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My Reading on Heat Exchanger Reading 03- The ARAMCO Std. Part 2 of 2 for my Aramco AOC’s QM31 Exam Preparations

31st May 2018

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

闭 门 练 功


Fion Zhang at Shanghai Damuqiao 大木桥路 31st May 2018

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://greekhouseoffonts.com/


The Magical Book of Heat Exchanger Reading

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


有 书 真 幸 福 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

无事小神仙


Parts: 1. API660/ ISO 16812:2007 g Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers 2. Materials System Specification 32-SAMSS-007 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 3. Inspection & Testing Requirements SAUDI ARAMCO FORM-175 CODE NUMBER: IR323100 SCOPE: Heat Exchangers: Shell and Tubes.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


American Petroleum Institute API 600 Std.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Part 1: Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers ANSI/API STANDARD 660 EIGHTH EDITION, AUGUST 2007 ISO 16812:2007 (Identical), Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries-Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Scope Normative references Terms and definitions General Proposals Drawings and other required Design Materials Fabrication Inspection and testing Preparation for shipment Supplemental requirements

Annex A (informative) Recommended practices Annex B (informative) Shell-and-tube heat exchanger checklist Annex C (informative) Shell-and-tube heat exchanger data sheets Annex 0 (informative) Responsibility data sheet

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8 Materials 8.1 General • 8.1.1 The purchaser shall specify if the service is sour (i.e. if sulfide stress cracking is possible) in accordance with:  ISO 15156 (all parts) for oil and gas production facilities and natural gas sweetening plants, or  in accordance with NACE MR0103 for other applications (e.g. oil refineries, LNG plants and chemical plants), in which case all materials in contact with the process fluid shall meet the requirements of that standard. NOTE For the purpose of this provision NACE MR0175 is equivalent to ISO 15156.

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8.1.2 Castings shall not be used unless approved by the purchaser. 8.1.3 Material for external parts that are welded directly to the heat exchanger, such as pads, brackets and lugs, shall be of the same nominal composition as the material to which they are welded. 8.1.4 Alloy cladding shall be weld-overlay, integrally clad or explosion-bonded. Loose liners or sleeves shall not be used without the approval of the purchaser.

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8.2 Gaskets 8.2.1 Gaskets shall not contain asbestos. 8.2.2 Material for metal-jacketed, serrated-metal or solid-metal gaskets shall have a corrosion resistance at least equal to that of the gasket contact surface material. 8.2.3 Metal windings of spiral-wound gaskets shall be of austenitic stainless steel unless otherwise specified or approved by the purchaser. 8.2.4 Serrated- or solid-metal gaskets, including welds, shall be softer than the gasket contact surface. 8.2.5 Gasket material, including filler material, shall be selected to withstand the maximum design temperature. 8.3 Tubes 8.3.1 Integrally finned tubes of copper alloy shall be furnished in the annealed-temper condition, such as described in ASTM B 359/B 359M. 8.3.2 All welded tubes shall be eddy-current tested in the finished condition over their full length.

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8.3 Tubes 8.3.1 Integrally finned tubes of copper alloy shall be furnished in the annealed-temper condition, such as described in ASTM B 359/B 359M. 8.3.2 All welded tubes shall be eddy-current tested in the finished condition over their full length.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Tubes All welded tubes shall be eddy-current tested in the finished condition over their full length.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://www.pardtube.com/technicals/non-destructive-tests-for-welded-tube/


Tubes All welded tubes shall be eddy-current tested in the finished condition over their full length.

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Tubes All welded tubes shall be eddycurrent tested in the finished condition over their full length.

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Tubes- All welded tubes shall be eddy-current tested in the finished condition over their full length.

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Tubes- All welded tubes shall be eddy-current tested in the finished condition over their full length.

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Tubes- All welded tubes shall be eddy-current tested in the finished condition over their full length.

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9 Fabrication 9.1 Shells 9.1.1 All longitudinal and circumferential welds of shells for other than kettletype heat exchangers shall be finished flush with the inner contour for ease of tube-bundle insertion and withdrawal. For kettle-type heat exchangers, this requirement shall not apply to welds in the enlarged section if they are not in the bottom quadrant of the shell.

Bottom Quadrant Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Kettle-type Heat Exchangers

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Kettle-type Heat Exchangers

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9.1.2 For removable-bundle heat exchangers, the permissible out-ofroundness of a completed shell, after all welding and heat treatment, shall allow a metal template to pass through the entire shell length without binding. The template shall consist of two rigid disks (each with a diameter equal to the diameter of the transverse baffle or support plate), rigidly mounted perpendicularly on a shaft and spaced not less than 300 mm (12 in) apart. 9.1.3 Transverse baffle-to-shell clearances greater than those indicated in TEMA (8th edition), Table RCB-4.3, shall not be used unless approved by the purchaser.

baffle-to-shell clearances

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Transverse baffle-to-shell

baffle-to-shell clearances

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TEMA (8th edition), TABLE RCB-4.3 Standard Cross Baffle and Support Plate Clearances Dimensions In Inches (mm) Nominal Shell ID

Design ID of Shell Minus Baffle OD

6-17 (152-432) 18-39 (457-991) 40-54 (1016-1372) 55-69 (1397-1753) 70-84 (1n8-2134) 85-100 (2159-2540)

1/8 (3.2) 3/16 (4.8) 1/4 (6.4) 5/16 {7.9) 3/8 {9.5) 7/16 (11.1)

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9.2 Pass-partition plates Pass-partition plates for forged or welded channels and floating heads shall be welded full length, either from both sides or with full-penetration welds, except for special designs approved by the purchaser. If welded from both sides, the first 50 mm (2 in) from the gasket face shall be full-penetration welds. 9.3 Connection junctions Nozzles and couplings shall not protrude beyond the inside surface of the shell, channel or head to which they are attached. 9.4 Tubes All tubes including U-tubes shall be formed from a single length and shall have no circumferential welds.

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Tubes

All tubes including U-tubes shall be formed from a single length and shall have no circumferential welds.

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9.5 Welding 9.5.1 Welds may be made using any welding process other than oxyacetylene gas welding. 9.5.2 Category A welded joints and category B welded joints shall be fullpenetration welds. 9.5.3 All welds attaching connections to cylinders or to heads shall fully penetrate the total thickness of the component wall or the connection wall forming the attachment. 9.5.4 If connections abut a component fabricated from plate (e.g. in the case of a set-on nozzle), the edge of the hole in the plate to which the connections are attached shall be examined for laminations by means of the magneticparticle or liquid-penetrant method. Subject to agreement with the purchaser, indications found shall be cleared to sound metal and then repair-welded. 9.5.5 ¡ Backing strips that remain in place on the inside of a component after welding is completed shall not be used unless approved by the purchaser.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


• 9.5.6 Tubes shall be welded to tubesheets if specified by the purchaser (e.g. for certain process conditions). The welding and testing procedures in these instances shall be mutually agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor. 9.5.7 It is not necessary that the welds attaching insulation support rings be continuous. 9.5.8 Welds attaching other non-pressure attachments (such as lugs or structural steel supports) shall be continuous. 9.5.9 Repair-associated welding procedures shall be submitted to the purchaser for review before the start of repair. 9.5.10 Full-penetration welds shall be used for all internal attachments to the pressure boundary components that are exposed to hydrogen service.

Geometric Gaps or void in base metal, continuous with the pressure boundary in hydrogen service may trap atomic Hydrogen forming → H2 gas at voids or crevices. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


9.6 Heat treatment 9.6.1 Machined contact surfaces, including any threaded connections, shall be suitably protected to prevent scaling or loss of finish during heat treatment. • 9.6.2 Requirements and procedures for heat treatment after bending the Utubes shall be specified by the purchaser. If the purchaser specifies heat treatment of U-bends of austenitic stainless steel, the procedure shall be as described in the pressure design code or shall be agreed between purchaser and vendor. The U-bends of copper and copper alloy tubes, including copper-nickel alloys, shall be heat-treated as required by the pressure design code or shall be agreed between purchaser and vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


9.6.3 The heat-treated portion of the U-bend shall extend at least 150 mm (6 in) beyond the tangent point.

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9.6.4 Post-weld heat treatment of fabricated carbon steel and low-alloy (max. 9% chromium) steel channels and bonnets shall be performed for the following: a) channels and bonnets with six or more tube passes: b) channels and bonnets whose nozzle-to-cylinder internal diameter ratios are 0,5 or greater, except where a conical reducer is used in place of the channel or bonnet.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Post-weld Heat Treatment of fabricated carbon steel and low-alloy (max. 9% chromium) steel channels and bonnets

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• 9.6.5 The purchaser shall specify if post-weld heat treatment is required for weld-overlaid channels and bonnets. 9.6.6 Post-weld heat treatment shall be performed for all carbon steel and low-alloy (max. 9 % chromium) steel floating-head covers that are fabricated by welding a dished-only head into a ring flange. • 9.6.7 The purchaser shall specify if heat treatment is required for process reasons.

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Heating Cycle ASME A335 Cr-Mo P92 Steel Pipe

http://www.nickelalloys.com.br/Metrode%20CD%202011/Technical%20Literature/CrMo%20-%20P92/P92%20paper-IIW%20Conference-Graz.pdf

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=1761867


Post-weld Heat Treatment - on site Stress Relieve of Heat Exchanger

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://airfurnace.us/the-miracle-of-pwht-furnace/


9. 7 Dimensional tolerances 9.7.1 Manufacturing tolerances shall be such that nominally identical parts are interchangeable. 9.7.2 Heat exchangers that are to be stacked in service shall be stacked in the shop to check connection alignment. 9.7.3 For stacked heat exchangers, mating nozzle flanges shall not be out of parallel with each other by more than 0,8 mm (1/32 in), measured across any diameter. Separation of mating nozzle flanges shall not exceed 3 mm (1/.8 in) after installation of the gasket. Bolts shall be capable of being inserted and removed freely without binding. Shims shall be installed as required between the supports and shall be tackwelded in place.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Dimensional tolerances For stacked heat exchangers, mating nozzle flanges shall not be out of parallel with each other by more than 0,8 mm (1/32 in), measured across any diameter. Separation of mating nozzle flanges shall not exceed 3 mm (1/.8 in) after installation of the gasket. Bolts shall be capable of being inserted and removed freely without binding.

Gap: 3 mm max

Shims shall be installed as required between the supports and shall be tack-welded in place. 0,8 mm max

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://underfill.blogspot.com/2010/11/pipe-fabrication-tolerances-courtesy.html


Piping Fabrication Dimensional tolerances  A - Variations in the indicated dimensions for Center to Face. Location of attachments etc, shall not exceed 3 mm. (Tolerance shall be cumulative)  B - For Piping Bends having a radius equal to SIX times the diameter or larger variations in the finished pipe caused by bending including any folds and bulges shall not exceed ± 3% x Nominal Ø of the Pipe.  C - Lateral translation of flanges in any direction from the indicated position shall not exceed 1.5 mm.  D - Rotation of flanges from the indicated position as shown shall not exceed 1.5 mm.  E - Alignment of flanges shall not deviate from the indicated position measured across any diameter more than 0.75 mm.

Gap: 3 mm max

0,8 mm max

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://www.wermac.org/documents/tol_pipefabrication.html


9.8 Gasket contact surfaces other than nozzle-flange facings 9.8.1 Gasket contact surfaces shall have finishes as given in Table 2. Table 2-Gasket contact surface finishes Dimensions in micrometers (micro-inches) Type

Surface roughness Ra a

Solid flat metal gaskets

1,6 (63) maximum

Double-jacketed gaskets

1,6 to 3,2 (63 to 125)

Spiral-wound gaskets

3,2 to 6,3 (125 to 250)

Serrated gaskets or corrugated-metal gaskets with soft gasket-seal facing

3,2 to 6,3 (125 to 250)

a

Ra is roughness average.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Ra value The roughness of a surface has most commonly been measured by an instrument in which a stylus travels across the surface, the movement of the stylus is amplified and the signal recorded. The result is generally expressed as Ra or average roughness and is the arithmetic average value of the deviation of the trace above and below the centre line. The value of Ra is normally measured in micromeres. ISO standards use the term CLA (Centre Line Average). Both are interpreted identically

Figure 1. The principle of measuring average roughness (Ra)

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://www.worldstainless.org/Files/issf/non-image-files/PDF/Euro_Inox/RoughnessMeasurement_EN.pdf


Roughness Parameters (EN ISO 4287) Ra – arithmetical mean roughness value: The arithmetical mean of the absolute values of the profile deviations (Zi ) from the mean line of the roughness profile (Figure 6). Figure 6: Arithmetical mean roughness value Ra

Mean line of the roughness profile

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

arithmetical mean of the absolute values of the profile deviations (Zi )

https://www.mitutoyo.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/1984_Surf_Roughness_PG.pdf


Elcometer 7062 MarSurf PS10 Surface Roughness Tester https://www.elcometer.com/en/coating-inspection/surface-cleanliness-surface-profile/surface-roughness/elcometer-7062-marsurf-ps10-surface-roughness-tester.html

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9.8.2 The flatness tolerance (maximum deviation from a plane) on peripheral gasket contact surfaces shall be 0,8 mm (1/32 in). • 9.8.3 The purchaser shall specify if there is a special application such as high-pressure service, high temperature service or hydrogen service. In such cases, the flatness tolerances on peripheral gasket contact surfaces shall be as given in Table 3. Table 3-Flatness tolerance on peripheral gasket contact surfaces Dimensions in millimeters (inches) Heat exchanger nominal diameter

Tolerance

≤ 375 (15)

± 0,08 (0,003)

> 375 to ≤ 750 (15 to 30)

± 0,15 (0,006)

> 750 to ≤ 1 125 (31 to 45)

± 0,20 (0,008)

> 1125 (45)

± 0,20 (0,008)

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


9.8.4 The flatness tolerance on pass-partition grooves and mating pass partition plate edges shall be 0,8 mm (1/32 in). 9.8.5 The flatness of gasket contact surfaces shall be measured with a dial gauge. However, the flatness of the pass partition grooves and mating pass partition plate edges may be measured with a straight edge. 9.8.6 Flange flatness tolerance and surface finish shall be measured after the flange has been attached to the component cylinder or the cover, and after any post-weld heat treatment. 9.8.7 The flatness of tubesheet gasket contact surfaces shall be measured after the tube-to-tubesheet joints have been completed.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


9.9 Tube holes 9.9.1 Tube-hole grooves shall be square-edged, concentric and free from burrs. 9.9.2 If austenitic stainless steel, duplex stainless steel, titanium, cupro-nickel or nickel-alloy tubes are specified, the tube holes shall be machined in accordance with TEMA (8th edition), Table RCB-7.41, column (b) (Special Close Fit). RCB-7.2 TUBE HOLES IN TUBESHEETS RCB-7.21 TUBE HOLE DIAMETERS AND TOLERANCES Tube holes in tubesheets shall be finished to the diameters and tolerances shown in Tables RCB-7.21 and RCB-7.21 M, column (a). To minimize work hardening, a closer fit between tube OD and tube ID as shown in column (b) may be provided when specified by the purchaser.

Tube Hole Square-edged

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9.10 Tube-to-tubesheet joints 9.10.1 If roller-expanded joints are utilized, the tube wall thickness reduction shall be in accordance with Table 4. Table 4- Maximum allowable tube wall thickness reduction for rollerexpanded tube-to-tubesheet joints Material

Maximum tube wall thickness reduction %

Carbon steel and low-alloy (max. 9% chromium) steel

8a

Stainless and high-alloy steel

6a

Titanium and work-hardening non-ferrous

5a

Non-ferrous non-work-hardening (e.g. admiralty brass)

8a

a

These may be increased by a further 2 % if approved by the purchaser.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Experimental Investigation of Friction Stir Seal Welding of Tube–Tubesheet Joints

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=1879821


Tube Expander

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

https://krais.com/correct-tubes-expansion/


9.10.2 If welded-and-expanded joints are specified, tube-wall thickness reduction should begin at least 6 mm (1/4 in) away from welds. 9.10.3 In no case shall the expansion encroach within 3 mm (1/8 in) of the shell side face of the tubesheet. 9.10.4 For shell-side-clad tubesheets, the tube shall be expanded to seal against the cladding material for a minimum distance of 6 mm (1/4 in).

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Tube Expansion 1. If welded-and-expanded joints are specified, tube-wall thickness reduction should begin at least 6 mm (1/4 in) away from welds. 2. In no case shall the expansion encroach within 3 mm (1/8 in) of the shell side face of the tubesheet. 3. For shell-side-clad tubesheets, the tube shall be expanded to seal against the cladding material for a minimum distance of 6 mm (1/4 in). 1/2/3

Weld

6mm min

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9.11 Assembly 9.11.1 Match marks or dowels (木钉,销子) shall be provided to prevent misassembly of the following bolted joints: a) floating-head cover to tubesheet; b) channel to tubesheet; c) grooved channel cover to channel; d) stationary tubesheet to shell. 9.11.2 The threads of external studs and nuts shall be coated with a suitable anti seize compound to prevent galling.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Dinner Time

20180601- 1817hrs 儿童节快乐 在上海.

儿童节快乐

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10 Inspection and testing 10.1 Quality assurance • 10.1.1 If specified by the purchaser, materials, fabrication, conformance with mechanical design and testing of heat exchangers shall be subject to inspection by the purchaser, a designated representative or both. The purchaser shall specify the required degree of involvement. Examples of this are as follows: a) verification that qualified welding procedures and qualified welders and welding operators are being used by the manufacturer; b) verification that the construction complies with the applicable drawings and with this International Standard; c) review and/or examination of the results of any specified non-destructive examination; d) witnessing of hydrostatic testing and any additional testing specified by the purchaser; e) examination of required material certificates and the manufacturer's data reports.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Quality assurance verification that the construction complies with the applicable drawings and with this International Standard;

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Quality assurance witnessing of hydrostatic testing and any additional testing specified by the purchaser;

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Quality assurance verification that qualified welding procedures and qualified welders and welding operators are being used by the manufacturer;

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Quality assurance verification that qualified welding procedures and qualified welders and welding operators are being used by the manufacturer;

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Quality assurance review and/or examination of the results of any specified non-destructive examination;

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Quality assurance review and/or examination of the results of any specified nondestructive examination;

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10.1.2 No tubes or tube holes shall be plugged without notifying the purchaser. The method and procedure of plugging shall be subject to the approval of the purchaser.

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10.2 Quality control 10.2.1 Radiography shall be performed in accordance with the pressure design code; however, the minimum shall be as follows. a) At least one spot radiograph shall be made of each category A welded joint and category B welded joint. Nozzle welds are exempt from this requirement. b) Spot radiographs shall include each start and stop of welds made by the automatic submerged-arc welding process. c) Spot radiographs shall be at least 250 mm (10 in) long or shall be full length if the weld is less than 250 mm (10 in) long. d) Weld porosity limits for spot radiographs shall be as stated in the pressure design code for fully radiographed joints. 10.2.2 The magnetic particle examination method, extent and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


UW-11 RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION (a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined radiographically for their full length in the manner prescribed in UW-51: UW-11 RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION (b) Spot Radiography. Except when spot radiography is required for Category B or C butt welds by (a)(5)(-b) above, butt welded joints made in accordance with Type No. (1) or (2) of Table UW-12 which are not required to be fully radiographed by (a) above, may be examined by spot radiography. Spot radiography shall be in accordance with UW-52.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


10.2.3 For non-magnetic materials, a liquid penetrant examination shall be used in place of any required magnetic-particle examination. 10.2.4 The liquid-penetrant examination method, extent and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


10.2.5 Weld-hardness testing shall be in accordance with the pressure design code or the following requirements, whichever is the more stringent. a) The weld metal and heat affected zone of pressure retaining welds in components shall be tested. b) Examination shall be made after any required post-weld heat treatment. c) Brinell hardness limits shall be in accordance with Table 5. d) Hardness shall be determined using a 10 mm diameter ball unless otherwise specified or approved by the purchaser. e) One longitudinal weld, one circumferential weld and, if the connection is DN 50 (NPS 2) or larger, each connection-to-component weld shall be tested. f) If more than one welding procedure is used to fabricate longitudinal or circumferential welds, hardness readings shall be made of welds deposited by each procedure.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Table 5-Hardness limits Material

Maximum Brinell hardness HBW

Carbon steel

225

Low-alloy steel (2 %Cr max.)

225

Low-alloy steel (> 2 %Cr to 9 %Cr)

240

High-alloy martensitic steels

240

High-alloy ferritic steels

240

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Table 5-Hardness limits Material

Maximum Brinell hardness HBW

Carbon steel

225

Low-alloy steel (2 %Cr max.)

225

Low-alloy steel (> 2 %Cr to 9 %Cr)

240

High-alloy martensitic steels

240

High-alloy ferritic steels

240 10.2.5 Weld-hardness testing shall be in accordance with the pressure design code or the following requirements, whichever is the more stringent.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Brinell hardness Hardness shall be determined using a 10 mm diameter ball

NACE MR0175?

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Brinell Hardness Testing

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Brinell Hardness Testing

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10.2.6 At welded joints in alloy-clad construction, the weld in the base metal and in the area adjacent to the weld where the cladding has been stripped back shall be examined by magnetic-particle inspection before weld overlay of the joint. 10.2.7 All finished welds in ferromagnetic steel shall be examined after postweld heat treatment (unless the pressure design code specifies examination after hydrostatic testing) by the magnetic-particle method. 1 0.2.8 Final welds in all non-magnetic materials, whether of solid alloy or alloy-clad plate, shall be examined by the liquid-penetrant method after any required post-weld heat treatment. 10.2.9 Final visual weld inspection shall be performed after post-weld heat treatment. 10.2.10 After cladding, but prior to fabrication, integrally clad material shall be subjected to an ultrasonic examination from the clad side in accordance with the pressure design code. 10.2.11 Overlay weldments, back-cladding and attachment welds to overlay weldments shall be liquid-penetrant examined after post-weld heat treatment.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Overlay weldments shall be liquid-penetrant examined after post-weld heat treatment. (Stellite-Monel-overlay) Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Overlay weldments shall be liquid-penetrant examined after post-weld heat treatment.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Overlay weldments shall be liquid-penetrant examined after post-weld heat treatment. (UV Penetrant Testing)

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Overlay weldments shall be liquid-penetrant examined after post-weld heat treatment. (UV Penetrant Testing)

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Overlay weldments shall be liquid-penetrant examined after post-weld heat treatment. (UV Penetrant Testing)

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Picasso

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Picasso

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Picasso

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


1 0.3 Pressure testing 10.3.1 In the case of welded-and-expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints, the tubeweld integrity shall be verified before final expansion of the tubes by a pneumatic test from the shell side at a gauge pressure between 50 kPa (7,5 psi) and 100 kPa (15 psi), using a soap-water solution to reveal leaks. 10.3.2 Except for differential-pressure designs, an independent hydrostatic test of the shell side and the tube side shall be performed. The minimum fluid temperature for hydrostatic testing shall be as required by the pressure design code. 10.3.3 The water used for hydrostatic testing shall be potable and the test pressure shall be maintained for at least 1 h. 10.3.4 The chloride content of the test water used for equipment with austenitic stainless steel materials that are exposed to the test fluid shall not exceed 50 mg/kg (50 parts per million by mass). Upon completion of the hydrostatic test, the equipment shall be promptly drained and cleared of residual test fluid.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure testing Welded-and-expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints, the tube-weld integrity shall be verified before final expansion of the tubes by a pneumatic test from the shell side at a gauge pressure between 50 kPa~ 100 kPa (15 psi), using a soap-water solution to reveal leaks.

Tubesheet welding

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

Pneumatic Testing at 0.5~1.0 bar

Final Tube Expansion


Pressure Testing Welded-and-expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints, the tube-weld integrity shall be verified before final expansion of the tubes by a pneumatic test from the shell side at a gauge pressure between 50 kPa~ 100 kPa (15 psi), using a soap-water solution to reveal leaks.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing Welded-and-expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints, the tube-weld integrity shall be verified before final expansion of the tubes by a pneumatic test from the shell side at a gauge pressure between 50 kPa~ 100 kPa (15 psi), using a soap-water solution to reveal leaks.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing The minimum fluid temperature for hydrostatic testing shall be as required by the pressure design code.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing The water used for hydrostatic testing shall be potable and the test pressure shall be maintained for at least 1 h.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing The water used for hydrostatic testing shall be potable and the test pressure shall be maintained for at least 1 h.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing The water used for hydrostatic testing shall be potable and the test pressure shall be maintained for at least 1 h.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing The water used for hydrostatic testing shall be potable and the test pressure shall be maintained for at least 1 h.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing The chloride content of the test water used for equipment with austenitic stainless steel materials that are exposed to the test fluid shall not exceed ≤ 50ppm Pressure Vent Gauge

Pressure Recorder

Pressure Gauge

3-ways Valve Vent

PSV To Pressure Recorder

Nitrogen

Test Manifold Temperature Probe

Air Compressor for Pretest

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

Drain


Pressure Testing

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure testing Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Pressure Testing Chart- Recorder

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


• 10.3.5 Any additional requirements for equipment drying or preservation shall be specified by the purchaser. 10.3.6 The shell side hydrostatic test shall be conducted with the bonnet or channel cover removed. 10.3.7 Nozzle reinforcement pads shall be pneumatically tested at 170 kPa (25 psi) gauge. 10.3.8 For safety considerations, any supplementary pneumatic test shall be performed at a nominal pressure of 170 kPa (25 psi) gauge. 10.3.9 Flanged joints that have been taken apart after a hydrostatic test shall be reassembled with unused gaskets and re-hydrotested. 10.3.10 Paint or other external coatings shall not be applied over welds before the final hydrostatic test. 10.3.11 Heat exchangers that are stacked in service shall be hydrotested stacked.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Re-Hydrotesting Flanged joints that have been taken apart after a hydrostatic test shall be reassembled with unused gaskets and re-hydrotested.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Re-Hydrotesting Flanged joints that have been taken apart after a hydrostatic test shall be reassembled with unused gaskets and re-hydrotested. Never Ending Story

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Re-Hydrotesting Flanged joints that have been taken apart after a hydrostatic test shall be reassembled with unused gaskets and re-hydrotested. Never Ending Story

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


10.4 Nameplates and stampings 1 0.4.1 A stainless steel nameplate shall be permanently attached to the heat exchanger in such a manner that it is visible after insulation has been installed. 1 0.4.2 The nameplate shall be located on the shell near the channel end. 1 0.4.3 The following parts shall be stamped with the manufacturer's serial number: a) shell flange; b) shell cover flange; c) Channel or bonnet flange; d) channel cover; e) stationary tubesheet; f) floating tubesheet; g) floating-head cover flange; h) floating-head backing device; i) test ring flange and gland.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Break 擂茶 配料编辑 擂茶的配料多种多样,可以因 寒暑不同或荤素各异加不同的 佐料和药物,但制作过程基本 是一样的。春夏湿热,常用新 鲜艾叶、薄荷叶;秋天风燥, 多选金盏菊或白菊花、金银花; 冬天寒冷,便用桂皮、肉柱子、 川芎等。据中医验证,从茶具 有生津止渴、防风祛寒、开胃 健脾、清热解毒、清肝明目、 润肤美容、延年益寿之功效。 在客家祖地石壁,每户每天都 制作普通擂茶一钵,劳作后回 来喝上几碗,一天的辛苦便烟 消云散。客人远道而来,喝上 一碗,便可提神醒脑,充饥益 体。荤、素擂茶是石壁擂茶的 特有品种。荤擂茶用冬季腌藏 的生猪大油,拌佐料,加炒好 的肉丝或小肠、煎豆腐、粉干、 香葱等,泡入擂茶中;素的则 用净茶油拌佐料,然后加熟花 生米、绿豆、糯米饭、地瓜粉 条、粉干等。 20180601-2343hrs Shanghai 大木桥路

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


11 Preparation p for shipment p 11.1 Protection 11.1.1 All liquids used for cleaning or testing shall be drained from heat exchangers before shipment. shipment 11.1.2 Heat exchangers shall be free of foreign matter prior to shipment. p g in heat exchangers g shall be suitably yp protected to p prevent 11.1.3 All openings damage and possible entry of water or other foreign material. 11.1.4 All flange-gasket surfaces shall be coated with an easily removable rust preventative and shall be protected by suitably attached durable covers of such material as wood, plastic or gasketed steel.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


11.1.5 All threaded connections shall be protected by metal plugs or caps of compatible material. 11.1.6 Connections that are bevelled for welding shall be suitably covered to protect the bevel from damage. • 11.1. 7 The purchaser shall specify if there are additional requirements for surface preparation and protection (e.g. painting). 11.1.8 Exposed threads of bolts shall be protected with an easily removable rust preventative to prevent corrosion during testing, shipping and storage. Tapped holes shall be plugged with grease. 11.1.9 Tie-rods or tie-bars installed on shell expansion joints for protection during shipping shall be painted in a contrasting colour and clearly tagged to specify their removal before commissioning.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


11.2 Identification 11.2.1 The item number, shipping mass and purchaser's order number shall be painted on the heat exchanger. 11.2.2 All boxes, crates or packages shall be identified with the purchaser's order number and the item number. 11.2.3 The words "DO NOT WELD" shall be stenciled (in at least two places 180° apart) on the side of equipment that has been post-weld heat-treated.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


12 Supplemental requirements 12.1 General • This clause includes additional requirements for design, fabrication and examination that apply to one or both sides of the heat exchanger if specified by the purchaser. In general, these supplemental requirements should be considered:  

if the cylinder thickness of a heat exchanger component exceeds 50 mm (2 in) or if a heat exchanger will be placed in a critical service.

The purchaser shall specify if these supplemental requirements shall be applied.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Thick Walled Shell Construction

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://www.fdflanges.com/en/show1.asp?id=269


12.2 Design 12.2.1 The attachment of welded nozzles and other connections to components shall have integral reinforcement The nozzles or other connections shall be attached using a full-penetration groove weld with additional fillet or butt welds. They may be set-on, set-in or integrally reinforced forging-type inserts. Set-on type connections shall not be welded to a plate that contains laminations or other defects and shall only be used if the component is forged or if the component plates are ultrasonically examined in the area of attachment. In this case, the examination for laminations and other defects shall be carried out for a radial distance of at least twice the thickness of the component. 12.2.2 Tubesheet attachment welds to shell or channel cylinders shall be butt welds.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Design‌. Set-on type connections shall not be welded to a plate that contains laminations or other defects and shall only be used if the component is forged or if the component plates are ultrasonically examined in the area of attachment. In this case, the examination for laminations and other defects shall be carried out for a radial distance of at least twice the thickness of the component.

Examination for laminations and other defects shall be carried out for a radial distance of at least twice the thickness of the component.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Set-On Connection Examination for laminations and other defects shall be carried out for a radial distance of at least twice the thickness of the component. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Plate Sub-Surface Defects

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

https://www.ndt.net/forum/thread.php?admin=&forenID=0&msgID=46331&rootID=46278


12.3 Examination 12.3.1 All material for formed heads or cylinders exceeding 50 mm (2 in) in thickness shall be ultrasonically examined. Non-destructive examination and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code. 12.3.2 All forgings, except standard flanges designed as described in 7.7, shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with the pressure design code. The criteria for acceptance shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Examination 12.3.1 All material for formed heads or cylinders exceeding 50 mm (2 in) in thickness shall be ultrasonically examined. Nondestructive examination and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code. 12.3.2 All forgings, except standard flanges designed as described in 7.7, shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with the pressure design code. The criteria for acceptance shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor. Examination

Tabulated Part

Description

NDT

Coverage

Clause

All formed heads

Preformed head material; material thickness >50mm

UT lamination

100%

12.3.1

All forging

Except standard flanges

UT

100%

12.3.2

Whole Vessel

All pressure-retaining welds

MPI

100%

12.3.5 12.3.6

Temporary lugs

Removal

MPI

100%

12.3.7

Whole Vessel

All external pressure-retaining welds and all internal nozzle welds where accessible

MPI

100%

12.3.8

Weld

Weld inaccessible to mandatory RT

MPI

100%

12.3.9

Weld

Back gouged root pass

MPI

100%

12.3.9

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Plate Ultrasonic Testing (Pre-formed?) All material for formed heads or cylinders exceeding 50 mm (2 in) in thickness shall be ultrasonically examined. Non-destructive examination and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code.

All Cat A Joint Type

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Plate Ultrasonic Testing (Pre-formed?) All material for formed heads or cylinders exceeding 50 mm (2 in) in thickness shall be ultrasonically examined. Non-destructive examination and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Plate Ultrasonic Testing (Pre-formed?) All material for formed heads or cylinders exceeding 50 mm (2 in) in thickness shall be ultrasonically examined. Non-destructive examination and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Plate Ultrasonic Testing (Pre-formed?) All material for formed heads or cylinders exceeding 50 mm (2 in) in thickness shall be ultrasonically examined. Non-destructive examination and acceptance criteria shall comply with the pressure design code.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Ultrasonic Examination of Forging All forgings, except standard flanges designed as described in 7.7, shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with the pressure design code. The criteria for acceptance shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Ultrasonic Examination of Forging All forgings, except standard flanges designed as described in 7.7, shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with the pressure design code. The criteria for acceptance shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Ultrasonic Examination of Forging All forgings, except standard flanges designed as described in 7.7, shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with the pressure design code. The criteria for acceptance shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Ultrasonic Examination of Forging All forgings, except standard flanges designed as described in 7.7, shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with the pressure design code. The criteria for acceptance shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Ultrasonic Examination of Forging All forgings, except standard flanges designed as described in 7.7, shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with the pressure design code. The criteria for acceptance shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Hot Forging

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Hot Forging

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Hot Forging

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Hot Forging Head

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://www.glmhead.com/


Cold Forming

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Cold Forming

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Hot Forming

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OniopadJNDY

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Cold Forming

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFzxgSD4DRE

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Cold Forming

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


12.3.3 For ultrasonic examination of welds and forgings, the purchaser shall be supplied with a report providing diagrams of the surfaces scanned and indications obtained, the areas repaired, the nature of defects repaired and the repair procedures used. The following information shall also be provided: a) pulse-echo instrument manufacturer's name and model and the damping control setting; b) search-unit manufacturer, model, dimensions and the substance (such as oil or water) that is used to couple the transducer with the material being inspected; c) frequency used and the test angle to the component surface; d) wedge medium for angle-beam examination. 12.3.4 Magnetic-particle examination shall be performed on all plate edges and openings before welding. Any defects found shall be removed and any necessary repairs performed.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


MPI Magnetic-particle examination shall be performed on all plate edges and openings before welding. Any defects found shall be removed and any necessary repairs performed. Soft iron laminated core

All plate edges and opening

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

Adjustable legs


MPI Magnetic-particle examination shall be performed on all plate edges and openings before welding. Any defects found shall be removed and any necessary repairs performed.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


12.3.5 Magnetic-particle examination shall be performed on all pressureretaining welds. If accessible, the back side of the root pass shall be examined after being prepared for final welding. Both sides of accessible completed welds shall be examined. 12.3.6 Magnetic-particle examination shall be performed on all pressureboundary attachment welds. 12.3.7 Magnetic-particle examination shall be performed on areas where temporary lugs have been removed. These areas shall be prepared by grinding them before the examination. 12.3.8 After the hydrostatic test, a magnetic-particle examination shall be performed on all external pressure-retaining welds and all internal nozzle welds that are accessible without disassembling the heat exchanger.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


12.3.9 On components subject to full radiography, nozzle-attachment welds that cannot be radiographed shall be examined for the presence of cracks by the magnetic-particle method or by the liquid-penetrant method. Examination shall apply to the root pass after back-chipping or after flame-gouging, if applicable, and to the completed weld. Any defects revealed shall be removed before the weld is finished. For liquid-penetrant examination of austenitic stainless steel, neither the penetrant nor the developer shall contain any chlorides.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


MPI- Magnetic Particle Testing

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://www.applus.com/en/ServiceSheet/magnetic_particle_(mt)-1340261535436


MPI- Magnetic Particle Testing

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

http://www.applus.com/en/ServiceSheet/magnetic_particle_(mt)-1340261535436


Tabulated Part

Description

NDT

Coverage

Clause

All formed heads

Preformed head material; material thickness >50mm

UT lamination

100%

12.3.1

All forging

Except standard flanges

UT

100%

12.3.2

Whole Vessel

All pressure-retaining welds

MPI

100%

12.3.5 12.3.6

Temporary lugs

Removal

MPI

100%

12.3.7

Whole Vessel

All external pressure-retaining welds and all internal nozzle welds where accessible

MPI

100%

12.3.8

Weld

Weld inaccessible to mandatory MPI RT

100%

12.3.9

Weld

Back gouged root pass

100%

12.3.9

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

MPI


12.3.10 A full radiographic examination shall be performed on all pressureretaining butt welds. 12.3.11 An ultrasonic examination shall be performed on all pressureretaining butt welds after post-weld heat treatment. Ultrasonic examination shall comply with the pressure design code. The entire volume of deposited weld metal shall be examined from two directions. Before the welds are examined, the adjacent base material shall be examined by means of a longitudinal beam with a 100% scan for a distance of twice the plate thickness back from the weld. A diagram shall be prepared indicating all areas larger than 12 mm (1/2 in) in diameter that show a loss of back-reflection of 50 % or more. The acceptance criteria shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the vendor.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Part

Description

NDT

Coverage

Clause

All formed heads

Preformed head material; material thickness >50mm

UT lamination

100%

12.3.1

All forging

Except standard flanges

Volumetric UT

100%

12.3.2

Whole Vessel

All pressure-retaining welds

MPI

100%

12.3.5 12.3.6

Temporary lugs

Removal

MPI

100%

12.3.7

Whole Vessel

All external pressure-retaining welds MPI and all internal nozzle welds where accessible

100%

12.3.8

Weld

Weld inaccessible to mandatory RT

MPI

100%

12.3.9

Weld

Back gouged root pass

MPI

100%

12.3.9

Whole Vessel

All pressure-retaining butt welds.

RT

100%

12.3.10

Whole Vessel

All pressure-retaining butt welds after post-weld heat treatment.

Volumetric UT

100%

12.3.11

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

Tabulated


Annex A (informative) Recommended practices A.1 Introduction ANSI/API Standard 660/ISO 16812 AnnexA (informative) Recommended practices This annex has been prepared to give advice to the designer in particular areas outside the scope of this International Standard. The advice is not mandatory and is offered for guidance only. A.2 Design A.2.1 Tube failure in high-pressure units - Guidance to Clause 7 The effects of potential overpressure caused by tube rupture should be considered. NOTE 1 For further information, see ISO 23251. NOTE 2 For the purpose of this provision API 521 is equivalent to ISO 23251. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


A.2.2 Tube bundle and tubes- Guidance to 7.6.1 A.2.2.1 For U-tube type bundles, if the mean bend radius is less than three times the tube outside diameter, the tube wall thickness should be increased to compensate for thinning in the bends. Such thinning can be as much as 17%. A.2.2.2 In calculating the effective surface, the purchaser and vendor should agree as to whether the "U" bend region should be included. ¡ A.2.3 Transverse baffles and support plates- Guidance to 7.6.3 Segmental baffles are conventional in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, as described in 7.6.3. Other designs such as rod-baffles, helical baffles, expanded-metal baffles and twisted tube designs may be permitted if agreed with the purchaser.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


U-Bend Thinning For U-tube type bundles, if the mean bend radius is less than three times the tube outside diameter, the tube wall thickness should be increased to compensate for thinning in the bends. Such thinning can be as much as 17%.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

RCB-2.31 U-BEND REQUIREMENTS When U-bends are formed, it is normal for the tube wall at the outer radius to thin. The minimum tube wall thickness in the bent portion before bending shall be:

to = t1 [1+do/4R]


Helical Baffles

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Twisted Tube Design

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Twisted Tube Design

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


A.2.4 Tube bundle skid bars- Guidance to 7.6.6 A.2.4.1 For bundles with mass and dimensions outside the range of conventional bundle-pulling devices, alternative means of bundle removal should be considered. For example, if the bundle mass exceeds 18 150 kg (40 000 lb), the diameter exceeds 1 220 mm (48 in), or the length exceeds 7,3 m (24ft), the following options may be considered: a) bundle rollers; b) skid bars on a rail; c) removable shell. A.2.4.2 Skid bars should not obstruct tube lanes or pass-partition lanes if 45° or 90° tube layouts are used.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


A.2.5 Tube to tubesheet joint- Guidance to 7.6.7 A.2.5.1 To minimize crevice corrosion on the shell side, tubes should be contact-expanded into the tubesheet for a length of tubesheet thickness minus 3 mm (1/8 in). A.2.5.2 For heat exchangers operating at a pressure above 7 000 kPa (1 000 psi) gauge, tube-to-tubesheet joints should be strength-welded. In addition, expansion of the tubes should be considered. A.2.5.3 For heat exchangers in hydrogen service, tube-to-tubesheet joints should be strength-welded and expanded. Hydrogen service ≠Sour service

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


A.3 Fabrication A.3.1 Shell - Guidance to 9.1 Openings and attachments (including reinforcing pads and support pads) should clear weld seams by at least 50 mm (2 in). If this construction is not possible, the seam weld should be ground flush and radiographed for a distance of 100 mm (4 in) on either side of the opening or for the full length covered by an attachment plus 100 mm (4 in) on either side prior to welding the nozzle or attachment to the heat exchanger. A.3.2 Tube-to-tubesheet joints - Guidance to 9.10 A.3.2.1 For welded-and-expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints requiring postweld heat treatment, the tubes should be expanded after post-weld heat treatment. A.3.2.2 If welded tube-to-tubesheet joints are specified for dissimilar tubes and tubesheet material, weld overlay or cladding should be provided on the tubesheet to eliminate bimetallic welds. The overlay or cladding should have the same metallurgy as the tubes. A.3.2.3 If using titanium tubes, tube-to-tubesheet joints should be welded and expanded (if the tubes extend through the tubesheet).

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


A.4 Preparation for shipment protection - Guidance to 11.1 A.4.1 If water residues cannot be tolerated, equipment should be dried by one of the following methods: a) blowing dry air or nitrogen, of relative humidity less than 15% (usually dehumidified), through the heat exchanger and monitoring the outlet air until the relative humidity falls below 30 %; b) evacuating the heat exchanger with a vacuum pump to an absolute pressure of between 0,4 kPa (0,06 psi) and 0,5 kPa (0,075 psi). A.4.2 After draining and drying, internal surfaces may be protected against corrosion by the addition of a desiccant (e.g. silica gel), by the addition of a volatile corrosion inhibitor or by blanketing with an inert gas such as nitrogen [typically at gauge pressures up to 100 kPa (15 psi)].

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Annex B (informative) Shell-and-tube heat exchanger checklist

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


ISO 16812:2002(E)

API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

Annex B (informative) Shell-and-tube heat exchanger checklist

This checklist summarizes the bulleted subclauses in this International Standard, i.e. the subclauses in which a decision is required by the purchaser. Subclause

Item

Requirement

4.1

Pressure design code to be used?

4.3

Applicable local regulations:

6.2.2

Welding procedures and qualifications to be submitted for review?

Yes

No

6.2.5

Design calculations for lifting/pulling devices to be submitted for review?

Yes

No

Vibration analysis to be submitted for review?

Yes

No

Yes

No

6.3

Number of copies of reports and records required:

7.1.1

Maximum design temperature: (annex A, line 41) Minimum design metal temperature (MDMT): (annex A, line 41)

7.1.3

Expansion joint conditions: (annex A)

7.7.7

Insulation thickness Shell: Channel:

7.7.9

Chemical cleaning connections required?

7.7.10

Loads and moments on connections?

7.8.7

Bolt tightening devices required?

Yes

No

7.12

Is heat exchanger exposed to hydrogen at partial pressure exceeding 690 kPa (6,9 bar) (100 psi) absolute?

Yes

No

Shell side

Yes

No

Tube side

Yes

No

Which side of heat exchanger is in hydrogen service?

8.1.1

Sour service (as defined by NACE MR0175)?

Yes

No

8.1.4

Alloy linings?

Yes

No

34

34

Š ISO 2002 – All rights reserved


ISO 16812:2002(E)

API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

Subclause

Item

9.5.6

Welded tube-to-tubesheet joints required?

9.6.2

Heat treatment requirements and procedures for U-tube bend sections:

9.6.5

Postweld heat treatment of weld-overlaid carbon steel channels and bonnets?

9.6.7

Postweld heat treatment for process reasons?

Requirement Yes

No

Yes

No

Shell side

Yes

No

Tube side

Yes

No

9.8.3

Special flatness tolerance on gasket contact surfaces?

Yes

No

10.1.1

Purchaser's inspection?

Yes

No

10.1.5

Extent of purchaser's inspection:

10.1.5 d)

Additional testing:

10.3.5

Removal of bonnet or channel cover for shell-side hydrostatic test?

Yes

No

11.1.7

Additional painting requirements:

Yes

No

Shell side

Yes

No

Tube side

Yes

No

Details:

12.1

Supplemental requirements apply to:

Details:

35 Š ISO 2002 – All rights reserved

35


Annex C (informative) Shell-and-tube heat exchanger data sheets

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


ISO 16812:2002(E)

API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

A.2 Specification sheet (SI units) 1 2 3

Client Process unit Job No.

4 5 6

Service of unit Size Effective surface per unit

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Location Item No. Fabricator

Page Document No.

1

of

No. of units TEMA Type m2

Connected in: Effective surface per shell

Shells/unit

Parallel

Series m2

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT Inlet Fluid name Fluid quantity, total Vapour (relative molecular mass) Liquid Steam Water Non-condensable / relative molecular mass Temperature Density (vapour/liquid) Viscosity (vapour/liquid) Specific heat (vapour/liquid) Thermal conductivity (vapour/liquid) Specific latent heat Inlet pressure Velocity Pressure drop (allowable/calculated) Fouling resistance Average film coefficient Heat exchanged Heat transfer rate (required/fouled/clean)

kg/h kg/h kg/h kg/h kg/h kg/h °C kg/m3 mPa·s kJ/(kg·K) W/(m·K) kJ/kg @ °C kPa (ga) m/s kPa m2·K / W W/(m2·K) kW

SHELL SIDE

Outlet

Inlet

TUBE SIDE

/

Outlet

/

@

@

Mean temp. diff., MTD (corrected) (weighted)

W/(m2·K) Bundle entrance

29

ρV2 [kg/(m·s2)]:

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

CONSTRUCTION PER SHELL NOZZLES – No., Size and Rating Tube No. OD mm SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE Thickness mm (min./average) Pitch mm Tube pattern Inlet Length m Type Outlet Tube-tubesheet joint Intermediate Shell diameter (ID/OD) / mm Vent Cross-baffle type Drain Spacing: c/c mm No. of cross passes Press. relief % Cut Design pressure kPa (ga) Tube support type Vacuum kPa (abs) / / Long baffle seal type Design temp. (Max/MDMT) °C Bypass seal type No. of passes per shell Impingement Protection (Y/N) Corrosion allowance mm MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Shell Tubes Gaskets: Shell cover Shell side Channel or bonnet Tube side Channel cover Floating head Floating head cover/bolts Spare sets req'd Tubesheet Stat. Floating Test ring req'd (Y/N) Baffles: Cross Long Insulation: shell Tube support material Channel inlet/exit Expansion joint type Expansion joint material Pressure design code Stamp Calc. MAWP (Y/N) TEMA Class REMARKS:

Originator/Check:

Inlet nozzle

/

Approved

°C

Bundle exit

Issue date:

Issue No.

24

24

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved


API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

Job No. Client Location Item No. Document No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Mark

No. req'd

CONNECTION SCHEDULE (Optional) Size Rating Facing Description

ISO 16812:2002(E)

Page

2

of

Issue No.

THERMAL EXPANSION DESIGN INFORMATION (Optional) Shell Shell Tubesheet Tube mean metal press. mean metal mean metal Temp. °C kPa (ga) Temp. °C Temp. °C

Tube press. kPa(ga)

Design Normal Starting Shutdown Upset #1 Upset #2 Steam out Expansion joint design life cycles MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION (Optional) Shell:

mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm

Head: Pipe/stub ends: Nozzle necks: Nozzle flanges: Body flanges: Expansion joint: Support Bolting (internal): Bolting (external): Nozzle reinforcement: Tubes: Tubesheets: Bonnet/channel: Bonnet head(s) Channel cover(s): Body flanges: Pipe/stub ends: Bolting (internal): Bolting (external): Nozzle reinforcement Nozzle necks: Nozzle flanges: Baffles, spacers, tie rods:

Shell side: y= Tube side: y= Floating head y=

GASKETS (Optional) Thickness: Pa m= Thickness: Pa m= Thickness: Pa m=

Corr. allow.

mm mm mm

MECHANICAL DATA (Optional) MAWP (hot and corroded): kPa (ga) MAP (new and cold): kPa (ga) Hydrotest pressure: Field: kPa (ga) Shop: Masses: Empty: kg Bundle: Full of water: kg

kPa (ga) kg

25 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved

25


ISO 16812:2002(E)

API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

Job No. Client Location Item No. Document No.

Page

3

of

Issue No.

ADDITIONAL REMARKS, SKETCHES, ETC. (Optional)

26

26

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved


ISO 16812:2002(E)

API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

Job No. Client Location Item No. Document No.

Page

4

of

Issue No.

Fluid Name:

Ref. Pressure 1:

bar (abs)

Pressure bar (abs)

Temp °C

Enthalpy kJ/kg

Vapour Mass Fraction

Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

Vapour mass fraction

Density Vapour

Density Liquid

Viscosity Vapour

Viscosity Liquid

Thermal Thermal Cond. Vap Cond. Liq

Sp. Heat Vapour

Sp. Heat Liquid

Surface Tension

Liquid Critical Press.

Liq Crit Temp.

kg/m3

kg/m3

mPa.s

mPa.s

W/m.K

kJ/(kg.K)

kJ/(kg.K)

N/m

bar (abs)

°C

Fluid Name:

Ref. Pressure 2:

bar (abs)

Pressure bar (abs)

Temp °C

Enthalpy kJ/kg

W/m.K

Vapour Mass Fraction

Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

Vapour mass fraction

Density Vapour

Density Liquid

Viscosity Vapour

Viscosity Liquid

Thermal Thermal Cond. Vap Cond. Liq

Sp. Heat Vapour

Sp. Heat Liquid

Surface Tension

Liquid Critical Press.

Liq Crit Temp.

kg/m3

kg/m3

mPa.s

mPa.s

W/m.K

kJ/(kg.K)

kJ/(kg.K)

N/m

bar (abs)

°C

W/m.K

27 2 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved

27


ISO 16812:2002(E)

API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

Job No. Client Location Item No. Document No.

Page

5

of

Issue No.

DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR EXPANSION JOINT (Optional) SHELL SIDE Case a

Flow condition b

Fluid temperature Inlet °C

Outlet c °C

Pressure

TUBE SIDE d

Mean metal temperature e

Flow condition b

Fluid temperature Inlet

kPa (ga)

°C

°C

Outlet c °C

Pressure d

Mean metal temperature e

kPa (ga)

°C

Determine the mean shell and tube metal temperatures at the following operating conditions. Evaluate the need for an expansion joint based on the metal temperatures at these conditions with either or both sides clean or with specified fouling. Unless otherwise specified, operation in accordance with the recommendations of the TEMA Standards, paragraph E3.2, “Operating Procedures”, is assumed. a

Case = e.g. steam out, upset, etc., which may affect design.

b

F = Flowing (specify flowrate), S = Stagnant, E = Empty.

c

Outlet temperature = (if known), thermal designer determines for other conditions.

d

Pressure = Specify design pressure for operating conditions. Use maximum actual pressure at other conditions.

e

Mean metal temperature = To be provided by the thermal designer.

28

28

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved


Annex D (informative) Responsibility data sheet

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


ISO 16812:2002(E)

API Standard 660 / ISO 16812:2002 (E)

Annex C (informative) Responsibility specification sheet

1 2 3

Client Process unit Job No.

P P

P P

Location Item No. Fabricator

P

1

Page Document No.

of P

P

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

P No. of units: P Service of unit D P D D Size TEMA Type Connected in Parallel Series D D D Surface/unit (eff.) Shells/unit Surface/shell (eff.) PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT (Inlet) SHELL SIDE (Outlet) (Inlet) TUBE SIDE (Outlet) Fluid allocation P P Fluid name P P Fluid quantity, total P P P P P P P P Vapour (relative molecular mass) P P P P Liquid P P P P Steam P P P P Water P / P P / P Noncondensable / relative molecular mass P P P P Temperature P P P P P P P P Density (vapour/liquid) P P P P P P P P Viscosity (vapour/liquid) P P P P P P P P Specific heat (vapour/liquid) P P P P P P P P Thermal conductivity (vapour/liquid) P @ P P @ P Latent heat P P Inlet pressure D D Velocity P D P D Pressure drop (allowable/calculated) P P Fouling resistance D D Average film coefficient P D Heat exchanged MTD (corrected) (weighted) D D D Transfer rate (required/fouled/clean) D D D Inlet nozzle Bundle entrance Bundle exit ρV2

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

CONSTRUCTION PER SHELL D Tube No. P Thickness P Pitch P Length P Tube-tubesheet joint D Shell diameter (ID/OD) Cross baffle type D Spacing: D % Cut D Tube support type Long baffle seal type Bypass seal type Impingement Protection (Y/N) MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION P Shell Shell cover Channel or bonnet Channel cover Floating head cover/bolts P Tubesheet Stat. P Baffles: Cross Tube support material Expansion joint type P Pressure design code P, D REMARKS :

P

OD (Min./Avg). Tube pattern Type /

P P

Inlet Outlet Intermediate Vent Drain

P D

D D No. of crosspasses Design pressure Vacuum pressure D Design temp. (Max./MDMT) D No. of passes per shell D Corrosion Allowance Tubes P P P P Floating Long P P Stamp

P

NOZZLES – No., Size and Rating SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE P P P P D D P P P P

P

P P / D P

P

Gaskets: Shell side Tube side Floating head Spare sets req'd Test ring req'd (Y/N) Insulation: shell Channel inlet/exit Expansion joint material Calc. MAWP (Y/N)

P P

P

P P / D P

P

P

P P P P P P P P, D P

TEMA Class P

P = Purchaser D = Designer Originator/check:

/

Approved

Issue Date:

Issue No.

36

36

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved


Part 2: Materials System Specification 32-SAMSS-0071December2013 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Materials System Specification 32-SAMSS-007

1 December 2013

Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards Table of Contents 1

Scope............................................................. 2

2

Normative References.................................... 3

3

Terms and Definitions.................................... 6

4

General........................................................... 7

5

Proposals....................................................... 8

6

Drawings and Other Required Data.............. 9

7

Design........................................................... 9

8

Materials....................................................... 22

9

Fabrication.................................................... 30

10

Inspection and Testing................................. 36

11

Preparation for Shipment............................. 44

12

Supplemental Requirements........................ 47

Table 1 - Nondestructive Examination Requirements...................................... 48

Previous Issue: 19 February 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Primary contact: Al-Mansour, Khalid Mohammad on +966-13-8809575 CopyrightŠSaudi Aramco 2013. All rights reserved.

Page 1 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

The following paragraph numbers refer to API STD 660, Eighth Edition, August 2007, which is part of this specification. The text in each paragraph below is an addition, exception, modification, or deletion to API STD 660 as noted. Paragraph numbers not appearing in API STD 660 are new paragraphs to be inserted in numerical order. 1

Scope 1.1

This specification covers the minimum mandatory requirements for the manufacture of shell and tube heat exchangers and new components (hereinafter referred to as exchangers). It does not cover exchangers that undergo repairs or alterations.

1.2

This specification does not cover the design of non-TEMA exchangers. Commentary Note: such as sometimes used for lube and seal oil cooling duties for packaged equipment like compressors, pumps and turbines.

1.3

Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) waste heat boilers, steam drums and condensers shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design rules of ASME Section VIII Division 1 in addition to the requirements specified in this specification.

1.4

The design and fabrication of high pressure heat exchangers shall be done by licensed manufacturers. The details of licensing agreement shall be reviewed by Saudi Aramco engineer.

1.5

Conflicting Requirements

1.5.1

Any conflicts between this specification and other Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), Industry codes and standards, and Forms shall be resolved in writing by the Company or Buyer Representative through the Standards Committee Chairman, Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

1.5.2

Direct all requests to deviate from this specification in writing to the Company or Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company procedure SAEP-302 and forward such requests to the Manager, Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

1.6

Low alloy steels for vessels intended for services within the scope of API RP 934-A, API RP 934-C or API RP 934-E, shall meet all requirements of the respective document of the aforementioned documents and this specification.

Page 2 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

2

Normative References Materials or equipment supplied to this specification shall comply with the latest edition of the references listed below, unless otherwise noted. 2.1

Saudi Aramco References Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure SAEP-302

Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards SAES-A-007

Hydrostatic Testing Fluids

SAES-A-206

Positive Materials Identification

SAES-A-112

Meteorological and Seismic Design Data

SAES-H-001 SAES-N-001 SAES-P-111

Coating Selection and Application Requirements for Industrial Plants and Equipment Basic Criteria, Industrial Insulation Grounding

SAES-W-010

Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels

SAES-W-014

Weld Overlays and Welding of Clad Materials

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications 01-SAMSS-016

Qualification of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel Steels for Resistance to Hydrogen-Induced Cracking

02-SAMSS-011

Forged Steel and Alloy Flanges

32-SAMSS-031

Manufacture of Clad Vessels and Heat Exchangers

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings AA-036322

Anchor Bolt Details – Inch and Metric Sizes

AE-036250

Ferrules for ž Inch Tubes (Sheets 1 & 2)

Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements Form 175-323100

Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Form 175-323500

Floating Heads or Tube Bundles

Page 3 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Saudi Aramco Forms and Data Sheets Form 2714-ENG

Shell and Tube Exchanger Data Sheet (herein referred to as data sheet)

Form NMR-7922-1

Non-material Requirements for Shell and Tube and Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers

Industry Codes and Standards American Concrete Institute ACI 318

Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

American Petroleum Institute API STD 660

Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services

API RP 934

Materials and Fabrication Requirements for 2ÂźCr1 Mo & 3Mo Steel Heavy Wall Pressure Vessels for High Temperature, High Pressure Hydrogen Service

API PUBL 941

Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants

API RP 945

Avoiding Environmental Cracking in Amine Units

American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE 7

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes) ASME SA-20

Specification for General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels

ASME SA-388

Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings

ASME SA-435

Straight Beam Ultrasonic Examination of Steel Plates

ASME SA-450

Specification for General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes

ASME SA-688

Specification for Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes

Page 4 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

ASME SEC IIC

Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals

ASME SEC V

Nondestructive Examination

ASME SEC VIII D1

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

ASME SEC VIII D2

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Alternative Rules

ASME B2.1

National Pipe Threads

ASME B16.5

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ASME B16.11

Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded

ASME B16.20

Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed

ASME B16.21

Non-Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

ASME B16.25

Buttwelding Ends

ASME B16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through NPS 60

American Society for Nondestructive Testing ASNT CP-189

Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel

National Association of Corrosion Engineers NACE RP0472

Methods and Control to Prevent In-Service Environmental Cracking of Carbon Steel Weldments in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments

NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-Materials for use in H2S-Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) Process Industry Practices PIP VEFV1100

Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details

Welding Research Council WRC 107

Welding Research Council Bulletin

Page 5 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

3

Terms and Definitions 3.8

(Exception) Hydrogen Service: Process streams containing relatively pure hydrogen and process streams containing hydrogen as a component with an absolute partial pressure of 350 kPa (50 psi) and higher.

3.11

Pressure Design Code: ASME SEC VIII.

3.14

AARH: Average arithmetic roughness height, which is a measure of surface texture.

3.15

Cyclic Services: Services that require fatigue analysis according to screening criteria per 5.5.2 of ASME SEC VIII D2. This applies to Division 1 and Division 2 of ASME SEC VIII.

3.16

Design Engineer: The Engineering Company responsible for specifying on the data sheet the hydraulic, thermal and mechanical design requirements for exchangers.

3.17

Exchanger Manufacturer: The Company responsible for the manufacture of exchangers.

3.18

High - Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content more than 5%.

3.19

Hot Forming: Forming operations carried out at an elevated temperature such that re-crystallization occurs simultaneously with deformation.

3.20

Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) Environment: Process streams that introduce HIC according to SAES-L-133.

3.21

Lethal Services: Process streams containing a concentration of hydrogen sulfide in excess of 20% volume per total volume of exchanger shall be considered as lethal service. Other services as determined by the project design may also be designated as lethal services.

3.22

Low-Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content of less than 5% but more than specified for carbon steels.

3.23

Minimum Thickness: Thickness required for withstanding all primary loads, excluding allowance for corrosion.

3.24

MDMT: Minimum Design Metal Temperature determined by the Design Engineer and specified in the data sheet.

Page 6 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

4

3.25

Nominal Thickness: Thickness selected as commercially available, and supplied to the Manufacturer. For plate material, the nominal thickness is the measured thickness of the plate at the joint or location under consideration after forming.

3.26

Saudi Aramco Buyer: The person or company authorized by Saudi Aramco to procure heat exchnager to the requirements of this specification.

3.27

Saudi Aramco Engineer: The chairman of the Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee.

3.28

Saudi Aramco Inspector: The person or company authorized by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department to inspect exchangers to the requirements of this specification.

3.29

Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) Environment: Process streams that introduce SSC according to SAES-L-133.

3.30

Thick Wall Exchanger: An exchanger or portion of it with nominal thickness greater than 50-mm.

3.31

Utility Services: Water, air, and nitrogen services.

General 4.1

All exchangers shall be designed in accordance with the rules of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes, ASME SEC VIII D1 or ASME SEC VIII D2 (hereinafter referred to as the Codes), and the requirements of this specification.

4.3

(Exception) The Exchanger Manufacturer shall advise the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.8

Stress analyses according to the Code rules shall be executed by the manufacturer. A third party under full control and responsibility of the manufacturer may execute only finite element analysis.

4.9

No proof testing shall be permitted unless specifically approved by the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.10

No credit shall be given to thickness of integrally-bonded or weld metal overlay cladding in calculating material thickness, required to sustain all primary loads.

Page 7 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

5

4.11

Application of ASME Code Cases to the manufacturing of exchangers requires approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

4.13

1 Cr- ½ Mo and 1 ¼ Cr- ½ Mo steels used for vessels that are not in hydrogen service with design temperature below 440°C, shall meet all requirements of API RP 934-C and this specification.

4.14

The Exchanger Manufacturer is responsible for the thermal/hydraulic design (rating) and verification of the Design Engineer's thermal/hydraulic design, if applicable.

4.15

The Exchanger Manufacturer is responsible for the manufacture of exchanger, which includes complete mechanical design, Code and structural calculations, flow induced vibration, supply of all materials, fabrication, nondestructive examination, inspection, testing, surface preparation, and preparation for shipment, in accordance with the completed data sheet and the requirements of this specification.

4.16

The edition of the Code to be used for the manufacture of exchangers shall be per the referenced code edition in effect at time of purchase.

4.17

Where a requirement of a licensor’s or a relevant industry standard/specification is more stringent than that of this specification, the most stringent requirement will govern.

Proposals 5.5

The proposal shall include a detailed description of any exception to the requirements of this specification.

5.9

The Exchanger Manufacturer may offer an alternative design, but must quote on the base inquiry documents.

5.10

Performance Guarantees The following shall be guaranteed for the length of the warranty period specified in the purchase order or contract documents: 1)

Exchangers shall meet thermal/hydraulic performance requirements under continuous operation at design conditions specified on the data sheets. Thermal/hydraulic guarantee shall be in accordance with TEMA paragraph G-5.

2)

Exchangers shall be free from damaging flow induced tube vibration and acoustic vibration.

Page 8 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

6

Drawings and Other Required Data 6.1

Outline Drawings and Other Supporting Data

6.1.1

(Exception) The Exchanger Manufacturer shall prepare drawings, calculations and data in accordance with NMR-7922-1, Nonmaterial Requirements

6.1.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall submit flow-induced vibration analysis.

6.1.3

Drawings and calculations that are approved by the Design Engineer shall not relieve the Exchanger Manufacturer from the responsibility to comply with the Codes and this specification.

6.1.4

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall prepare drawings, which indicate the ultrasonic readings thickness of the exchanger shell, heads and nozzles. An adequate number of readings shall be taken to represent the actual thickness of the components.

6.1.5

All approved data sheets, drawings and forms are to be submitted to EK&RD/Drawing Management Unit (DMU) for inclusion into Corporate Drawings Management System.

6.2

Information Required After Outline Drawings are Reviewed

6.2.4

(Addition) (e) Flow induced and acoustic vibration analysis.

6.3

Reports and Records The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish reports and records in accordance with NMR-7922-1, Nonmaterial Requirements.

7

Design 7.1

Design Temperature

7.1.4

The value(s) of design temperature(s) shall be as specified on the data sheet.

7.1.5

The value of the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) shall be as specified on the data sheet.

Page 9 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.1.6

The MDMT shall be used to determine the requirements for impact testing in accordance with the Code and this specification.

7.2

Cladding for Corrosion Allowance Exchangers having partial or complete cladding shall conform to 32SAMSS-031 in addition to the requirements of this specification.

7.3

Shell Supports

7.3.2

(Addition) (f) The exchanger shall be fixed at one saddle support and free to slide at the other saddle.

7.3.6

The shell shall be analyzed in accordance with the “L. P. Zick� method. Saddle supports and the exchanger shell shall be analyzed for operating and hydrotest loads including any piping, wind or other external loads.

7.3.7

The allowable concrete bearing stress to be used for the design of baseplates shall be 10340 kPa (1400 psi).

7.3.8

The outline drawing for horizontal exchangers shall specify locations of the fixed and sliding saddles and dimension from exchanger centerline to underside of saddle baseplate.

7.3.9

Anchor Bolts

7.3.9.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall determine the size and number of anchor bolts required.

7.3.9.2

Anchor bolts shall be in compliance with Standard Drawing AA-036322 Sht. 001 (Rev. 07 or later).

7.3.9.3

Anchor bolts shall not be less than 19 mm minimum nominal diameter.

7.3.9.4

The design of anchor bolts shall be in accordance with the requirements of Appendix D of ACI 318.

7.3.9.5

Anchor bolts that are exposed to the weather in coastal areas, subjected to frequent wash downs, or subjected to firewater deluge testing shall have their diameters increased by 3 mm as a corrosion allowance.

7.3.9.6

Exchangers supported on saddles shall be provided with an even number of anchor bolts with a minimum of two anchor bolts per saddle.

7.5

Floating Head Page 10 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.5.6

Floating head covers shall be attached to the backing device or to the floating tubesheet with through bolting.

7.6

Tube Bundle

7.6.1

Tubes

7.6.1.4

Wall thickness of integral low-fin tubes, if used, shall be measured from the inside diameter of the tube to the root of the fins. The specified wall thickness shall be nominal, except that the actual wall thickness shall not be less than 90% of that specified.

7.6.1.5

For expanded joints, the tubes shall extend 3 mm beyond the face of tubesheets, except tubes shall be flush on the upper tubesheet of vertical exchangers.

7.6.1.6

For exchangers with tube-side design pressures 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) and above, all tubes shall be hydrostatically tested at the mill at the tube-side design pressure and the variation from the tube outside diameter shall not exceed the values specified in Table 5 of ASME SA-450.

7.6.1.7

For steam condensing services, when steam is in the 'U' tubes and the process is controlled by flow control of condensate, the design engineer shall consider wither the 'U' bends shall be in the horizontal or vertical plane.

7.6.1.8

In exchangers with tube side as the high-pressure side, design pressure of the shell side should be at least two-thirds of the tube side design pressure if the shell side is not protected with a relief system. Other options require the approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer. Commentary Note: This is to prevent any unexpected catastrophic failure in case of tube leak in exchangers.

7.6.2

Tubesheets

7.6.2.5

All stationary tubesheets with through bolting design shall have nonthreaded bolt holes.

7.6.2.6

Vertical exchangers with fixed tubesheets shall be provided with flanged vents and drains through the tubesheets.

7.6.3

Baffles and Support Plates

Page 11 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.6.3.1

(Exception) Minimum thickness of baffles and support plates shall be as per TEMA requirements and in no case less than twice the specified shell side corrosion allowance.

7.6.3.4

Support plates for floating heads shall be located as close to the tubesheet as the design and type of exchanger will permit. Support plate shall be cut at either top or bottom or in the center to minimize ineffective heat transfer surface at the floating head end. Commentary Note: Typically, this distance is approximately 150 mm (6 inches).

7.6.3.5

'U' tube bundles shall have a support plate close to the tangent line of tubes. The support plates shall be cut to allow some flow over 'U' bends, provided that all tubes are supported. Commentary Note: Typically, support plates are 50 mm (2 inches) away from the tangent line.

7.6.4

Impingement Protection

7.6.4.7

Impingement rods, if used, shall be arranged in a pattern, which will minimize bypassing of the shell side fluid and avoid the flow hitting the tubes directly. Commentary Note: Typically, two rows of rods on a triangular layout are used as an impingement protection.

7.6.4.8

The use of distribution belts shall be considered when shell-side nozzles are large resulting in long inlet and/or outlet unsupported tube lengths. Commentary Note: A properly designed belt should result in more effective use of the heat transfer area and a more rigid bundle with better tube support.

7.6.5

Bypass-Sealing Devices

7.6.5.4

(Exception) The location of the sealing devices shall not interfere with the continuous tube lanes for square and rotated square layouts.

7.7

Nozzles and Other Connections

7.7.2

(Exception) The ends of butt-welded connections shall be in accordance with ASME B16.25. Page 12 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.7.3

(Exception) Threaded or socket-welded connections are prohibited in hydrogen, lethal, wet sour and caustic services. However, for other services, threaded or socket-welded connections with 6000-lb. rating conforming to ASME B16.11 may be used for NPS 1½ and smaller vents, drains and instrument connections.

7.7.4

(Exception) Flanged connections shall be one of the following types: a)

Forged steel long welding neck flange.

b)

Forged steel welding neck flange. Such type of flange is welded to seamless pipe, rolled plate with 100% radiography or an integrally reinforced contour shaped forged nozzle. The bore of flange shall match the bore of nozzle.

c)

Studded nozzles and proprietary designs may be offered as alternatives provided their design is in accordance with the Code and approved by the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

d)

Lap-type joints with loose end flange can be used for utility services with pressure up to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) and a temperature of 120°C (250°F).

7.7.5

(Exception) Slip-on type flange with seamless pipe nozzle necks or rolled plate with 100% radiography is permissible for exchangers, in only non-cyclic utility services with design temperature and design pressure not exceeding 400°C (750°F) and 2.1 MPA (300 psi), respectively. Slip-on flange shall be welded on the front or face and at the back of the hub per ASME SEC VIII D1, Figure UW-21, detail (1), (2) or (3).

7.7.6

(Exception) Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet, the minimum projections for nozzle necks, as measured from the outside surface of the shell or head to the face of a flange, shall meet the following requirements: a)

6 inches for NPS 6 nozzles and smaller.

b)

8 inches for NPS 8 nozzles and larger.

c)

For insulated exchangers, projection shall be sufficient to allow bolting of studs without interference with the insulation.

d)

For exchangers drain connections and other connections, where a process stream is likely to be stagnant, the projection shall not exceed three times the connection nominal diameter.

Page 13 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.7.10

The quantities, sizes, ratings, (ASME pressure classes), facings, elevations, and orientations of nozzles and manways shall be as specified on the data sheet.

7.7.11

Flanges shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5 pressure rating.

7.7.12

Flange bolt holes shall straddle the normal horizontal and vertical centerlines of the exchanger.

7.7.13

Threaded connections shall conform to ASME B2.1.

7.7.14

Reinforcement of Openings

7.7.14.1

Reinforcement of exchanger openings shall be in accordance with the applicable Code and this specification.

7.7.14.2

The thickness of reinforcing pads shall not exceed the shell or head thickness of an exchanger.

7.7.14.3

Use of internal reinforcing elements is not permitted.

7.7.15

Minimum inside corner radius of integrally reinforced contour nozzles and manways shall be 13 mm.

7.7.16

Permissible types of nozzles, manways and their connections shall be according to the table below.

Design Conditions / Services Group

Attachment

Figure Reference from Indicated ASME Code Section VIII Division 2 Division 1 Exchangers Exchangers

Group I a. Pressure-retaining exchanger’s component (shell, head, nozzle or manway) with design thickness greater than 50 mm

b. Unfired steam boilers with design pressure exceeding 50 psi

All nozzle sizes and manway necks

c. Lethal, hydrogen and cyclic services d. Openings larger than 900 mm (Note 1) e. Design temperature greater than 400°C (Note 1)

Connections attached to nozzles and manways

Figure UW-16.1, details: (f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or (f-4)

Table 4.2.13, details: (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) or (6)

f. Low alloy steel exchangers with design thickness greater than 25 mm (Note 1) g. Exchangers that will undergo PWHT (Note 1)

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Design Conditions / Services Group

Attachment

NPS 4 and smaller nozzles Group II Design conditions and service other than those in Group I of this table

Nozzles larger than NPS 4 and manway necks Connections attached to nozzles and manways

Note 1:

Figure Reference from Indicated ASME Code Section VIII Division 2 Division 1 Exchangers Exchangers Figure UW-16.1, details: (a), (a-1), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2), (f-3), (f-4) or (g).

Figure UW-16.1, details: (c), (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2), (f-3), (f-4) or (g)

- Table 4.2.10, details: (1), (2), (3), (4), (6), (7) or (8) - Table 4.2.11, detail (2) - Table 4.2.13, details: (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) or (6)

Alternatively, detail per Figure UW-16.1 (g) may be used for Division 1 exchangers provided that design conditions/ services per a, b and/or c of group I are not applicable.

7.7.17

Integrally reinforced contour shaped attachments made partially or completely of weld build up are prohibited.

7.11

Handling Devices

7.11.5

Exchangers with a component weighing up to and including 27 kg (60 lb.) shall be provided with at least one lifting lug per component. Two lifting lugs shall be provided for heavier weights.

7.11.6

Shell lifting lugs shall be designed such that the lifted parts hang vertically when suspended from the lugs. Lugs on insulated exchangers shall be of sufficient standout to clear insulation.

7.11.7

Protective plugs shall be fully engaged.

7.11.8

Clad fixed tubesheets shall be drilled and tapped and provided with base plugs of the same material as the cladding. Base plugs shall be seal welded and ground flush with the tubesheet surface and re-drilled and tapped for pulling eyes.

7.13

Kettle Reboilers Kettle type reboilers shall conform to the following: a)

The distance between the top of weir and top of tubes shall be a minimum of 75 mm.

b)

The distance from the weir to adjacent tangent line of the head shall not be less than 900 mm.

c)

Weirs shall be provided with a 50 mm semi-circular drain hole.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.14

Design Pressure

7.14.1

The value(s) of design pressure(s) shall be in accordance with the data sheet.

7.15

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure

7.15.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall calculate the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) acting on both sides of the exchanger, in the hot and corroded condition in accordance with the Code.

7.15.2

The MAWP of an exchanger shall not be limited by flange ratings.

7.16

Joint Efficiency

7.16.1

A joint efficiency of 85% or higher shall be specified for the design of all pressure containing components of ASME SEC VIII D1 exchangers.

7.17

Loads

7.17.1

Wind and Earthquake Loads

7.17.2

a)

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall calculate the static effects of loads due to wind and the effects due to earthquake loads acting on the exchanger in the operating position in accordance with requirements of this specification.

b)

Wind and seismic loads shall be calculated for the exchanger in accordance with ASCE 7, using Occupancy Category IV and based on design data corresponding to the site location per SAES-A-112.

c)

Wind pressures shall be assumed to act on the projected surface area of the exchanger and shall include due allowances for any platforms, ladders, piping, insulation, and equipment supported from the exchanger.

d)

Seismic loads shall include due allowances for platforms, ladders, piping, insulation, and equipment supported from the pressure exchanger as specified on the data sheet.

Dead Weights of an Exchanger Design of exchangers shall consider the following dead loads: a)

Weight of exchanger including internals and supports.

b)

Weight of exchanger contents under operating and testing conditions.

c)

Weight of refractory linings and insulation. Page 16 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

d) 7.17.3

7.17.4

Weight of attached equipment.

Piping, Equipment and External Loads a)

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall ensure that local stresses imposed on an exchanger due to piping (other than the dead load), equipment, lifting, supports and other external loads do not exceed the allowable limits in accordance with the applicable Code.

b)

Refer to the data sheet for piping and equipment loads imposed on an exchanger.

Thermal Loads Thermal Loads are loads caused by thermal transients and restraining thermal expansion/ interaction of the exchanger and/ or its support(s).

7.18

Load Combinations

7.18.1

All components of an exchanger, including its support(s), shall be designed to withstand stresses resulting from load combinations in accordance with, but not be limited to, those shown in Table 4.1.2 of ASME SEC VIII D2.

7.18.2

Anchor bolts shall be designed for load combinations, based on the allowable stress design method (Service Loads) in accordance with SAES-M-001.

7.18.3

All pressure exchanger components whether shop or field fabricated shall be designed to withstand a full hydrostatic test in the erected position.

7.18.4

Combined stresses due to full hydrostatic test and the greater of wind and earthquake loads shall be within the allowable limits per ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraph 4.1.6.2, based on the lowest Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) of the materials of construction at test temperature. However, wind and earthquake design loads can be reduced to 50% of its values.

7.18.5

The use of a pneumatic test may be considered when it will result in significant cost savings in the exchanger and/or its supporting structural/foundation. Such test requires prior approval of the Saudi Aramco Inspector.

7.18.6

Loads (moments or forces) acting on an exchanger due to external piping that will affect the overall integrity of the exchanger shall be added to moments and forces due to other external primary loads (weight, wind or Page 17 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

earthquake loads). Addition of piping loads shall be based on performing stress analysis.

7.18.7

Stress Analysis

7.18.7.1

Where applicable, the requirements for thermal stress and fatigue stress analyses shall be as specified in the data sheet. Analysis methods and stress combination limits presented in Division 2, Section 5, shall be used for exchangers under scope of Division 1 and Division 2. However, allowable stresses shall be taken from the respective tables of ASME SEC II for each division for the corresponding material and temperature.

7.18.7.2

The Design Engineer is responsible for specifying the heat transfer coefficients to be used for all thermal stress analysis.

7.18.7.3

Thermal Analysis 1)

A thermal stress analysis is required for a exchanger, if a thermal gradient (calculated under steady state operating conditions and, if applicable, transient operating conditions) across any exchanger section exceeds 65°C (150°F), in a distance equal to the square root of R times T, where: - R is the radius of the exchanger component under consideration and, - T is the thickness of the component under consideration - R and T have the same units.

2)

As a minimum, the scope of the stress analysis shall include the following junctures, as applicable: - Head-to-shell - Support-to-exchanger - Nozzle-to-shell, considering external piping loads - Tray supports to exchanger wall

3)

Thermal analysis shall be based on gradients under steady state design conditions and also, if applicable, transient design conditions.

4)

Thermal gradients may be reduced to within allowable limits with the provision of the thermal sleeves in pressure-retaining components Page 18 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.18.7.4

Fatigue Analysis 1)

Scope of the required stress analysis shall be as specified in the data sheet, in accordance with the rules of Division 2, by the Design Engineer.

2)

As a minimum, the scope of the stress analysis shall include the following junctures, as applicable:

- Head-to-shell - Support-to-exchanger - Nozzle-to-shell, considering external piping loads - Tray supports to exchanger wall

7.18.7.5

3)

Analysis shall be based on the calculated number of cycles for a minimum 20-year service life, as determined in accordance with the rules of Division 2, paragraph 5.5.2.

4)

The number of cycles shall include the number of start-ups, shutdowns, emergency shut-downs, and upset conditions.

Local Stress Analysis Stress analysis due to piping, equipment, lifting, supports and other external loads shall be completed in accordance with the procedures as detailed in WRC 107, WRC 297 or a finite element analysis.

7.19

Shell and Channel Covers

7.19.1

ASME dished flat head (with knuckle) and ASME torispherical head shall not be used for other than air and water services with a design pressure of 690 kPa (100 psi).

7.19.2

One-piece construction (made from one-piece or welded multi-piece blanks) shall be used for heads with nominal thickness greater than 50 mm and exchangers in cyclic, hydrogen or lethal services. Other types of head construction shall require prior approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this specification. Note: Following shall be submitted to support review of the proposed multisegment construction head: a) Layout of head. b) Nondestructive examination.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers c) Forming procedure and, d) Heat treatment procedure, as applicable.

7.19.3

Where a forged shell-and-head junction according to ASME SEC VIII D2, Figure AD-912-1(k) is used, one piece construction shall be used for the remaining portion of heads mentioned in paragraph 7.19.2 of this specification. Other types of head construction shall require prior approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.19.4

Heads in exchangers with design thickness greater than 50 mm shall be hemispherical unless 2:1 ellipsoidal heads are deemed more economical.

7.19.5

Minimum inside radius of knuckles for conical transition sections or torispherical heads shall be as follows: a)

Not be less than 15% of the outside diameter of the adjoining cylindrical section with conical section of thickness more than 2 inches.

b)

Not be less than 10% of the outside diameter of the adjoining cylindrical section with conical transition section or torispherical heads with thickness more than 0.75 inch and less than 2 inches.

c)

Not be less than 6% of the outside diameter of the adjoining cylindrical section with conical transition section or torispherical heads with thickness 0.75 inch and less.

7.19.6

Reinforcing for conical transition sections in thick wall exchangers shall be provided by increased plate thickness. The use of reinforcing rings is prohibited.

7.20

Longitudinal Baffles (TEMA 'F' shells)

7.20.1

Baffles shall be designed for 1.5 times the shell-side allowable pressure drop and with a maximum deflection in the corroded condition of 6 mm.

7.21

Clips and Attachments

7.21.1

General The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install all clips and attachments as specified on the data sheet.

7.21.2

Insulation Support

7.21.2.1

Support for insulation system shall be according to the data sheet. Page 20 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.21.2.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required for insulation.

7.21.3

Refractory Supporting System

7.21.3.1

Anchoring system of refractory lining shall be according to the data sheet.

7.21.3.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install anchoring system required for refractory.

7.21.4

Fireproofing Supports

7.21.4.1

Support for fireproofing system shall be according to the data sheet.

7.21.4.2

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required for fireproofing materials.

7.21.5

Grounding Lugs All exchangers shall be provided with a grounding lug connection welded to the fixed exchanger support in accordance with PIP VEFV1100.

7.21.6

All internal and external attachments, including clips, welded directly to pressure parts are to be attached by continuous welding except for blank nuts used for external insulation where tack welding is allowed.

7.21.7

Vertical exchangers, which are externally insulated, shall be provided with insulation supports in accordance with SAES-N-001.

7.22

Coatings and Painting

7.22.1

Type of coating and painting systems shall be as specified on the data sheet.

7.22.2

Surfaces to be coated shall be cleaned and prepared prior to its coating in accordance with SAES-H-001.

7.22.3

Gasket contact surfaces shall be properly protected from blasting and shall not be coated or painted..

7.23

General

7.23.1

Single tube pass TEMA rear end floating head type exchangers shall be designed with a removable shell cover to provide easy access to the expansion joint in the tube side nozzle. Page 21 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

7.23.2

Where more than one exchanger of identical design, pressure rating and materials is required for the same service, the tube bundles shall be interchangeable.

7.23.3

Kettle type reboilers shall be provided with guide rails and a hold down angle located above the floating end, in order to keep the bundle in place during shipment.

7.23.4

For tube bundles that can be rotated 180 degrees, additional impingement plate, bundle runners etc. shall be provided.

7.23.5

Exchangers with sea water on the tube side shall be fitted with ferrules (tube end protectors) at the inlet end of tubes at each tube pass. For tube materials other than given in paragraph 8.4.4, the requirement for ferrules shall be confirmed with the Saudi Aramco Engineer. Commentary Note: Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing AE-036250 gives ferrules details for 0.75 inch outside diameter tubes. For larger tube diameters, Exchanger Manufacturer shall propose ferrule details for the consideration of the Saudi Aramco Engineer.

7.23.6

8

Maximum thickness for plates used for construction of shell or channel under the scope of API RP 934-A and API RP 934-C shall be limited to 6 inches (150 mm). For exchangers requiring thickness higher than 6”, forged ring construction shall be used.

Materials 8.1

General

8.1.5

All materials required for pressure and non-pressure components shall be as specified on the data sheet.

8.1.6

Prior approval by the Saudi Aramco Engineer is required for use of alternative materials of construction. Alternative materials must comply with all the requirements of the applicable Code and this specification.

8.1.7

Material specifications and tests procedures for base metal and weldments materials for 1 Cr- ½ Mo, 1 ¼ Cr- ½ Mo, 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo, 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Engineer for review and approval prior to ordering the materials from the mill.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

8.1.8

All materials must be clearly identified and provided with legible original or certified true copies of Mill Test Certificates. Lack of adequate identification and certification shall be cause for rejection.

8.1.9

Material test report is requested to be certified as per 175-323100.

8.1.10

1 Cr- ½ Mo and 1 ¼ Cr- ½ Mo steels with thickness exceeding 100 mm can be used for components (shell, head, integrally reinforced nozzles, flanges, etc.) of exchangers within scope of API RP 934-C, API RP 934E and paragraph 4.13 of this specification, provided that fracture toughness requirements of the respective document of the aforementioned documents and this specification can be met.

8.1.11

Use of high alloy steels, including austenitic stainless steels, shall be on a case-by-case basis, with prior approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this specification. Material selection shall be based on the design temperature, minimum design metal temperature and intended service.

8.1.12

All materials, except carbon steels, shall be alloy-verified by the Exchanger Manufacturer in accordance with SAES-A-206.

8.1.13

Use of C-½ Mo steels in hydrogen services is prohibited.

8.1.14

Materials of construction (pressure-retaining parts of exchanger and nonpressure retaining attachments) shall be tested to verify that their mechanical properties (strength, toughness, creep-resistance, etc.) will be retained, considering all of the following thermal treatments that could affect the material: a)

All heat treatment cycles that will be required for the fabrication of the exchanger, including as applicable: normalizing, normalizing and tempering, quenching and tempering, intermediate stress relief (ISR), and final postweld heat treatment (PWHT),

b)

Two PWHT cycles to account for future repairs and/or alterations.

8.1.15

As an alternative to material qualification requirements per paragraph 12.1.14 of this specification for carbon steel nozzles and standard flanges according to ASME B16.5 and B16.47 that do not require impact testing, materials of construction shall have minimum 70 MPa (10 ksi) over their specified minimum yield strength and ultimate tensile strength values.

8.1.16

Forgings shall meet a material cleanliness C2/R2/S2 rating, as described in ASTM E381.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

8.1.17

Specimens for material testing shall be taken per the following: a)

Plates Specimens shall be taken from each plate transverse to the rolling direction in accordance with SA-20 at the standard test locations and at a depth of ½T (T = maximum heat-treated thickness) location. If required, ½T specimens should be used for hot tensile and step cooling tests.

b)

Plate-like forgings (forged rings, tubesheets, blind flanges, etc.) Specimens shall be taken from each heat transverse to the major working direction in accordance with the material specification, and at a depth of ½T of a prolongation or of a representative separate test , as defined in API RP 934-A.

c)

d)

Standard flanges according to ASME B16.5 and B16.47. 1.

For flanges with T equal to or less than 50 mm, specimens shall be removed in accordance with the material specification.

2.

For flanges with T greater than 50 mm, specimens shall be removed in accordance with the material specification from a production forging or a representative separate test block that are machined to essentially the finished product configuration prior to heat treatment. The center axis of the specimen shall be at a depth of ½T and the mid-length of the test specimen shall be at a depth at least equal to T from any second heattreated surface.

Other forgings that are contour shaped or machined to essentially the finished product configuration prior to heat treatment, test specimens shall be removed in accordance with the material specification from a production forging or a representative separate test block. (Exception: Test specimens for 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo, 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V steels shall be removed from only a production forging; samples shall not be taken from a representative test blocks.)

The center axis of the specimen for all materials taken shall be at a depth of ½T and the mid-length of the test specimen shall be at a depth at least equal to T from any second heat-treated surface. e)

Pipe

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Specimens shall be taken from each heat and lot of pipe, transverse to the major working direction in accordance with used material specification except that test specimens should be taken from a depth of ½T. f)

A separate test block, if used, should be made from the same heat and should receive substantially the same reduction and type of hot working as the production forgings that it represents. It should be of the same nominal thickness as the production forgings and shall be machined to essentially the finished product configuration prior to heat treatment. The separate test forgings should be heat-treated in the same furnace charge and under the same conditions as the production forgings.

8.1.18

Layered constructions are prohibited for all exchangers.

8.1.19

Materials for exchangers in de-aeration service shall be in accordance with NACE RP0590.

8.1.20

Materials for exchangers exposed to SSC environments shall be in accordance with the following:

8.1.21

a)

Forged flanges and forged fittings are restricted to: SA-350 (Grade LF1 or Grade LF2) or SA-765 Grade II.

b)

Studs are restricted to: SA-193 B7M or SA-320 L7M.

c)

Nuts are restricted to: SA-194 Grade 2HM.

d)

It shall satisfy the requirements of ISO 15156 and NACE RP0472.

Low alloy steels shall not be mixed. For example, an exchanger requiring 1 Cr-½ Mo materials shall have all components manufactured from 1 Cr-½ Mo. (Exception: Refer to paragraph 12.1.20 of this specification for requirements for skirts.)

8.1.22

Low alloy steels shall be specified in the normalized and tempered (N+T) or quenched and tempered (Q+T) conditions, based on the required mechanical material’s properties (strength, toughness, creepresistance, etc.) and considering thermal treatments specified in paragraph 8.1.14 of this specification.

8.1.23

Material for nameplate mounting brackets shall be of the same type and material grade as the shell material.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

8.1.24

SA-36 and SA-285 materials may be used only for pressure retaining components of exchangers in water and air services with plate thickness not exceeding 19 mm.

8.1.25

Materials of supports shall be as follows: 1)

Legs and lugs: same material as exchanger wall base material. Supports of exchangers described in paragraph 8.1.24 of this specification may be of the same ASME material P No. as that of the exchanger wall base material.

2)

Saddles: same material as the exchanger wall base material.

8.1.26

External attachments, other than those in paragraph 8.1.25 of this specification, and internal attachments welded to the exchnager shall be of the same material as the exchnager wall base material. With prior approval of Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this specification, Stainless Steel (SS) internal attachments can be welded to carbon steel pressure-retaining parts of exhcnagers in non-sour services.

8.1.27

SA-266 (Grade 2 or Grade 4) or SA-105 shall be only used where impact testing is not required.

8.1.28

Internal attachments to clad exchnagers shall be of the same material as that of the cladding. SS 321 and SS 347 can be used interchangeably.

8.1.29

Material of construction for anchor bolts shall be ASTM A193 / A193M, ASTM F1554 Grade 36 or ASTM F1554 Grade 105 with the corresponding material of construction for nuts according to SASD AA036322.

8.1.30

HIC Resistant Materials Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) resistant steel shall be qualified in accordance with 01-SAMSS-016. HIC resistant steel shall be procured from approved Saudi Aramco suppliers within a list available by the Saudi Aramco Buyer, as defined in this specification. F8.1.16 All the components (tubesheet, tube, shell, channel, baffle, nozzle, head, cover and ring) shall be fabricated by Saudi Aramco approved exchanger manufacturer.

8.1.31

All heat exchanger flanges shall be procured in accordance with 02SAMSS-011 requirements from approved Saudi Aramco suppliers.

8.2

Gaskets

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

8.2.3

(Exception) The materials of construction for spiral wound gaskets shall be as follows: 1)

For exchangers with design temperatures from -100°C to 0°C: Type 304 or 316 stainless steel (SS) windings with solid Type 304 or 316 stainless steel outer centering rings.

2)

For exchangers with design temperatures from 1°C to 425°C: Type 304 or 316 SS windings with solid carbon steel outer centering rings.

3)

For exchangers with design temperatures above 425°C: Type 321 or 347 SS windings with solid; Type 304 or 316 outer centering rings.

4)

For exchangers in vacuum service, inner ring shall be either Type 304 or 316 SS.

8.3

Tubes

8.3.3

Bare tubes shall be procured from approved Saudi Aramco suppliers in accordance with SAES-L-101 requirements.

8.4

Impact Testing

8.4.1

The Exchanger Manufacturer is responsible of determining the required Charpy impact energy value(s) based on the impact test temperature specified on the data sheet and the purchased exchanger’s component thickness.

8.4.2

Impact test temperature for a component of a exchanger shall be as specified on the data sheet.

8.4.3

Minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values for all materials of construction (base and weld metals) shall not be less than the highest of the following applicable values: 1)

40/32 Joules for carbon steels thicker than 50 mm

2)

As specified by ASME SEC VIII D2, but not less than 34/27 Joules

3)

As specified by the licensor’s specification, but not less than 34/27 Joules

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

4)

55/48 Joules for 1 Cr- ½ Mo, 1 ¼ Cr- ½ Mo, 2 ¼ Cr- 1 Mo, 2 ¼ Cr- 1 Mo- ¼ V, 3 Cr- 1 Mo and 3 Cr- 1 Mo- ¼ V steels.

Commentary Notes: a)

The first number of required energy values is the minimum average energy of three specimens and the second number is the minimum for one specimen of the impact test results.

b)

Minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values are applicable to Div. 1 and Div.2 exchangers.

8.4.4

For Div. 1 exchangers the impact testing exemptions of UG-20 (f), UCS66 (b) (1) and (3), UCS-68(c), UG-84 (b) (2) and by reference to Table UG-84.4 are not permitted. For Div. 2 exchangers the exemptions of 3.11.2.3, 3.11.2.4, 3.11.2.5, 3.11.2.6, 3.11.2.8, 3.11.2.10, 3.11.3.1 and 3.11.4 are not permitted.

8.4.5

Impact testing is required, with no exception, for pressure exchangers made of low alloy steels.

8.4.6

Impact testing of materials and welding procedures are required when test temperature is lower than -28°C.

8.4.7

Baffle plates, sealing strips, tie-rods, sliding bars, tubes, spacers, and support plates are exempt from impact testing requirements.

8.5

Special Testing for Steels under Scope of API RP 934-A

8.5.1

Microstructure Testing a) Two sets of microstructures shall be provided for each forged ring or shell plate. One set of microstructure shall be provided for other reactor b) Each set of sample shall consist of both transverse and longitudinal direction. The Transverse microstructure shall include ID, mid wall and OD microstructure at proper magnification to show grain structure. The longitudinal microstructure shall include ID and OD samples at proper magnification to show grain structures. c) Microstructure sample shall include Charpy test specimen.

8.5.2

Hardness Testing a) Two hardness readings shall be taken on each reactor component, which includes each forged ring, shell plate, nozzle, pipe, fitting, and flange.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

b) Test method and acceptance criteria shall follow API RP 934-A (SECOND EDITION, ADDENDUM 2, MARCH 2012), Paragraph 7.4.2. 8.5.3

Stress Rupture Test a) Each heat of filler wire and flux combination used in production for all weld joint categories (A, B, C and D) intended for the following design temperatures shall qualified by a weld metal stress-rupture test on specimens machined parallel (all weld metal specimens) and transverse to the weld axis (one specimen each): 1) Above 440°C (825°F) for 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo steels. 2) Above 468°C (875°F) for 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V and 3 Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V steels. b) Test specimens shall be according to the following: 1) The specimen diameter within the gage length shall be 13 mm (½ in.) or greater. The specimen centerline shall be located at the 0.25-t thickness location (or closer to the center) for material 19 mm (¾ in.) and greater in thickness. 2) The gage length for the transverse specimen shall include the weld and at least 19 mm (¾ in.) of base metal adjacent to the fusion line. 3) The test material shall be postweld heat treated to the maximum PWHT condition. c) Acceptance criteria: 1) For 2 ¼ Cr-1Mo and 3 Cr-1Mo steels, the condition of the Document stress-rupture test shall be 210 MPa (30 ksi) at 510°C (950°F). The time of failure shall exceed 650 hours. 2) For 2 ¼ Cr-1Mo-¼ V and 3 Cr-1Mo-¼ V steels, the condition of the stress-rupture test shall be 210 MPa (30 ksi) at 540°C (1000°F). The time of failure shall exceed 900 hours.

8.5.4

Reheat Transverse Cracking Susceptibility Qualification Each combination of heat-of-filler wire and batch-of-flux for submerged arc welding (SAW) used in production of all weld joint categories (A, B, C and D) in 2 ¼ Cr-1Mo-¼ V steels shall be qualified for transverse reheat cracking susceptibility as follows: Page 29 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

a) Performing Gleeble test. Procedure and acceptance criteria of test shall be in accordance with API RP 934A, Annex B. b) Chemical composition factor (K-factor = Pb+Bi+0.03Sb) of filler wire shall not exceed 1.5 ppm, where units of Pb, Bi and Sb are in ppm. Kfactor shall be determined utilizing the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method according to the relevant requirements of the US national Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), including but not limited to the calibration of the ICP-MS instrument. ICP-MS shall be calibrated with sample standards provided by NIST. Test results shall be documented as a reference, including calibration curves for Pb, Bi and Sb.

9

8.5.5

Unless the exchanger manufacturer can provide supporting documents to differentiate bonding strength resulting from different welding procedures, all disbonding tests shall be according to Domain - A test conditions and acceptance criteria of Table 3 in API RP 934-A.

8.5.6

Step cooling tests of the base metal are required for 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo, 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V steels, unless impact testing at -80° F (-62° C) results in 40 ft-lb (55 Joules) average minimum and no single value below 35 ft-lb (48 Joules).

Fabrication 9.1

Shells

9.1.4

The beveled edges of weld preparations for carbon steel plates with thickness 25 mm and thicker and all ferrous alloy plates shall be magnetic particle examined for linear discontinuities. Liquid Penetrant examination shall be employed for non-ferrous steels. Defects shall not exceed limits as per ASME SA-20.

9.1.5

Plate edge laminations revealed per examination method in paragraph 9.1.6 of this specification shall be completely removed and repaired as per SAES-W-010.

9.1.6

Each shell section shall be completely welded longitudinally and corrected for out of roundness and peaking of the weld seam prior to welding to the adjoining shell section or head.

9.1.7

All re-rolling or forming of the shell sections is to be completed prior to radiography.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

9.1.8

External welded attachment pads shall have their corners rounded to a minimum radius ¼ of the length or width of the pad whichever is less with a maximum of 50 mm and shall be fully seal welded.

9.1.10

Attachment pad for supports, lifting lugs and other attachments shall be a minimum of 10 mm (3/8") thick or equal to the shell thickness, whichever is less. Attachment loads must comply with paragraph 7.17.3 above and pads shall not cover pressure-retaining welds.

9.1.11

Telltale Holes in Reinforcing Pads

9.1.11.1

¼ - inch telltale vent holes drilled and tapped for ⅛ -inch NPT shall be provided in reinforcing pads for welded attachments, including nozzles and manways, per the following:

9.1.11.2

1)

One hole in single piece reinforcing pad.

2)

Where a pad is split, each segment shall have at least one hole.

Telltale holes shall be located at the lowest position accessible for inspection with center of the hole 25 mm from edge of the pad. This is applicable to each segment of a split-reinforcing pad. Commentary Note: In case of reinforcing pads for attachments, other than nozzles and manways, center of telltale hole shall be 25 mm from the closest edge of the pad.

9.1.11.3

Telltale holes in reinforcing pads for external welded attachments shall be plugged with grease or other materials adequate for the operating temperature but not capable of retaining pressure, to prevent moisture ingress between the pad and the exchanger pressure-retaining component. Telltale holes in internal attachment pads shall be seal welded.

9.1.12

Segments of split reinforcing pad shall be welded together without using a backing strip.

9.2

Pass Partition Plates Pass partition plate shall be provided with a 6 mm (¼") drain hole.

9.3

Connection Junctions (Exception) All nozzles shall be ground flush to the inside curvature of the exchanger inside diameters with smooth inside corner radius equal to the nozzle wall thickness. Page 31 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

9.5

Welding

9.5.1

(Exception) All welding shall be in accordance with the requirements of SAES-W-010.

9.5.2

(Exception) All welded joints of category A, B, C and D shall be complete fusion full penetration welds, except for joint welds of slip-on flanges specified per paragraph 7.7.5 of this specification.

9.5.11

Welds attaching nozzles and their reinforcement pads and other attachments to pressure components shall not be closer than 20 mm from any pressure retaining welds. See also paragraph 10.2.1.4.

9.5.12

Where a split-reinforcing pad is required, the weld joining the pad sections shall be oriented with the circumferential direction of the shell. Welding the pad sections together shall be done without using a backing strip.

9.6

Heat Treatment

9.6.2

(Exception) 1)

2)

The following tubes shall be stress relief heat treated after cold forming and bending: a)

U bends, including 150 mm of straight portions measured from the tangent line of all carbon steel tubes for exchangers in caustic, wet sour and amine services.

b)

Monel, brass and all chrome alloy tubes in all services.

The following tubes shall be solution annealed: a)

Entire tubes manufactured of unstabilized or non low carbon stainless steels or Nickel base alloys in accordance with ASME SA-688.

b)

U bends, including 150 mm of straight portions measured from the tangent lines of all stabilized or low carbon stainless steels or Nickel base alloys.

9.6.8

Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) shall be done when required by the applicable Code or when specified on the data sheet.

9.6.9

Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment (PWHT) of ferritic materials based on the use of austenitic or nickel-based electrodes are not

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

permitted for exchangers in sulfide stress cracking environments as defined in this specification. 9.6.10

Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment (PWHT) of P4 and P5 materials are not permitted for applications involving either wet sour or hydrogen services for materials exceeding 1.25% nominal chromium content.

9.6.11

The maximum postweld heat treating soaking temperature for quenched and tempered carbon steel materials shall not exceed the temperature at which the test pieces were heat treated, as shown on the Mill Test Reports or 650°C maximum for carbon steel and 700°C for low chrome alloy steels.

9.6.12

Time and temperature of postweld heat treatment (PWHT) for carbon steel exchanger with potential environmental cracking shall be in accordance with requirements of API RP582.

9.6.13

Final postweld heat treatment (PWHT) shall follow all welding and repairs but shall be performed prior to any hydrotest or other load test.

9.6.14

A sign shall be painted on a postweld heat treated exchanger and located such that it is clearly visible from grade: "Caution – Exchanger Has Been Postweld Heat Treated – Do Not Weld"

9.6.15

Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) shall be in accordance with the requirements of SAES-W-010 and this specification.

9.8

Gasket Contact Surfaces other than Nozzle Flange Facings

9.8.1

(Exception) Gasket seating surfaces shall comply with the following: 1)

For spiral wound gaskets, 125 to 250 AARH, in all services, except hydrogen.

2)

For spiral wound gaskets in hydrogen service, 125 to 150 AARH.

3)

The side-walls of ring joint flanges in all services, 63 AARH.

4)

For non-metallic gaskets, 250 to 500 AARH.

The surface roughness of machined surfaces, other than gasket contact faces, shall not exceed 500 AARH. 9.9

Tube Holes

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

9.9.3

Tubesheet tube hole diameters and tolerances shall be special close fit when tube bundle vibration is suspected or when exchanger is in cyclic service.

9.9.4

Tube expanding procedures shall incorporate stops to prevent tube expansion past tubesheet faces.

9.9.5

Tube expansion and tube-end welding (where specified) procedures shall be submitted to the Saudi Aramco Inspector for review and approval before start of fabrication.

9.9.6

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall submit a mock-up sample of the tube to tubesheet weld when tubes are strength welded to the tubesheet. This sample shall contain a minimum of four tubes and shall be prepared using the same materials and fabrication procedures (including heat treatment) as are to be used in actual production. Approval from the Saudi Aramco Inspector is required prior to start of production. No need to repeat the test if similar joint design was done in the past 6-months.

9.12

Forming and Heat Treatment

9.12.1

Heat-treatment, as a separate operation, shall be performed after a forming operation (hot or cold) for any of the conditions listed below. The heat treatment shall be annealing, normalizing, normalizing and tempering, or quench and tempering, as required. 

Heads and other double-curvature components with nominal thickness exceeding 50 mm.

Heads and other double-curvature components made of P-No. 3, 4, 5, 9A or 9B materials.

Any hot-formed component.

9.12.2

For any hot forming operation, the procedure shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Engineer for approval prior to commencement of any fabrication requiring hot forming. The procedure shall describe all heat treatment operations and tests to be performed. The tests shall include, but not limited to, all of the mechanical tests required by the original material specification.

9.12.3

Cold Forming a) Heat treatment requirements for Carbon Steels (P-1) and Low Alloy Steels (P-3, 4, 5, 9A and 9B) that undergo cold forming (by pressing or cold spinning) shall be as follows: Page 34 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Fiber Elongation Strain εf (%)

Material

Heat Treatment Requirement None

Less than or equal to 5 Greater than 5 and equal to or less than 10

Carbon Steels P-1

Greater than 10

(Exception: PWHT per the applicable Code shall be performed for cold spun heads) PWHT per the applicable Code Normalizing, Normalizing and tempering or quenching and tempering, as required to maintain original material properties. None

Less than or equal to 3 Low Alloy Steels P-3, P-4, P-5, P-9A & P9B

Greater than 3 and equal to or less than 10 Greater than 10

(Exception: PWHT per the applicable Code shall be performed for cold spun heads) PWHT per the applicable Code Normalizing, normalizing and tempering or quenching and tempering, as required to maintain original material properties.

High Alloy Materials

Table 6.2 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

Table 6.2 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

Non-ferrous Materials

Table 6.3 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

Table 6.3 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

b)

Calculation of forming fiber elongation strain εf (%) shall be according to the following: Type of Part Being Formed

Fiber Elongation Strain εf (%)

For double curvature heads that are formed from onepiece or welded multi-piece blanks by any process that includes dishing or cold spinning (e.g., dished heads or cold spun heads)

εf = 100 ln [Db/(Df -2t)]

[1]

For heads that are assembled from formed segments (e.g., spherical dished shell plates or dished segments of ellipsoidal or torispherical heads)

εf = 100 t / Rfd

[2]

Cylinders and cones formed from plate

εf = (50 t / Rfc) [1-(Rfc / Ro)]

[3]

Where: ln

is the natural logarithm

Db

is the diameter of unformed blank plate or diameter of intermediate product

Df

is the outside diameter of the finished product

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Rfd

is the smallest mean radius of curvature of formed segment (mean radius of spherical segment, mean knuckle radius of knuckle segment of multi sectional semi-ellipsoidal or torispherical heads)

Rfc

is the mean radius of curvature of finished product (mean radius of cylinder, mean radius of the smaller diameter of cone)

Ro

is the mean radius of initial product (flat plate) or the intermediate product (in case of unformed initial product equals to infinity)

t

is the nominal thickness of the plate before forming or intermediate product

Commentary Notes: i)

Cold spun heads with nominal thickness exceeding 50 mm shall be heat treated by normalizing, normalizing and tempering or quenching and tempering, as required to maintain original material properties), irrespective of the calculated fiber elongation strain.

ii)

Need for heat treatment of all double curvature circular products (e.g., spherical crowns, semiellipsoidal and torispherical heads) formed from one-piece or welded multi-piece blank, shall be based on fiber elongation strain calculated using equation [1] of the above table.

iii)

Separate calculation of extreme fiber elongation shall be made for each formed segment forming multi-sectional heads (torispherical or ellipsoidal) or spheres (excluding spherical crown). Need for heat treatment shall be determined for each segment individually using equation [2] of the above table based on the greatest measured thickness and smallest radius of curvature after forming.

iv)

In case of different forming steps without intermediate heat treatment are employed, extreme fiber elongation is the total amount of elongation of the individual forming steps. In case of intermediate heat treatment, the deformation is that elongation achieved after the last previous heat treatment. This is applicable for all types of formed part.

v)

Filler metal used in items subjected to hot forming temperatures, or normalized, shall satisfy the weld joint design requirements after such heat treatment. This is considering that such welds will generally suffer significant strength reduction.

10

Inspection and Testing 10.1

Quality Assurance

10.1.3

The responsibility for quality assurance rests with the Exchanger Manufacturer in accordance with the applicable Code and the requirements of this specification.

10.1.4

Exchangers manufactured in accordance with this specification are subject to verification by the Saudi Aramco Inspector in accordance with Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements Form 175-323100.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.1.5

All required Nondestructive Examination shall be included in inspection procedures established according to ASME SEC V and this specification. A written procedure shall address each inspection method and technique used including acceptance criteria. When required by the purchase order the procedure(s) shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Inspection Department for approval.

10.1.6

All Nondestructive Examination, including Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant examinations, shall be performed by personnel certified in accordance with ASNT CP-189, or equivalent National Certification Programs that has been approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department. Personnel responsible for interpretation of Nondestructive Examination results shall be certified to a minimum of Level II.

10.1.7

Magnetic-particle, liquid-penetrant, ultrasonic and radiographic examinations on exchangers to be postweld heat-treated shall be made after completion of final heat treatment.

10.1.8

All pressure and non-pressure welds shall be visually inspected where accessible. All segments of longitudinal, circumferential or built-up head pressure weld seams covered or rendered inaccessible by internals, lifting lugs or other attachments shall be fully radiographed the entire affected length plus 10 inches either side prior to installation of the attachment.

10.1.9

Additional examination of any weld joint at any stage of the fabrication may be requested by the Saudi Aramco Inspector, including reexamination of previously examined joints. The Saudi Aramco Inspector also has the right to request or conduct independent NDE of any joint. If such examination should disclose gross non-conformance to the requirements of the applicable Code or this specification, all repair and NDE costs shall be done at the Exchanger Manufacturer's expense.

10.1.10

All necessary safety precautions shall be taken for each examination method.

10.1.11

Surface irregularities, including weld reinforcement, inhibiting accurate interpretation of the specified method of nondestructive examination shall be ground smooth.

10.1.12

Examination of all welds shall include a band of base metal at least one inch wide on each side of the weld.

10.1.13

The Saudi Aramco Inspector shall have free access to the work at all times.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.1.14

Saudi Aramco shall have the right to inspect the fabrication at any stage and to reject material or workmanship, which does not conform to the specified requirements.

10.1.15

Saudi Aramco reserves the right to inspect, photograph, and/or videotape all material, fabrication, coating, and workmanship and any materials, equipment, or tools used or to be used for any part of the work to be performed.

10.1.16

Saudi Aramco may reject the use of any materials, equipment, or tools that do not conform to the specification requirements, jeopardize safety of personnel, or impose hazard of damage to Saudi Aramco property.

10.1.17

All of the rights of Saudi Aramco and their designated representatives for access, documentation, inspection, and rejection shall include any work done by sub-contractors or sub-vendors.

10.1.18

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall provide the Saudi Aramco Inspector all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the work is being performed as specified.

10.1.19

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish, install, and maintain in a safe operating condition all necessary scaffolding, ladders, walkways, and lighting for a safe and thorough inspection.

10.1.20

Prior to final inspection and pressure testing, the inside and outside of the exchanger shall be thoroughly cleaned of all slag, scale, dirt, grit, weld spatter, paint, oil, etc.

10.1.21

Inspection at the mill, shop, or fabrication yard shall not release the Exchanger Manufacturer from responsibility for repairing or replacing any defective material or workmanship that may be subsequently discovered in the field.

10.2

Quality Control

10.2.1

(Exception) Radiographic testing shall be performed as follows:

10.2.1.1

All radiography shall be performed with intensifying screens. Only lead or lead foil (fluoro-metallic) screens shall be permitted unless otherwise approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

10.2.1.2

Tungsten inclusions in Gas Tungsten Arc welds shall be evaluated as individual rounded indications. Clustered or aligned tungsten inclusions shall be removed and repaired.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.2.1.3

Radiography examination requirements for weld joints categories A, B, C and D shall be according to Table 1 of this specification and the following: a)

Butt welds connecting forged junction ring, conforming to ASME SEC VIII D2, Figure 4.2.4(e), to shell and head shall be 100% radiographed. Use of ultrasonic examination method that generates permanent records can be used as a substitute to radiography, as applicable (see relevant requirements per Note 3 of Table 1).

b)

Butt welds in multi-piece plate blanks to be formed into heads shall be 100% radiographed after forming. Use of ultrasonic examination method that generates permanent records can be used as a substitute to radiography (see relevant requirements per Note 3 of Table 1).

10.2.1.4

100% radiography examination is required for butt welds connecting forged junction ring according to ASME SEC VIII D2, Table 4.2.5 Detail 7 to shell and head.

10.2.2

(Exception) Magnetic particle examination shall be performed as follows:

10.2.2.1

Permanent magnetic yokes are not permitted.

10.2.2.2

Prods are not permitted for use on air-hardenable materials, materials which require impact testing, and on the fluid side of pressured components for exchangers in wet sour service.

10.2.2.3

Magnetic particle examination or liquid penetrant examination shall be performed on the surfaces of hot formed and reheat treated as per the applicable Code.

10.2.2.4

Except for non-ferromagnetic materials, magnetic particle examination using an AC yoke is required for the following welds: a)

Pressure containing weld joints categories A, B, C and D per Table 1 of this specification.

b)

Welds in exchanger support (saddle, lug, and leg).

c)

Attachment welds to the exchanger.

d)

Areas where temporary attachments have been removed.

e)

Arc strike areas.

Internal welds shall be examined with Wet fluorescent MPI. External welds shall be examined with wet visible MPI or Wet fluorescent MPI. Page 39 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Note: If wet visible MPI is used, a white color contrast coating shall be applied prior to the examination.

10.2.2.5

All edges prepared for welding and all openings in ferromagnetic exchangers shall be 100% magnetic particle examined in accordance with the applicable Code.

10.2.2.6

Forgings shall be examined on all surfaces, utilizing wet fluorescent magnetic particle method after final machining. All defects shall be removed and repaired by welding in accordance with SAES-W-010. Except for welding edges, liquid penetrant examination is acceptable as an alternative to magnetic particle examination.

10.2.2.7

All ferromagnetic welds are to be wet fluorescent magnetic particle examined after final heat treatment.

10.2.4

(Exception) Liquid penetrant examination shall be performed as follows:

10.2.4.1

For non-Ferro magnetic materials, Liquid penetrant examination shall be used for the following welds: a)

Pressure containing weld joints categories A, B, C and D per Table 1 of this specification.

b)

Welds in exchanger support (saddle, lug, and leg).

c)

Attachment welds to the exchanger.

d)

Areas where temporary attachments have been removed.

e)

Arc strike areas.

10.2.4.2

All edges prepared for welding and all openings in non-ferromagnetic exchangers shall be 100% liquid penetrant examined in accordance with the applicable Code.

10.2.5

(Exception) Weld hardness testing shall be in accordance with the requirements of SAES-W-010.

10.2.12

Ultrasonic Examination

10.2.12.1

Ultrasonic examination requirements for weld joints categories A, B, C and D shall be according to Table 1 of this specification.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.2.12.2

All plates with thickness more than and including 50 mm (2.0 inches) shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASTM SA578. Acceptance criteria shall be Level C of SA-578.

10.2.12.3

Plates with thickness more than 12.5 mm (0.5 inch) and less than 50 mm (2.0 inches) shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASME SA-435. Any area where one or more discontinuities produce a continuous total loss of back reflection accompanied by continuous indications on the same plane (within 5% of plate thickness) that cannot be encompassed within a 25 mm (1 inch) diameter circle is unacceptable.

10.2.13.4

100% Ultrasonic examination is required for the following weld joints: a)

Butt-welds in exchanger supports.

b)

Full-penetration welds in external attachments (supports, brackets, lugs, etc.) to pressure retaining parts.

10.2.12.5

All forgings shall be 100% ultrasonically examined in accordance with ASME SA388. Acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraph 3.3.4.2. Indications per ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraphs 3.3.4.3 and 3.3.4.4 are not acceptable.

10.2.12.6

100% conventional ultrasonic examination is required for all full penetration welds in exchnager supports. Alternatively, 100% radiography examination shall be used.

10.2.12.7

Detection method and acceptance criteria of reheat transverse cracking in submerged arc welds in 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo, 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- ¼ V steels shall be according to API RP 934-A, Annex A.

10.2.13

Final acceptance of the exchanger shall be based on completion of all required NDE after the final postweld heat treatment.

10.3

Pressure Testing

10.3.2

(Exception) An independent hydrostatic test of shell-side and tube-side shall be performed. The temperature of the water during hydrostatic testing shall be maintained at not less than 17°C throughout the testing cycle.

10.3.3

(Exception) Water used for pressure testing shall be potable and the hydrostatic test pressure shall be held for a minimum of one hour per 25 mm of exchanger shell/channel thickness and in no case less than one hour.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.3.12

After completion of all external and internal welding, nondestructive examination, repair and heat treatment, as applicable, and prior to painting, exchangers shall be pressure tested using water as the testing media in accordance with the applicable Code and this specification.

10.3.13

Pneumatic testing in lieu of hydrostatic testing requires the approval from Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

10.3.14

No preliminary pressure testing shall be made prior to postweld heat treatment.

10.3.15

The use of shellacs, glues, lead, etc., on gaskets during testing is prohibited. No paint or primer shall be applied to an exchanger prior to hydrostatic testing.

10.3.16

The Exchanger Manufacturer shall furnish all test materials and facilities, including blinds, bolting, and gaskets.

10.3.17

Hydrostatic pressure testing shall be performed with gaskets and bolting identical to those required in service and as specified on the data sheet. These gaskets may be used as service gaskets if the bolted joint is not disassembled after completion of hydrostatic pressure testing.

10.3.18

The manufacturer shall supply the following: a)

Minimum two sets of spare gaskets with a blind flange for each manway and blinded nozzle in the exchanger..

b)

Minimum one set of service gasket set and two sets of spare gaskets for each nozzle with companion flanges in the exchanger.

c)

All bolting with minimum 10% spare bolting (3 minimum for each size) per exchanger.

10.3.19

After testing, the exchanger shall be completely drained and thoroughly dried including around the internals.

10.3.20

For other than differential-pressure design exchangers, test pressure for the shell side and the tube side shall be as per the applicable code

10.3.21

For differential-pressure design exchangers, test pressure shall be as per the applicable code.

10.3.22

Vertical exchangers that are tested in the horizontal position shall be adequately supported such that the primary stresses in any part of the exchanger do not exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength of the exchanger material. Page 42 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

10.3.23

Horizontal exchangers are to be tested while resting on their permanent support saddles, without additional supports or cribbing. Primary stresses in any part of the exchanger for this case shall not exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength of the exchanger material.

10.3.24

All welded attachments provided with tell-tale holes shall be pneumatically tested at minimum 35 kPa (5 psi) prior to heat treatment and exchanger pressure testing. Tell-tale holes must not be plugged during the exchanger pressure test.

10.3.25

For Division 1 exchangers: Test pressure shall be 1.3 times its calculated MAWP in the hot and corroded condition multiplied by the lowest ratio (for the materials of which the tube side is constructed) of the allowable stress for the test temperature to the allowable stress for the design temperature. For Division 2 exchangers: Test pressure be 1.25 times its calculated MAWP in the hot and corroded condition multiplied by the lowest ratio (for the materials of which the tube side is constructed) of the stress intensity for the test temperature to the stress intensity for the design temperature.

10.4

Nameplates and Stampings

10.4.1

Nameplates shall be 3 mm minimum thickness and manufactured from type 304 stainless steel or Monel and welded to the mounting bracket according to PIP VEFV1100.

10.4.4

Each exchanger shall be identified by a nameplate and marked with the information required by the applicable Code and the requirements of this specification.

10.4.5

The nameplate and its mounting bracket shall be located such that the nameplate will not be covered by insulation and is easily readable from grade or platform. Brackets shall extend from the outside of the exchanger to clear insulation, and with sufficient access for surface preparation and painting. The nameplate markings as required by the applicable Code shall be stamped or engraved such that the nameplate material is permanently deformed with the symbols.

10.4.6

Exchangers shall be Code stamped for all services, in accordance with the applicable Code.

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Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

11

10.4.7

The mounting bracket material shall conform to Table 1 and it shall be continuously seal-welded and positioned such as not to allow for collection of moisture or rain.

10.4.8

Nameplate for internally coated exchangers shall show: the Saudi Aramco Painting System Numbers, type of coating, brand name, and date of application.

10.5

Repairs during Fabrication

10.5.1

The Saudi Aramco Engineer must review and approve crack repair procedures, required by the applicable Code, prior to commencement of the repair work. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that repairs done by the mill of any material defects, per the applicable Code, are documented.

10.5.2

After completion of repairs required by the applicable Code, the following shall be repeated: a)

Heat treatment of the repaired section if it has been heat-treated prior to the repairs.

b)

All nondestructive examinations (radiography, magnetic particle, dye-penetrant, etc.) performed on the repaired section prior to the repairs.

c)

A weld map of all repairs shall be made a part of the final exchanger documentation. The weld map shall include the nondestructive examination procedure and results, the welding procedure specifications and stress relief charts.

Preparation for Shipment 11.1

Protection

11.1.2

(Exception) Exchangers is to be cleaned from all loose scales, weld slags, dirt and debris to the satisfaction of the Saudi Aramco Inspector.

11.1.10

The Manufacture shall protect the equipment from mechanical and corrosion damage in order to assure that the equipment will be serviceable after shipping, storage, and construction. The duration of these activities is assumed to be 24 months. If longer period is specified, the required protection measures shall be determined on a case-by-case basis.

11.1.11

Prior to shipping, exchangers are to be completely dried.

Page 44 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

11.1.12

Temporary covers, 3 mm thick steel or wood cover with neoprene gasket, for flanges shall be bolted in place with a minimum of 4 bolts equally spaced and sufficient to contain the protective media inside the exchanger. Bolts shall be protected from external corrosion by a rust preventive grease or equivalent substance liberally applied over the bolt surface. Flanges with permanent blind flanges shall be secured with the gaskets and bolting specified for service.

11.1.13

Threaded nozzle connections shall be protected with threaded plugs and by the use of an appropriate lubricant with rust preventive compound such as Cortec VpCI-369 or equivalent.

11.1.14

Tell-tale holes in reinforcing pads shall be protected with wooden plugs or packed with rust preventative grease such as Denso paste.

11.1.15

Flanged connections and all other machined surfaces not described elsewhere in this section shall be protected by use of an appropriate lubricant with rust preventive compound such as Cortec VpCI-369 or equivalent.

11.1.16

Export packing, marking, and shipping shall be in accordance with the purchase order.

11.1.17

The exchanger manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the exchangers being shipped are adequately braced and shall provide temporary supports where appropriate to ensure adequate support of the exchanger during shipment.

11.1.19

Internal & External Protection

11.1.19.1

For carbon steel and stainless steel fully assembled heat exchangers, spray interior surfaces (both shell and tube side) with a vapor phase inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI-307 or 309 or equivalent. Apply the Cortec product at a rate of 0.3 kg/mÂł. Other manufacturer's products should be applied at treatment rates recommended by the manufacturer if greater than the specified treatment rates of 0.3 kg/mÂł. If possible, vapor phase inhibitor powder shall be sprayed directly into the tubes so that it can be easily detected exiting from the opposite end of the tube. For copper alloy construction, VpCI-307 or equivalent shall be specified. Exchangers must be sealed vapor tight using metallic covers for the inhibitor to be effective.

11.1. 19.2

The shell and external surfaces shall be protected by preparing the surface and fully coating the external surfaces using the specified Saudi Aramco coating specification prior to shipment. Page 45 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

11.1.19.3

Solid stainless steel exchangers which are to be shipped by ocean freight or are to be stored in a coastal or near coastal location but are not specified to be coated in service shall be protected by the application of a temporary soft external coating such as Cortec VpCI 368 or Daubert Chemical's Tectyl 506 or equivalent. Coating shall be removed prior to service using a non-caustic steam wash. Alternatively, solid stainless steel exchangers shall be 100% wrapped and sealed in a 4-mil thick anticorrosion polyethylene film containing vapor phase corrosion inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI 126 Blue or equivalent. Equipment that is an emergency spare for long term storage shall be wrapped in Cortec's 10-mil thick MillCorr film or equivalent. Stainless steel exchangers shipped by ocean freight must be protected from sea spray, rain, etcetera.

11.1.19.4

Tube bundles shipped separately from shells must be adequately protected and supported to prevent mechanical and corrosion damage. Tube internals shall be protected using Cortec VpCI-307 or VpCI-309 or equivalent as detailed in Paragraph 11.1.19.1, above. External surfaces shall be protected by spraying with Cortec VpCI 368 or Tectyl 506 or equivalent. These coatings must be removed prior to operation in cases where they might cause a contamination problem. Alternatively, the complete tube bundle shall be 100% wrapped and sealed in a 4-mil thick anticorrosion polyethylene film containing vapor phase corrosion inhibitor such as Cortec VpCI 126 Blue or equivalent. Equipment that is an emergency spare for long term storage shall be wrapped in Cortec's 10-mil thick MillCorr film or equivalent.

11.1.20

Use of Nitrogen blanketing with temporary rust preventive substance such as Tectyl 846 or a vapor proof bag with moisture control is an acceptable protection measure for carbon and low chrome alloy steels without Austenitic Stainless Steels internally cladded or Austenitic Stainless Steels weld over-layed exchangers.

11.1. 21

Nitrogen blanketing at a pressure of 35 kPa (5 psi) shall be provided for Austenitic Stainless Steels or internally cladded or Austenitic Stainless Steels weld over-layed exchangers in the following conditions:

11.1.22

1)

During transportation (Ocean and Land).

2)

At fabrication shop/site after completion of its fabrication.

3)

At construction site from its arrival until its commissioning.

Nitrogen blanketing at a pressure of 35 kPa (5 psi) shall be provided for components that can not be protected properly by the use of vapor phase inhibitor due to inaccessible difficulties such as shell's internal surface for fixed tubesheet heat exchangers. Page 46 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

12

11.1.23

Temporary internal coatings for use on exchangers with corrosion resistant linings (such as stainless steel and Monel clad) must be chloride free, suitable for its intended use and not result in crevice corrosion.

11.1.24

For exchangers which have permanent internal coatings, the Exchanger Manufacturer shall contact the Saudi Aramco Engineer for any corrosion protection required.

11.1.25

Martensitic stainless steels such as Type 410 and Type 420 are particularly prone to atmospheric corrosion especially when shipped by sea. The Manufacturer shall prepare a preservation and shipping plan for approval by CSD.

11.1.26

For dry gas and liquefied gas systems, excess powder vapor phase inhibitors shall be removed from major equipment at a convenient point in construction operations before start-up if there could be a risk of compressor fouling, filter plugging, or similar problems.

11.1.27

Bolt heads shall also be protected with a rust preventative compound to prevent corrosion during shipment, storage and construction.

11.1.28

Spare bolts shall be protected with a rust preventative compound to prevent corrosion during shipment, storage and construction.

Supplemental Requirements 12.1

General (Exception) Exchangers with cylindrical pressure components greater than 50 mm thick shall be manufactured in accordance with Section 9 and the requirements for thick wall exchangers as detailed in this specification.

20 November 2007 5 April 2008 15 August 2009 23 June 2010 1 December 2013

Revision Summary Major revision. Editorial revision. Editorial revision to replace cancelled SAES-A-301 with NACE MR0175/ISO 15156. Editorial revision to add paragraph 8.1.11. Major revision.

Page 47 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Table 1 – Nondestructive Examination Requirements Weld Joint Category

A and B

Liquid Radiography Ultrasonic Penetrant (LP) (RT) (UT) or Magnetic Particle (MP) Per Design Code See Criteria (2) & Notes (Spot or (3) (1) & 100%)

100%

(3) (3)

C

100%

D

See Note

(4)

100%

(3)

See Note (4)

100% See Note

(6)

(4)

Notes: (1) 100% RT is required for exchangers under any of the following services or design conditions: 

Weld joints requiring full radiography per the applicable code.

Lethal services.

Hydrogen services.

Cyclic services.

Unfired steam boilers with design pressure exceeding 50 psi.

Thick wall exchangers.

(2) 100% conventional UT is required for only exchangers under any of the services or design conditions per note 1 of this table. (3) 100% UT, employing methods that generate permanent records may be used as a substitute for the combination of 100% RT and 100% conventional UT specified for exchangers under common services and design conditions per notes 1 and 2 of this table. Such UT methods must be approved by Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work. (4) Inspection for Category - D weld joint shall meet the following: a)

100% RT and 100% Conventional UT on joints for design conditions/ services Group I per paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification. Alternatively, 100% UT employing methods that generate permanent records can be used and must be approved by the Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

b)

Following design details shall be used where RT is required for Category - D weld joint: i. ii.

For Division 1 exchangers: Figures UW-16.1: (f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or (f-4). For Division 2 exchangers: Figures 4.2.13: (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) or (6).

c)

100% UT shall be performed from an accessible side, where RT cannot be utilized due to only geometry, on joints for design conditions/ services Group II per paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification. If conventional UT method cannot be utilized, other UT methods shall be used and must be approved by Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.

d)

Following examinations shall be performed, where RT and UT cannot be utilized due to only geometry, on joints used for design conditions/ services Group II per paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification: i.

For attachments without a reinforcing pad, the whole joint shall be either 100% magnetic particle (MP) or 100% liquid penetrant (LP) examined at the root pass, after each 6 mm depth of weld deposit and at the final weld surface. Where PWHT is required, final surfaces of weld joints shall be examined for acceptance after final PWHT.

Page 48 of 49


Document Responsibility: Heat Transfer Equipment Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-007 Draft Date: 1 December 2013 Next Planned Update: 1 December 2018 Manufacture of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers ii.

For attachments with a reinforcing plate, similar examination as in (i) above shall be performed at the nozzle. 100% MT or 100% LP shall be also performed on the final surface of the fillet welds attaching the reinforcing pad to exchanger and nozzle.

(5) Inspection requirements for connections attached to nozzles and manways per paragraph 8.5.2 shall be according to note 4 of this table. (6) 100% MT or 100% LP shall be applied to the root pass and final surface of lap-welded Category - C weld joint.

Page 49 of 49


Part 3: Inspection & Testing Requirements Saudi Aramco Form-175 CODE NUMBER: IR323100 SCOPE: HEAT EXCHANGERS: Shell and Tubes. TEST AND INSPECTION PER PER: 32 32-SAMSS-007and SAMSS 007 d Specifications As Noted Below.

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


INSPECTION & TESTING REQUIREMENTS SAUDI ARAMCO FORM-175

SCOPE:

REVISION: 06/22/2011 REPLACES: 06/21/2010

CODE NUMBER:

IR323100

PAGE:

1 of 3

HEAT EXCHANGERS: Shell and Tubes.

TEST AND INSPECTION PER: 32-SAMSS-007and Specifications As Noted Below. (1) VISUAL INSPECTION WITNESSING BY INSPECTOR (Note 1) (2) CERTIFICATES / RECORDS TO BE CHECKED BY INSPECTOR (3) CERTIFICATES / DATA TO BE PROVIDED BY VENDOR / SUPPLIER / MANUFACTURER

0010 0010

*** X

0020

Pre-Fabrication/Production Requirements

Specification Details / Notes:

X

Pre Inspection meeting

Verify Company approval of manufacturer Inspection and test plan.

X

Material Test Reports

MTRs shall be submitted for all pressure retaining materials & highly stressed components, including chemical composition of cladding, overlay on clad or weld overlaid exchangers.

0030

X

NDT Procedures and Personnel

Check for valid personnel certification and procedures.

0040

X

Procedure Qualification Records ,Welding Procedure Specifications (PQR & WPS)and Weld Map

Per SAES-W-010 and ASME IX. Company approval required.

Welder Qualification Records

Per SAES-W-010 and ASME IX.

In process inspection & test requirement

Specification Details / Notes:

Workmanship, Components and Dimensions

Extent of witness is as per approved ITP

X

PMI

Per SAES-A-206

X

HIC Test

Per 01-SAMSS-016

0050

0020 0010

0020

X

*** X

X

0030

0040

Nondestructive Testing (NDT):

0050

X

0060

0070

0090

0100

X

a) Radiography of Butt Welds & Major Repairs of Pressure retaining Parts

Per 32-SAMSS-007.

X

b) Ultrasonic Testing of Welds in Lieu of Radiography

ASME VIII, Div. 1. Applicable where joint details not allow radiography.

X

c) Ultrasonic Testing of Plate

ASME VIII, Div. 1. Only on plates of thickness more than or equals to 50mm & on cladding.

d) Magnetic Particle Testing

Per 32-SAMMS-007.

e) Liquid Penetrant Testing

ASME VIII, Div. 1. Only for overlaid heat exchangers.

X

X

IR323100 Continued...


INSPECTION & TESTING REQUIREMENTS SAUDI ARAMCO FORM-175

REVISION: 06/22/2011 REPLACES: 06/21/2010

CODE NUMBER:

PAGE:

IR323100

2 of 3

(1) VISUAL INSPECTION WITNESSING BY INSPECTOR (Note 1) (2) CERTIFICATES / RECORDS TO BE CHECKED BY INSPECTOR (3) CERTIFICATES / DATA TO BE PROVIDED BY VENDOR / SUPPLIER / MANUFACTURER 0110

X

f) Liquid Penetrant Testing of tube to tube sheet welds

0120

0130

ASME VIII, Div. 1. Only for Wet Sour Service.

Workmanship, Components and Dimensions:

X

a) Visual Inspection of internal Pressure & Non-pressure Welds

Per 32-SAMSS-007, SAES-W-010 & ASME Section V Article 9.

0140

X

b) Heat Treatment Procedures and Charts

Per 32-SAMSS-007, SAES-W-010 & applicable code.

0150

X

c) Impact Test

Per 32-SAMSS-007.

d) Hardness Test of Wetted Parts

SAES-W-010 only for wet sour service.

X

0160

0030

***

Final inspection & test requirements

Specification Details / Notes:

X

Visual and Dimensional Inspection

Per 32-SAMSS-007

0020

X

Hydrostatic Test

Test pressure is based on ASME VIII div. 1. See 32-SAMSS-007 for details.

0022

X

Dry out

Heat Exchangers shall be dried completely and immediately after the hydro test.

0030

X

Corrosion Inhibitor

Refer 32-SAMSS-04

0040

X

Grounding and lifting lugs

Per approved drawing

0050

X

Air Test

On reinforcing pad welds, at 35 to 50Kpa (5 to 7.5psig)

0060

X

Painting / Coating

Per SAES-H-100.

0070

X

Marking, Code Stamping & Preparation for shipment

Per 32-SAMSS-007.

0010

Notes: (1) May only be waived by the responsible Saudi Aramco, ASC, or AOC Inspection Offices. (2) See form SA175 - 000003 for instructions on using this form. (3) Extent of witness shall be determined in the pre-Inspection Meeting.

IR323100 Continued...


INSPECTION & TESTING REQUIREMENTS SAUDI ARAMCO FORM-175

REVISION: 06/22/2011 REPLACES: 06/21/2010

CODE NUMBER:

IR323100

(1) VISUAL INSPECTION WITNESSING BY INSPECTOR (Note 1) (2) CERTIFICATES / RECORDS TO BE CHECKED BY INSPECTOR (3) CERTIFICATES / DATA TO BE PROVIDED BY VENDOR / SUPPLIER / MANUFACTURER

End of IR323100

PAGE:

3 of 3


Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang

Understanding heat exchanger reading 03 part 2 of 2 the aramco std  

Understanding heat exchanger reading 03 part 2 of 2 the aramco std.

Understanding heat exchanger reading 03 part 2 of 2 the aramco std  

Understanding heat exchanger reading 03 part 2 of 2 the aramco std.

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