Charlie W Donaldson 3 101
Stage 3 Portfolio
A compilation of my design and theory work from 20172018. Charlie W Donaldson 150170514 Newcastle University Ba (Hons) Architecture Studio - Incubate / Iterate
Field Trip P34-p41
Realisation // Refinement p56-p105
Tectonic Integration 02 p106-p111
Tectonic Integration 01 p112-p139
Tools for Design p140-p143
Stage 3 has been both a difficult and rewarding time within my architectural education. It follows a summer spent working in a small, niche residential practice. As a result my digital skills had been expanded, something which I was keen to hone in the upcoming year. My studio choice, ‘Incubate // Iterate’ has allowed me to further explore my passion of designing spaces for community led creative initivates. I enjoy working in a constraint heavy brief; particularly where economy is a concern. I try to implement another layer of complexity in my work by creating spaces which are inherently flexible enough to house a variety of informal activity; but allowing each colllection of spaces to have their own characteristics. The year started with ‘Primer’. I researched a Screenprinter, creating my own ‘Guide to Screenprinting’. This finished with designing a Live//Work prototype for them. I particularly enjoyed this as it allowed me to reconnect with this skill of mine. Consequently, I have registered with ‘Northern Print’, and aim to continue refining my skill in the upcoming Summer. Unexpectedly, I enjoyed writing my dissertation. Examining elements of Newcastle at a masterplan level has been realised within my Graduation project. The brief is based on ‘Recyke Y Bike’, a community led project involved with the repair of Bicycles. As a keen cyclist myself, I could identify the current issues facing the current infrastructure and facilities. I am fortunate that my personal interests were able to development my Graduation Project.
This year’s charrette was entitled ‘Paper Cities’. Skills of traditional Japenese Paper folding were used to produce forms which mimic contempory architecture. The exhibtion was curated in a way which brought the week’s work together, with light paintings projected to animate them.
Developing a Live // Work Prototype
In my Primer project I researched a Screen Printer, investigating their process. The aim was to produce an inhabitation drawing portraying this, and to further develop this into a Live // Work prototype bases on this individual.
The above image shows a section of my screen print, exploring ideas of layering.
Craft Research // Screen Printing
Northern Print is a Council funded workshop located within Ouseburn, Newcastle. They offer facilities for many different types of print artists, however I decided to focus on the process of Screen Printing. I looked with particular interest at an individual whom is a young graphic artist, printing custom designs onto T -Shirts.
Screen Printing // Macro Micro
My investigation into the craft started through mapping the floor plan (Macro), whilst looking at the details and chaos of the work (Micro).
Screenprinting is an art form with a strict process which needs to be followed with haste. In order to document the artist, I mapped out his steps which are strictly adhered to. The art work is produced in many layers, and is completed through a repetitive process.
A Guide to Screenprinting
A screenprint is built up through many layers of colour. This is something which becomes ‘flattened’ when printed onto paper. I wanted to emphaise this crucial part of the process, and did so by printing onto acetate sheets. Once layered together, it created an interesting sense of depth and shadow.
The nhabitation drawing was produced to be a ‘Guide to Screenprinting’.
These images show the completed screen printed guide. It depicts the various steps, relating them to a location in the plan.
Live // Work Prototype
The map above shows the location of the Primer site. This area of Newcastle currently has a labyrinth of routes which promote antisocial behaviour. The red line shows a new route, which I want my Live // Work prototype to create.
Crafting the Site
The site is located within one of the vacant arches in the High Level Bridge. To understand its scale, proportions and materiality, I crafted a 1:50 model. The images to the left show its construction process in order to be cast.
1:50 Arch Model
The final site model after sanding.
The work area offers space for the screen printer to operate efficiently. The process is arranged in a linear manner along the plan, with voids placed to allow light to enter into the non-light sensitive spaces. The top right image shows a concept for external seating outside the building. It is a fold down bench, which requires the same movement to use as the screen printing tables require. I wanted to connect the process to the surrounding environment.
Live // Work Refinement
A requirement of the design was that it had to be communicated in one axonometric drawing. This development drawing explains my process work. I regularly return back to designing by hand over my digital drawings, refining my ideas.
The building consists of a simple, rectangular form which slots into one of the vacant arches. The economy of the materials have been carefully considered, as it consists of a timber stud frame, with a double skin polycarbonate facade and roof.
Live // Work Axonometric
This is the final axonometric drawing of the Live .// Work Protoype. The live space is located towards the rear, and is constructed out of cast in situ concrete. This provides a more private, hard edge to the public.
Field Trip //
Porto & Lisbon
The field trip to Portugal took place in November. Porto and Lisbon both have a rich artistic culture, and provide a good basis for architectural precedents.
Porto was the first city that we visited, followed by Lisbon. Both are rich in the work of Eduardo Souto de Moura and Alvaro Siza.
Casa de Musica
We had the opportunity to visit the Casa de Musica in Porto by Rem Koolhaas. I was intrigued by the transparency of the building materials, and the complex geometry ot the external form.
Sketchbook Log // Porto School of Architecture
In Porto, we also visited the School of Architecture by Alvaro Siza. This is a good precedent for using light in interesting ways.
Public Space Analysis
European cities often have very well designed areas of public space. This was an area I examined on the trip as Porto has a very similar topography as Newcastle.
I have developed a brief for my chosen site beside the Newcastle side of the High Level Bridge. The brief is heavily based around cycling infrastructure within Newcastle, and providing facilites for â€˜Recyke Y Bikeâ€™ to expand in.
My chosen site is located on a South facing slope in central Newcastle.
Site Analysis ARC3013 Feasibility Study
The site is located on a Southern slope, and is shielded from the prevailing winds by the apartments to the West. The area around the site is currently a labrinth of hostile spaces promoting anti-social behaviour. A clear strategy is required here. There are large amounts of noise from the overhead trains, making it suitable for a more industrial use.
Site Analysis ARC3013 Feasibility Study
The High Level Bridge is a dominant form on the site, and should be negotiated sensitively.
Recyke Y Bike ARC3013 Feasibility Study
Recyke Y Bike // Above are some first hand images of the premises at Recyke Y Bike in Ouseburn. They are based in two railway arches, but desperately need more space. The top image shows one of the hireable workshop spaces, which members of the public can utilise. I plan to increase the number of these spaces from 2 to 8. This would encourage more members of the public to interact with the more private spaces in the builidng, and would bring in much needed revenue to the charity. The bottom image shows that ordered storage space is required, as currently parts and bikes can be very difficult to find.
Bicycle Hotel Lillestrom by Various Architects // This is a precedent for an urban bicycle storage scheme. The program is very simple, comprising of secure cycle storage with a green public space on the roof. This allows the site to become an area which becomes a meeting point within the urban fabric, something which I hope to achieve in my building.
Programming ARC3013 Feasibility Study
Functional Analysis Matrix
PUBLIC Storage for parts
Storage for bikes
Bike Storage Min 50 Bikes
Storage for parts
Storage for bikes
Bike Storage Min 50 Bikes
Locker Space Washing Facilities
High End Bikes on Display
Coffee Shop Market Space
5 Artist Studios
Large community workshop
High End Bikes on Display
5 Artist Studios
Large community workshop
Large Community Workshop - 300sqm Metal Worksop - 150sqm Coffee Roastery - 60sqm Meeting / Teaching Spaces - 100sqm Coffee Shop - 50sqm Bike Shop - 60sqm Shower and Washing facilities - 70sqm Storage for Bikes - 50sqm Storage for Bike Parts - 50sqm Plant room - 100sqm Bike Racks - 100sqm Print making Studio - 150sqm Generic Craft Studios - 10 x 16sqm = 160sqm Kitchen - 36sqm Toilets - 30sqm Total: 1540sqm
Exterior Spaces Spaces Visual Connections
KEY Exterior Spaces Spaces Visual Connections
Fragmenting Programme Analysis
Bike Shop Views
Workshop/ Double Height Workshop Access by Road
Atrium 10 Artist Studios
As with my adjaceny diagram shown on the left, I am keeping a clear Public / Private divide in my project. This boundary is represented by a concrete floor slab which extends over the slope creating a usable, level piece of public space. All of the public areas, such as the showers, Coffee and Bike shop are accessible from here. Access to the more private spaces will be gained by moving down into the building. A large, double height community and metal workshop will be housed here with access from the exisiting road. With my programming I want to maximise the views towards the Quayside, and respect the imposing nature of the bridge. My interventions on the public level will be lightweight visually.
10 Spaces 8 Spaces
Cycling Infrastructure Improvements ARC3013 Feasibility Study
Currently, in Newcastle there is very little permeability between Newcastle and Gateshead for cyclists. A redistribution of zoning in the High Level Bridge could provide a 2 way protected cycle route. The proposed scheme would provide cycle storage, showers, and a cafe, allowing it to become a part of commutersâ€™ morning routines.
Precedent // Gordola Training Centre Durisch + Nolli Architects ARC3013 Feasibility Study
The lightweight steel frame structure used in this building is interesting, as it contrasts against the cast in situ concrete floor supports. The floor itself has been made from precast concrete slabs providing a durable surface for workshops. The structure can be made cheaply, as it consists of many repeated elements, this is an important consideration within my scheme.
Realisation + //Refinement//
Graduation Project Manifesto
Conservation • •
Work sensitively around the High Level Bridge, not blocking any key views of the listed structure. Use the Architectural form to make subtle references to the Bridge.
Economy of Material • • •
Use a simple form with durable materials Use standardised sheet materials throughout. Encorporate flexibility in use where appropriate.
Improve cycling connections between Newcastle and Gateshead. Provide an alternative accessible route to the Castle Stairs.
Sustainable Cities • • •
Encourage and promote cycling within Newcastle Provide 100 new Quayside cycle parking spaces. Reduce waste by repairing bicycles.
Provide training facilities for the long term unemployed as bike mechanics . Improve their range of skills by providing art facilities. Provide low cost bike repair / maintainence.
Thinking Through Making Week
The structure is a timber stud polycarbonate wall, and the stones are added before the second layer is fixed. Further experiments could involve using a larger aggregate, or a more sustainable filling such as plastic bottles.
Thinking Through Making Week
This detail represents a section of wall and cast insitu floor deck with beam. The wall is designed to be low cost and easily constructed by volunteers. I have experimented with the thickness of the polycarbonate sheets which allows the light to penetrate through areas. A deep infill of stones could act as a trombe wall on the South facing site.
8 9 11
In order to understand the various components and their lifespan on a bike, I undertook an audit on my own communting bike. Parts such as the frame and forks are very long lasting, in this case they are 80 years old. They should be repaired in the program. Leather goods, such as the saddle and handlebar tape have the lowest durability, therefore it is important that a leather worker operates in the facility.
Part Name Number
Brake Cables x2
Brake Levers x2
Seat Bolt / Fastener
Rear Brake and Pads
Wheel hubs x2
These concept images show the possiblity of custom, screenprinted parts of bikes as part of their repair.
New parts made in Scheme
Customer bike in
Donated bike in
Disassembly and Inventory
Reassembly with new parts
Repaired using old parts from customer bikes
The above diagram shows how the bicycle charity would operate. I have altered the brief slightly since â€˜Stagingâ€™, as it now consists of a shop / cafe, bike workshop and screenprinting facility.
Storage Customer with bike repair job
Light Metal Workshop
Work Bike Shop / Cafe Customers using Cafe
Bikes to Africa
Storage Reconstruction Staff
Graphics Digital coms
Shared Facilities for other artists
Custom Screen Printing
Case Study // Lacaton & Vassal
Nantes School of Architecture // Lacaton and Vassal
The Nantes School of Architecture has influenced my design and construction strategies. Similary to my project, it uses a cast in situ concrete frame. This allows for an uninterupted and flexible floor area.
These diagrams show my structural strategies. Intermediate floor plates are supported from the roof. This creates a more flexbible space below.
Principles of Economy ARC3013 Integrated Technology
A large portion of my construction is cast in situ concrete. Recycled aggregate will be used. The above diagram shows how the scaffolding boards will be reused up the walls. When they are finished with, they can be used for some of the internal flooring. The boards need to be thick enough to reduce deflection so that they can be reused.
The building will be mainly clad in low cost Polycarbonate. Dimensions of spaces should be influenced by the standard sheet size of this material. (2400x1200mm). If a height needs to be greater, a fraction of the sheet, such as a third or quarter will be used. This means that there is less wastage as there are no offcuts.
This is an early concept sketch, showing a heavy, concrete frame which supports a public pavilion on the roof. This would be at the same level as the new cycle route, and a continuation of the Castle stairs would allow it to be accessed from the Quayside. A vertical bike lift with viewing platform would display the buildingâ€™s function in a theatrical mannor.
I tested different massing models within my sketch site model.
I wanted to align my massings parallel to the direction of the Bridge in plan to formally address the Quayside. The vertical bike hoist tower has relocated to the Quayside, acting as a low energy bicycle lift. This connects the ‘Hadrian’s Way’ cycle path to my scheme.
Key Section Development
This section rationalises the rhythm of the structure, divided into 6m bays. The more industrial work takes place in the concrete framed portion of the building, whilst the screen printing takes place in the steel framed portion. The saw tooth roof helps the space receive more constant northern light, preferable to artists.
Key Section Development
I have refined the key section. The saw tooth portion of building has been lowered to create a better relationship to the exposed structure of the High Level Bridge. The Quayside lift tower, and internal bike lift mechanism are the same height, creating consistency across the level change.
Quayside Lift Tower
The low energy bicycle lift tower provides an alternative route to the Castle stairs. It allows the building to become a gateway to the city, significantly reducing journey times from the Quayside to the city centre. It will be constructed from a lightweight steel frame, which references the cross bracing on the High Level Bridge.
The lift connects to a ramp nestled between the facades. It also reaches the deck level, allowing the public pavilion to be easily accessed.
1:200 Site Model
The scheme sitting within context.
This render shows the cafe. Three main views are achieved here, the first being directly ahead; linking the space to the context. A window looks out towards the Tyne, and a void in the floor gives a visual connection to the bicycle disassembly occuring on the floor below.
1 (1:200 at A3)
0 (1:200 at A3)
-1 (1:200 at A3)
This render shows the interior of the Screenprinting area. Deep, movable shelving informally divides the space. To the left their is a void where the bicycles are hoisted through the building.
-2 (1:200 at A3)
Tectonic Integration 02
1) Solar thermal panels 2) Profiled Metal Sheet 3) Thermal Insulation 4) Vapour Barrier 5) Flat Sheeting 6) Trussed Framework
1) Cast in situ Concrete 2) Insulation 3) DPM 4) Screed
ARC3013 Integrated Technology
Tectonic Integration 02
This 1:50 tectonic model shows the structural framing with suspended intermediate floors.
Tectonic Integration 01 // Paulo Rego Museum Group Work
Paulo Rego Museum, Cascais, Portugal
The Paulo Rego Museum is located in outside Lisbon, Portgual in Calcais. It was commissioned by Paulo Rego to display her collection of artistic prints. • • • •
Built from 2000-2008 Lead Architect was Eduardo Souta De Moura Houses a 750m2 of exhibtion space, 200 seat auditorium, a gallery and a cafe. Primary Sructure is a red concrete, relating to its context.
Architect // Eduardo Souta De Moura
The Architect was Eduardo Souta De Moura. He adopted a regionalist approach for this design. This is a typical move by him as he encourages buildings to be rooted within their context. He is a Portuguese Architect, whom was appointed by Paulo Rego. The architectural style is not changed by modern trends, instead he adopts simple forms with a truth to materiality. Much of his work uses concrete as the main structure and materiality, due to its homogenous, seemless nature.
Left and Top Right // 1989-94 - House in Bom Jesus, Braga, Portugal. This building has a similar materiality to Eduardoâ€™s other buildings. It is made from uninterupted cast insitu concrete. This is where Eduardo experimented with board marker concrete. Bottom Right // 1981-91 Casa das Artes, S.E.C. Cultural Centre, Porto, Portugal. The interior of this builidng is very similar to Eduardoâ€™s Paulo Rego Museum. There are clean lines, and there is always a view outside to nature, which is carefully framed.
Design Intent and Experience
The Design intent for the Museum was to present the work of Paulo Rego in such a way that it became the main focus, the the interior architectural spaces became a secondary focus. The Chimney like towers evoke a sense of place, something that is important in this design. They are inspired by the Sintra Palaces towers, and the colour is taken from the traditional terracotta roofing used in Cascais.
Route through the building
Upon approaching the building, one is welcomed with a recessed entrance, this shade is very welcoming in the Portuguese sun. Glazed doors provide a clear line of sight through the building, and the relatively low ceilings exacterbate this sense of perspective. There is a generous foyre with ample space for personal belongings. The gallery spaces are laid out in a logical manner. There is normally a view through to a courtyard, allowing for a personal orientation in the building. The loop around the galleries end at the cafe providing an opportunity for reflection and social interaction. This contrasts against the gallery spaces, which emoke quiet contemplation due to the nature of Paulo Regoâ€™s work.
The Paulo Rego Museum is located in the sub-urban area of Cascais, Portugal. It is built within the former public garden Quinta da Parada. By keeping the existing planting and vegetation the form and boundaries of the building are formed. The building is characterized by having 4 wings and 2 distinctive chimney-like structures.
Environment // There is window opening to west from exhibition area, cafĂŠ and store to create tranquility. There are always views outwards to the natural environment from the interior spaces. The outdoor cafĂŠ is located at west to create a comfortable environment in afternoons, whilst office is located in the East. The wall along the site is just above eye-level to provoke a sense of interest in the grounds. Most of the trees have been retained within the site, they cast strong, sharp shadows on the building, helping it blend into the landscape, becoming one with it.
Atmosphere and Materiality
It was the wishes of Paula Rego for the building to be contemporary and full of life, and the use of red concrete on the exterior is a modern, appropriate, and energetic way of dressing the building. The rustic red mimics the colour of Portuguese roof tiles, which as her home, is a patriotic celebration and sits brilliantly within its surroundings. Not only does the roughly detailed texture add an element of interest, but also the diagonal and horizontal grooves assist rain water run-off. The material is also appropriate for this sub-tropical climate by having high thermal mass, while the bright red is a bold statement against the blue sky that often makes a welcomed appearance. The existing trees cast dark shadows against the exterior, an exciting twist involving natureâ€™s impact on the building. We are invited into the interior space through clean edged window entrances, simplistic and direct detailing.
The exterior material shown is a red pigmented concrete, inspired by the rustic red roofscape surrounding the site, native to Portugal. One material addresses four architectural qualities: site appraisal, primary structure, textural detail and atmosphere in an unusual manner.
The Backdrop // Lisbon is a warm temperate subtropical climate with 2,806 sunshine hours per year. The piercing sunshine on the rustic red building, with its angular forms casts crisp and linear shadows, Creating an abstract, lively detail. Chimney flutes // At 17 metres high, they are roughly textured all over, set in a herringbone pattern. The diagonal grooves change to horizontal grooves as we descend. Not only does this assist rain water run off and have high thermal mass, but is also richly textural. Vegetation and Shadows // The building was designed around the existing trees. The greenery surrounds the building, giving a natural trait. Sunlight hits to cast strong shadows upon the building.
The Windows // Large glass connections into courtyard spaces allowed the interior to connect to the exterior. Courtyard Connection // On our visit, we were drawn to spend a generous amount of time in the seating area, moving from the glass floor to ceiling patio window into this courtyard. A well lit area without any piercing glare. The west facing space is protected by the walls from direct sunlight for a comfotable, protected space. Peeling Back a Layer // Protected from the exterior in the cooling, interior while still being able to enjoy its beauty by peeling back the transclucent, white blind.
The interiorâ€™s materiality, tells a slightly different story, to aid the necessary cooling atmosphere and tower chimney flute structure within. It has a locally sourced marble floor, white plaster walls, balanced lighting on the ceilings to create an ambient space which allows us to focus on celebrating the life and work of an influencial artist.
Cast insitu concrete structure
Steel Ties Lightweight Frame Insulation and Plasterboard
Insulation and floor finish
Cast insitu concrete tie beam
This diagram shows the lightweight structure which is fixed to the cast insitu concrete. It forms a grid in which the insulation and plasterboard is attached to. It is showing the homogeneous nature of the structure as the floors, walls, ceiling, beams and foundations all form one element. The above images shows the construction process. Scaffording was used so the formwork could e fixed. The concrete was poured in batches working upwards.
PAULO REGO MUSEUM
The structure is cast insitu concrete. Inside this sits an inhabitable envelope consisting of insulation and plasterboard which hangs from this superstructure off steel ties. This has been done so that it provides a servicable void, and ceiling heights can vary easily. Futhermore it creates a thermal barrier between the concrete and the inhabitated envelope.
Plaster sheeting Insulation
Cast insitu Concrete frame
Concrete tie beam in foundation
CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE FRAME
Energy and Environmental Strategies
Incident light rays
Reflected light paths
Lighting Within The Tower // Within the centre of the tower is a suspended reflector which reflects the sunlight that would otherwise only penetrate the space vertically. This then reduces the need for artificial lighting and therefore the consumption of electricity. I have illustrated this reflection process with the cross-sectional view of the tower.
Lighting Within The Galleries // Throughout the whole gallery space, recessed ceiling lighting is used. This is then contained behind a diffuser which allows for the light from a single bulb to light a larger area and therefore increases efficiency of the building whilst decreasing energy usage. Inevitably at other points this lighting is then supplemented by spotlighting or uplighting in order to create a different atmosphere. Whilst diffused lighting is a more likely an atmospheric choice, it is also energy saving.
Ventilation Within The Galleries // The gallery spaces make use of the large cavity and the thick external concrete walls to naturally circulate air through the spaces. This means that the gallery spaces use less energy than if they were mechanically ventilated. The hot air leaves the spaces through the vents located alongside the lighting and is reintroduced through the vents located in the base of the walls after cooling down by transferring heat energy into the external walls.
Ventilation Systems // The main ventilation system for the building is located on the flat roof and is only visible from certain angles and from quite a distance from the building, as it does not match the clean form of the museum. The system is used in spaces that require more air changes due to the occupancy density, such as the audotorium. The rather visible vents are also used in the cafe space. The two ventilation stacks seem to run a separate ventilation system, most likely for the room in the basement of the building where art is stored, which must be carefully controlled to best preserve the pieces.
Key Details and Moments
Taking inspiration from The National palace in the nearby town of Sintra, the most noticeable key details of this building are the 17m tall concrete â€˜chimneysâ€™ that make the casas strong form and identity. Inside the chimneys there is a shop in one and a cafĂŠ in the other - which is a little strange as you would expect the most dominant part of the design to poses the most important part of the gallery, the exhibitions themselves. Being inside the chimneys however is still a really unique experience with tapering walls which come to a small skylight at the top.
Key Details and Moments
The small glimpses of the outside world are an important part of the scheme making the internal courtyard to which all galleries are arranged around a key feature in the design â€“ unfortunately during our visit it was covered to minimise light entering the space
Tools for Design // Joinery
This session explored the art of wood craft, and the possibililites of different joining techniques.
Tools for Design // Concrete Casting
In this session I learnt the craft of stone carving, and casting concrete with different mixes of pigments.
Tools for Design // Interactive Design
Ardino computers were used to program various motion reactions in response to an input.
Final Year Architecture Portfolio from Newcastle University. Charlie William Donaldson