibbard could prove controversial, his style has been considered gentle and polite compared to those of Steve Bell and Martin Rowson, his successors at the Guardian. Les Gibbard was born in Kaiapoi, New Zealand, on 26 October 1945, the son of teachers. He was educated at Auckland Grammar School and, while there, contributed cartoons and caricatures to the school magazine. During the same period, the refugee Hungarian artist, Frank Szirmay, tutored him in charcoal and pastels. In 1962, Gibbard began his journalistic training on the Auckland Star, which published his first caricature, of Reginald Maudling, during the January of that year. Fired for his bad shorthand, he moved to the New Zealand Herald, working under its political cartoonist, Gordon Minhinnick, and producing drawings for its sister publication, the New Zealand Weekly News. When sacked by the Herald, he worked at the Sunday News.

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In 1967, Gibbard moved to Melbourne, Australia, in order to work in a less conservative atmosphere, and drew for the Melbourne Herald. However, in the June, he left for England, following in the footsteps of a girlfriend. Beginning there as a freelance cartoonist, he became arts caricaturist and pocket cartoonist for the Sunday Telegraph in the following year. In 1969, he began to fill in for Bill Papas by producing political cartoons for the Guardian. Succeeding him in 1970, he remained in the position – with a couple of breaks – until 1994.

Most controversial was the cartoon that he captioned The price of sovereignty has increased – official, a critical response to the sinking of the Belgrano and more generally to the Falklands War. Based on a Second World War cartoon by Philip Zec, it appeared in the Guardian on 6 May 1982. During his time at the Guardian, Gibbard contributed to other newspapers and magazines, and to television programmes, while developing a parallel career as an animator. In 1973, he began a two-year stint at the Soho studio of the Canadian animator, Richard Williams, initially assisting the Warner Brothers veteran, Ken Harris, and attending classes held by Disney artist, Art Babbitt. This experience resulted in Newshound, his own animated series for Granada TV’s Reports Politics (1976-77), and work for children, including the Oscar-nominated, Famous Fred (1996), based on a story by Posy Simmonds. Gibbard died on 10 October 2010. His work is represented in the collections of the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury). The note on Eskimo Knell is written by Alexander Beetles.

280 ESKIMO KNELL signed, inscribed with title and 'The Guardian', and dated 16 February 1981 pen ink and coloured pencil Illustrated: Guardian, 16 February 1981 Eskimo Knell In the early years as Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher (born 1925) adopted a monetarist economic policy. Together with the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Geoffrey Howe (born 1926), she lowered direct income taxes and increased indirect taxes. ‘Heath-ite’ Conservatives such as Peter Thorneycroft (1909-1994) and Francis Pym (1922-2008), seen here cutting Thatcher and Howe adrift, strongly opposed these policies and are believed to have plotted the downfall of Thatcher and Pym’s

succession as Prime Minister. Shortly after Michael Foot (1913-2010) was elected Labour leader on 4 November 1980, he faced the creation of a breakaway group, the Social Democratic Party, headed by four senior Labour right-wingers – Roy Jenkins (1920-2003), Shirley Williams (born 1930), David Owen (born 1938) and William Rodgers (born 1928). The formation of the group was largely seen as the consequence of the Labour party’s swing to the left.


13: RUPERT

13 RUPERT MARY TOURTEL (1897-1948) ALFRED BESTALL (1892-1986) JOHN HARROLD (born 1947)

‘Rupert Bear’ first appeared in the Daily Express on 8 November 1920, as a rival to ‘Pip, Squeak and Wilfred’ in the Daily Mirror (drawn by Austin B Payne) and ‘Teddy Tail’ in the Daily Mail (drawn by Charles Folkard). His adventures were presented as more serious and momentous; conforming less obviously to the format of the strip cartoon, they usually unfolded at one frame a day and with the accompaniment of verses, most familiarly in the form of rhyming couplets. The original writer and illustrator was Mary Tourtel, the wife of Herbert Tourtel, a senior editorial executive of the Daily Express who also contributed some of the accompanying verses. The initial story of the ‘Little Lost Bear’ was completed in time to make way for one with a Christmas theme, but in the following year was published in volume format. At the same time, a ‘Little Bear Embroidery Card’ was produced, so establishing a precedent for merchandising as a development of and accompaniment to the illustrated stories. Then, in 1923, the Daily Express Women’s Exhibition at Olympia mounted at its Children’s Theatre Rupert’s Revenge, the first Rupert stage show, with the proceeds going to the Royal Free Hospital. Yet it was only late in the decade that Rupert was ensured a regular place in, and beyond, the Daily Express. His widespread popularity was confirmed in 1929, when the Dutch newspaper, Algemeen Handelsblad, underwent successful negotiations with Express newspapers to translate Tourtel’s original as ‘Bruinje Beer’ (Little Brown Bear). When Tourtel retired from her job as Rupert’s illustrator in 1935, as a result of failing eyesight, she was quickly replaced by Alfred Bestall. He was groomed and guided not by Tourtel, whom he never met, but by Stanley Marshall, the children’s editor of the Daily Express who, in 1932, had formed the high-minded Rupert League. So he was advised to refrain from Tourtel’s more extreme fantasies, and include ‘no bad characters, no magic, no fairies’. For the most part, he followed this advice, developing a more concrete imaginative world, peopled with many interesting new characters, and also evolving the canonical incarnation of Rupert, dressed in red and yellow. An editorial decision expanded each instalment of the story to two frames a day, and accompanied not by verse but by an eighty-word prose narrative; rhyming couplets returned as an additional gloss when the stories were collected in Annuals, beginning in 1936, with the New Adventures of Rupert. From Rupert’s Adventure Book, in 1940, those Annuals were reproduced in full colour. However, Bestall was too busy to work on all the additional colouring that these entailed, so that he confined himself to the covers and endpapers, and let professional colourists complete the narrative illustrations. While Bestall’s images depicted Rupert as a brown bear, those of the colourists showed him as white, a discrepancy standardised in favour of white only, in 1973, a decision which provoked Bestall to hand the task of design of covers and endpapers to Alex Cubie (from 1974), though he continued to do some work on the stories until 1982.

287 (detail)

Alex Cubie had begun to draw Rupert from the mid 1950s, when he relieved the overworked Bestall of the task of illustrating the new ‘Rupert Adventure’ series; then,

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in 1965, he took on the serial in the Daily Express. In turn, he was succeeded by John Harrold, who began to draw Rupert in 1973, took on the newspaper serial in 1976, and produced the covers and endpapers for the Annuals from 1978. Harrold was more innovative than Cubie, showing a particular flair for arresting layouts, and matching the vivid imaginations of the children’s editors and writers, James Henderson and, his successor in 1990, Ian Robinson; they introduced a degree of overt fantasy not present in the stories and their illustrations since Tourtel’s originals. Certainly, the retreat and retirement of Bestall in no way marked a lessening of interest in Rupert or of responding inspiration. In the 1970s, he was the subject of several hit records and appeared on television as an animated puppet; in the 1980s, his presence encouraged the foundation of more than one

periodical comic and the formation of the Followers of Rupert; in the 1990s he was given his own gallery at the Canterbury Heritage Museum, Canterbury being the birthplace of Mary Tourtel. Rupert has remained an ethical animal, a little-boy bear who generally behaves with the best of intentions. His adventures are greatly reminiscent of the detective story in their plotting, their elements of surprise and their particular moral atmosphere, so that he is more a counterpart to ‘Tintin’ and the ‘Famous Five’ than to Winnie-the-Pooh. His continuing success is due not only to his own particular qualities, but to his environment, a nostalgic vision of ordinary life shot through with elements of high invention. Further reading on Rupert Bear: George Perry, with Alfred Bestall, Rupert. A Bear’s Life, London: Pavilion in association with Michael Joseph, 1985; Brian Stewart, The Rupert Bear Dossier, London: Hawk Books, 1997

M A RY TO U RT E L

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Mary Tourtel (née Caldwell) (1879-1948) Illustrating books from the turn of the century, Mary Tourtel created the character of Rupert Bear in 1920, in a charming style, and flung him ‘into a fairy-tale world of magic spells, ogres and flying witches, dragons and wicked wolves’ (Brian Stewart, 1997, page 9).

281 STARTLED, ALL TURNED TO SEE A DOG HAD RUN AWAY WITH THE CAKE signed with initials pen ink and coloured pencil 5 x 8 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Mary Tourtel, Rupert Goes Hiking, London: Sampson Low Marston & Co, [circa 1920], page 17

Mary Tourtel was born Mary Caldwell in Canterbury, Kent, on 28 January 1874. Caldwell was a family of stained-glass artists, who designed, restored and cared for much of the glass in Canterbury Cathedral, while one of Mary’s brothers, Edmund, was an animal painter and illustrator. She developed her own drawing skills at an early age and, following her general education at the Simon Langton School for Girls, studied at Canterbury’s Sidney Cooper School of Art, under Thomas Sidney Cooper himself. Inevitably, she specialised in animal drawing and became a children’s illustrator. This led her to meet, and marry, Herbert Tourtel, a senior editorial executive of the Daily Express, and she began her ‘Rupert’ strip in the Express in 1920. After her husband’s death in 1931, her drawing style became erratic and the stories were darker in tone. Failing eyesight finally led her to retire in 1935, and she was replaced by Alfred Bestall. She died at Canterbury Hospital on 15 March 1948.


13: RUPERT

282 RUPERT AND THE FAIRY CHILD signed pen and ink 4 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Express, 1921, ‘Rupert and The Fairy Child’, no 33; Little Bear and The Fairy Child, London: Nelson, 1922; Rupert Story Book, London: Sampson Low, 1938 Exhibited: ‘Bruintje Beer’, Teylers Museum, Haarlem, May-August 1994

283 THE EXAMINATIONS pen ink and coloured pencil 4 1⁄4 x 6 inches Illustrated: Daily Express, 1922, ‘Rupert Goes to School’, no 22; Mary Tourtel, Rupert Little Bear’s Adventures, London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co, 1924, ‘Rupert at School’, no 22 Literature: Brian Stewart, The Rupert Bear Dossier, London: Hawk Books, 1997, page 13

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A LFR ED B ES TA L L Alfred Edmeades Bestall, MBE (1892-1986) Alfred Bestall was already an experienced cartoonist and illustrator when, in 1935, he succeeded Tourtel as author and illustrator of Rupert Bear. A fine landscape painter, he injected a greater realism and strong sense of place into the narratives, making the element of fantasy seem all the more convincing. He was at his most impressive in the work that he produced for the covers and endpapers of the Annuals, as is exemplified here. The son of pioneer Methodist missionaries, Alfred Bestall was born in Mandalay, Burma, on 14 December 1892. He was educated at Rydal Mount School, Colwyn Bay (1904-11), and won a scholarship to the Birmingham Central School of Art (1912-14). However, the First World War interrupted his studies, and he served in Flanders in the 35th (Bantam) Division. He then attended the Central School of Art, London (1919-22), and began to contribute to a large number of books and periodicals,

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including Punch and The Tatler. He also produced images for postcards and posters, and painted in oil. Replacing Tourtel in 1935, Bestall worked for 30 years as full-time writer and illustrator of Rupert, and continued to contribute to the Annuals until he was ninety-three. The elaborate exercises in paper folding that he introduced into the Annuals led to his election as President of the British Origami Society. For many years, Bestall lived in Surbiton and holidayed in North Wales, buying a cottage in Bedgellert in 1956. He died at Wern Manor Nursing Home, Porthmadog, on 15 January 1986. He had received an MBE in 1985. Bestall’s goddaughter and biogapher, Caroline Bott has built up a permanent exhibition of his work at her home at Milford, Surrey (which is open by appointment). She and her husband have promised the Bestall archive to the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

Further reading: Caroline G Bott, The Life and Works of Alfred Bestall. Illustrator of Rupert Bear, London: Bloomsbury, 2003

284 RUPERT AND FRIENDS coloured pencil and pencil 10 1⁄2 x 13 1⁄2 inches Executed for Jane Margaret Blackburn, the grand-daughter of the Chairman of the Beaverbrook Press, circa 1951


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1948 This brightly illuminated landscape contains elements from the stories in the volume, including a snowman (‘Rupert and Jack Frost’), balloons (‘Rupert and the Blue Balloon’), an unusual pear tree (‘Rupert and the Sleepy Pears’), Podgy Pig’s tiresome cousin, Rosalie (‘Rupert and Rosalie’), a rainbow (‘Rupert and the Rainbow’), Rupert with a puppy (‘Rupert’s Puppy Hunt’) and flying origami horses (‘Rupert and the Hobby Horse’).

285 RUPERT ANNUAL 1948 signed dated 1948 on reverse pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour on board 12 x 18 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1948, front and back cover


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286 RUPERT ANNUAL 1949 (also illustrated front endpapers) signed inscribed with artist’s address and ‘For Xmas’ and dated 1949 on reverse pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour with pencil on board 11 1⁄2 x 17 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1949, front and back cover

1949 Lit by his lantern, Rupert and his friends sing carols in a snowy Nutwood, surrounded by elements from the annual’s stories, including an imp (‘Rupert and the Young Imp’), a spinning top (‘Rupert’s Magic Top’), Uncle Grizzly (‘Rupert and Uncle Grizzly’), the Rabbit Twins (‘Rupert and the Twins’), a tortoise (‘Rupert and the New Pal’) and Ping-Pong on a flying carpet (‘Rupert and Ping-Pong’s Party’).


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1964 Rupert, Algy, Bill and Edward go climbing in the fresh upland air; but, while Snowdon and Penlan inspired the landscape, it contains suggestions of seaside stories: ‘Rupert and the Dover Sole’ and ‘Rupert and the Rock Pool’.

287 RUPERT ANNUAL 1964 signed dated 1964 on reverse pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour on board 13 1⁄2 x 19 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1964, front and back cover


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288 RUPERT ANNUAL 1967 signed dated 1967 on reverse pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour on board 14 1⁄2 x 19 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1967, front and back cover


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1968 Rupert and his friends, including a fiddler (‘Rupert and the Fiddle’), look out towards a luminous sky, through which fly the firebird (‘Rupert and the Firebird’) and coloured balls (‘Rupert and the Rolling Ball’).

289 RUPERT ANNUAL 1968 signed pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour on board 13 x 19 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1968, front and back cover


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290 RUPERT ANNUAL 1969 signed dated 1969 on reverse pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour on board 13 x 19 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1969, front and back cover

1969 Accompanied by many of his friends, Rupert sits on the edge of a lake and listens to a fish (‘Rupert and the Whistlefish’).


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JO HN HAR RO L D John Harrold (born 1947) John Harrold is perhaps the most distinguished of the more recent illustrators of Rupert Bear, ‘a brilliant pen and ink artist who delights in fine detail’ (Brian Stewart, 1997, page 38).

to provide work for the Rupert Bear strip in the newspaper, as well as to contribute to the Rupert Annual. In 1987, he produced his first cover and endpaper for the Rupert Annual, and has done them ever since. In 1994, he moved from London to Paris.

John Harrold was born in Glasgow on 6 December 1947, and studied drawing and painting at Glasgow School of Art. Soon after he started working as an art teacher, in 1973, he was invited to provide a sample illustration to the Collins book, Lots of Fun to Cook with Rupert. He was selected to illustrate the book, and subsequently asked by the Daily Express

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John Harrold’s Acetates The works by John Harrold included here represent a stage in the production of the Rupert Annuals. Like other illustrators of Rupert, Harrold drew monochrome strips in pen and ink, which were printed in the Daily Express. The outlines were then reprinted on paper in order to be hand coloured for their appearance in the annual. This was done by Harrold himself until 1993, and from then by Gina Hart. The outline was then also reprinted on transparent acetate film, in order to save the photographic separation from the colour positives during the final printing process. 291 RUPERT AND THE WORRIED ELVES signed and dated 1986 dated 1986 on reverse watercolour over printed outline, with printed overlay 10 1⁄2 x 15 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1986, pages 30 & 31, ‘Rupert and the Worried Elves’


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292 RUPERT AND THE WORG SEEDS signed and inscribed ‘Best wishes!’ inscribed with story title and dated 1987 on reverse watercolour over printed outline, with printed overlay 9 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1987, page 31, ‘Rupert and the Worg Seeds’

293 RUPERT TELLS HIS PALS signed and inscribed ‘Best wishes!’ inscribed with book title and dated 1987 on reverse watercolour over printed outline, with printed overlay 9 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1987, page 63, ‘Rupert and the Lotus Isle’


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294 RUPERT AND HAMISH signed and inscribed ‘Best wishes!’ inscribed with story title and dated 1987 on reverse watercolour over printed outline, with printed overlay 9 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1987, page 76, ‘Rupert and Hamish’

295 RUPERT ON THE BEACH signed inscribed with publication details below mount pen and ink, with printed overlay 10 3⁄4 x 8 inches Illustrated: Rupert. The Daily Express Annual, 1989, title page (in colour)


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14 KATHLEEN HALE

K AT H LE E N HA L E Kathleen Hale, OBE (1898-2000) Precocious and versatile, Kathleen Hale established herself as a member of the artistic circle of Fitzrovia while still in her twenties. However, it was marriage and motherhood that engendered her most immortal creation, Orlando the Marmalade Cat, and his adventures – which were first told to her sons as bedtime stories. The artwork and its reproduction for the first published stories set a new standard for children’s illustrated books when they appeared in 1938. For a biography of Kathleen Hale, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 139. Key work written and illustrated: Orlando the Marmalade Cat: A Camping Holiday (1938) (the first of 18 adventures) Further reading: Kathleen Hale. Artist. Illustrator, London: The Gekoski Gallery, 1995; Peter Parker, ‘Hale, Kathleen (1898-2000)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 24, pages 532-533

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‘I became obsessed by Orlando and his family: they were part of my life’ (Kathleen Hale)

296-308 are all preliminary drawings for Kathleen Hale, Orlando and the Three Graces, London: John Murray, 1965

296 ORLANDO AND THE THREE GRACES watercolour and pencil on paper laid on board 7 x 8 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: front dust jacket and front cover


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297 THE KITTENS AWOKE ON CHRISTMAS MORNING BEFORE IT WAS LIGHT, AND OPENED THEIR PARCELS inscribed ‘Stockings blue & black only’ watercolour and pencil with bodycolour 5 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 8

297 reverse: ‘HE MUST BE BORED WITH ONLY MASTER’S ROUND HAT-BOX TO CURL UP IN; HE’LL LIKE BEING A SQUARE CAT FOR A CHANGE.’ inscribed ‘He must be bored’ below mount monochrome watercolour and pencil 4 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 7

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298 THERE WERE THREE GRACES, EXACTLY ALIKE! WHAT ONE GRACE DID, SO DID THE OTHERS AT THE SAME MOMENT watercolour and pencil 6 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 9


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299 COCKALARUM WAS LISTENING TO HIS RADIO AND ORLANDO HAD TO SHOUT TO MAKE HIMSELF HEARD watercolour and pencil 5 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 12

299 reverse: ORLANDO TELEPHONED FOR THE VET, WHO CAME AT ONCE pencil 5 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 11

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300 HE WORE A BRILLIANT STAR LIKE A SEARCHLIGHT ON HIS FOREHEAD inscribed ‘Golden dog outlined by stars’ below mount watercolour, bodycolour and pencil 5 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 16

300 reverse (detail) : THE SHIP BURST ITS BOTTLE AND THERE WAS ROOM ON BOARD FOR ALL THE CATS inscribed ‘Stars on fish & penguins & shells’ below mount pencil 6 x 7 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 15


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301 TINKLE HATED DOGS AND WAS FURIOUS AT BEING RESCUED BY ONE watercolour, bodycolour and pencil 5 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 17

301 reverse: SUDDENLY HUNDREDS OF LETTERS FLEW PAST, ADDRESSED TO SANTA CLAWS FROM MILLIONS OF KITTENS, ASKING FOR TOYS Inscribed ‘Which way to go’ and ‘The Graces threw their aprons over their heads’ below mount monochrome watercolour and pencil 4 1⁄4 x 7 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 18

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302 THE MAGNIFYINGGLASS MADE THE CASTLE AND FOREST GROW AND GROW inscribed ‘3 Graces’ below mount watercolour and coloured pencil with pencil 5 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 20

302 reverse (detail): ‘FOLLOW THE LETTERS!’ CRIED ORLANDO TO FATIMA, ‘THEY’LL LEAD US TO SANTA CLAWS.’ monochrome watercolour and pencil with bodycolour 6 1⁄4 x 7 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 19


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303 ‘HERE COMES SANTA CLAWS!’ pen ink and watercolour with pencil 5 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 24

303 reverse: LEO INVITED THE CATS IN AND LED THEM THROUGH THE MAGNIFICENT MARBLE CORRIDORS OF THE SPLENDID CASTLE pencil 4 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 23

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304 HE KNEW AT ONCE WHAT WAS WRONG WITH GRACE watercolour and pencil 4 1⁄2 x 7 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 25

304 reverse: ‘YOU’LL NEVER BE A CONJUROR IF YOU DON’T LEARN HOW TO READ,’ SMILED SANTA CLAWS monochrome watercolour and pencil 5 x 7 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 26


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305 THERE NEVER WAS SUCH A HUGGING AND LICKING AND PURRING! watercolour and pencil 6 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 28

305 reverse: HE TOOK TINKLE’S BOTTLE MARKED ‘DISPELL’ AND SQUIRTED GRACE FROM TOP TO TAIL-UP monochrome watercolour and pencil 5 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 27

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306 THE CATS WANTED TO THANK SANTA CLAWS, BUT HE HAD FALLEN ASLEEP Inscribed ‘Golden lion outlined by stars’ below mount watercolour and pencil with bodycolour 5 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 29 306 reverse: ORLANDO CURLED UP SQUARELY IN THE SQUARE BOX THAT TINKLE HAD GIVEN HIM, AND MADE ROOM FOR GRACE TO BE A SQUARE CAT TOO inscribed ‘Grace in with O? “in boudoir cap & nightie”‘ monochrome watercolour with pencil 5 x 5 inches Illustrated: page 30

307 A BLACK-MAGIC SPELL! watercolour and pencil 6 1⁄4 x 5 1⁄4 inches 307 reverse (not illustrated): CRACKER ROCKET inscribed with title and ‘Cats take sola’ pencil 6 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄2 inches


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308 ORLANDO THANKS SANTA CLAWS watercolour and pencil with bodycolour 7 x 8 1â „2 inches Illustrated: back dust jacket and back cover


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15 EDWARD ARDIZZONE

E D WA RD A RDIZ Z O NE Edward Jeffrey Irving Ardizzone, CBE RA RDI (1900-1979) Highly observant and immensely humane, the work of Edward Ardizzone is in direct descent from the finest French and English illustrators of the nineteenth century. Developing as an artist from 1930, Ardizzone made his name as an illustrator through his contributions to The Radio Times and then with Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain, which proved to be one of the most significant picture books from between the wars. Soon considered one of the greatest illustrators of his generation, he also gained a reputation as a distinguished Official War Artist, through his record in word and image of action in Europe and North Africa. Versatile and productive, he produced paintings, sculptures, etchings and lithographs, and worked as a designer. For a biography of Edward Ardizzone, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 313; for an essay on Ardizzone’s illustrations to Cyril Ray’s Merry England, see The Illustrators, 1999, pages 193-195. Key works written and illustrated: Little Tim and the Brave Sea Captain (1936); Tim All Alone (1956) Key works illustrated: Contributed to The Radio Times (from 1932) and The Strand Magazine (from 1942); H E Bates, My Uncle Silas (1939); Poems of François Villon (1946); Walter de la Mare, Peacock Pie (1946); Anthony Trollope, The Warden (1952) and Barchester Towers (1953); William Thackeray, The Newcomes (1954); Eleanor Farjeon, The Little Bookroom (1955); Cervantes, Exploits of Don Quixote (1959)

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His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum, the Imperial War Museum, Tate and the V&A; and the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford). Further reading: Brian Alderson, Edward Ardizzone: a bibliographic commentary, London: The British Library, 2002; Dr Nicholas Ardizzone, Edward Ardizzone’s World. The Etchings and Lithographs, London: Unicorn Press/Wolseley Fine Arts, 2000; Gabriel White, Edward Ardizzone, London: Bodley Head, 1979 For a further work by Ardizzone, see page 250

Londoners ‘I’d known Maurice from the time when we were both children and I met him again in London. When I heard that he was an art editor – or rather he said so – naturally I had a shot at selling some drawings to him and he was nice enough to buy them. This was in the day when his office was at Savoy Hill, he worked there with just an underling of sorts.’ (Edward Ardizzone, from an interview published in David Driver, The Art of Radio Times. The first sixty years, London: BBC Publications, 1981, page 60) Though Edward Ardizzone and the journalist, Maurice Gorham (1902-1975), had been childhood friends, they only made contact again in 1930, at the

time of the artist’s first solo show at the Bloomsbury Gallery. As Gorham was art editor of The Radio Times, he commissioned Ardizzone’s first drawings for that periodical. Three years later, Gorham became its editor. Their friendship – and drinking sessions – blossomed into a close working relationship, which resulted in four highly-evocative illustrated books, all with Gorham’s texts: The Local (1939), Back to the Local (1949), Londoners and Showmen & Suckers (both 1951). According to the summary on its dust jacket, Londoners covers the whole ‘scene in its most human aspects’ as ‘a timely tribute to the city that will be so much in the world’s eye in the Festival season of 1951’.


15: ED WARD ARDIZZONE

309-315 are all illustrated in Maurice Gorham, Londoners, London: Percival Marshall, 1951

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309 reverse: MEETING THE TRAIN inscribed with title pen and ink 8 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Preliminary drawing for page 149, ‘Meeting The Trains’

The Business Rush ‘The crowds flow ceaselessly out of the stations and somehow disappear. They trickle into the soil of London through a labyrinth of channels, like hill-water irrigating the plains. Some vanish into the Tube stations, some into the waiting buses; some even walk.’ (page 40)

309 THE BUSINESS RUSH inscribed with title pen and ink 9 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 41, ‘Business Rush’


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310 THE BUSINESS LUNCH inscribed with title pen and ink 9 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 47, ‘Business Lunch’

311 THE QUEUE inscribed with title pen and ink 9 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 53, ‘The Queue’

The Business Lunch ‘the business-lunch ladder has many rungs and the consistent lunchee gets to know them all. There are the really good restaurants (using “good” in its usual connotation of “costly”), whether they are in the West End or Charlotte Street or the neighbourhood of the Strand, and exotic restaurants like the clubs where the film people go. Overlapping with these are the nicer if less expensive places, the restaurants with good cooking and the private clubs, where you can feel that your host has recognised your discrimination even if you suspect he had an eye on economy too.’ (page 48)

The Queue ‘The cinema queues are the hardiest, the most enduring, for they stand longest and they have no compulsion to stand at all. On the greyest Sunday in winter, with wind biting and rain lashing, they stand numbly and dumbly, awaiting the moment when a resplendent figure in the uniform of a Tsarist General will step forward and wave them in. There is no animation, no loud chatter, no impatience. Even the buskers get little out of them; it is seldom that the cheerful characters who entertain outside the theatres tackle the dumb resignation of the cinema queue.’ (page 52)


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312 reverse: THE PIN-TABLE SALOON pen and ink 7 1⁄2 x 6 inches Preliminary drawing for page 59, ‘Pin-Table Saloons’ The Pin-Table Saloon ‘The typical pin-table saloon (called, of course a Sports Garden or Autodrome) is a long, narrow hall glaring with a ghastly light. On either side the machines stand flank to flank, varying in complexity and in hideousness of design.’ (page 58)

312 THE PIN-TABLE SALOON inscribed with title pen and ink 9 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 59, ‘Pin-Table Saloons’


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313 ON THE EDGE OF THE FAIR inscribed with title pen and ink 8 3⁄4 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 95, ‘Hampstead Heath’

314 MEETING THE TRAIN inscribed with title pen and ink 8 1⁄4 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 149, ‘Meeting the Trains’

On the Edge of the Fair ‘It is tempting to say that the Fair is not what it was, and I think it is true that it gets no bigger as the years go by, and like most fairs it shows an increasing proportion of gambling games to boxing-booths and freak shows and rides. But when one begins to find things aren’t what they were the answer too often is that one isn’t what one was either. Certainly the fair of 1950 drew as big a crowd as anyone could wish. Multitudes thronged its dusty aisles and slid perilously down its slopes (for the shows are scattered all the way from Spaniards Road down to the Vale of Health).’ (page 97)

Meeting the Train ‘At Victoria Station you can walk in from the street without climbing a single stair, and without even buying a platform ticket you can go across to Platform 8 and watch the Golden Arrow come in.’ (pages 148-150)


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315 reverse: A STREET AT DUSK pen and ink 8 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches preliminary drawing for frontispiece Orators ‘For many people the orators are synonymous with the Park. Sunday by Sunday they gather at the Marble Arch corner, exemplifying the British custom of tolerance by making impassioned speeches in favour of Socialism, Fascism, Communism, Mormonism, Christianity, bi-metallism, and other interesting but controversial topics.’ (page 112)

315 ORATORS inscribed with title pen and ink 9 x 6 Inches Illustrated: page 113, ‘The Park’


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316 CONVERSATION PIECE signed oil painting of a woman on reverse oil on canvas 20 1⁄2 x 24 inches Provenance: Wyndham T Vint, Commercial Bank Buildings, Bradford, Yorkshire; R H Spurr, Romey Gallery, Garrick Buildings, Lord St, Southport Exhibited: ‘Jubilee Exhibition’, City of Bradford Corporation Art Gallery, 1954, no 12

Wyndham T Vint, the Owner of Conversation Piece Bradford born (Benjamin) Wyndham Theodore Vint (1882-circa 1951) was an actuary and solicitor, being a partner of Vint, Hill & Killick until the firm was dissolved in 1923. He became a significant collector of contemporary British art, as is evident from an exhibition of his drawings and watercolours at Brighton Public Libraries (1936), and exhibitions of his oils at Bradford City Art Gallery (1936) and Whitechapel Art Gallery (1939). He also demonstrated his wide interest in the arts through his membership of the Charles Lamb Society and his Honorary Curatorship of the Bonnell Collection of Brontë Manuscripts. By 1948, he had become a director of the film production company, John Corfield Productions, though the only film for which he was credited as producer was Paul England’s The Trial of Madame X (1946).


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317 THE JIVE signed with initials pencil 4 x 6 inches Preliminary study for The Dance (Rock & Roll) (The Jive), etching with aquatint, 1925 [NAP 64]; and The Jive, lithograph, 1952 [NA 65] Literature: Nicholas Ardizzone, Edward Ardizzone’s World. The Etchings and Lithographs. An Introduction and Catalogue Raisonné, London: Unicorn Press and Wolseley Fine Arts, 2000, NAP 64 & 65

318 BATHERS ON A BEACH signed with initials pencil 4 x 5 3⁄4 inches

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319 THE CHIROPODIST signed with initials watercolour 7 x 9 1⁄2 inches


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245 320 TWO LADIES signed with initials pencil 6 x 5 inches Drawn on the reverse of the invitation card for the private view of ‘Artists of Fame and Promise’ at The Leicester Galleries on 20 August 1958

321 DOCTOR EMMANUEL HARRISON-HYDE HAS A VERY BIG HEAD WITH BRAINS INSIDE. I WONDER WHAT HAPPENS INSIDE THE BRAINS THAT DOCTOR EMMANUEL’S HEAD CONTAINS. inscribed ‘Doctor Emmanuel’ on reverse pen and ink 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: James Reeves, The Wandering Moon, London: Heinemann, 1957

322 THE STREET CORNER signed with initials inscribed ‘RSA’ and dated ‘St Valentine’s Day 1958’ below mount pen and ink 7 3⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches


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323 ‘CHAMPAGNE CERTAINLY GIVES ONE VERY GENTLEMANLY IDEAS BUT FOR CONTINUANCE, I DON’T KNOW BUT I SHOULD PREFER MILD HALE’ inscribed with title and ‘Mr Jorrock in Paris’ pen and ink with pencil 7 x 11 inches Provenance: Harvey’s Wine Museum, Bristol Illustrated: Wine List, Bristol: John Harvey & Sons, Winter 1962-63 Literature: Wine List Decorations 1961-1963, Bristol: John Harvey & Sons, 1964 Exhibited: ‘The Wine Show’, October 2004

324 ‘AND NOW, THAT THERE BE NO MISTAKE AS TO OUR COUNTRY, WE WILL HAVE SOME CHEESE – & A BEAKER OF SOME BURGUNDY AFTER’ inscribed with title and ‘Jorrock’s Jaunts & Jollities – Mr Jorrock in Paris’ pen and ink with pencil 7 x 11 inches Provenance: Harvey’s Wine Museum, Bristol Illustrated: Wine List, Bristol: John Harvey & Sons, Winter 1962-63 Literature: Wine List Decorations 1961-1963, Bristol: John Harvey & Sons, 1964 Exhibited: ‘The Wine Show’, October 2004


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Ah, fill the cup:- what boots it to repeat Ardizzone has taken as his title a couplet from Edward Fitzgerald’s version of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.

325 AH, FILL THE CUP:– WHAT BOOTS IT TO REPEAT HOW TIME IS SLIPPING UNDERNEATH OUR FEET: signed Diz and inscribed with title pen and ink 7 x 7 3⁄4 inches Exhibited: The Fine Art Society, December 1970


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16 LILLIPUT EDWARD ARDIZZONE (1900-1979) ERIC FRASER (1902-1983) BILL BRANDT (1904-1983) VICTORIA DAVIDSON (1915-1999)

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RONALD SEARLE (born 1920) NORMAN THELWELL (1923-2004) GERARD HOFFNUNG (1925-1959) JOHN JENSEN (born 1930)

A small-format monthly magazine, Lilliput was the brainchild of the Hungarian filmmaker and photojournalist, Stefan Lorant (1901-1997). Lorant had arrived in England from Hungary in 1934, in order to find an editor for I Was Hitler’s Prisoner, a memoir of his imprisonment by the Nazis in Munich. (It was published to great success by Penguin in 1935.) As a result, he was invited to become editor of a new picture magazine Weekly Illustrated, a position that he accepted. However, when asked to become editor of the American magazine, Life, in 1936, he refused, preferring his independence. So, in 1937, Lorant set up Pocket Publications and launched Lilliput with the financial help of £1,200 borrowed from his lover, Alison Blair. The magazine encompassed short stories, articles, humour, the fine arts and photography (including daring, if tasteful, nudes), while projecting a clearly anti-totalitarian stance. It was aimed at – what Lilliput contributor, Kaye Webb, called – ‘fairly intelligent people, the duffel-coat brigade’ (quoted in Valerie Grove, So Much To Tell, London: Viking Books, 2010). The first issue appeared in the July and sold fairly well, as did subsequent issues, so that Lilliput soon overtook Punch in circulation. However, it lost money as it carried no advertising and each copy cost more to produce than the selling price of sixpence. Its immediate survival was ensured only with the arrival of Sydney Jacobson as assistant editor in the October, as he invested his savings in the venture. Even then it was unable to make a profit, so that, in October 1938, Lorant sold the magazine to Edward Hulton for £20,000, while remaining its editor. At the same time, Lorant and Hulton cofounded Picture Post, a large format news magazine that rivalled Life, which would prove both successful and influential. Tom Hopkinson worked as Lorant’s assistant. In July 1940, Lorant emigrated to the United States, having failed to receive British citizenship and fearing Nazi invasion. Hopkinson then took over as editor of both Lilliput and Picture Post, Jack Hargreaves becoming editor of Lilliput in the 1950s. Eventually, in August 1960, it merged with Men Only.


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‘What made this production unique? First of all, its size: As its title suggested, it was very small, only 7 ¾ x 5 1⁄2 inches (19.7 x 14 cm). To the best of my knowledge, no other magazine of the time was anywhere near as small; it slipped easily into a jacket pocket or handbag. Secondly, it combined writing of the very best quality with photographs (unconnected with the text) of equal quality. Thirdly, it introduced the British public to the endlessly satisfying delights of what Lorant called doubles – pairs of photographs on opposite pages, hitherto unrelated but brought together in an ironic, suggestive or merely ridiculous montage. Fourthly, it was the first regular platform for the brilliant documentary photography of Will Brandt who would go on to even more success in Picture Post, another hugely popular periodical launched by Lorant in 1938. Fifthly, the first 147 issues (until 1949) were gloriously embellished with covers illustrated by another refugee from Hitler’s Germany, Walter Trier. With remarkable consistency and even more remarkable variety, each cover featured a young man, a young woman, and a small terrier.’ (The graphic designer, Ken Garland, writing in Steven Heller (ed), I Heart Design, Minneapolis: Rockport Publishers, 2011, pages 182-184)

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E D WAR D AR D IZZO N E Edward Jeffrey Irving Ardizzone, CBE RA RDI (1900-1979) Lilliput published illustrations by Edward Ardizzone between 1951 and 1954, beginning with the work included here. For information on Edward Ardizzone, and further works, please refer to Chapter 15.

Chris Beetles writes on … The Most Unforgivable Character I’ve Met

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Richard Collier was a prolific writer of non-fiction historical and military books, such as The City That Wouldn’t Die: London May 10-11 1941 (1959) and Duce. The Rise and Fall of Benito Mussolini (1968); like these, most were published by Collins. Born in 1924, Collier joined the RAF at 18 and served as a services war correspondent in the Far East. He later edited Town and Country magazine for two years and, between 1951 and 1952, wrote a number of fictional short stories for Lilliput magazine. ‘The Most Unforgivable Character’ comprises the recollections of a young boy of his Uncle Victor, an eccentric, energetic sociopath who became his genial companion for a number of years during school holidays. In his time he had been an unqualified solicitor, a travelling player and a failed market gardener but was usually a self-styled writer having spent 25 years trying to write a better play than Cymbeline. He was devoted to his irascible fox terrier, Esme, who enjoyed cinema though snored during Westerns. Uncle Victor died in his eighties at the start of the Second World War of a surfeit of amateur strategy.

326 THE MOST UNFORGIVABLE CHARACTER I’VE MET signed ‘Diz’ and inscribed ‘The Most Unforgivable Character I have ever met by Richard Collier’ pen and ink four panels, 13 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄2 inches over all Illustrated: Lilliput, July-August 1951, pages 19-22, ‘Profile: The Most Unforgivable Character I’ve Met’ by Richard Collier


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E R I C FR ASER Eric Fraser, HAOI FSIAD (1902-1983) Lilliput published cartoons and illustrations by Eric Fraser during the 1940s. For information on Eric Fraser, and further works, please refer to Chapter 17.

327 THE SONG OF THE SHIRT signed pen and ink with bodycolour 3 3⁄4 x 6 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Lilliput, March 1941, page 271, ‘History: The Song of the Shirt’ by George Edinger

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328 CUPID signed with initials pen ink and bodycolour on board 3 1⁄4 x 3 1⁄2 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Lilliput, March 1944, ‘Seven Days of Broadcast Love’ by Frederick Laws Literature: Sylvia Backemeyer, Eric Fraser. Designer & Illustrator, London: Lund Humphries, 1998, page 77

329 GULLIVER GOES AFTER LOOT signed pen and ink with bodycolour on board 5 x 7 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Drawn for but not illustrated in Lilliput, November 1944, ‘Gulliver Goes after Loot’ by Lemuel Gulliver [Macdonald Hastings]


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

BIL L BRA NDT Hermann Wilhelm Brandt (1904-1983) Lilliput helped launch Bill Brandt as a photojournalist in September 1937, when it published After the Celebration, the photograph of Bill’s brother, Rolf, as a top-hatted drunk. His work continued to appear in the magazine through the 1940s.

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330 IT’S NOT SO QUIET IN THE COUNTRY [I] signed with initials pen and ink with bodycolour 3 x 5 1⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Lilliput, November 1944, page 415, ‘Wizardry: It’s not so quiet in the Country’, an anonymous article about witchcraft

Bill Brandt was born in Hamburg, Germany, on 3 May 1904, into a wealthy family of bankers and merchants. He spent his early years in Germany, and then, as he suffered from tuberculosis, at sanatoria in Switzerland and Austria. He moved to London in 1933 and, by the time of his death in 1983, had transformed himself into a quintessential Englishman – the result of a lifetime trying to bury his roots. He had also become world famous for his highly idiosyncratic photographs. Brandt’s early work was a mixture of photojournalism for such magazines as Lilliput and Picture Post, and personal photographic projects that he undertook – some being published as books, including The English at Home (1936), and London at Night (1938). Both as a photojournalist and an Anglophile, Brandt was drawn to the British class system, and much of his work highlights its inequalities during the interwar years. He also became particularly well known during the Second World War, for his images of Londoners sheltering from the Blitz in Underground stations. From the mid 1940s, Brandt’s work began to change completely, as he concentrated almost exclusively on the female nude for the remainder of his career. With an eye that was drawn in equal measure to Surrealism, Photojournalism and even Conceptual Art, Brandt has been recognised as one of the most influential and important British photographers of the twentieth century. Bill Brandt died in London on 20 December 1983. For further information on the life and work of Bill Brandt, please refer to Bill Brandt, published by Chris Beetles Ltd to accompany the retrospective exhibition in May 2009. The biography of Brandt is written by Giles Huxley-Parlour.

331 IT’S NOT SO QUIET IN THE COUNTRY [II] signed pen and ink with bodycolour on board 4 1⁄4 x 7 1⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Lilliput, November 1944, page 418, ‘Wizardry: It’s not so quiet in the Country’, an anonymous article about witchcraft


16: LILLIPUT

253

332 TIC-TAC MEN AT ASCOT RACES, 1935 modern silver gelatin print numbered on reverse 14 x 14 inches from an edition of 35 Illustrated: Bill Brandt, The English at Home. Sixty-Three Photographs, with an introduction by Raymond Mortimer, London: B T Batsford, 1936, plate 31, as ‘Bookmaker’s Signals’; Lilliput, March 1938, page 244; Bill Brandt, Shadow of Light. A Collection of Photographs from 1931 to the Present, with an introduction by Cyril Connolly and notes by Marjorie Beckett, London: The Bodley Head, 1966, plate 9d; Bill Brandt, Shadow of Light, introductions by Cyril Connolly and Mark Haworth-Booth, London: Gordon Fraser, 1977, plate 6; Bill Brandt, London in the Thirties, London: Gordon Fraser, 1983, plate 49, as ‘Tic-Tac Men at Ascot’

333 A SNICKET IN HALIFAX, 1937 modern silver gelatin print numbered on reverse 18 x 15 inches from an edition of 35 Illustrated: Lilliput, February 1948, ‘Hail, Hell and Halifax’, as ‘A Snicket’; Bill Brandt, Shadow of Light. A Collection of Photographs from 1931 to the Present, with an introduction by Cyril Connolly and notes by Marjorie Beckett, London: The Bodley Head, 1966, plate 36; Bill Brandt, Shadow of Light, introductions by Cyril Connolly and Mark Haworth-Booth, London: Gordon Fraser, 1977, plate 41


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

VICTOR I A DAV I D S O N Lilli Ursula Barbara Davidson (née Commichau), FSIA (1915-1999), known as ‘Victoria’ When Lilliput magazine and Picture Post began, they carried humorous drawings signed ‘Victoria’. Never actually on the staff of either magazine, Victoria Davidson freelanced her way into the role of a British Institution. Her signature became widely familiar, and at one period Lilliput covers carried it for a full 18 months. She had an acute, amused and knowing eye for British idiosyncrasies, despite not coming to live here until she was twenty. This extended into her use of the English language, which she wrote wittily and spoke exquisitely, with scarcely any foreign accent.

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Victoria Davidson was born Lilli Ursula Barbara Commichau in Munich, Germany, on 8 January 1915. Her father, Armin Commichau, was a trust-fund child of a Lutheran family, whose wealth derived from a textile factory in Biatystok, which was then part of Russia. Her mother, Käthe-Lotte Hirsch was Jewish, the daughter of a professor of Oriental languages in Berlin. Armin was invalided out of the army early in the First World War, thus missing the Battle of the Somme. He had a moderately successful career as a landscape painter that was masterminded by his wife. The family wealth was decimated by the war and the Russian revolution. Lilli Ursula had loved drawing as a small child but her ambition was to be a ballet dancer. This was ended by an accident to her spine and serious peritonitis. While convalescing, she rediscovered drawing and decided to go to art school to train as a costume designer. She arrived alone in Berlin aged 14 and won a scholarship to study fashion at the Lette Verein under Lotte Siebert-Wernekink. Fashion alternated with life drawing, graphic design and the history of costume. Around this time she met Eric Victor, a Jewish South African, working for his doctorate in chemistry. They rapidly became a couple, known as ‘Victor and Victoria’ after the popular film directed by Reinhold Schünzel. As Victoria graduated, aged 18, her precious newfound freedom was ruined by the arrival of her mother. Her marriage had broken up and she decided to move in with her daughter, refusing to get a job. Victoria thus had to support them both. She started on the editorial staff of Beyers Mode für Alle, which barely paid the rent, but rapidly built an additional freelance career at publications such as Neue Linie leading to prestige commissions. However, the Nazi threat was growing. Eric was briefly implicated in the burning of the Reichstag, and Victoria was banned from contributing to the national press because she was half-Jewish. In 1935, they left for England, where they married. The early years were extremely difficult, and they spent time trying to get Victoria’s family out of Germany. Victoria’s neighbours, Michael Ayrton and John Minton, introduced her to Stefan Lorant, and he asked her to contribute to Lilliput. From the start she

was always a freelancer, paid per drawing. Originally he got her half price at 10/6 per drawing but, as she was used increasingly, she was soon earning far more than a ‘staffer’. Lorant drummed into her what he called ‘Journalistic Conscience’ – ‘Come hell or high water the paper comes first’. She never missed a deadline. Victoria also became a regular of Lorant’s Picture Post. However, when invasion seemed imminent, Lorant decided to leave for America. He urged Victoria to join him – she too was in danger, particularly with regard to her wickedly lampooning cartoons of Hitler and other leaders of the Third Reich. However, rather than join what she saw as a Lorant ‘harem’, she decided to stay and face whatever would come. She had an eventful war, continuing to work and support her mother; joining the Civil Defence and fire-watching through the height of the blitz. She also had a very social time, knowing much of the artistic community in London. She separated from Eric and met her second husband, Dr Hans Davidson, a specialist in male fertility. They married in 1947. Victoria’s work appeared in Britain in Radio Times, The Tatler, The Illustrated London News, the Sunday Mirror, Advertiser’s Weekly and the Daily Sketch, as well as Die Neue Auslese and Suddeutsche Zeitung in Germany. She also worked for the Bureau of Current Affairs and the Central Office of Information and drew for a number of advertising campaigns including Guinness, VP Wines, Stock Brandy, Nestlé, Kellogg’s, Erinmore Tobacco, Mazda Light bulbs, Bird’s Custard, Persil and the GPO. She also wrote and illustrated several children’s books. In the 1960s, Victoria began designing large posters, particularly for London Transport – some of which were exhibited in its centenary exhibition at the Royal Institute in 1963. Her graphic skills received recognition when she was elected Fellow of the Society of Industrial Artists. In the same decade, she began a new venture as an antiques dealer, opening a shop in Camden Passage, Islington. For a while she combined the two careers, but gradually the shop took over from her drawing. When her husband died in 1980, she left London for good and moved to Boxford, Suffolk, where she opened an antiques showroom. In the last phase of her life she was diagnosed with breast cancer and Parkinson’s disease. Yet in spite of this, she remained creative to the end; in her last years illustrating and writing (in both English and German) a book of poems about cats, and humorous books about (and for) her friends and relations. She died in Boxford on 23 November 1999. The biography of Davidson is written by Jill Laurimore.


16: LILLIPUT

334 GULLIVER AMONG THE NUDISTS, KETTERING pen and ink 4 1⁄2 x 7 inches Provenance: The Estate of Victoria Davidson Illustrated: Lilliput Holiday Special, August 1949, page 16 ‘Everyone rose. It was impossible not to notice the imprint of the wicker-work chairs.’

335 GULLIVER AMONG THE NUDISTS pen and ink with coloured pencil 6 x 8 inches Provenance: The Estate of Victoria Davidson Illustrated: Lilliput Holiday Special, August 1949, page 17 ‘Then we asked him about the nudist magazines. Weren’t they, perhaps, a little suggestive?’

336 THE ILLICIT VIEW signed with initial pen and ink 4 x 4 inches Provenance: The Estate of Victoria Davidson Illustrated: Lilliput Holiday Special, August 1949, page 18 ‘You know, there are some oldish men that don’t join exactly for the – well, for the right purpose’

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THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

RO N ALD SEA RL E

NO RM A N T HE LWE L L

Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE (born 1920)

Norman Thelwell (1923-2004)

Lilliput published cartoons and illustrations by Ronald Searle between 1946 and 1950, including covers for December 1949 and September 1950.

Lilliput published cartoons and illustrations by Norman Thelwell in 1956 and 1957.

For information on Ronald Searle, and further works, please refer to Chapter 21.

For information on Norman Thelwell, and further works, please refer to Chapter 22.

337 ‘BOY OH BOY – THAT’S WARMING’ signed, inscribed with title and dated 1949 dated 1949 on reverse pen and ink 7 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄2 inches Pencil sketch of St Trinian’s Robbing a Bank on reverse Illustrated: Lilliput, December 1949, ‘Look Out King Wenceslas!’ by Arthur Marshall, page 65; Ronald Searle, Back to the Slaughterhouse, London: Macdonald, 1951, page 58, as ‘Let’s give ‘em Jingle Bells’

338 ‘I’M YOUR SCF, INSIGHT,’ HE SAID, ‘THE LETTERS STAND FOR SENIOR CHAPLAIN TO THE FORCES’ signed pen and ink and watercolour 6 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Lilliput, July 1956, page 29, ‘Where the Fighting was Thinnest – 9: Clergyman in Khaki’ by James Insight Exhibited: ‘The Definitive Thelwell’ , May-June 2009, no 2

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16: LILLIPUT

GER AR D HO F F N U N G Gerard Hoffnung (1925-1959) Gerard Hoffnung developed a unique vein of gentle, yet powerful humour through drawings, lectures and even concerts – for his favourite subject was music at its most delightful and daft. Gerard Hoffnung was born into a prosperous Jewish family in Berlin on 22 March 1925, and as a child already made a reputation for himself as a disruptive influence. Due to the anti-semitic policies of the Nazis, he left Germany with his mother in 1938 and settled in London. There he attended Highgate School and, later, Hornsey School of Art where he failed through lack of seriousness. His major talent was for comic drawing and, contributing to Lilliput from the age of 15, he became staff artist on the London Evening News and on New York’s Flair magazine; other periodical work included cartoons for Punch. He also taught art at Stamford School (1944) and Harrow School (1945-50).

Himself an amateur musician, Hoffnung made musical life his central subject in his cartoons for periodicals and in such books as The Hoffnung Orchestra (1955). He originated a series of humorous concerts at the Royal Festival Hall, and used the foyers for solo shows in 1951 and 1956. A bon viveur and raconteur, he was a frequent broadcaster and often spoke at the Oxford and Cambridge Unions, but he also had a quiet and concerned aspect which is illustrated by his work as a prison visitor. His sudden death on 28 September 1959 was marked in the following year by a memorial concert at the Royal Festival Hall and such concerts continue to give delight to many appreciative audiences. During May and June 2011, Chris Beetles Gallery played host to the now famous international touring exhibition of work by Gerard Hoffnung, drawn from the family’s own collection and chosen by his widow, Annetta Hoffnung. It was its first appearance in London for over a decade. Further reading: Annetta Hoffnung, Gerard Hoffnung, London: Gordon Fraser, 1988; Richard Ingrams (rev), Hoffnung, Gerard [formerly Gerhardt] (1925-1959)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 27, pages 523-524

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339 DOCTOR LISTENING TO THE CAR’S ENGINE signed inscribed with publication details below mount pen ink and monochrome watercolour 5 3⁄4 x 7 1⁄4 inches Probably drawn for Lilliput, ‘Dr Whing’s Report’


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

JO HN J EN SE N John Jensen (born 1930) In a career of almost sixty years, John Jensen has contributed to innumerable magazines and newspapers, and has illustrated around 70 books. An expert in the history of his own field, Jensen was a founder, trustee and sometime Chairman of the Cartoon Art Trust, and also Chairman of the British Cartoonists’ Association. In 2002, he received the first ever ‘Grinny’, a Lifetime Achievement Award, at the 1st Nottingham Cartoon Festival.

342 THE CHASE signed inscribed with title below mount signed on reverse pen ink and watercolour 5 x 10 inches Illustrated: Lilliput, June 1954, ‘Women at Work’

Lilliput published cartoons and illustrations by John Jensen during the 1950s. For a biography of John Jensen, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 152 His work is represented in the collections of numerous public collections, including the British Museum and the V&A; and the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury).

258

341 TRIUMPHANT FEMALE signed and inscribed with title signed and dated 1954 on reverse pen ink and watercolour 9 x 4 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Lilliput, June 1954, ‘Women at Work’

340 PRIVATE JOKE signed signed, inscribed with title and dated 1953 on reverse ink and bodycolour 7 1⁄2 x 5 inches Illustrated: Lilliput, 1953, ‘States of Mind’

343 PLAYBOYS signed signed and inscribed with title on reverse pen ink and watercolour 7 1⁄4 x 5 inches Illustrated: Lilliput, June 1954, ‘Women at Work’


17: ERIC FRASER

17 ERIC FRASER

E RI C F RA S E R Eric Fraser, HAOI FSIAD (1902-1983) Eric Fraser’s work as an illustrator and designer is at once wide-ranging and highly distinctive. Developing an assured technique, he could adapt his style to almost any subject matter, from the whimsical to the tragic. As a result, he defined the look of Radio Times for four decades and became a mainstay of J M Dent’s Everyman’s Library – while also creating murals, stained glass and advertisements (including the immortal ‘Mr Therm’).

For a biography of Eric Fraser, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 97 His work is represented in the collections of the V&A. Further reading: Sylvia Backemeyer, Eric Fraser. Designer & Illustrator, London: Lund Humphries, 1998; Alec Davis, The Graphic Works of Eric Fraser, Uffculme: The Uffculme Press, 1985 (2nd edition) The Chris Beetles Gallery is planning a major retrospective of the work of Eric Fraser. For further works by Eric Fraser, see pages 251-252.

There Are Three Sisters This image illustrated details of a BBC Home Service production of There Are Three Sisters, a radio play by the Australian writer, Maxwell Dunn (1895-1963). 344 THERE ARE THREE SISTERS signed pen and ink with bodycolour 4 3⁄4 x 3 1⁄2 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 10 July 1942, page 6

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THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

345 PRECESSION signed pen and ink 5 1⁄2 x 4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 20 September 1946, page 8 Exhibited: ‘The Artists of the Radio Times’, September 2002, no 102 Precession This image illustrated details of the BBC radio production of E J King Bull’s play, Precession. A Caricature, with Robert Farquharson, Charles Leno, Martita Hunt and Deryck Guyler, and music by Gerard Williams.

260

346 THE DUCHESS OF MALFI signed signed, inscribed with title, and dated 8/8/47 and 14.5.54 on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 2 3⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 8 August 1947, page 6 The Duchess of Malfi This image illustrated details of a BBC radio production of John Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi (1612-13), with Margaretta Scott, Valentine Dyall and Hugh Burden.


17: ERIC FRASER

261

347 PARADISE LOST signed signed, inscribed with title and dated 17/10/47 on reverse pen ink and bodycolour 5 x 3 3⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 17 October 1947 Literature: Sylvia Backemeyer, Eric Fraser. Designer & Illustrator, London: Lund Humphries, 1998, page 109 Paradise Lost This image illustrated details of a BBC radio dramatisation of John Milton’s epic poem, Paradise Lost (1667-74). It was produced by Douglas Cleverdon, with Abraham Sofaer as the narrator and Dylan Thomas as Satan. Each of its 12 parts was broadcast on the Third Programme on successive Sundays, between October and December 1947. Reviews were critical, particularly of the contribution of Thomas. Henry Reed of The New Statesman and Nation wrote that, ‘Week after week we have had the voice of Mr Dylan Thomas coming up like thunder on the road to Mandalay; rarely can such gusty intakes of breath have passed across the ether’ (6 December 1947).

348 A CHILD OF OUR TIME signed signed and inscribed with title, and ‘unused’ on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 5 1⁄2 x 3 1⁄2 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family A Child of Our Time This image was drawn to accompany details of a broadcast performance of Michael Tippett’s oratorio, A Child of Our Time (1946).


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

262 349 FREEDOM signed signed, inscribed with title and dated 28.12.56 pen and ink with bodycolour 4 1⁄2 x 4 1⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 28 December 1956, page 4 Freedom This image illustrated an article about ‘Against the Wind’, a series of 24 plays on the BBC Home Service reflecting various aspects of the idea of freedom.

350 THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV: TRIAL OF MITYA signed signed, inscribed ‘The Brothers Karamazov’, and dated 15.11.57 and 13.6.58 on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour, 4 3⁄4 x 5 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 15 November 1957, page 41 Exhibited: ‘Artists of Radio Times. A Golden Age of British Illustration’, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, June-August 2002, and Chris Beetles Gallery, September 2002 Literature: Alec Davis, The Graphic Works of Eric Fraser, Uffculme: The Uffculme Press, 1985 (2nd edition), page 85

Otello This image illustrated details of a performance of Verdi’s Otello (1887), the opera based on Shakespeare’s Othello, with Charles Holland (Otello), Ronald Lewis (Jago) and Heidi Krall (Desdemona). 351 OTELLO signed signed, inscribed ‘Othello’ and dated 25.9.59 on reverse pen and ink, 2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 25 September 1959, page 19


17: ERIC FRASER

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353 FIVE WEEKS IN A BALLOON signed pen and ink 7 x 6 inches Illustrated: Jules Verne, Five Weeks in a Balloon, London: J M Dent [Everyman’s Library], 1962, dust jacket

352 PAOLO PAOLI signed signed, inscribed with title and dated 29-8-58 and 3.10.58 on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 6 1⁄2 x 4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 29 August 1958, page 23 Exhibited: ‘Illustrators in Britain’, Society of Illustrators and Designers, 1971

Paolo Paoli This image illustrated details of a BBC Third Programme production of Paolo Paoli, or The Years of the Butterfly (1957), a play in twelve scenes by Arthur Adamov (1908-1970), translated by Geoffrey Brereton. It was produced by Michael Bakewell, with a cast that included Noel Johnson in the title role.


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

264

354 GREEK WARRIOR signed with initials pen and ink 6 1⁄2 x 7 inches Drawn for The Histories of Herodotus, London: J M Dent [Everyman’s Library], vol 1, 1964, dust jacket

356 ADDISON signed with initials pen and ink with bodycolour 5 3⁄4 x 7 1⁄2 inches oval Drawn for but not illustrated in Addison and Steele, The Spectator, London: J M Dent [Everyman’s Library], 1966, dust jacket

355 PERSIAN AND GREEK signed with initials pen and ink with bodycolour two images, each 2 1⁄2 inches diameter Drawn for The Histories of Herodotus, London: J M Dent [Everyman’s Library], vol 2, 1964, dust jacket

357 STEELE signed with initials pen and ink with bodycolour 5 3⁄4 x 8 inches oval Drawn for but not illustrated in Addison and Steele, The Spectator, London: J M Dent [Everyman’s Library], 1966, dust jacket


17: ERIC FRASER

358 THE CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON pen and ink with bodycolour 7 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Immanuel Kant, The Critique of Pure Reason, London: J M Dent [Everyman’s Library], 1969, dust jacket

359 WAR AND PEACE pen and ink with pencil and bodycolour on board 3 1⁄2 x 6 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 1970

360 IL CORSARO signed signed on reverse pen ink and bodycolour on board 4 1⁄2 x 5 3⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 27 February 1971

Il Corsaro This image illustrated details of the ‘first broadcast in this country’ of Verdi’s Il Corsaro (1848), the opera based on Lord Byron’s poem, The Corsair.

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THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

Tamerlano This image illustrated details of a Radio 3 broadcast of a recording of Handel’s opera seria, Tamerlano (1719). John Moriarty conducted the Copenhagen Chamber Orchestra, with the contralto, Gwendolyn Killebrew in the title role of the Emperor of the Tartars.

266

361 THE MORTE D’ARTHUR signed with initials signed on reverse pen and ink, 3 1⁄2 x 4 3⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 7 January 1971, page 28

363 TAMERLANO signed with initials signed on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour 3 3⁄4 x 2 1⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 1977

362 THE DANCE OF DEATH signed signed on reverse pen and ink with bodycolour on board 3 1⁄2 x 2 3⁄4 inches Provenance: The Artist’s Family Illustrated: Radio Times, 5 June 1972 The Dance of Death This image illustrated details of a BBC Radio 4 production of August Strindberg’s play, The Dance of Death (1900), translated by Elizabeth Sprigge. The cast included Jill Bennett (Alice), John Moffatt (Edgar) and Alan Rowe (Kurt). ‘The play is set in the 1890s on an island fortress off the Swedish coast. After 25 years of stormy marriage, Alice and Edgar have reached an uneasy truce.’


18: SHERRIFFS

18 SHERRIFFS

RO BE RT S T E WART S HE RRIF F S Robert Stewart Sherriffs (1906-1960) Best known as a film caricaturist for Punch, R S Sherriffs specialised in effective abstracted ink drawings of celebrity, in which the abstraction always retains a likeness. For a biography of Robert Stewart Sherriffs, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 108. His work is represented in the collections of the British Museum, the National Portrait Gallery and the V&A; and the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury).

The Flying Trapeze: Happy Family, 1860 and Ventriloquist Set in a circus, The Flying Trapeze is a stage musical based on Zirkus Aimée. For the English version, Ralph Benatzky’s music was arranged by Mabel Wynne and Hans Müller’s libretto translated by Douglas Furber. Opening at the Alhambra Theatre, Leicester Square, on 4 May 1935, it starred Jack Buchanan (Papa-René), June Clyde (Marie-Louise) and Fred Emney (Bombi). By adapting his style to that of well-known contemporary painters, Sherriffs here satirised two artistic disciplines simultaneously: music theatre and the visual arts.

364 HAPPY FAMILY, 1860 ‘“ HAPPY FAMILY, 1860 ”, AFTER

F CADOGAN COOPER RA ,’

IS THE TITLE OUR CARICATURIST BESTOWS ON THIS DRAWING OF MISS JUNE CLYDE AND MR JACK BUCHANAN AS MARIE - LOUISE AND PAPA - RENE ’ IN ‘ THE FLYING TRAPEZE ’ signed inscribed with illustrative details and dated ‘May ’35’ below mount pen and ink 10 x 8 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Sketch, 22 May 1935, page 398

267


THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 366-377 are all illustrated in Punch, ‘At the Pictures’ by Richard Mallett

268

365 VENTRILOQUIST ‘ THE FLYING TRAPEZE ,’ AT

THE ALHAMBRA , HAS INSPIRED SHERRIFFS TO

RECORD HIS IMPRESSIONS OF THE CHARACTERS AND SCENES IN THE

366 ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER ‘ EMILE CLAIRMONT ’ – MAURICE CHEVALIER ‘ JACQUES ’– FRANCOIS PERIER [‘ LE SILENCE EST D ’ OR ’– RIALTO ] signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 10 x 9 inches Illustrated: 18 August 1948, page 144

MANNER OF OUR ROYAL ACADEMY EXHIBITORS . THIS STUDY OF MR FRED

( LEFT ) AND MR JACK BUCHANAN AS RENE ‘“ VENTRILOQUIST,” AFTER STANLEY SPENCER ,’ ONE OF OUR EMNEY AS BOMBI

DISCUSSED PAINTERS

signed inscribed with illustrative details below mount pen and ink 9 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Sketch, 22 May 1935, page 398

IS MOST

Le Silence est d’Or Directed by René Clair (1898-1981), Le Silence est d’Or was released in France on 21 May 1947. It won the 1947 Golden Leopard (Locarno International Film Festival) and the 1948 Prix Mélies (French Syndicate of Cinema Critics). In Paris in 1906, middle-aged film director, Emile Clairmont (Maurice Chevalier), falls in love with Lucette (Dany Robin), the daughter of a friend. Problems begin when his friend, Jacques (François Perrier), returns from military service and Jacques and Lucette fall in love with each other. ‘If this were 1938, I rather think Le Silence est d’Or … would have been hailed as a masterpiece. Now – though it’s enjoyable enough – it seems too much like a good example of M Clair’s old manner’


18: SHERRIFFS

368 ‘REX V PARADINE’ ‘ANTHONY KEANE ’, A PASSIONATE

BARRISTER

GREGORY PECK

‘ANDRE LATOUR ’, AN UNFAITHFUL STEWARD – LOUIS JOURDAN ‘ GAYE KEANE ’, A PATIENT WIFE – ANN TODD ‘ LADY HORFIELD ’, A FEARFUL WIFE – ETHEL BARRYMORE

‘ LORD 367 ROPE ‘ NEWS FROM THE ZODIAC ’ ‘ RUPERT CADELL’ – JAMES STEWART ‘ MRS ATWATER ’ – CONSTANCE COLLIER ‘ BRANDON ’ – JOHN DALL ‘ PHILIP ’ – FARLEY GRANGER signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink, 12 x 9 inches Illustrated: 24 November 1948, page 482 Rope Directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980), Rope has a screenplay by Hume Cromyn and Arthur Laurents based on the play by Patrick Hamilton. The original play is said to have been inspired by the real-life murder of 14-year-old Bobby Franks in 1924 by Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb, two students of the University of Chicago. It was the first film by Hitchcock to be produced in Technicolor, and is notable for taking place in real time and appearing as a single continuous shot. It was released in the United States on 28 August 1948.

HORFIELD ’, A SATANIC JUDGE

CHARLES

LAUGHTON

‘ MADDALENA PARADINE ’, A POISONER – VALLI [ THE PARADINE CASE ] signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 6 1⁄4 x 12 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: 2 February 1949, page 112

The Paradine Case Directed by Alfred Hitchcock, The Paradine Case has a screenplay by David O Sleznick (and an uncredited Ben Hecht) based on the novel by Robert S Hichens. It was released in the United States on 29 December 1947. A courtroom drama, it tells of an English barrister (Gregory Peck) who falls in love with a woman who is accused of murder (Alida Valli), and the effect this has on his relationship with his wife (Ann Todd).

It is the story of two young men (John Dall and Farley Grainger) who murder a former classmate (Dick Hogan) as an intellectual exercise, attempting to prove their superiority by committing the ‘perfect murder’. ‘Rope … is technically very interesting; one could discuss for hours the way it was made … but is it a technical advance, as distinct from a technical curiosity? I’m not saying it fails as a story: it is most gripping, full of opportunities for that kind of painful suspense that is a trademark of a Hitchcock film. But the effects were nearly all in Patrick Hamilton’s original play and are nearly all, it seems, attained without any of the devices normally associated with film technique’

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THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

370 SCOT WHA HATES ‘ LAUCHLIN MCLAUCHLIN ’– RICHARD TODD, ‘ THE COCKNEY ’– CRAWFORD, ‘ THE YANK ’– RONALD REAGAN [ THE HASTY HEART ] signed and inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 8 x 11 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: 28 September 1949, Page 344

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369 POLLY PUTS THE KETTLE ON ‘ MR JOHNSON ’ – EDWARD CHAPMAN ‘ALFRED POLLY ’ – JOHN MILLS ‘ MIRIAM LARKINS ’ – BETTY ANN DAVIES [ THE HISTORY OF MR POLLY ] signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink, 12 1⁄4 x 9 inches Illustrated: 2 March 1949, page 222 The History of Mr Polly Directed by Anthony Pelissier (1912-1988), The History of Mr Polly has a screenplay by Pelissier and H G Wells, which is based on Wells’ comic novel of 1910. On inheriting money from his father, Alfred Polly (John Mills) marries Miriam Larkins (Betty Ann Davies) and sets up as a draper. However, he is satisfied by neither wife nor work, and sets off on new adventures. ‘The History of Mr Polly … turns out to have been a book remarkably suitable for filming. Both the Dickensian “richness” of its characters and its profusion of simple, essentially farcical incident are qualities the screen can use with great effect’

HOWARD MARION -

The Hasty Heart Directed by Vincent Sherman (1906-2006), The Hasty Heart has a screenplay by Ranald MacDougall based on the play by John Patrick. The film won two Golden Globes: Richard Todd as ‘Most Promising Newcomer – Male’ and ‘Best Film Promoting International Understanding’. It tells the story of a group of wounded allied soldiers (including Ronald Reagan) in a mobile surgery unit, in Burma, at the end of the Second World War. They rally round a surly loner (Richard Todd) when they discover that he is dying. ‘The Hasty Heart … is effective and worth seeing for reasons hardly at all connected with the Art of the Cinema, just as some other films – eg The Third Man – are effective and worth seeing for reasons very little connected with anything else. Practically all this piece’s emotional impact, which is considerable, comes from the play on which it is based and the acting performance of one man … it’s Richard Todd as the sour young Scot that carries the picture’


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371 VICTORIAN GOTHIC ‘ MRS MEDLOCK ’ – GLADYS COOPER ’ MARY LENNOX ’ – MARGARET O ’ BRIEN [ THE SECRET GARDEN ] signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 6 x 8 inches Illustrated: 12 October 1949, page 404

372 BRIEF INTERLUDER ‘ HENRI DE TOULOUSE - LAUTREC ’ – JOSE FERRER [ MOULIN ROUGE ] signed and inscribed with title and subtitle below mount inscribed ‘John Huston 1953’ on reverse pen and ink 9 x 12 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: 25 March 1953, page 391

The Secret Garden Directed by Fred M Wilcox (1907-1964), The Secret Garden has a screenplay by Robert Ardrey based on the classic children’s novel of 1909 by Frances Hodgson Burnett. It was the second film adaptation, the first being a silent version of 1919. However, while it too was filmed mainly in black and white, the sequences set in the restored garden were in Technicolor.

Moulin Rouge Directed by John Huston (1906-1987), Moulin Rouge has a screenplay by Huston and others based on the novel by Pierre La Mure, which offers a fictional account of the life of Toulouse-Lautrec (played in the film by Jose Ferrer).

Orphaned Mary Lennox (Margaret O’Brien) is sent to live with her reclusive uncle, Archibald Craven (Herbert Marshall), in his isolated house in Yorkshire. She and Dickon (Brian Roper), the brother of a housemaid, restore a neglected walled garden to its former glory. The garden has a positive effect on Craven, his bedridden son, Colin (Dean Stockwell), and on Mary herself. ‘One recognizes the mood of The Secret Garden … as that of a Jane Eyre sort of best-seller … but it is unusual on the screen, and this film achieves it unexpectedly well. However much one may be inclined to deride parts of it as examples of Hollywood Englishry, the fact remains that it has many good points, and all who aren’t scared away by the prospect of a film built around two child stars (and even some who are) should find it entertaining.’

It was nominated for seven Oscars, and won two, for the Best Art Direction (Paul Sheriff and Marcel Vertes) and Best Costume Design (Marcel Vertes). ‘One can find fault with Moulin Rouge … but I’m quite sure that in my experience there has been nothing to touch it visually. Every few seconds the screen frames some new brilliance; a picture imaginatively designed, attractively composed, full of vivid or subtly subdued colour, delightful, keenly satisfying and momentary.’

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373 KING OF THE KHYBER RIFLES ‘ CAPTAIN KING ’ – TYRONE POWER , ‘ KURRAM signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 5 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: 21 April 1954, page 508

KHAN ’

GUY ROLFE

King of the Khyber Rifles Directed by Henry King (1886-1982), King of the Khyber Rifles has a screenplay by Ivan Goff and Ben Roberts based on the 1916 novel by Talbot Mundy. It was released in the United States on 22 December 1953. An earlier film version of the novel – The Black Watch directed by John Ford – had been released in 1929. Sandhurst-trained captain, Alan King (Tyrone Power), arrives in the NorthWest Frontier Province of India, during the second half of the nineteenth century. As a half-caste, he battles against the prejudices of both his Army colleagues and the local population. To prove his loyalty, he volunteers to put down a rebellion led by the Muslim fanatic, Karram Khan (Guy Rolfe), whom he had known as a child. ‘Lest we should be too much impressed by the wonderful things CinemaScope can do, King of the Khyber Rifles … comes along opportunely as a reminder that nothing else – nothing else – is as important as the story and the way it is handled.’

374 THE VIRGIN QUEEN ‘ H M QUEEN ELIZABETH I ’ – BETTE DAVIS inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 7 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: 19 October 1955, page 471

The Virgin Queen Directed by Henry Koster (1905-1988), The Virgin Queen focussed on the relationship between Queen Elizabeth I (Bette Davis) and Sir Walter Raleigh (Richard Todd). ‘The Virgin Queen, I think, shows evidence of persistent endeavour to make the historical atmosphere convincing. Not the details of historical fact, perhaps … But the sign of determination to spike the guns of the critic on the look-out for an easy laugh seem to me unmistakable … ‘The main point about the film is, of course, Bette Davis’s performance as the Queen, which – given Miss Davis’s power as an actress and the flamboyant character she has to work with here – could hardly be less than spectacular.’


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375 THE SPIRIT OF ST LOUIS ‘ CHARLES LINDEBERGH ’ ( WITH ANONYMOUS GENDARME ) – inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 7 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: 5 June 1957, page 723

JAMES STEWART

The Spirit of St Louis Directed by Billy Wilder (1906-2002), The Spirit of St Louis has a screenplay by Wilder and others, which was adapted from Charles Lindbergh’s Pulitzer winning autobiography. The film follows the historic transatlantic flight of Lindbergh (James Stewart) in his Ryan NYP monoplane, from its take off from Roosevelt Field, on 20 May 1927, to Le Bourget Field, Paris, on 21 May. ‘Mr Stewart does an admirable job as Lindebergh himself, and his personality is important, but it is mainly the writing and direction that carry the picture. The fact that we know all will be well at the end, a fact some people suggest fatally weakens the story’s interest, seems to me not to matter at all.’

376 ‘FIRST MAGNITUDE’ ‘ EVA LOVELACE ’- SUSAN STRASBERG [ STAGE STRUCK ] signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen ink and watercolour 7 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: 28 May 1958, page 721

Stage Struck Directed by Sidney Lumet (1924-2011), Stage Struck has a screenplay by Augustus and Ruth Roth based on a play by Zoë Akins. An earlier film version of the play – Morning Glory directed by Lowell Sherman – was released in 1933. Stage Struck is the story of a young woman (Susan Strasberg) intent on making it on Broadway. She is willing to sacrifice everything, including her love for producer, Lewis Easton (Henry Fonda), to achieve her goal. Ultimately she triumphs, stepping in for leading lady, Rita Vernon (Joan Greenwood). ‘“Photographed entirely in New York City,” says a note at the beginning of Stage Struck … and this fact turns out, I think, to be remarkably important. From the moment when we see Eva (Susan Strasburg) wandering fascinated through the streets among the lighted theatres, the feeling of the place, of that particular district, is a most powerful factor in the film’s effect.’

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The Seventh Seal Written and directed by Ingmar Bergman (19182007), The Seventh Seal was released in Sweden on 16 February 1957. It helped establish Bergman as a world-renowned director – winning the Special Jury Prize at the 1957 Cannes Film Festival – and is now considered a classic of world cinema. Set during the Black Death, the film tells the story of a knight (Max von Sydow) and his squire (Gunnar Björnstrand) returning from the Crusades. The knight encounters Death (Bengt Ekerot) and attempts to stay alive by playing him at chess. Its themes explore the possibility of faith in a postHolocaust, nuclear age. ‘I found the Swedish The Seventh Seal … gripping and impressive. Knowing beforehand that the story was about a Knight and his Squire and how they met … various symbolic characters in the course of what (in this context) is nearly always called a Quest, I had hardly expected this …’

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377 THE SEVENTH SEAL ‘ANTONIUS BLOCK ’ – MAX VON SYDOW inscribed with title below mount pen ink and watercolour 11 x 5 inches Illustrated: 19 March 1958, page 396 Literature: Sherriffs at the Cinema, produced by Simon Bond and Nicholas Bromley, limited edition of 1000 copies, 1986


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19 FELIKS TOPOLSKI

Provenance: Dan Topolski and The Estate of Feliks Topolski with the exception of nos 390 and 391

F E L IKS TO P O LS KI Feliks Topolski (1907-1989) The significance of Feliks Topolski is suggested by those projects that were closest to his heart: the regular broadsheet, Topolski’s Chronicle (1953-82), and the sequence of murals, Memoir of the Century (1975-89); for his drawings and paintings comprise a uniquely comprehensive yet impartial record of the age in which he lived. He employed a swift, expressionist style for all of his projects, from illustrations to stage designs. This gave an emotional unity to his oeuvre, and even the smallest of his figures – such as a vignette for his edition of Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion (1941) – seems to speak volumes. Feliks Topolski was born in Warsaw, Poland, on 14 August 1907, the only child of the actormanager, Edward Topolski. From an early age, he witnessed many of the country’s turbulent political events, and depicted them in some of his first drawings, his artistic talent being nurtured by his mother. Educated at Mikołaj Rey School (until 1925), he studied under Tadeus Pruszkowski, first privately and then at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Art (1927-32); particularly significant to his development was the summer school that Pruszkowski ran at Kazimierz. He also served as a cadet at the Artillery Officers’ School, receiving a commission as a second lieutenant in the Artillery Reserve (the influence of his mother’s second marriage to an army officer). While still a student, he began to contribute cartoons to the Cyrulik Warszawski (The Polish Barber), and then gradually to other periodicals. A series of journeys across Europe, to Italy, France and other countries – that began in 1933 – informed both his political awareness and artistic skills. In 1935, Topolski received a commission from Waidomości Literackie (Literary News) to go to Britain to record King George V’s Silver Jubilee. Attracted by what he considered the country’s ‘exoticism’, he settled in London, and associated with a group of writers that included Graham Greene. He contributed illustrations to Night and Day, the short-lived magazine co-edited by Greene, and the newspaper, the News Chronicle. Drawings made for the latter were collected in The London Spectacle (1935) [388 & 389], described in the introduction by D-B Wyndham Lewis as ‘his first series of English impressions’. George Bernard Shaw became a particular admirer of Topolski’s work, calling him ‘perhaps the greatest of all impressionists in black and white’, and asking him to illustrate three of his plays: Geneva, In Good King Charles’s Golden Days (both 1939), and Pygmalion (1941). His Portrait of GBS would be published in 1946. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, in 1939, Topolski remained in London. While nominally serving as an officer in the Polish army, he became official war artist to the Polish government in exile and then also an official war artist for the British. In this latter capacity, he recorded bombed London streets during the Battle of Britain and the Blitz, in May 1941, receiving serious wounds and spending six weeks in hospital. His work resulted in the book, Britain in Peace and War (1941) [391]. In August of the same year, he received a commission from Picture Post to travel to Russia as a member of the first allied Arctic convoy to Russia, arriving in Moscow as the German army advanced towards the city. Russia in War was published in 1942. Further travels took in Egypt and the Levant, and India, Burma and China. In the final year of the war, he accompanied the Polish 2nd Corps in the advance up the Adriatic coast, and other Polish forces in the Low Countries. He was in Bergen-Belsen

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concentration camp two weeks after its liberation in April 1945, and later worked as an official war artist at the Nuremberg Trials. The record of these years appeared as Three Continents 1944-45 (1946) [392]. While becoming a British subject in 1947, Topolski continued to survey and travel the world. In 1948, he attended both the Congress of Europe in The Hague (for Vogue) and the International Congress of Intellectuals for Peace in Wroclaw, Poland, and, as a result, produced Confessions of a Congress Delegate (1949). However, the return to his war-ravaged homeland had proved particularly painful. From 1949 into 1950, he made an extended tour that took in India, Burma, Indochina, Macao, Singapore, Japan and the United States, during which he was often treated like a foreign dignitary, so gaining access to people and places withheld from foreign journalists.

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Topolski’s talents enabled him to develop his drawings into large-scale paintings without any loss of immediacy or passion. This is exemplified by The Cavalcade of the Commonwealth, a commission for the Festival of Britain of 1951, which Topolski based on drawings that he made on his recent tour. Similarly, he returned to the drawings that he made during the Coronation of Elizabeth II, on 2 June 1953, to fulfil a commission from the Duke of Edinburgh, in 1958, to produce a mural that still hangs in Buckingham Palace. During the Festival of Britain, The Cavalcade of the Commonwealth was displayed in an open arch of Hungerford Bridge, on London’s South Bank. Soon after, Topolski moved his studio to an arch of Hungerford Bridge, and there, in 1953, began Topolski’s Chronicle, a fortnightly visual record of events that, printed on rough brown paper, emulated broadsheets of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He considered that he gave ‘to it most of my energies in the following twenty/thirty years’ (Fourteen Letters, London; Faber and Faber, 1988, [unpaginated]). It also provided the raw material for other projects, including portraits and, ultimately, his Memoir of the Century, a panoramic series of murals begun in 1975 and continued until his death, also housed in the arches of Hungerford Bridge. (It is now open to the public, for tours by appointment, as Topolski Century.) As a portraitist, Topolski worked on the title sequences of the pioneering BBC television series, Face to Face (1959-62) [394 & 395], providing likenesses of the 33 iconic interviewees, from Augustus John to Adam Faith. (An accompanying book, with Topolski’s images, was published in 1964.) Among other commissions, he received one from The University of Texas at Austin for – what turned out to be – an astonishing set of 20 portraits of ‘Britain’s Twentieth-Century Literary Greats’ (1961-62) that included E M Forster, Aldous Huxley and Evelyn Waugh [396-398].

However, Topolski worked with such energy and speed that he was still able to travel widely, recording key events and institutions, including Pope Paul VI’s visit to the Holy Land (1964), the start of Mao’s Cultural Revolution in China (1966) [393] and the workings of the United Nations in New York, the Democratic Convention riots in Chicago and a gathering of members of the Black Panther Party in San Francisco (1968). In 1969, the American television network, CBS, commissioned him to visit Moscow to record the May Day Parade, the resulting programme, based on his drawings, being shown in the United States over the Christmas. Further films followed, the last being South American Sketchbook, made with his son Daniel, for BBC television, in 1982. His final book, the idiosyncratic autobiography, Fourteen Letters, appeared in 1988. Honours included the Gold Medal of the International Fine Arts Council (1955), a honorary doctorate from the Jagiellonian University of Cracow (1974) and election as a Royal Academician (1989). Painting until a few days before his death, he died in St Thomas’s Hospital, London, on 24 August 1989. He had a son and a daughter by his first marriage, including Daniel, who became well known as the successful coach of the Oxford University boat crews. His work is represented in the collections of the British Museum, the Imperial War Museum, the National Portrait Gallery, Tate, Topolski Century and the V&A; the Museum Narodwe w Warszawie; and the Harry Ransom Research Center (University of Texas at Austin). Further reading: Joseph Darracott (rev), ‘Topolski, Feliks (1907-1989)’, H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford History of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, vol 55, pages 41-42


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378 THE STREET CORNER pen and ink 5 x 6 3⁄4 inches

379 TOP HATS pen and ink with watercolour 5 1⁄4 x 7 inches

380 ‘JOHN TILLER GIRLS’ – WAITING THEIR CUE inscribed with title below mount pen ink and watercolour 5 1⁄2 x 7 inches

381 CORONATION STANDS inscribed with title pen and ink 5 x 7 inches

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382 THE JOURNEY pen and ink with watercolour 6 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄4 inches

383 A BARRISTER – W E HOLLOWAY inscribed with title pen and ink 6 x 5 inches

278 384 MILITARY FIGURE MOUNTING A HORSE pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 9 x 7 inches

385 SCORCHER AND ROAD HOG pen ink and watercolour 8 1⁄4 x 7 inches


19: FELIKS TOPOLS KI

386 MAGPIE HOTEL signed and inscribed with title pen and ink on tinted paper 12 1⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Feliks Topolski, Britain in Peace and War, London: Methuen & Co, 1941, page 36, ‘Goodwood and other Entertainments’

387 READING THE NEWSPAPER pen and ink 4 1⁄4 x 5 1⁄2 inches 389 THE DERBY, NATURE IN THE ROAR inscribed ‘Derby in Epsom’ on reverse pen ink and watercolour 4 1⁄2 x 7 inches Illustrated: Feliks Topolski, The London Spectacle, London: The Bodley Head, 1935, [unpaginated]

The London Spectacle

388 MUSICIANS inscribed ‘zebracy’ on reverse (zebracy is Polish for ‘beggars’) pen and ink 4 x 7 inches Illustrated: Feliks Topolski, The London Spectacle, London: The Bodley Head, 1935, [unpaginated]

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390 MANSION HOUSE signed and inscribed with title pen ink and monochrome watercolour 16 1⁄2 x 20 3⁄4 inches


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391 DERBY pen ink and watercolour 12 1⁄2 x 15 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Feliks Topolski, Britain in Peace and War, London: Methuen & Co, 1941


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392 EGYPT signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 13 x 15 inches Illustrated: Feliks Topolski, Three Continents 1944-45, London: Hutchinson, 1946, page 36, ‘Lower Egypt’

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393 OPEN PRISON IN PEKING: PRISONERS READ MAO-TSETUNG’S WORKS IN THEIR UNLOCKED CELL BETWEEN WORKING SHIFTS inscribed with title pencil with ink 12 x 17 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Feliks Topolski, Holy China, London: Hutchinson, 1968, pages 46 & 47

Open Prison in Peking ‘Bricky bluntness made gay with first-of-May emblematory red stars in cardboard. “Remould yourselves and go in the correct direction, then you will have a bright future” – red and black proposal over the octagonal hall; iron gates symbolically wide-open into corridors of cells, also open. Slogans in the living quarters, the playgrounds and work-shops (making socks) say: “Understand the revolutionary situation and then try harder to remould yourself ideologically.” The work-benches carry more matter-of-fact advice: “Don’t waste things.” There are no uniforms and the unarmed guards act as foremen. Off their shift, the prisoners have a “reading Mao” session; on our entry to their cell one of the prisoners, caught napping, snatches THE book.’ (Feliks Topolski, Holy China, London: Hutchinson, 1968, [unpaginated])


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394 ADAM FAITH signed and inscribed with title pencil with pen and ink, 19 x 13 inches

Face to Face

395 AUGUSTUS JOHN signed inscribed with title on reverse pencil and watercolour, 19 1⁄2 x 13 3⁄4 inches

Augustus John ‘in the late thirties this fable went about, smuggled out of a secret Tate Gallery meeting: somebody opposed the purchase of my three mere wash drawings with : “We must draw the line somewhere”, to which Augustus retorted: “But can you draw the line like Topolski?” and got the picture in. Later he charmingly cultivated me, brought the spectacular Marchesa Casati to my studio, and insisted that, in Sir John Squire’s Festschrift, I should picture him on the page meant for his own contribution. I drew and painted him plentifully and hung about with his coterie at the Antelope pub. It was warming to have Barbara (close friend of his daughter) tell how in a taxi this shaggy/bearded hulk threw himself at her – not really an act of rape, but an obligatory comme-il-fautism. “How did it feel?” “Like an immense warm teddy-bear, easily put back on his seat.” Much later, he had to be reached at his country house, sedate – Dorelia hostessing and some girls-in-waiting in a neighbouring cottage, the studio-annexe housing the never-to-be-completed monumental canvas pronouncing idyllic optimism.’ (Feliks Topolski, Fourteen Letters, London; Faber and Faber, 1988, [unpaginated])


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Britain’s Twentieth-Century Literary Greats

Evelyn Waugh ‘his reputedly undiversified rudeness did not materialize. On the contrary, he invited me alone to lunch before the sitting at his Wiltshire home but, bound in my loyalty to Hugh Burnett [the producer of Face to Face] and belaboured by him with Waugh’s shock-treatment on his previous visit, I declined, explaining a fraction tactlessly that I would come in the afternoon with Hugh. In spite of this I was received genially, apparently privileged by our pre-war camaraderie on Night and Day. And in an equally genial mood, we met again in London. In consequence no razor-sharp incidents spice in my memory; only helpfulness: doffing his bowler-hat on-off for my drawing – the result, two largish paintings into which his sanguinariness possibly seeped with a lot of red-in-theface.’ (Feliks Topolski, Fourteen Letters, London; Faber and Faber, 1988, [unpaginated])

397 EVELYN WAUGH (below) pencil with coloured ink 14 x 18 inches Preliminary study for the painting in the series ‘Britain’s Twentieth-Century Literary Greats’, commissioned by the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas, 1961

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396 ALDOUS HUXLEY (above) pencil 14 x 9 3⁄4 inches Preliminary study for the painting in the series ‘Britain’s Twentieth-Century Literary Greats’, commissioned by the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas, 1961 Aldous Huxley ‘He died not long after. And soon, at some gathering, Lady Huxley, the wife of Julian his brother, rushed at me distressed and almost accusing: that ill-informing black-andwhite photograph of my painting of him sent routinely by Texas University had shaken him terribly, and – she insisted – had contributed to his demise. I could see that this uniquely imaginative mind- (not eye-) stretching man, knowing himself to be exceptionally endowed physically, might have reacted violently to my way of reflecting his purified-by-age beauty – a blow to his habit-settled self-view.’ (Feliks Topolski, Fourteen Letters, London: Faber and Faber, 1988, [unpaginated])


19: FELIKS TOPOLS KI

398 E M FORSTER inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink 6 x 5 inches E M Forster ‘never met but sketched at his prelection, without him knowing it, at the Aldeburgh Festival.’ (Feliks Topolski, Fourteen Letters, London: Faber and Faber, 1988, [unpaginated])

399 PHILIP LARKIN (above centre) inscribed ‘Beale and Inman. If no reply – kindly leave the parcel at no 13’ on reverse pen and ink on tinted paper 7 x 4 1⁄2 inches feint pen and ink sketch of a head on reverse Literature: The Times Literary Supplement, 3 April 2009, front cover, ‘How Larkin rewrote my interview’ by John Shakespeare

285 400 HAROLD PINTER inscribed with title pencil 16 1⁄2 x 12 inches

401 KINGSLEY AMIS signed and dated 85 inscribed with title on reverse pen and ink 17 x 11 1⁄2 inches


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20 RONALD SEARLE

RO NA L D S E A RL E Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE (born 1920) Equally inspired by a wide range of experience and a great knowledge of the history of caricature, Ronald Searle has honed an incisive graphic skill to develop an unparalleled graphic oeuvre, an oeuvre that has made him the most popular and influential living cartoonist-illustrator. For a biography of Ronald Searle, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, pages 355-36; for essays on various aspects of the artist’s achievement, see The Illustrators, 1999, pages 228-230; and The Illustrators, 2000, pages 40-42. Key works illustrated: Contributed to Punch (from 1946); Hurrah for St Trinian’s (1948); Geoffrey Willans, Down with Skool! (1953) His work is represented in numerous public collections, including the British Museum and the V&A; and the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris). Further reading: Russell Davies, Ronald Searle, London: Sinclair Stevenson, 1990 For a further work by Ronald Searle please refer to page 256.

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402 DEBAGGING OLD FLANNEL PANTS signed, inscribed with title and ‘The Terror of St Trinian’s’ and dated 1952 pen and ink 6 1⁄2 x 9 inches Illustrated: Timothy Shy and Ronald Searle, The Terror of St Trinian’s, London: Max Parrish, 1952, page 29; Kaye Webb (compiler), The St Trinian’s Story, London: Perpetua, 1959, page 28 (excluding the right-hand girl)


20: RONALD SEARLE

The Belles of St Trinian’s The Belles of St Trinian’s (1954) was the first in a series of four films inspired by Ronald Searle’s characters, and written, directed and produced by Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliatt. It starred Alistair Sim, as both the Headmistress, Millicent Fritton, and her brother, Clarence; Joyce Grenfell as Police Sergeant Ruby Gates; and George Cole as the spiv, Flash Harry. Cole would appear in all four films.

403 THE BELLES OF ST TRINIAN’S signed, inscribed ‘Rough design for the poster of the first St Trinian’s film’ and dated 1954 pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour and collage 10 1⁄2 x 13 inches Preliminary design for a poster for The Belles of St Trinian’s, the first St Trinian’s film

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404 ST TRINIAN’S: ASHTRAY DESIGN FOR NYMOLLE CERAMICS COPENHAGEN signed and signed with initials, inscribed with title, and dated ‘c 1955’ pen ink and watercolour 10 x 9 1⁄2 inches


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Suspect – The Late Edwina Black The classic thriller, The Late Edwina Black, was written by William Dinner and William Morum, and first produced at the Ambassadors Theatre, London in 1949. Set in 1895, the drama concerns a murderess who, out of vindictiveness, devises suicide to incriminate others and destroy them.

405 SUSPECT – THE LATE EDWINA BLACK GREGORY BLACK ... MR STEPHEN MURRAY. HENRY MARTIN ... MR HUNTLEY. ELIZABETH GRAHAM ... MISS CATHERINE LACEY signed inscribed with title and subtitle below mount pen and ink 8 3⁄4 x 9 3⁄4 inches Provenance: Sir Peter Daubeney Illustrated: Punch, 20 July 1949, page 79 Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010

RAYMOND

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Tamburlaine the Great Searle’s caricature marks a groundbreaking production of Christopher Marlowe’s Tamburlaine the Great (1587-88): the first production in a professional theatre since the seventeenth century. Tyrone Guthrie directed the Old Vic company in an abridgement of the two parts as a single play, with Donald Wolfit as Tamburlaine, Jill Balcon as Zenocrate and Leo McKern as Bajazeth. A review in The Times stated that ‘It is a vibrant figure of pure theatrical flamboyance that Mr Donald Wolfit plays Tamburlaine … It is at rough grandeur that he aims, giving the base-born conqueror a street-arab delight in cruelty and in all the dazzling appurtenances of power’ (26 September 1951). 406 DEVIL’S DISCIPLE ZENOCRATE ... MISS JILL BALCON . TAMBURLAINE ... MR DONALD [ TAMBURLAINE THE GREAT ] signed inscribed with title, subtitle and ‘Punch Theatre’ below mount dated 1951 on reverse pen and ink 10 x 12 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 10 October 1951, page 416

WOLFIT


20: RONALD SEARLE

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408 THE EXILE signed and inscribed with title dated 1958 on reverse pen and ink 15 1⁄2 x 12 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 8 January 1958, page 100, ‘The New Mayhew – The Exile’; Alex Atkinson & Ronald Searle, The Big City or The New Mayhew, London: Perpetua Books, 1958, page 57

407 AN OLD FAVOURITE ... PRIVATE VIEW AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY signed and dated 1954 inscribed ‘Punch. Merry England Etc. Perpetua Books: London 1956, pp 84/85’ and dated 1954 on reverse pen ink and watercolour 19 1⁄2 x 14 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Punch, 5 May 1954, page 545; Ronald Searle, Merry England, Etc, London: Perpetua Books, 1956, pages 84-85

The Exile ‘It is inevitable that many of the more unfortunate inhabitants of this great capital city should eke out their lives without attracting any but the most superficial attention from the millions that surround them; and this is especially true of those men and women of foreign birth who have sought refuge here from political or racial discrimination and oppression. For these exiles, as they are called, are not normally inclined to advertise their presence among us; being for the most part content (if, indeed, they can in such circumstances ever be accounted content) to exist quietly from day to day in some unfashionable backwater, consoled in the knowledge that footsteps upon the landing are unlikely to herald either torture or incarceration.’ (The Big City, page 55)


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Colin Wilson Colin Wilson (born 1931) is a novelist and existentialist philosopher, who made his name with The Outsider (1956), ‘the seminal work on alienation, creativity and the modern mind-set’ (according to the information on its original dust jacket).

409 IMAGINARY PORTRAITS: COLIN WILSON signed and inscribed with title inscribed ‘Punch’ and dated ‘6 Dec 1961’ on reverse pen ink and monochrome watercolour 13 1⁄2 x 15 inches Illustrated: Punch, 6 December 1961, page 842

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410 SEARLE’S-EYE VIEW NO 29: ALFRED HITCHCOCK signed, inscribed ‘Imaginary Portraits 29 Alfred Hitchcock’ and dated 1962 pen ink and monochrome watercolour 15 1⁄2 x 13 inches Illustrated: Punch, 6 June 1962, page 882 Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010 ‘Searle’s-Eye View’ was a series drawn for Punch in 1962 continuing the artist’s imaginary portraits of famous figures.


20: RONALD SEARLE

Blue Magic Shirley Bassey and Tommy Cooper appeared together in Blue Magic, a revue at the Prince of Wales theatre, which opened on 19 February 1959. It was adapted from Folies Bergère, a Blackpool summer spectacular.

411 BLUE MAGIC TOMMY COOPER & SHIRLEY BASSEY signed, inscribed with title and ‘Punch Theatre (Prince Of Wales)’ and dated ‘25 Feb 1959’ pen and ink 15 3⁄4 x 16 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Punch, 25 February 1959, page 300, ‘Revue Reviewed’

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412 SO HERE IS CEDRIC, KNOWN ALREADY TO THE DISCERNING FEW FOR HIS SENSITIVE POEMS inscribed ‘Circus’, ‘Dylan Thomas’ and ‘Article 3’ below mount artist’s stamp on reverse pen and ink 4 3⁄4 x 10 inches Illustrated: Circus. The Pocket Review of Our Time, 1 April 1950, page 12, ‘How to be a Poet’ by Dylan Thomas Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010


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413 A BIG CIGAR signed, inscribed ‘For John Taylor with best wishes’ and dated ’Feb 1952’ pen and ink, 5 x 5 inches Provenance: from the Autograph Book of John F Taylor

414 MR ROTHMAN’S GUIDE TO LONDONERS OF THE NINETIES THE ADVANCED YOUNG WOMAN

signed and inscribed with title and subtitle pen ink and watercolour 15 x 12 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Mr Rothman’s New Guide to London, London: Rothman’s of Pall Mall, 1958, page 26

415 THE PRIVATE WING GRAB signed, inscribed with title, ‘Additional reference – a warning to Julia. Uch’ and dated ‘Nov 1956’ pen and ink drawn on the endpapers of Nina Farewell, The Unfair Sex. An Expose of the Human Male for Young Women of most Ages, London: Frederick Muller, 1953 7 x 9 1⁄4 inches


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416 THE FOOTBALL TEAM PLAYED 8. WON 0. DRAWN 0. LOST 8 signed pen and ink 11 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Ronald Searle and Geoffrey Willams, Down With Skool, London: Max Parrish, 1953, page 82 Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010


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417 WELCOME BACK MOLESWORTH! inscribed with title inscribed ‘Young Elizabethan October cover’ below mount artist’s stamp on reverse pen ink, watercolour and bodycolour 15 x 13 inches Illustrated: Young Elizabethan, October 1956, front cover Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010


20: RONALD SEARLE

295 418 CAPRICORN signed and dated 1977 inscribed ‘Zoodiac. Capricorn’ below mount inscribed ‘Searle’s Zoodiac Dobson Books: London’ and dated 1977 on reverse pen ink and watercolour 18 1⁄2 x 24 inches Illustrated: Ronald Searle, Searle’s Zoodiac, London: Dobson Books, 1977, [unpaginated]

419 COPING WITH PERSONNEL PROBLEMS signed and dated 1981 inscribed with title below mount inscribed ‘Personnel Problems. Lloyd Bank Brochure’ and dated 81 on reverse pen and ink with watercolour 10 1⁄2 x 10 1⁄2 inches

420 UGH! signed, inscribed with title and dated 2002 inscribed with title and ‘New Yorker cover rough’, and dated 2002 on reverse pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 1⁄2 x 7 3⁄4 inches Unpublished design for New Yorker, 2002, front cover


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421 SUPERMARKET CULTURE signed with initials inscribed with publication details and stamped with agent John Locke’s studio address on reverse pen ink and watercolour, 11 x 9 inches Illustrated: TV Guide, USA, ‘The Saga of Culture’ Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010 422 THE MECHANIC inscribed with publication details and stamped with agent John Locke’s studio address on reverse pen ink and watercolour 12 x 9 inches Illustrated: TV Guide, USA, ‘Male Soap-Opera Buffs’ Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010

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423 SAVED signed with initials stamped with agent John Locke’s studio address on reverse pen and ink 12 x 9 1⁄4 inches Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010 424 NOVICE stamped with agent John Locke’s studio address on reverse pen and ink 11 1⁄2 x 7 3⁄4 inches Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010


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425 NAG NAG stamped with agent John Locke’s studio address on reverse pen and ink 12 x 9 inches Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010

426 YEAH IT NEEDS ONE OF THOSE THINGS THAT GETS STONES OUT OF HORSES’ HOOVES signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 14 3⁄4 x 12 1⁄2 inches Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010

427 HOOPLA! signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 10 1⁄4 x 15 1⁄4 inches Exhibited: ‘Happy Birthday Ronald Searle!’, March-April 2010


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21 NORMAN THELWELL

NO RM A N T HE LWE L L Norman Thelwell (1923-2004) Norman Thelwell is arguably the most popular cartoonist to have worked in Britain since the Second World War. Though almost synonymous with his immortal subject of little girls and their fat ponies, his work is far more wide ranging, perceptive – and indeed prescient – than that association suggests. For a biography of Norman Thelwell, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 25. Having mounted major exhibitions of the work of Thelwell in 1989 and 1991, Chris Beetles encouraged further interest in the artist in 2009 with ‘The Definitive Thelwell’ and its accompanying catalogue. The 100 page, colour catalogue surveys all aspects of his career, through 177 illustrations, an appreciation, a biographical chronology and a full bibliography. For a further work by Norman Thelwell please refer to page 256.

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428 CORONATION FETE signed pen and ink 8 1⁄4 x 11 1⁄2 inches

429 DON’T FORGET TO SEND A FEW HOLIDAY POSTCARDS THEY ARE NO TROUBLE TO WRITE. ... AND WILL GIVE ENDLESS PLEASURE TO YOUR FRIENDS (opposite) inscribed with title pen and ink 14 1⁄2 x 5 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 5 July 1964


21: NORMAN THELWELL

430 GREAT HOSTESSES – NO 38 LADY MACBETH signed with initial ‘t’ pen ink and monochrome watercolour 5 3⁄4 x 7 inches Illustrated: Punch Almanack for 1962, page 16, ‘The Party-Giver’

431 ‘THERE YOU ARE – NOW BEAT IT!’ signed and inscribed with title pen and ink 7 x 9 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 22 November 1964

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432 LOOKS LIKE ANOTHER ONE FOR INTERPOL signed and inscribed with title pen ink and monochrome watercolour 6 3⁄4 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 21 February 1965

433 ‘REMEMBER THE FUSS YOU KICKED UP WHEN I HUNG A PICTURE OF MY MOTHER IN THE LOUNGE’ signed inscribed with title below mount pen and ink, 6 1⁄2 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 18 April 1965

434 ‘WOULD YOU MIND UNSTOPPING THE SINK WHILST YOU ARE DOWN THERE?’ signed and inscribed with title pen and ink 7 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 20 June 1965

435 ‘THIS IS A MIRACLE OF MODERN SCIENCE. IT PUTS IN TURKEY FLAVOUR’ signed and inscribed with title pen and ink 7 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 5 December 1965


21: NORMAN THELWELL

436 BETTER PAY FOR DOCTORS signed pen and ink 6 x 9 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 12 December 1965

437 ‘LET’S SEE THE JONESES KEEP UP WITH THAT’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and monochrome watercolour 7 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 19 December 1965

438 ‘IT WAS A LOUSY FILM ANYWAY’ signed and inscribed with title pen and ink 7 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 29 May 1966

439 ‘TIMBER!’ signed and inscribed with title pen and ink 6 1⁄2 x 10 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express, 2 January 1966

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440 BEGINNER’S LUCK signed inscribed with title below mount pen ink and watercolour 12 x 17 1⁄2 inches Probably a design for a greetings card


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441 THE CAROL SINGERS signed watercolour with pen and ink 11 x 16 inches Design for a Royle’s Christmas Card Exhibited: ‘The Definitive Thelwell’, March 1989, no 111


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442 HOW TO KEEP YOUR HEAD IN A CRISIS pen and ink 4 1⁄2 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Norman Thelwell, Thelwell’s Riding Academy, London: Methuen, 1965


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22 CONTEMPORARY ILLUSTRATORS LEONARD ROSOMAN (born 1913) QUENTIN BLAKE (born 1932) MICHAEL FOREMAN (born 1938)

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ALAN ALDRIDGE (born 1943) PETER CROSS (born 1951) EMMA CHICHESTER CLARK (born 1955) ATHOLL MCDONALD (born 1961) OLIVER JEFFERS (born 1977)

L EO NA RD RO S O M A N Leonard Rosoman, OBE RA RWA (born 1913) ‘As an artist and a teacher, Leonard Rosoman was greatly influential. He showed the dramatic possibilities of white space and areas of intense shadow in drawing. Rosoman accomplished the difficult feat of being both a truly great black and white illustrator working in the commercial sphere, and a distinguished fine artist … He is a wonderful colourist, consolidating his abilities as a draughtsman with a highly sophisticated use of the medium of paint. Scale, too, is never a problem, whether Rosoman is creating a tiny vignette for Radio Times or a vast mural for the Royal Academy, the space is designed and tensioned as exquisitely as in any Japanese image.’ (Martin Baker, Artists of Radio Times, Oxford: Ashmolean Museum/London: Chris Beetles Ltd Limited, 2002, page 35) Leonard Rosoman was born in Hampstead, London, on 27 October 1913, and was educated at Deacons School, Peterborough. He studied under E M O’R Dickey at the King Edward VII School of Art, Armstrong College, Newcastle Upon Tyne (part of Durham University) (1930-34), the Royal Academy Schools (1935-36), and under Bernard Meninsky at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (1937-38). As a student he was much influenced by Gauguin, Paul Nash and Edward Burra. Before the Second World War, he illustrated his first book, Haldane’s My Friend Mr Leakey (1937), and taught life drawing and perspective at the Reimann School, Westminster (1937-39). During the war, he served in the Auxiliary Fire Service in London, and in 1943 was appointed an Official War Artist to the Admiralty, working with the British Pacific Fleet. His work from this period was exhibited much later, in 1989, in ‘A War Retrospective’ mounted by the Imperial War Museum. Since the war, Rosoman has developed as a distinctive painter, illustrator and designer, characterised by an unusual, even ambiguous use of space, and often highly artificial colour. He was invited by his friend, John Minton, to teach illustration at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts (1947-48), and went on to teach mural painting at Edinburgh School of Art (1948-56). While there he made his first drawings for Radio Times and produced his first significant mural, for the Festival of Britain (both 1951). In 1956, he became a Tutor in the Painting School of the Royal College of Art, and three years later began to exhibit at the Royal Academy. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1960, and a full academician a decade later. His work as a book illustrator includes contributions to The Oxford Illustrated Old Testament (1968-69) and a number of commissions from the Folio Society, including Brave New World (1971), as represented here. Important decorative commissions include that for Lambeth Palace Chapel (1988). He was awarded an OBE in 1981. Rosoman lives in London and is represented by the Fine Art Society.


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443-450 are all illustrated in Aldous Huxley, Brave New World, London: The Folio Society, 1971

443 THE CHILDREN STARTED, SCREAMED: THEIR FACES WERE DISTORTED WITH TERROR pen ink and pencil 9 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 20

444 A BLAST OF WARM AIR DUSTED LENINA WITH THE FINEST TALCUM POWDER pen ink and pencil 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 31

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445 AS THEY FLEW OVER THE CREMATORIUM THE PLANE SHOT UPWARDS ON THE COLUMN OF HOT AIR pen ink and pencil 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 57

446 LENINA WAS APPALLED BY THE BLACK FOAM-FLECKED WATER HEAVING BENEATH THEM pen ink and pencil 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 68


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447 THE WHIP CAME DOWN AGAIN, AND AGAIN LINDA SCREAMED pen ink and pencil 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 91

448 SUNK IN THEIR PNEUMATIC STALLS, LENINA AND THE SAVAGE SNIFFED AND LISTENED pen ink and pencil 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 117

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449 LINDA LOOKED ON, VAGUELY AND UNCOMPREHENDINGLY SMILING pen ink and pencil 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 139

450 THE KNOTTED CORDS BIT INTO THE SAVAGE’S FLESH pen ink and pencil 10 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 171


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Q UEN TI N B L A K E Quentin Saxby Blake, CBE (born 1932) Quentin Blake is the most popular of contemporary illustrators, with an instantly recognisable line and a back catalogue that includes some of the great children’s books of the last 50 years. For an extensive chronology of Quentin Blake, including exhibitions at Chris Beetles Gallery, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, pages 383-385. Key works written: Words and Pictures (2000); Laureate’s Progress (2002) Key works written and illustrated: Mr Magnolia (1980); Clown (1995) Key works illustrated: Michael Rosen, Mind Your Own Business (1974); Russell Hoban, How Tom Beat Captain Najork and His Hired Sportsman (1974); Roald Dahl, The Giraffe and the Pelly and Me (1985) His work is represented in the collections of the V&A.

Recent publications from Quentin Blake include John Yeoman, Quentin Blake’s Amazing Animal Stories, London: Pavilion Children’s Books; Michael Rosen, Bananas in My Ears: A Collection of Poems, London: Walker Books; and Voltaire, Candide, London: Folio Society (a signed and numbered limited edition, which has already sold out). Recent decorative projects include a mural for the Unicorn Theatre; a series of prints for the Vincent Square Eating Disorder Clinic; and decorations for the maternity hospital for the Centre Hopitalier Universitaire d’Angers. He also mounted the exhibition, ‘Quentin Blake et Les Ages de la Vie’, from January to March 2011, at the Médiathèque Toussaint, Bibliothèque municipale d’Angers.

Further reading: Douglas Martin, The Telling Line, London: Julia MacRae Books, 1989, pages 243-263

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451-458 are all similar to Voltaire (tr Tobias Smollett), Candide, London: The Folio Society, 2011 451 CANDIDE NEGOTIATED WITH THE SKIPPER signed with initials pen and ink 4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Drawn for but not illustrated

452 CANDIDE AND DR PANGLOSS CULTIVATE THEIR GARDEN signed pen ink and watercolour 10 x 6 inches Drawn for but not illustrated


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453 TWO MONKEYS FOLLOWED CLOSE AT THEIR HEELS BITING AT THEIR LIMBS signed and dated 2011 pen ink and watercolour 9 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 95 454 CANDIDE RAN THE INQUISITOR THROUGH THE BODY signed and dated 2011 pen ink and watercolour 9 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 61

455 CUNEGUND AND HER PARENTS signed pen and ink 5 x 6 1â „2 inches Illustrated: page 20


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456 THE OLD MAN OF EL DORADO RECEIVED THE STRANGERS ON HIS SOFA signed and dated 2011 pen ink and watercolour 10 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 109

457 CANDIDE FELT MORE JOY AT THE RECOVERY OF THIS ONE ANIMAL THAN HE DID WHEN HE LOST THE OTHER HUNDRED signed and dated 2011 pen ink and watercolour 9 1⁄2 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 133

458 CANDIDE DRINKING A TOAST WITH BULGARIAN RECRUITING OFFICERS signed with initials pen and ink 3 x 7 inches Illustrated: page 27


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459-464 were all drawn for a mural for the Unicorn Theatre, London, 2011 459 HIS COLOURFUL PANTALOONS signed pen ink and watercolour 9 x 8 inches

460 THE BRIGHTLYCOLOURED CAKE signed pen ink and watercolour 9 x 6 1â „2 inches

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461 A CELEBRATION ON STILTS signed pen ink and watercolour 10 x 7 inches


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462 OPERATIC GYMNASTICS signed pen ink and watercolour 10 x 6 inches

464 THE CARNIVAL HAT signed pen ink and watercolour 10 x 6 inches

463 THE AZTEC MASK signed pen ink and watercolour 10 x 6 inches


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MIC HAEL FO RE M A N Michael Foreman, RDI (born 1938) While Michael Foreman is perhaps best known as one of the most outstanding contemporary creators of children’s books, he is a wide-ranging artist, illustrating literary classics and working as a painter.

For a biography of Michael Foreman, and a preliminary checklist of his illustrated books, please refer to The Illustrators, 2008, pages 127-133. Further reading: ‘Michael Foreman’, in Douglas Martin, The Telling Line, London: Julia MacRae Books, 1989, pages 291-311

Recent publications from Michael Foreman include Terry Jones, The Fantastic World of Terry Jones: Animal Tales, London: Pavilion Children’s Books (shortlisted for the Roald Dahl Funny Prize); Michael Morpurgo, Little Manfred, London: Harper Collins Children’s Books; and Philip Moran, Soggy and the Smugglers’ Cat, London: Andersen Press; and two books by Michael himself, both published in London by Andersen Press: Superfrog! and Oh! If only …

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Future publications include three with his own texts: Blue, London: Walker Books; and two from Andersen Press: Origami Girl and Friends. His work is the subject of the exhibition ‘War Horse: Fact & Fiction’ at the Army Museum, until August 2012; and he is also planning an exhibition at Seven Stories, Newcastle Upon Tyne.

465-478 are all illustrated in Terry Jones, The Fantastic World of Terry Jones: Animal Tales, London: Pavilion Children’s Books, 2011

465 THERE WAS ONCE A FOX CALLED FERNANDO, WHO WOULD GO OUT OF A NIGHT AND STEAL CHICKENS signed and inscribed ‘The Great Fernando the Fox’ and dated 2011 watercolour, chalk and pencil with bodycolour 11 3⁄4 x 9 inches Illustrated: front cover and page 12, ‘The Chicken Circus’


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466 THE MONGOLIAN DEEP-FRIED BAT signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour with pencil 5 1⁄2 x 7 inches Illustrated: title verso

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467 THERE WAS ONCE A HIGHLY QUALIFIED DOG, WHO ALSO HAD A GREAT BEDSIDE MANNER signed, inscribed ‘Doctor Dog to the rescue’ and dated 2011 watercolour and pencil 7 1⁄2 x 9 inches Illustrated: page 9, ‘The Good Doctor’

468 A LONG TIME AGO, THE FIERCEST AND MOST POWERFUL SNAIL IN ALL THE WORLD LIVED IN WHAT IS NOW SURBITON signed, inscribed with story title and dated 2011 inscribed with story title below mount pen ink, watercolour and chalk with pencil 10 1⁄4 x 7 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 36, ‘The Golden Snail of Surbiton’


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469 SHE WAS THE SIZE OF A BLUE WHALE! signed, inscribed ‘The Golden Snail of Surbiton and The Queen of the Robber Ants’ and dated 2011 watercolour and pencil with chalk 11 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 40, ‘The Golden Snail of Surbiton’

470 ‘THERE THEY GO!’ SHOUTED OLD BADGER OVER THE RADIO. ‘WELL PLAYED, YOU YOUNG BADGERS!’ signed, inscribed ‘Old Badger of RAF Badger Squadron’ and dated 2011 watercolour and chalk with pen ink, bodycolour and pencil 12 3⁄4 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 52, The Flying Badger’


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471 SIR REGINALD ELEPHANT WAS A VERY RESPECTABLE ANIMAL, BUT IT GRIEVED HIM THAT HE HAD NO TROUSERS signed, inscribed with story title and dated 2011 watercolour, chalk and pencil 10 1⁄2 x 7 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 56, ‘The Elephant Who Had No Trousers’

472 ONE DAY A VAST CROWD OF HERRINGS GATHERED AROUND THE WHALE signed, inscribed ‘The Whale and the Herrings’ and dated 2011 watercolour with pencil and bodycolour 12 x 8 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 89, ‘The Immortal Jellyfish’


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473 THE FAKE ELK inscribed with story title and dated 2011 pen ink and watercolour with chalk 7 1⁄2 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 55, ‘Wonders of the Animal Kingdom, the Fake Elk’

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474 THE BOTTOM-FEEDING WARTHOG signed and inscribed with story title pen ink and watercolour with chalk 4 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 118, ‘Wonders of the Animal Kingdom, The Bottom-Feeding Warthog’

475 THE MAHATMA STAGE ANT signed, inscribed with story tile and dated 2011 pen ink and watercolour with chalk and pencil 8 1⁄2 x 6 inches Illustrated: page 111, ‘Wonders of the Animal Kingdom, the Mahatma Stage Ant’


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476 ‘WHAT’S YOUR NAME?’ CALLED THE WIND. ‘SEA-BIRD!’ SHOUTED THE PENGUIN signed, inscribed with title and dated 2011 watercolour with pencil and bodycolour 11 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 109, ‘The Penguin without a name’ 477 ‘OPEN WIDE, PLEASE!’ signed and inscribed with title watercolour and chalk with pencil 5 x 5 inches Illustrated: page 120 478 ‘OPEN WIDE’ signed and inscribed with title watercolour and chalk with pencil 5 x 5 inches Illustrated: page 120


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A LAN ALDRID G E Alan Aldridge (born 1943) During the late 1960s and early 70s, Alan Aldridge led the Pop movement in British illustration and, as a result, became known as the era’s ‘graphic entertainer and magician’. His highly individual brand of psychedelic fantasy – often suggestive of a hallucinogenic drug trip – graced album covers for The Beatles and Elton John and advertised such iconic brands as the Hard Rock Cafe. It also transformed the look of children’s books, especially through its use in The Butterfly Ball and The Grasshopper’s Feast (1973).

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Alan Aldridge was born in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, and grew up in Romford, Essex, attending Romford Technical College until his early teens. He then took a series of highly varied jobs: unloading cargo boats at Banana Wharf, working as an insurance clerk, plucking chickens for a Halal butcher, painting scenery at the Old Vic, selling from a barrow at Stratford Market, acting in a repertory company, and finally washing up in the kitchen of a lowly Paris restaurant. When he was fired from the restaurant, he tried to make ends meet by making drawings in exchange for drinks. However, on returning to London, he showed his work to art dealers, only to be told that it was ‘terrible’. A job as a junior finished artist at Charlotte Studios proved short lived. In 1963, while working in a coffee bar, Aldridge took an eight-week evening ‘Graphic Workshop’, run by Bob Gill and others, at an agency in Conduit Street – though he was later critical of the teaching. Apart from that, he was self-taught, and learned on the job as he established himself as a freelance designer and illustrator, with drawings appearing in such magazines as Nova and The Sunday Times. Following his work on some book covers for Penguin, Aldridge was appointed Art Director of Penguin Books in March 1965. During his time with the company, he designed many covers, and especially for the crime and science fiction series. However, the board considered his style to be too experimental, so that, in 1968, he left, developing a working relationship with The Beatles, and its company, Apple Corps Ltd, and setting up his own studio, called INK. Among his projects for the Fab Four, he provided the cover and many of the most memorable contributions to The Beatles’ Illustrated Lyrics (1969). Other collaborations proved equally seminal, including a controversial poster for Andy Warhol’s film, The Chelsea Girls (1970).

In the early 1970s, Aldridge moved to a rectory in Norfolk and turned to children’s books. He began with the groundbreaking volume, The Butterfly Ball and The Grasshopper’s Feast (1973), based on a Regency poem by William Roscoe, with new verses added by William Plomer. In a recent interview, Aldridge has stated that ‘Butterfly Ball breaks the mould. In terms of the colour, the shape and roundness of the creatures, the care and love put into producing it – it’s very unusual’ (Computer Arts, 10 October 2008). Becoming the best-selling children’s book at the time, it won the Whitbread Children’s Book Award, and spawned two sequels: The Peacock Party, with verses by George E Ryder (1979) and The Lion’s Cavalcade, with verses by Ted Walker (1980). The artwork for the first book was included in an exhibition of his illustrations at the ICA in 1974. In 1974, Elton John asked Aldridge to design the cover of his ninth studio album, Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy. As a result of its phenomenal success – going platinum on its release on 17 May 1975 – Aldridge proposed developing the album’s concept into a film starring Elton John himself. And, when a studio gave the project the go ahead, he moved to Beverly Hills, where he spent 18 months at the newly founded Captain Fantastic Enterprises. However, the film was scuppered when Elton John admitted his bisexuality in the American press. Since 1980, Aldridge has lived in Los Angeles, initially working for CBS on ideas for animated films, and then on a wide range of projects, many of which have yet to see completion. However, in a recent interview, he said optimistically that, ‘Right now, I’ve got more work on and I’m more financially endowed than in the 60s’ (New York Times, 17 September 2006). In 2008, an illustrated autobiography – The Man with Kaleidoscopic Eyes – was published, and a major retrospective exhibition – with the same title – opened at London’s Design Museum. His children include the fashion photographer, Miles Aldridge, and the models, Saffron, Lily and Ruby.

479 THE GRASSHOPPER THE BUTTERFLY BALL AND THE GRASSHOPPER'S FEAST coloured inks on paper on a printed base 20 1⁄2 x 14 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Alan Aldridge, with verses by William Plomer and nature notes by Richard Fitter, The Butterfly Ball and The Grasshopper’s Feast, London: Jonathan Cape, 1973


22: CONTEMPORARY ILLUSTRATORS

‘My actual style hasn’t changed – I’ve always used Japanese brush pens on vellum, which is so far removed from the finished drawing you can’t imagine. It’s then scanned in. I next work on the outlines in Photoshop, print it out and work on the initial colouring. Then it’s back into Photoshop for a touch-up and tone work, and it comes back to me for comments and mark-up. We make the changes then produce a final digital version. I always start in the bottom righthand corner of the page – always – then I build the work from there. Even if the main focus of the piece is central, I’ll start in the right-hand corner and work towards it, working in a diagonal to the top left-hand corner. And people often say it adds symmetry to my work. I always know exactly what I’m going to do up to a point. Harold the Herald from The Butterfly Ball – I knew exactly what I needed, but had no idea what a herald should look like, so it’s a question of stitching the whole piece together.’ (Alan Aldridge, in an interview in Computer Arts, 10 October 2008)

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P ETER C ROS S Peter Cross (born 1951) From 1975, Peter Cross began to emerge as an illustrator of great originality, making his name with books that continue to delight children and adults alike. Unwilling to restrict his fertile imagination to two dimensions, he also created a series of eccentric cabinets of curiosities. Such richness and variety were then directed towards advertising and, in particular, to delightful work for the company Wine Rack. Cross’s dry, yet charming visual-verbal wit has reached a wide international public through designs for greetings cards, first for Gordon Fraser (Hallmark 1995-2000) and then for The Great British Card Company.

Since 2008, Peter Cross has been building his card range – providing some of the National Trust’s bestselling designs over the last few years. More recently, he has returned to making ‘boxes’, unique mixed-media cabinets of curiosity, which allow him to express his scintillating imagination to its fullest. Peter is also creating his own website, which will go live in 2012. Meanwhile, Chris Beetles Gallery is currently planning a major retrospective book and exhibition on Peter’s work.

For a biography of Peter Cross, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, page 403.

000-00 are all designs for greetings cards published by The Great British Card Company, 2010

480 HAPPY BIRTHDAY! signed with initials pen ink and watercolour 5 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches

481 GREAT BRITISH TABBY signed with initials and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 7 x 7 1⁄2 inches

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482 CAT BAUBLES signed with initials pen ink and watercolour 7 1⁄4 x 7 1⁄4 inches

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483 SPARKS AT CHRISTMAS (also illustrated title verso) signed with initials pen ink and watercolour 10 x 9 inches

484 TASTING NOTES signed with initials pen ink and watercolour 6 3⁄4 x 6 3⁄4 inches


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486 THE JOYS OF SPRING signed with initials pen ink and watercolour 5 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄2 inches

485 HIP HIP HOORAY! signed with initials and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 6 x 6 inches


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E MM A C HI C H E S T E R CL A RK Emma Chichester Clark (born 1955) In 1988, Emma Chichester Clark won the Mother Goose Award as the most exciting newcomer in children’s book illustration. Since then she has written and illustrated many acclaimed picture books, including the series, ‘Blue Kangaroo’ and ‘Melrose and Croc’. A hallmark of her work is her sensitive and convincing portrayal of human feelings and foibles, even within the most fantastic situations. For a biography of Emma Chichester Clark, please refer to The Illustrators, 2008, page 135.

Recent publications from Emma Chichester Clark include Emma Barnes, How (Not) to Make Bad Children Good, Hairmyres: Strident Publishing; Nanette Newman, What Will You Be, Grandma?, London: Brubaker, Ford & Friends; Colin McNaughton, Have You Ever Ever Ever?, London: Walker Books; and Michael Morpurgo, The Pied Piper of Hamelin, London: Walker Books (Illustrated Classics). Future publications include a new series for Harper Collins called ‘Wagtail Town’, which will comprise a set of three books about a canine world, the main characters being two small dogs called Alfie and Lulu.; a new ‘Blue Kangaroo’ book for Andersen Press about Lily going to primary school for the first time; and Wolfie, a further book by Emma Barnes.

487 A RAINY DAY signed with initials watercolour and pencil 12 x 11 inches Drawn for but not illustrated in Emma Chichester Clark, Amazing Mr Zooty!, London: Andersen Press, 2006

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489-490 were both drawn for but not illustrated in Emma Chichester Clark, Melrose and Croc. Beside the Sea, London: Harper Collins Children’s Books, 2007, [unpaginated]

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488 A DRIVE OUT TO THE COUNTRY signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil, 9 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄4 inches Drawn for but not illustrated in Emma Chichester Clark, Melrose and Croc. Find a Smile, London: Harper Collins Children’s Books, 2006

489 ON THE WAY TO THE BEACH signed with initials watercolour and coloured ink with coloured pencil 5 1⁄2 x 5 1⁄4 inches

490 IT WAS A LOVELY DAY (also illustrated back endpapers) signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 8 x 17 1⁄2 inches


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491 ELIZA AND THE MOONCHILD signed with initials watercolour and pencil with bodycolour 11 x 14 1⁄4 inches Drawn for but not illustrated in Emma Chichester Clark, Eliza and The Moonchild, London: Andersen Press, 2007, [unpaginated]

492-500 are all ilustrated in Martin Waddell, The Orchard Book of Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy Tales, London: Orchard Books, 2010

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492 THE EGG CRACKED AT LAST, AND OUT CAME ... A DUCKLING SO ODD THAT IT DIDN’T LOOK LIKE A DUCKLING AT ALL signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 6 x 8 1⁄3 inches Illustrated: page 17, ‘An Eggs-Traordinary Egg. The Ugly Duckling’ 493 ‘WAIT FOR ME!’ HE CALLED TO THE OTHER SWANS signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil, 10 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 26, ‘An Eggs-Traordinary Egg. The Ugly Duckling’


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494 ‘GOOD DOG!’ SAID THE SOLDIER, AND HE PLACED THE DOG ON THE WITCH’S APRON signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 10 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 32, ‘A ThreeDog Tale. The Tinderbox’

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495 THE THREE DOGS WERE HONOURED AT THE ROYAL WEDDING FEAST signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 10 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 49, ‘A ThreeDog Tale. The Tinderbox’

496 THE LITTLE GIRL HAD BUNDLES OF MATCHES TO SELL signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil with bodycolour, 3 x 4 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 50, ‘The Little Girl in the Snow. The Little Match Girl’

497 THE OLD WOMAN GATHERED THE CHILD IN HER ARMS. TOGETHER THEY ROSE IN THE WONDERFUL LIGHT, THROUGH THE DARK NIGHT TO THE STARS signed with initials watercolour and bodycolour with coloured pencil, 10 3⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 54, ‘The Little Girl in the Snow. The Little Match Girl’


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498 THEY HELPED HIM PUT ON HIS NEW CLOTHES, BUTTONING INVISIBLE BUTTONS AND SMOOTHING INVISIBLE SLEEVES signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 8 x 7 inches Illustrated: page 65, ‘The Gold Pantaloons. The Emperor’s New Clothes’

329 499 THE WHOLE COURT PARADED OUT OF THE PALACE signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 7 x 19 inches Illustrated: pages 66 and 67, ‘The Gold Pantaloons. The Emperor’s New Clothes’

500 THERE IS MORE TO AN EMPEROR THAN HIS CLOTHES signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 8 x 9 inches Illustrated: page 69, ‘The Gold Pantaloons. The Emperor’s New Clothes


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ATH OLL M C D O N A L D Atholl McDonald (born 1961) Atholl McDonald was asked to illustrate the character of Noddy for BBC Books in 1993, and went on to illustrate over 70 children’s books, mostly featuring licensed characters, including The Animals of Farthing Wood, Bob the Builder, Mr Blobby and the Telly Tubbies. For a biography of Atholl McDonald, please refer to The Illustrators, 2003, page 179.

Noddy Noddy was created by Enid Blyton in 1949. Over 60 years later, Noddy is still one of the nation’s best-loved children’s characters, seen not only in books, but on television and merchandise. Noddy first appeared on the television in 1955, the show based on the little wooden boy with a nodding head continues to appear to this day, making it one of the longest running shows in British television. For an essay on Noddy, please refer to The Illustrators, 1999, pages 209-210

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501 ‘WHO’S THROWING APPLES AT ME?’ signed, inscribed with book title and dated ‘94 pen ink and watercolour 7 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Noddy and the Apples, London: BBC Children’s Books, 1995, [unpaginated]

502 ‘I CAN’T FIND YOUR HAT. I’D BETTER TAKE YOU HOME,’ SAYS NODDY SADLY signed, inscribed with book title and dated ‘94 pen ink and watercolour 7 1⁄4 x 6 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: Noddy and the Hat, London: BBC Children’s Books, 1994, [unpaginated]


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503-508 are all illustrated in Noddy Plays Hide-and-Seek, A Lift-The-Flap Story Book, London: Penguin Character Books, 1995, [unpaginated]

503 NODDY THINKS HE KNOWS WHERE BIG-EARS AND DINAH ARE HIDING signed, inscribed with book title and dated ’95 pen ink and watercolour 8 3⁄4 x 16 3⁄4 inches

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504 THE SKITTLES HAVE FOUND A VERY GOOD HIDING-PLACE IN THE MARKET, BUT NODDY THINKS HE CAN FIND THEM signed, inscribed with book title and dated ’95 pen ink and watercolour 8 1⁄2 x 16 3⁄4 inches

505 AH HA! NODDY CAN SEE THE END OF BUMPY DOG’S TAIL signed, inscribed with book title and dated ’95 pen ink and watercolour 9 1⁄4 x 16 3⁄4 inches


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506 NODDY CAN SEE TWO HATS signed, inscribed with book title and dated ’95 pen ink and watercolour 8 3⁄4 x 16 3⁄4 inches

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507 MR TUBBY BEAR IS TOO BIG TO HIDE PROPERLY signed, inscribed with book title and dated ’95 pen ink and watercolour 8 3⁄4 x 16 3⁄4 inches

508 HE CAN HEAR SOMEONE GIGGLING FROM BEHIND THE HEDGE signed, inscribed with book title and dated ’95 pen ink and watercolour 8 1⁄2 x 17 inches


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O LI V ER J EFF E RS Oliver Jeffers (born 1977) Oliver Jeffers’ award-winning picture books comprise just one element of his wide-ranging artistic oeuvre. He also produces figurative paintings, prints, illustrations and installations, and works both alone and with OAR, an art collective that he co-founded. For a biography of Oliver Jeffers, and a preliminary checklist of books he has written and illustrated, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, pages 186-187

Recent publications from Oliver Jeffers include John Boyne, Noah Barleywater Runs Away, Oxford: David Fickling Books, and his own Stuck, London: Harper Collins. Oliver married in 2010, and moved in to his new studio in Brooklyn in February 2011. Next year, he will undertake a book tour of Australia and New Zealand.

509-510 are both preliminary drawings for Oliver Jeffers, The Heart and the Bottle, London: Harpercollins Children’s Books, 2010, [unpaginated]

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509 SHE DID pen and ink 4 x 3 1⁄2 inches

510 THE HEART AND THE BOTTLE signed, inscribed ‘Cover colour test for The Heart and the Bottle’ and dated 2011 bodycolour and crayon with pencil on tinted paper 11 1⁄2 x 18 1⁄2 inches Design for front cover


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511-519 are all preliminary drawings for Oliver Jeffers, Stuck, London: Harper Collins, 2011, [unpaginated]

511 STUCK signed, inscribed with title and dated 2010 watercolour and bodycolour with crayon 10 x 14 inches Design for front cover

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512 ... AND UP HE THREW IT signed and dated 2011 below mount watercolour and crayon with pencil 6 x 6 inches

513 FLOYD FETCHED A LADDER inscribed with book title below mount watercolour and crayon with pencil 6 x 6 1â „2 inches


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335

514 A DUCK ... A CHAIR ... HIS FRIEND’S BICYCLE ... signed, inscribed with book title and dated 2011 watercolour and crayon 10 1⁄2 x 14 inches

515 HE TRIED PULLING AND SWINGING BUT IT WOULDN’T COME UNSTUCK signed and dated 2011 watercolour and crayon with pencil 11 1⁄2 x 10 3⁄4 inches


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516 THE KITCHEN SINK TO KNOCK DOWN HIS FRIEND’S BICYCLE ... THEIR FRONT DOOR TO KNOCK DOWN THE KITCHEN SINK ... signed, inscribed with book title and dated 2011 watercolour and crayon 9 x 14 1⁄2 inches

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517 A BIG BOAT signed, inscribed ‘stuck boat test’ and dated 2011 watercolour with crayon and pencil 13 x 20 inches

518 BLUE FLOYD signed and dated 2011 watercolour and crayon 11 1⁄2 x 9 inches Drawn for but not illustrated


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519 A CURIOUS WHALE, IN THE WRONG PLACE AT THE WRONG TIME signed, inscribed ‘Stuck Whale text’ and dated 2011 watercolour with crayon and pencil 10 1⁄2 x 12 inches

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520 HAPPY CHRISTMAS signed, stamped twice with Oliver Jeffers stamp and dated 2010 watercolour and crayon with pencil 10 x 12 inches Design for a Christmas card for Harper Collins


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23 JANE PINKNEY

JA NE P INKNE Y Lesley Jane Pinkney (née Magee) (born 1948) Jane Pinkney’s finely rendered depictions, reveal a variety of anthropomorphic narratives steeped in nostalgia and charm. Her work can be firmly situated within the tradition of illustrative art, and her name comfortably coupled with those of Beatrix Potter, Edmund Dulac and Arthur Rackham. Jane Pinkney was born in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, on 8 June 1948. The younger of two children, her earliest memories are of a rural idyll in which the family greenhouse, a garden of hollyhocks, and the painted borders of her sister’s bed feature most vividly. Her father was a mechanical engineer at the Sheffield steelworks, but also a keen amateur botanist and ornithologist. When Jane was just three years old, the family moved to Bradford, where she recalls spending many happy hours with her father at the nearby canal exploring the new and varied plants and insects, further stimulating her deep love of nature and her active imagination. Her great aunts, on her mother’s side, were both artists, painting portraits and landscapes in oils, in the grand manner. They bought Jane her first set of oil paints, although she much preferred working in poster paints at the time, and today still favours the versatility and immediacy of the watercolour medium to render such minute detail – a quality that makes her paintings so appealing and her narratives so convincing.

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As a child in Bradford she attended Wellington Road Junior School. Recounting happily mischievous times, Jane was frequently summoned to the headmaster’s office. Despite her naughty nature, the headmaster proudly displayed one of her paintings on his office wall and was quick to admit that ‘she would go a long way in life’. Jane still has that twinkle in her eyes, suggestive of her mischievous childhood, a mischief transferred to the animated escapades of her often troublesome little mice.

521 ‘SORRY’, SAID AMANDA QUICKLY ‘I’LL LOOK AFTER THE BABIES FOR A BIT IF YOU LIKE’ signed pencil, 6 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄2 inches Preliminary drawing for [531] Margaret Greaves, Mouse Mischief, London: Marilyn Malin Books/Andre Deutsch, 1989, [unpaginated] 522-529 are all illustrated in Margaret Greaves, The Mice of Nibbling Village, London: Marilyn Malin Books/Andre Deutsch, 1986, [unpaginated] Exhibited: ‘Jane Pinkney. A Retrospective’, Nunnington Hall, August-September 2011

At the age of 11, Jane moved with her family to Middlesbrough, where she attended Stainsby School (made famous by Chris Rea’s ‘Stainsby Girls’) – and she was allowed her first pony. Like many teenage girls she became ‘horse mad’. She entered a drawing competition at the age of 15 for Pony magazine. Although she came second, the judge, Doris Zinkeisen, commented on Jane’s entry: The horses are a little odd, but nicely odd … with a touch of Stanley Spencer … she hasn’t shirked or shied at any detail … I think that if this girl decides to become an artist, she has great possibilities. Jane’s only artistic training was ‘O’ Level Art and, when she was just 15, her art teacher, recognising her talent, encouraged her to exhibit her plant drawings at Middlesbrough Art Gallery. Later, however, at Kirkby Grammar sixth form, she was discouraged from pursuing a career in art, and Jane applied to train as a physiotherapist in Bradford, from which she was forced to withdraw after a tragic car accident, at the age of 17, which put her in a coma for two months, and in hospital for six. During her recovery she lived at home in Middlesbrough, and got a job tracing mechanical drawings, which she hated. At the age of 19 she married the driver of the fateful car. They were married by Cardinal Hume at Ampleforth Abbey, and lived in Cleethorpes, before moving back to Middlesbrough, and then to Hanging Hill Farm, Kennythorpe, near Malton –


23: JANE PINKNEY

where she recalls how her life could not have been happier. They had three children in quick succession, and Jane populated the farm, not only with children, but with peacocks (which she bred), hens, goats, bullocks, guinea fowl, pigeons, horses and ponies. Among the menagerie was a 17-year old guinea fowl she had hatched on a range, a rabbit she had bottlefed and reared after it was injured, a collar dove she rescued, all of which were rich sources of inspiration and imagined narrative. Like many old farmhouses, mice were popular inhabitants, and it was these furry beasts that frequently populated her drawings. Painting was a wonderful pastime, and Jane drew principally for pleasure and to amuse her three young children. Her professional career was prompted by a remark made by her sister-in-law, Penny Pinkney, a professional book illustrator, who was bemused by Jane’s lack of ambition. To prove her wrong Jane picked up the phone to Marks & Spencer. A brief meeting at their head office in London resulted in one of Jane’s drawings, Mouse on a Sewing Machine, being selected and circulated to all the UK stores for sale as a framed print. She was introduced to the publishers, Marilyn Malin and Andre Deutsch and it was Marilyn who commissioned Margaret Greaves to put words to Jane’s drawings, and so a successful partnership was formed. Characters such as Seraphine Sprout the washer-mouse, Belinda Bookery who ate a dictionary, and greedy Timothy Squeak who ate so much that he turned into a balloon, were born, and brought to life in The Mice of Nibbling Village, published by Marilyn Malin Books in association with Andre Deutsch, in 1986. With 17 colour illustrations, the book was published simultaneously in Britain and America. The book was an immediate success and the Sunday Express dubbed her ‘the new Beatrix Potter’. Her second book, Mouse Mischief, was published soon after and her drawings were put to words once more by Margaret Greaves. The book was launched (continued overleaf ) 522 AUNT TAFFY signed inscribed ‘Aunt Taffy/cover’ on reverse watercolour, 8 1⁄4 x 5 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: front cover and front dust jacket

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internationally and nominated for the prestigious Kate Greenaway award. In 1987 she received a Certificate of Merit from the Society of Illustrators for one of the best illustrations, and her work was exhibited as part of the society’s 29th Annual National Exhibition in New York. Her third book, Little Mouse Alone, was published in 1989, using the same successful formula, and a year later, she was commissioned to illustrate Rumer Godden’s, Mouse Time, originally illustrated by Martin Ursell and published by Magnet Books. It comprises 24 pencil drawings and one colour cover, and was republished by Macmillan. Her colourful and animated images also started to appear on greetings cards, and on cups and plates, and featured in the display windows of Marks & Spencer, John Lewis and Harrods. In 1998, in the midst of working on an ambitious compendium of Nursery Rhymes, and after considerable and sustained success, she decided to put down her paintbrush, and ‘never paint again’. She spent time with her family, and time readjusting her priorities.

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Jane now lives in Kirbymoorside and, encouraged by her friends, she picked up her brush and revisited the mouse world with which she was once so vividly acquainted. In 2010 she, again, took the step to pick up the phone. This time the call was made to Nunnington Hall, a National Trust property which exudes all the charm and nostalgia that penetrate Jane’s work. The property manager, already a youthful admirer of her work, immediately suggested an exhibition and commissioned her to paint a series of interiors occupied by her mischievous mice. To complement the exhibition the National Trust and Anova Books republished The Mice of Nibbling Village. Requiring commercial expertise, Jane was put in touch with Chris Beetles who agreed to represent her, and collaborate on the Nunnington Hall exhibition, which took place in June this year. Having previously only sold prints, the exhibition was an opportunity for Jane to sell her original artworks for the first time – and the exhibition was an unmitigated success.

The biography of Jane Pinkney is written by Alison Brisby

523 MORRIKIN signed inscribed with title on reverse watercolour, 10 1⁄4 x 6 3⁄4 inches


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524 MISS SERAPHINA SPROUT signed inscribed ‘Seraphina Sprout’ on reverse watercolour 8 1⁄4 x 11 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: (printed in reverse)


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342

525 MANDY SNIPPET signed watercolour 8 3⁄4 x 5 1⁄2 inches

526 THIMBLEKIN signed watercolour 9 x 7 1⁄4 inches


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527 MRS POPPITT LOVES TO EAT FROM MORN TO EVENTIDE signed watercolour 3 x 3 inches Preliminary drawing

528 IN MOUSE NIBBLING IT’S ALWAYS SAID: ‘THERE’S NOTHING SO GOOD AS HOME-MADE BREAD’ signed watercolour 3 1⁄4 x 3 1⁄2 inches Preliminary drawing

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529 MRS PEPPERSET BROWN signed watercolour 5 3⁄4 x 7 3⁄4 inches


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530-533 are all illustrated in Margaret Greaves, Mouse Mischief, London: Marilyn Malin Books/Andre Deutsch, 1989, [unpaginated]

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530 SHE WAS ADMIRING HERSELF IN THE BEAUTIFUL DRESS signed watercolour 10 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches

531 ‘SORRY’, SAID AMANDA QUICKLY ‘I’LL LOOK AFTER THE BABIES FOR A BIT IF YOU LIKE’ signed and dated 88 watercolour 8 1⁄2 x 6 3⁄4 inches


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532 SOON THE BATHROOM WAS IN A TERRIBLE MESS signed watercolour 8 1⁄2 x 6 1⁄4 inches

533 ‘WE’LL USE THE BIG TOWELS TO MOP IT UP,’ SAID PIPKIN signed watercolour 7 3⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 inches


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346


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534-536 are all illustrated in Margaret Greaves, Littlemouse Alone, London: Scholastic Children’s Books/Andre Deutsch, 1993

534 ‘ALL RIGHT,’ SAID LITTLEMOUSE, WHO WAS PLAYING WITH HIS TRAIN AND NOT REALLY LISTENING (opposite left) signed watercolour 6 x 5 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 9

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536 THE BIG MOUSE CHILDREN WERE AT PLAY signed watercolour 5 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 18

535 MRS LONGTAIL OVER THE WAY WAS HANGING OUT HER WASHING signed watercolour 6 1⁄4 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 13


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348

536a HE SCUTTLED INTO MR FLICK’S, THE GREENGROCER’S signed watercolour 5 1⁄4 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 15


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537-540 are all illustrated in Rumer Godden, Mouse Time, London: Pan Macmillan Children’s Books, 1993

537 WHEREVER THERE IS AN OLD HOUSE, THERE ARE MICE signed pencil 8 x 5 inches Illustrated: frontispiece

538 HE HAD OPENED HIS WINGS AND FLOWN STRAIGHT OUT signed pencil 6 1⁄4 x 5 inches Illustrated: page 27, ‘The Mousewife’

539 THE FLOWERPOT WAS GONE, AND WHERE IT HAD STOOD, UNDER THE OLD BROOM, WAS MOUSE HOUSE signed pencil 8 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: facing page 57, ‘Mouse House’ 540 ‘THEN MICE DO PLAY,’ SAID MARY signed pencil 7 x 3 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: facing page 58, ‘Mouse House’


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24 PAUL COX

PAUL COX Paul William Cox (born 1957) Paul Cox’s fluid, immediate draughtsmanship and vibrant colour make him one of the most enjoyable and versatile of contemporary illustrators. Well known for his warm and witty contributions to books and magazines, he has ranged in his work as a designer between stamps and stage sets. For a biography of Paul Cox, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 182

Recent publications include Graydon Carter and Cullen Murphy (eds), Anderson & Sheppard: A Style is Born, London: Quercus Books (the first book about this Savile Row firm of bespoke tailors to be published); and Steven Petrow, Complete Gay and Lesbian Manners, New York: Workman Publishing.

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Future publications include Paul C Richardson, Running is Flying, New York: Rodale Books, 2012. Chris Beetles Gallery is currently planning a major retrospective exhibition of Paul’s work, which will include views of Rome, made earlier this year on his first ever visit to the eternal city in the company of Chris.

541 THE VIRTUOSO signed watercolour with pen and ink 23 1⁄2 x 17 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The New Yorker, November 1992


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542 HIGHCLERE CASTLE, HAMPSHIRE signed watercolour with pen and ink 17 x 24 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Tim Heald, Honourable Estates, London: Pavilion Books, 1992, pages 94-95 Exhibited: The Society of Architect Artists, September 1993

543 CASTLE HOWARD, YORKSHIRE signed inscribed ‘Castle Howard’ below mount watercolour with pen and ink 16 3⁄4 x 24 1⁄2 inches Exhibited: The Society of Architect Artists, September 1993

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544 THE DARLING BUDS OF MAY signed watercolour with pen and ink 15 3⁄4 x 21 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: H E Bates, The Darling Buds of May, London: Readers Digest Association, 1992, pages 430-431

545 A PEREMPTORY, URGENT SNARL, LIKE THE SURPRISE ENTRY OF SYMPHONIC BRASS, TORE THE PEACEFUL FABRIC OF THE YARD’S LIVESTOCK TO PIECES signed watercolour with pen and ink 10 x 19 inches Illustrated: H E Bates, The Darling Buds of May, London: Readers Digest Association, 1992, pages 464-465


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546 WHERE DID YOU SPRING FROM? signed inscribed with publication details below mount watercolour with pen and ink 16 1⁄2 x 23 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: P G Wodehouse, Jeeves in the Offing, London: Folio Society, 1996, front cover


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549 RIVER CAFE signed inscribed with title on reverse watercolour with pen and ink 17 x 22 inches Illustrated: Sunday Express Magazine, July 1995

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547 DRIVING IN MANHATTAN signed inscribed with publication details on reverse watercolour with pen and ink 22 x 17 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: New York Magazine, October 1995, ‘New York Motor City’

548 NAPA VALLEY WINE AUCTION signed pen ink and watercolour 12 x 12 inches Illustrated: Town and Country Magazine, 19 December 1996


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550 LE PIN, FRANCE signed and inscribed ‘Le Pin’ watercolour with pen and ink 17 x 24 1⁄2 inches

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552 EVENING GLOW signed inscribed ‘Maeve Binchy, short story – Radio Times’ on reverse watercolour with pen and ink 21 1⁄2 x 17 inches Illustrated: Radio Times, 14 July 1995 Exhibited: ‘The Artists of the Radio Times’, September 2002, no 76 551 AND LET OUT THE HENS AND LET OUT THE COCKS, CLUCKING AND CROWING OUT OF THEIR BOX signed watercolour with pen and ink 13 x 23 inches Illustrated: Wilma Horsbrugh, The Train to Glasgow, New York: Clarion Books, 2004, [unpaginated]


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25 AMANDA HALL

553-570 are all illustrated in Margaret Mcallister (reteller), Aesop’s Fables, Oxford: Lion Children’s, 2011

356 553 THE MOUSE signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 4 3⁄4 x 3 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: dedication page, pages 9, 33, 56, 110 and back endpaper

A M A NDA HA L L Amanda Hall (Born 1956) Amanda Hall is an award-winning contemporary illustrator, particularly renowned for her wonderfully decorative and colourful children’s book illustrations, as well as her work for educational publications both in Britain and America. Amanda Hall was born in Linton, Cambridgeshire, on 4 October 1956. Her father, a painter, taught Art and Design at the Cambridge School of Art (now the Anglia Ruskin University) and her mother was a published author, who also worked as a medical secretary at Addenbrooke’s Hospital in Cambridge. Amanda was educated locally in Cambridge and went on to study graphic art and illustration at the Cambridge School of Art, where her father had taught. Since embarking on her career as an illustrator, Amanda has become internationally known and celebrated for her unique style. She was awarded the Silver US Parents’ Choice Award in 1997 for her illustrations for Madhur Jaffrey’s children’s picture book Robi Dobi: The Marvellous Adventures of an Indian Elephant and, more recently, was shortlisted for the Christian Booksellers’ Convention Children’s Book of the Year Award 2008 for her work with author Mary Joslin on the Day by Day Bible. She has illustrated publications for Barefoot Books, Frances Lincoln, Templar Publishing, Pavilion Books and Dorling Kindersley, as well as producing work for Radio Times and National Geographic. By using a combination of coloured pencil and watercolour ink, Amanda has developed a technique which allows her to produce illustrations that are brimming with colour and decorations, and she is now further extending her skills as an illustrator by adding other media. Her work is characteristically vivacious, bright and full of movement, overflowing with designs that take on an almost threedimensional quality. She cites the myths, legends and fairy tales of cultures from all over the world as her inspiration for the fantastical and magical creatures that she produces. Indeed, the powerful artistic and historical inheritance of India, North and South America and Europe, is evident in much of her work, which often has an inherently indigenous quality. Amanda lives and works in Cambridge, creating her illustrations in a timber shed at the bottom of her garden that she has named ‘The Shadowhouse’. When she is not working as an illustrator, she enjoys transforming gardens and rooms into fantasy spaces, and also performs as a singer. The biography of Amanda Hall is written by Eleanor Hall.

554 THE FOX signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 6 x 4 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: contents page and pages 26, 40, 88 and 103 555 THE FROG signed with initials watercolour and coloured pencil 2 1⁄2 x 3 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: pages 19, 67 and 96


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556 QUICKLY, SHE GNAWED THROUGH THE ROPE, THEN SCAMPERED ACROSS TO HIS FACE signed watercolour and coloured pencil 12 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: front dust jacket, front cover and page 8, ‘The Lion and the Mouse’

557 THE LOG FELL INTO THE SWAMP WITH SUCH A SPLASH THAT ALL THE FROGS LEAPED OUT AND HID UNDER STONES signed watercolour and coloured pencil 13 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 17, ‘The Frogs who asked for a King’


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558 CROW LOOKED DOWN WITH PLEASURE AT HER OWN BEAK. HER EYES CROSSED, BUT SHE DIDN’T DROP THE CHEESE signed watercolour and coloured pencil 11 3⁄4 x 9 inches Illustrated: page 24, ‘The Fox and the Crow’

559 THERE WAS ONCE A JAY. THEY REALLY ARE NICE-LOOKING BIRDS signed watercolour and coloured pencil 13 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 32, ‘The Jay and the Peacocks’


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560 THE FOREST MOTHERS TOOK THEIR CHILDREN TO PLAY signed watercolour and coloured pencil 13 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 38, ‘The Lioness’

561 THE MOUSE HALL WAS IN A SPACE IN THE WALL BEHIND A FIREPLACE, WHICH MADE IT WARM signed watercolour and coloured pencil 12 x 9 inches Illustrated: page 43, ‘Belling The Cat’


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563 AS GENTLY HE COULD, HE DREW OUT THE THORN signed watercolour and coloured pencil 13 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 71, ‘Androcles and the Lion’

562 A WEEK LATER, THE FOX ARRIVED TO HAVE SUPPER WITH THE CRANE signed watercolour and coloured pencil 11 1⁄4 x 5 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 55, ‘The Fox and the Crane’


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564 AS SHE SANK HELPLESSLY TO THE BOTTOM OF THE SEA, MEN AND MONKEY LEAPED INTO THE WATER AND SWAM FOR THEIR LIVES signed watercolour and coloured pencil 13 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 75, ‘The Monkey and the Dolphin’

565 MADAM SWALLOW CAUGHT SIGHT OF SOMETHING THAT MADE HER CURIOUS signed watercolour and coloured pencil 12 x 4 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 79, ‘The Swallow and the Other Birds’


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568 THE GRASSHOPPER LAUGHED AT ALL THE GATHERING, MARCHING AND BUILDING signed watercolour and coloured pencil 7 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 91, ‘The Ant and the Grasshopper’

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566 HE WAS A SPLENDID FOX AND AS CLEVER AS ANY CREATURE COULD BE signed watercolour and coloured pencil 13 x 9 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: page 86, ‘The Fox and the Leopard’

567 ‘THAT CAN’T BE A GOOSE EGG,’ THOUGHT FARMER GAGGLE signed watercolour and coloured pencil 11 1⁄4 x 8 inches Illustrated: page 111, ‘The Goose that laid the Golden Eggs’


25: AMANDA HALL

363

569 THERE WAS A RUSTLE IN THE GRAIN STALKS, AND JOE APPEARED WITH HIS PAWS FULL signed watercolour and coloured pencil 11 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: page 106, ‘The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse’ 570 MARCUS, WHO WANTED TO GIVE JOE A TREAT, URGED HIM TO TRY A BIT OF EVERYTHING signed watercolour and coloured pencil 11 1⁄2 x 5 inches Illustrated: page 109, ‘The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse’


THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

26 CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS ED SOREL (born 1929) FRANK DICKENS (born 1932) PETER BROOKES (born 1943)

364

MATT (born 1964) CHRISTIAN ADAMS (born 1964) JONATHAN CUSICK (born 1978)

E D S O RE L Edward Sorel (born 1929) Edward Sorel’s clever and unforgiving satire is the product of a lifetime spent observing and criticising the unpleasant reality of the American Dream. Now aged 82, his experiences of recent history from the Great Depression to Al Qaeda, and his disdain for the greasy politics in between, have lent his cartoons a formidable bite that those his junior rarely match. For a biography of Ed Sorel, please refer to The Illustrators, 2007, pages 371-372. His work will feature in ‘The Americans are Coming’, a forthcoming exhibition at the Chris Beetles Gallery.

Ed Sorel has just received a Master Series Award from the School of Visual Arts in Manhattan, New York City, and has been given an accompanying retrospective exhibition at the Visual Arts Gallery. The award and exhibition honour great visual communicators of the time, and previous laureates include Saul Bass, Seymour Chwast, Heinz Edelmann, Jules Feiffer and Milton Glaser.

571 SHALL I GIVE HIM A COIN FATHER? signed pen ink and watercolour 7 1⁄4 x 21 1⁄2 inches This strip was reworked from one drawn for The Nation.


26: CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS

572 THE INFORMER VICTOR MCLAGLEN , JOE SAWYER ,

PRESTON FOSTER AND HEATHER

ANGEL

signed inscribed with title and subtitle on reverse watercolour, charcoal and crayon 17 1⁄2 x 21 inches Illustrated: Esquire, November 1981 The Informer Directed by John Ford, The Informer (1935) is a classic film based on a novel by Liam O’Flaherty, set in 1922, about the Irish War of Independence.>

573 1698 (above right) signed and dated ’96 inscribed with publication details on reverse pen ink and watercolour 9 1⁄4 x 14 inches Illustrated: GQ Magazine, March 1996, pages 264-265

574 TAMING BRITAIN’S UNIONS signed pen ink and watercolour 16 x 16 inches Illustrated: Fortune Magazine (International Edition), 16 April 1984, front cover

365


THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

575 THE NATIVITY signed pen ink and watercolour 12 x 15 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: New York Times

576 INCIDENT REPORT: ALEC GUINNESS AND EDITH EVANS signed pen ink and watercolour 21 1⁄2 x 15 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Atlantic Monthly, September 2001, page 117, ‘Incident Report. Alec Guinness and Edith Evans’, by Nancy Caldwell

366

577 INCIDENT REPORT: PICASSO’S BANQUET FOR ROUSSEAU signed pen ink and watercolour 23 x 16 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Atlantic Monthly, March 2002, page 75, ‘Incident Report. Picasso’s Banquet for Rousseau’, by Nancy Caldwell


26: CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS

578 AYN RAND HELPING THE POOR signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 13 1⁄4 x 9 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Adam Begley, Certitude: A Profusely Illustrated Guide to Blockheads and Bullheads, Past and Present, New York: Harmony Books, 2009, page 26

579 CONAN DOYLE WAITING FOR FAIRIES TO APPEAR signed, inscribed with title and dated 2009 pen ink and watercolour 13 x 9 inches Illustrated: Adam Begley, Certitude: A Profusely Illustrated Guide to Blockheads and Bullheads, Past and Present, New York: Harmony Books, 2009, page 22

580 THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF THE WALL ST APOCALYPSE signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 18 x 13 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: Vanity Fair, July 2009

581 THE GREAT AND THE GOOD: SOMERSET MAUGHAM’S SENSE OF VOCATION signed pen ink and watercolour 20 x 14 inches Illustrated: The New Yorker, 31 May 2010, page 71, ‘The Great and the Good. Somerset Maugham’s Sense of Vocation’, by Ruth Franklin

367


THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

F R AN K DI C K E N S Frank Huline Dickens (born 1932) Frank Dickens is the creator of several different much loved strips, most famously, Bristow, which records the ridiculous day-to-day life of a rebellious office clerk, eighteenth in line for the post of Chief Buyer of the Chester Perry Company. In 2010, it won him the Guinness World Record for the longest running daily strip by a single author, having begun in 1961.

Frank Dickens is currently collaborating with Bernard Cookson, another talented cartoonist, in developing a new strip cartoon: Two Too Many; and he continues writing books, with some children’s books nearing completion.

For a biography of Frank Dickens, please refer to The Illustrators, 2003, page 212.

368

582 I GIVE UP signed pen and ink 4 x 18 inches Illustrated: Evening Standard, 1962, ‘Bristow’

583 I DON’T BELIEVE IT ... pen and ink 4 x 18 inches Illustrated: Evening Standard, 1962, ‘Bristow’


26: CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS

369

584 FINISHED WITH YOUR CUP, DEAR? pen and ink 4 x 18 inches Illustrated: Evening Standard, 1962, ‘Bristow’

585 YOU CAN FORGET YOUR BEAUTY AIDS, YOUR MIRACLE CURES AND WHAT HAVE YOU ... pen and ink, 4 x 18 inches Illustrated: Evening Standard, 1962, ‘Bristow’

586 TEA UP, MR BRISTOW ...! pen and ink 4 x 18 inches Illustrated: Evening Standard, 1962, ‘Bristow’


THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

P ETER B ROO K E S Peter Derek Brookes, FRSA RDI (born 1943) Peter Brookes maintains the most consistently high standard of any editorial cartoonist working in Britain today. His daily political cartoons and weekly ‘Nature Notes’, produced for The Times, are always inventive, incisive and confidently drawn. They are the fruit of wide experience as a cartoonist and illustrator, and of complete independence from editorial intrusion. For a biography of Peter Brookes, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 164 His work is represented in the collections of the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent (Canterbury). Signed copies of his latest collection of cartoons, Hard Times, are available from the gallery. Chris Beetles Gallery launched the book at a highly successful exhibition in October 2011.

Peter Brookes has been awarded Cartoonist of the Year 2011 by the British Press Awards and Caricaturist of the Year 2011 by the Cartoon Art Trust.

‘His target is rarely the ideology of one politician or another. It is the vanity, inanity and mediocrity of the whole damn lot.’ (Matthew Parris, from the Foreword to Peter Brookes, Hard Times, London: Robson Press, 2011)

370

587 NEW TERM ... signed, inscribed with title and dated ‘10 ix 11’ pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 8 x 11 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Times, 10 September 2011


26: CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS

588 CARDBOARD CUTOUT signed and dated ‘17 ix 11’ pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 8 x 11 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Times, 17 September 2011

589 KITTEN HEELS MEETS HUSHPUPPY ... signed, inscribed with title and dated ‘5 x 11’ pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 8 x 11 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Times, 5 October 2011

590 YOU ARE HERE signed and dated ‘29 ix 11’ pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 8 x 11 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Times, 29 September 2011

591 TEA PARTY ... signed and dated ‘7 x 11’ pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 8 1⁄4 x 11 3⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Times, 7 October 2011

371


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M AT T Matthew Pritchett, MBE (born 1964), known as ‘Matt’ Matt’s much-loved pocket cartoons for the Daily Telegraph provide a consistently original take on the big news stories of the day. 592 COUNCIL CUTS signed pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 14 December 2010

For a biography of Matt, please refer to The Illustrators, 2009, page 185. Signed copies of Matt. The Best of 2011 are available from the gallery.

372

593 ‘WHY DON’T YOU ASK A DOCTOR FOR A BUSINESS LOAN? THEY’VE GOT LOTS OF MONEY’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 20 January 2011

594 ‘IT’S YOUR MOTHER. TABLOID PHONE HACKERS ARE WONDERING WHY YOU NEVER RING ME’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 10 July 2011

595 ’IN THE FUTURE EVERYONE ILL BE HACKED FOR 15 MINUTES’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 8 July 2011


26: CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS

373 596 ‘COFFEE? WHEN I GOT YOUR TEXT TO MEET YOU HERE I ASSUMED WE’D BE LOOTING’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 9 August 2011

597 ‘THAT’S THE REASON I WORK SO HARD AND EARN ALL THIS CASH – TO ANNOY VINCE CABLE’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 20 September 2011

599 ‘YOU HAVEN’T CHANGED A BIT’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 30 September 2011

600 ‘A BARBECUE CLOUD IS BLOWING OVER FROM BRITAIN’ signed and inscribed with title pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 1 October 2011

598 NEW CATALAN BULLFIGHT signed pen ink and watercolour 5 x 4 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 27 September 2011


THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

CH R I STI AN A DA M S Christian Adams (born 1966) The bright, bold cartoons of Christian Adams exhibit a particularly masterly use of space to dramatise current affairs. Christian Adams was born in Warlingham, Surrey, on 10 June 1966, one of five children of the illustrator, Tecla Marus, and her husband, an enthusiastic amateur cartoonist, who owned a clothing factory. He started to draw at the age of three – producing many images of giraffes and hippos – and later absorbed the influences of Walt Disney and Charles M Schulz’s Peanuts. He attended Streete Court School, Godstone, Surrey (1972-78), and Worth School, Crawley, West Sussex (1979-84), before studying Graphic Design and Illustration at Bristol Polytechnic (1985-89).

Adams began his career in the late 1980s standing in for Wally Fawkes (Trog) by doing the ‘Profile’ caricature for the Observer, and quickly became a successful freelance cartoonist working for such magazines as The Listener, Radio Times, Solicitors Journal and Time Out. In 1994, he became Staff Features Cartoonist at the Evening Standard. 10 years later, he moved to the Telegraph group, working first for the Sunday Telegraph and from 2007 as a political cartoonist for both the Sunday and Daily Telegraph. He also does regular covers for Money Week and The Spectator.

374

601 IRAQ/LIBYA signed and dated 21.03.11 pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 x 14 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 21 March 2011

602 OBAMA BEHEADING OSAMA signed and dated 03.05.11 pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 x 14 3⁄4 inches Provenance: The Jeffrey Archer Political Cartoon Collection Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 3 May 2011 Exhibited: ‘Images of Power: from the Jeffrey Archer Cartoon Collection’, Monnow Valley Arts, September-October 2011


26: CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS

603 HAPPY ANNIVERSARY signed and dated 08.05.11 pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 1⁄4 x 15 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 8 May 2011

604 HACKING SCANDAL signed and dated 21.07.11 pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 x 14 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 21 July 2011

605 THE WHIRLPOOL signed and dated 11.09.11 10 x 14 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 11 September 2011

606 STICK TO PLAN A STICK TO PLAN A ... signed and dated 02.10.11 pen ink and watercolour with bodycolour 10 1⁄2 x 15 inches Illustrated: Daily Telegraph, 2 October 2011

375


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JO N ATHAN CU S I C K Jonathan Kristofor Cusick (born 1978) Over the last decade, Jonathan Cusick has gained a strong reputation for his work as an illustrator, and particularly his arresting caricatures, which seem to hold a comically distorting mirror up to personalities who are prominent in the contemporary worlds of politics and entertainment. For a biography of Jonathan Cusick, please refer to The Illustrators, 2010, page 275

Recent illustrative work by Jonathan Cusick includes covers for the Financial Director, The Grocer, The Spectator and Rufus Hound, Stand-Up Put-Downs, London: Transworld; illustrations for Radio Times; and an advertising campaign for pensions advisors, Hymans Robertson. Jonathan has also launched a website offering live on-the-spot caricature drawing for events.

376

607 STEPHEN FRY, VANITY FAIR signed acrylic on canvas 8 3â „4 x 9 inches Illustrated: Radio Times, 11 September 2003, page 113

608 NIGELLA LAWSON, DESERT ISLAND DISCS signed acrylic on canvas 10 1â „2 x 8 inches Illustrated: Radio Times, 4 October 2003, page 122


26: CONTEMPORARY CARTOONISTS

609 THE DARLING BUDS OF MAY signed inscribed with publication details below mount acrylic on canvas 8 1⁄4 x 6 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Radio Times, 17 January 2004, page 128

610 THE QUEEN signed acrylic on canvas 11 x 7 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Times, 22 December 2007, page 31

377

611 THE NO 1 LADIES DETECTIVE AGENCY signed acrylic on canvas 6 3⁄4 x 12 1⁄4 inches Illustrated: The Times, 22 March 2008, pages 4-5


THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

612 JOANNA LUMLEY signed acrylic on canvas 7 x 12 inches Illustrated: The Times, 6 September 2008, pages 4-5

613 ELECTION SPECIAL signed acrylic on canvas 10 1⁄2 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: Caterer and Hotelkeeper, 30 April 2010, front cover

378

614 THE CULT OF BLAIR signed acrylic on canvas 7 3⁄4 x 8 1⁄2 inches Illustrated: The Spectator, 23 January 2011, front cover


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

S ELEC T B I B L I O G RA P H Y Backemeyer 2005 Sylvia Backemeyer (ed), Picture This: The Artist as Illustrator, London: Herbert Press, 2005 Baker 2002 Martin Baker, Artists of Radio Times. A Golden Age of British Illustration, Oxford: Ashmolean Museum/London: Chris Beetles Ltd, 2002 Bryant 2000 Mark Bryant, Dictionary of Twentieth-Century British Cartoonists and Caricaturists, London: Ashgate, 2000 Bryant and Heneage 1994 Mark Bryant and Simon Heneage, Dictionary of British Cartoonists and Caricaturists 1730-1980, Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1994

284 (detail)

Matthew and Harrison 2004 H C G Matthew and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (61 vols) Peppin and Mickelthwait 1983 Brigid Peppin and Lucy Mickelthwait, The Dictionary of British Book Illustrators: The Twentieth Century, London: John Murray, 1983

Driver 1981 David Driver (compiler), The Art of Radio Times. The First Sixty Years, London: BBC, 1981

Price 1957 R G G Price, A History of Punch, London: Collins, 1957

Feaver 1981 William Feaver, Masters of Caricature. From Hogarth and Gillray to Scarfe and Levine, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1981

Ray 1976 Gordon Norton Ray, The Illustrator and the Book in England from 1790 to 1914, New York: Pierpoint Morgan Library, 1976

Horne 1994 Alan Horne, The Dictionary of 20th Century Book Illustrators, London: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1994

Souter 2007 Nick and Tessa Souter, The Illustration Handbook. A Guide to the World’s Greatest Illustrators, Royston: Eagle Editions, 2007

Houfe 1996 Simon Houfe, The Dictionary of British Book Illustrators and Caricaturists 18001914, Woodbridge: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1996 (revised edition)

Spalding 1990 Frances Spalding, 20th Century Painters and Sculptors, Woodbridge: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1990

Johnson and Gruetzner 1986 Jane Johnson and Anna Gruetzner, The Dictionary of British Artists, 18801940, Woodbridge: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1986 (reprint)

Spielmann 1895 M H Spielmann, The History of ‘Punch’, London: Cassell and Company, 1895

Lewis 1967 John Lewis, The 20th Century Book, London: Herbert Press, 1967

Turner 1996 Jane Turner (ed), The Dictionary of Art, London: Macmillan, 1996 (34 vols)

Mallalieu 1976 Huon Mallalieu, The Dictionary of British Watercolour Artists up to 1920, Woodbridge: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1976

White 1897 Gleeson White, Children’s Books and Their Illustrators, London: The Studio, 1897

Martin 1989 Douglas Martin, The Telling Line. Essays on fifteen contemporary book illustrators, London: Julia MacRae Books, 1989

Wood 1995 Christopher Wood, The Dictionary of Victorian Painting, Woodbridge: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1995 (2 vols)

379


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CU M ULATI V E IN D E X O F CATALO G U E S ( 1991- 2011) Dates in bold indicate entire chapters devoted to single illustrators

380

A Abbey, Edwin Austin: 1997 Adams, Christian: 2011 Adams, Frank: 2007 Addams, Charles: 1991 Ahlberg, Janet: 1992 Aldin, Cecil: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999 Aldridge, Alan: 2011 Allen, Daphne: 2003 Allingham, Helen: 1996, 1997 Anderson, Anne: 1991, 1996, 2001, 2011 Anton (Beryl Antonia Yeoman and Harold Underwood Thompson): 1991 Appleby, Barry: 2010 Appleton, Honor: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Ardizzone, Edward: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2011 Aris, Ernest: 2007, 2010, 2011 Armour, George Denholm: 2010 Atkinson, Maud Tyndal: 1997 Attwell, Mabel Lucie: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Austen, John: 1991, 1996 Ayrton, Michael: 1993, 1997 B V A B: 1991 Badmin, Stanley Roy: 1993, 1997 Bailly, Louis: 2000 Bairnsfather, Bruce: 1992, 1999, 2007, 2008 Ball, Wilfrid: 1997 Banbery, Frederick: 1999, 2000, 2002 Barker, Cicely Mary: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1999 Barrett, Angela: 1992, 1997, 1999 Bartlett, William: 1997 Barton, Rose: 1997 Bastien, A-T-J: 1992 Batchelor, Roland: 1993 Bateman, Henry Mayo: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Batt (Oswald Barrett): 1997, 2011 Bauerle, Amelia: 1991 Baumer, Lewis: 1991, 1999, 2010 Bawden, Edward: 1993, 1997 Baxter, Doreen: 1992, 1997

Baxter, Glen: 1997, 2003 Baxter, William Giles: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 Beadle, James: 1997 Beardsley, Aubrey: 1999, 2000, 2008, 2010 Beardsley, Aubrey, follower of: 1999 Bedford, Francis Donkin: 1997 Beek, Harmsen van der: 1999 Beerbohm, Max: 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 Begg, Samuel: 1992 Belcher, George: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 Bell, Robert Anning: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2007 Bentley, Nicholas: 1991, 2007 Bernard, C E B: 1999, 2002 Bestall, Alfred: 1993, 1999, 2011 Biro, Val: 2002 Blackmore, Katie: 1997 Blair, Preston: 1993, 1999 Blake, Quentin: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 Blampied, Edmund: 1992, 1993 Blathwayt, Ben: 1992, 2000 Bliss, Douglas Percy: 1993, 1997 Bond, Simon: 1993, 1997, 2001 Bone, Muirhead: 1992 Boswell, James: 1997 Boucher, William Henry: 1993 Bowman, Peter: 1992 Boyd, Tracey: 1992, 1993 Bradshaw, Percy: 1992 Brandt, Bill: 2011 Brangwyn, Frank: 1992, 1999 Brickdale, Eleanor Fortescue: 1991 Brierley, Louise: 1997 Briggs, Raymond: 1993, 2003 Brock, Charles Edmund: 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2010 Brock, Henry Matthew: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999 Brockbank, Russell: 2002, 2003, 2007 Brooke, Leslie: 2009 Brookes, Peter: 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Browne, Gordon: 2003 Browne, Tom: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999 Bryan, Alfred: 1993, 1999, 2003 Bull, Rene: 1991, 1992, 1997 Bunbury, Henry William: 1993 Burke, Chris: 1993

Burningham, John: 1993, 2002, 2003, 2007 Butterworth, Nick: 2002, 2003, 2009, 2010 C Caldecott, Randolph: 1991, 1992, 1996, 1999, 2003 Cameron, John: 1992 Cameron, Katharine: 1993, 1997, 2009 Canziani, Estella: 1993, 1996, 1999 Caran d’Ache (Emmanuel Poiré): 1992, 1993, 1999 Carse, A Duncan: 1992, 2001, 2010 Cartlidge, Michelle: 2003 Casson, Hugh: 1991, 1992, 2002, 2003 Chalon, Alfred Edward: 1993 Cham (Amédée Charles Henri de Noé): 1991 Chapman, Charles Henry: 1999, 2002 Chapman, June Crisfield: 2007 Chesterton, Gilbert Keith: 1991, 1993 Churcher, Walter: 1992 Clark, Emma Chichester: 1999, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Clarke, Harry: 1991, 1996, 2007, 2011 Claxton, Adelaide: 2003 Cleaver, Reginald: 1991 Cloke, Rene: 1996, 1999 Coïdé (James Tissot): 2009 Cole, Richard: 1992, 1993 Collier, Emily E: 1996 Collins, Clive: 1993 Conder, Charles, follower of: 1993, 1999 Corbould, Edward Henry: 2003 Corbould, Richard: 2003 Cowham, Hilda: 1993, 1999 Cox, Paul: 1993, 1997, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Crane, Walter: 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011 Cross, Peter: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Crowe, Derek: 2007 Crowquill, Alfred: 1993, 2003, 2009 Cruikshank, George: 1991, 1996, 1999, 2011 Cruikshank jnr, George: 1997, 1999 Cruikshank, Isaac: 1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 Cruikshank, Robert: 1993 Cubie, Alex: 1993 Cummings, Michael: 1992, 1997, 1999

Cushing, Howard Gardiner: 1999 Cusick, Jonathan: 2010, 2011 D Dadd, Philip: 1997 Dadd, Richard: 1997 Daley, Mike: 1992 Davidson, Victoria: 2003, 2011 Davis, Jon: 1991, 1992, 1993 Dawson, Eric: 1993 de Grineau, Bryan: 1992 De La Bere, Stephen Baghot: 1991, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2008 Dennis, Ada: 1996 Dickens, Frank: 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2011 Dickinson, Geoffrey: 2011 Disney, Walt (and the Disney Studio): 1991, 1993, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003 Dixon, Charles: 1992 Dobson, Austin: 1996 Donnison, Thomas Edward: 2011 Doré, Gustave: 1997, 1999, 2009 Douglas (Thomas Douglas England): 1992, 1993 Doyle, Charles: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2011 Doyle, Richard: 1991, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2010, 2011 Draner, Jules-Renard: 1993 Drew, Simon: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010 Du Cane, Ella: 1997 Dulac, Edmund: 1991, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2010 Du Maurier, George: 1991, 1992, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Duncan, John: 1991 Duncan, Walter: 1996 Dyson, Will: 1993, 1997, 1999 E Earnshaw, Harold: 1996 East, Alfred: 1997 Edwards, Lionel: 1992 Egan, Beresford: 1997 Elgood, George Samuel: 1997 Elliott, James: 1999 Emett, Rowland: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011 Emmwood (John Musgrave Wood): 1991, 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2010, 2011 Evans, Treyer: 2007


CUMULATIVE INDEX

F Ferguson, Norman: 1993, 1999, 2003 ffolkes, Michael: 1991, 1993, 1997, 1999 Fitzgerald, John Anster: 1991, 1997, 1999 Flanders, Dennis: 1992 Flather, Lisa: 1991 Fletcher, Geoffrey Scowcroft: 1993 Flint, Francis Russell: 1992 Flint, William Russell: 1993 Folkard, Charles: 1991, 1992, 1997, 2003, 2010 Ford, Henry Justice: 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 Ford, Noel: 1993 Foreman, Michael: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Foster, Myles Birket: 1991, 1999 Fougasse (Cyril Kenneth Bird): 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2009 François, André: 2009 Fraser, Claude Lovat: 1993 Fraser, Eric: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 French, Annie: 1991, 1992, 1997, 2003 Frith, Michael: 2010 Frost, William Edward: 1997, 2011 Fulleylove, John: 1996, 1997 Fullwood, John: 1997 Furniss, Harry: 1991, 1992, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2009 G Gaffney, Michael: 1991 Gardiner, Gerald: 1992, 1997, 2011 Garstin, Norman: 2003 Gaze, Harold: 1999, 2007 Gerrard, Roy: 2010 Gibbard, Les: 2011 Gibson, Charles Dana: 1991, 1999 Gilbert, John: 1993, 1996 Giles, (Ronald Giles): 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011 Gilliam, Terry: 1992 Gilroy, John: 1997 Ginger, Phyllis: 1991, 1992, 1993 Glashan, John: 1993 Goble, Warwick: 1997, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 Godfrey, Bob: 1993 Goldsmith, Beatrice May: 1996 Goodall, John Strickland: 1991, 1996, 1997 Goodwin, Harry: 1992 Gould, Francis Carruthers: 1992,

1996, 1999, 2003, 2009, 2010 Gould, Rupert Thomas: 1996 Granville, Walter: 1992 Greeley, Valerie: 1992 Green, Charles: 1991, 1997, 1999 Green, John Kenneth: 1993 Green, Winifred: 1996, 1999 Greenaway, Kate: 1991, 1992, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2010 Guthrie, Thomas Anstey: 1997 H I C H: 1997 Haité, George: 1997 Hale, Kathleen: 1991, 1996, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Hall, Amanda: 2011 Hall, Sidney Prior: 1991 Halswelle, Keeley: 1997 Hampson, Frank: 2002, 2003, 2008 Hancock, John: 1999 Hankey, William Lee: 1992, 1999 Hardy, Dorothy: 1991 Hardy, Dudley: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999 Hardy, Evelyn Stuart: 1993 Haro (Haro Hodson): 1991 Harris, Herbert H: 2003 Harrison, Florence: 2007, 2008, 2011 Harrold, John: 1993, 2011 Hartrick, Archibald Standish: 1999 Haselden, William Kerridge: 2010 Hassall, Ian: 1992, 1997 Hassall, Joan: 1992, 2011 Hassall, John: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2011 Hatherell, William: 1991, 2003 Hawkins, Colin: 1999 Hay, James Hamilton: 1997 Hayes, Claude: 1997 Haywood, Leslie: 1992 Heath, Michael: 1993 Henderson, Keith: 1992 Hennell, Thomas: 1991 Henry, Thomas: 1999 Herbert, Susan: 1996 Hergé (Georges Remi): 1991 Hewison, Bill: 2007 Hickson, Joan: 1993 Hilder, Rowland: 1997 Hirschfeld, Al: 2007 Hodges, Cyril Walter: 1991, 1993, 1997, 2011 Hoffnung, Gerard: 1991, 1992, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Honeysett, Martin: 1999 Hopkins, Arthur: 1996

Hopwood, Henry; 1997 Houghton, Arthur Boyd: 2002 Housman, Laurence: 1991, 2010 Howitt, Samuel: 1993 Hughes, Arthur: 2003 Hughes, Shirley: 2003 Hughes, Talbot: 1997 Hughes-Stanton, Herbert: 1997 Hunt, William Henry: 1996 Hunt, William Henry, follower of: 1997 Husband, Tony: 2003, 2007 I Illingworth, Leslie: 1992, 1997 Ivory, Leslie Anne: 1993, 1996 J Jacobs, Helen: 1992, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Jacques, Robin: 1991, 1992, 1997 Jak (Raymond Allen Jackson): 1991, 1993, 1997, 1999 Jalland, G H: 1997 Janny, Georg: 1992 Jaques, Faith: 1991, 2009 Jeffers, Oliver: 2009, 2010, 2011 Jensen, John: 1991, 1993, 1997, 2008, 2009, 2011 Johnson, Jane: 1991, 1992, 1999, 2007, 2009 Johnstone, Anne Grahame: 1992, 1997, 1999, 2007 Johnstone, Janet Grahame: 1999, 2007 Jon (William John Philpin Jones): 1991 K Kal (Kevin Kallaugher): 1991, 1992 Kapp, Edmond: 1999, 2007, 2011 Keene, Charles: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Keeping, Charles: 1997 Kelly, Walt: 2003 Kimball, Ward: 1993, 2003 King, Jessie Marion: 1997, 1999, 2003 Kliros, Thea: 2003 Knight, Laura: 1993 L Lamb, Lynton: 1993, 1997, 2007, 2010 Lancaster, Osbert: 1991, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2011 Langdon, David: 1991, 1993 Langley, Jonathan: 1999, 2000, 2007, 2010 Langley, Walter: 1997

Lantoine, Fernand: 1992 Larcombe, Ethel: 1999 Larry (Terence Parkes): 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 Lear, Edward: 1993, 1996, 2002, 2003 Le Cain, Errol: 1997 Lee, Alan: 1991 (insert), 2010 Lee, Joseph: 2007 Leech, John: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 2003, 2007 Leighton, John: 2003 Leman, Martin: 1993 Leonard, Michael: 1991 Leslie, Charles Robert: 1993, 1996 Levine, David: 2008, 2010 Lewis, John Frederick: 1991 Linton, James Drogmole: 1997 Lodge, G B: 1991 Low, David: 1991, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2007, 2008, 2011 Lucas, John Seymour: 1997 Lucas, Sydney Seymour: 1993 Lusk, Don: 2003 Lynch, Bohun: 2007 Lynch, Patrick James: 1992 M Mac (Stanley McMurtry): 2007 Macbeth-Raeburn, Henry: 1997 Macdonald, Alister K: 1999, 2003 McDonald, Atholl: 2003, 2007, 2011 Macdonald, R J: 2002 McGill, Donald: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999, 2010, 2011 McLachlan, Edward: 1997, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010 MacWhirter, John: 1997 Maddocks, Peter: 1993, 1997 Mallet, Dennis: 1991, 2010 Mansbridge, Norman: 1991 Marc (Mark Boxer): 1991 Marks, Henry Stacy: 1991, 1997 Marshall, Herbert Menzies: 1997 Marwood, Timothy: 1999 Matania, Fortunio: 1992 Matt (Matt Pritchett): 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Matthews, Rodney: 1991, 1993 Mavrogordato, Alexander: 1997 May, Phil: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2011 Mays, Douglas Lionel: 1997, 1999, 2007, 2008 Menpes, Mortimer: 1997, 1999 Meredith, Norman: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999 Meugens, Sibyl: 1993

381


THE ILLUSTRATORS

382

Meyrick, Kathryn: 1991 Midda, Sara: 1991, 1992, 1993, 2003 Mill, W: 1999 Millais, John Everett: 2002 Minnitt, Frank J: 2002 Minton, John: 2003 Moira, Gerald: 1997 Monsell, John Robert: 2003 Moore, Fred: 1993, 1999, 2003 Morrow, Edwin: 1993 Morton-Sale, Isobel: 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007 Morton-Sale, John: 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007 Munnings, Alfred: 1991

Pinkney, Jane: 2011 Pisa, Alberto: 1997 Pogany, Willy: 1992 Pollard, N: 1991, 1996 Pont (Graham Laidler): 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999 Potter, Beatrix: 1991, 2002, 2007, 2010, 2011 Poy (Percy Hutton Fearon): 1999, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Prance, Bertram: 2003 Preston, Chloë: 1999, 2007 Protheroe, Thomas: 1992 Pullen, Alison: 1993 Pyne, Ken: 1993

N Nash, Paul: 1993, 1997 Nevinson, Christopher Richard Wynne: 2003 Newman, Henry Roderick: 1996 Newman, Nick: 2007 Nibs (Frederick Drummond Niblett): 2008 Nichols, Charles: 1993 Nicholson, William: 1992, 1999 Nielsen, Kay: 1993, 2001, 2007 Nixon, John: 1999, 2007 Nixon, Kay: 1997

Q Quiz (Powys Evans): 1993, 2007

O Odle, Alan: 1991, 1996, 2007, 2010 Oppenheimer, Joseph: 1997 Orrock, James: 1997 Ospovat, Henry: 2002 Outhwaite, Ida Rentoul: 1991, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2008 Oxenbury, Helen: 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 P Palmer, Harry Sutton: 1991 Papas, William: 2007 Park, Bertram: 2011 Parsons, Alfred: 1992, 1997 Partridge, Bernard: 1997, 1999, 2002 Paton, Joseph Noel: 2003 Payne, David: 1992 Peake, Mervyn: 1997, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010 Pears, Charles: 1991 Pearse, Susan Beatrice: 1996, 2003 Pegram, Frederick: 1993 Peploe, William Watson: 1996 Peto, Gladys: 1993, 2007 Phiz (Hablot Knight Browne): 1993, 1999, 2003 Pickersgill, Frederick Richard: 1997

R Rackham, Arthur: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Raemaekers, Louis: 1992, 1999 Raven-Hill, Leonard: 1992, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2010 Reed, Edward Tennyson: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011 Reid, Stephen: 2003 Reitherman, Wolfgang: 1993, 1999, 2003 Réthi, Lili: 2007 Reynolds, Frank: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 Richards, Frank: 1992 Ricketts, Charles: 1993, 2009 Ridgewell, William Leigh: 2003 Rimington, Alexander: 1997 Ritchie, Alick: 1992 Roberson, Peter: 1992 Robertson, Henry: 1997 Robinson, Charles: 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 Robinson, Thomas Heath: 2003, 2011 Robinson, William Heath: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Rosoman, Leonard: 1997, 2011 Ross, Tony: 1999 Rothenstein, William: 1997 Rountree, Harry: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2010 Rowlandson, Thomas: 1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2007 Rushton, William: 2003

Rutherston, Albert: 1992 S Sainton, Charles Prosper: 1997 Salaman, F J B: 1999 Salmon, J M Balliol: 1999 Sambourne, Linley: 1996, 2003, 2007, 2010 Sandy, H C: 1991 Saul, Isabel: 1997 Scarfe, Gerald: 1991, 1992, 1993 Schulz, Charles Monroe: 1991, 1992, 1997 Schwabe, Randolph: 1997 Searle, Ronald: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 Severn, Arthur: 1996 Shackleton, William: 2007 Shannon, Charles: 1999 Sheldon, Charles Mill: 1999 Shaw, Byam: 1991, 1997 Shepard, Ernest Howard: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Shepherd, William James Affleck: 1993 Shepperson, Claude: 1997, 2007, 2010 Sheringham, George: 1992, 1997, 2007 Sherriffs, Robert Stewart: 1997, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Sillince, William: 1991, 2003 Sime, Sidney Herbert: 1991, 1996, 1999, 2009, 2011 Simmons, John: 1997 Simmons, W St Clair: 1999 Simpson, Joseph W: 1993, 2007 Slater, Paul: 1999 Slocombe, Edward: 1997 Slocombe, Frederick: 1997 Small, William: 1999 Smith, Jessie Wilcox: 2007 Smythe, Reg: 1993, 1999 Soper, Eileen: 1991, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2008 Soper, George: 1991, 1997 Sorel, Ed: 2007, 2008, 2011 Sowerby, Millicent: 1991, 1992 Spare, Austin Osman: 1991, 1996 Sprod, George: 1997, 1999, 2010 Spurrier, Steven: 1992, 1999 Spy (Leslie Ward): 2009, 2010, 2011 Stacey, Walter Sydney: 2009 Stampa, George Loraine: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2010 Staniforth, Joseph Morewood: 2010 Steadman, Ralph: 1991, 1992, 1996, 1997 Stokes, Adrian: 1997

Stokes, Marianne: 1997 Stothard, Thomas: 1999 Strang, William: 2007 Strube, Sidney: 1999, 2003, 2007 Studdy, George Ernest: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999, 2007, 2010, 2011 Sullivan, Edmund Joseph: 1991, 1992, 1997, 1999, 2009, 2010 Swan, John Macallan: 1997 Swanwick, Betty: 1991, 1993, 1997, 2008, 2011 Szyk, Arthur: 2003 T Tansend: 1999 Tarrant, Margaret: 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010 Tarrant, Percy: 1991 Taylor, John Whitfield: 2003 Tennant, Stephen: 2003 Tenniel, John: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Thackeray, Lance: 1992, 1997 Thelwell, Norman: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 Thomas, Bert: 1991, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2011 Thomas, Frank: 1993, 1999, 2003 Thomas, William Fletcher: 1993, 1996, 2003 Thomson, Hugh: 1991, 1997, 1999 Thorpe, James: 1991 Thurber, James: 1991 Tidy, Bill: 1993 Timlin, William Mitcheson: 1996, 1999 Titcombe, Bill: 1999 Topolski, Feliks: 1991, 2011 Tourtel, Mary: 1993, 1997, 2000, 2011 Townsend, Frederick Henry: 1999, 2010 Tyndale, Walter: 1997 Tyndall, Robert: 1999 Tytla, Bill: 1993, 1999, 2003 U Umbstaetter, Nelly: 2007 Underhill, Liz: 1992 V Van Abbé, Salomon: 1997, 1999, 2011 Van der Weyden, Harry: 1992 Vaughan, Keith: 1991


INDEX

Vicky (Victor Weisz): 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 W Wain, Louis: 1996, 2007, 2010 Wainwright, Francis: 1991, 1997 Walker, Frederick: 1991, 1999 Walker, William Henry Romaine: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2010 Waller, Pickford: 2010 Ward, John: 2010 Ward, William: 1996 Waterman, Julian: 1993 Wateridge, Jonathan: 2002 Watts, Arthur: 2007 Webb, Clifford: 1993 Webster, Tom: 1992 Weedon, Augustus: 1997 Wehrschmidt, Daniel: 1997 Welch, Patrick: 1991 Wells, Rosemary: 1993 Wheeler, Dorothy: 1991 Whistler, Rex: 1991, 2003, 2008, 2009 Whitelaw, George: 2007 Wilkie, David: 1991 Wilkinson, Thomas: 1993 Williams, Kipper: 2007 Williams, Mike: 1999, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2010 Wimbush, Henry: 1997 Wood, Lawson: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Wood, Starr: 1992, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2007 Woodward, George Murgatroyd: 2007 Wootton, Reg: 1991, 2003, 2011 Wright, Alan: 1991, 1996, 1997, 2011 Wright, John Masey: 1996 Wright, Patrick: 1993, 1997, 1999 Wyllie, William Lionel: 1997 Y Yeats, Jack Butler: 1993 Z Zinkeisen, Anna: 1993, 2007 Zinkeisen, Doris: 2007, 2008

IN D EX Adams, Christian Aldridge, Alan Anderson, Anne Ardizzone, Edward Aris, Ernest

Hoffnung, Gerard 374-375 320-321 58, 61-62 236-247, 250 75-76

Bateman, Henry Mayo Batt (Oswald Barrett) Beerbohm, Max Belcher, George Bestall, Alfred Blake, Quentin Brandt, Bill Brookes, Peter

95-96 136-137 90-93 124-126 214-220 309-313 252-253 370-371

Clark, Emma Chichester Clarke, Harry Cox, Paul Crane, Walter Cross, Peter Cruikshank, George Cusick, Jonathan

325-329 78-79 350-355 18-21 322-324 8-9 376-378

Davidson, Victoria Dickens, Frank Dickinson, Geoffrey Donnison, Thomas Edward Doyle, Charles Doyle, Richard Du Maurier, George

254-255 368-369 209 89 14-17 12-13 44-54

Emett, Rowland 185-190 Emmwood (John Musgrave-Wood) 197-200 Foreman, Michael 314-319 Fraser, Eric 251-252, 259-266 Frost, William Edward 10-11 Gardiner, Gerald Gibbard, Les Giles (Ronald Giles) Goble, Warwick

157-159 210 201-204 56-57

Hale, Kathleen Hall, Amanda Harrison, Florence Harrold, John Hassall, Joan Hassall, John Hodges, Cyril Walter

224-235 356-363 66-67 221-223 160-162 73-74 163-165

257

Jacobs, Helen Jeffers, Oliver Jensen, John

77 333-337 258

Kapp, Edmond Keene, Charles

168-179 38-39

Lancaster, Osbert Larry (Terence Parkes) Low, David

191-193 205-208 180-184

McDonald, Atholl McGill, Donald Matt (Matt Pritchett) May, Phil

330-332 127-129 372-373 42-43

Park, Bertram Pinkney, Jane Potter, Beatrix Poy (Percy Hutton Fearon)

170 338-349 64-65 117-123

Rackham, Arthur Reed, Edward Tennyson Reynolds, Frank Robinson, Charles Robinson, Thomas Heath Robinson, William Heath Rosoman, Leonard

68-72 80-88 130-131 100-103 97-99 104-116 306-308

Searle, Ronald Shepard, Ernest Howard Sherriffs (Robert Sherriffs) Sime, Sydney Sorel, Edward Spy (Leslie Ward) Studdy, George Ernest Swanwick, Betty

256, 286-297 138-151 267-274 63 364-367 40-41 132 166-167

Tenniel, John Thelwell, Norman Thomas, Bert Topolski, Felix Tourtel, Mary

22-37 256, 298-304 94 275-285 212-213

Van AbbĂŠ, Salomon Vicky (Victor Weisz)

152-156 196

Wood, Lawson Wootton, Reg Wright, Alan

133-135 194-195 58-62

383


CHRIS BEETLES

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THE ILLUSTRATORS: THE BRITISH ART OF ILLUSTRATION 1837-2011  

615 full colour images, 88 artists, Cross-index which refers back to all catalogues since 1991. Significant biographical essays, introducing...

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