__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1

CHEPOS built environment magazine

53

March 2016


EDITORIAL

CHEPOS built environment magazine

St. Paul’s under a slab of black marble. His son

hospital with its fluorescent light, corridor system

placed a commemoration next to the grave with

and uncomfortable spaces do not really con-

the phrase “Lector, si monumentum requiris,

tribute to a pleasant experience. They however

circumspice”, which translates to: “Reader, if

see L’Ospedale degli Innocenti, built in 1419 by

you seek a monument, look around you”. In a

Brunelleschi, as a good example of a building

broader sense this phrase also refers to people

dealing with disease and death, because of the

in general and how their legacy lives on through

ambitions that building had as a hospital and the

both tangible objects and intangible relation-

influential role it eventually played in the devel-

ships, and illustrates how cities and buildings

opment of the discipline of architecture.

help us to carve these relations in stone. In this issue of Chepos we take a look at the role Architects Alison Killing and Ania Molenda

of architecture in the experience of death and

argue that nowadays we should again talk more

how buildings, monuments and landscape for

Death is a topic not often spoken of and when

about the role and presence of death in the

instance function in the presence of death and

possible avoided. Death is however a part of life

built environment, especially as humans now

dying. Conversely we also left room for buildings

and at one point or another we all deal with it

tend to live longer, but more often also face

for the living, such as ‘The Sketch’, refugee

in a way. In the discipline of building we deal

chronic diseases. At the 2014 Venice Biennale,

camps and factories with saw-tooth roofs, and

with it as well. One of the New Seven Wonders

they set up the exhibition ‘Death in Venice’

ideas about the future through the Climate

of the World, the Taj Mahal, for instance is a

where they wanted to convey the message that

Change Conference in Paris last year and the

giant mausoleum for the favorite wife of Mugal

death related architecture no longer seems to

recently finished multi-project ‘Oude Haven’.

Emperor Shah Jahan.

be of importance for the development of the discipline of building. A hundred years ago death

I wish you, the reader, once again a nice read.

Another example of death and architecture

in architecture was omnipresent, as people were

meeting is in St. Pauls Cathedral, designed

taken care of at home when they were ill and

Justin Agyin

by Christopher Wren. Twelve years after its

eventually died there. Buildings related to dying

Editor in Chief

completion, Christopher Wren was entombed in

in the present are quite grim. The modern day


24 FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH

4 | CHEPOS

20

BUILT TO LAST Poem by Nienke Esther Grooten ARCHITECTURE OF SOLACE FROM GRAVEYARD TO LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE NATIONAL MONUMENT CAMP VUGHT An experience through the eyes of a visitor FUNCTIONAL MEMORIALS A SECOND LIFE FOR - DE NIEUWE OOSTER THE DEAD DO NOT BUILD. Column Jacob Voorthuis THE PERFECT PLACE TO DIE

14 16 18 20 22 24 28 30

SUBJECT ARTICLE INDEX


INDEX NOW

5

10

12

38

NOW EDITORIAL CHEPOST What if.. Architecture meets Real Estate SAVING ENERGY NL NEWS A ROUND IN THE WORKSHOP PICKING BRICKS Column Adriaan Jurriëns HOMEWRECKED DE OUDE HAVEN Best Multi projects

33

THAT’S WHY 4 5 6 8 9 10 12

CARNAVAL OR CALVIJN? Religious clash in West Brabant BREAKING THROUGH THE PARISIAN SKYLINE STREET FURNITURE SAWTOOTH ROOFS STYLOS DELFT

33 36 38 40 42

TOOLS GRADE ↑, YOUR SKILLS! 43 AGENDA 44

CHEPOS | 5


chePOST Name: Patrick van Dodewaard Graduated in January 2016 Field of Study: Architecture/Structural Design Subject: What if.. Architecture meets Real Estate

Something on your mind you need to share? Send us an email on chepos@cheops.cc and your article might get published!

During the Dutch Design Week 2015 a curious

Aken? They assigned two teams in one office,

to a design would have influence on the spatial

architectural competition caught my attention.

both earning a salary, to work on a single assign-

qualities of the place. The thing that remains

A new development for the ‘ugliest roundabout

ment? I can also imagine that two competitive

peculiar however, is the role of Van Aken, since

of Eindhoven’, the Marconiplein, was presented.

teams within one office is not a great tool for

they get the image of being played with, by

Two designs which both appeared unlikely to

teambuilding. What really frightens me however

being forced to design two proposals for SDK

win a typical architectural competition were pro-

is that the architect seems to throw away all its

with ‘help’ of a famous Dutch designer. Again, I

posed. The competition was presented as a great

expertise and lets the public decide what the

do not know the financial compensation for this

example of public participation and received

best solution is on the basis of just one rendering

whole circus, but it does not gives them a strong

major attention in the newspapers and social

and a model. An audience of whom the majority

appearance. SDK did a good job with marketing

media. When I was processing the designs, I

probably does not even lives in Eindhoven and

the project and I am sure that they will rent all

was however rather confused, not about the

is just visiting the Dutch Design Week. So why

apartments with ease. Though I truly hope that

difficult choice between the colored houses with

would you want to involve them at all?

this way of marketing is not the future for com-

small windmills (Design A) or the potatoes with

mercial development in The Netherlands.

the birdhouses attached (Design B), it was the

For me the competition seemed too bizarre to

competition itself that confused me.

be true, and luckily it was. A few months later

By the way, design A won.

it became clear that the competition was not a The competition, called a ‘Hubson’s Choice’ (a

real competition but, obviously, a great market-

choice of taking what is available or nothing at

ing stunt instead. SDK wanted to create some

all) by the online magazine Uncube, was a com-

buzz around the project by giving the public the

petition set up by SDK Vastgoed. SDK is respon-

illusion that they had a say. SDK succeeded with

sible for hiring Dutch designer Maarten Baas

flying colors since it received great attention

and the Eindhoven based architectural firm Van

for the project, even I am contributing to this

Aken. Their job was to come up with two design

attention. The ‘pseudo-comp’ also explains the

proposals in which ‘design meets architecture’

fact that the audience was not taken seriously,

for the plot next to the Marconiplein. The devel-

although they had a voice. The majority of the

oper even proudly presented: “Our ambition is

votes was given by experts and more important-

that the project will be featured on postcards of

ly, the designs were already preselected by SDK,

Eindhoven.” A panel of judges and the audience

deleting all uncertainties out of this marketing

could then vote for their favorite proposal. The

trick. In an interview Baas even admitted that

curious fact that both designs were delivered

the two teams where having contact with each

by Van Aken surprised me. Why do you assign

other quite often thus it can impossibly be seen

an architectural firm, and afterwards come up

as a competition.

with a competition? The role of van Aken is quite doubtful in this case. I have no information

In the end I am quite relieved that it was just a

about the wages payed whatsoever, but it is a

marketing trick, it would be a very shady devel-

reasonable question to ask: what is in it for Van

opment if people without any direct connection

6 | CHEPOS

CHEPOST


NOW

SAVING ENERGY Inspiration for energy neutral buildings and the ZEN Platform On November 30 last year, the Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris started. For two weeks, the 195 attending nations and the European Union negotiated about the Paris Agreement. A lot of decisions needed to be made and after these two weeks the 196 attending parties came to a consensus and agreed to set path to keep the temperature rise below two degrees Celsius. How is the built environment going to accomplish a more environmental friendly way of building? Can we already notice any differences in mind set, and if so, has any action been taken yet? TEXT: RENÉE THIERIJ A Climate Agreement may sound like something

the dweller will play the most important role.

a highly insulated façade makes sure the entire

impressive has been achieved. But to accomplish

By building new houses that are comfortable,

supermarket can be heated. A heat recovery

these agreements in the slow evolving building

healthy and give value for money, the dweller

system, smart ventilation and efficient lighting

industry, buildings should already be designed

will be more happy. Instead of saving expendi-

contribute further to the lower energy consump-

with a different, thus more green, mind set right

tures on the house, the bill will be lower because

tion. In total, the supermarket uses 30% less

at this moment. All over the world think tanks

less energy is needed. The houses built by the

energy than supermarkets usually do.

and networks such as architecture 2030 and

companies of the ZEN platform will all make sure

Construction 21 have arisen, a sign that the

their new buildings meet the requirements set by

Next to showing inspiring projects, Platform ZEN

building sector is indeed trying to change. That

the Dutch government for 2021, even if they are

has different themes on its website to learn more

the building sector is willing to change also be-

completed earlier. The construction of these new

about building in an energy efficient way. All

came clear at COP21 when the Global Alliance

buildings has to start before 2018. In that way,

parties actively work together to share as much

for Buildings and Construction was launched.

they will be one step ahead of the regulations

information as possible. Dwellers that live in

A worldwide alliance with the aim to gather

and can be an example for other companies in

buildings completed by the parties involved will

countries, cities and public and private organiza-

the building industry.

be monitored to see how satisfied they are.

sure action is taken to keep the temperature rise

Not only dwellings need to be more energy effi-

To learn more about the Global Alliance for

below two degrees Celsius.

cient, all other types of buildings will have to be

Buildings and Construction or Platform ZEN,

tions of the building sector value chain to make

as well. Platform ZEN also provides some inspir-

take a look at web.unep.org/climatechange/

In The Netherlands smaller but not less impor-

ing examples that show, if you want to, you can

buildingsday and www.lente-akkoord.nl

tant initiatives arose too. One of them, called

already build very energy efficient. One of those

Platform ZEN, is a collaboration between four

examples is a supermarket in Hannover, which

industry associations to network and exchange

is the first supermarket to have an EPC lower

information about energy neutral dwellings.

than 1,7. By collecting

Platform ZEN was launched in October 2015,

the waste heat from

just before the Climate Change Conference

the cooling system,

in Paris. ZEN stands for Zeer Energiezuinige

this energy can be

Nieuwbouw and the platform has been created

re-used as indoor

to ensure the housing sector in the Netherlands

heating. This in

will change its mindset. In this new mindset

combination with

SAVING ENERGY

IMAGES 1 1

1. Logo Climate Change Conference 2015 (source: cop21.gouv.fr) 2. Logo Building Day (source: gpb.org)

2

SOURCES 1. Climate Change Conference 2015. “Building”. Newsroom. unfccc.int 2. Lente Akkoord. “Zeer Energiezuinige Nieuwbouw”. Lenteakkoord.nl 3. Lente Akkoord. “Lidl in Stein scoort A++++”. Sep. 16, 2014. Lente-akkoord.nl

CHEPOS | 7


NL NEWS TEXT: SVEN VAN DER HULST

BRIDGE IN ICE After realizing world’s biggest dome and church in ice, the students Thijs van Nieuwenhof and Roel Koekkoek accepted this year’s challenge to build the largest bridge in ice. After studying a design of Leonardo Da Vinci from 1502 the design slowly came to life. To successfully prepare every detail before going to Finland, the project was divided into smaller projects. Material research, structural design, safety-instructions and designs for the inflatable mold are examples of such projects. Beside these master students from the TU/e, also students from Sint Lucas and Summa College were involved. By designing a rope net, which kept the inflatable mold in the right place, the bridge could be build up in layers of ice-cellulose mixture. At a temperature of -35 degrees Celsius the composite would freeze relatively fast. To take the most advantage of these cold temperatures, the group worked twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. This was done in four shifts. Each shift would work three hours, two times a day, with three hours of rest in between. At a temperature of -35 degrees Celsius, small coffee breaks were also introduced.

FERRIS WHEEL SCHEVENINGEN PIER This summer a 40-meter high Ferris wheel will

Working in these cold circumstances was something new for me. It was very important

be finished at the famous pier of Scheveningen.

to always clean up your mess. If you did not do this and left tools on the ground, it was

KondorWessels Vastgoed and DanZep Hotels

likely they would be frozen when you came back. And believe me when I say that it is not

both saved the pier last summer from demoli-

that easy to get them loose again. Not only tools, but also continuously spraying firehoses

tion. With a Ferris wheel and a pop-up hotel

would freeze and electricity cables broke easily due to the cold temperature. Altogether

containing thirteen luxurious rooms, they want

the whole preparation, teamwork and practical experience was something I did not want

to give the pier back its luster. The project needs

to miss. Besides this, I hope a lot of people will enjoy the beautiful view the Bridge in Ice

to be finished before the summer season starts,

offers those people who will reach the ice cold top.

and by then visitors should be able to take a

Text: Patrick Lenaers, Image: www.e52.nl

twenty minute ride in one of the thirty air-conditioned gondolas.

Unfortunately the Bridge in Ice has collapsed on February 8 due to the too high tempera-

Source: www.architectenweb.nl, Image: www.deposthoorn.nl

tures in Juuka.

KEUKENHOF LISSE The Keukenhof, famous for its tulip gardens will have its new entrance building finished at the end of June this year. This February, the highest point of the building has been reached. The building will not only provide room for ticket sales, but also a restaurant, souvenir shop and information center will be housed under a roof constructed out of wood, with a span of 25 meters that was designed by Mecanoo architects. At the start of 2017 the building will be opened, together with a parking lot for 4500 cars and 1000 touring cars. Source: www.dearchitect.nl, Image: www.tulipsinholland.com

8 | CHEPOS

NL NEWS


NOW MUNICIPALITY OF DELFT IN FINANCIAL TROUBLE The municipality of Delft has serious financial problems due to three major projects being built in the city. The recently opened railway station of Delft, which was supposed to cost 350 million euros exceeded in costs and the municipality only calculated 7% as ‘unforeseen expenses’ while the standard is 10%. Moreover they bought a large piece of land for new housing projects, just before the financial crisis, thinking that they would not win nor lose money on the project. The municipality lost over 50 million euro on this risky bet. The third project where mistakes have been made is the St. Sebastiaansbrug. A new design for this bridge was already a necessity in 2006. Now, after lots of discussions and meetings about the design of the bridge and who’s there to fund it, a cheaper bridge will be finished not earlier than 2020. A committee of people in the municipality has been investigating the case and struck upon several facts that concluded that the municipality had been used and abused by various companies. The committee is aiming at setting up a guideline needs for future projects in Delft. Source: www.dearchitect.nl, Image: Jimmy Hendrickx


A ROUND IN THE WORKSHOP During the final week towards the deadlines the

The design is for a multi-functional block with

The steel structure with vierendeel trusses and

workshop always gets a heart infarct. Several

smart housing, a Master project, conducted by

rigid corners are fundamental to the design. A

projects of Bachelor and Master are going to

Sergio Figueirdo. Remco’s vision is to make ur-

private living ‘street’ and a commercial ‘street’

end. Among those projects one scale model

ban farming more mainstream and to have more

are connected by a loop with two different

draws the attention. The student who created it,

self-sufficient households towards the future. His

paths. The ‘streets’ connect the buildings, and

is Remco van Nieuwland.

elaboration creates an urban farm underneath

the urban farm covers the site. This area exploits

the housing for couples and young starting

a restaurant and other food courts with local

families. The building site accommodates five

farming. The connection near the city center and

different types of houses (XS,S,M,L,XL) in sizes

local farming can give a new impulse to the city

of two up to four blocks big.

of Eindhoven.

TEXT: MARTIJN CREEMERS

10 | CHEPOS

A ROUND IN THE WORKSHOP


NOW

COLUMN: Adriaan Jurriëns Adriaan Jurriëns is alumnus and former editor for Chepos Magazine. In every edition he writes a column about his experiences as self-employed architect.

Picking Bricks

How much time would an average student

expression towards the church. It had to fit in

which is not the case for our extruded brick,

spend on choosing the materials for his

with the existing architecture. The church was

there are other variables at stake like the right

buildings? Looking back on my time as a student

made out of bricks which led us to use the same

type or mixture of clay or the limited options for

architect, I spent only little time on it. And

material, so it could blend in with the existing

uncommon dimensions.

even then I was just one of the few who spent

structure. From this simple stance followed a

time on details and materials. But don’t worry,

tough search for the right brick. This simple

Finding a brick that met all the characteristics of

students do not have to fear they are missing

decision surpassed all my initial expectations on

the existing bricks in the church is an impossible

something essential. The most valuable lesson, in

the time it would take to find the right materials.

job. (Unless of course we had unlimited acces

my opinion, is not in finding the right materials

to money, which is almost never the case).

but in structuring ideas in a coherent design and

At the beginning of this project we had noticed

Therefore we had to make choices about which

working consistently with this design throughout

that the brick was slightly different from the

characteristics to work with and see if there were

the whole project. Choosing materials is just one

normal “waalformaat” bricks often used today.

some possibilities in the production of bricks to

of the aspects of this process. Yet, experimenting

One of those differences was the size. (In our

create the best stone. Before you even realize it,

and looking for the right materials is therefore

particular case it was the so-called “reno-

you are no longer simply choosing a material,

more in the background.

formaat”). It turned out to be the first of many

but occupied with production processes for

curiosities. There was no chance the original

making the materials.

In practice, choosing materials has a far more

manufacturer could help us. In the heyday of

prominent role, as is also the case with the

the twenties, the Netherlands had over 600

At this time I have spent more time on finding

drawings for the final construction plans. In this

manufacturers of brick. Today it has shrunk

the right materials than I realized beforehand.

it becomes more obvious how the initial ideas

to less than 30. And even if we could find

What drives an architect to go this far? I think

are brought to life and we can become more

the original manufacturer, the manufacturing

it has to do with the ambition of consistency

aware of their consequences. Choosing materials

process has changed radically. And that had

between concept of the design and the

is even more important when an architect is

consequences for finding some sort of replica of

consequences for the materials in the final

faced with already existing buildings. This always

the original brick.

building plans. Too much compromise will lead

raises the question of how to deal with the

to a diluted design and mediocre architecture

existing, because it limits the possibilities of the

For instance the texture of the stone is the result

or worse. There is already enough mediocrity

architect. And materials are, of course, a major

of imperfections caused by a steel die used for

in the built environment. If the possibility of

limit in our work.

making extruded bricks. Today this part of the

good architecture is there, why should we as

process has “improved” and the variations in

architects settle for inferior design solutions like

I thought I had quite a good picture in mind

texture have almost been eliminated. Another

ugly expansion joints or some second-best brick,

when I started to work on a design for a

innovation which has changed the appearance

while there are better alternatives out there? I

monumental church from the thirties. Following

of the bricks has been made in the burning

think it is a good thing for students to realize

our concept of the design – an entrance for an

process. The conventional process has been

how much time it can take, but it is even more

extension beneath the church – we made the

replaced for a more efficient one. Although

important to realize consistency in design. And

decision that the design should have a modest

some traditional processes can still be found,

how it is built, is still the most important thing!

COLUMN: ADRIAAN JURRIËNS

CHEPOS | 11


HOMEWRECKED WHERE TO STAY AS A REFUGEE IN THE NETHERLANDS? In 2015, a rising number of refugees travelled to Europe in order to seek for asylum. In the first half of 2015, almost 400.000 migrants received asylum within the borders of the Schengen region. A number that has expectedly raised above one million in December 2015. In the Netherlands, 43.093 refugees have asked for asylum in 2015. TEXT : JIMMY HENDRICKX To organize the flow of incoming refugees, the

families. The method is appreciated for its quick

the facilities are already present. However, often

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for

implementation and low costs, but it also car-

a lack of privacy among refugees is experienced.

Refugees) has published a handbook containing

ries a huge burden for host families. Therefore,

Furthermore, damage to the existing building

almost 600 pages which provides guidelines for

assistance for both the hosts and the refugees

and equipment is possible. For the surrounding

dealing with emergencies. The book includes

is required. Furthermore, the capacity of these

community, the original function of the building

topics ranging from HIV and AIDS to sanitary

accommodations is low compared to the other

is lost.

facilities and site planning. Besides that, it

two methods. Even though not everybody

distinguishes three different types of detention

wants to share their house and dinner with the

This solution fits well in buildings wherein the

centers: dispersed settlements or host families,

refugees, certain “share your home� campaigns

function has already been abandoned and which

mass shelters and camps. The last two are most

have seemed successful. In Apeldoorn, 488

are currently empty. In Arnhem, former prison

common in the Netherlands. However, host

families opened their doors for refugees to have

De Koepel is being used as a detention center

families also appear as a quick solution for an

dinner with them. In Zwolle, the amount of host

since September 2015. The municipality recog-

unexpected flow of refugees until a location is

families has proven to be too much, as not every

nizes that it is not the best solution, but they

found for mass shelter or a camp.

host family was needed.

needed a place to keep the incoming migrants as the central detention center in Ter Apel, was

DISPERSED SETTLEMENTS

MASS SHELTER

reaching its maximum capacity. The former

Dispersed settlements can be found when

Accommodation in mass shelters often presents

prison can house up to 400 refugees and will be

refugees find shelter within the houses of host

itself in pre-existing structures and facilities that

opened for four to five months. The doors of

families or set up temporary accommodation

are not continuously inhabited or used. Ex-

the cells will be open and people are allowed to

nearby the homes. Refugees share facilities such

amples are warehouses, gymnasiums or schools.

leave the prison at any time.

as water, sanitation and cooking with the host

The method is fairly quick to implement, since


NOW

CAMPS Refugee camps can occur in two situations:

site plan, also called ‘master plan’, shows all of

ber 2015, can provide shelter and facilities for a

Spontaneous and planned. Spontaneous or

the existing surroundings. This includes all natu-

maximum of 3000 refugees. On site, there are

unplanned camps can be seen as the worst case

ral and existing features which the landscape has

30 temporary pavilions, each able to house 100

scenario as these often need major re-design and

to offer. Besides these already present features,

refugees. These thirty pavilions are subdivided

sometimes even relocation. If not, the camps

the master plan shows the planned features.

into three “villages” (1000 persons), each hav-

lack enough sanitary facilities, water and space.

These include the infrastructure needed to house

ing their own dining hall and recreation room.

To prevent these spontaneous camps, mass

all the refugees and the needed facilities along

Furthermore, a special primary and secondary

shelter in pre-existing structures is often applied

with the shelters. The overall physical layout

school has been arranged to provide education

to quickly shelter these refugees.

should look as a decentralized community-based

to children aged 6-18 years.

city, which takes the families, pre-existing comPlanned camps are often a different story. These

munities or other social groups into account.

Thus Nijmegen Heumensoord also shows

are purposely built sites with the full range of

Furthermore, an open lay-out of communities

similarities with the planned camps described by

facilities. The maximum capacity of these sites

should improve connections with other com-

the UNHCR. There are however reasons why

is recommended at 20.000 refugees, which

munities. A closed urban form is therefore not

the modernist approach to city planning of the

can be placed on a recommended 90 hectares.

recommended.

1920’s failed. Recent refugee camps also show

These planned camp sites are very alike the ideal

these planning strategies and are also likely to

cities imagined by modernist in the 1920’s. The

Besides that, the book also states that pre-

fail. First of all, because segregation of differ-

standard facilities for each site include a health

fabricated building systems or specialized

ent groups might not be the best option in the

center, four distribution points, a market and a

emergency shelter units have not proven to be

long term. The segregation only enhances the

feeding center. Each site includes four sectors

very effective. They are expensive and take a

feeling between a “better” us (western world)

where, if possible, ethnic and religious groups

long time to manufacture, ship and assemble. In

and them. Furthermore, camps use the same

are separated to avoid conflicts. A school block

these aspects, tents do provide quick shelter for

planning approach, whether in the Sahara,

for 5.000 persons is realized in each sector. The

low costs.

rainforest or urban areas. Most often, surround-

sectors are further divided into blocks, communi-

ings can provide great benefits to this pop-up

NIJMEGEN HEUMENSOORD

city of tents. By responding more to its context,

The largest refugee camp in the Netherlands is

both refugees and neighbors have an increased

The lay-out of such a camp is also described in

Nijmegen Heumensoord. This camp, which re-

chance in making the best of their (temporary)

the UNHCR handbook. First of all, the overall

ceived its first migrant near the end of Septem-

time together.

ties and families, each with their own facilities.

IMAGES 2

1

3

1. De Koepel in Arnhem (source: cdn.gld.nl) 2. Nijmegen Heumensoord (source: gelderlander.nl) 3. Nijmegen Heumensoord (source: gelderlander.nl)

SOURCES 1. Vluchtelingenwerk Nederland. Vluchtelingenwerk.nl 2. Centraal orgaan opvang asielzoekers. Coa.nl 3. RTV Oost. “Noodopvang voor asielzoekers in IJselhallen Zwolle zit vol”. Aug. 4, 2015. Rtvoost.nl 4. Stichting Present. Stichtingpresent.nl. 5. UNHCR. Handbook for Emergencies. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2007) pp.204-226. 6. Herz, M. Refugee Camps – or – Ideal Cities in Dust and Dirt; in Urban Transformation (Berlin: Ruby Press, 2008).

REFUGEE CRISIS

CHEPOS | 13


Oude Haven MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECT FALL 2015

The requirements concerning an energy-neutral built environment – combined with the application of passive building concepts, structural characteristics of the façade and the reduction of nuisance caused by construction work in a central area – have led to the use of prefabricated

This year the Multidisciplinary Project was set in Eindhoven. On the site of the Oude Ha-

timber-frame façade elements. In order to meet

ven only a monument and burned building were left. The goal was to redesign this loca-

the requirements for energy-neutrality, in addition

tion and to design residences for expats and a wellness center. Important was to keep the

to the application of a large number of solar col-

surroundings in mind as well, and to make sure the plan was sustainable. The two best

lectors, a thermal storage will be installed. Hereby,

groups, selected by teachers as well as the attending students, present to you their plan.

participation in the energy system of the direct environment is established. - Group 1

TEXT : RENÉE THIERIJ, RICK ABELEN & ROB ABELING

THE INDUSTRIAL

FROM PRODUCING TO PARTICIPATING

the functions of the district. Second, the industrial

The unique character of Eindhoven, as an in-

emphasized by showing the historical layers of

dustrial city with its former plants in and around

the area. The third point is to redesign existing

the city center, seems to get overshadowed by

public spaces to ensure the quality of living in

the increasing demand for housing. The design

Eindhoven, on district- and city level. Both on the

responded to this by realizing a transition from

north and south bank of the canal, public spaces

producing, the former industrial and commercial

will arise that support the character of the design.

EMPHASIZED

character of Eindhoven will be maintained and

CHARACTER OF EINDHOVEN WILL BE MAINTAINED AND

function of the area, to participating. For example by means of sight lines. In response

Group 1:

Participation is the guiding principle for three

to technical market research on the specific needs

Rick Abelen, Britt Cordewener, Suzanne

starting points of the design. First, the planning

and desires of expatriates, studios and apartments

Dijkhuizen, Silvijn Rens, Mandy Verstraeten

area is redefined by creating a clear separation in

of different sizes will be realized.

Daniël van der Wal en Luuk Zwartbol

functions that connect, and thus participate, with

14 | CHEPOS

MULTI PROJECT FALL 2015


NOW CONNECTING PAST AND PRESENT

of the damaged old factory building. Left-over

Dwellings for expatriates will be the largest

building elements, such as parts of the masonry

function to be realized in the Oude Haven.

walls, are straightly cut off and remain there. On

Expats represent the development of Eindhoven

top of that we placed a new abstract rectan-

to Brainport Eindhoven. The Oude Haven with

gular glass volume that accommodates a new

the canal remnants of a factory and a monu-

function.

mental house of a factory executive. Which is exemplary for the industrial past of Eindhoven. Therefore, our vision on the Oude Haven is to merge the history and future of Eindhoven with this project. In this way the expats will connect Eindhoven. The plan also integrates a route from the ‘Ondernemersplein’ and the Picuskade residential project to the pedestrian/cyclist road along the Dommel which connects the TU/e and the High Tech Campus.

THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IS CHARACTERIZED BY FLEXIBLE FLOOR PLANS, ENSURING MAXIMUM FLEXIBILITY

by the use of Western Red Cedar wood. The

The Spa merges history and future of the area by

roof of the building is sloped for the integration

All buildings are placed on a rational grid of

embedding an old chimney and the monumental

of PV panels. – Group 2

2x2m, based on and made visual through

house of the factory executive in design. The

2x2m Stelcon slabs, which reminds one of the

chimney is used to emphasize the entrance of

Group 2:

industrial past of the Oude Haven. The industrial

the building.

Anoek Seweuster, Ties de Wildt, Rob Abeling,

character is further expressed in façade materials

The residential building is characterized by its

Wouter Roos, Fazil Pesdek en Veerle Roijackers

such as perforated aluminum for the Spa and

generic floor plan and partly removable floors to

iron pigmented concrete for the residential build-

ensure maximum flexibility of dwelling sizes. The

ing. We consciously chose for new industrial

dwellings are accessed through a courtyard that,

materials, because we think the plan deserves its

opposed to the industrial materials on the out-

own identity. This is also visible in the treatment

side, has got an intimate and warm atmosphere

IMAGES 2 1

3

1. Impression of the location from a balcony (render: Rick Abelen, Group 1) 2. Impression of the location from Kanaaldijk-Zuid (render: Group 2) 3. Impression of the location from the canal (render: Group 2)

CHEPOS | 15


BUILT TO LAST TEXT: NIENKE ESTHER GROOTEN EINDHOVEN CITY POET

Stone by stone My walls are here to stay I’ve been around since everyone alive today Can remember I am a citizen to hang around with For many generations I am one of the faces of this town I protect, I’m warm and safe My windows are my eyes Looking out for all of you My doors are my arms Welcoming you to the light inside I was made to live forever I’ve seen the people come and go Baptised and buried The city around me: rising and falling And me in the middle Don’t you worry I’ll be right here I was built to last


ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH

For architects and urban planners, it is important to form a vision on death and decease. The intention is to create good places that are associated with this fundamental phase in everyone’s life. Death has undoubtedly left its mark on certain aspects of architecture and urban planning, but it is often overlooked in the professional discussions. TEXT: RICK ABELEN


Architecture of solace A typology of the crematorium

Just after the completion of the Haarlem Crematorium in 2002, architect Herman Zeinstra (Zeinstra Van der Pol architects) told magazine Het Houtblad that he was missing a feeling of going through a process when attending a cremation. “It leaves you unsatisfied.” With the design for the Haarlem Crematorium, he wanted to build the stage for a well-organized ritual. “Funerals have a nice structure. Through a fixed number of steps, you will get the necessary time to experience, process and later remember. You go from home to church, from church to auditorium, from auditorium to grave and from grave to condoleance room.” TEXT: RIK DE BONDT The crematorium is a relatively young build-

At the same time a crematorium is like a factory:

emotions. This concept can be seen in many

ing type. Cremation only became customary in

the actual ovens for the incineration of bodies

crematorium designs: distance has been cre-

Belgium and The Netherlands in the 1980s. In

are fully automated: the body is inserted into

ated between different functions within them.

2003, for the first time, the number of crema-

the oven and at the end of the process only the

Zeinstra van der Pol organized the program

tions exceeded the number of burials. As the

ashes remain to be collected by the undertaker.

for Crematorium Haarlem around a courtyard

crematorium type originated in a time when

and clearly separated the different parts of the

society increasingly secularized, crematoriums

SEQUENCE

program; the building had to be legible and

are suitable to serve people with diverse phi-

As Zeinstra emphasized, for the design of a

comforting. In Claus en Kaan’s Crematorium

losophies and cultural backgrounds. In this sense

crematorium, the traditional funeral is an impor-

Heimolen in Sint Niklaas, the ceremonial space

the building is like a theater in which multiple

tant frame of reference. Even though more and

and the ovens are situated in different buildings.

different plays may be performed, rather than a

more funeral ceremonies are unreligious, the

In Crematorium Hofheide in Holsbeek, designed

church where the same ritual is repeated accord-

general format of a ceremony is some sequential

by RCR Arquitectes/Coussée & Goris, the func-

ing to a set of religious rules.

ritual with successive scenes, evoking different

tions are seperated on different levels.

18 | CHEPOS

CREMATORIUM ARCHITECTURE


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH Edouarde Souto de Moura, architect of Crematorium Uitzicht in Kortrijk, stated: “The crematorium will not be a church or chapel, with a religious or mystic atmosphere. The crematorium will neither be a house, where it is nice and cozy.” Thus, spaces have been organized linearly, in a logical sequence from entrance to condoleance room; the architecture is discreet and practical, symbolizing absence. The traditional funeral has a lot of similarities with a theater play, except that eventually the main character is cremated or buried. The spatial experience can play an important part in making impact that is desired to give the deceased a

reflection and grief. For Crematorium Uitzicht,

Crematorium Hofheide, with its dramatic spaces

place in the visitors’ memories. The architecture

architect Edouardo Souto de Moura constructed

and expressive corrugated steel façade, could

can accentuate, dramatize, or water down the

the entrance in a patio sunken into the ground,

barely be stronger.

ritual, offering consolation. Often the scene is

accessible via a slope. Thus through the slope,

articulated in the ceremonial spaces. In Souto de

the entrance is extended into the outdoor space,

Edouardo Souto de Moura, Claus and Kaan,

Moura’s Crematorium Uitzicht, the coffin and

preparing the visitor for the ceremony.

RCR Arquitectes/Coussée & Goris and Zeinstra

lectern are illuminated through a skylight, a hole

Crematorium Hofheide was built on swamp

Van der Pol have all found different but equally

cut out of the ceiling of the corner of the hall.

land, seemingly sunken into a pond. In this way,

interesting ways to shape architecture that sup-

Crematorium Hofheide has a more expressive,

the whole building looks like an island, only

ports the rituals around death. Functions within

dramatic approach: the only daylight in the

accessible over three bridges. Through clever

the crematoria are strictly separated in order

ceremonial hall enters through a heavy concrete

landscape and architectural design, more dis-

to create a sequential experience of different

duct hanging over the coffin.

tance could be created between the building and

emotions. But while Souto de Moura and TV

Zeinstra Van der Pol has chosen to overflow

the outside world.

RCR find solace in an earthly, context sensitive

the ceremonial space with daylight. The metal

architecture, Claus en Kaan and Zeinstra Van der

roof of the hall is carried by a wood structure,

EXPRESSION

Pol respectively designed more abstract and light

inspired by a traditional farm roof structure,

Souto de Moura chooses a very context sensitive

buildings.

cladded with glass. And so from the ceremonial

design approach, embedding the building in the

hall, one can look over the courtyard and see the

landscape and using earthly materials, mostly

Cultural pluralism has stripped the funeral cere-

trees rising beyond it.

raw concrete. Meanwhile, Claus and Kaan

mony of religious symbols, explaining the variety

designed a very abstract building, using very

of symbolism and architectural expression that

DISTANCE

clean materials, like prefab concrete cladding,

can be seen in the crematorium designs. But the

An important similarity between crematoria is

avoiding any reference to the subject of death. It

feeling of time standing still when a loved one

that often effort has been put into strengthening

is monumental in its size and its domination over

has died, remains. And evidently so, the need to

the separation between the crematorium build-

the surroundings through its appearance. It has

ritualize a farewell, giving time for the different

ing and the outside world. This creates a quieter

a neutral character however, and might well be

stages of grief in the process, remains.

atmosphere, thought to be more suitable for

used as a community building. Its contrast with IMAGES 1

4

4 2 3 5 6

1. Interior Crematorium Hofheide (photo: Hisao Suzuki) 2. Crematorium Hofheide (source: vai.be) 3. Crematorium Heimolen (source: kaanarchitecten.com) 4. Crematorium Uitzicht (photo: Luis Ferreira Alves) 5. Crematorium Hofheide (source: illum.be) 6. Crematorium Haarlem (photo: Arjen Schmitz, Thijs Wolzak)

SOURCES 1. Architectura (2011) “Begraafplaats Kortrijk: Souto de Moura meets SumProject”, 17 Feb 2016, architectura.be 2. Bruyland, K. “Een theatraal vaarwel, typologie van het crematorium” GENT: Universiteit Gent, 2009 3. CBS, LVC (2015) “Sterftecijfers en wijze van uitvaart”, 17 Feb 2016, uitvaartinformatie.nl 4. Groot, H. de “Tijd voor emoties”, Het Houtblad, CAPELLE A/D IJSSEL: Mybusinessmedia, 2002

CHEPOS | 19


From Graveyard to Landscape From the dolmens to the modern day cemeteries, over the years a lot has changed. What once emerged as a functional way to dispose of dead bodies wherein the design of the graves was only for the wealthy and rich, is now an experience of entering landscapes for remembrance and mourning. How did we get to the cemeteries as they are designed nowadays? TEXT: JIMMY HENDRICKX Burial originated in tombs and lands outside the city walls, rather than

examined what the landscape gave them and used it to their advantage.

graves in churchyards. Hereafter, churches declared their ground the only

Relief of the plot was used to optimize drainage away from the graves. The

holy places where people could be buried. The rich and elite often got their

heights, along with other features such as ponds, creeks and trees were also

own grave underneath the churches, while the poor were buried in mass

taken into consideration and added to the quality of the landscape.

graves. As one can imagine, the grounds underneath the church got pretty full and the continuously moving of pavements and furniture was quite

The paths in designed cemeteries should never be straight as straight roads

disturbing. Therefore an extension to the churchyards seemed the best

are boring and give sameness along the route, while curved paths provide

possible option, as this was as close as possible to the holy building. These

an ever-changing view and give the desire to see what’s beyond the end

graveyards were often unplanned and people could position the grave of

of the curve. However, one main road is advised to go from the entrance

their deceased as they wished, taking as much space as they thought was

straight into the park as far as possible before diverting into side lanes. This

necessary.

opens the opportunity to get to each plot of graves as easy as possible along with a pompous character.

With number of dead people ever increasing, the need to start burial grounds separate from the churches arose. The cemeteries were most

This twentieth century landscape approach has a lot of similarities with the

often located in rural areas, resulting in the name rural cemeteries. These

design of urban parks. A planting scheme is required to ensure year-round

separate churchyards were based on simple master plans. The ground was

pleasant views and also considerations in what plants grow and thrive in the

divided up in lots, often with uniform sizes with 20x20 meters being the

given climate and soil. It is also this landscape architecture approach that

most popular as it could be subdivided in 10x20 meters. The planning of

has evolved into modern day cemetery designs, some of which have proven

these cemeteries was often done by civil engineers, who could only follow

to be extremely successful.

compass directions and see straight lines. If there was to be a curved line, it would be shaped in the form of an exact circle, not damaging their utopian

One cemetery in which this approach can be found is “De Nieuwe Ooster�

believes. The bodies in the graves would be orientated east to west, with

in Amsterdam, designed by Leonard Springer. In his design we can see the

their heads in the west due to Christian believes in resurrection. In that

curved roads, never a complete circle, all shaped to some form of topogra-

orientation, the bodies would face the morning sun.

phy. Furthermore a long axis starts from the entrance before splitting into the side lanes necessary to reach all the plots including the graves, of which

After the period reigned by civil engineers, the landscape architects showed

the orientation is not determined by the compass, but they, along with the

up with their ideas of pleasing landscape effects and curved roads. These

paths, follow the topography of the site.

professionals understood the importance of a good landscape design. They

20 | CHEPOS

CEMETARY LANDSCAPE DESIGN


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH Along with the urban lay-out, cemeteries have some sort of extra dimension to add to the landscape. The landscape of the dead adds extra meaning and experience. While regular landscape designs are places of joy and recreation, cemeteries are places of death and remembrance. Therefore, these places require a different approach. An example can be found at the Stockholm Woodland Cemetery. This UNESCO World Heritage Site, designed by Gunnar Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz, has truly understood the need for an experience for mourning people, rather than just a place for the dead. Asplund and Lewerentz started designing the landscape and buildings from the perspective of the mourning relatives and the feelings surrounding it. An example of this are the routes leading to the chapels. These routes create an appropriate mood prior to the funeral service. One of these routes, the Seven Springs Way creates a more solemn mood, as if the funeral service is nearly presidential. It does so by lining the straight axis that leads towards the Chapel of Resurrection with birches and, closer to the chapel, conifers. When the ceremony is finished, the visitors will exit through a different route, into the open landscape as to let go of their grief. Another example in the Woodland Cemetery is the processional route leading towards the Woodland Chapel. The woods surrounding this chapel gradually become denser the closer the visitor reaches the chapel. The visitors will find himself in a more closed setting, away from the public. In this way they can let go of all emotional pain with their family and friends, and the outside world does not have to know. Once the ceremony is over, they leave through another exit. Once again, this other route emerges them into the open light and helps to relief their pain. Not only these grand gestures implement a certain state of mind carefully directed by the architects. Detailing was also of great importance. Steps leading up to a meditation area become lower as you advance upon the hill. This will make visitors less tired when entering the meditation area and will already set them in a more relaxed setting. Another detail can be found in the benches that are present, which are not completely straight. They have a slight converging shape so that mourners face each other and do not feel completely alone after all that they have been trough. Most cemeteries are those that belong to the pre-landscape planning time, with plots divided in uniform sizes and straight roads leading towards them. However, since the beginning of the 20th century the landscape architects gradually improved this typology by adding an experience to the typology, which eventually resulted in beautiful landscape designs as for instance in Stockholm. A visit to the Stockholm Woodland Cemetery inspires one’s view on the design of a cemetery.

IMAGES 2 3 1

4

1. Plan of De Nieuwe Ooster (source: denieuweoosterbomenpark.nl) 2. Seven Springs Way (photo: imgkid.com) 3. Steps to Meditation Grove (photo: Harriet Saddington) 4. Benches of the Stockholm Woodland Cemetery (source: significantcemeteries. org)

SOURCES 1. Weed, H. (1912). Modern Park Cemeteries. Chicago: R.J. Haight 2. Worpole, K. (2003). Last Landscapes. London: Reaktion. 3. Susanne Hallmann, “The experience”, skogskyrkogarden.stockholm.se

CHEPOS | 21


NATIONAL MONUMENT CAMP VUGHT An experience through the eyes of a visitor TEXT: RICK ABELEN

THE DIFFERENT

It is Sunday, 13th of September 2015, more

jects and aspects that played a role in the camp.

than seventy years after the evacuation of

The different spaces create a play between the in

transit camp Vught. The sun is shining, the

and outside world, introvert and extrovert.

SPACES CREATE

chirping. They are sitting in the trees and flut-

Walking futher we enter a rectangular, almost

tering around, they do what they want. They

square, room where personal stories, diaries,

A PLAY BETWEEN

are free. I am walking towards the entrance of

photographs, objects of victims, offenders

the memorial center, designed by Claus & Kaan

and bystanders can be observed. The space is

Architects completed in 2002, without an idea

introverted, and completely secluded from what

of what to expect, and what I will hear and see.

is going on outside. I wonder, if it is still such

Upon entering the building I feel at unease. The

pleasant weather outside. By looking at the

entrance is sheltered by a heavy concrete canti-

exhibits and read the stories the history of what

lever, finished with a rough layer of gravel. The

happened at this place a long time ago comes

The red seating, upholstered with leather, is

canopy gives an unpleasant feeling, and exerts

to life and feels so close. The black-white striped

illuminated by a small beam of daylight coming

pressure on the visitor. Once inside the building,

habiliments of prisoners contrast the plane-white

form a light-shaft that sticks through the ceiling.

I see a concatenation of rooms, no corridors. The

stucco wall. The bleakness of this view, is some-

The shaft has a converging shape, which makes

spaces seem fused together.

what offset through the dark oak flooring in the

looking outside almost impossible. Seated, I look

room. The flooring creates a somewhat ‘warm’

around the square room. The walls are covered

Inside is a guide waiting for the visitors. The

appearance of the room, a strange contrast with

in a carpet of white patches that, upon closer

guide starts to tell his narration, and the inten-

the displayed objects.

examination, turn out to be name patches with

temperature is pleasant and I can hear the birds

tion of this tour: showing the architecture of the

IN AND OUTSIDE WORLD, INTROVERT AND EXTROVERT

all the names of deceased prisoners.

memorial center. We walk through several rooms

The tour continues through the memorial center.

in the building. The fusing of the spaces make it

We arrive in a square room, with a round red

Meanwhile, the guide continues his story about

hard to distinguish clear transitions between the

seat in the middle. In contrast to the previously

facts regarding the camp, memorial center and

rooms. They flow into each other, and therefore

visited rooms this room is not very high, about

the architecture of Claus & Kaan. His words

ensure consistency between the different sub-

three meters.

however slip by me. The countless names on the

22 | CHEPOS

NATIONAL MONUMENT CAMP VUGHT


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH

wall along with the confrontational shape of the

gradation in color of the floor that ranges from

Camp Vught, called Konzentrationslager Herzo-

room made me decide that I want to leave. For-

the hard coal flooring in the elongated room

genbusch during the Second World War, was a

tunately, the tour was continued by the guide.

with the view to the outside, to the floor at

transit camp built to assimilate the increasing

the entrance, which is almost white. The guide

amount of prisoners. In 1942, the construction

We visit some other rooms, until I catch a

finishes his tour and thanks us, the visitors, for

of the camp near ‘s-Hertogenbosch began. In

glimpse of daylight in the distance. Finally, a

attending.

total, over 31.000 people were imprisoned in

space with natural light. As soon as I turned around the corner, a view to the outside world opens up. The window consists of a couple of clear glass panes inbetween which brute jambs of aluminium are placed. Because of the jambs, the view to the outside is framed. A part of the outside world of the former camp Vught. Certain elements of the camp are still visible, such as concrete elements with barbed wire, the fosse, another separation, a watchtower and a recreated barrack. The visitor is shown a section from which the gradation between captivity and freedom painfully emerges. Two completely

the camp led by the Schutzstaffel. At least 749

A SECTION IS SHOWN

men, woman and children have deceased in and

FROM WHICH THE

memorial center at the charged place. The effort

GRADATION BETWEEN

ment Camp Vught and Claus & Kaan architects

CAPTIVITY AND

past alive in word, image and experience. The

FREEDOM PAINFULLY

the aphorism ‘remembering is thinking’.

EMERGES

IMAGE

around the camp. Since 2002, there is a new of amongst others foundation National Monumade it possilbe to keep the memories of the policy of the foundation can be summarized by

1

different worlds, only separated by some obstacles. The experience of this cold harsh truth

At this point I walk towards the exit and upon

is strenghtened by the elongated shape of the

exiting once again pass under the heavy canopy,

room, placing the focus further on the outside.

feeling free again. However, I actually already

After a while the tour continues to other rooms

was free, in contrast to the prisoners of camp

eventually leading back to the entrance. What

Vught. The sun is still shining, and the birds are

strikes me when the entrance comes closer is the

still sitting in the trees and chirping.

1. Inside the memorial center looking outward. (photo: Claudia Redux)

SOURCES 1. Welstandsprijs Noord-Brabant. Reception- and exhibition building at Monument Vught. 2001. welstandsprijs-nb.nl 2. National Monument Camp Vught. “Eindpunt of tussenstation’’. (Vught: National Monument Camp Vught, 2002) 3. National Monument Camp Vught. Historical information and visitation memorial center. 2015. nmkampvught.nl

CHEPOS | 23


FUNCTIONAL MEMORIALS The reasons behind memorials “A memorial: something that is built or done to remind people of an event or a person.” This is the description one will find when they look up “memorial” in the Oxford Dictionary. The most common of all memorials are war memorials. For one, this is because of wars being the most common cause for large numbers of deaths in short amounts of time. However the reason war memorials outnumber any other kind of memorial by far is that they very often had a secondary function. They are often beacons of the way a nation felt about the war. America and Germany both took part in the largest armed conflict in modern times; however their monuments look vastly different. Both sides had suffered massive losses and equally reason to memorialize their dead. Yet, as Winston Churchill said: “History is written by the victor.” And so all Allied forces were to be remembered as good, and the Axis forces as bad. Therefore the Axis powers were often on a slippery slope when trying to commemorate their dead. War memorials, apart from their primary functions to remember the dead, often also had a secondary purpose which explains this difference in erecting memorials. These different purposes return in various elements of the monuments, and how they affect space in and around them. TEXT: JEROEN POSPIECH

PRAISE

MOURN

Previously the American patriotism about their

partly true, since the World War II memorial was

As one of the most deadly events in human his-

dead was already mentioned. The United States

inspired by Roman architecture, just like the rest of

tory, the Battle of Verdun in France was cer-

have always been particularly prone to honor

the traditional buildings in Washington D.C., and

tainly worthy of a memorial. Shared over the

their dead, especially when they played a major

just like the majority of Axis’ architecture. It shows

two sides, the French and the German armies

role in a large armed conflict which was won

once more how sensitive the subjects surrounding

had 300.000 soldiers laid to rest between

by the Americans. Located centrally on the

war memorials are.

the 21st of February and the 20th of De-

National Mall in Washington D.C., between the

cember, 1916. Yet until the 22nd of Sep-

Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memo-

tember 1984, only French soldiers were

rial, the World War II memorial is probably the most prominent of all American war memorials. It consists of a pool surrounded by 56 pillars representing the states and territories, interrupted on two opposite sides by the entrances and two opposite sides by arches. Because of this setup, the memorial has two distinct sides. Friedrich St. Florian, the architect, purposely designed it this way so that it would resemble the two fronts the United States fought on during World War II. Much more of such symbolism, especially in numbers, is found in and around the memorial. Furthermore the memorial is characterized by the vast space left open in the middle. This makes the grandeur and size of the memorial pieces, in particular the arches, even more prominent. However the memorial has been criticized that its style of architecture is very similar to that of Hitler’s Germany and Mussolini’s Italy. This is

24 | CHEPOS

A MEMORIAL: SOMETHING THAT IS BUILT OR DONE TO REMIND PEOPLE OF AN EVENT OR A PERSON

commemorated at the memorial. This illustrates the French-German relations in the interbellum. Today most historians agree the German Empire was not solely to blame for the First World War, but rather it was an event which was inevitable considering the tensions within Europe at the time. By the end of the Great War however, the Allied powers felt wronged by the German Empire which was also the cause for the dreadful commands of the Versailles Treaty. France, devastated by the war, had lost many young men which was the cause for national grief. The nation’s leaders were quite determined to show how much wrong the German Empire had done to them. Thus they placed a massive memorial on the hill looking

FUNCTIONAL MEMORIALS


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH out over France’s largest World War I cemetery,

Contrary to the American and French war

counting over 16.000 graves.

memorials, the new “Memorial to the Murdered

The memorial itself is an ossuary; it houses the

Jews of Europe”, or Holocaust Memorial, was

remains of over 130.000 soldiers. Many of their

sober, simple and neutral. Though massive in

bones can still be seen filling up the buildings

size, counting 2711 grey concrete blocks varying

lower alcoves. On the outside, the architects,

in height, the memorial in no way attempts to

Léon Azéma, Max Edrei and Jacques Hardy, de-

impress. It does not express the German feeling

signed the façade to resemble these 42 alcoves

for national guilt either, instead it transforms

which the building holds. The building’s interior

this national guilt to a national responsibility, to

is filled with plaques on the walls commemorat-

never let anything like this happen again. The

ing the soldiers who passed during the Battle of

number, 2711 stones, or the height of them, in

Verdun. The tower on top of this morbid memo-

no way represents any figure. The architect who

rial was designed to resemble a lighthouse. Until

designed it, Peter Eisenman, purposely designed

recently its rotating red and white “Lanterne des

the monument to be abstract. According to him

Morts,” or “Lantern of the Dead” shone across

“the enormity and scale of the horror of the

the battlefield at night. The Douaumont Ossuary

Holocaust is such that any attempt to represent

shows both the French grief, and the German

it by traditional means is inevitably inadequate.”

evil, as it was seen by the French.

Much different from the previously mentioned memorials, the Holocaust Memorial leaves

REMEMBER

barely any space. While walking through the

Ever since the German defeat at the end of the

monument, the visitor is overwhelmed by the

First World War, the nation has been strug-

vast numbers, without actually including any

gling with its identity. When the German

numbers referring to rough estimations of the

Revolution put a government in power,

amount of deaths. Through leaving out any

overruling the Emperor, the new govern-

description, the monument is very open to inter-

ment signed peace under the ill-bearing

pretation of anyone, only the visitor center hid-

dictates of the Treaty of Versailles, which

den underneath the field of blocks gives away

made the German people pay for the

the intention. The Memorial to the Murdered

wronging of the German Empire. This

Jews of Europe resembles the German stance to-

eventually gave rise to National Social-

wards the Holocaust while disrespecting neither

ism in Germany which in turn caused

their ancestors nor the Jewish population.

the outbreak of the Second World War. At the end of the Second World War,

CONCLUDE

memorials in Germany were probably

Overall, the primary purpose of any war me-

more sophisticated and sensible than

morial is to memorialize the battle or war the

ever before. Of course splitting up the

memorial was made for. War memorials tell us

nation into two separate parts made

more than just the story of those who have died;

the situation no better. However

it also reflects the way people thought about the

when the East and the West were

event at the time the memorial was built, usually

united once again, soon a resolution

years after the actual end of the war. Symbol-

was passed by the German govern-

ism, specifically in numbers, is very common

ment to erect a “Memorial to the

in memorials. In such a way memorials try to

SOURCES

Murdered Jews of Europe.” The

tell a story about the many heroes or the many

1. Viejo-Rose, Dacia. “Do Memorials Matter?”. 21-10-2011. cam.ac.uk 2. Brunberg, Jon. “Functions of Memorials”. 07-02-2007. warmemorial.wordpress.com 3. Craven, Jackie. “World War II Memorial in Washington D.C.: Celebrating the Greatest Generation”. 21-01-2016. architecture. about.com

memorial was finally completed on

deaths, to impress those who visit the memorial.

the 8th of May, 2005, precisely

Yet it seems this symbolism is so common, a me-

60 years after World War II

morial excluding any symbolism appears equally

ended in Western Europe.

IMAGE 2 3 1

1. Douaumont Ossuary, Collège Denis Diderot Alès 2. World War II Memorial, Loewshotelsblog 3. Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Architravel

if not more impressive.

CHEPOS | 25


A SECOND LIFE FOR

De Nieuwe Ooster

“It was a long process and a lot of hassle�, is how Elvire Vesseur describes the ten year renovation of cemetary De Nieuwe Ooster. It is the biggest burial ground in the Netherlands that stems from the nineteenth century. After a thorough renovation of the buildings and landscape it is again able to facilitate a large and diverse amount of funerals and cremations. To understand the process of the renovation and why De Nieuwe Ooster is special, we spoke to Yvonne Segers, partner at Bierman Henket Architecten and project architect of the renovation, and Elvire Vesseur who conducted the ten-year renovation process for De Nieuwe Ooster. TEXT: JUSTIN AGYIN & LENNART ARPOTS 26 | CHEPOS

A SECOND LIFE FOR DE NIEUWE OOSTER


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH In 1894 the former Oosterbegraafplaats was

designed by Springer in 1894 to its current 33

Nieuwe Ooster. One of those is an office build-

emptied to make room for the Oosterpark. The

hectares. For the renovation, the terrain was

ing in the back of the terrain. These offices were

burial function was moved to a new location,

subdivided into three parts, based on two exten-

combined with mourning rooms, a request by

namely the Nieuwe Oosterbegraafplaats. The

sions of the park. It was decided to restore the

undertakers. Not everyone wants to spend the

grounds were designed by landscape architect

oldest part containing the monumental buildings

days between the passing away and memorial

Leonard Anthony Springer in the style of an

to its original state, with the experience of a

service at home or in the hospital, therefore fa-

English landscape garden. The original and old-

delayed expectation. The central part of the

cilitating mourning rooms on the terrain provides

est part of the cemetery was made when the

terrain was to be reinterpreted as it had become

a good solution. To do accordingly, Bierman

Begraafwet came in act in 1869, which stated

a bit messy. The last part, once designed by the

Henket designed a long building which has been

that cities had to offer public burial sites at least

public works department of Amsterdam, is a

divided into two parts, one part for the offices

fifty meters outside the city. In the past decades,

completely new design by Karres+Brands. “This

and one for the mourning rooms. Upon request

cremating has become increasingly popular and

new part has a structure of successive strips

the body is placed inside a room and there you

brought along new emotions and logistics. All of

with varying themes and styles next to each

have your own place for wakes, prayers and so

the original, neo-renaissance buildings were de-

other in the form of a barcode. On each strip of

on to say goodbye. The other new building is a

signed by city architect A.W. Weissman. His au-

this code people deal with death differently”,

pavilion designed by Karres+Brands and Atelier

ditorium was demolished in 1938 and replaced

Segers elaborates. She explains that the redesign

PUUUR for the Islamic burial section. This sec-

by a larger auditorium designed by the new city

of the terrain was done closely together with

tion is embraced by earthen walls or tuunwallen,

architect J. Leupen that together with the park

Karres+Brands, because the architecture and

as it did not align with the landscape design,

received the status of monument in 2003.

landscape could not be considered separately.

because it had to be oriented towards Mekka.

They tried to cater as best as possible to the

THE TRANSFORMATION

logistics of multiple services a day following each

Raising the crematorium posed a new challenge

“The question was to not simply build a cre-

other in a high frequency and tried to do so

as the coffin now has to be transported to the

matorium, but to design a solution for a listed

with paths in the landscape in such a way that

second floor. Segers: “We spent a lot of time

building in a monumental landscape that no

signs were not necessary. Though a lot of effort

discussing what the experience should be like

longer met demands” Yvonne Segers states.

has been put in ‘intuitive’ signage, a visit to De

of the coffin being lifted to the floor above. We

The demand for the remodeling of cemeteries

Nieuwe Ooster shows that unfortunately big

came to the conclusion that it would be nice to

and crematoria is on one hand caused by a large

signs are needed to show people where to go.

see what happens with the coffin, but that you

number of people attending burial and crema-

don’t have to carry the casket yourself. That is

tion services as the separation between church

“It is better to make a choice than to put up something meaningless”

how we came up with the idea to create a lifting

and ceremony is more prevalent these days. On the other hand, the extensive wishes of the visitors beg for modernized facilities. “People have more and more needs; they want to have a drink with champagne, catering and so on. We need more people for these services than for just running the terrain” Elvire Vesseur explains.

platform as a new gesture, as if the coffin is carried into heaven, to end the ceremony with.” Vesseur explains that this staging was conceived because before people did not have a ceremony with which to end the cremation services. “Sometimes people quickly went outside and then headed back inside to the coffeeroom, just

NEW BUILDINGS

to have some kind of closure.”

Over the years a lot of remodeling was done

The entrance of the park with its monumental

and extensions were made at De Nieuwe Ooster,

buildings originally had a symmetrical layout.

The architects considered the materialization

but without a clear vision. Bierman Henket,

Over the years this symmetry and spatiality

per building, but in such a way that the whole

together with Karres+Brands Landscape Archi-

was disrupted, and the buildings started to fuse

remained as an entity. “On the first floor of

tects, made a structure vision for the terrain and

together due to patchwork like extensions. Bier-

the crematorium you would like to be able to

subsequently a masterplan for the buildings. Big

man Henket analyzed this situation upon which

look outside, as you have a nice view on the

cemeteries as De Nieuwe Ooster are municipal

the buildings were reduced to separate entities

landscape. Contrastingly, you do not want

burial places with several funerals and crema-

again as Springer originally intended. “For a

people staring in at your most emotional mo-

tions a day. Segers: “When you talk with the

long time we thought about where to place the

ment. That is why we opted for a material that

employees, the facilitation of these ceremonies

crematorium, and also did a lot of mass studies

could be mounted on the façade as a kind of

is the prime objective. The logistics behind the

on it. Eventually, we chose to place it symmetri-

veil.”, says Segers. That is how the architects

ceremonies have to be perfect, however they

cally behind the big auditorium and put the

came up with the expanded metal that is bent

should go unnoticed.”

volume on stilts, raising the crematorium to the

in such a way that from inside you can look out

first floor.”

upon the landscape and sky outside, but people

LANDSCAPE DESIGN

outside cannot see in. The color of the anodized

In the course of decades, De Nieuwe Ooster

In addition to renovations and extensions, two

aluminum is a kind of golden bronze, a color

grew from the original 16 hectare big terrain

new buildings were erected on the terrain of De

that can be seen throughout the monument. CHEPOS | 27


Vesseur: “Some people like it and others hate

THE COLLABORATION

imagine, your mother has passed away, what do

it. It is better to make a choise, than to put up

A process of ten years with multiple parties

you want to see, what do you want to hear and

something meaningless.” The office on the con-

involved can be complicated and can lead

what don’t you want to see and hear? And then

trary is a completely different kind of building

to tensions between those parties. Vesseur:

still these details fall in the cracks! Now we do

and had to fit De Nieuwe Ooster’s ambition to

“Sometimes it was very difficult to get things to

not use the upper floor of the small auditorium

only construct sustainable buildings. The office’s

remain practical. The designers came up with

anymore. Everyone thinks from his own field of

materialization is comprised of a light wooden

solutions that were just not practical in the use

expertise and as a client you are in the mids of

structure with a thick roof for heat accumulation

of the buildings or terrain. At one point out of

this game, thinking about the practical qualities

and concrete core activation. “It depends which

frustration I literally said: ‘guys, should we just

of things.” Despite these occurrences, Vesseur

points in the design are the focus points, as each

turn it into a museum?!’ That’s the thing with

also states that the collaboration in general was

building has its own function and conditions.”,

architects; they want to design a building that

marvelous and lead to wonderful results.

says Segers

nobody can enter, except for those who come

WITH GREAT BUILDINGS to admire their beautiful creation.” There were

THE CEMETERY AS CITY

With the design of a crematorium or funeral

difficult discussions during the design process;

Vesseur told a number of stories that demon-

building, a lot of small and sensitive details

for example about a large copper sculpture of

strates how the cemetery actually functions as a

have to be taken into account. The oven of the

an angel that hung in the center of the old rear

small city within Amsterdam. The organization

crematorium for instance has a chimney and the

façade. The organization of De Nieuwe Ooster

has to deal with neighborly disputes, where the

air coming out creates visible heat vibrations, so

preferred its return on the façade of the new

bereaved of one person are arguing with the

the air has to be cooled before it exits. Segers:

expansion. The architects however completely

next of kin of a neighboring grave about weeds,

“When you enter the terrain you do not want to

disagreed about this demand and a long discus-

the size of planted trees and whatnot. Some-

see a chimney. The crematorium of De Nieuwe

sion followed. Eventually, the sculpture was

times, people complain about the fact that other

Ooster has a chimney, but you cannot see it”.

mounted on the façade of the expansion, but

people are scattering the ashes of their loved

Getting the oven to fit into the building was not

off-centered as a compromise. Karres+Brands

ones on the same spot their own relative was

easy either, especially because it is a very visible

also proposed a hedge of seven meters thick.

scattered maybe ten years ago. Just as Amster-

element for those who want to follow the coffin

“Of course it would have been very beautiful,

dam itself, De Nieuwe Ooster is a culturally di-

to the cremation process. They just want to see

but the maintenance would have been impos-

verse cemetery as for instance there are separate

a hatch, so the entire apparatus has to be hidden

sible.” Another thing is the small auditorium for

‘neighborhoods’ with Chinese graves; there is a

from sight. The next challenge is determining

which the intention was to use both the ground

special section dedicated to Islamic people, there

on what the coffin stands. Bierman Henket

and upper floor for services. Sadly the architects

are expensive graves and cheaper ones for the

designed a new catafalque made of Corian in

had forgotten that people actually have to go

less fortunate. There are even patches of land

the shape of a boulder. It has been designed in

up these stairs and this stairs was not insulated

where nobody wants to be laid to rest, such as a

the same color as the natural stone floor of the

well enough, so it could be heard on the ground

patch where German soldiers were buried during

building, but in such a way that you can identify

floor. “Before the start of the design process we

the Second World War.

it as something new.

put all designers in the big auditorium and said:

28 | CHEPOS

A SECOND LIFE FOR DE NIEUWE OOSTER


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH

COME GREAT FAILURES

Some of the city-like activities are a thorn in the

design. This line of sight from the opened doors

fact that cemeteries are more often being used

side for landscape architect Karres+Brands. The

of the auditorium played an integral part in the

as places for leisure. They are beautiful green

graves in the northwest corner of the cemetery

renovation of the cemetery as it organized much

places within densely populated cities and can

for instance are for the people with the least

of the landscape design. The axis had however

be used more than only for the remembrance of

financial resources. The deceased are laid to

been interrupted since 1929 by the addition of a

the dead. They can be places to contemplate as

rest in a long artificially aerated concrete box.

giant tomb for Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz,

well, a development the director of De Nieuwe

Each time a grave is filled, it gets sealed with

a military officer in the Dutch East Indies that

Ooster would like to stimulate. Segers: “There

a concrete slab designed by Karres+Brands.

had become famous for bringing an end to the

is a plan for a ‘route for contemplation’ which

Karres+Brands was displeased that the family of

Aceh War. Over the years, Van Heutsz became

takes you along sculptures and a lot of different

the deceased places plants, flowers and small

detested for the crimes of war he committed

areas with old trees and atmospheres. In that

relics on this slab and wanted these removed by

at the time, and with the renovation the tomb

way they offer a new and richer experience than

the cemetery staff. The staff however disagreed

was dismantled and kept in storage. After a long

just a park or cemetery, and there are more of

and argued that people need a place to go to

discussion about whether or not it should return

these kinds of initiatives.” De Nieuwe Ooster is

and make their own. They still remove most of

and if so, in what location, the monument even-

for instance also an arboretum and people can

the items placed at graves, but only do so after

tually was rebuilt several burial sections away

adopt a tree for commemoration. Furthermore,

about a month, when most of the plants and

from its original location. In Vesseur’s opinion

De Nieuwe Ooster is also the second place in

flowers start to wither anyway.

not rebuilding it would be falsification of history,

Amsterdam where a commemoration service is

and it can also be used for educational purposes.

held on May 4 where people walk by several

If someone wants to sit at the tomb of their

monuments on the terrain under the lead of the

loved one, one can rent a bench that will be

NEW DEVELOPMENTS

placed by the grave. These are dotted all over

Sometimes it looks as if time stands still on a

the cemetery. Despite a plaque on the seat that

burial site, but cemeteries are affected by trends

says ‘PLEASE DO NOT MOVE’, people tend to

as well. At the time of the construction of the

‘steal’ these benches and move them to their

café adjacent to Uitvaartmuseum ‘Tot Zover’

own relative’s grave. “You would be surprised to

people were objected to the coming of a café

see how far away they drag them” Vesseur says.

on a burial ground. Therefore, it was sunk in the ground and hidden behind a lot of bushes,

major of Amsterdam. IMAGES

1

3 4

1. Auditorium (photo: Lennart Arpots) 2. Crematorium expansion (Lennart Arpots; original photo: Teo Krijgsman) 3. Urn wall (photo: Lennart Arpots) 4. Old angel sculpture on Bierman Henket crematorium expansion (photo: Lennart Arpots)

2

VAN HEUTSZ

now it however is one of the strengths of the

Behind the crematorium, the original central

park and should be seen, so all the bushes will

SOURCES

axis, or “lane to heaven” as Springer called it,

be removed. Another interesting development

extends onto the cemetery as per Springer’s

in the world of burying and cremating is the

1. Interview with Yvonne Seegers on December 15, 2015 2. Interview with Elvire Vesseur on January 21, 2016 3. De Nieuwe Ooster, “Het park bezoeken”, denieuweooster.nl

CHEPOS | 29


COLUMN: Jacob Voorthuis Jacob Voorthuis is a publicist, speaker and lecturer at the Eindhoven University of Technology. He professes enthusiastically about philosophy, art history and

The dead

architecture. For this edition we asked him to write a column about death and the added value of architecture.

„Darum war denn auch geplant, jenem Mus-

I myself am getting older and have had occasion

graves in the east of The Netherlands and it

terkrematorium und der zugehörigen Urnen-

therefore to think about my own death. My

was like that for Bruder Klaus. The architecture

halle, der ‘Halle des Todes’ also, eine ‘Halle des

wife asked me, quite recently in fact, and in all

of death, remembrance and mourning, if it is

Lebens’ anzubauen, worin Architektur, Malerei,

seriousness, what I would like to have done to

anything, is an architecture of intensified life, of

Skulptur, Musik und Dichtkunst sich vereinigen

me when I am dead. The reason for the conver-

life remembered with all the boring bits cut out.

sollten, um den Sinn des Fortlebenden von dem

sation wasn’t that strange, we had just buried

The architecture of mourning is a special case

Erlebnis des Todes, von stumpfer Trauer und

a dear neighbour of ours and had been much

that is designed for the living to help them work

tatenloser Klage auf die Güter des Lebens zu

moved by the affair. My first reaction, being

through a loss that has sharpened their senses,

lenken.“ - Thomas Mann, Die Zauberberg

rather Dutch, was: “Oh, don’t bother about me,

woken their memories, woken a sharp realisa-

I don’t want any fuss. Just toast my life, recycle

tion of their own frail mortality and made their

Have you ever seen a dead person? Have you

me and get on with something useful.” Judging

bodies ache with love, regrets, an irrepressible

ever studied one carefully? What is remark-

from her reaction that was not a helpful thing

sadness and conflicting joys. But things are not

able about them is how little they move. No

to say. And I should have known. My death is

straightforward. If the emotive life of the griev-

human being as quiet, still and motionless as

anyone’s affair but my own. In death we belong

ing is so intense, so all-consuming, how should

a dead human being. Being dead is to have

to the living. We are expected to have left a few

architecture place and frame that intensity? How

stopped moving. Instead the dead are moved

last wishes, not for our benefit, but so that in

should it provide a locus for those raw emotions,

about. That is because the living fuss with them.

the fulfilment of them our dear ones can process

the directionless bodily heaving that is sadness?

This is understandable, you can’t have them

their grief through appropriate sacrifice, and

I’m afraid I have no idea. I have clocked up quite

clogging up the house too long, they begin to

can celebrate their image of us in ritual. So we

a catalogue of dead friends, acquaintances and

smell. Mind you, that didn’t bother the ancient

decided to make a pretty list of wishes and put

family members by now and have seen rich a

Sumerians; they buried granny and grandad

them in a special place. When the time comes

variety of responses to the event of death. I have

in the cellar. Wherever dead people find their

we shall leave it up to whomever takes on the

seen beautiful ceremonies in ugly surroundings,

resting place, and once everything has been

task of seeing us off, to see which wishes are

a fantastic funeral of a very dear lady in nothing

said and done, they are gone: buried and eaten,

reasonable and which are perhaps a little beyond

more than a plastic tent in a dusty and windy

burnt to cinders or, more fashionably, dissolved

budget. That is one moment where architecture

cemetery full of homeless beggars forced to

and recycled. At the same time, having gone

is related to death: those with bigger budgets,

witness a ceremony led by a preacher in dark

they are more present than ever. They have left

can afford bigger wishes.

sunglasses. I have witnessed a heart-rending fu-

traces and memories, they live on, not perhaps

neral in a space that was more suitable for clini-

in the first person singular (at least I shall assume

We wish to remember and to be remembered

cal experiments. And I have cried at very grand

so, to keep things simple) but they live on in

and we wish to go untethered with the sense

funerals. But what of it? How can we say what is

the second person singular, as an imaginary

of a job well done. Everything we do and

a good architecture for real grief? At the time of

interlocutor in very private conversations with

make during our life may serve some practical

the funeral there is no architecture for those who

those who have been left behind and grieve, or

use, but it can and probably will also serve a

truly grieve, not really, there is only the grieving

indeed those who have a last bone to pick. They

mnemonic purpose. The built environment and

body, intensely aware of its own life, while it is

live on even longer in the third person singular,

all things in it constitute exactly one half of our

being lived by convulsions of sadness and joy.

in stories. Homer has had an impressively long

memory. Get rid of some of it and you get rid

Real grief implodes the body into the here and

go at this, a fact Jorge Luis Borges celebrates in

of the stuff that triggers the memories in our

now of metaphysical loss and pain and a curious

his brilliant story the immortals. It is also in the

mind. Build and you will build memory. That’s

grace. None of it needs building.

third person singular that death and architecture

how it is. It was like that with King Zoser, and

meet: buildings remember and celebrate him

later for Shah Jahan and his beloved Mumtaz.

So if an architecture of mourning is not for real

and her.

It was like that for those building the megalithic

grief, then what is it for? One answer is that it is

30 | CHEPOS

COLUMN: JACOB VOORTHUIS


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH

do not build. The background image of this article symbolized death. The crow or raven is in many religions the embodiment of death. for love. When you bury someone you love, you

Once the dead are mourned and laid to rest,

of kingship a little too far. And we may dismiss

want to do this registering that love in signs of

they are remembered through their monuments,

it as absurd, many do. But do not be too quick.

care and sacrifice in celebration of an enduring

through whatever they leave behind or whatever

This monument celebrates not the king but the

commitment. Architecture can help here. The

is put up in their honour. Architecture in that

larger thing he stood for: a united Italy which

building and its atmosphere can express that

case becomes the embodiment for the stories

was brittle and delicate at the time and required,

love through analogy and metaphor, through

the person has become. This person of accumu-

according to those who conceived of the monu-

the descriptive interpretation of materials,

lated stories, memorabilia and monuments has,

ment, a large gesture to congeal the fluid forces

sounds, proportions, scenography and details.

needless to say, become a very different person

at work in the country. The monument’s other

It expresses this love appropriately in a coded

to the one that is dead, but no matter, dead

name is the Altare della Patria and as such it

language of respectful love and grief. When the

people are dead and therefore indifferent to the

frames Rome’s glorious past with the hope for

romantic pianist and composer Frederique Cho-

fact that they have become the helpless objects

a future. Judge it as ridiculous, by all means.

pin died, a mysterious lady who was devoted

of strange biographical forces. The living take

But remember, such judgments speak about the

to him and his music, the hearing of which had

possession of them and remake them in their

judge and not the thing judged.

perhaps been the only intense emotion she had

own image. In this way each building celebrat-

ever felt, paid for the most lavish funeral in the

ing the dead becomes something of a poem in

The German word Denkmal is peculiarly apt

Church of the Madeleine in the centre of Paris,

that it adds to and helps unify the remembered

for mnemonic architecture. The function of a

which she had dressed in black cloth. The lavish

person into a good story. A good example is

monument is to make us think about ourselves.

theatrical funeral was a way of saying thank you

the necropolis of King Zoser I mentioned earlier.

An architecture of death is poetic in the sense

for the music; her anonymity a device perhaps to

The architectural poem here is about the surreal

that it makes one toy with one’s own mortality

mask real grief and a painful love.

program whereby the living priests kept the

and thereby helps one sharpen one’s attitude

dead king alive with the help of sporty ritual

to life. Architecture helps us practice the idea of

One might feel that much ceremonial pomp

and fake architecture. There is no space in the

death without having to die, which you can do

and architecture serves neither grief or love but

present essay to explain this properly so I recom-

only once. When death removes itself from the

status and wealth. Much architecture appears to

mend anyone who is intrigued by this to look it

immediacy of this death, of this person I love,

have little to do with real grief and everything

up. Such architecture is the vehicle for immor-

here and now, death becomes a poetic principle

with the theatre of grief displayed in seemingly

tality in the third person. What is remembered

a principle generative of life in poetry, painting,

empty gestures and accompanying props. This

in a monument is not the person that was, but

sculpture, music and architecture, a principle

may be true, but it cannot ever be proven by

something altogether new, well beyond the con-

generative of tragedy, comedy, propaganda and

the objects themselves. Real grief and love is felt

trol of the designer. This is the message offered

satire. All of these expressions of culture are not

not only by the poor and the tasteful. Display

by the monuments that monarchs, dictators and

secondary to humanity, they are as important as

is in any case a way of calling up the real thing.

tyrants have built for themselves, from Queen

any technological innovation, as any scien-

Theatre is not about lying, it is about emulating.

Hatshepsut in Egypt to Enver Hoxha in Albania.

tific discovery, as any career achievement. A

Furthermore real grief can be ugly and raw; most

Their monuments are attempts to control the

technological invention may help us live longer

of us would want to keep it private and to our-

forces of biography that have nevertheless gone

in relative comfort, but it is poetry that helps us

selves and to my mind, those who don’t, should.

their own way. Monuments become part of

muddle on, trying to find the right relationship

The ritualization of grief, its public theatre, is a

the convoluted story of a country, a reminder,

to things. The idea of death requires poetic prac-

way to impose a certain distance. Architecture

sometimes of true greatness, sometimes of the

tice, requires getting used to, helps us prepare

imposes order and a civilising discipline upon the

truly and mind-bendingly absurd. Who was

for the inevitable moment so that those who are

passing of people. Architecture may have the

Vittorio Emanuele II? Even the Italians feel that

left behind can celebrate in style.

capacity to degrade death in theatre, but then,

the marble wedding cake erected in his honour

by definition, it also has the power to dignify it.

in between 1895 and 1911 took the celebration CHEPOS | 31


THE PERFECT PLACE TO DIE

Most of us will not be able to decide where we die. It is up to fate, or our doctor. If you are part of the few people able to decide this for yourself: where would you like to die? And, how do we design such a place? TEXT: EVA PABON

THE WRONG PLACE TO DIE 52% Of the world population dies in a hospital.

Everyone has been in a hospital at some point

The Dutch foundation Eckerlijck, now part of

This is not strange if we look at the current

in their life. Consequently everyone knows a

the VPTZ (Association for Palliative Care in the

medical philosophy of restoring health. The

hospital is not the perfect place to die. But what

Netherlands), stated: “Our last days should be

medical world has provided us with cures for

is? One building type exists for the sole purpose

of the most valuable of our life. They offer us

almost every disease, and treatments of every

of dying – the hospice. And a type it is. No

a last chance to transfer knowledge, to say our

discomfort. With this notion, dying is no longer

other building will adapt to such a wide range of

goodbyes, finish unresolved business, leave

a natural process. A dead patient has become

emotions as a hospice – stress, denial, confu-

memories and to enjoy life.” It is this dignified

a medical failure. This is fair in most cases, but

sion, faith, restlessness, peace, anger, belonging,

ending, and the right to a full human experi-

in the case of terminal illness a very humane

grief, fear, guilt, loneliness, isolation. Surely a

ence, that is denied to most people at the end

problem arises. Only when all other options for

building such as a hospital or abortion clinic may

of their life. And this is exactly what a hospice

healing are exhausted are we allowed to die. As

host these emotions. But does it adapt to them,

tries to offer. The foundation saw dying as a

a result, many people will be ’patients‘ until the

deal with them, respond? The complex process

process of inner growth. Humanely designing

very end of their lives. This way we are denying

of dying takes its toll on the patient, family and

for this complex process, is inherently related to

ourselves the basic human experience and time

caregivers. As such, a building for this purpose

designing with the philosophy that comes with

for reflection that we so strongly seem to need

needs special attention.

palliative (end-of-life) care.

at the end of our lives.

WE ARE DENYING OURSELVES THE BASIC HUMAN EXPERIENCE AND TIME FOR REFLECTION THAT WE SO STRONGLY SEEM TO NEED 1.

4.

32 | CHEPOS

AT THE END OF OUR LIVES

5.

2.

6.

THE PERFECT PLACE TO DIE


FILE: ARCHITECTURE OF DEATH

MODERN DAY HOUSES ARE NOT PARTICULARLY GOOD AT DEALING WITH DEATH, AND NEITHER ARE WE

The first can usually be found in a connection to nature: healing gardens, fresh air in bedrooms, a view, and window control. This control is more important than you might think, because of the so-called lightness/darkness continuum. This is a phenomenon where a patient enters a hospice with a need to see the sun and experience of the outside world, and towards the end needs a more inward experience with windows and blinds closed. Since some hospices are placed in the middle of cities, such as the Kuria hospice in

THE PERFECT PLACE TO DIE?

Amsterdam, this connection to the outside is also

This philosophy is based on three pillars: de-

Palliative care is primarily about helping patients

found in a connection to society. Seeing, and

creasing pain, offering comfort and offering sup-

with terminal illnesses, and therefore inherently

sometimes being able to be a part of this society

port. The goal of palliative care is to supply the

related to health care. Here, a difference arises

through volunteer or community projects, can be

best quality of life and bring relief from suffering

to normal health facilities. Healing is no longer

of vital importance to a person’s wellbeing.

for patients and families alike. Additionally, pal-

the goal – physical health treatments are mostly

liative care should be available for everyone, ac-

limited to reducing pain. Architecturally, this

The second principle is human interaction. For

cording to their philosophy. The famous Maxim

translates to things like hydrotherapy rooms,

most people, this will always be an important

of Syrus may be applied here: “As men, we are

space for medical equipment in bedrooms, and

part of life, and one that cannot be denied any

all equal in the presence of death”. We might

nurses stations. A much bigger role however, is

a person, just because their end is near. Most

have never used it to describe the living, but the

now played by mental healthcare and the emo-

hospices have group rooms and activities to cre-

definition can and should be broadened to this.

tional and spiritual experiences accompanying

ate a communal feeling and in addition, special

These pillars of palliative care, or goals as such,

death. Here, several principles shape a hospice:

space for families is created. Bedrooms are more

can be applied to a building and can therefore

connection to the outside world, human interac-

spacious, to allow a patient’s family to be at

be translated into architecture.

tion, personal choice and control, and mental,

their bedside when needed, and hotel-like rooms

spiritual and emotional care.

are available for them to sleep in. The third principle, personal choice and control, is important in creating a humane environ-

Design principles for hospice architecture from

ment, but can be thoroughly difficult to create

left to right:

as an architect. How do you make re-validating

1. Privacy and autonomy

architecture for a client that will only use your

2. Space for contemplation in transitional space

building for a short period of time? Here, a

3. Community

good balance can be made between the identity

4. Transprogrammatic bedrooms

(inherent homeliness) of a building and the

5. Room for personalization

possibility for personalization. Transprogram-

6. Lightness/darkness continuum

matic bedrooms and space to place your own stuff, in- and outside of the rooms, may help to

7. Connection to the outside world 8. Shifting transitional space

3.

create a personal space. A homely atmosphere of the complete building can be achieved using culturally conventional materials, space to hide medical equipment, an inviting entrance sequence, a visible and hearable sense of security and shifting transitional spaces. Lastly, a hospice should have space for emotion. This can be translated into space for spiritual thoughts, such as a chapel or praying room, grieving spaces, window seats in rooms and hallways, garden paths, and therapy/counseling rooms. As a conclusion, the hospice is the ulti-

7.

8.

mate chance to use architecture to increase the

CHEPOS | 33


quality of life of its inhabitants. Many hospices

house to this process. What about using bigger

best option for them. With our rapidly ageing

are considered beautiful buildings with great

doorframes, longer windows, the possiblility of

society, we will need to face consequences of

quality, and many others are considered depress-

an extra sanitary unit, privacy options? But even

the process of dying soon. Discussion on the

ing. Naming a building a hospice will obviously

with those interventions some downsides may

subject is scarce, as is the literature. The fact

not guarantee quality.

never go away, as they may be deeply inte-

that we all have to deal with dying, is ignored

grated in our society or just part of the process

and denied in many aspects of our society. And

ANOTHER PERFECT PLACE?

of dying. Bedridden patients will lose their role

perhaps we can only create such a place by re-

In itself, the architectural type of a hospice is

in society, mental and physical care is just not as

accepting death into our lives on a higher level.

specifically designed to respond to the process of

easily provided at home, families and friends will

By opening the discussion, by placing a hospice

dying on a philosophical level. Still, when given

have to deal with death just the same.

in the middle of society, by changing the percep-

the choice, most people would prefer to die at home. This is understandable, since the process of moving is rather inconvenient, and people like to stay at home out of commodity and familiarity. Plus, a hospice, or the idea of a hospice, can be rather depressing and final. Unfortunately there are some downsides on dying at home, as most modern day houses are not particularly good at dealing with death. And with architecture being a reflection of society, neither are we.

tion of death in modern medicine it might slowly

UNTIL 1970, THE IRISH DRAFT BUILDING REGULA-

again as a natural part of life. IMAGES

TIONS BASED STAIRCASE 1

DIMENSIONS ON THE SIZE OF COFFINS

Until 1970, the Irish Draft Building Regulations

As of now, there is not yet a ‘perfect place to

based staircase dimensions on the size of coffins.

die’. Perfect is of course not an easy and perhaps

These days not many architects will think about

unreachable goal, but nonetheless a good thing

how the inhabitants will die in their utopian

to aim at. A hospice might come close to it, but

home, even though they could easily adapt a

right now only one in ten people sees this as the

34 | CHEPOS

enter our society and therefore architecture

2

3 4

1. Principles of Palliative Architecture (own work, based on Innovation in Hospice Architecture) 2. A homey feeling in a living room in the Hospice of the Central Coast, California (source: Innovation in Hospice Archectecture) 3. Space for family in an inpatient room in a hospice in Houston, Texas (source: Innovation in Hospice Architecture) 4. Patient near a window, North London Hospice (source: Innovation in Hospice Architecture)

SOURCES 1. Stephen F. Verberder, Ben J. Referuzo. “Innovation in Hospice Architecture” (Taylor & Francis, 2005) 2. Broad, Gott, Kim et al. “Where do people die?”. (International Journal of Public Health, April 2013, pp 257-267) 3. McGann S. “Spatial practices and the home as hospice”. (Australasian Medical Journal, September 2011, pp 495-499)

THE PERFECT PLACE TO DIE


THAT’S WHY

CARNAVAL OR CALVIJN? RELIGIOUS CLASH IN WEST BRABANT Carnival. Or as the Dutch say Carnaval. One of the first things people think of in association to Brabant. But Carnival also means Catholicism, as it still is a Catholic holiday. And here lays the misconception; Brabant is not completely Catholic, parts in the northern of Brabant are Protestant. This is a result of many squabbles and fights over the rights of Brabant where, over time, different parties ruled with different religious backgrounds. These quarrels left their mark on the religious buildings in Brabant, especially in the Western area as this was fought over many times and conquered by many different parties. To understand the current situation of religious buildings in West Brabant, a small historical summary is in place. After that, some interesting buildings will be highlighted that are definitely worth a visit, as they are tangible remainders of the (religious) squabbles in West Brabant. TEXT: ILKE BROERS Hendrik I was the first count to actually wear the

tween the Republic and the Spanish territories.

title Duke of Brabant. He inherited the County

Although the Republicans brought Protestantism

of Leuven and the Duchy of Neder-Lotharingen

with them, there was not a lot of interest in the

in 1190 and expanded to the north (as seen in

countryside. In 1648 the Peace of Münster was

the first picture). More than a century later, Filips

signed and the northern part of Brabant was

de Goede (Philip the Good) was already Duke

added to the Republiek der Zeven Verenigde

of Burgundy and Count of Flanders, Artesia

Nederlanden (Dutch Republic). From now on,

and Namen when he became Duke of Brabant

Catholicism was forbidden, although the major-

in 1430, by inheriting it from his cousin. After

ity of the population was still Catholic.

this, he also became Duke of Limburg and

‘s-Hertogenbosch

Breda

St.-Oedenrode

Oisterwijk

Helmond

Bergen op Zoom Hoogstraten

Eindhoven Arendonk

Turnhout Antwerpen

Herentals Lier

Mechelen

Aarschot

Diest

Grimbergen

In 1648 all the churches were transferred to

Henegouwen. The complete area can be seen

the Protestants, also known as the Reformed,

in the second image. Through marriages into

although they usually had small communities.

the family of the German emperor and the King

The Protestants therefore almost did not built

of Castile (nowadays Spain), Karel V inherited

any churches during this time. Because Catholi-

many different parts of Europe in 1506. After

cism was forbidden at that time, Catholics had

his death, his empire was divided in Spanish Tiel and

to go to hidden churches. From 1672 and on,

German areas. This is how Burgundian NetherDordrecht lands fell in the hands of Spain. Geertuidenberg ‘s-Hertogenbosch

France started a war against the Republic which

Leuven Brussel

Tienen

Maastricht Duras Zoutleeuw Herstal

Geldenaken

Dalhem

Luik

Nijvel

Gembloers Namen

was again fought out in Brabant. It led to an economic depression but also to an easing of

With the beginning the rules; barn churches were now allowed. Breda of the Spanish regiment of St.-Oedenrode Oisterwijk the Netherlands, another important happening These weren’t always barns, but they had to be Helmond Bergen op Zoom occurred; the Reformation made an advance. In inconspicuous buildings. In 1795 the Republic Hoogstraten Eindhoven 1540, Calvinism became the dominating movefell and the French took the power, which lifted When Filips II became ruler of the Netherlands, Antwerpen Herentals he did not have warm feelings for the inhabit-

Geertuidenberg

Asse

Luxemburg and Count of Holland, Zeeland and

Arendonk Turnhout in the Netherlands. ment within Protestantism

Tiel Dordrecht

the restrictions for the Catholics. They also de-

Holland Brabant Limburg

Vlaanderen

Henegouwen

cided to give the church to the largest religious

Luxemburg

community in town. Many Catholics in Brabant

ants. His harshLier authority combined with the

regained their churches because of this settleMechelen Calvinist resistance, especially against saintment. The communities that were left without Aarschot Diest worship, led to the Beeldenstorm in 1566. The a church, built new ones which are now called Grimbergen Asse consequence was that much of the medieval Maastricht ‘Napoleonkerken’. Later on, a subsidy program Leuven Duras religious art has been damaged or demolished. was set up in 1824 for church building, on the Brussel Tienen Zoutleeuw Filips II was not amused and condemned the condition that the architect worked for the

Herstal Department Geldenaken insurgents. This led Willem van Oranje to begin Dalhem of Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat). Luik the Dutch Revolt, also known as the Eighty Therefore, these churches are called ‘WaterstaNijvel Years’ War. Many ofGembloers these battles were fought in atskerken’. These were mostly built in classic or Namen Brabant, especially in and around Breda and ’s-

neo-style, such as neo-gothic, which is still one

Hertogenbosch, as this was the border area be-

of the most common styles in Brabant.

RELIGIOUS CLASH

Bourgondië

Franche Comté

CHEPOS | 35


4

5

6

BREDA

OUDENBOSCH

NIEUW-VOSSEMEER

Although Catholicism was prohibited after 1648,

Oudenbosch is a stronghold of Catholic build-

This little town lays on the edge of Brabant but

in Breda the rules were somewhat softened. This

ings. Nowadays, a route of 1.2 km guides you

did not always belong to Brabant. It used to

was the result of a strong bond between Breda

past fifteen spots, including two chapels, a mon-

belong to Zeeland, and was founded in 1649 as

and the house of Oranje-Nassau, the ancestors

astery and a seminary. But the most impressive

a Reformed Congregation. A small church on

of our Royal House, who had a chapel in the

has to be the Basilica H.H. Agatha and Barbara

the Voorstraat (4) was built, which is still intact.

Grote Kerk (1). After the Beeldenstorm it went

(3). This immense neoclassical church is a copy

This is one of the few churches originally built

back and forth until in 1637 it definitely became

of the St. Peter in Rome, with a copy of the

to be a Protestant church in West Brabant. It is

Protestant, and still is up to today. Although it

front façade of the St. John in the Lateran. This

noticeably not ornamented, and different from

is still Protestant, the murals that were white-

sixteen times smaller copy is designed by Pierre

the church a few blocks further. Here stands the

washed have been made visible again in the

Cuypers nonetheless, a typical neo-gothic archi-

grand Catholic church, which was built in 1873

1950s. Breda also has a Waterstaatskerk (2),

tect who despised the neo-classical. It is so alike,

in neo-gothic style, as they didn’t want to fall

which houses the cathedral chair of the Diocese.

even the interior is almost an exact copy.

behind on the rest of the Netherlands.

36 | CHEPOS

RELIGIOUS CLASH


THAT’S WHY

3

2

1

OUD-VOSSEMEER

BERGEN OP ZOOM

The St. Willibrorduskerk (5) is a Catholic church

Like Breda, Bergen op Zoom had somewhat soft-

IMAGES 1

1. Duchy of Brabant as obtained by Hendrik I 2. Burgundian territory of Filips de Goede 3. Grote Kerk Breda (source: etten-leur. online) 4. St. Antoniuskathedraal Breda (source: Rijksmonumenten) 5. Basilica H.H. Barbara and Agatha Oudenbosch 6. Inside Basilica 7. Nederlands Hervormde Kerk NieuwVossemeer 8. St. Willibrorduskerk Oud-Vossemeer 9. Sint-Gertrudiskerk Bergen op Zoom (source: Thuis in Brabant) Image 1 - 2 and picture 5 - 8: Ilke Broers

in Zeeland. Although this is technically not West

ened rules under the prohibition of Catholicism;

Brabant, it is one of the catholic churches in this

the rulers of Bergen op Zoom were Catholics

area that was built as a Waterstaatskerk. Oud-

themselves. The Sint-Gertrudiskerk (6) is built

Vossemeer used to have a catholic church, but

in the typical Brabant gothic style. In the Eighty

after the settlement of the French in 1795, the

Years’ War, the Reformed obtained the church

church stayed with the Protestants because they

but they didn’t have to return it to the Catholics,

had the upper hand in Zeeland. In 1841, money

as the French almost completely ruined it. It

was set aside by the State to build a church.

stayed with the Reformed until 1966, until they

Although it is a Catholic church from the 19th

were not able to maintain the enormous build-

SOURCES

century, it is not a grand neo-gothic church but a

ing. The municipality then decided to let the

demure church, not too showy on the outside.

Catholics use it for a fee.

1. Thuis in Brabant. Geschiedenis. thuisinbrabant.nl 2. Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum. Religieus - Gebouwen - Verhalen. bhic.nl

2 7

8 9

56 43

Background: Map of West Brabant late 17th century (image: Brabant in Kaart)

CHEPOS | 37


BREAKING THROUGH THE PARISIAN SKYLINE

Over the last several decades, French law has

Bruneseau area of the 13th arrondissement, one

séna Paris Rive Gauche high-rise.

imposed strict height limits to keep the historic

of 20 municipalities that subdivide the capitol,

This project marked the first collaboration

and iconic skyline of Paris purposefully low. But

and raised the height limitation on the construc-

between the two firms. “We both put our egos

in more recent years, businesses like the archi-

tion of housing blocks from 37 to 50 meters,

aside in order to create one building

tecture firm HAMONIC + MASSON & Associés

or roughly 165 feet. Many cited the decision

with its own form and own materials,” says

actively lobbied to enable the City of Lights to

as a historic move that will forever change the

HAMONIC + MASSON Director Jean-Chris-

grow upward, reflecting its rising population.

cityscape of Paris. HAMONIC + MASSON & As-

tophe Masson. “Combining two different styles

Their efforts proved successful; in November

sociés was one of the first architectural firms to

of architecture should have been the pitfall of

2011, the Paris City Council amended the

capitalize on this change, partnering with Comte

this project, but we worked harmoniously, and

urban planning laws that govern the Massena-

Vollenweider Architects to design the ZAC Mas-

the result speaks for itself.”

38 | CHEPOS

ADVERTORIAL


ADVERTORIAL The project emerged after HAMONIC + MAS-

that rethinks urban space and is a design that

focus of the firm since its 1997 inception

SON won a competition organized by the Paris

the architects feel has a lot of potential for future

by founding members of the French Touch As-

City Council in partnership with a local housing

projects.

sociation, a group that brings together French

authority with a private promoter as the client

While the look of the building’s exterior was ob-

architects from over 20 firms with the purpose of

(Bouygues Immobilier). The project’s objective

viously important, Hamonic and Masson sought

promoting architecture education and opening

was to mark this landscape with a remarkable

innovation inside the structure, as well. The ZAC

dialog among architects.

building, combining offices, private housing,

high-rise achieves diversity by combining 17 sto-

Since then, HAMONIC + MASSON has received

social housing, and parking, as well as beautiful

ries of public housing in one tower with 14 sto-

multiple accolades for their work, including the

architecture. HAMONIC + MASSON turned to

ries of privately owned flats in another, combin-

Architecture et Maître d’Ouvrage (AMO) 2011

Vectorworks Architect software to design the

ing for 200 units. Both towers rest on a common

Spécial Saint-Gobain award for the construc-

dual-towered structure, which will reside in Paris along the southern bank of the river Seine. “Our project will be delivered at the beginning of 2015 and will be the first 50-meter-tall housing

tion of 62 public housing units in the 12th

“FOR US, VECTORWORKS IS AN OBVIOUS CHOICE”

solution to be built in Paris since the start of

arrondissement, as well as a nomination for the Mies Van Der Rohe Award in 2003. Such achievements are a credit to the firm’s 15 associates who work on projects throughout France

the 1970s,” says Masson. “It is symbolic of a

base filled with shops that open up onto the

that include cultural facilities, schools, commer-

willingness to question the possibility of height

Avenue de France, one of the busiest areas of

cial buildings, offices, and residential projects.

in Paris. Functioning as one single building whilst

the vibrant city. Despite the dichotomy, Hamonic

offering social housing and home ownership

and Masson’s firm made no distinction when de-

opportunities, the project links the strict rigidity

signing the interiors. The architects found a way

INNOVATION THROUGH VECTORWORKS

of the Avenue de France, the railway landscape,

to not only break through the ceiling of the old

HAMONIC + MASSON uses Vectorworks

the entrance to Ivry suburb, and finally the tran-

Parisian skyline in an eye-catching way, but also

software because it is well-suited for the way the

sition of a horizontal city toward a vertical one.”

to bridge the divide between public and private

firm works, which means a 2D orientation

housing in the eyes of Parisians.

for competitions and the use of 3D for advanced

EXPERIMENTING WITH URBAN DESIGN

Another goal that guided Hamonic and Masson

torworks is an obvious choice,” says Hamonic.

Masson and his partner Gaëlle Hamonic did not

throughout the design process was a desire to

“The advantage of using Vectorworks is that it

create the high-rise with the intent to simply

emphasize light. They were particularly inspired

works fast because it’s logical, intuitive, and easy

exceed the old height barrier. Rather, since the

by the concept of heliotropism — the movement

to learn. Aimed at organized users, Vectorworks

ZAC building was the first mixed-use high-rise to

of plants in response to the direction of the sun.

is very close to the architect because it’s dedi-

be built in Paris in more than 30 years, the de-

As the sun moves across the sky above Paris,

cated to architecture. It’s intuitive.”

signers felt it had to be something greater than

it will always be shining into some of the apart-

projects that came before. Their inspiration was

ments in the two towers because of their varied

literally a twist on the traditional tower structure,

orientations. This not only makes lighting the

which fits in with the firm’s guiding principles

interior spaces easier, but it also makes these

of focusing on functionality for their clients while

spaces seem larger and more open to the

also experimenting with the classic “city image.”

bustling streets and picturesque riverfront right

Each story of the two towers is aligned

outside.

differently than those above and below it. This

Striving to diversify traditional design concepts in

series of shifting floors creates a swirling prism

both a horizontal and vertical sense has been a

projects that require more time. “For us, Vec-

IMAGE 1

1. Breaking Through the Parisian Skyline (photo: HAMONIC + MASSON).

SOURCES 1. Case Study: HAMONIC + MASSON, ‘Breaking through the Parisian skyline’2015. hamonic-masson.com

Do you want to know more about the possibilities Vectorworks has to offer? Vectorworks is a global design software developer that serves more than half a million designers in the architecture, landscape and entertainment industries. Since 1985, it’s been their mission to help designers capture inspiration, nurture innovation and communicate effectively to bring their visions to life. The company has developed the best CAD and BIM software for Mac and Windows that puts BIM at the heart of the design process, enabling the flexibility needed for efficient iteration throughout the design life-cycle.

CHEPOS | 39


FRISO KRAMER Piet Kramer became famous in the 1920s for his Amsterdam School architecture. His son, Friso Kramer, became famous for some of his streetlight designs. The design illustrated here was aptly named the Friso Kramer (1960). Although designed specifically for residential streets in The Hague, the design became popular all over the country and you probably have one in your own street.

PTT MAILBOX In addition to his streetlights, the characteristic green PTT mailbox can also be accredited to Friso Kramer. PTT commissioned the design in 1960 and Kramer thought about every detail. The color had to be haaggroen, so it would blend in with the rest of the front yard. The mailman had to be able to easily open the lid and the production costs had to be low, because home owners should not have to pay more than ƒ4,75 (€2,16).

STREET FURNITURE The Rietveld Schröderhouse in Utrecht was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000 as it is “an icon of the Modern Movement in

architecture and an outstanding expression of human creative genius in its purity of ideas and concepts as developed by the ‘De Stijl’ movement.” This title generates thousands of tourists each year, making it one of the most popular Dutch tourist destinations outside of Amsterdam. One would expect the city of Utrecht to have hired a designer to turn the surroundings of the monument into something spectacular and worthy of the grandeur of an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The opposite is, unfortunately, the disappointing truth. Standardized pavement, streetlights and waste bins dominate the vicinity of the house. But is this not exactly the future that Rietveld himself envisioned? Rietveld and De Stijl predicted industrialization to penetrate every aspect of society, street furniture included, using ‘new’ materials such as aluminum and reinforced concrete. What is the idea behind some of the most well-known objects that go unnoticed in our everyday streetscape? TEXT: LENNART ARPOTS

40 | CHEPOS

STREET FURNITURE


THAT’S WHY

KOFFER 70 Streetlight designs by AEG had been widely used throughout the Netherlands. Nowadays, they have almost vanished from the urban landscape. The streetlight illustrated here is the small version of the Koffer design, the Koffer 70. These streetlights were the standard during the 1970s and the 1980s. The simple design can still be spotted in industrial areas as they are reused in areas where the design standards will permit it.

CAPITOLE Bas Pruyser designed this most famous of waste bins in 1980. It has been used continuously ever since on every location imaginable throughout the Benelux. This might be the most famous of Pruyser’s designs, but many more characteristic objects came from his drawing board. Both types of office chairs on the third floor of Vertigo for instance, have been designed by Pruyser. The older red ones as well as the new luxurious ones.

CONCRETE TILE Undoubtedly, the most despised object in the Dutch streets is also the most widely used and probably the most characteristic and recognizable. This is of course the concrete tile, with its standard dimensions of 300mm x 300mm. It was first produced by B.V. De Meteoor in 1907, and has since been used as standard pavement for almost every sidewalk. The tiles are ideal for the unpredictable sand ground we live on, as they do not break when the ground settles.

IMAGE

1

1. Rietveld huis and its surroundings. Own work, based on photo by Ed van Berge Henegouwen

SOURCES 1. “Ik heb een zeer gevoelige natuur”, Rinskje Koelewijn, 12 Aug 2012, NRC Handelsblad 2. “Honderd jaar flexibel”, 10 Feb 2016, meteoor.nl 3. “Capitole”, 3 Feb 2015, pruyser.nl 4. “Nomination file - Rietveld-Schröder house”, 6 May 2008, World Heritage Centre, UNESCO.

CHEPOS | 41


THE STORY OF THE SAW-TOOTH ROOF

this operation were very high. Furthermore, the

Many industrial buildings dating back to the second half of the 19th century and the first

1865, Fairbairn describes another advantage:

half of the 20th century were built with a saw-tooth roof. These saw-tooth roofed halls

“Contemporaneous with the architectural

consist of parallel long one-story halls, each with their own two-sided sloped roof of

improvements in mills, the shed principle lighted

which one is more steep than the other. In the steeper side of the roof, most times under

from the roof, or the ‘saw-tooth’ system, came

an angle of sixty degrees, windows are placed. Nowadays, the saw-tooth roof principle

into operation. It was chiefly adapted for power-

is no longer in use for new industrial halls. Why is that? And why was it so popular a

weaving, and contained many advantages

century ago? Here is the story of the rise and fall of the saw-tooth roof.

in having the machines on the ground floor,

weaving machines vibrated heavily, what could be felt throughout the entire building. In England the perfect solution was found; a hall with a saw-tooth roof. William Fairbairn is often accredited as the founder of this principle. In his book ‘Treatise on mills and millwork part II’ from

accompanied with a slight degree of moisture, TEXT: JOLIJN VAN KEULEN

which was considered beneficial to the processes carried on.“

TEXTILE INDUSTRY

the place where new machines were developed.

The saw-tooth roofed halls came in handy for

The saw-tooth roof principle was first used in

In the middle of the 19th century, the machinery

solving the problems the heavy weaving looms

the textile industry in England. Before the saw-

used in the textile industry developed quickly.

brought with them. These machines were the

tooth roofed halls came in use, most textile fac-

Especially the invention of the mechanical weav-

first to be placed in the low-rise parts. Another

tories were placed in high-rise buildings of four

ing loom had a great impact on the design of a

advantage was the equally distributed light that

to six levels. This more compact factory building

factory building, as the machines became too

the saw-tooth roof provided due to north facing

was preferred, because that way the distance to

heavy to put on a higher floor. Sometimes it was

roof windows, which was needed for the precise

the steam engine was the shortest. As a front

possible to place them there after the wooden

work of the weavers. The dye-works were often

runner in the industrial revolution, England was

floor was strengthened. However, the costs of

placed in the low-rise buildings as well because

STEEL Type 3

Type 1

a)

d)

Type 2

f) Type 4

b)

e)

g)

These rafters can be supported in different ways: Type 1: On every joint is a column placed to

was for the columns to support the wooden

support the roof structure (a).

cr os

s

The first use of steel in saw-tooth roofed halls

longit

c)

udina

l

roof structure. Later on, the roof structure was also constructed out of steel rods and beams.

Type 2: The columns in the middle in the longi-

For three types of rafters see figure a. The first

tudinal direction are removed to create a more

CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES

is a triangular rafter where the beams are fixed

open floor space. The load of those missing col-

The first saw-tooth roofed halls were con-

in the top joint and the horizontal beam usually

umns can be borne by a beam (b) or a truss (c).

structed out of wood. However, most saw-tooth

is a round iron tension rod. The second type is

roofed halls in the Netherlands have a steel or

a truss structure. In figure b and c the different

Type 3: The columns in the middle in cross

concrete construction. Both materials ask for

variations are shown, there are however more

direction are removed. The load of those missing

their own construction principles. All types are

variations. The last is a knee rafter. Here, the col-

columns can be borne by beams (d) or trusses,

illustrated with a sketch made on a basic grid.

umn and sloped beam consist out of one piece.

most of the times placed in the same plane as

42 | CHEPOS

SAW-TOOTH ROOFS


THAT’S WHY of the smell. The open floor space in the low-rice

roofed halls became more sober and functional.

factory made it easier to place the machines

The factory building was no longer important for

in a good lay-out, without walls as obstacles.

the image of a factory.

When in 1920 the steam engine was replaced by the electric motor, it became even easier to

SAW-TOOTH ROOFS TODAY

make a good lay-out. Another advantage of this

For several reasons the saw-tooth roof was no

building typology is that it is easy to expand the

longer used for industrial buildings halfway

factory, which came in handy around the turn

the 20th century. First, the costs to build and

of the century when the textile factories were

maintain the saw-tooth roofed halls became too

expanding rapidly.

high. Secondly, because of improved artificial lighting, the natural light that the saw-tooth

STYLE

roof provided was no longer needed. Instead

The façade of the saw-tooth roofed halls

uniform large rectangular production halls that

changed over time. In the beginning the factory

were cheaper to build and maintain were put up.

building had to represent the image of the fac-

However, the principle has not disappeared. It is,

tory. Therefore, the façade was often decorated

for example, a nifty principle for museum build-

on the street side of the building. The decoration

ings or artist studios because of the equal natural

consisted of round windows in every corner of

light that it provides. An example can be found

the saw-tooth roofs, the name of the factory

in the Liner museum in Switzerland.

prominently on the façade and patterns in the brickwork. The maintenance of the saw-tooth

IMAGE

roofs was intensive and expensive. By placing a wall in front of the factory, passers-by would not

4

1 2 3

see the tattered roof construction. A brick wall was much easier to keep in a good state. That is why some factories had an extra rectangular façade placed in front of the saw-tooth roofed halls. After the turn of the century the saw-tooth

1. Van Puijenbroek, Goirle (Source: vptex.com) 2. P. de Wit, Geldrop (Source: librevastgoed.nl) 3. Liner museum, Appenzell, Switserland by Gigon Guyer Architects (Source: Flickr.com) 4. Construction types (based on Oosterhoef, J. Bouwtechniek in Nederland - Constructies van ijzer en beton - Gebouwen 1800-1940 Overzicht en Typologie)

SOURCES 1. Fairbairn, W. Treatise on Mills and Millwork part 2,(Cambridge, 1865) 2. Oosterhoef, J., e.g. Bouwtechniek in Nederland - Constructies van ijzer en beton - Gebouwen 1800-1940 - Overzicht en Typologie. (Delft, 1988).

CONCRETE Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

j)

l)

k)

m)

cr os

s

h)

i)

longit

udina

l

Type 4

the glass (e). Another option is to place the

Type 1: On every joint a column is placed to

columns under the ridge of the roof (f).

support the roof structure. This can be done by a chain of knee rafters (h) or load bearing walls (i),

Type 4: Type 4 is a combination of type 2 and 3.

n)

although this last option is rare.

Here the columns in the middle of the longitudi-

missing columns can be borne by beams (l) or

nal and cross direction are removed. The load of

Type 2: The columns in the middle in cross

trusses placed in the window surface (m). Here

those missing columns can be borne by beams

direction are removed to create more open floor

the windows are placed vertically.

(g).

space. The load of those missing columns can be borne by beams (j) or trusses (k).

The first concrete saw-tooth roofed halls in the

Type 4: This type is a combination of type 2 and 3; here the columns in the middle of the longitu-

Netherlands were built in 1905. Here, four dif-

Type 3: The columns in the middle in longitu-

dinal and cross direction are removed. The load

ferent types can be distinguished as well:

dinal direction are removed. The load of those

of the missing columns is borne by beams (n). CHEPOS | 43


STYLOS In every Chepos an article is published from the Pantheon// and vice versa. Pantheon// is the magazine of Stylos, Study Association of the Built Environment, Delft. This article is a review about the developing skyline of London.

THE SH

RD

A self-made symbol TEXT: MERIJN BRAAM Built on top of one of the world’s oldest railway

RUINING THE SKYLINE

stations, Renzo Piano’s ‘The Shard’ landed like

Critics of the multi-million pound costing project

a UFO in the densely built city of London. With

claim that the skyscraper is dominating the

its height of 309,6 meters, the skyscraper is

London skyline in an antisocial way. Rowan

currently the tallest building of the European

Moore, architecture critic of British newspaper

Union. The building is renowned for its daring

The Guardian, argues that the London skyline

design and materiality, but it is also criticized for

is being screwed with and that the project

ruining the London skyline. It was proclaimed to

represents the hustling abilities of investor Irvine

have lost its way from Dubai to one of the oldest

Stellar. Stellar bought the site of the future Shard

neighbourhoods of London, Southwark.

in 1998. In the year 2000, he appointed Renzo Piano as the architect after the government pu-

URBAN PRESSURE

blished a policy to develop areas around public

The Shard is built in a period in which London

transport hubs. As the building site was located

needed to cope with high urban pressure on the

near the outdated train station of Southwark,

inner city and its surroundings. As the outward

Stellar saw the potential for linking the develop-

growth of England’s capital is limited by policies

ment of a new tower to major improvements

like the ‘green belt’ (an area around London

of the train station. The plans for The Shard

where urbanization is restricted to protect farm-

became subject to a lot of criticism but were

lands, forests and wildlife), one solution for dea-

accepted when Stellar got London’s mayor, Ken

ling with the massive growth of the population

Livingstone, on his side. The issue of financing a

is building vertical. Renzo Piano responds to this

project of such a scale was solved by oil money,

problem by placing a high amount of facilities in

provided by the royal family of Qatar. Because

a relatively small area. The tower houses a train

the tower only houses offices of large com-

station, offices, bars, restaurants, a luxury hotel,

panies, a luxury hotel and apartments for the

apartments and a viewing platform which offers

extremely wealthy, journalist Ian Dunt calls the

a 360˚ view over the city of London.

building “a grotesque monument for the rich”.

‘THE SHARD’

The Shard doesn’t only trigger negative re-

For the shape, Piano was inspired by the historic

sponses. A lot of people claim that the tower

skyline of London: the masts of sailing ships and

symbolises London entering a new era. Richard

the steeples of Christopher Wren’s churches. In-

Rogers, former colleague of the architect Piano,

fluenced by those visions, he designed a pointy

claims that The Shard - “anchors the best piece

skyscraper, cutting through the London clouds.

of urban regeneration in the world”- and will

As lightness and transparency were fundamental

help regenerate the worn-out neighbourhood

to Piano’s vision, the entire building was covered

of Southwark.

Spire Levels 75-87

The View from the Shard Levels 68-72

Residences Levels 53-5

Shangri-La Hotel and Spa Levels 34-52

Bars and Restaurants Levels 31-33 The Shard Offices Levels 2-28

in glass. After that, the choice for the name of the building was easily made. IMAGE 1

1. The Shard at sunset (photo: Wei-Feng Xue)

SOURCES 1. Moore, R. (2012, April 22nd). The Shard: the view from Europe’s tallest building. The Guardian. theguardian.com 2. Dunt, I. (2012, 5th July). The Shard is a grotesque monument for the rich. Politics.co.uk 3. The Architectural Review (2012, 24th July). Skylines: Opinions on Renzo Piano’s Shard, London. architectural-review.com

44 | CHEPOS

STYLOS


TOOLS

To improve your skills, lectures are not the only possibility that is available these days. The overkill of possibilities on the internet makes it difficult to find what you need. Therefore we provide you some references which can help you get a higher grade with better skills.

GRADE ↑, YOUR SKILLS!

TEXT: MARTIJN CREEMERS

Improve your hand drawings skills! youtube.com/user/TheModmin/videos Almost every week a new update is presented on this YouTube Channel. With some basic exercises and skills, your hand drawings are more accurate and better presentable. Using black-lead, pens and markers, your story of designing can be told by simple sketches, made in a professional way. TIP Van Beek art supply has W&M Promarkers for € 2,00 On walking distance from the TU/e Campus.

Get into 3D modeling with free BIM objects! bimobject.com/nl/product Since several years the market is changing from 2D drawings towards 3D modeling. The most complaints made by students are the library abilities of most 3D modeling programs. They are not fullfilling enough. This library website could help you with interior and materials for several 3D modeling programs. It also allows you to share libraries with each other when you use the same programs.

Gear up your Photoshop abilities! youtube.com/Photoshoparchitecture Deadlines are coming and your Sketchup drawings exported as print screen aren’t the way they should look. By following the steps of this tutorial YouTube Channel, your knowledge of Photoshop leaps forward. Start learning and trying with your old projects to acquire the skills. Upgrade your new projects with some simple additions.

Layout is key in your final presentation! knowyouronions.info/books When all your sketches and drawings come together, your presentation poster and booklet show everything. With simple tips and tricks you do not have to invent the wheel over and over again. With very clear explanation and tips and tricks your grade is in the pocket(book)! TIP 101 Things I learned in architecture school (ISBN: 0262062666) Another useful book which provides valuable guides for AR students.

GRADE ↑, YOUR SKILLS!

CHEPOS | 45


TOOLS

Borja at Sonneveld House

FEB 13- MAY 22

TU/e lustrum Artist and architect Santiago Borja was

APR 22-24

From Friday 22nd until Sunday 24th of April 2016 the Eindhoven University

asked to react on the Sonneveld House, so he created an observatory on

of Technology campus will be transformed into a festival terrain as the

the roof. Untill May 22nd, visitors of the Sonneveld House can contemplate

university celebrates its sixtieth birthday! Technology, innovation, music,

here.

art, debate, science and a highly varied food line-up will turn the campus

Sonneveld House, Rotterdam

into a living landscape where young and old, students and staff, locals and non-locals get together.

Lectures ‘Who owns the street?’

FEB 25 - JUN 23

The exhibition ‘Who owns the street?’ in the

Van Abbemuseum shows different ways of seeing the street. Every other

Groene Loper

Cheopsx After a succesful first edition of the CHEOPSx, the

thursdaynight, this is explored in more detail through a series of lectures

MAY 2

and debates. Our own Jacob Voorthuis also gives two of these lectures.

CHEOPSx. There will be an interesting up-to-date theme, interesting for all

Van Abbemuseum

students to join in on.

successor of CHEOPS Qafé, there will be a second

t.b.a.

Building Holland

MAR 22-24

Building Holland is thé three day event for the building and real estate

Multiday excursion On Friday the 13th of May the multi-

sector. This annual event takes place in the RAI Amsterdam. 10.000 visitors

MAY 13-16

and 150 corporations get together to share information and present inno-

gen. Among the activities will be a visit to the DTU and Gehl Architects.The

vative products and concepts.

excursion will arrive in the Netherlands on the 16th of May in the evening.

RAI Amsterdam

Copenhagen

Architecture week

APR 18-24

day excursion will depart to Copenha-

Faculty party #3 From April 18 to 24, 2016 Leiden is the center of everything that has to

MAY 17

Would the Faculty Party committee be able to come up with an even more random theme

do with architecture, spatial design and urban planning. Temporary structu-

than the theme from party #2? Apparently they can. Let us dance once

res, interventions and a spectacular program: toplectures, talk shows, tours,

more at the legendary faculty party, this time at the ‘Space Rave Party’!

cinema, conferences, education and more. Put the Architecture Week on

Café Thomas

your calendar because you do not want to miss out. Architecture is alive! Leiden

Agenda CHEOPS & Built Environment 46 | CHEPOS

AGENDA


COLOPHON CHEOPS, Study Association of the Built Environment Eindhoven University of Technology Groene Loper 6, Vertigo 1.15 Mailbox 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven T: 040-2473140 info@cheops.cc www.cheops.cc Chepos, built environment magazine ISSN: 1873-183X chepos@cheops.cc www.chepos.nl www.facebook.com/CheposPage www.issuu.com/chepos_cheops Chepos editorial board Rick Abelen, Justin Agyin (editor in chief), Lennart Arpots (chairman), Rik de Bondt, Ilke Broers, Martijn Creemers (final editor), Jimmy Hendrickx, Sven van der Hulst, Jolijn van Keulen, Pim Labee, Eva Pabon, Jeroen Pospiech, RenĂŠe Thierij, Chastity Verhoofstad Chepos is a publication of CHEOPS, Study Association of the Built Environment. Content may be used for research and study purposes, if credited properly. Exceptions include copyrighted imagery; these may not be reproduced or published without specific consent by the original author. Collaborations Rob Abeling, Patrick van Dodewaard, Nienke Esther Grooten, Patrick Lenaers, Adriaan JurriĂŤns, Jacob Voorthuis Acknowledgements Wim Baijens, Mischa de Ruwe, Yvonne Segers, Elvire Vesseur Images Cover: Artwork by Lennart Arpots (source: daylightsight.com) Editorial: photo by Martijn Creemers Index Page 2-3: Religious Clash (photo: Ilke Broers, edited by Lennart Arpots), Oude Haven Saving energy (source: cop21. gouv.fr), Capitole trash bins (source: claerbout.pro), Heumensoord Entrance Camp Vught (photo: Klaas Vermaas), De Nieuwe Ooster (photo: Lennart Arpots). Page 4: (source: ed.nl) Page 8: photo by Martijn Creemers Image page 14-15: photo by Dominika Kubiak-Hendriks Page 28-29: photo by Hiroyuki Takeda Page 44: Borja at Sonneveld House (source: het Nieuwe Instituut) and CHEOPSx (photo: Bram Valk) Colophon: photo by Lennart Arports Offset Drukkerij Snep BV, Eindhoven Circulation: 1200 Advertisements & exploitation Pim Labee: pr@cheops.cc Co-Main Sponsor Saint-Gobain

Want to be an editor? Want to share your opinion? Contact the editorial board via chepos@cheops.cc


Profile for Chepos

Chepos 53  

On Tuesday March 8 the Chepos 53 was released. For this issue we focussed on the role of architecture in the experience of death, hence the...

Chepos 53  

On Tuesday March 8 the Chepos 53 was released. For this issue we focussed on the role of architecture in the experience of death, hence the...

Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded