Chapman Magazine Fall 2021

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CHAPMAN U N I V E R S I T Y

M A G A Z I N E

WINDOW Design in progress TO HISTORY Chapman’s forward momentum remains tied to legacies and traditions.

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Founding spirit of inclusion inspires a Chapman Heritage Tour.

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Historic buildings drive a creative reimagining of campus.


IN THIS ISSUE

CHAPMAN

2 UP FRONT 2 President’s Message

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4 An extraordinary Commencement for Classes of 2020 and 2021

DANIELE STRUPPA, PH.D.

6 Class of 2021: Journeys to excellence

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE

President

SHERYL A. BOURGEOIS, PH.D.

Executive Vice President and Chief Advancement Officer

JAMIE S. CEMAN

Vice President of Strategic Marketing and Communications

PAMELA EZELL, PH.D.

Assistant Vice President of Communications

16 Internationally known scholar Norma Bouchard takes on the mantle of provost 17 Vice President of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Reginald Chhen Stewart aims to make DEI central to Chapman

JEFF BROUWER

RACHEL MORRISON, PH.D.

SENIOR EDITOR

SENIOR WRITER

Dennis Arp arp@chapman.edu

Dawn Bonker bonker@chapman.edu

DESIGN Ivy Montoya Viado

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS

Michelle Anguka, Stace Dumoski

CONTRIBUTING PHOTOGRAPHER Mark Arditi

PROJECT MANAGER Stacy Padilla

Editorial Office: One University Drive, Orange, CA 92866-9911 Delivery issues/change of address: email magazine@chapman.edu

Chapman Magazine (USPS #007643) is published biannually by Chapman University. © 2021 Chapman University. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited.

CHAPMAN NOW 37 Spot dogs are more than a pet project at Fowler School of Engineering 38 The university continues its ascendancy in the national rankings 39 Dodge College rises to No. 4 in the prestigious Hollywood Reporter rankings 40 President Struppa to endow an Italian studies professorship

Assistant Vice President of Creative Services Assistant Director of Content Strategy

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16 0 T H ANNIVERSARY 18 Then & Now: Amid campus changes, the heart of the university endures 22 A historic journey through C.C. Chapman’s legacy of inspiration and inclusion 26 Unearthing the hidden treasures in the Leatherby Libraries archive 30 Chapman’s past informs future visions of a regional arts destination 34 Chapman Athletics celebrates a century of achievement

Periodicals postage paid at Orange, Calif., and at additional mailing offices.

40 New exhibition at the Hilbert Museum revives mid-century artists’ legacy 41 Brandman transfer is a boon to the university’s endowment 43 Presidential studies garners multimillion-dollar gifts to endow two chairs 44 Schmid College researchers investigate how rangelands respond to changes in weather

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ALUMNI NEWS 52 Profiles: Teren Shaffer ’08 Tiquette Bramlett ’07 Roger Craig Smith ’03 Drew Heskett ’14 60 Chapman in Hollywood

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Chapman Magazine One University Drive • Orange, Calif. 92866-9911

64 Class Notes 66 Friends We Will Miss

The mission of Chapman University is to provide personalized education of distinction that leads to inquiring, ethical and productive lives as global citizens. Chapman.edu

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ON THE COVER: First-year students join in an Orientation Week tradition that connects them to the hopes and dreams of all who came before them during Chapman's 160-year history. Onto the Chapman Window of Opportunity, the students tie ribbons that bear their own hopes and opportunities as they begin their Chapman journey.

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


PHOTO BY LEONARD ORTIZ

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tories and art have a way of sparking creativity when they get together  — even in a virtual setting. That’s what happened when Chapman University student dancers wove the power of story with the language of dance in partnership with a senior living community. For an assignment in the course “Dance Outreach and Education,” students created brief dances based on life stories shared by residents of Emerald Court in Anaheim, gleaned during the long pandemic winter through phone calls and Zoom visits. The result was a heartfelt experience for all, made even more special when vaccines arrived and infection rates dropped, permitting a joyful in-person outdoor concert at Emerald Court. After final bows, the dancers rushed into the audience for in-person greetings, the residents posed for photos and everyone reached out at long last to take the hands of their new partners in story and dance, ready to keep the magic going.

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MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT

REFLECTING ON A HISTORIC MILESTONE AND THE POWER OF FORWARD MOMENTUM Though the memories are decades old, I still vividly recall my introduction to the American experience. I came to the United States from Italy as the son of parents who nurtured my love of education and who provided ample opportunities for me to succeed. Still, English was not my first language, and I was on a shoestring budget when I arrived in Maryland to start a Ph.D. program in mathematics. I stepped off the plane feeling excitement but also trepidation as I found myself 4,000 miles and an ocean removed from the life I had known. For the first time, I was immersed in a community rich with diverse cultures, ethnicities, perspectives and beliefs. Within the first few months, new possibilities opened to me -- a universe I didn’t know existed. I quickly realized that this new world would broaden my own perspective in many wonderful ways. I had similar feelings 15 years ago when I first arrived at Chapman University. The campus pulsed with a creative vibrancy, and I wanted to contribute my own energy to the grid.

YEARS OF 2

Now, more than ever, Chapman is that vital hub -- a source of intellectual, physical, social and spiritual growth. As we celebrate Chapman’s 160th anniversary, I find myself reflecting on how my journey led me here, as well as the difference our university makes in our community and in the world. As you explore this anniversary issue of Chapman Magazine, I invite you to think about the ways your story connects with and enlivens the Chapman experience. We have come a long way as an institution from our origins as Hesperian College, founded in Woodland, Calif., on the occasion of Abraham Lincoln’s first inaugural address in 1861. Still, considering that Hesperian welcomed women and students of color when few colleges did, there are innumerable ways that Chapman’s forward momentum continues to reflect a belief in the power of breakthrough ideas as well as a commitment to expanding opportunity. On Page 22 of this issue, you’ll read about how the inclusive leadership example set by university namesake Charles Clarke Chapman inspired a heritage tour of sites where his influence endures. In the early decades of the 20th century, C.C. Chapman made sure our doors were open to Asian Americans and other firstgeneration immigrants when that was far from the norm. The exploration of our history also includes a celebration of Chapman’s sports success during the 100 years since the founding of our Department of Athletics (Page 34). In addition, this issue takes an engaging trip into the treasure trove that is the Frank Mt. Pleasant Library of Special collections and Archives within Chapman’s Leatherby Libraries (Page 26). The links between past and present hit home in our “Then & Now” feature comparing photos from the pages of Chapman history with

M I L ESTONES

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


UPCOMING CHAPMAN FAMILY HOMECOMING:

those providing contemporary views of campus life (Page 18). That spirit of interconnection also runs through the story illuminating the ways our university is infusing historic buildings with new life thanks to a reimagining of our campus as a growing home for collaborative artistic spaces (Page 30).

Nov. 5 -  6, 2021

CHAPMAN CELEBRATES: Feb. 11-12, 2022

Speaking of infusion, important new voices and perspectives continue to elevate the Chapman experience, as you’ll see when you read the stories on new Vice President, Provost and Chief Academic Officer Norma Bouchard (Page 16) and our first Vice President of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Reginald Chhen Stewart (Page 17). As we welcome these dynamic leaders, who will help shape Chapman’s future, we also feel the weight of profound loss. Our community mourns the passing of 11 influential contributors to the Chapman experience, including visionary philanthropists and trustees Paul Musco (Page 50) and Harry Rinker (Page 51).

CONNECT WITH US

People of vision have always played instrumental roles in Chapman’s progress, which unfolds in a 160-year timeline that runs across the bottom of these pages. You can help us further recognize the energetic contributors to our university’s heritage by submitting nominations for the 160 Faces of Chapman (Page 42). I look forward to announcing the 160 honorees during the annual State of the University Address in February.

CHAPMAN MAGAZINE magazine@chapman.edu

FACEBOOK

From its notable beginnings in the fertile soil of Northern California, through many challenges and countless changes on the way to becoming a nationally ranked university, Chapman has charted a fascinating journey. All along the way, our university has thrived on a discourse built of diverse perspectives, with that vigorous dialogue continuously expanding and enriching the Chapman experience.

@ ChapmanUniversity @ ChapmanUniversityAlumni

INSTAGRAM @ChapmanU @chapmanualumni

As multilayered and powerful as Chapman’s 160-year journey has been, I’m convinced that the opportunities before us are even more momentous.

TWITTER @ChapmanU

With gratitude,

LINKEDIN Chapman University

Daniele C. Struppa President, Chapman University

Chapman Magazine Online Chapman Magazine online at Chapman.edu/magazine

The Four Pillars of Chapman – intellectual, physical, social and spiritual – are the guideposts along a 160year journey full of forward momentum. The milestones and achievements collected in this timeline have brought those values to life.

1861

Hesperian College opens as President Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated

1863

James M. Martin becomes Hesperian College’s first president

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C H A P M A N U N I V E R S I T Y | 1 6 0 TH A N N I V E R S A R Y

AN EXTRAORDINARY

COMMENCEMENT Celebrations for Classes of '20 and '21 After more than a year apart, Chapman students return to campus to commemorate this important milestone. Nearly 4,000 graduates from Chapman University’s Class of 2020 and Class of 2021 were welcomed back to campus for inperson Commencement ceremonies over two weekends in July and August. With friends and family in attendance, the new graduates were treated to pomp and circumstance as they crossed the stage in caps and gowns in a celebration that had been postponed, for some, by more than a year. When the COVID-19 pandemic led to remote learning and the cancellation of most in-person events in 2020, Chapman University officials remained committed to hosting a traditional, inperson graduation as soon as possible. Though delayed longer than anticipated, that promise was finally fulfilled this summer as friends and family gathered on Wilson Field to give Chapman graduates the ovations they deserved.

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1892

YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

1875

Benjamin H. Smith becomes president 4

1878

Allen M. Elston becomes president

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

1918

Henry D. McAneney becomes last president of Hesperian College

1896

Hesperian and Pierce Colleges combine to become Berkeley Bible Seminary

California Christian College is incorporated

1909

Charles C. Chapman proposes that a Disciples’ school be established in Southern California


‘I Feel Lucky to Be Around So Much Positive Energy’

After two weekends, 21 graduation ceremonies and 4,200 photos, Tod Brewster ’16 admits, “Commencement can become a bit of a blur if you let it.” So he doesn’t let it. Instead, he voices a sentiment shared by so many members of the Chapman Family who contribute to the success of the event.

“It’s a privilege to experience these moments of joy and celebration,” says Brewster, a Chapman graduate himself and now social media and digital marketing specialist for the university. “I feel lucky to be around so much positive energy.” Brewster watches much of Commencement through the viewfinder of his Canon 5D camera. During the two weekends of ceremonies, he posted more than 650 of his images on Facebook (@ChapmanUniversity, @ChapmanUniversityAlumni), Instagram (@ChapmanU, @chapmanualumni), Twitter (@ChapmanU) and TikTok. Some moments remain especially vivid in his memory. Like when: • One of the school’s new Boston Dynamics Spot robot dogs (see story on Page 37) led the procession of Fowler Engineering graduates up the aisle. • Fowler School of Law graduate Danielle Chaidez (JD ’21) was joined on stage by her son, who was an infant when she started her law school journey and now was decked out in cap, gown and other regalia to match his mom, who not only earned her JD but received a Commitment to Service Award for her public interest pro bono work. • Dodge College of Film and Media Arts Dean Stephen Galloway spoke profoundly of his own struggles as a college student—how when he stumbled, no one was there to lift him up, but the experience now inspires his commitment that no Dodge student “will ever fall through the cracks.” Of course, 2020 and 2021 graduates persevered through their own special set of challenges, which Brewster says made this year’s ceremonies especially meaningful. He could see the mix of emotions in their eyes as they stepped from the stage and entered Alumni Alley, where past graduates warmly welcomed them into the next phase of their lives as members of the Chapman Family. “Let’s face it, four years is a long time for things to be great all the time,” Brewster says. “But in that moment, all the things we love about Chapman come flooding back. The graduates celebrate their achievements, when I’m sure some of them thought they’d never get the chance. As they walk across the stage, get their diploma, and start to walk back to their seat, watching the finality of their journey really sink in is such a privilege for me to be a part of, even if it’s through a camera lens.”

1920

California Christian College combines with California Bible College to become California School of Christianity California School of Christianity holds first session in Wilshire Boulevard Christian Church in Los Angeles with 10 students and two faculty members

1921

• Chapman Athletics • Class

launches with men's basketball team

of 1923 first to take classes on new campus at 766 N. Vermont Ave. in Los Angeles

• Chapman's

official colors cardinal and gray chosen by student committee

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CLASS OF 2021 JOURNEYS TO EXCELLENCE By Stace Dumoski

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n early commitment to research paid off for Edena Khoshaba: she became Chapman’s first Goldwater Scholar during her junior year, one of only 396 undergraduate students in the nation to receive the prestigious STEM scholarship in 2020. In her first year at Chapman, Khoshaba worked with Dr. Reza Mehvar from Chapman’s School of Pharmacy, and as a sophomore she conducted research with Professor Patricia Lopes in Schmid College of Science and Technology. In her junior and senior years, she held internships with Baylor College of Medicine and Rockefeller University. Those experiences led to a job in the research department at Children’s Hospital of Orange County (CHOC), along with a number of publication credits as an undergraduate. “Just having the ability to start undergraduate research at Chapman was such an amazing advantage and really gave me the opportunity to build my profile,” she says.

EDENA KHOSHABA ’21 BS IN BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, MINORS IN LEADERSHIP STUDIES AND RHETORIC AND WRITING STUDIES

Another formative experience for Khoshaba was the opportunity to tutor and serve as a supplemental instructor for three years. “It’s very fun to give back and help other students succeed,” she says. Her commitment to helping other students also led her to become an orientation leader at Chapman. “I had really great mentors when I was a first-year student,” Khoshaba says. “To then become a mentor to others is a kind of chain that’s very important, helping others to be comfortable at Chapman and find their own passions. I hold that experience close to my heart.” Though Khoshaba is graduating this year, she’s not quite ready to depart Chapman. In the fall, she will be teaching an organic chemistry lab at Chapman while she prepares to attend medical school, where she hopes to forge a path to a career that includes both research and patient care.

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1923

YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

1922

College orchestra organized 6

Name changes to California Christian College, or Cal-Christian •

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

• Arthur C. Braden

inaugurated • College yearbook, CEER, as Cal-Christian's first president begins publication

• Football, tennis

First Greek and women's organizations basketball teams organized

1925

School mascot officially becomes the Panther


In every student’s journey at Chapman there’s a story of perseverance, of dedication and of a commitment to a better world. In the face of unexpected challenges, this year’s graduating class proves that Chapman students are made for excellence. Here are some of their inspiring stories.

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s an international student from Japan, Nanase Nikura used to wonder if she had made the right choice coming to Chapman. “My English was not very good,” she says, “and I felt really behind other students who had been in the States longer than I.” But the ongoing support of her Chapman professors helped her shed her doubts and embrace the perspectives she could bring to the classroom. Since then, Nikura excelled as a student: she made the Provost’s Honors List every year since 2017, is a member of the Gamma Beta Pi Honor Society and graduated magna cum laude. She also became active as a campus leader in the Asian Pacific Student Association and the Chapman Cross-Cultural Center, helping facilitate learning opportunities and services for her classmates. “As a student of color, it was difficult for me to find a place where I felt that I belonged when I came to Chapman,” she says. “Collaborating with clubs that honor other cultures really encouraged me to educate myself.”

NANASE NIKURA ’21 BA IN INTEGRATED EDUCATIONAL STUDIES, MINOR IN LANGUAGE AND LITERACY

1926 First student newspaper, The Panther’s Meow

1927 First Pep Band

Inspired by the Black Lives Matter movement, Nikura sought out an internship with the Karat School Project, which helps to transform lives by funding education in Ivory Coast. She also volunteered with the Light and Salt Children’s Ministry, tutoring immigrant and refugee children for whom English was a second language. In the future, Nikura hopes to blend her international experience with education and non profit work.

1929

• Cal-Christian

student enrollment reaches 400 students and endowment exceeds $350,000

First Cheverton Trophy given to the school by Class of 1929

Filipino Circle organized, later renamed Filipino Panther Club

1932

• Football

program suspended due to Great Depression

• The

Panther takes over as student newspaper

1930

1934

• Cecil

Cal-Christian renamed Chapman College

F. Cheverton becomes president

Women's Athletics Association organized

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CLASS OF 2021 JOURNEYS TO EXCELLENCE

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or Natalia Ventura, designing her own minor in Aesthetic Activism was not just an intellectual exercise, but a way of life. “Tying together my passion for art and activism, I found a lot of purpose in that and my personal life goals,” Ventura says. But she’s most proud of her work with Preetha Raj ’21 at the Cross-Cultural Center. Together, they created a diversity, equity and inclusion training program that has become mandatory for incoming first-year students. For this and her other social justice work at Chapman, Ventura was been awarded the university’s Diversity Leadership Award, along with the Don Will Award for Student Organizing from Wilkinson College. “It was a win for our whole activist community,” she says. “It felt really great to be recognized and affirmed for the work I’ve done throughout my four years. It made me wish that we had more opportunities for students who do this work to get recognized.” Though passionate about her causes, Ventura often struggled with persistence in achieving her goals when faced with resistance from the administration and others. “Having that resilience to keep pushing was the most challenging aspect,” she says, “but through my social justice community and setting personal boundaries so I wouldn’t burn out, I was able to always keep busy and find a balance of work and sustaining my energy.”

NATALIA VENTURA ’21 BA IN PEACE STUDIES, MINOR IN AESTHETIC ACTIVISM

Ventura has started an internship with the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, where she continues her work in diversity.

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1945

YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

1941

U.S. Navy leases North Vermont campus 8

1942

George N. Reeves ‘27 becomes president

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

The Faculty Council is organized

1952

Chapman Madrigal singers organized

1954

Chapman relocates to Orange County


By PJ Perez

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ichael Romero never imagined he would go to law school. “It wasn’t even a dream,” he says. “It seemed so physically impossible that the reality of my world and existence had to change for me to get there.”

Romero grew up in southeast Los Angeles, the youngest of three children being raised by a single mother. During much of his elementary and middle school years, Romero and his family lived out of their car. “I brushed my teeth and washed my hair in public restrooms, did homework under parking lot street lights, recycled bottles to buy school supplies and called the backseat of a van my bedroom, while lying to everyone I knew that my life was normal,” Romero said.

MICHAEL ROMERO JURIS DOCTOR

As he entered his teens, his family’s situation began to stabilize, and by the time he completed high school, a college education was no longer out of reach. After earning an undergraduate degree at UC Irvine, Romero couldn’t shake the dream of becoming a lawyer — a choice that led him to Fowler School of Law. During a summer internship at the Securities and Exchange Commission in Philadelphia, he ended up spending nine days in the hospital — five in the ICU — when a mosquito bite likely infected him with Lyme disease. Still, persevered, becoming a Student Bar Association representative and president of the Moot Court Honors Board, among other high-profile positions. Upon graduation, Romero won the ALI - CLE Scholarship and Leadership Award as well as Excellence Awards in Appellate Advocacy, Mediation and Negotiation. With his legal career fairly well mapped out, he dreams of starting his own charity foundation to support kids who are dealing with circumstances similar to the ones he hid for so long from almost everyone he knew. “My goal after I take the bar is to do a charity drive to collect backpacks, books, everything, and just drop those off to homeless shelters,” he says. “When I was poor, having a normal backpack, it just makes you feel like a normal kid. Those small things change kids’ worlds.”

1956

• Chairman

of the Board J.E. Wilkinson becomes acting president

1955

College joins Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC)

Campus buildings painted “California coral”

1957 • John

L. Davis becomes president

• First

1958

• Eleanor

Roosevelt is first speaker at Artist Lecture Series

First All-American in basketball, Bob Hamblin '59

• First

adult program at El Toro Marine Air Station

Homecoming held on Orange campus

1959 Division of Graduate Studies created

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Here To Celebrate Community.

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Chapman Celebrates

Save the date!

Chapman Celebrates returns to campus in February 2022! Join us as we commemorate the university’s 160th anniversary and 40 years of Chapman Celebrates as we honor our community of friends and supporters who have helped this signature event raise over $40 million for scholarships!

At the beautiful Musco Center for the Arts Opening Night: Friday, Feb. 11 Gala Night: Saturday, Feb. 12 Come enjoy the show and help inspire the next generation of students to achieve anything imaginable. Watch for details, ticket information and sponsorship opportunities at Chapman.edu/chapman-celebrates.

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CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


“Ars Discendi, Ars Entis,” the poem commemorating Chapman University’s 160th anniversary, draws from the poetic tradition of erasure, a process in which the poet obscures large portions of existing text to create an entirely new poem. Such obscuring can be done by fading text, as we have here, or by blacking out, cutting out, or covering up.

Ars Discendi, Ars Entis: on poetry & design

Over the past ten years creating the international literary magazine Tab Journal, we have developed a vibrant, unique collaborative ethos that necessarily situates a poem as a designed reading experience. Our work echoes the opening chapter of poet Glyn Maxwell’s On Poetry: “aesthetic preferences, those things we find beautiful, originate not in what renders life delightful or even endurable, but in what makes life possible.” We continually explore the possibilities of poetic text and visual design as we work toward an inclusive, accessible poetic encounter.

The use of erasure as a poetic technique in the creative process for “Ars Discendi, Ars Entis” allows us to represent the stages of knowledge acquisition represented by the original texts, knowledge synthesis represented by the text that remains when portions are obscured, and knowledge creation in the form of a new poem that stands on its own to mean something different than the texts and ideas out of which it is formed. Poetic erasure is a critique of redaction as censorship and has also been used to critique the erasure of the cultures of enslaved and Indigenous peoples in the United States. The language and ideas of the original text and the new poem remain in conversation with each other. The new confronts the old, challenges it, yet also embodies change and points to the future. Here, we begin with paragraphs from Abraham Lincoln’s first inaugural address, delivered on March 4, 1961, the day that Chapman University opened to students as Hesperian College in Woodland, California. Lincoln’s speech establishes national policy in the spirit of reconciliation, stability, and strength. Next, we looked to Chapman University’s own current course catalog, drawing selections from across disciplines, including visual arts, literature and the humanities, mathematics and the sciences, educational studies and the professions, the newest endeavors in engineering, and, finally, film, which represents particular connections to the university’s regional culture and economy. In “Ars Discendi, Ars Entis,” the shared space between design and poetry demonstrates an understanding and celebration that visual language is ever present in the overall poetry reading experience. The words of the original inaugural address and the catalog course descriptions are layered as a background texture to signify how time and meaning start to decompose from its original context, as when playing the childhood game telephone, not only the words misheard over time, but the meaning of words themselves shifting in the movement from institution to its citizens.. In the making of this visual erasure, the letters of these texts were placed in a generator using Unicode. Unicode combines characters, and rather than being individual letter, they are merged with other letters and symbols to create this texture. The texture serves as visual noise that echoes the concept that messages, intensions, and interpretations are realized by the end reader. As the new, original poem emerges from the background—from the noise—the residue of the original text remains as remnants of erasure. The visual representation of language here creates macro-to-micro motion, acknowledging the original text, intention, and meaning even as the words take on new form and meaning in the contemporary context of Chapman University’s 160th anniversary. —Dr. Anna Leahy, Department of English & Prof. Claudine Jaenichen, Department of Art

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̗ ̓ œ º ̰̞̝ ͗ ̍̊́ ͔ ͐̐ ̋ ̑͝ ̼͎̳̬ ̀̃̓̋ ̗̮̝ ̯ ̃ ̔̈́ ͍͔̘ ̆͊​͊ ̍̑ ̃̾ ̬ ͑​͑̂̈́ ̽͒ ͠ ̀͆͋ ̏ ̔͋ ̜ ̍ ͉ ̫͕͖̘ ̏ ͐͂̆ ͖ ̈̑ ̒͂̈̐ ̰̭̙̾̽͒ ͈ ̔̂̈́͠ ̈́ ̀̔̆͝ ̏ ̞ ̊͆͌̄͠ ͊ ̖ ̎͛ ͇̪̳ ̔̎ ̑̊ ͕̩͍ ̝ ͈ ̣͈̭̪ ͉ ͖͙ ̿ ̮̑̂́t̶͒͆͊ h¥ ̴͂ ∂$â eg ͔ ̴̐̌̿ ̢̬̕s̷̑̇͘ ̶ ̍ c̵̷̝̒̃͘̚ ̉ ̶̞̈͊̀̏̚͝ı̴è̵ ͛̓n̸ ̡ ̃ t̵e̋ ̛̍̇r̶ ̶ ̑ ̸̢̳̄ͅs̵̃ ̵̄̀̊͝c̸̰ ͛ ̶͙͊ı̴e̶͌ ̉͋̕n̵̆c̶e̡ ̰̱̈́͌ ̰̓̽,̸̶̡ ̈́͝ͅ ̸̡͖͌͠a̞ ̶̠̈́͊̊́n̸͘ ̓ d͓ â ® ̀ ̓ c̶̡̢̱ ė̴ ̌ ̐s̷̍ ,̴̶͇͑̕͘ ̝̏ ̵̲́͗̂͝c̷o̶̍ ̃ m̵̌̅ ̕p̸̋u̴

̓͋ ̪͍͓ ͑ ̜ ͜ ̝ ̰̤̠͙̘ ̚ ̓ ͖̲̤̱ ̱͚͓ ͙ ̝̫͙ ͙͓̬͔ ̅͊ ̟̞ ̗͉̳ ͛̃ ̠͇̬͎ ̔͌ ͈ ̰̙̠͙ ̗͓ͅ ̖̬̮ ¨¿D ̖̘̥ ̚ ̞̜͚ͅ ̋̔ ̪͚ ̏ ͕̜̣͔͓ ̗̳͕͚ ̹ ͇ ̣̮̳ ͎͚ ̣̩͎̝ ̠͇ ̿ ̣̪̍͗̐ ͖̼ͅ ͙ ̦̮̳ ͔̘ ̦̺ ̩̰͉ ͖̜ ̜̤ ̋ ̿ ̜͚͎̀̇̐ͅ ∑ ̖ ̼̙̞͍ ͓ ͐̉́ ́ ̔͆ ̏ ̿ ̔̄͌ ́͝ ̵̑́p̵ a̵͚̭̞͌̑ȷ̶́ ̌̚ o̸̢͋͑ ̱ͅ ̨̰͍̪̅͒r͘ ̖̹͚̭.̴̸̡͜ ͛̃̑͐ ̰̼̿​̼ ͌ ̌ ̆ ̀ ̀̊̈́ ̞̠̙ ͆ ̦̕¡̈́ ȩ̸ ͖̝̭ ̛͚͐̈m̴̊Ö ͇̠̘͘ ̈́ ͇ ͙̋͊ a̶∂…C ̭͌t̷̔̄ ̃̈́ ı̈́̓̓͒͝ ͚ ̵c̸͈̝̯̾ ¡̈́ s̵̢ ̬̲̇̾ͅ ̋̌̾̏ .̴̱̞͉̓͗̈́͝ ͕̼̚ ̣̩̠̓ ̳̙̐ ̢T̵̡͈͕͈̗̓͆͘ à∂∫̜͕̺¥ghB̛̗¨̲͍ ı̸ü ș̶̻͠ ̼̝͌͋ͅ ̾͘ ͊ ̖̳̠́ ̸̰̍̈c̫ ̏ ̶o̴̖͎̹͂̅̐ ̈́ ̨̖̼͇̪̈́ṷ̠̘̔ͅ r̶̸ ̪s̈ ȩ̸͇͆ ̿ ̷̩̲ ̶̢̏̕ı̮̘͉̋̑ ̰͔ ś̴̷͝ ̍ ̰͒̑ ̛͛̚ ͚̓̆ ̺̚ ̠͕̠t̷̷̄̊̽ ͖͉ o̸ ͍͜ ̉r̵̰o̶̍͐ ͋ ̢v̧̡̅ı̷̅ ̴d̅̐ Üâ ̧eÑ ̶̌ ṱ̶̏͠ h# ̶̓ ͌̆̕ è ̵̀̐̆ ̵̅̐ ͈͐̌ ̓͒͊ ̢a̧̠ ̡ ̨ ̚ ̘̏͑͐͌̆̈́̕t̶̵ h¥ ̿ ͐ ͅ ̠ͅ ̅ ͊ ͛ ̇ ͗ ̾ ͋ ̐͌ ̂ ̩̖m̷̃ ̋ ̗̦̤ ̍̄́ ̛̓̉ ̍ ̱̘ ͊͋ ͍̟ ̓͋ ͝ ̋̈ ̈́ ̏ ̜ ̀̋̓͌ ̓ ͒̈͒ ̲̮ ̉​̉ ̒ ̑ ͜ ̰͇̭​̭̼ ̅ ̦͇ ̦̺̫ ΩÀ ̹̺̫̻̞ ̯̤̠ ͒͛̆ ͎̜͝ ̒̍̊ ̦̳ ͜ ̹͕̻ ̜̗̬̤ ͜ ͖̮̇ ̰ ͜ ͕̪͍ ̜ ̃̓͆ ̖̩̳͍͇ hîE∏ ̡ ̚ ̔ ̽̈́ ̲̽ ͠e̷̵̊ îî ̺ ̹̀͗̅ṛ̼̺͚ǵ̵̸̡ ̂ ͕̬ ̦̤̇͋͂̃̄̒ı̴́́̏͝ n̸͖͇͓̂͌͜ ̻ ̿ ¿∞ ̓͑ͅ g̦̯̙̱ͅ ̿ ̶̖͕͑̉͝ ̵̢̖̚fB̰̝ ͔ ı̸̙̟ eœ ̡͜e̷ü∞ ͈͙͍̍̅ ̄̌ ̳͔̱̈́͌lÑ͒̚ dB%͍͓√ ͔̙͉∫Ö√ ̮͍̭̠̲ ̤o ̡ ̼̋̕ ̶̢̏ ̨̳̓̐ ̵͉̠̜̇e̶̽ ̦͎͈̝̒͆m l¥̛̿ ̭͕ ̻s̸̃̓̆ ̿ ̷c̷͖̲̬̀̒̌́ ̛̾͑ ı̷͜ ̞̮̺̔̾ ̢̀ ̨͎̣̞e̵̿ ͇͉͒̄̂n̶̜̈́̄͂̾ ͝c̓̊͆ e̶ ̼ ̏ ̷̥̝͑̄͌͌ ̶͎͍̜̎̾ı̵s̸͝ ̹͔͉͑̽̐͌ ̖̪̫̾͒ ̴͒​͚̱͒̀͠a̶͆ ̏ ͖͓̤̳̅͜ͅn ̰ ͕ ̈ ̀ ̈́ ͑ ͂ ̺ ̶̲̉̿̍̅̓́̕t̸͖̭̟͙͐͘f¥̵à̴ ̣͉͍̳̺͙ ̹ üû ̖̻͋͒̈́l®̕͜ ̠̯̞s̵͓͉͎ ͎̋͂͌͋ͅ ̶͗͑̚͠o̵ ̓ ̽ ͈̣̪͓̭ ̧̥̇̈̽̊̕͝͠ͅn̵ ͛ ài¿̪ ją̷̝ ̊̑ ̩͍͓̕ ̯̤̾̈́͝m̴̈́ ̾̈́ ͠ṁ̵̦͎͐ ̧̢p¨̈́ ̿ ̨ ̙̬͌ ̴u̸̬͐͊ t́ ̨̦ a̷̸̓ ͈̳ ͚̯̺̆ͅt̷͜ ̢̀ı̷̎͂ ̳̠ ȯ̴̱͉̲̈́ ̛̰̟́̂ n ̏ ̢ ̞ ͆̊̄͌͠ ͊ ̖͈̃́d# ͋ ̭ ͠ ̹ḟ̸̛͛̆̈́ gá#u̴ ̳̯ ș̵̴̘̭͊ c̸̦̭͉̀̾̇ ̏ ı̸̮͇̓ ̔̕e̵̟̝͌ ̳̝̈́ņ̶̛ ̳̫̻̄ c̷e̴̥̳͛ ,̦̚ ̷͕̮͛ ̗̓ą̴̷̲͎́̑́͘ͅ ̳̀͗n ̑ ̾ ̂ ͠ ̋͋ u̴ π ͈̘̼ ̒¿ ̘̞͆͜͝c̴͋ o̸ À ̋ ̒ ̈́ ̀ ̢ ̸ a l® ̵ ̇ ́ ̗̬̅ ̶̡d̘̟̫≈̧̡B ͔ ͜ ̞ f¥ ̵ ̧ ͘ ̰ ̜ ̮ ̥ ̜ ͉ ͕ ̚ ̤ ̺ ͙ ̬ ̖ ̬ ̪ ́ ͕̳ ͘ ̖̓ d̖͈ ͋ â̞̼͍ ® ̦̳̱ e̸ ̡̏ ̜̣͕ ̗͕͚̃ t̵̏ e̋̔ ̹ ̛̍​͇̍̇r̶ ̶̣̳̮ ͖̘̑ ̏ ̢͚ͅs̸̳͎̄ ̵̣͎̝͐̃̆ c̸̵̰̠͇̄̀̊̑̈͝ ̿ ̣̪͛̒͂͗̐ ̙͖ı̴̶͙̼͊͒̾ e̶͙͌ ̦̮̳̉͋̂̕n̵ ̰̩̰͉̓̽,̸̶̡ ̇ ̜͖̈́͝ͅ ̹̱͍ ̸̡͖̎͌͠a̤̜ ̿ ̪̳̞ ̶̠͎̀̔̈́͊̎̊ͅn̸ ́ ͔̘ c̶̓͛ ͙̱̠͉̲ âÖ ḛ̡̦̱̺̀̔̈́̆͌͝ ̗̣͚͉̓ n̸ ͔ ͕ ̫ ̫ ͙ ̞ ̖̍ć̷̵̲̬͗̂͝ ¨D¿ õ̶̖̘̥ ̍̚ ̜̞͚̃̈́ m̵̌̋̔ ̪͚̅̽͒ ̕p̸ ̤ ̳ ̄ ͓ ̪ ̩ ̍ ͅ ̔͆ ̏ ̿ ͝ ̑ ͆̎̾̕ ͔͎ ̍ ͉ ̿​̿ ͒ ̛͇͔ ͠ ̅̋̈̐ ͚̜̅̇̐ ̋ Ü∑ ̘ …̈́ ̙ ̛̊ ͝ ͌̆̕ ͠ ͎̮͔̀͐̐̉ ̓ ̃ ͖̹̠͕ ͛͝ ̋̒́ ͇̜​̜͎ ̖͋̊ ̞͚̞ ̋̆ ͊ ̲̼ ̎̅ ̈ ͝ ͛͂̆ ̹͈͎̲ ͘ ̗͕͍ ̀̽̉ ̯ E∆ ̻ ̀͗̕ ͐̋̊ ̩̫̙ ͒͊̏̕͝ ͗ ̣͎̙̻ ̈͂ ̋̈́ g ûe ͝ ̛̑̈ ͐̅̄͊ ̪ ̛̏ ͒ ̦̞̤̞ ̱̟͎ ̒̇ ̛͛̈́͂ ̓ ͂̾ ͓̘ ͝ ̎̔̽ ͝ ̗ ̄̌ ̋̂̕ ̏ ̞̻̲̝ ͝ ͂̍̔̈ ̔͂ ̭ ͛͂͊ ̌̈́ ̛̏ ̔̓͛ ͠ ͅ ͔ ̳ ̸ ͕̀̓ ̗̮̑ n̴ ̡ ̥̈ s̶.̸̹̊̄ ̢̠͚͆ W® ̸̡̟͔̏̊̚̕ ̫ ȩ̵͚́ ̸ ̟͗ t̵̴ ̡ı̰ ̵̧f̨͖̤̎ ı̷̧¥ ̪ º ͔c̴ ̣̆͌ ̴̢̧͎̺̅̆͝a̶͓̒̀ṗ̶ p̵͈ ͗ l®ı̵̢ ̹† c̶͓͒ a̸̠̘̐ ̃ ̐̈́t̴̨̩ ͘ ı̧̠̤̺ o̷ ̧ ̯͚̈ ̉r̵̰o̶̖̤͐͐t̢ ͎͋r̵̢v̫ ̤ ̧̯̼o̴ ̴ ̧̡̦̳ı̷̅͛̈͌ ̴d͕̐ ̩͑ d#̜̬â ̧eÑ ͖̱̌Ü̶ πủ̵ ṱ̶̏͠ h#̶̪͍̓ ̪͛̅̌ c̜̿͘è e̶̵ ͇̃̃̈́̕ ̚ ̵̳̆ ̠̀ a̷̸͍͌ î ̣ ̏ ̚ ̴̜̅̇͝ṿ̵ä ̾r̸̵ ̨̳ ̦ͅı̴̢ ̀ e̷͍͒ ̭̍t̴y̶̯ ̺̚ ̈́ ̶́̍̚ͅő̧̨͈̓f̴́ Ñ ̼ ° ̖͜s̵̰̍ ̶̀c̸͎̓ ̄̚ ı̶̢͉̀̀͋ ̧e̤̎ ̺̎̄n T¥̮ à∂∫̜͕̺ghB̛̗¨̲͍ ı̸ü ș̶̻͠ ̼̝͌͋ͅ ̾͘ ͊ ̖̳̠́ ̰̍c̸̫̈ ̏ ̶o̴̖͎̹͂̅̐ ̈́ ̨̖̼͇̪̈́ṷ̠̘̔ͅ r̶̸ ̪s̈ ȩ̸͇͆ ̿ ̷̩̲ ̏ ̢ı̶̮̘͉̰͔̋̑̕ ś̴̷͝ ̍ ̰͒̑ ̛͛̚ ͚̓̆ ̺̚ ̷̠͕̠̊̽̄t̷͖͉ o̸ ͍͜ ̴n̴ ͇̭ ͇̔̄͌ ́ ̸̰̆͜ı̵́p̵ ̗ ̄ ̉ ̱̘ ͊͋ ͍̟ ̓̾͋ ͝͠ ͐̋̈ ̈́​̈́ ̏ ̿ ̜ ̀̓̋͌ ̓̓ ͒̈͒ ̲̮ ̎͂̉​̉ ̈́̒ ̛́̑ ͜ ̰̭̼ ̅ ̦ ̦̫̺͛̆ ̘͎̠͇ ΩÀ ̹̺̫̻̞ ̂ ̯̤̠ ͛͒̆ ̏ ̜͝ ̛̒̍̊ ͙ ͜ ̹̻ ̛̮ ̗̤ ͜ ̮͎̗̮̇ ̀͐͑̎ ̰ ͜ ͕ ̓ ͜ ̘ ̓̃͆ ̖̩͍͇ ͚ ̗ͅ​̞ͅ hE∏ ͔ ͖͉͎ ̽ ̐ ̜̭ ̖̰͈̭ ̀̒̈́ ̬ ͖̘̝ ̅͆̂̄ ̨ ̦̝̼͜ ̀͋ ̣̱̪͉ ̿ ͚̯̜̙̈́ ̋͌ ̗̻̮̲ ̰͎͚ ̤ ̍ ̙̏ ̎̊ ̏ ̰͈̭ ̓ ͉͍ ͜ ̣̘͓ͅ ̜̤̮ ̓ ͖̲͕̦ ̔̓͋ ̙̼͚ͅ ͔̗͈̝ ̞͉ ̾ ͖ ͛̆ ͓ ̎̐ ̝ ̞ͅ ͎ ̗̣̪ͅ ͐̽ ̲̠̝̠ ͜ ̃͒ ̗̯̠͗̆̈ͅ ̳͔̻ ̠͉̥ ̾͒́ ̘͎ ̰̙̺̳ ̃ ́ ͆ ̬ ̃ ͚ ͗ ≈ ͋ ͊ ̴͎̈́͐ ̜̤̬l®̵ ̖̥À̳ ̳̯ ̴̦͊s̵̘̭ ̣̆ ı̸̵̈́ c̸̦͉̭̀̇̾ lB͙̓ ı̸̦̮͇̓ jl#̔̕e̵¨‘ ̪ ̟̱̝͌ j ∂̮ ̶̕e ̛̣̳̝̈́̎Æņ̶ ̳̻̫̄ c̷̞͛x ̶͛̀ ̥͓̳ a ̒ ̀ ̅ ̉ o̵̦̤ ͉̪̞̀̍́f¥̛̚π ͈̘̼ ̒̓¿ ̴̍͋͜c̘̞͆͝ o̸ ̢ ͕̋ ̸a̡̋w ͒ ̵ ̜͎̬̒ ̧̰̗̮͙̇̈́ ṁ̵̦̯͎ ̧̢p¨ ̨ ̙͙̬̫͌ ̴u̸̬͐͊ t́ ̨̦ a̷̸ ͈̳ ͚̯̺̆ͅt̷͜ ̢̀ı̷̳̠͕ ȯ̴̱͉̻̲ ̰̟̂ n ͎ ̨ ͅ ́ ͘ ̑ ́ ̷ e̴ , ̮ ͛ ̷ a̴ ́ n ̶ ̈́ d ̡ B ̡ ̧ ̑ ̳ ̓ ̞ ̬ ̃ ̒ ̟ ̘ ̿ ͒ ̓ ̉ ̓ ͌ ̉ ̜ ͠ ̦̚ ́ ̆ ͠ ̈́ ̇ ̑ ̇ ̲ ̐ ̃ ̅ ̕ ̫ ̵ ̗ ̋ ̏ ͇̺ͅ ı̶̗̞̲̝ ̚ ̍̔́n̵̕ ̵͆ ̥̲̅ lBv̸¡f̞̮ ̨̛͝e̫͌ ̙ ̴̡̹̺̥̒̆̉̏ ͘ ̶̀ ͛ ̣̮D #̧o̼͊ ̴ẉ̝̀ ̷̕ ̞̻s̵̴̽ ̢ć͔̫̈̑ ͘ ̶̈́̕ı̷̹̳ ̈́͗̽̕ ͜e͘ ͈̞̈́ ̣̺̱n ̨̛̝͚̄̽͋ ̼̈́̊͒ ̵͝v̬͔̅͝o̵ ́ ̧ ̔ s͘ ̶ ͓̝̾ ̏ ̚ ͓͕ı̴̷̛̂̒͝n ̙͚̄ ̫̭ ͛͊ ̞̺̔͂ ̢è ̱ ̵̛̤͍̌̈́̆ ͍̚ ͎͒̚͝h ̶̏͜ ̚ ̷͔̝͖̓t̵ı̡̄̾ ̰̖̠ͅ ̷͘ ̱fÑ̉ ̡ı̨̖̪͚ ø ̃̌ ̸c̴̢͑ ͔̤ ̛͜ ̬̱̇̐ ̸̡̅ı̦̗ ̸ṇ̴̤̂ ̳͐ v͜ ̨ ̿ ̵͐̕é̸̱͔ ͕̭͂s̷t̷̨͎ ͘ ̔ı̸̈́ ̘̥ g̷͍̊ͅ ̣͓͎̔̈́á̴ ̛̻͎̐̾t̷ı̵͐̃ ̗̼ o̶͕͙̎ ͔̺̉n̴ ̲ ̅ ̲ ͍ ̀ ∆ ̻ ̊ ̩ ̏ ͗ ̣͎ ̈ ̋̈́ û ͝ ̮͚ ̑̈ ̅͐̄ ̪ ̃ ̰̯ ̤̞​̞ ̜̼̳ ̟͎ ̒̇ ̛̙͜ ̬ ͛͂̈́ ̓ ͂̾ ̘ ̵̗͌ ̎̽̆͝ ͝ ̗͕̌̄ ͖͇̇m̵̏ ̟͗ ̴t̵̙ ̡ı͂ ̰ ̵̧f̨͖̤̎ ı̷̧g¥ ̪ e º ͔c̴̛̛͚͓̆͌ ͜ ̣̘ͅ ̴̢̧͎̜̺̤̮̅̆͝a̐ ̶͖̲͓̒͊̀ṗ̶̛͋ ̏͛ ̙̏͒ͅ p̵͈ ͔̗͗ l®ı̵̢ ̹̞† ͝c̶͖͓͒ a̸̠̘͓̐ ̎̃ ̝̐̈́t̴̨̩ ͘ ı̧̠̤̞̺̔̈̂̊ o̷ ̸ ͕͎̀̓ ͠ ̗̣̗̮̪̑̂̕ͅ n̴ ̡ ͐̍ ̥̲̠̝̈ ͜s̓ ̻ ̶.̸̹̯̠̆̊͂̄̈͝ ͕ ̢̠͚̳͔̔͂͆ ̔̃̆ ̏ W® ̸̡̟̠͔͉̥̏̊͂̕̚ ̾ ͗̽ ̫̘͎̃̓ ̏ ̺̟ e̵̊̆ ͝ ̧͚̙̺̓̔́͠ ∏ ̋̅̈́̒͠ ͖͉̥̀̇͋ ͚̆ ̇̑ ͊̈͆̆ ̌̾ ̖̭ ̃̓ ̒͛̄͆ ͝ ̋̅͆ ̏ ̦ ̃̉ ͕̘̲ ͇̱ͅ ͝ ͖̮̅͐ ͠ ͐̊ ̭̬͍̟͗̒͆͑͐́ ͐ ͔͈̼̜Eø ̒̅̍͌ ̖ ̿ ͗̇́ ͚͉͔ ̯̠̯̠ ̩͔̯ ͈͇​͇̫ ͂̾ ̆̈́ ̜̮̭͠ ͗̇̈́ ̎ ̈͋̈́͒ ̻ ̪͍ ͎̦̙ r̸̦̖̰̭ͅı̴̢ ̀͊ ̼̒ e̷͍̬̎͒ ̭̍̈t̴͝y̶͛͂̆ ͖̘̯ ͆̂ ͈̹̺̚ ͘ ̨ ̦̝̼̈́͜ ͕ ̶́̍̚ͅő̧̨͈̓̽̉f̴́ Ñ ̼ E° ̖͜ṣ̵̰̱̪̍ c̸̶͎͚̜̀̀͗̓̕ ̄̚ ̋ı̶̢̗̻͉̀̀̋͐͋ ̧e̙̫̰̤͚̎ ̸̺̤̎̄͊͒̕͝n ̱ ͉ ͅ ͉ ̗ ̇ ̛ ́ ̓ ̛ ̛ ͈̀ ͆̈́ ͌ ̝ ̅̃̄ ̓ ̀͊͋͒ ̒ ͉ ̿ ̯̙̓̈́ ̆͌͠ ̲̮ ̉ ͎ ̙̍̏ ̈́ ̎̇̊ ̏ ̰͈̭ ̒̓ ͉͍ ̀c̶ ̼ ͈ ͊ p̶ ̾ u ̷̡͜ ͈̘̊ ͈̜̰̯͙ ̧̡ ̃̔͒ ̷̈a̢̖͖͓̼ ͓͊s̷ ̍ ̸ ̤̼̊ ̡͔̩͜p ̵̾̆͠ ͉̠ ͍ ̶̕h͖̺ %̥̳̲̮ Ñy̴̢ ͅ ü̖ ̱s̴͉̎ ı̶̡̧͈͎͈̟̑ ͎č̴ ̚ ́s̸͈͙̘̋̽ ,̵̗͚̪̿̅͊ ̡̝̘̆͘͝ ̻́̄͋ ̸̰̌̈́c̒̈́̃ h¥ ̷̡͓̻̙̉ ̴̡̺̥̃̒̆̉̏ ͘ ̱̤Dạ̞̟̃s̵̸ ̿ ı̢ ̬̯͇͕̂ ¿ ̷c̴͘ ̟̬̐ ̧͖̝̫̈́̀̕ ̨̪ś̶͖̮̄͜ͅ c̸​̸ ̮̻͍͋ ́̕ı̴̗̩̒ ẻ̸͔̫ ̖͕͚̈́͜n ̡ ̣̯̻̍̈́ c̷̶ e̸̦̺̠̬͊ ̩​̩̮͐s̸͆ ̩̝̇ ̭s̴̷̲͓͌ u ̰̣̓ ̚ v̸f¡̞ ̛̺̟̻̅̃͛ ͜ ̨e̫͌͝ ̰̙̳̚ ̖b¥ ̴̧̤̩̋̿̚ ͓ ô̵ ͕ ͌ m̵̕ ̡̐ ͘ ͛̋ ̸t͘ ı̵̵̢͌ ̅̕ ̛​̛̠ ̨̝̃̽͋̄͒ ̗̬̘̋ ̢g̵̼͗̊͒̈́̈ͅv͝ ̻ ̷͈͍̏ ̅o̵̵̬͆͒͝ ̶̰̼͕̄ı̷n̶ ͕ ̀̋ ̣̝͉ ̷̕ ̴̽s̵̞̻͚ ̢ć͔̫̈̐̑ ͘ ̶̈́̕ı̷̹̳ ̈́͗̌̽̕ e͜ ͘ ͈̞̈́ ̣̺̱n ̅ ̶̏͜ ̚ ̷͔̝͖̓t̵ı̡̰̖̠̄̾ͅ ̷͘ ̱fÑ̉ ̡ı̨̖̪͚ ø ̃̋̌͆ ̸c̴̢̦͑ ͔̤ ̛̐͜ ̬̱͕̇̃ ̸̡̅ı̦̗ͅ ̸ṇ̴͖̤̂ ̳͐ v͜ ̨ ̿ ̵͗͐̕é̸̱͔̭ ̩͓̙͛̅ ̣̬ ͕̭͂̈́̓s̷̭̙ ț̷̨̜͎͔̚ ͘ ̔̅​̅ı̸̈́̃̔ ̘̥ ̫̭͔̭¿Ü ͚ g̷͍̓̊ͅ ̣̖͓̝̫͎̔̈́á̴ ̛͈͙͚̐̿ ̻͎̾t̷́ ̕ı̵͐̃͛̆̑͠ ̗̼̯̃ ̏ o̶̜̞͈͓ ͕͙̎͋ ͔͇̺͒̉́ṋ̴ ̧ ̔ s̖̜͖͉͘ ̶͓̝̜͐̽̉̏ ̾̚ ̻n̵̷̛͓͕̒̂̑͝ı̴n o̴̼͊ w lB ̥ ̇ ¿ ̙ ́ ͚ ̥ ͔ ̯ ̲ ̹ ̮ °͕ ̪ ̹͎̦ Ö° ̹ ͝ ̪ ∏∆ ͝ ̖̯ ̦​̦̪ ͗̌͝ ̔̓ ͐͊͌͝ ͎͉ ̋͐̑ ̟͙ ̋̉ ͙ E ̉​̉ ͝ ̋̌́ ͗̑ ̏͝ ̅͛ ̒͑ ̄͝ ́͝ î ̻̙ ̭͔ ̦͖͙ ̒ ̥ ̇ ͆̆ ̖̭ ̒͛͆̄ ͝ ̅ ̏ ̃̉ ̘̲ ͇̱ ͝ ̮̅͐ ͐̊͠ ̬͍̟̒͆͐͑́ ̴̍͘c̶ ̉ ̷̡ ͈͐̊ ͝h ̸̨̤̿̊ ̵̡͔̩̇͗̆͜p̾́͠ ͚͉͔͉ ̠̯̠̳​̶̳̕h́ ͇ı̸̩͔͖̯ %̥s̶Ñy̴̢ ͈̫͇͈͆ͅü̖ ̾s̴̎͂͜ţ̹̬͙̈́͝ ı̶̡̧͈͎̈́̑̆r̵̶͊ ̧̬͓ ̭̮͉͠ ͎̇͗c̴̈́̌ ̚ ̬̫y̴͠ ͗̂́ ́s̸͙̋̎̽ ͘ ,̵͖̙̿͠,̷͚̅͋̈́͒̈͊̉͜​̉ ̡̝̘̆͘͝ ̜̮̀̅͐̈́ ̩̹̳ ̸͉̓̍̚ǧ̷̘ ̰̬ ̻̂̈́ ͔͑͒͂͝ͅl#̪͍ go̴œi¡À̬̮ ̼ ̨̓͐͒̈́̀́͠b ̡ ̨͍̮̭̓̈̂ ͈̜̼͈øȨ̡̜̯ ̔ ̒̍͌ä̷̢̖͖ fû$…̹͚ Ñπe̷͓͊s̷ ͎̝̂m̴̅ ̸̡ ̛̦͙͍͒ ͜d#œ̦̘ ̤ ̖ ̟ ̹̲ ̻̭̽ ë̸̷ ͘ ̠̯̉dB̘° ı̶c̵̜̈́ ı̶̘̌ n̴͎̔ ̱̬̀ è ̨͔ ̶͇̼̀̕ ̷͛a̦͍ ̟͂͋ͅn̵ ́ ̙ ͇…̢a® ̱͇̒lÑ̵ ̧̰∫ ̻ĉ̴̶͉ ̛h#͉̊̈ ̚ î̬ a̓́ ̣ ̴͔̈n̄̚ ̰͇̌ ̴g̶̢̹̞̓͊ȩ̦̠̤̪̉,̶̶̢ ̤̥̅͠ ̶̧̨͙͙̓͆͜͝m ̡ ̻̍̈́ c̷̶ e̸̦͊ ̛̩͐ṡ̸̩ s̴̷̲͌ u ̻́̇̄͋ ̸̰̌̈́ç͖̹͉̼ ̃ h¥ b¥∏̱̤Dạ̞̟̈́̃̅s̵̸͠ ̛͖̿ı̢̯͇͕̬̀͋̂ ¿ ̷c̴͘ ̟̬̆̐ ̧͖̝̫̈́̀̇̑̕ ̨̪̈ś̶͖̮͊̄͜ͅ c̸​̸ ̻͍̮̾͋ ́̕ı̴̗̩̃̒̓ ẻ̸͔̫ ̖͕͚̈́͜n ̹ ̪ ∆ ̖ ̦ ͊ ̣̯͎ ͐ ̠̬̺ ̩̮̲̟͙ ͆̋̉́ ̝ ͓̭͙ E¿ ̫͇ ̇̒̈́̉​̉ ͜ ̘̿ ͝ ̀̓̓ ̰͙ ̃̋͒̌́ ͓̼ ͈̠̭ ͗̑̽ ̏͝ ̍̅͛ ͈̼̬ ̼ ̒͑ ̓ ̠ ̄͝ ̀ ͍͉́ ̺ ́͝ ̌̑̈ ̳̲̮ ͉​͉ î ̋ ͉̱̤̻̙ ̥ͅ ͈à̟̙ ̦͕͓̪ ̯̤̍ ͈̘̭͔ ̗̦͖̪͙ ̆͐͒͊̕ ̜ ̹̖ ̋͒̊̉ ̅͗̈́ ̪̬̘ ͖͇̲​̲ ̋͊̂ ̏ ̃ ͝͠ ̑̉ ̙ ̰̣͇̫ ̇͂ ̣̱͑ ̍̎̑ ͠ ͎̦̂̐ ͐͂͊ ̇͑ ̹ ̭͉̥ ̤ ̕† ̟ ̑ ̩̣͓̬ ̿ ̆̄́ ̰̣͔̼̥ ̹͇ ͆͒̈́̉ ̬͉͇ ̣̪̮̺̯ ° ͔̬ ͙ ͗ ͝ ͠ ̰͕̠ ͑ ͎̥͕ ̓ ̏ ̩̱͝ ͑̎̈́ ̏ Ωû% ∑∫ i ̅͂̓ b®͇…Ö̢a° ̱͇̙̒lÑ̵͝ ̧̰∏∫ ĉ̴̶͉̻͇ ̛͝h#̣͉̱̯̊̈ ̚ î̬ a̓̍́ ̦̣̪ ̴͔͗̈̌͝n̄̚ ̰͇͎̔̓̌ ̴g̶͂ ̢̹̞̓͐͊͌e͝ ͉ ̶̧̢̦̹̠̪̤̋̑̉,̶̥̤̭̅͠ ̨̓m ̶̧͙͙̤͆͜͝ ̹ ̭̻̟̽ ë̸̷ ͘ ̩̠̯̉dB̆ ̣͔̘° ı̶p̷ ͎͍̩̬͒ ̩̟͒ ̷d® ̦͍͙͎ d# ̏ ̚ ¿̩̘ e̴ü̡ ̥​̥͉͒n̴ ̼͚͎͐ ͍̙̘̋͐ s̷̿c̴̢̧̖̬͙̙ ̿ ı̷̀ ̙͎ ̿̃̆ e̵̯͙̋ ́ ͎̄́ͅn̴̛̦͕̯̭͋ c̶̨̬ è ̘̾́ ̘͍̅s̵̢ ̒̇ ̴̀.̵̧̬̯̜͇̽ ̔̃̾̚͜ ̶̖̉T̬ ø∫∆̣̹Ü®πghE̖̮̞ ¥e̷̜̟̥̔ ̴̟̤̻̉̚s̶t̷͈̗̬͑ ͅ u ̧̦͇̃͝ ̜ ̡ı̶ ͈l¥̆̈ g̢ û̹̝lB ̧∏á ̼͖âj ∆ bB ̀ ͔͋͂̓͐ t̶̢́̽͜ ̟̭̱ ̶̓w̶̆ ̴̛̝̈́̆̀ …̯e̴̋̂ ̟̀̕ ̸̤̙̝͊ c̵̜̹͇̈́ ̈́͆ ı̶̘̬͉͇̖͈̯̼̌̾̆ à̷̡ n̴͎̪̮̺̯̔ ̱̬͔̬͉̬̤̀̎r̷è ̨͔ ̥͠t̶̼͇͙̀̄͂͆́̕ ̷͗͛̚a̦͍ ı̶̴͛ ̪̬͙ c̴̢ ̰͕̠̟͂͋ͅn̵̸̡ ͎̭̜̼̓ ̢̛͒u ̗͔͗̍͜ œ̦̩̘̱ ̴͈̭̅̎͑̎l¥́ Ω a̶œ͍̥̲ ̧ ̗̯̼̔r̵̖̓̂ ̙̱lB̟́ ̓ ̢ỵ̵̧͈̜̫̪ ̣͕̆͜ ̵̝̺̾͝b¥̛̭ ͍̜gı̷o̴ ͜ ͉ ̑ ̣ ̄ ̼ ̦ ͊ ̥ ̬ ̣ ͓ ̈́ ̑ ̖ % ̭ ̐ ͂ ̭ ̜ † ̬ ͅ ̥ ̥ ∫ ̎ ͗ ̖ ̫ ̊ ̓ ͆ ̳ ̇ ͊ ̇ ° ̳ ̏ ̇ ͑ ̭ ̖ ̪ ͚ ̮ ̓̓͒̄ ̭ ͊ ̞̻ ͛̆ ̛ º ̟​̟̞̱ ͊ ͐͑͆̐͊͝ ̩͇̮ ͜ ̓̽ ̒͜ ͝ ̳ ͎͔̙ ͈̮̝ ͊̾ ̗̹̫̺̻̀͂̌͋ ̍̓̈́ ̬ ̈́͐ â ̳ ̩̝ ͝ ̖̱≠ ∏ ̕͝ ̯ ͑͗̄ ͌̐ ̍̔̑ ̣ ¡û̈́​̈́̐ ̛ ̓̒̇ i͂ ̋ ̅ ͝ ͂ ̭ ͠ ͑ ͕ ̗ ̏ ̡͜ı̶͝ ͈l¥̈̆ ̢͜g ̹ûû̝lB̳͜ ̧∏á ̼͎͖∆âj ∑ ͗̉ bB ̣̲͎͍̩̬͒͗ ̛̩̟͒​̷͒̉d® ̏ ͔ ̣ ¿ ̝ ͉̥​̥͒n̴ o̴̘͍̙͐̋̃ s̷͝͠ ̿ c̴̢̧̖̬͙̙̉ ̿ ̀ı̷̙͎̭ ̿̃̆ ḛ̵ ̯͙̋͂ ́ ͎̄́ͅn̴̛͕̦̭̯͋ c̶̨̬ è͠ ̘̾́ ̘͍̅̂s̵̢ ̒̇ ̴̀.̵̧̜̬̯͇͐̽ ̔̃̾͑̚͜ ̶̖̉T̬ ø∆̣̹Ü∫®πgh̖̕E̮̞ ¥e̷̥̜̟̔̑ ̻s̶̴̟̤̉̚ ̬ ̿ t̷͈̗̬͑́ ̰ͅ u ̥̍ ͐͘ ̿ ̖ ̩u̷ ̡̱ ͘ ̰̘̬́l®a̸h̰͈̱ ̧ ̜̞͉̊​͉t͜ ı̵̢ ͔̤̬̱̳ ̷̛ő̵̗͇͔ ̚ ̿ ̦̟̼́n̸͘ ̰̗̱̼͇̍ s̢ ̴̡̬̦͖̞̓ ̧̗ă̸̓̕ ̜̤̯̕n̵ ̶ ̩ ͝ ü̴̢̧͔̙̘̮̈́e͉​͉̬ ̴̛͈̝̮̝̈́̆̀ ̾͊ …̹̗̺̯̫̻e̴̱̎̉̀x̴͂̂̌͋ ∂√̓̍̈́ ̟̬̀̕ à̶̶̯̠̤̈́̒ ̤̯̘̄m ̢ ̟ p̵ ̴͒ ̨ ̆ͅ l¥e̶π ̞≈ ̬̋͐̄s̶͓͗ ̵̈́o̵ ̷̧͜ ̙̬͍̍ ̗͂ m̴̽ ̵́̏ ̚ ͚̮͗̕ d#ø$͙̥͇̻̟ ̡ ̵ ͉̤ p̷̨ ̜͒ u̷̦ ̮̾ t̶́̀ ̚ ͘ è̶́̋̎̇̈̂ ̬̠ ̟͒́r̸̿ ̗ ͒̊͒ ̻̚s̷͒̀͊́ ͖ ı̵̸̢͠ ̠͍̄ m̶ ͕ ̝͆̐ f¥́ ̢π ̯à ̢c̶̛̦̼̈ o ®̞̥̀ ͐∑̉° ̿ ͔͂͋̓͐͛͗̆t̛͕̙̭͌̊̾r̶̵͝͠ ̱ͅ ̒ ̶̢́̽͜º̱̟̭ ̜e̶̟̓w̶̧̦͇̟̞̱̆̃̋̌̉͂͝ ͊ ̻̘̜͑͆̐͊̌͝​̜̩͇̮dÑ ̜ ͆ ̮ͅ ̪̬͌̚ ̵fÑ̓̓͒̄ ̩̘̬̭ e̴̢fü̡ ∏D ̛͎͊ e ̪ ̭ ͚ ͜ ̶̛͎̓̈́o ̱ ̯ ͑ ͌̐ ̍̔̑͊ ̣π ¡û̈́​̈́̐ ̛ ̓̒̇ ̖̦̥̍ ͐͘ ̿ ̔̽ ̖ ̩̻ u̷ ̙ ̡̱ ͘ ̉ ̰̘̬́̿l®̹̜ ͊ a̸̽ h̰͈̱ ͗ ̧ ̜̞͉̊​͉t͜ ı̵̢͐ ͔̤̬̱̳ ̷̛o̵̗͇͔̓̋̽ ̚ ̿ ̟̲̼̝̪̦̟̼̒́n̸ ͆͘ ̰̗̱̼͇̍ s̢ ̴̡̬̦͖̞̓ e°̧̗ă̸̓̕ ̜̤̯̕n̵ ̷̧͜ ̦̙̬͍̺̍ ̗̩͂ m̴̽ ̵̏ ́̚ ͚̮͗̈́͐̕ d#͙ø$â͇̥̻̟ ̡ ̏ ͖̮͙ ͖̰̭̯ ͈̱̺̪͓ ͍̠ ̰̮̥̫̟ ̩̥̬̻ ͓̘ ͅ ̦̺ ̩ ͉̙̼ ̻ ̳̜̭̺ ̹​̹ ̥​̥̫̥ ͓ ̳͓ ̖̦͈͖ ̵ ͉̤͉̙ p̷̨ ̜̻͒ u̷̦ ̮̳̜̾ t̶́ ̀̚ ͘ è̶̹̬̠́̎̇̋̈̂ ̟̥͒​̥́r̸̿ ̗͓ ̊͒​͒ ͗̾͂́ ̻̚s̷̀͊͒́ ͖ ı̵̸̢͠ ͍̠̳͓̄ ̘̝ m̶ ͕̥ ̩̝̥͆̐ f¥́ ̢ ̯͓̘à ̢c̶̛̦̼̈ͅ o p̵͖̆ͅ l¥͝ ̖≠ πe̶∏͖̞̭≈ ̬̱̺̪̋͐̄̕s̶͝ ͗​͓͍̠͗̄ ̵̰̈́o̵ ̆ ͕͉ ̹̤ ̻͍ ̝ ͝ ̹̤ ͑̉ ̗̙͍̻ ̲͛͂ͅ ą̺ ̝ ̱ĺ̶ ͜B ̨̢̗ ̲y̸̙͍hC s̸̤̆ ı̶̨͇̒ ̏ ̓́̕s̷͘͝ ͕̾ ̿ ̑͘ ͠.̖̔̒̾͜ ̸̣̐̀ ̗̤͙ ̠͉ ͇ ̘ ̩͇ ̼ ̭̺ ̹ ̫̥ d® ̷̡̰̃̈́ ∏̩̫ ̧̢a̶͈͖ ̪̒͐t̷̀͠ ã̶ ͇ ͕͉ ͖̺ ̎͌ ͔͊̌̐ ̢͘à̶̜̾ ̈ ̸̦̊̈́n̴ ̗̮͙̤͙ ̰̯̠͉ ͈͓͇ ̮̫̟̘ ̩̬̻͇ ̒̄̌ ͂̃ ̂͂ ̈́ ∆ ͋ ̓͗ ̤ ̀͊ ̍͋ ̻ ͊̂̄ ̊ ̪ ͆ ͐ ̀̽͌̐ ̿​̿ ̓̂ ̈́̒ ̒̀̄̌ ͂̃ ͂̂ ̈́ ∆ ͋ ̹̭̠̫̼̇̈̑ ͗̓ ͑​̱̳͑̇ ̏ ̤ ̀͊ ̹̺̪̥̍͋ ̈́ ̏ͅ ̻ ̾͊̉ ̹​̹͇̫ ̈́ ͓ ̅̋̽ ̗̣̬͇͍ ̂̄͊ ̌̂͋ ̊ ̪ ͉͇̼ ͆ ͊ ͗̍ ͐ ̣̝ ̀̐̽͌ ͈̦̺̥ ̀̐ ̿​̿ ̩̫ ̓̂ ͉̎̉ ̒̈́ ̏ ̀ ̵̹̄̑̏͝ ̨͇̇͗r̹y̵̴ ̇̄̉ ̛,̢̧̈́͋ ̷̸̡̛̥̤̍̂̂s̱̄͂ ̡o ́͝ ̻̔̈́ ı̶̀̅ ͠ ̧n̛̐̉​̉ ͌ ̶ę̷̞ ̣̍̈s̶̓̕͠ ̧̙ ̸͕̋́͝ť̈́ h# ̸͠ ̨​̨̹ ̖̳͆͊ ̴d¨û̠ ® ́͝ ͚̻̔̈́ ı̶̀̅ ͠ ̧n̛̐̉​̉ ͇͌ ̶ę̷̞ ͈̚ ̣̟̍̈s̶̓̕͠ ̧̖̙ ̸͕̋̌̈́́͝th# ̵̄̑͝ ̏ ̨̇͗rTB ̶ ͈̘̽̂ ̹̇̋̾͂ ̸́c̵̏ ͘ ı̴͇̓́ o̴̺͘ ̲͍͑͊ l̉̕Ñ ¨̞o̷̺͊͒ g̸͒͂̈͌͝ý̶ ̐͝,̷̧͍̝̌͒ ̷͔̓ả ͂̾̓̕n ̷̝̃̋͗ ∑D̘ ı̶s̷̗̀ ̡t̰́ o̸ ̵͗̊ ̘ à¿̖∫ e̴̿ ͈̅̊ hÑ ̵̣͂̃̐͝ y̵̴ ̇̄̉ ̧̢̛͈̈́̽̈́̕h,̢̧͋̈́ ̷̡̛̥̤̍̂ẹŝ̸̱̄͂ı̶# s̶̶̡o̽̂ ̫̍͋ ̡ ̸͊̇̋̾͂́c̵̏ ̣ ̧̙̤c̶͛́̾͘ ı̴̓́ o̴​̴o̷͉̾ ̺͘ ̲͑͊l̉̎̕ Ñu¨ ͊͒g̸̭̎̽ ̸r͒͂̈͌͝ý̶ ̦̣s̴̡ ̒͌ ̿ ̐͝,̷̶e̴̙̒ ̧͍̝̌͒ ̷͔̓͘ả ͙̎ ̫̕ ̸͂̾̓͠n̨​̨̹ ̷͉̎̉e̴̿͆͊d̢̮̟͐x̵​̵ ¨û̠ ®̛á̵͓̈́̓͆ ̛̌m̸̏ ǎ̵̛̝̫͕m̸̏ ̵͗̊ à¿∫ e̴̿ ̅̊ hÑ ̷̝̃̋͗ ∑D ı̶s̷̀ ̡t́ o̸ ̾ ≠ â∑ ̠̼̝̙ ̹ ͗ ̒͐ ̰̼̻̘ ̓̾ ͓ ̖̱̺͓̟̘̓̋̽̄͝ ̖̱̲ ü ̑ ̗͈̘̺̲͜ ̇̚ ̘̠̱͚̼ ̓͆ ͝ ̩̦͚̼̘ ̗̞͓ ̀͛̅̾ ̰ î% ̹͈​͈̭̝ ͐̈͋̊ ͇ ͚̲̯̭ͅ ̹̺̫ àÀ ͖̣̤̘ ̫͍ ̹̰̲̺͛ͅ f≈ ̿ ͈̘̬̙͚ ̭͚̺ ̚ ͗̐͒ â ͕̮͇̹̳̞͚̘ ̓͂ ̛͇͔͍̘̱h¿ ̫͉̬ͅ ͎̼̝ ͍̪ͅ ͜ À ͜ ̞o̷̾̍̊̆ ̦̺͍​͍ ͌ ̩͎̥̬ ̰ ̩͎̤̳ Ü ̦̲͔ ̞ ̿ ̀̇͆ ̏ ͌ 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h¥̨̪͊͘ ̛̞̠̅̐ e̸͈͌​͈̹​̹̼̥ ̔̃̈́́̿ ̬ ih%Ḙ y‘á ̧̣̼̟̲͍s̴͆ ̡̚ ͘ ̢.̩̯͔̝͚̪̃͛ ̶̗̭͇̓̀̆́̏ ̶̪͖̯̻̻͓́͊͆ͅ o̴ ̥̤ ͑​̲͑̊ ̢¥ ͍̤ ̲̖̲͚̿͂͊͆͒̆̓͗̽̾ fÑ̵̪̍̑͋ ̒̓​̓͂̊͘ ̧jg ̹̳ Ωe ̴̀̇̚ē̶̢͓̫͎ ̗̰͚͕̓́d# ͕ ̹̜͉̠ ͜ ̓̌ ͕̩͕ ̓̈́̂ ͛͜ ̞͉ ̔̎ ̩͖ ͐̈́ ͖̰͇ ͉͙͔ ̠ ͕̦͓ ̋̒̅͌ ̎ ͔̖ ̓̌ ̲ ͒͑̾ p ̋ ͉ ̦ ͒ ̖ ͖ ̠ ͖ ͓ ̈́ ̈ ̦ ͛ ͔ ͇ ͂ ̘ ͍ ̔ ̝ ͈ œ ͌ ̹ ͖ ̕ ̕ g ͘ h ͕ ̓ ̌ ̾ ̲ ̲ ̘ ̳ ̽ ͛ ͆ ͒ ̾ ∞ ̀ ̓ ̉ ̅ ờ̵̖̮ͅ ̧͔̱̬̳̪͑́u̴̿ ̡̪͚̝̅̉r̟̪s̶̡͜ ͑͛ ̿ ̴̀̕͜e̮̥̍͆̌ͅ ̷̧̪͈̗̪̍̈́̄͜͝ ͑̑ ̳̃̅r̸̍ ̞̺ ̧̝̻̤̜e̸̡ ̃̊̂ ̠̲͒͌v̶ ̵̗͉͛̓̒͊́̕͝ı̴e̴͝ ̫̮̭͑ ͊͂ ͘ ̗̤̘̳̓͒w ̈ ̡ ̤ ̈́ s̴̸̐ ̨͍ s̶̴̩̈́ c̵̰ ͌ h¥͈͓ ̜̞ͅ o̶ ̀ º ̦ s̢͜ ̴͜,͙̯ ̔̂ ͛̉ ̴̩̯̝͌̄͒̕͝ ̒ ̮ͅ ́ ̿ ̉ ͛ ͆̌ ̈́̄͝ ͈̪ ̃̅ ̞̺ ̃̊ ͌ ̓͊͝ ͝ ͒ ̅ ̎ ̓̌ ͑ ̀͛ ̑ ̏ ̄ ∏E ͊̄ ͕ ̈́ ͊ ̛̹​̹ ̔́ ͆ ̩̃ ̻ ͑̊ ̿̆͆͒ ̍̑ ̡# ͖̗̯̟̯̤ ̅̃̈́ ̪̱ r̙̞̥ṁ̶ ̸ ̅ ̦ ͖̺͉ a̸̾ ̍́ ͕͉ ͕́͜t̉̌͌̏ ͙ ̸ı̴̼̠̻̂ ō̵̜̹ ̿̈́̒͠ ̱̻ n̷ ̆ ́ ̺̙ ̝̪̮ ͈ ͔e e ͘ ̜̹̄ ̿ ̯̱̻̅̈̕ n̷ ͕ ̬ ̈́ ̲̟͉ eÖ ̿ ̾ ̈́̒ ͝ ͂ ͆̄̐ ̫̱͝ ̿ ͍̬ ̀̍̐ ͜ ͊ ͕͓ ̺̠͙ ̍͊ ͅ a̷ ́ ̨ͅ ̘͔lÑ̷̡̢̛À̗͖̼̈́ ı̶̳͚̙ ̵̢̧̄f̵̓̒͛̉c̷t̷͝ ̛̰̫͇̋͊o̸̕ ̸̗͛̓ ̏ ̤̥ ̥ ͚̔̅̄dÆ ̨̗̯͙͜ͅo͒ ̔͐̈́͆ Bd¥ ı̵́́ ̞̳̲ o̷ ¥ ̈́̉d̵̢̔̈́̾ B ̵͛c̥̲ ̸ǒ̞ ̛̖̀ ̧͔̱̬̳̪͑ ̵u̴̪͚̝̅ ̡r̟̪s̶̡͜ ͑ ̿ ̴̀̕e̮̥̍͜ͅ ̷̧̪̗̍͜ ͑̑ ̳r̸̍ ̧̝̻̤̜e̸̡ ̂ ̠̲͒v̶ ̵̗͛̒́̕ı̴͉ e̴̫̮̭͑ ͊͂ ͘ ̗̤̘̳̓w ̡ ̲̤̬ ̀̈́̕ s̴̸̐͜ ̨͍͕͓̽ s̶̴̩̠͙̈́ c̵̰͛ͅ ͌ h¥͈͓͆ œ̜̞ͅ o̶Æ ̨̗̯͙͒ͅo ̀ ̦̲͑ s̢͜ ,̴͜ ͙̲̯͊ ͛̉ ̴̩̝̯͌̄̕͝ ̸ ̓ ͖̺͉ a̸̾ ̲͕́t̉͜ ͌̌ ͙ ı̴̸̃ ̼̠̻ o̵ ͖̗̯​̯̟̤ ∞ ̪̱̀ r̙̞̥ṁ̶ ͜ ̼ͅţ̵̸̣͝ ̗̭̤̈ ͂͘ ı̷̜̀̂̑ ̼͚̌͆ ̀n ͒͜ ̘͔̾ lÑ̷ g ̳͚̙ ̵̢̧̄f̉ ̡#o̸̕ ̥͎͑́ ͍̫͒̈́̾ n̵͚͗ ,̸ ̷͓̃́͌ ̩͛̌̉,̸̩̾͘​̩t̸̷̨̼͕̀̈́ ̶̢̛̗͕̒͒̽̈́͐ͅâ h ͘ ̎ ͐ ̈́ a o̸ ̷̩̜̮́̅ ͎̰̗͛ r̵͜ ̨̹̗̦̯a̴̾ ̗͐̈́c̀ ̷̕t̷͖̼̠̎ ı̴͆ ̮̠̙ c̸̢ ̨͖̞̻͚̄ e̵͙̅​̨͙̤ ̙̼̘͗͂s̸̚ ̫̞̯̈ ı̶̸̡̰͖̩̄̇͂͘ ̿ n̵̘̱͎̤̼͒ ̜͈ ̧ ͈͙̲̾ ͝ ̬̟́̚ ͛ ̎​̘̎ē̶̴̠̼̠ ͕̀̈́́͝d̝͍̼͓ ̓̚ ͈¿ ¥u ̢ ̌̚ î∏̠̯̤ g# p̶ ̸ ̢ n̷ s̨ ̷̢̖̗͙̀̇ ̸̢̨̰̹̙̋̀͌̾́͂a̼͎͊ ̳̕ ̶̗̔̌̈ͅn̶̰̠̈̒͂ͅ d ̳ ͍ ̤ ̆ ̗ ̪ ̬ ̥ ̏ ̅ ͕ ̲ ̈́ ̈́ ̝ ̺ ̳ ̄ ̥ ͕ ̿ ̪ ̱ ̬ ͒ ̥ ̥ ̻ ̫ ̈́ ̹ ̔ Ö ̻ ͆ ̠ ͎ ̟ ̐ ̓ ̌ ̈́ ̎ ͖ ̀̽̆ ̩̐̉t͎̙̼ ̄̽ ̦͉ ̴̢̂̈́͛̆͝ ͖ ̶̀̆p ̓͗̄ ̻ ̈́ ͝ ̀̍̃̕ ̒ ͖̦̥ ̎͋ ̟ ̊ ̩̝ͅ ̀͠ ͔̇̅͑̽͒ ̖ ̗̱̳̎¿͕Ü o͖͓̺͙̍c̷ ͘ ̥͑́ ͍̈́̾ n̵̩͛̌̉,͘ ̷̨́ ̶̢̛̗̒͒͐̽ͅâ ̮̪ ̬̈́n̷ ̭͋̊p̴̈́ ̟̲͆ ş̷ ͖͒ ̀̚ ̸̬͚̂b$∑̼̠#e̴̢≈º ̘̀̈́͒̌͠t̸͝ w̶̽ ̵͔̂ ̴̡̽ ̈́ u̵̦̗̥̱̓̈́ ͈̘͌l#s̴à¨∏̟̙ ͅ ȑ ,̴̖̝̈́͆̉ ̵̼͎̠̘̳̃͘͝r̷̍̓̎̑̄̾ t̷̶͈̹̔​̹̩ ̣̬̫é̶̀ ̇̃͆̊͆h#̧̭̙͑̌ ≠ ͕̙̤͙̬̒e̸jn̴ ̠̹̳ ̅ ̴o̸̗͈ ͈̌ l® f∏ͅı̸̛̺͛̑c̸ı̢́ ̺̬̟̘̝ ̏ ̶e̴̦͘ ̼̥̅s̨ ̷̢̖̀̇ ̸̢̨̹̙̀͌̾́͂̋a͊ ̳̕ ̶̗̔̈ň̶̠̈̒͂ͅ d ̷̩́̅̾ ͛̒ r̵̨̹̦͝a̴̾͂ ̗͐̈́c̀ ̷̕t̷͖̎̐ ı̴̱͆͝ ̠̙ c̸̢ ̨͖̻̄ ę̵͙̅̍ ̙͗͊͂s̸̚ ̫̍̈͊ ı̶̸̡̰̄̇͂͘ n̵̤͒ ͈̜ ̧ ͈̾ ͝ ̟̬́̚ ̎​̎ē̶̴̠ ͕̀̓̈́́͝d̚ ͈¿ ¥u ̡̢ ̪̓̒͛ ̵c̷̛a̗͐́ ͅt̵̸͝ ı̷̀̂̑ ̜ o̸ ̢ ͉̚ îe∏̯ g#̿ p̶ ̸̢ ̳̈́̉d̥̈́̾ B ͓̪ ̿ ̍́̏ ͚̉ ̥̯̙͙̱͉̈́ o̴ ͖͇ ͉ ̣̱̞ ̖​̖̮̭ ͐͆̑̈́ ͖̮̫ ̟̞̙̞ͅ e̶∂i∂† ͙̘̅͂e̷̻͉͓͉͒n̵͛ ̢̦̰̮͚̜͋̄ ̚ ̶͍̞͍̅͘͜s̮̬͚͊ c̵​̵̦͖̮̼͚̆ ̲̆ h# ̈ ̝̈́ ̖ ̃̇ ̙̝ ̫͓̮͇̇̅̌͝ͅ ̲̱̿ ̅̕​͎̜̅̉ ̩͕̼ ͊͗̈́ ̲͉̠͎̬͎ ̿ ̲ ̀͛͗ ̹̰̫̔̉ı͜ ̈́ ̵͘r̴̖̟̞̐ ̀ ̒͘ ̿ ̱́̕ ̊͌ ̼͙ ̼ î ̀͑͝ ̩̫̠̮ ̀̔̓̏ ͆̆ ̖ ̾̄ ̛̔͘ ̈́̂ ̦̣ ¨† ̗̳ ̊͋ ̗͙ ̰̼͎ ͒ ͅ ̰ $≈º ̤̠ ̈́͒͠͝ ̜̮ ̓͗̄ ̻̰͎̗ ͜ ̈́ ̗̯͝ ̀̃̍ ̼̠̒ ̦͖̮̥ ̞͚ ̎͋ ̟͙̤ ̊ ̩̼̘̝ͅ ͠ ̇̅̽ ̖̞̯ ̗͖̩̱̳¿ ̿ ͖̼͎͓̺ ̽ ͙̲ ̱̼̘̠ ∏¨ ͆̈́ ̱͎ ͑ ̼ ̀̆̽ ̹͎̼̙ ̄̽ ̦͎͉ ̂̈́ ̹̫̳ ̗͕͈ ̻ ̺̻̟̬ ̶̒͝ ̲ ͖̳ ̘i∂ egÑ ̷̹͒ ̞͗͘l̷̒̉͠ a® ̧̫̠¿√̐̂ ̥̍̋̍r̷͝ ̴̹̺g̸̒̋ ̿ ̩͂̈́é̷ ͉̈́̋̉ŕ̴͝ ̄̚ ̣ ̈́̒ ͐͒s̵̷̭̓͗̑̆͘ ͕͎͓ o̶̕ ̟̈́ ̿ ̢̨͇̠̀t̵̓ ̛̞̉͝c̶hÑ ̉ ̘ ̬̔̊̆ d͘ ̹̯̤͛̕† ¥ ̧͇ṭ̶̱̺̟͉̃͑̕ ̐̽̕ h a̴̛̛͖͉͎͊n̵ ͚̆͆t̵̿ ͘ y̸͚̩ ͛ ̀̚ ̶̀r̶ͅ ͐.̵̮̎ e̴ ́ ̴̊̈́S#̙̐̉͜ ̕i͍t̡ ̧̹̎̆l®̸u̵̟áą̸̧∂øiCg ̻͐d#̢ ̠̄̆t̡ ͘ ̣ e̸ı̵̢ ̷̛́ọ̴̧̥̠̎̅ņ̶̘̜̆̽t̷ns̷͍ ̧ ̄ s̶​̶ ̝́ hÑ ́ °πı̵ ̈́ ͆ ş̷ ̀ b ̸̬̂ ∑#e̴̢ ̀̌t̸w̶̽ e̶̅͂̕e̷͒n̵̢͋ ͍͘͜s̶̮͊̅ c̵​̵ ̆ ̲ h# ̴̡ ͌ l#s̴à ,̴̉ ̼̃͘ t̷̶͈̔ h#̌ ̧ ≠ e̸j ̰̔̉ı̵͘r̴̐ ̒͘ ̱́̕ ̊͌ ̀ ͑͒ ̎ Ü o͙ ̱̈́ o̴ ̴̡̀͆͑̾ ı̸̨̳̣͔̲̋̒̆ͅ ̱ e̷̗̊͊ ̚ ̿∏̲∫e̷̕ ̺ ̍̾ ̄ ͝ ͕àâ√ º i∏â ͜ ̮̞͗̎̆̽ ̿ ͗͐̈ ̩̟̜͜ ̈ ̏ ̮̼͔͇̲͍ ̽ ̩͔͉ ̛̺͆̈́̑̕͝ ͎̼̯ͅ ͗͑͒ ̣̲ ̏͝ ̤̠ ̦̮̼̠̞ ̖̟̤̀ ́ ̓̐̂ ͝ ̮̩̗ ͂́ ͚̝̬̺̳ ̦̹̲̞̔̉ ͖̙̥​̥̼͜ ̗̬ ̘̠̟͔̯ ̇͗̓̐̾ ͠ ̹̖̜̞ ͈̘̱ %h ̚ ̱̻ ûf̗̮̪ͅ ̈́ ͜ ̛̞̈́ ̩̦̯ ̅̓͊͌ ̘͉̫ ͜ ͕̜̩̺ ̓ ͂ ͚͙̱͚̲ ̙̺ ͖̱̯̻͎̺̠ͅ ¨Ü ͉̰̣̜̫̓̃̌ ̊ ͕̠͎̺͙ ̿ ̗͎̩̟̲ ̝̌ ̛̿ ̔¿̂ ̥̪ ͛ ̝̺̘̳ ̭p̴͖̲͇̟ ͖͉ ̚ ͚ ̣̼̠̱͉̞ ̖̘̮̭ ͐͆̑ ͖̫̮ ̞̟̙ͅ ∂i∂† ͙̘ ͓͉​͉̻ ̦̰̮̜͚ ̚ ͍̬̞ ̦͖̮͚̼ ̆ ͒ ͔͕̪͓ ̿ ̍ ͕̏ ̙̥͙̯ ̈́ ͈̖̱̘ ̟̙ ̖̙̝​̝ ͎̫͓ ̹̱̲ ̩̭̙̼ ͕͉̙̠̲ ̹̫͜ ̖̞̟ ̖o̶̦̮ ̜̋ w̴͌ ͓̍͆ ̏ ́͒ ̧̜̈́p ̔ ̒ ͛ ̵ ͚̒̽ b¥∫̤lÑı̷̨̱̫ͅÀ Æ¡ ̤c̶̉ ̡ ̞͛ ̸͙̄͘â̵ ̭̊n̸͑ ̩͗͋̾ dÑ̚ ͘ ̗̳ ͜ ̷̛̬n ͗̀́ ̗͐ ̸o̸̴͚͗̀̉ ̹͇̻̎ ͜no̶ ͑ ̷̞̄̑-̸̜̀͗͜p̴̹ ̨ ̼͎̬͐u̷̥ ͛ ̛̤͍̬̈́͆́̍͋ ̰̲̳͕̈b®̧̖ m̷ ̏ ̧ ̽ t̷s̷̾̄ ̛̔͘ ́ ̈́​́ ̿ ̉͝c̶͉ ı̸̨̳̋̆ e̷̊͊ ̿ ̃̇̆͆t̵̿ ͘ ẏ̸̅̌͝ ̀̚ ̿ ͐̕.̵͕ ̮̎ ̴̈́͗S#̙́̐̈́͜ ͎̬ i̲t̡ ̸ǘ̵ ̀ ͐ d# ̅̐ ̟̜̞ ̃͂ ͎͍̼ ̵̺̬̳͓̄ ̩̳̥̃ u̷ ̉ ̘ ̔̊̆ d͘ ͛̕† ¥ ̧͇ṭ̶̃͑̕̕h ̡̦ ̱͙̳̔̈́͑̓͆̏͝ ̬eÀ ̖s̷̲̆ ̬̽ ǹ̞​̀̃̓͌ c̴̞ ̿̌ ͙̒̓̈́̂̑ͅ ̶ı̷̀͝ h̵ ̼̞̈́ ͍t̷͠͝ ̡̫͙̻̉ ͕̤̺Co̸# ı̶̎̅̎ ͖͇ ̓ e̵̪͙̎́ō̩̼ ̿ ̸͙͇̝͚̠͆̀lB́̉sś̵͋̐̌̽ D̢̹̦̜͓ ͚̬ ,̴͔̣̆͛̉͜ ̭̙̼͕͚̎ ̷̫̼̪̤̐̒̀͠ ̞ ͕͛͝a̸͋ ̴̛̛͖͎͉͊n̵ ̶̒͝ ̲ ̖̳ ḯ∂ egÑ ̷͒ ̞ ̷̞͗̒̉͘͠la® ̧¿√̂ ̷̍̋̍r͝ g̸̴ ̒̋ ̿ ̩̄͂̈́é̷ ͚ ̈́̋̉ŕ̴͝ ̈́̒ ͐s̵̷̭̓͗̑̆͘ ͎͓ o̶̕ ̢ î ȩ̸̎n̶ ̡͜ ̤̝ͅ ͎͖i̡̲͙lgá̿ ̀͒́ # ̩̮̺%̞ı̸c̷u̴ ̏ ̼̯̅ ̨̞̝̇̔̆́́m̶͆ ̈́ ̰ͅ ̕Ü̂̉ ͅ ̨̥ ̛͓̬̉ ̊​̊ ̏ ̗͚̭̳̘ ̀̃̑​̑͌ ̊́͝ ̩͈ ̛̾̓ ̈́̽̕ ͚͕ ̿ ̎̾̉ ̧ ̪̲ ̒̅͌͒ ̱ͅ ̉ ̊̌̽ ̹̪͚ͅ ͐̈̄̌̾ ͓ ͗̒͋̈́∂h͈̋͒c̷ ̓ E ̧͍̱͒r̸ ̨̗͕͙e̶̵ ̈͌ ̱̞̬̕͜͝ ̹̯ ͊ ̏ ͛̓ ̍̆̾ ̃ ͠ ̅͛ ̀̋̌ ̹ ̖̮ ̬ ̍͆ ̹̤̯ ̱̟̺​̺ ̐̾̽ ͖ ̘͝ ̹͕àâ√ º iâ∏ ͜ ̫̠̞̮̎͗̐̽̆ ̿ ̥͗͐̈ ̹̩̺̜̟͜ ̏ ̮̲͍͇̼ ̽ ̩͉​͉͔ ̄̚ ̛̣̺̑̈́̕͝ ͎̼̯ͅ ͑͗͒ ̣̟̲ ̏͝ ̞̤̠ ̖̟̤ͅ ̓̂̐ ͝ ̗ ̚ ͚̺̳͚̝ ̩̹̦̞̲̔̉ ̘͔̯̠̟ ͗̓̇̐ ͠ ͈̱̘ h ͍̱̻ fû ͜ ̟̞ ̅̓͌͊ ̻͉̫̘ ͜ ̣͚​͚̲͙̱ ̣͖̥̠̱̯ Ü ̰̘̜​̜̫̣ ̊ ͍͕̺͙̠͎ ̿ ̝​̝̌ ̛̔¿ ͛ å̸͖̬̝̤̽n ̵ ͉ jB ̸̨͔̐o̦ ̸p̚ ̜̫ e̶​̶ ̣̱̠r̷̩̝̫â̴ ͖̪̱t̴̓̚ ̅ e̸̡ ͔̱͎̼ ̢̝̱͕̟̺͜ ̊͒ ̧à̴̛̐̿ ͔̙̘n̴ ̵ ͍ d¥̣ ͠ ̵̎̚̕w̵̌ ̧̙̟͎͋͝ ̦̬ ͐̓ ̩̥̟̆ ı̶͕ ̺̀̾l¥πlBḫ à͖̗√g͍ ∂fÀ∆̙̝ͅ ̴̧̛͔̬̞̝̀͛́̂e̶̪̳ ͍ ̽̈́̃ ̧̥̬͚̱̄x̴͘ ͛ p̶ ̉͜ ͈͚ ̏ ̩̃͌ d ͌ ̼̭̙̞̠͛̊͜ ͍̚ ̴͈̖͕͙̱͓̽͛̍͆̔̓̕ͅ​̓̉͝lÑǫ̧̛̹∂g ∏ ü ̇̍͂ ͎͖̂m̴ ͇ ͖ ̊ ͔ ̽ ̩ ̓̌̆ ̎͒ ̏ ̾ ̤̲ ̒̉ ̼̜̘̠̝ ̹̞̫̞̅͌w ̆ ͆ ͉̬ ı̶̶̡́̈ l̨̼̺̅̊̕ Ñál®͝ e̻̼≈ ͙̼ π ͉œg ̯̈́̎̐ ̏ ̷̟̒e̵ ̷̒̈ ͘ ∂%͕ ͖͔œ̯̝̲ o ̧# ̦̅ ̜̜̞̋ w̴ ̶ ͌͂ ͓͍̼ ̏ ́͒ ̧̜p # ͙̪̎ ́o̿ ͇͙͆ ̸lB́ ś̵ D̢̬͓ ͚̂ ̙̼̭̎ ̵̬̳͓̄̈́ ̳̥̃̍ ̵ṷ̷͚̳̒̄̽ b¥̃ ∫̤lÑı̷̨̩̱̫ͅÀ Æ¡ ̤c̶̉ ̡ ̞͛ ͚ā̵̸͙͕͘ ̎̂̈ ̪̭̲̊n̸͔ ͑͌ ̩̱͗͋̾ͅ dÑ̚ ͘ ̗̳̪͆ͅ ͜ ̬n ̷̛͗̀́͐ ̗͓͐ ̸o̸̹̻͇̎ ͜n̞̄̑ ̷-̸̜̞̀͗͜p̴̹̬ ̨ ͎̬͐ u̷̬ ̰̳͕̈̾ b®͎i%̡͖lgá ́ # %̞ı̸c̷̱͙̳͆̈́ ̛À̬̈́ ̖s̷̲̆ ̀̃̓ c̴ ̞͂ ̿ ̵ḧ̼̞́ ¨͕C̤̺ o̸ ̏ ͙̂ a̴̺ ̼̻͜lÑ͎̈́̚ á ͕͜ ̤ ̸̢͇̹̈͝e̶​̶̏͒͝ ̩̰̖͑͗̄̕͠q̵̪̯̫ ̰̙̍̂͂ ͝u̴ ̜̀ ̜͗̆ ̩ı̺ ̵ṭ̶̪̯ ̒̀ ̹̪̼̑ ý̡͉ ͕̱ ̜̥̬ ̛̩̏̎̂,̴̷͙̈́́ ̨̩̘̓̀̅̂̚͘ͅ ̺̘̌x̸̼͇̑͠a͜a ı̵͑̕n̸͖̺͓͗̒̊ ̒ ̰̬̒̍͆ g̢ ̶̣̙̉ ̣è̷̷̝̮̋̑̚ ̺͐́d͘ à̱͉̥̈́ ®͝u̵͓̭ ̯̹̳̻ c̢̏ ̛̅͝a̸̴ ̦̞̺̎͑ ͌̚ ̣̖̬̇͋t̵͓̪͓ ̢ı̴́̃̐͊͆ ̹̟̬̜̭ ̛͝o̷ ̵͍̣̠̊̅c̴̨͉ ̀ ̡̀c̶͕̪͉̳͒͌ ̷͈͙ ̛̅e̡ ͈͙̥̒̐​̥̲ ̀ ̖̈ś̶̖͙̙͕ ̿ ı̷̂ s̴̵̼͍͙̟̍̊́͜͝ n̷̲͕̣̠̟͓̅ ͐̽ ͙̈́͒̈́ ̷̦̋̈̽a̷̛͖͍̳͌͝ ̒ ̡e͖̠̓̽̈n̡ ͌ ̵̼͐ ̣̱̮͙̀̑̈́​́d#̵̀ ̺h ͈̻̋ ̧͍͖ n̸ ̐ ̃ ̑ ͙ ͈ ͌ ̰ ͛ ͋ ̏ ̹ ̲ ̼ ͎ ̩ ̺ ̈́ ̀ ̿ ͚ ̲ ̟ ̀ ̈́ e ̽ ̅ ̓ ̀ ̌ ̈ ̔ ̿ ̉ ̾ ͍ ∆ ̽ ̂ ͙ ̲ ̒ ͅ ͚ ͗ ̉ ̀ ̎ ̰ ̭͝ ̐͐̋ ̬̂ ͝ ̎͊ ̎ ͇​͇͉ ̯͙̘ ̰͍͓ ̝͕ ̤̯̬ ͈̺͙ ͎ ͜ ̖̮̯ ̥̪̳͎ ̖͍͇̮̫ ̯̜ ̼ a ̴̧͕̖̅͂ ̦͙ ̯̇̽͋̈́r̸̵ ̩͓ ͘ ͈e̸ ͅ ̬ ̗ ̔̍͑ ̿ ̈́a̶̖̜ ͘ ̧̰ ̗̩͐̈n ͒ ̈́ ͝ E ̀ ͌ ͝ ̓ ̝ ̦̹̜ ͚͕ ̏ ̚ ̗̘ ̜̑͌ 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̂͗̉ ̖͔͕̽ ͎̦ͅ ¨ ̷̙͙̒͌́ ̬͕ %âø√ ̚ ̲̪ ̶ẗ̛̘́͐ ̍̊͆ ͑̄͊ u̶̕ ̷̟ ̪ ̆ ͓ d#̓ ̚ ͔ ̭ e͋ ̣n̸ ̶ ̚ ͇ t̸ ͙ ̵͐̀̾s̷͎ ṵ̴ ̞̑ c̷̀c̴͉ ̪ e͓ ͈̇ ͘ ̭̈s̶̀ ș̵̶ ̿ .̢́ ͔̦ ̵̮̒ ̥ ͕ ̞ ̝ ̕o̶̍̂ ̩ ̢̥͙̋̃͊́͝g̚ ̙͊̄͂ı̷́ ̿ ̵e̵͗​̟͍͗̈́ ̚ ͈̮̓̇̓͒s̷͘ ͇̒̎̂̈ ̾̎s̷̶̤̺̟̉͒̕ u̷ ͠ ͐͆͋ ̦̤͋ ͝ ̒̓̔ ¨îC ͉̭ ̊ ͖̺ ̉​̉ ̵̼͔̒̓́ ≠ ̬̘̮ âÖ̯ d̘̕͝s ̒̐̈ ͗͋̂ ̘∑ ı¥ ̶́¨ º ͔͉̺̓ ̢̓ť̸̡͇̰͙ͅ ̦͓ ͆ ̴̋̐͠͝ ͉ ͉̥̘͒͌̏̕ı̵̵́͌͝ ͙ ̢ ̋ ̳̫̎̊ v̴̵̹͚̺̓̄ ͑̊ ͖͍ ̧͚͔̮̋̓e̔û ̛̗̺͛̐͋​̷̺ ̣̬͙ ͒̚ ̟̎ ̗̟̪ ̒͐̐̊ ̖̩͓ ̒̃ ͙̼ ̃̐̽͗ ̏ ̥̬͎ͅ ̓͗ ̜̩ͅ ̍̓ ̛̿ ̰̯ ̾̉ ̀̐ ̦̠̮̱ ͉ ͓͑ ̎͗ ͊͂̈́ ̾ ̎ ͒ ͗̾ ͛̑ ̊ ̀ ̃ ͆ ̃̍̌ ̤̼̯ ̍̌ ̃̈ ͖̱ ̘̒ ̦̪̳̐̾̂ ̬̲ͅ ̦̩̤͍̊̐ %̩̗̦̻͕̫̈́̅̓ c̶͜ h͇͊ ̽ à̗ ® ̶͊͘å̸̳͓̺̻ ͓ ̩͌s̴̹̰​̰͉̼ ̔̚ ̡̨̬̀̋̆a̶̽ ̈́ ͕̳͐dB $ ̆ ͐ ̛ ͆ ̈́ ͓ ̓ ̂ % D ̓ ̒ ̀ ̅ ̻ ̄ ̓ ͂ ̷̣̝͋̔͋͝ ̭͎ a̸gº ̨̜ ̩͇̕n̴ ̛͑̒̄͊͝ ͇̯ ̧͓̞̇̓͒̊m̷̵͑ ̧ ͈̰̝̃̅̽̆ ̢̿d ͝ î ͝ ͝ ͝ ́̀̉͝ ̧ ̰̱̻̼̪̓͐ ͜͝ ̚ ̉ ̭̟͎̈̆̉d ̢͠ ̦͙∆î√ gjÑ ü ̴̪̳̃̊͝͠êÆ ͔̫͐x̸​̸ ̀p ̶̡͈̰̙̓͜)̷̵ ̚ ̨͎,̢͉͘ ̵͇̼͕̫̇̽̄͠Ωt̴ájǧ̸̛̤̠̀ẻ u̴ ̢͝ ̸̛͎̩̇̐c̸e͜ ̖̓̈́ ̸̲̺̙̌̕ ̱̻w ̵̛̀͒̒͛̔̕​̔ ̥̙̔ ı̷̴̀ ͝ ̬̇ṫ̸͘ h®͂ ͎̪ ∆̺ ̢ ͓dB ̴̛͓̲ ∂̗͕≈e̸͔̼̋̂s̸ı̴̗̮͛ g̸͝ ͇̪̒̃ ̼̲n̵ ̷̌̐ D® ̘̽ ̓͘ ̬̪͑͛̽̌ g̢ ͘ ̈́̇̊͊SÑ ̋ ͛̽͒ ̵r̴͘ ̙ı͝ ̅̔ n̴ ̷̜̅̓͌͆̂̕̚ ͔̭ 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̮̺̥ ͍̘̫̪ ̜̈́ –̜͈̟ͅ ̻̝ͅ ͙ ̔̂​̂́ ̮̝ ͗ ̔̈́̂ ̻͙ ̪ ̏ ͂̈́ ̏ ̝̮ ͕̻̮ √ ͕ ̓̎͊ ͋ ̤͔̲ ͛͑̐ ̭̝̳̼ î√͈̰͚ ̪̤̣͕̗ ͕͈̬ ̽ ͎̟ ̓ ̹͎̯ ̳ ̖̯ ̊́ ̳͇̙ ͂ ̻ ͋ ͙ ̈́̒̑̉ ̹̮̱̺ ̗̻̥̺ ͇̪̆ ͖̣͎̘ ̔͒ ̓̑ ̹ ̔̒̊ ͙̏ ̈̑̉ º ͔̣͓ ̀ ̖̹​̹̟ ̏ ̓ ̹͉̻̥ ͈͇ ̵̛̇͆͂ ̓ ̧̖͓͔ n̸ ̃ ͠ ͌ ͂ ̆ ̙ ̊ ̸̹̝̔̍ ̺̼͎̬s͜ ę̵̰̳̪̓ ̬̮̈́ ̕o̵ ̸̂͋̀̈̾ ̩̠ͅn̷ ̓̀͒ ̢͕̪̞d ͌̕ ̓̕ h#h͙$͉ áj͜º ͖ç̷̶̘͙̂́̾̽͝ͅ h¥̖̱̙̓ ͑ îfe̳À̫͕√ ̧ag ̧̛ ̠̭̤͉͗̇r̸̷ ͓̜̘ȃ̵̂͌ ̛͈̘̔̈ć̸ ̀͐͛̚ t̶̡̛̖̘͈̞̬̭̊̐ é̶̓ ̼̲͓ ͘ ̰̣̺̀̈́ȑ̴ ̱̜̙́ ̗̇͆ ̦d¥ ̵̡̫͇͛ ̣͔¡̥̻̟ ȩ͜ ́ ̖͍̭̂s̶​̶͜ ı̴̮̭͂̽ ̛g̸̢ ̩̖͈̟͐̑ ͔̊w ́ ̓͆ ̳͂ ͜ŝ̨͈̫̉ ̛ı̸̴̄͝ ̴͚͙͛ l¥̶͗bB ̫̝̘͘​͘ ̼̻͊́ ̞ l®̪̬̈́ ø͖̭Ö̞a̸̡ ͐ ͙̎âj ẅ̵́ ̶ %̲͍̯͐ ®r̡ ̧͈o ̗͚ ̶̛͓̯̽͂͘ ͖k¥ ̴̢ á̢∆â̭͕̘ ̩ ͈̝͚̃͊ ̵̨̭̫̃͑t̨͎ ̚ ̡̰͜a̴̧̟̍́ ̛o̵ ̵̴̡ ͕ ̝̲̓̕g̴ n ͓̇͂ ̶ ͘ ̹̌e ̤ ͋ ͌ ̛ ̃ ͒ ̅ π ∫≈ ̠̾ t̷̨̤ ı̵̢͚̀̓̓͂ ̨ ̚ o̷ ̲̒ ̶ ̧̝̳ ̩̯≈e̸# ͎̺̳͉̋r̴̨ ͔̥̆̕ͅ ̈ ͖t̶̴̞͚̿ o̷ ̎ ̙̮̼ ≠ ̹ e͕̼͙̬͛v̵̶̢ ̚ ̧̖̥͜e͋ ̧̰̔l̷ #áo̴̧û∏g ̩̣̙͚̟ ͖̘̈́ p̸͘ ̻͎ ̏ ̰ı̴̶͍̬̔ n̴ ͂ ̅ ̢ ̩̤̭̺͂ͅ ̡ǫ͓̠͔̫͉̓͛v̵̡ ̚ ̕a̷̵͔̹̓̋̅ ̚ ̗͂̋t̀ ı̴​̴ ̬͉​͉ v̸̢̛ ̰̩͚̀ ̙ ͕̞͒͂e̶̦̳̙̐ s̸̷̠͓̬̀̋̽ o̼̬̔ ̧̬̺̈́ l¥̸ áu̴ ̛̰̒͌̉ ͛ n̷̈́̆ s̶͑̎͠͝ ̞ ̍ ̜ ͉ ̽ ͎ ̝ ̈́ ̪ ̏ ̩̤ ̼͍ ̉ ̿ ͛͆ ͝ ͝ ͠ ̆̽ ̏ ̃̎ ̠̯̞̏ ̽͊ ̍̇̆ ̹ͅ ͊̂̆ ͖̘ ͌ ̲͕͎ ̌́̏ ∞†͕​͕̩ ̰̳ ͍ ̾ ̼ ̭̓͑͒͝ͅ ͗ ̊​̊ ͓ͅ ̮ ̇͐̽ ͠ ̈́ ̍̂̈́∑ ͈̭ ̩͓̄̉͝ ̗̠̈́̅̕ ̾̄ ̥͔ ̔̓̄́ ̈́̄ ̀ ̨ î º̇ t̴ ̈́ ̡h ͔ ̍̊ ̫͕ ͈ À ͚ ¨̈́͜ ͈̞̱̤̟ ̗̤̻͉̄ ̴͖̏dÑ ̙̺ ̢ ̗͎̯͔͎ ̚ ̰͕͈̝̙ n̸ ͔̻̭ % ̙ ͈ ̝ ̱ ͈͙̤ ̦̜̻̝̄ ̙ ̪̯̺̱ ͜ ͎͍ ̯̤͍̲ ̚ ̧ ̹͙̭ͅ ͜ ̬̲ ͚̠ ̕ ̶̘͋ch¥ ̷̎́̓ ̒ ̴e̸̕ ̢̧̀ ŗ̷s̷̀ ͂̈ o͇̅ ͗͊ ͑ ̷͜n̹​̛̹̲̓̿ ̖̤͙̔̓ a̸̴ ͆ ̱̮̘͗lÑ̡ ̔͂̐ ı̸̠̂ ̼͙̯° ́t̴̗̯͚ ̎̑̃̍ ͜͝y̜͓̣ ͝ ̖̋̈́̂,̵̐̉​̉ ̸̻̥̺̑ ̷̦̚r̓ ̘̫̟̭o̸ ̵ ̨̗̝̳̙͎͒ ̹ ̺͉͊̈́ a̷̯̚ ̃̓​̓ ̖̠ ̧ ̜͈̑r͑̉ ̖̺͇̕a̸​̸ ͐͆̄ ̰͙ ͕͈̌̾c̸̖̐ t̶̳̜̬̓͂̒ ́e̴̔̓̈́̐̌ ̜͓̲̖ ͘ ͖̩͐̉r̷̙̳̫’̶̀ ̓ ̪̫͆ś̷̝ ͓ ̊ ̨̣͚̥̠̾̑̈́ͅ ͆̚ ̛ͅp ͉ %û º ̗ ͝ ̯̤ ̋͌ ͝ ̭ ̥͕ ͋̑ ̯ ̆͝ ̩ ̾ ̃͝ ͓͎ ̇͋ ̣̱͙̫̺̻ͅ ͛ ͈̪͎̬̼ ͕͚͝t̵̴̀͐̅ ̳̊ o̸ ͘ ͖̪͇̓̈́͋͌ ͠s̷̾̚ .̧̪̠̙͋͆ ̸̱̈ ̀ ͑̎ ̨͙̱̝̪̤̯͝bB̺̮âlBü̖ e̶∂̤̱͚ͅ√° ü ͇̯̜̀͐͝m̴ ̳͕̊ ͘ ͉̮͕̠̾ ̛̗͇̕ ͠r̵̟̻​̻͔o̶ ̮ ͆͝ ̰̙̉ ̠ ̸͔̳͐́͘ı̶̰̩ ̎͆͐̽n̵̞̐ ̟​̟ ̓ ͈͚̪̔̎̈́ t̵͈͖̫ e̸̮͎̥̊ ̺̓̐̿ ̣͙̫͇ͅr̷̡ ¨g ̷ ͗ ̖̱̘͝e̴̎̆ Ë́ ̈́̚ͅĺ ͜# ̓̊​͚̬̪̊̑s̵̱e̶º ̈̂͆̂̄̂ ̚ ̛͖̩͇̿̃̊̀ ̀͝t̷̰̦͙͑̔̈́͐͑ ̻ı̸̶̻͚͌͝ ̍̊ ̛n̶ı̴̨̱͕̲̩͉͔̟͍̋̔̅ ̈́̃̌ ṉ̴͔͖̙̳̓͑̈́̀̎͗͆ ̨̹ ̩͝ ̶̰̮̺̈́t̵͉̻͌͝ ̟̓̆̈̄͝gh¥̹̖̦͖̬ â√ ¡ ̜î̺̀̈́̈e̵̶̯̼͗̐ ̷͛ͅp̸ ̅ ͜ ̗ ͈ ͛ ̆ ͋ ͠ ̀̔̈́ ̤ ̹̄ ̸ạ ̱̅͋͌l̵ ¥ î∂î͚Ö ̭a̵̋͂̊̊ÆÜ ͈̗͇̋̇͗̄͒n̴ ͠ ̹ ̋ ̬ ̿ h ̌ ̐ ̈ ͋ ̄ ͆ À Àá Ω ̒ ͐ ̙ ̔ ́ ̾ ̈́ ͆ ̌ ̈́ ̂ ∞ ͛ Æ͉ ͒ ̓ ̍ ̈́ ͂ r̷̜n ̷ d# á ́ ̵ ̻ ͜ ̬ ̢ ̼ e̵ x̸ ̧ t e̶ ̵ ı̸ r̴ n̵ e y̴ ̷ ͛ ̷ ̤ ́ ͇ ̧ w̴̔ ̧ lB a̷ l Ñ ̞ ̆ ̷ t̸ ı̴ ̡ s̵͈̕ .̴ ͑ ̯ ̨ ͅ ͝ ̯ ̏ ́ ̉ ̶ T® h¥ r a̶ ̸̛͊ À ̰ ͐ ̩͘ Ω ͒ ̧ ̤ ̯ ̯ ͎ ̫ ͓ ̻ ø ̖ ̪ ̬ ͙ ̺ ̦ ̞ ̫ ̣l# ̼ ̼ ̙t̸ ̼ ̗ ͓ ̓ ̞ ̖̥ ̣̲ ͊ ͕̼ͅ ¿ ͉͓ ̽ ̆̄ ͈̤̙ ͚͓͐ ̈́͒ ̩̣͚̟̓ ̙̼ ∑ ͙̘ ̀ ̉ ̫͎̗̺̞ ̄ ̭͇͓ ¿ ̖̙̳ ̼ ͍͋́ ̫̞̱ ∏∆ ̈ ̣​̣̟ ̘ ͑̽ ̅̉ ͝ ͓ ̋ ̗ ∑œ ̭͎ ̒ ̓̄͆ ͐ ̒ ͝ ̀͂ ̇̈́ ̈́̾ ̛̔͂ ͋̉ ͛ ͝ Öâ ̇̆́ ̓̔̇ ̈̈́ ͝ ̈́​̈́ ͠͝ ̇̊ ͑͆̆ ̏ ͛̾ ̋̓͌ ͛ ¨ ͕͜ ̟̲̝ͅ ̜͔ ̎̑​̑ ü ͙̫ ̜̥͇ ̰̚ ̅̉̏ ̓͗͂ ͉ ̈́ ̏ ̦̝͜ Ωœ°̦͖̻̮͇ ̗̟̞̭ ̟͗̎SÑ ̔͆̽ ̛̖̬͍ ̗̻̝ ̍͆͠ ̛̓ȇ͋ ̺̼ ̛̰̪̼̯ ̈́͒ ̰̗̖̀̋̊̀dB͗̏ͅ ̣̙E̝° e ̷ ͔͈̬ ̚ ͘ EÜ̖n̴̝̆ ṫ̼̓͊ı̷̡ŝ̷ ̜̮c̴̢ ̩͔̎ ̖ ̸ȃ̵͖̺̮͚̯̔ ͌̚ w̸̓ ̷̘͚́̔ ͎̀̍͊lB́ l®e͕¿ ̜y̶̹͔ø̘ ı̸̤͙͍ ̿̕ ̓̍͝ l#͓͍̈́ ̝l̨¡̙̪ ̥ Ñ ∆̪̭ l#̸̹͉͒̈̕ e̶π àÖ̮̥ ̈́ ̫̂a̹̝ ̵̤̙̐r̴̲̰͕̪n̴ ̶̡́ ̖̲͉͙̼͌ ̷̛͔ͅm̴͉͇̀ p̶̗͒ lB͜ ͜e¡͉̲ͅ$ ̸̰̟̭͂́x͜ ͘ ̷͖͈͑ ͜á̶̭̘ ≈ ̢̡͐r̸ ̛̣̹̺̫̯t̴̡ ̐͌ ̷̡̊ ̵̗͒o̶ ̡ ̂ ̱̭̟͋ t̸̸̡̩͓̩̿ h#̓͐ ͖͇ ̚ †͎̜ ḙ̷̕ ̪̞̈́ ̵̢̹͈̦͐c̿ ͑ ̢o ͍ ̺̋̌ f̢¥ ̖̮̠̯̻ œ c̷̴̳͕͂ r̶͖̻̓ ͕​͕͜e̴͂ ̣̓̉à ̜͙̍͌t̴̴̢ ı̶̆͜ ̧̰̟ n̷͍̺̊ ̈́͋ ̏ ̗̹̈́ ġ̵̳̠͒́͜ ̶̡͕̗͖̽a̷̭͑ e̶̹̜̭̔̑̉̀ ̷̲̪̽͌͝ͅc̷h̨̩͚̬̪͛͑͒ fÜ̱̮̲̼°a̵̧# ͑̈́ͅr̿ ̡a̴ ͊͆ ̷̜̖̺͛̈c̶̉ ͉ t̴̰̜̼̐̽̑ ̂ ̩̝̮ e̸͗̒̄͝ ͇̪ͅ ̳​̳̻r̸̻͉̳͘ ͖͜ś ̇​̇͂̑́ ͘ ̴̬̙̞͛͊͝ ̓̔ț̶̭̆ h® ̷̡̌͝ ̹͓ î∑͉ ̰͔a̷̠̻t̵̉ ͒ ͔ ̸͍̊ ̴̻̾͘a̷͂ ̝ ̬ ̝̪̲̌̒͂r̵i̙̥t̨ ͙e̍ ̸̏u̴ ̗ ̿ ̷͇ ̵̣̈́t̴e̴̥ ̧̞͕̓͂̍͑c̴ü ̖̰̤͘ ̕h®̧̜̰͎̜̅̽̓͒n̸ ̤ ̋ ̓͐̽ ̱ ͛̊ ̏ ͚͇ ̯ ̄͊ ̖̦̺ ̑ ̹̞ ̎̾ à ͚ ̜̗͇̼̓͛͝ ͕͖̙͎̅̋̐ ̝iÀÜ ͇̜͕ ̳̂͆͂͗ ̠̲ ̑ ̏ ̭̞̍̈́͌͜ f†øE ̝̘͉ ̦̰͈͇̯ ͚͔̖​̖̱̻̮ ͠ ͍̮̤̈́̾͂ ̇̐͝ ̛̮̺͆ ̋̎̆π¿h† ̮̰̯͚ ̃̋ ͔͖̻̠̪ ̈ ̰͕̱̈ ̛̈́̿ ̣̞̺ ̍ ̬͚̺ ͑̍͆ ̿ ͋ ͜ ͈̙̼̋ ̦̟͓ ͊ ̜̣̯̲ ̛̬̈́ ͛̄͝ ͈̳̺̙̜̳ ̀͐͝͠ ̬͜ ̭ ¡ ͙͇̘ ͊̐ ͉̺ ͊͌̉͝ ̅ ̣ ͑̃͑ ͈̼ ̣ ̑͋ ̺̯̳ ̈ ̦̤̻͠ ̇́ ̣̩ ͒ ͝ ͈̼̲ ̾́ ̿ ̓̈ ̀͗̋͝ ̀ ̈̑́̏ ͖̞ ̌̈́ ͎̖ ̥̭ ̙͉ eDC ̅̉ ≠ ∏%̫͎͔͙ ͝ ͂ ̦̰̤ ̂ ͎͇ ̋ ͎̣ ̀̓̒̎̋̆ ̂ ̘͙̤̫ ͝ ͆ ̅ ̫̮ ¨ º ̮ ̂ ̀̃͆ ̪̟͙ ͑̎̄͆ ¨ ̗̋̾̀ ̪͂ a̸͘ ̳̓t̷e̶̟ ̚ ̡̫̌dC∫͚ ® ̢̗c̴̰̐̏͘̚͝Æ hB ̗̠̀ͅ ̠̞̤ ̸ŕ̴ ͍̬̝ ̮̟̎≈ı̡͊ e̸̷̵͔̣͂̕n̸ ¥ ̩ Ω ̲͗ r̷̮ ̶̤̚ţ̷̝ ḩ̻ ̪ Ñeá ̷̥͐ ̶́ ̳̎̈́ ̠Ü̧̫͎ą ̅ͅr̸ ̺a̸ ̈́̄ ̼͍̐c̷̢ ∆i ̴t̴́ ̰͎͚̑ ́e̵̹̜ͅ ͎​͎̣̲͌r̴̡̢ ͖̣̞ ͌̊ ̵̧̢̘͗f̻͚̮ o̴ ̀ ͊ ̨ ̰̐ ̸ı̴m̶ ņ̷̛͍̭͔͋ ̝̼̟̈́̑ g̴̢̡̛̛̖̮͑̋ ̧m ̵̈́ ̗̟̻ ́ ̷͐ ă̸̝͓̫ņ̴̕ ̣̦̍ ı̉̚ ̷p̸͖͉̥͋ ̬̭͛ u̷̜ ̗̜̭́l͜ ®̢ą̷̧…∏͖͙̼ͅ ü ̗͈͚̌t̶̿ ȩ̴̗̜̲̄ ̬͖̮̞̋̅̕dB≠̻​̻ ̧ ̹fB̴̯̻͂ ̶͔̗̍͑͠t̴oü̻ ̿ hB ͅ ̏ ̥͋x̷͇̑ k®̧p̬̋ ı‘̸̖r̸̢ ̨̢ ̶n̷̝é̷ ͕͋͆ ̡͍͊ṣ̨̐̄ g̷̶͘s̡̢̰̩̽ ̒,ı̵̷̱ ̀̕v̸̶̤̑͘ ̗̉ ̶̳̈́̓͝f¥̨͗e̷̲̟ e̵̝̊́ ü͇ ̡̢̳̪̒̉ͅẹ̶̔lÑı̷$̥ ṅ̶̞ ͐ g̨ ̑,̸ ̴̱̊́͝ ̷̝͋͠l®ı̴À̝ v̶̲̞͑ ı̴̩̋́ ̧n̨͇̋͐ ̟̈̈́ g̸̸̀́ ̿ ̾̆ ̡̨͍͜a̴̛̬̿ ̵̈́͂n ̦̒̈́ ̄ ̿ û…ḁ̞̂ ̌̑ ̏ ͝ ̓ ̃ ̫ û∫∆ ͉͙̙ ̫̮ ̍̆͆ ̊ ̖ ̾̈̅͠ ̘͚ ̲̙̮ ͝ ̽ ͐̽̊ ͉ ̹̟ ̐̑ ͐̄̂ ̎̂ ̹̯͇ ͎̲ ̒͂ ̤ ̙̭̻̥ ͂̎̅ ͈̯̥ ̹̝͙ͅ ͗̇̓͂͊ ̿ ̓ ̫͍ ̰̹͈ ͑̌ ̝̞̺͍ ͓ ̈́̓∫ ̗̝ ̍͝ ̦͇̥̏ ͛̚ ̱͔͓̮͜ ̰̥̳͙ ̓̑ ̦̹̩̦ ̤̬ ̒̄ ̪͕̼ ̚ ̹͙ͅ †… ͕͜ ͎ ͒ ̩̗̤̪ ̖̯ ̞͙̳ ̚ ̍͐ ̤ ̻ ̤ fe ̖̗ ͜ ͈̬ ͔ ͌ ̼ ̺͉̊ ͖͓̘̓̅̌ ̔͆̑ ̏ ͉̞͉ ̅̆ ̖̟̪ ͗̄̽ ͎ ͎̂̆̉ ̐ ͉ ̻̝̞ ͈̖̭̥ ͐ ̋͂́​́ ͖̺̙̪ ∂$ ͚̺ ¡ ̪ ̅ ̝͎ ͐ ͚̤̫ ̇ ͎ ̣ͅ ̿ ͋ ̖̣̙ ̮̺̥ ̜ ̜͈̟ͅ ̷̆̄ Ω̖͕° e̢j ͈ ͔̊s̷​̷ ı̰̂ ̷g̴̤̉ ͗͑̕n̷̰̭ ı̡ ̯ ̵n̶̑ͅ ̚ ̛̩̏̉g̵̸̟͔̎ ̹͗ ̶͕̓f̸c̵ ͛ ̩ ̙ ̢͍̏͝t̵ ̮̆ y̷​̷̊ ̧̹̣̜ ̢͚̀̓̋͝nl#͎̇ ̘ ∫̻ȇ̴̷̳́ ̡͎̙̬̀̎̄ ̵͇̆̚t̂ ̳a̸͐ ̵h¥ ̳ gÑ ͙̬ D ü ͅ ̢r̴̜͐̍ ̹̫̊ ̡r̓̊ ͈e̵ ̮͊̈̕n̵ w̵̾́ ̡e̚ ̳͓̮͊l#̸ l#̥∑̥ π̢̿͜ œD̬̮̩ ͙a̷͐ ͒̈́́ ̦͌s̶̴ ̢̗͚̽ ̻̯̫d# ̴ ̣̔ d̶ Ö͓̻ Bg ͋ ̷̢u͓ ̵g̵ ͝ h͙$͉ áj͜º ̶͖̂́̾͝ç̷̘͙̽ h¥̱̙̓ ͑ îf̳À̫√ ̧ag ̷̧̛̠̭͗̇r̸͓̜ȃ̵̂ ̛͈͛̔̈ć̸ ̀ ̚ t̶̡̛͈̖̞̬̭̊̐ é̶̓ ̼̲ ͘ ̰̣̀̈́ṟ̴̜́ ̗̇͆ d¥ ̫̝̘̐͘ ̣̞ ø͖̭Ö̞a̸̡° ̺̼͎̬̔s͜ ę̵̰̳̪̓̇ ̢͕̪̞̓̍̅d ̶ %%̯≈® ͅ ̧͈̔o ̶̛̗͓̯̽͂͘ ̧̛̖͓͔͆͂̇ n̸ ́̏ ̖̲̞̝͆​̝​̝h# ̴̢ ̩ ͈̝͚̃͊ ̨͎ ̚ ̡̰͜a̴̧̟̍́ ̛̤n ̵ ͓̇͂̕ ̶ ͘ ̵̡̫͇͗͛ ̣¡͔̥̻̟ ȩ͜ ̛̠́ ̖͍̭̂̄͂s̶̶͜ ı̴͠ ̮̭͂̽̈́̉ g̸̢̛̩̖͈̟͐͛̑ ̩̠̓̂̄ͅn̷ ́͝ ̓͆ ̳͂ ͜s̨ ̴̛͚͙͛̉ ̶͗bB ̙ ∞$Ü ̯̞ ͐̒̎ ̤͉͠ ̷̻͉̇̅̄ ̄ ̷̀̓s̖͙ ̛͎̕ ̖̰̤̯͓̒͑e̵ ̠ ͖ ̿͝ ̗̣̘̱̀̓͝ o̸̕ ̦̬ ̈́​̈́∞ ̣͎̳͙̍̃͗̈́ ̰͈̊̆̈̂ ̀̽̈́ ͝ ̃͂̒ ̈́ ̞̼͓ ̤̲̳​̳̠͜ ̈́̈ e∞i͙ jr̛̔̂̄̉ ̛Æ ͚o ͔̬ ̔̌͆ ̈́ ͑̂͌ ̰͚̻ ͜ ̦ ͔̗̮̃̊͋ ̩̫̏ ̌̂ ͙̼͔̦̼ ̿ ̲̜ ͝ ̦͖̞̪̼ ̂ ̏ ͈̹̼ ̻̝̀͌̐s ̱ ͓ ̘ ̤ ̺ ̙ ̪ ̦ ͐ ͕ ̘ ͉ ͅ ̖ ̘ ͂ ̝ ∂ ̝ ̅ ͐ ͒ ͝ ̇ ̌ ͠ ̍ ̀ ̼ ̤ ̈́ ̼ ̈́ ͍ ͛ ̽ ̈́ ̂ ̝ ̑ ͊ ̜ ͑ ̪ ̜ ̍ ͗ ̈́ ̞ à ̲ ≈ ̲ ̪ ̠ ̏ ̏ ̚ ̓̈́ ̠̓ ̢b a̷̧ ͎͍̝̌ŗ̸͖̜̗ă̴̚ ̪͇̻̝̅c̡͜ ̨ ̚ ̴ț̸̳̈́ ̢͜e͕͍̟ ͖͇̎͜ͅr̵ ̸̹͙̫ ͌ ̴͖͐a̪ ͘ ̷̳̻̀s̵ ͕͎ ̴̢̧̪̽͘ͅǎ̸̙̲͖ ̨͎ ̦m̴ ̶̩͋͒̕̚ ̳ ȩ̸̺̓m ̸̒ ̮ ͝ ̞͕∞e̴B ü ͈ ̣̰̬̈r̷̬ ͕̝̜ ̋̄ ̵̦̓̒͝o̶ ̮ ͒ ̹ ̈́͊ ̯̚ ̓ ̖̠ ̑ ̖͉̕ ͐͆̽ ͎̰͙ ̌̾ ̖ ͂̒̓ ̓̔̈́̐̌ ̲̖ ͘ ͐̉̏ ̓ ͆ ̩͓ ͍ ̠͆̑̈́̾ ̉ ̿ ̒͆ ͝ ͝ ͠ ̆̽ ̏ ̞͇̯̠̅ ͑̇̆ ̓ ͗͌ ͎͕̲ †∞° ̾ ͑̓͝ ͗ ͗ ̈́͐̽ ͠ ̍∑̂ º ̩͓̃̊̄̉͝ ̲̕ ̓͑̾̄ ̔̓̄́ ̈́̄ îî º ̾̈́ ̋̍̎͒͠ ͓̠̫̪̾​̪̽s̷̢̀ t̶͎̹̲͔̯̫̻͛͊̔ ̷f.̢ ̨̰̣͕͉ # ̦͓ Ω…̵̡̛̺̲̙͓̓̈́ ț̵̴̤̃̓̕͝ h ̩ ̗̲͇̃ ̶a̸̛̦̳ ̺͇l͓͜ #͜y̴f̩̟ ͍̆ḟ á#̅͑s̢̡̮̻̥̩̘̯͍̠͒̈́͠ͅ ̸̥͔̜̙̤̫̐̓͝a̷͘ ı̴̶͠ ͇̥̄̽́ ̮͂ ̢ ̵̛̝̘c̶̀̂̈́ ͇̤̪̋̑̂s̷̀̕͘ä̶̠͔̞̗̙̳͓̫̙̌̓ ̳̥ ̴̡͎͇͑o ̷ ͅ ĺ #͜ ̱ë̶̂ ͖͇̀ ͑ ı̸̶̻͌͝​̻͚ ̛ṉ̶̨͕̩̅ ̱͔ ̀ ̨̹ ̶̈́t̵͉̮̺͌͝ h¥̹̖̬ ̜̺ e̵̮͉͕ ̵ ̨̗̙͎̝̳ ̺͉ a̷̓̃ ̧ ͈̜r͑̉ ͇̺a̸​̸ ̄ ͕͈c̸̐ t̶̬̳̜ ́e̴̜͓ ͖̩r̷̳̙̫’̶̀ ś̷̝̪̫ ̊ ̨̣͚̥ͅ ̚ ̛ͅp ̵̒ ̸͉͊n ̀̇̍͒ ̧̭̞͔̼ ̤͓͙ ∂ e¥͜ ̹̲̜ ̸͖̠͙͗͒͆́̕ ̐͋ ̶̘͋ch¥ ̷̎́̓ ͓͎ e̸̕ ̴̢̧̀ ͋ ̫̱͙ŗ̷̼͎͈̪̬̀s̷͂̈ o̳ ̷n ̝ ̗͖ ͔̪ ̼ ͖ ̩̟͓ ̹͔̘ ̨̜͘a ͜ ̖͙̤ a̸̴ ̰̘̱̮lÑ̡ ̔̐͂ ı̸̯̼͙̞ ́t̴̗̯͚ ̎̑ y͜ ͓̜̣͈ ̵̖,̐̉ ̸̺̻̥̺̑ ̷̦̚r̭̫̟o̸ ̣̭ ͔ ̥ ͅ ̥ ̒ ̝ ̟ ̲ ͑ ̩ ̗ ̯ ̣ ̩ ̯ ̂ ͌ ͍ ̥ ̺ ͙ ̞ ͚ ̣ ̑ ͗ ̈́ ̂ ͚ ̤ ̊ ̺ ̖ ̣ ̭ ̿ ̄ ̋ ̇ ̤ ̊ ̊ ̽ ͛ ̾ ̤ ̎ ̩ ̈́͋ ͐ ͉ ͗͆ ̰̻ ̦ ̠ ̓ ̆ ͛ ̄

introduction to fundamentals of design, PAGE 1 An materiality, creating templates and presentation

Ars Discendi, Ars Entis

of sculptural objects objects and packaging. Fabrication methods methods in in a variety of materials (wood, metal, plaster, found objects) will be explored explor .

er it necessary at I do not consid ters discuss those mat present for me to out which there is no ab of administration excitement. or y et xi an l specia s to exist Apprehension seem uthern States of the So among the people n of a Republican io ss ce ̻ͅ ̯͛̌ â̷̼̊lÑ ΩÀá t̸̷̞̆Æ͉ e ́͜͝ ̧ ̫̈́͌̾ͅ d# ͝ ̹͕ ∞h͎À á̑ by ͠ ̀̔̈́ ̹̄ ̸a̵̱̅͋lat ͛ ̣̼̬ ̣͎̼̇͐͂̈ r̷̚ ̖͎̇͆y̷͛͂ ̐̆̕,̷̧̳̼̠̊͜ ̧̦͈̜̱͐̀́̌͠ ̶̋̇͝ȃ̷̖͇ ̫͔̏ͅ ̩̼̯̺̐̕n̶ g ̫E ë̖́͆̂y̴̷ ̿ ̛̟̍ ̷͛w̴̔ ̧͇̤̼́̍ ̗̪̺̓̎ ͝ı̸̧ ̣l#̯̭͇͂̈̄ lB͖ ̦â̖̙√ ¡̬̼ r͆͝ ̗̼ ̛̠͓͊a̶̸ ̞͐͒ı̴̡̟​̟ ̙̈́̓t̸̩͘ s̵͈̔̈́̕ac ̡̏ ̓ ̖̣͐̃͛͂̕ d ̡ ͘ ∆¨̘̮̬ ¥̡̢ ̟ı̶̶̢͖̲̐͌̀̒̑ ͈͉ ̣̓n̶͆́ ͋ ̾̋̕te̷̶̅̄̈ ̫ ̗͈̝͛̆r̷̜n ¥ ∂îî͚Ö ̭a̵̋͂̊ÆÜ ̷͈͇̋̇͗̄͒n̴ ̤̞ ͖̫ .̴̨̯͑̊͝ͅ ̐ ̶̯̉́̏T®Ωø¨̼À͉h¥ ü̵͋́e̵̢̼̬̻͜ ̜̔̒̆x̸͝ ̰̚ ̿ ţ̰͓͛͠ ̅ ͂ẽ̶̵̈̌͝ ̻ ̺͙̝͆͋r̴͜ ͖ṅ̵͋ th ̖̗ş̶̵̺̂̋͊̚̕ t̮͐̒ ̶̑͒o̸ ̞ ͓̳ ̞̠ ̘̭͑ ̻ ͎̞ ͊ ͙ ̔͋̊̈́ ̉ ̝ ͜ ͑ü ͖ ̝ ̈̽ ͖ ̓̔ ̲̜̯̤͎ th erty and their ̿ ̠ ͛ ¨ ̗͕ ̟̲̝ ̜͔ ̎̑ ͙̫ ̥͇̳̻ ̇͂̑́ ͛͊̉̏͝ ̓͗̔̓ ͉ ̌̈́͝ ̏ ̦ îΩœ∑°̦̰̻̮͇ ̠̗̟̞̭̉ ͒ ̔͆̽͂ ̖̬͍̝ ̗̻̝̬ ̍͆̒͂̌ ̍ ̏ ̛̰̪̼̯ ̈́͒ ̖ ͗̏ͅ ̝ ̓̍͑͂ ̖​̖̰̥̤ ̅͊̽ ͕̼͔͈ͅ E¿Ü ͓ ̇̓͊ ̎ ͖͚͓ ̔͌ ̀̓̍͊ ̙ e∑¿ th ̧ ̜̰̮̯͚ ̬ ̖͔̪ n̴̰͕̼ ı̷n c̴̢ ̩̬͚͔ ͑ a̵͜ ̯̼ ̚ ͎̜̣lB́ l®͕̬ y̶ø̘̙̜ ͍ ̬̓̍̕͜͝ ̝ ̥ eir prop e̴̥͍̮ ̧̞͕̮̺c̴͘ h® r̸͘ ś ̇ ͘ ̴ ț̶̆ h® ̶̞͎̩͌̆̀̊̅̕l̮̼͜ ¥e̸h͈ ̲̜͗̆̾a̶̞̚ ̛͎̮͇̓͐̆̾̈́̕r̸̝̻̳ñ̷͆͊ ̾ ͚̽ t̸̷̞̱̳͑̄ î º ̹ o̸ ̷̡ ̹̜͇̗͓̼ ͉͕ ͔a̷̻̝t̵tra ̡͆ ̩ ͔̎ ̢c̸̜̔͠ r̸̢ ͚̺̽ ͍e̴̵ ͑ ̢̩͊ã̸̡̦͕t͜ ̚ ̡ȩ̵̖̼͆ ̶̹̜̭̔̑̉̀ ̷̲̽͌͝c̷̪ͅ h̨̩̬͚̪͛͑͒ f̼Ü̱̮̲°#a̵̧ ͑̈́ͅr̿ ̡a̴ ͆͊ ̷̜̖̺͛̈c̶̉ ͉ t̴̜̰̼̽̑̐ ̂ ̮̩̝ e̸͗̒̄͝ ̪͇ͅ in ͔͇̜ a̷̴̻̠̲̾͘ ̝̪̲̭̞r̵̍͜ ͙e̿ ̷̦͇̯ ̵̣̈́t̴͔̖̱ tio ̏ ͚͇ ̯ ͊̄ ̦̖̺ ̑ ̹̳​̳̻̞ ͉ ̾ ͖͜ à ̙̬̞͚ ̭ is ͖ ̱ ͌ ̰ ͛ ̰ ̍ ̆ ̯ ̤ ̛̤͔̭͋̋̑ ̛̛͑ ͐̓̽ ̱ m ͖ À ̳ ̻ ̺ ̟ ̃̎̆͊ ̊̽ ͠ ̒͒̉ ¨¨Àg ̦̜̳̝ C º Æ ̰̅͒͝ ̖ ͔̥̤̎ ̛̗ à∞͐̄ ̀ ̖̜͇̬̠ ∞¨øg ̒͌ ̟ ̠̑͋Ad ̅ ̊ ̋ ̲ ̙ ͕ ̄ ̋ ̬̝̋̇̐͝ ͊ ̛̫͆̋̎ ̸r̸̢ ̝​̝é̷ ͋ ̠̻ ̡͍͊s̨ s̶̡̢̰̩̦͇͛̽̈ ̛̈́̿̚ ı̵̷̰̱͆ ̿̀̕v̸̗̉ ̨e̷̟̲͕̪͗͊ ̛̝͕͛̈́̊́̚͜͝ y are to be ̶̧̛̲̮̎̇ ͓e̷j ͉ı̷n̷̲̓ ͍ ̧ ̝̈́ g̴̢̡̋ ̧m ̴͓̄c̷a̹ ̬̥ͅp̷ ̶ a̸̱bB͙l¥Æę̶͕̜ ͖ ̨ ̷̨̹͕̍͜͠ō̧͈ f̸́ ̢Ñ ͇ bÑ ̵̈́ ̻ a̸̷͐ ̝͛̆ņ̴̕ ̣̍̉ı̚ ̷p̸͉͋ ͛ u̷̜ ̗̜̭̎́͜l®̢ą̷̧…͖∏͙̼ͅ ü ̗͈͚̌t̶̿ ȩ̴̗̜̲̓̄͝ ̬͎͖̮̞̋̅̐̕dB≠i̻Ü̻ ̧ ̹fB̴̯̻͂ oü̻ ̿ ̠̞̤̯̀̈́ ŕ̴̸ ͍̬̝ ̎ ̷͂̕e̸͔̣ ͈͇ ̖̮ ̥̙̭͋x̷͠ ̧p ̥ ̥̳ ̄ ̼ † onal securit ̲ ͉ ͐ ̹͇̳ ͎̲ ͛ ̩̻̥ ͂̎̅ pe ̼ ̩̰̲͉ ͈̹̲ ̮̺̘̜̠ ̠ ̾͒͂ ̦͍͚̥ ͖ ̔̓́͝ ͕̪ ̓̋̄ ̹ ̣̞̤͉͑ ̀͗̾̎ ̰͔͚​͚ ͊ ̦̥̞̱ ̈͝ ̂ ̣̩̮ ̼̟ ̒̈́ ̖̦̮ ̄ ̿ û…â̗̩̟̥̞ ̌̑́ ͓̫̏ ͝ ̓ ̦ ̃̆ ͖̫̥ û∫∆ ̬̭͉͙̙ e ̹ͅ ̇͂ ͍ ̞ ̈́̓ rs ̫ ̍ ̖ ͠ ̘͚an ̒ dÖ…̻ Bg ̇m̸̒ ́ ̦͌s̶̴ ̢ ̗͚̽ d# gÑ ̬͙ D ü ͅ ̹̫̊ ̡r̓̎̊ ̷͉̻ ̄ s̷̖͙̀̓ ͙͍t̵̮͗̓̆ y̷​̷̓̊ ̧̣̹̜̬ l#͎̳̇ ̺͍̘ ∫∫̻è̴̡̙͎̬̎̍̄͝ ̳a̸͐ ̏ ͙̕ ̮̤̲̓̑͊̈n̵ ̔ ́ ̡e̚ ͓̳̮͊l#̸ l#∑̥​̥ ̢͜π̿ ̮̬œD ̷͙͐ä́͒ac ̷̫̻̯̄ ͑ Ω̖͕̰͚° e̢͜j ͈̦ ͔̊​͔s̷​̷̊ ̮ ı̰̂̆͆ ̷g̴̩̤̫̊̉ ͙̼͗̾̈͑̅̕n̷ o̸̕ y ̴ ̶̢̗͔̩̑͘͠ pe ̰̭̲̜ ı̡ ̙̮̯ ̵͝n̶̦͖̑̽ͅ ̚ ̛̩͈̏͐̽̊̉g̵̹͖͗̐̑ ̶͕̓f̄̂ d ̸̡̣͎̻̘̙̓͂͝ ͓̀̒ ̢͉ o̸ ̧̻ ̨͖̔̃͐̈́̌̀vȇ̷̸͈̰͎ ̘ ̿ ͘ ͓̠͑͋m ́ ̼͋̊ͅ e̵̶ ̚ ͈ṅ̚ ͗ ̠̎ ̴t͂ ͘ ̶ ̺̏ ̵̛̤̍͗͜a̘͚̝͆s̸̶ ̓̎ ̨̛̗̜͚̰͚̆ w̵̾ ̣ ̿ ͜ ͈ œ ͐ ͊ ͝͠ ̔̄ ̉ ̍ ̈́̉ ͋̉ ̇ ̔ ̥͉ ̑̾ ø∂fÖ$ ̭͙ ̌ ͂ ͝ ̬͔ ̔̌͆ ̈́ ͌̂ ̻ ̗̮ ̃͋ ̏ ̌̂ ͔̦̼ ͝ ̞̪̼ ̂ ̏ ̹̼ ͝ ̙ ∞$∂Ü ̒̈́͐ ͠ ͐ ̀ ̦ ̈́​̈́∞ ̣͎͙̃̍͗̈́ ̆̈̂̊ ̀̽̈́ ͝ ͂̒ ̳​̳̠ ̈̈́ ̛̔̂̄̉ ͓ ̅ ere has never been an ̏ ̚ ̠̓ ̸̒ ̢b̞∞e̴B≈ed ͖͇̎͜ͅr̵ ̸̹̫͙ ͌ ͖a̴̪͐ ͘ ̷̳̻̀s̵̏ ͎͕͊ng ̶̩̣̯̐ ̖͖h̤ e̴gá ̛͉͇͑̊ͅs̵ı̶͕̮ g̏͘ ̨̋͗ ̹͍̠͒n̷ d# ̷ ̙͂ ı̶n̶̜͆ ̝́ͅg̵̡ ̨ ̢̐ ̷́̔a̷̡̼ ̲̓ c̶̴͕̐ ̺ h ̩͋̕̚ ̳ ȩ̸̺̓m ̴̢̧̪̽͘ͅǎ̸͖̲ ̨͎ ̶͒m̴ ͓ ͍̆ fá# .̯à ̸̥̓̐͝a̷̤̫ ̮͂ ̝c̶̵̛̈́̀̂ Th ̀ ͈̒ ≠ ͔͉ #a̷̧ ̧ ͍̝͎̌ŗ̸̜̗͖ă̴ ̚ ̪͇̻̝͗̅c̡͜ ̨ ̚ t̸̴ ̦̠̳̈́ ̢͜ê ͍̟͕ da ã̶̗̓ ̠̫̪̾̽s̷̢̀ t̶͔̔ .̢̨̣̲͕̽ ̵̡̛̲̙̈́̓ ü ̰̈r̷̝ ̋̄̈́ ̵̓̒͝o̶ on. ͔͎̲ ͎ ̼͙͉ ̘͓ ̲̤̘͉͓ ͕̘ ̰ ̻͇ ̣̺͙ ̹​̹̰͉̮ ̲ en si ̝ ̗͖ ͔̪ ̼ ͖̲̙ ̦̩̟͓ ̹͔̘ er͕ ̣̬ ̜͕̦̳ ̦ ̩͍̠̘ ͔̜̙ ̘ ͓̙̳̫̙ ̪͓ ̹̫̯̲̻̥ ̰͉ ͓̺ ̭̣ en eh ̠ ̝ for such appr e reasonable cause th to ce en ample evid d Indeed, the most e wh an d te is l th e whileil ex l th und contrary has alal inspection. It is fo r ei th to en to open been op speeches all the published in nearly al u. I do but yo s se dres of him who now ad ose speeches when I th quote from one of — at th e ar decl directly or I have no purpose, the institution re with indirectly, to interfe es where it exists. at St e th so, of slavery in lawful right to do I believe I have no ation to do so. in and I have no incl e ed and elected m at in m no o wh e d Thos ha I at dge th ledg owle know ns did so with full kn io at ar cl de r is and many simila ; and more this adee th mad m em nted th and had never reca ed in the platform ac pl ey th i , this anth than th , and as a law to for my acceptance e, the clear and m themselves and to which I now read: n emphatic resolutio

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YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

1959 1959 Board of Govenerors established

Timeline •

Board of Governors established George Argyros graduates • George Argyros graduates

1960 1960

̜ ̰ ͑ ͍ ͚ ̞ ̀ ̓ ̊ ̈́ ͆ ̔ ͗ ̊ ͓ ̌ ͂ ̾͝ ̉ ̩ ̈́ ͌ ̇ ͂ ̹ ͙ ̟ ̌ ̈́ ̅ ̎ ͌ ̃ ̒ ͂ ̉ ͗ ͛ ͌ ͐ ̎ ̔ ≠ ̈́ ̈́ ̈́ ͒ ̓͒ ͠ ͙̥ ͙̃̉͝ ° ̸̼ ̘͂̊͗ce̷̴̢ ̩͎̀ ̏ ̚ ̪̝̬ͅ ̟̒̆̅̈́͠ ̶̡͕͚̾͘w g ͓$̝î ̸̺̀̔̊͆̍̀͜ ̸̳̍c̴̥͂ õ͇̂̓ ̴̡͈̝͕̞̀̑͌͋m̷ ͍IÑ̴͉͒̂ j̢n ̸ ̫̭̳ ̥ͅ ̴͎̖̻̉̈́̅̕͠à̸ ̧ ͔̺̳̎̑ ̵̗͉̆̍͠c̵ͅ ̇͒ ̢̀ǘ ̓̉̌ ̭̹̊ ̷s̵t̵̛̰̳͆͋͛͠͝o̸ ͠ ̸̓ ̨ ͙̱a̴̶̜̮̓̒͜ ̣͐̆͒s̀͂ ̶̖͊̌∫ o̶ ̐ ͔̺̲ͅ ̮̳ ̪̲̹ ̔ ̬ͅ ̜̦͋ ı̵́̆ ̷́ ̱̠̕ţ̛̾ ͆ ͈̱̗ h® ¨ ̀ ̋ ̈́ ̵̀ ̜ ̢̈́̇e͂͆̔͛͐͝ ̀ ͝ ̋ ͍ ͍ ̣ ̄ ͇̃ ͗ ͋ m ͕̈ ̯ ͙͇̞ ͛ ̚ ͘ ̹̮̩̦̍ p̸͉ ̌͋̽ ̥̲͓̺̫̔ l#͘g ͉̾̊̑ı̸û† ü ̡͜a̟̠͛ ̻̖̃̊̕ͅn̶ ̶̡̘̜̬̈G ̾ ̥͊̌ Ω º ̷͇̝̉ ̄̉̈́ ͚̮͍͗͊ l®̎̆̚ dB̮̳͉̜heû Æ ̀̅ ̙ ü̷̦͕̃a̴̩ ̤̓͂̋̈s̉͠ ͘ ̷̯̀̈̋̂ ̸̢̜̼̾̏t͎ ͗̊ hÑ ̹ ∑∏ ̔ ͖̞̣̽̕à∫̽ ̓̎͋ ͉͚̤ ̠͉̫ ̌̎͒ of ̓̉ ̹͙̰ͅ ͑ ͇ the ͉ ͙ ͍ ̗ ͖̒ ̪ ͖ ̷ ̐ e̷̴̽ ̯͊̾n̿ ̬͗̔t̶̸ ̒ ̿ ͙͋͗ ̚ ̷̻̒ı̴̨̘̼̈́​̈́ t̵́ ̛͓͇̲͒̐​̐ ̡̢̝ş̩͍̈́̊̇ ̴ę̵̣̭ ͘ ̣̥̇̆̈́̃l̡̀͊ ¥fṈ̃â∞field ͈ Computational science ̸̡͠ ̌ emerging ͉n̋ ͚͗̓m ͙̑ ∞̺ Ño̗ ̴̧͚̹̗͉̋̇vis͆̔ ͈̱̯͕ȇ̷̵̡̓ ̏ ͉̻̺̓ȑ̷an ̈ ̙ ̮ ̋ ͆ ̍ â π E ∂ ͌ ̍ ̔ , ̱ ͒ ́ ̵ ͙ ̿ ̠ I¥ ̈ ̸ ̰ ̩ ̢́ ̢̜͉̾͜p̷̻ ͚͒ ẽ̂ ͙̻̓a̸̵ ̒ ̝̘́̍̀r̴̹̘̱ ̋ ͈bÑ ͈ ̱͔ ͚​͚ ͖ ͕̏ ̜ ̺ ̘ ͈̼ ̹̫̣ ͉̜͔ ̴̮̀̎̈́a̶̳ ͐ ̙͙̯p̷ ͒͠ ̿ ̬̥ u̶ ̷̞̍ ̓̄̑ ̢̛͎̆e̞̮͎̫̠̐f̶ ̨ o̸ ͝ ̣̓̅̆​̆̍ ̨̖ ̦̬ ͙t̶̴̹͗̃͛̚͠ ̈́̃ o̴ ® ̰̟̯ â ̛͕͚̜̅͒͐͜r̨̘̦̙͙̭e̶̴ ̓̈́ ͔ ͎̝̬̽͊̾̃̕͜ ͊ ̵̜̍y̺̬ ͆ ̗o̴ ̈́ ̉ ͉ ͂ ̜̠͎​͎ ̎̆ mathematics. ̙ ͊ ̱ ͑ ̮̬̔̈̈́͌ ̛͠͝ ́ ̀ ̶ ̮ ̎ ͊ ͎ ̝ ̪ ̤ ̰ ͑ ́ ̜ ͗ ͋ sciences, computer science, ̽ ͇ ͛ ̿ ͍ ¡ ̵̘͇̗͛̓ ̥͉̑͗͆͐ͅdB a̷ ̮ ̌ ͕ ͆ ́̉ ̾͠ ̘̻̬ø¿ ̧d̦ ̿​̿ ̕à͖͇ r̷Ñ ̙͓ ̿​̿ ̰͇e̶̓ ̰̙̫̄̌s̶̿͘ s̴͚̣͌ͅ ̖̰̀̈͆̔̐ and ̈ ̝ ͗͠ ̿ ̱ ̀d¥͕͙Öi¡̢̿ ť̷̷̙͗͠​͗ o̞̾̈́ ͖ ̷̪͋͌ ̶͑̑̏t̶͙ ̹͔ ă̴͓̯̠ ̫͚̘ ͊̌͋ ̬ ̎ ̭̼̩ ͋͌ ͚ ̾̈ ̓̎͗ ̒ ́ ̞̬ ̦͕ ̂́ ̝͓ ̀̓ ̗͉̝ ̈́̅ ̞̪͙̥͈̀ ̚ ̌ ̨̱͖̘̹̤̔ͅ ̇ ͑ y̷̶͖̔ ͆ ̨ ͉̣̖̙o̷ ̅ ̼͍̲̅̕ u̴ ̢̡͠ ̈̌͛ ̛̻̩̂͌ ̢͖͓̉̚bÑ ̴̂͂ ͓͖͍̈́͜r̿ ͈̥ı̸​̸͝ ͒ ̛ĕ̴̋̌͑ ̰̙͂̓ ̛͇͎̈́̊f®≠́̏͝ l®̥͔ ̌¨̕y̸̞͘ͅfi ̰̇̀͋ ͖ ̷̩̾̎á͂͝ ̘͙ ̵̙̫̐n̴ ͎ ͔ ̫ ̣ ͉ ̬ Ö ̚ ͅ k ̲ ̜ ̎ ͋ ̝ e # ̤ ̣ ̑ ͜ ̹ ̷ ̼ ̻ ̟ ̟ ́ ̵ ̫ ͜ ı ̱ ̛ ̵ n̷ ̻ ̈́ ̾ ̤ ̓ ̦ ̝ ͋ y ̯ ̈ ͠ ̓ ̷ ̼ ͔ ͒ ̓ ̎ ͓ ̝ ̩ ̬ o ̢ ̵ ͒ ͎ ͇ ̟ ̸ u̵ ́ ͇ ͎ ̯ ̔ ̂ ͜ ̖ ̍ ̠ Ö ̋̓ ̍ ̅ ͉̪ ͝ ̆ ͓̖ ̿ ̍̅ ̪ ̾̑ ̐ ̱̳ ̳̜̲̱ ̮ i ͌ ͕͙ e∞√ ͉̲ of̱̞͗ ͈̦ ̐ ̞̲̙ ̝͜ ̟̖ ̭̮͉ ͉̺̼ ̿ ̤͖̜ ͚̃ ̹̰͎̗͎̳ r̵̡ ̦̩ ̒ ̵͇͖̞͗p̵ ̡͓͔ ͆ r̴̨ ̢e̽͋̽ ͘ ̆̊ ̀͑̅̏͠ ̑̾ ̛̕ This course is to provide ̟t̴͊͗̕ ̷́h¥̜̝̺̄̍̐͋ ̹̥̰∑øe̶º ̬͉̃̉ ̭o̵ ̴̙͊̓ ̹̳̜ a̸the ̢̣͔͓̇ ̹̱ ̞͓$Üûjπ fundamentals ̚ ̖͍̝̾t̷̋ C% ͈̮ hB ̴̌ͅ ̯͕̌̊ ̵ŕ̴ ̠͈̰e̴̒ ̦̫̤͛ś̨́ c̵̭̼̾́ ͋ r̸̴ ̺̖̌ ̯ı̅ ̸̢ ̘̩̮b#̈́͘ ̬̙øe̵̡ ̡̤͐̆̕d ̡p ͋ ̍ ¨y®̨Ü ̩ ̨ ̷͗ ́ ţ̷̶̛͇̳̎̓̕͜h®̦̊́ ̟ܨe̵g ̢̘͎́ CÑ ͠ ̜̟¿ ¥ ̨̮ ̸̰̓b ̉ ̧ ̻̟̊̂sẗ̷̨́̆̓ ͎̰ ̅​̅ ͘ ͊͑ ͝ ̛̀ ͝ ͔͖ ̑͋̅ ̗ ͋ ̝͇̙̩̤ ̾ Ω≈ ͎s̸ ̶̦͔́e̸̫̮̱̫ ͇̰̃Üîn͘ ̴̫̙͉̮̠̤̓͜c ̇̋ ̟̯ ͇ o ͓ ̊ ̯ ͝ ̘ ͌ ̷ ̼ ͆ ∑ ́ ̧ ̪ ̩ ̶ ̡ n̵ ̩ ̗ ̟ ͕ ̶ ̀ ı̸ ̬ ̲ t ̨ ͓ ͍ ͅ ̥ ̕ ̸ u ̡ ̭ ͖ ̳ ̕ ̔ ̓ ̃ ̮ ̅ ̖ computational science, and introduce a variety ̵ ̀ t̶ ̕ ͖ ̫ ̼ ̼ ̈́ ̹̪ ̜͎ ͐͒ ͉̯̣̳ ̣ ̯͓̰ ̬ ̥ ̝ ̙̲ ̫̲̫ͅ ̔ ı̢̀ ̻̫͉̬ ̿ ̸̡͜ö̻͙̤́ ̧̬̘̗͓͗̐ ̵n̷̪̱̠̲̆̉̀́ ̨̧͕͕o ̷̜̃̌͘ ̕ ̍ ͍̰̬̔͝ ̞̭†∆ię̭ Æ ̴̛͍̑̅ ̵̐̇̽̇͠ ͈̕Ü̅ n̸ ̬U ¥ ̼͖ ̱̍ ı̵t̸ē̴̡̌̇͠ ̡͒ ̰̼e%¡ ̷̡̜̤̟̓̉̌͘͝ͅS̄̂ ͕̣…Bṯ̷¨̗° a̷̜͎͂̂ ̚ ̺͙t̵̉ ͍̟è̵̩̜͊̇ ̿ ̰s̚ ̴̞̈͆͝ ̃ ̧̙t̵͙̆͑̔̅ o ̘ ͛̋ ̊͛ͅ ͊̆̈́ ͝ ̹͇ ̹ ̰̖̮͔̓̍ f¥̶̊​̊ ̡j̩̥͚̼̖̹ î̈́̇̈ ̛̗t̷̀̏ ̸hB ̺ ̰͋̔́͠ ̚ b® ͑n̸ ̴ ̧̪̭͐ ̍̇ ̴̱͍̥͐͋̎̀͝ ̵̫̄b̫̺̘Ω͜B̢e̿ ̴͚̩͂ ͔ ̵̣͑ț̛͂͆̏ a̶̷ ̗͖̆̇̓̌ ̘͚͎̃͛̈́k̢̋ how ͋ ∏ ̜ ̈́ ͝ ̛ h ̇ f Ñ e̸ ̀ ͐ ̘ ̮ ̀ g ̽ ͑ ͔ ̚ ∞ ͉ ̈́ ̘ ͗ ̴ ̝ ̈́́ âhD ̱ ̽͆̊ ͈ ̿ Ü∑à¡∂$ ̭͙̣ ̼͖̑̋ ͉̟͇̖̽d# ̛ y̶ ̄ ̍ ̑ ͋ of scientific applications. We will examine we will examine ̲ ͍ ̩ ̪ ͜ ͖ ̧ ͒ ̶ t ≈ h ̶ ͆ ̊ ̝ g B ̧ e̸ ̰ ̍ ͂ ̤ ͊ ̡ ̥ ̞ ̬ ̧ P ̇ ̶ ͑ ͉ ̲ ̕ ͎ ͓ ̜ ® r̴ À ̰ ̝ e̸ ͎ ͌ ̖ ̲ ̞ ̓ ̂̕ ̖͂∑͔͓Ñe̶º̝ ̡̻̃̈̀̉͠ ̧ͅè̷̛͙̂͌͠ ̸͎̍̔́n̴ ̞e̴​̴̨͍̮͗̈́̈́ ͅ ̛̜̈̕r̸s̵͊͌͂ ͈̱̞ ́̈́͆͗͝ ͑͐ ͉ ͊ ̓ ̛͓̤ %i∞° ̰̱͙̬ ̒̔͊ ̗͉ ̓̊̈́̒ ̟̙̩̀̈́̔̓͝ ͚̙ ̓͐̔ ̬̟͍͉ ̽͛̔̏ ͙̬ ͓͌̉̔ ̔ ͉̭̓ ̏ ̩͜ ̀ ͐ ̙̠ ̟̣͓ͅ ͜ ͒͛ ̫̼͍̭ ̻̯̺̝s̴̟ı̷̥̖͑̒̅̉ͅ ̿ d¥̙͔̀ ̅ ͘≠ ̣͕̦ ́e̵ĘE ̢̯̼̰̲̳̔ǹ̛̖̘̖̰͊ ̴̀t̸̲̖̥͔̀̈́͝ ̉͑ e͖ e̵̯̮̐́fB͘ o̭ ∑ ̴̰͚̓͂̄ŕ̸ ̚ ̬̰e͑ ̷͓͛̋́ͅ ̶̨̣̈h ̿ ̟̤̲̃̎b# ̄ ̑ ̵ ̫ ̊ ͝ ̖ ͝ ̙ ̮ ̣ ̌ ̑ ̢ t ͘ ̦ ̖ ͕ ̥ ̔ ̚ ̷ ͛ ̀ o ̨ ̞ ̈́ ͆ scientific investigations ̴́ ̞ ͈̪Ö ®á̧̢ein ̝ ̷̢͓̹̆ ̶̰̞̓̔͝ͅe̷̢̯͈̹͗x̛̝e̶̷͔̱̋ ͓̹͂̍ ̡̳̘̋̄c̷u̷̕ ̽ ̂ ͝ ̄ ̀ ͔̀ ̉ ̳o̶ ̪ ̮͍ ̌͛ ̭̲̦ ͍̫̪ ͙̥ ̊͐ ̦̹̮ computing ͝ ̱̐́ ̛̦À∂ÀBı̵g ̡̀s̸͍̮͉̈́̑ ̤̀̓̂̎̕͝ o̴ ̋̎ ͈̭ involve ̰̝ ̭̆͂ ̳̺̣ ̚ ̭ ̙̘ ͙͔ ̶n̴̿ ̟̞̣̀ ̀ ̷̨̲̞̜̍th ̷͚̀̇͛ ̖̔̈f͎͙͓ ®g ͍ ∫%hf ̸̔ť̷͖̲ü̋ h ̶̺͈͔͋̈́̀́͂͝ ̞̘ͅ ̈́ ͘ ̿ ͒ ̛͂̕ ̗ ̣̤͙ ̂̃ ̯̰ ̯͚ ̒̈̋ ̼͇ ͆̎ ̢ ̗̦̬̇ ̅̑ ̺̹̣̜̋̆ t̵͑ ̢ı́ ̱̌ ̸o̸̥͒̾ ͖​͖̥̟̇͌̋n̶ ͛̂̒ ΩΩ ̱dB ̏ͅ ∏âág ü ͎̻̫͙̄̓͊͋͛͜͝ physics, ̡̙͚͘͜͠n ̴̽͋ ̻͈ ͇​͇̈́͋o̵ ̴ ̿ ̻̝͆̂ t̴͝ ̅̽ ̼̔̌̆ ̎ ͕c̶͌͆͗͘ ̷o̱͒ ̢̛͚̝͗̓̓n ̕ı̷̳̮ ͜d¥̤͉̭̜̀̈̽ ̏ ≠ ͉͔∏ e̴̖ ̿ ͙̟͆̈́r̷̐ ̿ ̨͘ ̨͇̳͝ ̎̄ ̏ ͇ı̶̵̘̮̎̿͘͜͝ ṫ̴̛̈ ̯̰̎͆͑͗̍ ͖ ̦̰̀̍̌̇̄͜͝ ̷̪̖̀͘͝n̴͕̹͙ ̠͍̍ e̵̚ ̘͊̍́c̷̽͝ ̃̊̈ ̛̩̗̥ global ̸ ̿ ̥̱̣̓ ̷s̴chemistry, ̜̳̮ ̲ ͈̫̤̺ ͆̊͌ ͓ ͈̹̯̣̜ ̒̔͐̍͝ ͔̤̩̘̣ ̆̇̉​̉ ͙͎̟̻ ̚ ̪̻͚̦̤ ͍̝̣̈ f¥f̧̭͕͍͓̙ ®ı̜̲ † c̵̴ ̨̯͉̩́ è̗̫̟̌̽ basic sciences sucḩ̸͎̙̺̗̫͋͆̑I¥̡g ̱̲̭̝͙œ¿√û as ͑ ̚ ͝ ̶̛͍̻͆́͂̕ ̈̀̅ ͈̼ͅÜÀ o̸ ̄ ̺ ̉ ͒ ̎ ̏ ̇ ̖ ̌ ̳ ̈́ ̛ ́ – ̨ e ̴ s̴ ̾ ͘ ̕ s ͂ ̈́ ̰ ͅ ̨ ̕ a ̢ ̷ ̎ ̰ r ̴ ̐ ̓ ͕ ̻ ̧ ̨ ͂ ̘ ̵ y ̌ ̙ ̃ ̘ ̀ ̸ ̬ ̺ ̉ ̶ ͔ a̵ ͛ t̷ ̦ ̞ ̉͘ ̇ ́ ̀ ̵ p ̠ ͘ ͚ ̾ ̯ ̙ ̗ %̢f̵̻͑̑͒ o ̬ ̏ ̷ r̶ ͘ ͖ e ̟ ¨ ͎̟ ͋ ̦̩ ͋̎ ̅ ̃̇ ͈̰ ͎̟ ̟̯͔ ͎̙̭ ͎̮̦ ̻ ̺͇ ∆¿ ̩̭̉s̶̸ è̴͓͎̆ ͖ ̮̜̫̆n̶̩͔̪̲̈́͐͜t̵̿ ͔̰ ̄ ̄ ̸̜͆̊̋͘͠ particularly ̓ ̆͒ ͓ ̑͐ ͠ ͛ ́ ̓͊͝ ̸̢͚͐̉ ̺̻ ͚øCœEh ı̢á ̷Æ ̮̞ ̘s̵͛̌ c̷̄̇͝ ̐​̐ ̙́̕biosciences. ͛ ̎͛ ͇̝̩ ̴͔͕́ ̧̗̻̈́ ̠ eâ…Bjo change , medicine and ͎ ̧B ̭̟̙̖̲ ∆√ ̷̻̩͕̂̕ȑ̶ ̡̬͈̼̀͠ ̓̌̄̐̿ ̢̜̰̤m ̺̪ ̕͝ ͋̂̋ ̜̰̠͚ ͊̈́̂ ͝ ̔̆̓͂ ͑͝ ͝ ̒̎͒ ̅͒͆ ̓̃̒̈́ ͜ ̟ ̜ ̹ ̿ ̀u ̍͂ ͖͛̔f®̶ ̭̱̟͎ͅ ̱̲ îeû à̸̵͎̂̽̓́͝ ̓ ͔̅̔͗d ̸̮̋͆͝ ̏ ̄ ͔̯͂̒ ͜a̸̍ ͠ ̼̅̈́͑̄t̵̓͠ ̚ t̸̶ ̤̗̅ e̦̾ ̚ ̬̠̥̮ ̓ ̥͂ͅr̷​̷̜​̜͈ ̣̠̬s̸͆ ̋ ̟̘̃̋͐̎͠ ̏ ͍o ͐̄͛ ͘ ̗ûÖ∫m̴̓ ͌̍ ̞͕̰͔ ̢ĕ̶ ͐̄̔̑ ̴̲̝ͅ ̨ ̚ ̲̣̘̰t̴̸͈̓ ̃ ̢o̔͛ ̳​̷̨̳̈ ̲̼d# ̟̇ ̧̜â̲̯Č̳͒… ̷s̷̡̛̚s̄͆͊ ̿̚ ̴̞̀ ̴̩͗t̅ h ̣ ̭̣̳̼ ̨̬ ͗̐͂ ̳͇̤͖̔̊s̶̵ ̲e̶̢͙̮̖͛̔ ̿ ̢̇̃͐ ̊̄͐̔̚ ̤m ͛ ̸ ̲ ̱ ̀ ̈́ ® ̾ ̝ ı̶ n̵ ̓ ̣ ̃͘ ı̶ ̃ ̥ ̽ s̵ ͋ ͌ ͚ t̶ ͘ ̖ ̥ r ̈́ ̯ a̴ ̴ ̀ ͌ ̅ ̔ ̝ ͉ ̘ t̸ ͠ ́ ̿ ͈ ≈ ̰ ̼ ̢ ı ͔ ̐ ͚ ̳ ͗ ̔ ͊ ̞ ͑ ̖ ̣ ̇ ͜ ̲ ̏ ̎ ̱ ̰ ͜ ͓ ̑ ̒ The student will be͈a̷ ̸̞́̅̋̕ offered ̪ ͂ ̓ ̪ ̲ ̮ ̗̱ ͕ ͇ ͉ ͋ computer ̶̋ hÑ̛̼̕¨$ı̶̕c̸̤ ̛h¥̫̾ C%≈á ̸͇̇t͗ ̌̕ à√ ̂ ̇͒ of ̋̑ ̄ ̬̭̍̓̾o̴ ̫̝͜b̩̺¥o̸º ̧̝̣̔ ư̪̲ ̷̡t̷̀ ̭̉̏ ̷̒͒͜͝w̆͐ ̺ examples ̴́ ͓̲̂̆͌ͅ ̝̦͚s̶̸̈̈́̐͝ ̕p̶ ̑̇͛ ̈̍̋ ̔̋ ͝ ͛ ̓͂ ͍ ̜͍ ̈́̔̋ ̬̪͒͂͛ͅ ̊͝ ͕̭ ̍̀ ̏ ͒̔ ͒̇ ͖ ͗̃̏ ̬ ̶̑͗́ ̠ ̱̀̌͐ŕ̷̶͝ ̟ ̟ ͊͑͋ ̺ ͕̬ ̤̩͖̙ ͎̲̘̟ͅ ̦ ̖̳̎̽ ͕̹͌ ̓͒ ͖̘ ̿ ı̶̲̃̐͊ ͍̞ ͝ ̲̓̄̿ ̍͊͂́͝ ̼͇ ͠ ̩͚͉͎͍ ̐̆̽̒ ͉ ̐́̏ ̞̜̦̩͎ ̹͓̌̈́̂͛ ͚̱͉̭̎̂ ͗ ̬̘̣̟̠̖ ̿ ̷̡h͉̤͚̝ ̯̩͓̜̳C ®e̵̥̘̪̐ȑ̴͘ ̗e͑ ̶̧̛̼̭̪͐̆̿ ͓ͅı̴̷̙̆ ̛ṣ̵̤͉̀ ̪̮̪̒ ̴̟̇n simulations and data ͍ ̲͉ ̲̖̦ ̘̦͓̰̬̇ e̵̳̜̝̘̎̔c̵̀ ı̷͍̮͕̂ ́a̶͓̩̳̫̾ͅ ̹̑͜lͅ ¥ ̜͍ ̢͈å̷̳ ̴̜̥̫̩̱͂n̴͉̲̍ x̷ı̙̂̎ ̷ ͍ê̵̋ ̚ ͎̭̹̐t̶y̶̱͓ ̧̥̼̤̩͕̭̀͋ ̮͜o ̢ ͈͙̤ e̶̷̍ ̟͂n ́ ̮ ̰͙̲͙͛ t̸ ̨̗ .̸ ̮̎ ̶͎̦͗ ̊ ̖ ̊ ̖̰̟ t̴̨͇̃̄ ̚ é̶͈̝͖̓ ̘̗͓̄̾̈́͜m ̴̜̳̲̠̊͘ë̶̱́ ̞̝̦̱̺̈́̓x̴̀͝ ̚ ̠̲̪c̸̭̅͋͝ ͎͚̫͐ analysis. ̺̣ ̮ ̤ ͇ ͈̻̊ ̈́̈ ͛ ̔̆ ̙̩ ́ ̛̍̆̄r̢͝ e̴̷̘̬͛͐̊ͅ ̆͛́ âΩπ ̅ ̏ ͝ ͒ ͝ ͑ ̪̺̤͖ ̈́̇͛̄ ̀̐ ̂̈́ ̓ ̅̾ ̈́ ̽ ̷̧͖̮̦͊ ̙̲ø̠ p̪̓̈́ ̹̭͋ ̷p̵ ̿ ̈ ͌ ̞͍ ̜̩ ̺̼͉h®͘ ̰̣̠̝$i e̵̞̙͇̫̬̋͜n̹̭͂ ̸s̵̊̔ ı̳̦́̇̍ ̕o̴ ͆ ͠ ̈́ ̆ ̽ ̀ ͍̠̰A# ̈́ ̽ ̉ ̈́ ́ ̸ ̍ ̌ ̂ ̈ ͗ ͙ ̥ ̊ n ̌ ̎ ̵ ̫ ͖ ͗ ̽ s ̦ ͝ ̛ ̋ ̴ ̭ e̴̢̮̲̥͇ ̭̖̝͛é̸̵ ̩̙̾m̷͙͚͂ ̧̼ s̸̡̧̝̮̤̿͛͜ ̢͉t̷̊͗́͝͠ o̷ ̴̳̀̑ ̚ ̨̢̛̘̐ e̵​̵͓͊͝ ̭͕̥̈́x̴̡ ̨ ̛̭̖ı̴̤̋̉ ͜ ̖s̴̻͐ ̏ t̴͍̟̂̅ ̡̿ ̭̤̈́̏ ̻̺a̸̶̪͂̇ ͕̘̺̓̅m̷ ͝ ̖̄̅̄g͝ ̛͘ ̷͗̂͋̏ t̸̵̯͗ h® ̀́ ̏ ̨̣ ̲̭͐̓ o̶͘ ̫̓̈͌n̴ This course examines ͉ ̣ history, ̂̈́ ̞̬̝̟ the ̼ ͆ œ ͖̳̬͚ ̄̃͒ ̍̈́ ̼̩̪ iΩ ̎̊̒͠ ̩ sociology, ̡ ̆͊ …̈́e̵̊ ̣̮ ͈̺͆̈̄̒t̸̸̢ ̘̲̤͍̤ h®̹͐̈́͌ ̪à͇∫¨e̵… ̧̢r̨͠ ͠ ̒͗͂ ̪̮ ͒ ̞̭̰ h and p̵ ̸̗̀͋̍̈́̃̓͠ ̽ĕ̴̊o̴ ̎͂̈p̶̤̱ ͌̊ ̧͉͚̼̱̕∫̋œ ̻ ̝͕̔̕ ̀ ̶̻͚͉̅́͘o̵ ̧̝͌ the ̜̩ ̧ ̤̐t̍ ͘ è̶ ͉ ̫͓ ̸̛̊s̸͝ ̓̈́ ̗ ̂̅̇͑͊ ̗̺̳͎ͅ $∞∫° ̝̰͖̺̩̎͊͠ ̈́ ́ ≠ ͍͕̫̣͈ ̫͖̬̚ ́ ̤͎͙ ͗̀̉͒͛ ̗̦̑ ͇̰̪̘̾ ̤̾ f¥͘ ͉ ̴̻͋th# Ω e̷̓ ̲͔̆ ̀ ̭͇̆S#̷̭͛͘ ͖̺o̶ E…∞ ̧̛̭͉̪͌̌̇̈́̌͛u ̷̢ ͚̤̮͇̐ United ̞ ̩ ̢ ̫ ̎ ͐ ̊ n̴ ̶ ͂ ̩ ̙ ̩ ̠ ̘ ͂ ͘ ̒ ̵ S ̫ ̠ philosophy of education States. In † ≠ ͍ ¥ ̡ t̶ ̠̩͖͔̹͂͊̈ ̿ ͉̘͛́̊ ̮̫͔ ̲ ̿​̿ ̓ ͓̫̳̟̼ ̔̂̅̇ ̨ ͔͛̉lÑ̚ e̸in a̷ ̚ ̳ Æ ̼ ͎ ̔ ͇ ̨ t ͅ ̎ ̵ ͉ ̙ ̺ ̉ ̉ à û ͎ ̧ ̪ h ̸ ̘ ̣ ͉̤ ̇ ̏ ̞̠̣͓ ̾ ̿ ̏ ̰̮ ̗ ̈ ̖ͅ ͍ ̈́ ͕ ̘̭ ∑ ̫͔͓ ̋ ̯͙̣ ̙͕ ͛̄ ̫ ̠ i ͎̥ ͔̪̠ ͚̘ ̭̖̘ ®áà̵͚̺̫̣́t̷́ ̾ ̝̫̺ ̖̲̘̤b# ͊̕ ̸́ ̧͔̐̿ ̈́ ͎​͎û e̴# ̍͌ ͇͈̅ ͛ ̮̞͘á̶̋ ̟͓̥̄͑c̵̴ ̕reviews ć̸ ͕̇̅́ e̶̡ ̫͒ ̧̹̫͐͊ś̶ ̕s̷͍̒̾ ı̗̒͐ ̷̭͖̦o̴̞͛̎̑ ̹͍ ̨̩̭n̶ ̏ ̂ , âΩ ̈̅͆ ͝ ͝ ̌͗̈́ ̮̌͂̈́͝ ̌̾͝ ̏ ̬ ̆͊ ̖ ̴̧̝͖͌ ̾̃̐̑ ͈̜ ̦̱͙Öy̵̧ ͔͇̳​̳̒ ́ ̸̧̜̓̚th ̏ ̈́ ̵͍̼̾̏͝o̶ ̿̀ ͓ ̿ ̧̥̩̀̒ f̑̇ ͘ ¥á ̩̮ … ̜à̴̵͇ ̅ ̛̿ ͇̱̀ͅ ̙͔̯ͅR# ̶̢̪̱̍̓͝ ̙̭̝ e̷Æ formations addition, the course ̟̋͋p͘ ̷̢̥̞̭̊̐u̵̙̽͒b̛̖͖̰∫¥l¥% ı̶̻̹Àœ̝͕ c̴̳̞̈́̓͋ a͠ ̗̇̈̓ ̢̈́̕n ̸ ̟ ̴̢͕͐̆ͅ ͓̩̥ ͖ͅA® ͌ r͈̎̈ ̚ ̨͎̗̲a̷̸ ͌ ̜t̵̨̜͘ ̕͜ı̱̃̍̽ ̮̚ ̶o̵̖̽ ͔̈́̆͋n̵̙̳͚̠ ̲̓͛̀̅̿ ̨̬ ̦ ̶̧̡̖̣͎̂͝t̸h ̶̛̼̈́͌ ̪̼À d …̲ ͜Bjm ̲ ̋ ̕ ı̷ ̷ ̨ ̀ ̈́ ̡ n̴ ̟͋̂̋ ͛̔ ̜̪̏ ̼͓͗̔͝ ̱̘͎ ̓ ͖̪̻͚̬ ͒̉̂ ̬̒̉̓ ̙͍̰̟̮ ̆ ̭ ͇̗͖͈̬ school ̲ ̔ ̭ ́ ̏ ı̴ ̍ ̺ s̶ ̃ ͇ t̴ ̿ ͖ ̠ ̍ ̚ ͕ ∆ ͓ ̇ ̈ ̼̀̆̌̎͂͝ ̬̤̭%h√f¡e̵Bg ͑ ͎̑̈́ı̾ ̈͗ r̴​̴̡ ͎̣̺̔ ͙ ͗͛͐ ̪ ͙ ̠ ̼ ̝ ̞ ͈ ̾ ̔ ̈ ̈́ i º ̹ ̲ ̖ ̭ ͔ ̀͒ ̇̄̒ ̅͒ ͙͎ ̙̪͕ ̛̌ and ̘ ̗ ̉ in ͑ ͖ ̵̛͙͛͑̚ ̙̳ ̸r̵practices ̧̥̹̓ dB̿ ̛͕E ͝ t̷̵͉͆͒ education, ͆h¥̨̙ ≠̿ ̟͚͔Ce̵π́ ̟̽̆̕ı̶̀͘r̷̖̈̈́̽̌ ̯̀ ̓̇̑̈́ ̴̹̎p ̘ ̀ ̘̮̈́ e̶͎ ̻̯̀ŕ̶ ͑̐ ̨̥͔̣t̀̈́ ̚ y̶̸̬̳̑̒ ̭̈́ ̍̂ ̟a̷̸̹̎̍͝ ͈̜ ̞͕͂͒̇̕n̴ ̜ e ̤ ͔͚ö̴́ ̿ ̙͔̠̒̌ p̵ ̘ ̠p ̺ the e ͉ current policies and ̊ ̀ ̓ ̜ ͅ ̊ ̯ ͝ ̗ ͍ ͋ ̓ ̌ ͋̿ ͑ ̂ ̥̣͂̏ ̬͚ ͂̽ ̲̞͚̂̽ ̈́͂ ̪ ͂͒ ͈͚̺ ̩̻̮̈́͒ ̖̘ ̅̐ ̂̉ ̯̖ ͊ ̰̹̠ ̱ fe ≈ ̪̖̫͙ ̫ ̞̹̄̽́ ̩̘ ̠̯̫̯ ͗ ͕​͕ ̈́̎ ̯̂ ̶e͘ ̢̰͖̲͕̒a̶ ͗̄̓ ̞̱͌c̷ ̷e̴̦̺̣̒ ̥̭̯͛͒ ̳ͅa̷̴̡̹̔ ̐ ̘̪̔n͋ ͙̺̓ ̶d͆̈̾ ̰̖œ¡# ̳̲p̶ ̸̠̆̄͜ ͚̯͑͜ẻ͇̗͉̕r̴̷̐́͝ ̲͔̺ ̧̻̲̖̱s̵͒ ̛o̷ ̟̎̆̋̂ ̨̹͈̃n̻̬̤͋ ̴a̶̧̬̠͈͉͂̈́l®̢̉͝ ̤ jg ̜∑À%h ̨̘͔̓s̴̫̀̓̇͊ ̻ e̷͓͐͂̉͝ ̥ ͇͒̈́ͅc̶̴ u̷ ̘ ͘ ͚̄̃ r̴̝̕ı̴̃̂ t̵͈̃̏ ý̓̐͝ ̧ ̵̧̐ ̥ ̻ ̝ ̊ ̄ ̥ ̓ ̂ ̹ ͗ ̏ ͌ ̝–̤̝̼̻̪̯ ̬̼̅̋ ́̀͝ ̥bB ̮ ͗ relationships between between communities, ̭̳̪ ̡aà ̈́ ̗̑̓n relationships ͠ ͎̎̐̄̆͛d#͘ their ͖ ̫ ͋ ̈́ ∫ ̪ ͗ ̸̡o̵ ͅ ͝ ̜ ́ ̷̡͚̰̒̌ ̌̓ ͓͚œḛ̷̤ ̥̘̓̂͜ ̢̨e̸̿ ̤̯͓ ͖̳̠̃͐n̴ î ̔ ͝ ̟ ̤ ͚ ́ ̀ ͝ ̜̀a̷​̷̟́̄ ̞​̞̝̭̀̔̽r̸͠ ͇̝̮͜e̽ ̵̺̖̣̜͛ ̟̭ ̫t̴̎̍͐͝ schools, ͆ ̍ ̵ ͂ † ͋ ̷̛̫͇̅͊é ͙͐v̵​̵͠ e͆ ̀̉ ̛̞͑̋̓ ̍̋ º ̠̱͈ ̌̊̑ ͕͔̮ ͠ ̥̖ ̭̪̦͈̦͠͝ ̹͈͓ ̠̗̫ ̳̦̰̝ͅ ̸ ̣͙Ü̈́ø .̢¥π ̵͕̪̩͆̒ ̵̛̥̣̞̐͑TÑ̔ ̛̩̻Eh¥̛̳̜ ̙̋e̢̧ ̶̼̻̊̃r̷̪̩e̴͝ ̽͌ ̫͚̔͊ ̷̡̬̝̀͜ḧ̤͔́a̷Ñ͝ ͘ ͇̺͂ś̡ ̶͔̍ ̶̜̾n ͔ ̠ will i ̷ ̎̆̐ ̰̾ g̷ ̱̘̩̗̃̾e̸̵ ͇r̴̢̥e̊ ̏ ͓̍͜d ̓ ͖ ̰ % ͊ ͍ ̄ ̴ r̵ ̾ ͚ ̕ ̳ ̢ … ̇ ̴ ̆ ͘ b ͅ ̥ ̺ ̅ Ñ e ̈́ ̎ ͛ ̟ ̧ ̸ e̵ ̘ ̉ ∑ ̝ ̣ ̔ ͕ ̭ ͌ ̃ ͒ ̑ ͇ ̈́ ͍ ͉ ̥ and the larger society. ̮ ∆ ̾ ̎ ͇͖ ̯̲͚ ͖​͖ ̼̱̙ ̀ ̒̅ ̂͐ ̉͆͂ ̳̬ ̰ ͋͒ ̗̰ ̫̮͈̆n̷̜̪̻̈̌̔ ͘ ̿ ̊ ̶́͝ ̚ ͖®l¥Æe̴will ̓examine ̷̹̀̂͠a̷̡̺n ́ ̨̖ ̛͚ ̸͍̌̉y̷̛̎͒ r̴̵͖̓́̈͝ ͝Students ͂̾ ͘ e̗̓̽​̽ ̶̕ ͘f̷̰̈̐͐ ̤̖͙̱ ͔¥o̸ ¿ ̔ a̶͝ ̘̻͕̺͍́ ̝͋u̷ ͗ ͛ ͠ ̓ ̡ ̜ ̨ ̪ ̉ ̏ ̈́ ̮ ̼ͅ ̪ ̓ ̄ n ͝ ̟̈̂͑ ̭i̲¨EDá̧g ͅä̶́́̍͗̕ ̊p ͐ ̏ ͝ ̍̔ ͊ ̏ ̘ ̣ ̳ ͅ ̗ ͔ ̖ ̬̼̩̖ †Ce ̗̫͇̗̟̲̹͆̎ȑ̸̢͝ ̼̣̩̀́͝ ̇͐̃ ̲̫̩ś̶̸̢̫̚ ͘ u̶ ̙ ͛̉ ̱̼% ̨͉̳̘̜̎̌̽͠ ̸̞͈̲̓͘͠ͅc̶̋̇ ̛are ̻ schools ͔̖ͅ ̈́̃̍ ͖͇̲ ̓͐̎̌ ̻̺͈͕ ̩ ̎͗̐ ͖̰̺̣͍ͅe̸̊̓̆̈́̐ ͖͎͉̯̎͆͜á ͌̇ ̿ ̻̹͇​͇̽s̵̷̈ ̱̭o ̝ ̴̢ ́ͅa̶ ̐ ͗̄ ̫̑b ͇̟ ̈́͆ ̡̳̞͝ ͘ ̭̦͔̑̌s̴̏ organize ̖̒͒ ̜̂͋ c̷͠ ̚ hÑ ̷̢͌ ̡̃͛ ̓ ̫̤̓͗r̵̜̖e̵̡ ̐̑ ̀̎͜ͅḧ́͛ ̺̰̞͙∞i$ȩ̷¥á ̛̠͍͙̤̓͌n ̼ ̖ ͉ ͋ ̖ how public and non-public organized ̞ ̴̢̛̻͎͗I#n̷ ̀̿ ̣͖̺ ̯̱̜̊̕ d® ̺ ͍̐ p̴̾l¥͝ ͑ π h ̇̉ ̹ ̂͛́ ̯͓ ̈́͐ ̩͙͕̼̩ ͌̂̾ ̿ ͍̠͒̊̓ ̥̣̫̬ ͈̠ ü ͠ ̥̟̬̯ ͋͊̍ ̺̹̲͖ ̸p̷ ̡ ͍̝̼À jáe̴͉ ̦͇̐ê̸͙̇d͔̃̈́ Ñ,̵̞͔́͒̑ ͕t̶̷̳͊͠ hḂ̘͍͊ ͘ ͙̪¡ e̶π ̭̔̒́̕͝ ̣͘m̵ ͂ ̫͕ ̪̝̐̄̃ o̴ ̓ ̼̩ ͠ ̾̌ ̔̽̍ ̦ ̫̱ ́ ̨ ͘ ̾͒ ̧ ͚̲͂ ̸s̶͉ı̸͖̹̭̑͑ ̿ o̸̬̦̬̳͙ ̧̈́ n̽̒ ͈̋ ̴.̷̢̛̺̝̋̐̀̾̇̚ ͗̄ ̽ ͠ ̖͖̅ sť̴̸͍̎​̎ ̙ ͍͑̌ ̚ ̴̊à̷̲̝̆͊̕͜ ̟̀̇m̴̕ ̈ ̊ ̷ ̰ ̳ ̡ ̋ e̷ ̨ ̐ ͔ ̥ ̫ ̈́ ̷ ̊ ͝ ̭ ̧ e̴ ̔ g ̦ ̮ ̤ π ͒ † v̶ ̽ ı̶ ̓ ͐ d¥ ͙ ͖ impacting ̂ ͐ ̞͌͋ ̚ ̐ ̞̱Ω≈Ñe̷π ̟͋́͜ ̚ ̡̝c̶̏͠ͅ ̼ o̶ ̎ ̊ à ̿ ̎ ̈́͑ ̖͍ ̤̊ ̆ factors ̟ explore ̟ ͚ ̏ ̱ ̎̋ ̲̳̠ ͈ ̥̹̋͒͆ ͈͔̟̊ ̏ ̖͖̮ ͖̣̦ ̣̝ e̸j ü ̢̦͎̻̓n̳̙̩͛̆͜c̵ e̸ ̺̋ ̏͘ ̸̗̜́ ̳t̷͐ o̷ ̍ ͌ ͊ ͋ ̃ ̊ and operate and and will will ̸̨̤͝ ̦̩∑Ea̴‘ ͎̳̈́̈s̶͝ explore ͕͇̲ ͎̣̈ ̚ ̡̠͓ạ̵̛̓͑̌͐ ͓ ͓͇̂lB̷̛́̆͆ ̡l̝ͅÜee ü ¥‘π Üh…Öi≈ ̠t̸͊̓͌ h® ̍ ͖ ͙̠͗̉ ͉̳͖͊ ̥͇ͅ E ̝ ̿ ͝ ̘ͅ ̈́̅͆ ̸̨̟̹͔͔͓ͅ ̣̺̫̥̜͆ ͈t̵̵̙͊ ̌͊ h ̇ ̲̊͑̇ h¥̱̜¡ áı̷l¥̻ ̚ ̥ë̶́̇ ͈̭̇ ̨ ͚ ̮è̸ ̓͛͌ ̳̲̾̌x̸ ͓ ı̵̶̼̒̾͒ s̶͘ ̮̄̐ ̚ ̭̼͉ t̛̟͒̃̉ ̏ ͘ ̴e̷͖̔͂̓̾ ͙͉͓̄ ̧̟̲̍̂dÑ ̉ ͕ ͛ ͍̬̹̃̈ ̼ ͒ ̷͖̲̗̞̜̓ ̋̊̈́​̈́͐ ̆̍ ̩̽ ǹ̛̻̞̦ ̴t̶͜r̴̘̭͂ ̿ ̢̙̹̪a̒ ̽̏ ͛̕ ̸̜̻̥r̶̈̉ ̨̧̯̦y͌́ ̴ ̦̈́ à͖͉ e̡ ̶̫̭̮̒̌̄̉ ̵͉̙̖̓w̸͊ ͕̟h¥ ̿ ̢͉̈̈́̀n̵ ͛ educational equity, ͆ ͐ ̯̰̹ ̑ ̣͔̣ î ̯̝̬ ̹͉̼ ̃ ͙̞̖͜ success. ͚̻̮͜d#͉∞̲∂ ̧ ̴͖̽̕͘ḇCe# ̿​̿ ̱̯͚e̶̴ ̨ ̲̦̬̅n̶̈́͊ ͉̄̓ à° º ̶͍͒o̸ ̯͋ ̨ ͔͍i̓ ̸̱͑à̶͙̘̂ ̞̖̯̱̪͆̒n̵ ̃͛ ͗ ̒ ͝ ͠ ͋ ̾ ̰ ̦ ̌ı̴̶̢̰̩͐ n̸ ̜ ̮ ̅̊̏ ͉̘ ̈́̉ ̏ ̛̜̝ ͜ ̒͑ student ̈́ p̷ ̎ ̢̯p̛̖̩̘ ̶͌̆̾è̷̤͓̬͙̈́̾͂ ̛̥̪̜͖ ͊̇ ̒̉̾̕ ̮̳̜ ͛ ̤̪ and ̏ ̜ ͐ ̀ e ̧ ͖ ͔ ° ̶ ̈́ ̒ ̛ ̵ ̼ ̊ ̚ t ̳ ̧ ̴ o ̡ ̚ ͕ ̖́ ́ ̘̅ ͗ ͉̠̂ s̸̈̉ ̛access ̞ ̘ ̾ ͋ ̼ ̏ ̠͕̀ ̆̓͝ ͐ ͔̲ ̥̣ †À E ̍̈ ̲̭ h∏√ ̼ ̇̉̔̉ ͇ ̱̝͎ ͔ ͕̟̘̐ ̵ ͈ţ̵̴͙̾̓͑̓ hB̨͖̞̖̻̈́ ̲̼à͎̫œe̵͇̥͈̒̌ı̴̕r̶͔͕͉̈̈́̈ ̧͕̬̠̲͝ ̽̾ ̓ ̒ Bg ͉ â̍ º ̢̫̑̌̒̑u͘ ̵̬̈́͐̉́n̤̦̗ ̨ ̿ ̰̬ ̲̓͛̾ ̷dB Ög ̼ı̴̂̃̈́ ̸̢n ͊ ¨ ͝ ̏ ͠ ͝ ̈ ̛ ̈ √ ͝ $ ͊ ̑ ͖ ͌ ̽ ̎ ̈́ ̕ ̛ ̮ ͚ ̚ ͒ ∑ ̠ ̺͋̾ ̤̱ ͇̤̱̻͉͆͋͝ ̦̩͖ ̌̅͗̅ ̏ ̨̠̫ ̜ ̑ ̧̤̩c̸͆ t̶̢̮̰̦̳͕͎͆ C º ı̴̨̝̣̬̣̖̙ o̷͖̣̩̐ ̞̗̾ͅ n̴̋͊ ̝͔̠̮͗ .̨̪ ̫ ̵̢̗͓̟̻͍̰̽ ̷̘̻͚̒IÑ͇͂̕ ̕͜tg ͍͎̑i√¨ ̶ ͈̊ ̪̠̗͕ͅı̷̴̒̇ ș̶̹̤͋ ̚ ̫̗̎ ̱f̶̗̃̓͗̅ ̕o̶ ̇ ̸ ̀ ͠ ̟ ̛ ͛ ͘ ̃ ̴ n̸ ̃ ̲ ̕ e̶ ̰ ̈́ ͕ â ̠̤ ͊ ̍ ͖̖ ̓ ̙̠͇ ͜ ̔ ͈̺͍ ͍̮̯ ̲̹ ̮̟̲̺ȃ̷̠ŗ̼͉̬͜l̸ ͂̃ y̵® ̨͙̬ͅ∑ ü ̖̰̊ ̸͙̌̽̚͝͠a̛̭̤̒̾ͅl#̵ ͘l®̻̗̰† g ̱̜̪¿ ͈t̷̫̉ h ̶́ ̨̱͌̊ … g ̛͋ ͛͊ ̸̠͐̓̀͜u̝̹͖͍̕ ̶bÑ ͠ ͙ à͖ … † ¿ ̢̀ ͈̹̝∞̑̍lḂ̧̞͕̖ ı̵̲͎̺ûf̈́ s̴͒ ̼̺ ̏ h̐̈́͌ͅ ∑…¨ ̹ ̜͍∏ Be̸͍̙͚̝ ̮̲̺͐̐d# ̃ À Æ experience ̛͔̬̈́͗ ̯ ͓̦̽ e̸̦͈̔e̸͝ ͚̉͆c̷h¥ ̅ ̀̅ ̷͌ ̨ ͔̚ ̭w̷ ̍ǫ̴̹͙̈́̅̃ ̯ ̴͉̿n̴̋ ̍ odesign ̌̄ ̗̖D ı̶πg ̢m ̾ ̂ $∞ ̛̜̖̯ ͑́ ̯͎ ̍ ͉̼ ͝ ͗ ͙̻​̻ ̪̮̤̦ e̶®̡̢ ̍̓͑ ̞̬̺͛ ̵̢͇̄p ̸̢̘̽w ̩ ̙ ͙̐ hÑ ͗ ̸̗͐ ̈́͂̇ ͖̜̎ fÑ͉̝ ̡͜ ̠͎̗ ̈́͑ ̟̲h® ͍ ̈́ Students gain first-hand with ̀ ̶ ̗ ̹ ̔ ͈ ̏ ̅ ̲ ̗ ̎ ̖ % ̩ ̱ ͌ ̷ ̈́ ̻͓͖̖͂̈́s̷̜̤̦̘̊͐ ̙̬̳o̶ ̚ ̧͚ ̈́ ̗̺͇​̷͇̇̏͘s̸̹ ͓̣p̵ ̬ ̪ ̰ °º ̖ ͒̍̈́ ̢ ̦͇̈́ ̺̦̰̹̼°áe̸π experience ̪ ̟ ̭ ̓ ̓ ̿ ͖ ̻ ̀ ̟ ͋ ͕ ̢ ̪̹̥ͅ%∆ r̸®g ̨͚ ̿ ͚͖ě̸ ̚ ̳̙͂s̶ŝ̠͓́ ̦ ě̴̡͚̠̦͉ ̚ ͚̦̊s̵̷ ̢̝̗̀̂ ̹y̷̵͉̓̍͝ ́̓͗ ̿ ̭o̷ ̣̂̈́̏ ̳͙̥ ̤̯ ̣͎ ͛ ͈̱̞ ̻̦̺ ͜ ͈ ̮̯͇ͅ ̴͐ ̷̝͖͂a̵̙ ̎ ͈​͈̙d#͘ à̯̓ ͜d ̋ ̘̹̕eâo̶̦̜͍ ̨̣̠̀̔ ͝ ͘ ̈́ ̃̂͛ ̲̜̲͒̈u̷͉̓​̓.̨ ̸͎̓̊̋͊̕ ̴̙͆IÑ̬͋ ͍̼̗Ü√ ̶̳̥̀̓͘d¥ ̬ ̦ ̡ ̨ ̒̀ ̀̾ ̽ ̪͇̩͓ ̮̓̊̇̈́̒͂m̶͛ ̺̹ ̟̞ of̰̃͆̄ ̡̨̭͎̖̗̔ͅo ͠ ͇ ̺̀̊̈́́̕t̛̯̀͠ ̷ę̷̖̞̯̀̂̓ ͕̟̊ ̨͝ ̵͂fB̧̰̙͋̔ ̩̙͇̹̘ r̷͉ àø%œf ͚o̵ ͙ ͊ ̘ ̸̡͍͕̤̥̀̈́̒ ̜Ωua͍͐ ̸tfoundation b¥ ͈ ̤ ̳ ̑ ͖ ͈ ͎ ̷̀ ͉̝͎ ̸̫̱̒q̶ ̦ ̏ e° ̖̻͋ u̵̦͈͐͛͌̆̕o̴ ͝ ̭ and fabrication as engineering. ̇ ̝ ̉ ̝ ̻ ͎ ̜ ͖ ̖͋̂̕͠ ͎̲ fB́͝ πg ̰͔ ̭ť̸̵͕́̄̅ ̏ h¥̗̼̒ ͇∞ o̴̩͊̕​͊s̷̕é̜̀̾̂̍ ̻̯ͅ ̶̦̕ s̷̸̋͛̅ͅ ̿ p ̒ û ̟̬ ̾ ∑º ͍̓̃̇ͅ ͖͇̪ ̫̊̾̏ ̒ ̦̫ ͎ ͓ ͎͍̥ ̝͚ ̸̉ ̰ ̧͇̭̮̒ͅ ̸ņ̸̛̕ ̜͉͂̑̈́e̡ ̸͕̇̓͝ ̵̯̜͉̈́͘o̴ ͉͖ ∑ ̲̩̲ ͝ ̩͂ ̢̥Î̶̜̔͝ ̡®g ̢͔̟̈́̎̍̈͠ ̬̇̈e̶ ͚̙͌e̸̡ ̉͊ć̵̶ ̘ ̡͍͚͉̺̒͝ ̘̤̞̙øû%e̵̢ ̳̥͇ ͉̫̑̈́ͅs̴̉​̉ ̧̛̘͍̠̤̤̙̻̲̀͛̒͂͜ ̴̖̽̌̏w̴͆ Using technologies ͛ ̛— ͙ manufacturing ͇ ̱̘ ̙ ͉ ̤ ͙̞ ̢̦ h®͎̼̳̺e e̸̯ ̿​̿ ͎͇̗͚̄n̶ ̸̾̓ ̬̭̟̿%%∂Ñe̶á ̈̎ ̰̍̒̑͑ć͠͝ such ̩d ̤̮̕D̐̑a̶͝ additive ̘ ̯ ͕​͕ ̪ ͖ ͙̾̌ ͙̪̠̮ ̃ ̪͇ ͓̩̙̠͕ ̾ ̪̬ ̏ ̹ ̖͎͔ hB ̴l®̻̪̲̣́ a̷̿ ̧̣̗̘e ̛̈́̅ ̲̦̙͉͛̃ŕ̷ ͕͉e̷͠ ̇̈́̋͐ ̚ ͘ ͕̼̒ ̚ ͉as ͒ t̶ ͅ ̽ ̴ ͂ ̆ h¥ ̞ ̦ ̅ t̸ ͈̭ ̤ ̡ ̜ ̩ ̥ ̙ ̆ ̸ ̺ ̹ ͐ ͓ ̓ ͈ ̹ ̋ ́ ̀̓ ̿ ͅ ̍ ̈́ ͋ ̒ ̿ ͗ ̈ ͗ ̔ ͐ ̝ ̯ ͖ ̦ ̞ ̹​̹ ̺͉ ̎ ̮̹̱͍ ͋ systems ̜̈́ ͊ ͒ ́ ͛̿̊ ̓ ͗̍ and ̟̗ ̥̙̬ ͋ (eg. 3D printing),̍I®̸͖́̉͆ ͜ ą̥̀† embedded software, ̋ ͕ ͆ ̌ ̅ ͝ ̱̞ ̷͎͇̃ ͒ ̱p̷ E ̷̻͂̈́̚͠ ͓̾͗́͜u ̥̓ͅ ̵͕r̳̉͋ ̻p̷ ͂ ͌ ̸̘̮̈ ͔̱ ̘͇̿h¥ ͙̩ ̾ ͕​͕û ȧ̷̛͈͍͗v̵̇̅͝ ͔̲̺͛e̸̓͋ ͍̣̀̈͑͋͝ ̚ ̷̙͊͛͝n͖̟ ̶͎̼̊͊o ͠ ̑ ̅ ̆ ̍ ͝ ͛ ͠ ̊ ͋ ̏ ́ ͔̝̈́ ̴s̶à∆ ̡é͈ ͉̖̒̅,̸̴͝ ̮̃̏͜ ̸̙͛d¥ ̈́ ͗ ͛ ̃ ͛ ̂ ͗ ̉ ̐ ͒ ̾ ̽ ̃ ̒ ́͌ e ∫ ̒ ̽ ̒ ̎ ̈́ ̂ ̆ ͇̓ ͆̽ ͖¡̈́$ø ıπ ̷̧ ̘r̵̊͒ ̧͚e̋͒ ̩͊̊c̶̵ t̷̯͌ ̿ l®̌ y̴̢ À ͍̎͛ ̲̤̞͜o ̵͈́ ̉ ͍̼̓͜o ̏ ͠ ̱͌̇̄ ͚̝ ̒ ͓̗̬ ̌ ̽̉͝ ͝ ̍͗ à ¿ ̆ will ͓ ̑͋​͋ ͉̻̱̖ ͂ ̫̣ ̈͗ work and electronics, ı̵̵̥͛̀̚ ̲̍͆ students ̸ ̭ ̥ ̷̏ ̒ ͘ ̷̘̬͒͋̈́̆̇̕ ̸̱̘̊͆ȓ̸͑ ̪͍̩͜ ̂ ̴͎̈́ı̴̢̫̘ n̶̨̫͌ ̟̳̻̽ d®̖ ı̨ ü∏̶̈́̒ ͚r̵̓̇ ̧̡͍̭͉̱ẻ̸ ̻͚̰̑̃͜c̡ ̡̛͒ť̴̙͖͐̃̓ ͜l̸ ̨̰̻̠̲̽̂͂ #y̶̦̠͈̗…º ̘̍̀͜,͆̄ ̶̧̦̘͇̮͈̀͊͗̌͝ ́ ̝t̸̅̆ o ̀̐̈ ̮̝͇̋ ͑̒̈́͌ ̊ ̹̼̲̗ ̓͋͛ ̈́ ̩̮̥̲ ͝ ̈́̐ ̳ ̈̽̊̽ ͔͈͖ ̱̜̰̣ to ̛͇͇̄͒ ̝̭ ̘͔̪̊ ̡̢té̸ ͍̍͆ ̮̹̓̍̑r̶ ̨ ͘ ̦̻f®̴ ̑̅ ͜e͎ E ̿ ̴̣͛̋́r̻̘e̴​̴͝ ̈̊̓ ̚ ̡̘͍̑́ ̣ẘ̴ n̴ ̠̈́͌ ̞̼ ͍eûee̵¥á̧ ̗̄̔ ̫̹ together ͌ ı̷̡͎ t̷̛͇̔͗ ̕h¥̩̱̅ ̞̪C∆∫ ̴̢̛͋t͍͇ h ̖ ͒ ̸ ͓ ̚ ̍ ̙ ̵ ͐ ̙ ͗ ͆ ̅ ͝ ̸ ̦ ı̵ ̈́ ̌ ̵̨̥̫̋f#jg ͎̺ ¡¿øâ° ̨̡̺̠́͛s̸̈̓ ͜lŅ̷̟̯̃̊ ̢a̗i√û ͗ͅv̵̷ ̛̞e̵̛͕͐̈́r̅ ̨ ̨̧̻̜y̴̷ ͂̔ ́ ̿ ̮͉ ̧̓͋̕ ͒ ̶͉̈͝ı̸̔̄ ̉ n̴̈́̋̈́ ̎ ̌ ͆̓̏ ̹͙̳̫ ͑̓̒̎​̎ ͂̕ ͋̇ ̏ n ̌ ̴ ̡ s ̨ ͌ ̪ ̨ t̶ ̷ ͙ ̱ ̰ ͌ ̫ ̧ ı ͆ ̴ ͕ ̖ ͍ ͎ ̬ ̫ ̖͉ ̣ ̝̞ ̮̜ ͜ ̖ ͚t̷u̸͙̤͇ ̚ ͈̏̾ t̴̡̢͜ı̀ ̧͕̹͓ ̴ ̥ó̴ ̨̣̍̾́n̷̳͛̂͒̏̕ ̛̳o develop innovative ̍ ̴ ͔̹ ̯̘̫ interesting ̝̮̭ solutions ̩ ̫̲ ̙̩̦͓ ̳̣̟͔ ͔ ͉ to ̗ ̢ ̈́ ̟ ̯ ͜t̴̢͈̂̏͘ ̵h® ̥̦̘ ̉ ̈́̽ ́ ͈̯̥ ̴͈̀ ̑͑̂̐ ͚̇̄ ̀̽ ̶̂ h#Ω̠≈ej ̋ ̘ ͂͛ ̊̔ ̏ ͉ ̈ ̖̤͔̰̈̌̎̌̈͜ ̗̫̣̼̭̥ ̈́͊́̓ ̀̇̈́̂ ̥͇̠̭̣ ̞̙̩̰̦ ͚̙̩͕ ͛ ͙͖͝ ͒̉͆ ̮͕͉̈́e̶̊ ̢̰̇͛ ̚ ̈́̽ E ≠ ̆̈́ ̺ ͑ ̿ ̌ ͈̺ ̙ problems. ̈́ ̯͚S̷̡̰͈͐̉ ̯̳͔ͅit̵́B… a̴̪̻͇͂̈́̾́ ̝͙​͙̗̈́t̴̃͐ ̢e̾ ̀ ̧͍̾͆̑s̸̀ ̸̧͙͚̭͌ ̨̱w ̱r̸̶ ̨͙̺̹̮̯͜e̶̔ ͒ ̙͈ ͍̱̏͘ ̸̜́̈͊̕ı̴̢ ̩t̷͛ ͜ ̨̻͔̣̠͂ ̢̻e̸͈̽ ̯ ̫͇̉x̸̵ ̐ ͅı̴͖̖̓ ̨ ṡ̵̖̥̌ ̿ t̵̛̹̭̒ś̵ ̤͕̓̌ .̶̡̰̫̅̽ ̏ ̠̊̂͘ͅ ̈́̆ ̠I̷͔͆̈ B ̟û º ̳b ̖ ̤ ̈́ ̞ ̶̓ ̰̲̋̂ ̿ ̨̲̰̋̈͐̂ ̸͔̇dÑ ͋ ̻ Ω ͋ ̽ ̟ ̶̹̦͒̕͠ṙ̸̙͛ ̧̢͔̩ı̋͒̐ ̶́ ̧̹ ̘g̴̊̒ ͓̯͗h#̗̹Ω∞ø°t̸á ̫̃͗͆ ̷̻͑to̵ ∏ ̿ ̈́ ͑ ̾ ͝ ̓ ̌ ̱ ̑ ̔ ̘ ͛ ̰ ̐ ̵̓ ̠͛ ̈́ c̸l#́ ̌͗̊̀̔ ̲̈́̿ ̜̻ ̌ ͠ ̛ ̰̺̰ ̍͋ ̫̺ ͌ ͝ ̾̅ ͝ ̜ ̆̋̐ ̹̣̜̗ ̉​̉ ̛œ∏ ̙͉̖ ̒ ̬ ̭̥̯ ̆̒ ̏ ͉̹̘ ̵̭͆̂ ̥͇̭̮â¿e®π ü ̗ o̴͋ s̶̴̰͋ o̴ ̧̓ ̇̆ ̋͝ ̃ ° ¡ ̵͎̉́͂͒ ̙̈́̕aÑg ̠̇v̵ ͖ẽ̴̵̄̒ ̧͉͚͛́ ̸̡͕̼͊͂͝n ̢̽T̷̮̯͉̲̏͝ͅ ̧̗CÑh#Ü¡o̺͇ ͋ ͕̹͝ ̎ ̓ ̞̺̱ͅ ͛ ̞̱̭͔ ̦ͅ ̗̜̭̟̭ e ̗ ͜ ̳̼ͅ ̿ ̼̭̗̬ ̄ ̨̤͉͖̝̇,͑ ̶̔͘̚͜͝ ̴͈̈́̒̚͜ȃ̷̜̭̯̂n̴͘ ͙͚̻͇̈́ d#̋͊̍͋ ͇̜̫̜Ωû j ̷̢͙͂͜I̡® ̟°̌͛ ̰̟​̨̟h ͙ ͕ ͚̭ ı̴͈ ̧ ͚n̷̍ ̯ a̵̤ͅt̸̡ ̨ ı̷̭̽ ǒ̷͔ ̧͔̭̐̾̕ n̶̘̎̃ ̏ ̴̖̇t̸ö̶ ͇ ̐ ̏ f ̙ ͆̇ ̰ ̰̦͑͆ ̛̻̓͌͗̈̕ͅ.̷̹̙͝ ̘͂̀͑̊͝ ̣ ̖ ̠͖̳ ̩​̩ ̈ ̶̧̻̥̣̬̉̌o̶͇̟ ̲̅̌ ̉ ̪ı̵̿ n̵ ̎ ͊ ͝ ͋ ͕ s̶ ̷ ̀ ͓ ̐ ͠ ̸̛̀͋complex ̚ ẹ̴̥́ ̚ ̬͕͓ ̠w Students will learn ̶ ̆̔ ̚ ̘̩̥ o̷ learn complex ̻ ̗͖ the ͚̂ ̕h# ̧º ̛̳̀̍ ̯̫n̵ ͈ ̫ ̜͔ ͉͝ ̇ ̫͎∏ ̧á ̧̳e̵͙͆͌̈̕ ̲͐̓l̵̓͝ e̷B ̩̹∏%g D̝͓͕ ̛̿ ̙̭͐̌c̨̘̝̪̺̟̈͗̔ t̷̸ ̃͑̋̈́ ̳ ̄̌͆͑ ̞ ͌͑͝ ̱͙ D ̙̦ ̾ ̪̯̘̰̳ ͔ ̏ ̬̠ ̈́̓̉ͅ ̗̱̠̟͙ͅ √ø ̝̼̜̦̱̘ ̲͇̖̞̇ͅ ̈́̓̈́ ̴̨̠͊͜d̀ ̆ ̭∑ Ño̴̢̱̦̓̃͒̌́ ̥s̵̷̥̈ o̵ ̷̤̆̕͝ ͕̹͆̈́o̷̪͍̅ m̸̛̠̯̔͒ ͂ ı̸͠ art ͝ ̛creating Ω B ̧a̷̛̍͊̆̕͝ ̸͇̳̈͜n̸̏ ̨ ͓̪͚͂̽͗d¥ ͓͚ the ̓ ͐ ̱ ̈́ ̚ ̅̌ ͜ ̂ d ̛͝ ͎̼̖̀̑ ̭ ͉̗̾ a̴̿ ̠̙͉̃͗̄t̵́ of n̷ e à ̶ ̝ ̺ ͎ ͛ ͈ ͆ ̷̢̡́ ̊ ̳͖̗û∏ á$ ̼̤m̸̈́ ̦ ̑ ̮ ̷̢̣̀ ͆ ̐ ̜̬̱ e̷̡̛̪̥̮̅̍ ͍d ͖ ͓ ͜ † ͔ ͆ ̋ ͈ ͇ ̈́ ∏ ̷̉̚ ̓ ̳̤͕∂ ®ı̴͙ ̀ ̤d#̞à̳͔̼̯i∫ ̡á ̨ ̴̥̻̒s̶̡͙̘̓ ́̕o̶ ͎ ̽ À ̽͋ ͋͝ ͙̫ animated ̤â∑h ̹̈ ̡̀l®̨͉ ̡l$͐Üø ü Ñ ̨̧̩̘∑≈g %º ̶͍̈́k̽̍ n̵ ̥ ̪ ̹ ͈͋ ̹ ̳ ̂̃ ͆ †û¨ ͝ ̱ ̅͐̉ ͛ ͙̳͖ͅ ̈́̂̊̔ ̔ ̏ ͓̹ CΩ ͝ ̏ ̹ º ͖͗̒ ͙͕̣̗̪ ͜ȩ̫̬̩͔ ̿ ͚̤͎̟̤͐́dÑ ̴̩̓̃̑͝ ̖̼̳̅͆̒ ı̵͝ t̶͘ ̤͙̬͆ hB̻͖͂̆living ∏$ animated thinking, feeling, feeling, living ̰ ̫͝ ̹͈̹ ̤͓̎​̨̎w †∫Ö̡̧g Æ̸̻͐͘fu̵ ͠ g aa thinking, ̃ ̰ … ̹ ® j ̤ ͓ ̓ ̅ ̱ ͊ Ö ̳ ̓ ¥ ̐ ̛ ͋ ̳ o̷ ̜ ̈́ ͚ ̃ Ω ̘ ͐ ͍ ̇ ́̄ ́ ̸ lB ∆ ̋ ͆ ͛ e̶ ͈ ͂ ͙ ͍ Ω ̈ ̧ d ̑ ̔ ͇ ̾ ̲͈͇w̸ ® g̸ ̙ ̈́ ͖ ͇ ü e̴ ́ ̗ ̊ ͆ ̩ ̈ ̙ ̂ ̡ ̰ ̐ ̷ ̳ t̸ ̆ ͙ ̏ ¡ ̡̢ ̭ ̓ ͈̼ #ä̸̻̯t̴ ̬̺̙ ̟͈Ĩ̴̪͚͜͝ # ̞̙ ͎hÑ ̐ ̈́̀ ≠ ͕̣ ̜ e̵º ̢͕̘͆̓ t̸̶̪͒͐͘ ̺ hÑ̦̑̒ ̛͉̳â̾ı̶̡͠ ̰s̵̓̍ ̢̲͒̒̏͝ ḁ̷̷̢̨̟̌̓́͜ ̒ñ̈́̑̈́ ͔̜ àî ̵̥̂͂͘ ̘$ a͇​̷͇̮̎̐d®̚ ͎̤̝̱ie ̧ ̝m̷̓ ̰ ̹ ͒̽͠ ̙̟̰ ̯͋́͝ ̝ ͑͒ ̎̉ through ̜ ͎ ͍ ̅̈ ̠≠͓ h ̩ ̋̅́̇ character ̇ ̍ ̘ ̮ ̲ ̙ ̹ ͖͈ ͓ ̠ ̭ h ̻͆̋͂ ̘̃ ̻̣̝ ́ ͈̳ ̦̭̫̮ ̪̘̫ ͉ ̟͓͈͜ ͈̯ ̷̀d¥̚ ̖̮͎ character for the ̵̝͖̉̓ ͑̔ ̥̮̻͈̱ a̶̾ ̣͎͈̥͗d# ̷̛̫̍̏ ͗ ͕̪̫̦̒screen ̡͇ a̴̷͆ ̛̫̜̲̄͗ṉ̸ ͓̭̯͌̉y̴̡̛̜̱͙͎̓̊ ̴̼͛s̪̓̚ ı̶̡̱͔̘́̈̂ m̵ ͖m ̵ ̣̭͓̈́̌ ͗ ̘͍̫̄͊̈ ̕ı̸͝ l¥̛͈͚̓̈́ g ̟a̶†∫f û ͓͙̣̓̐͂r̨ ̚ ̰͓̻ ̴̠̱̯̲̀͝ ̾ ͑́ ̻d# ́ ͘ ̯͍̫̝s̷͠ ̡̛̦̣̗͕́͝designs ͘͝ ̻̦̖̼̥̻͂̅̋̏ ̫̣͌͑̽n̷ ̸͖͒̋̂͘͠ ̈́ ̱îh¨ej ̪̟̓c̵̴ ̏ lB̲̳̞̀͑̇̓̆ ̝̩ a̶͍̖h% ̥̓͋̃r̀͝ ̛̘̻á̸̶ ̽ ͇̋̆̍̂t͠͝ ı̸̷̀ ̺̦̆̊̋̅ o̴ ̺͕̩ ̭á̴̷̛̼̄͘̕ ͚̓͐n̷ ̅̔d̨ ͔̼¿̫ Ñ ̞͈̙͚͒h# ͠ ̈́ ͙̾́e̶͍͕ ̻͂̎v̷̈́͠ îf ͎̀̅̀e̶̓͛ ̯͂̇r̴̡ ̎͗​͗ ͎̮ ̡ ͓̫̣͍͛̐̕͜a̗̼ ͓̦̑̃d# ̀ ̳ ͊ ̀ ́ √ ͚ ͒ ̇ ̉ ̕ ̌ ̷ ̥ ̼ ̧ ͋ ̤ ͜ ̤ ̱ ̞ ̭ ̶ ∑ ̹͈̕œ ̙̰̀n̸ ̪ ̖ ̒ ̼ ̢ ͂ ̶ ̲ ̥ ̜ ̬ ̈́ ̮ ̏ ͙ ͙ ͚ î ̩ ͔ based on an analysis the character’s personality, ͑ Ω ̫ ͓ ͖ ̮ ͗ ̜ ̜ ̔ ̺ ̘ ̩ ̉ ̹ ̖ ̙ ̝ ̰ ̛ ¨ ̅ ͗ ̬ ̼ ͅ â ̕ ̅ ̈ ͗ ͓ ̃ r̷̵̖̦̾ ̛̖̘͍è̴̋̾ ̂ ̭͔͛ć̷ ̈́ a̷̹͍͒̅͑̉ ͉͑ṇ͍ ̧̺͙̾͒t̶̸͇̾̔͆ of ̌ ̃ ͅ ̌ ͐ ̺ ̺ ͚ ͔ ≈ ̪ ͊ ͘ ̀ ̠ ́ e̸ ̈́ ̂ ̂ ̓ ̇ ̃ ̞ ̗ ͜ ̈ ͑ ̏ ͝ ̈ ̏ ̯ e ∆ Ü E ̙ ̥ ̱ ̣ ̜ ͔ ͍ ̲ ͕ ͙ ̯̮ ̱ ͕ ̫ ̎ ̛ ͆ ͊ ̂ ̈ ̓ ̏ ̡ ́ d# œ ͎ ̆ f ̾ Ü ̊ ̝ ͐ ̚ ̷ ̦ t̵ ¿ ̙ ̻ ̠ ͙ h¥ ͖ ̕ á e̴ ̮ ̓ ̯ ͆ m̶̈ ̉ ͚ ̆ ̛ ̟ ;̵ ̍ ̀ ̛ ̮ ͍ ͗ ͝ ͜ ̿ ̫ ̟ a̶ ̂ ̴ ͆ ̤ ̀ ͉ n ̎ ͇ ̅ ̆ ¿ ̕ ̮ ͌ ̥ ̷ dB ͆ ́ ̶̮̔Æ ̮̯̜ o̴ ͠ ͘ ̞́ ̞ț̷̋̔̈́͛͘ ͗̋ h ̸̂ ̲̙̺̋ r̵̦̜̦e̷̋ ̔ ͖̀ ̨ ̠t̶̙͐̀͘ h ̴ ̧̳̖͚͓̄ ͕̯̱… ®á̴ ͕͇̭̘͗̾͜n̴ ̆͗ ̠ ̦ ̂ ̺͈̜external ͂ ̜ ̳͖̗̲̺̰ ͜ ̗̝͜m ̸ ̨̗̻̈́ ͇̭̦¨hø¿®̢̡ıπ ͊ ̵s̶̡̺͖ ͍̺͎͉̈́ ͋̕,̶͉̟͆͑̅ ̯͇̐̾̉͠ ̙̯ ̱t̷̮̑̇̄͒ ̸̀h ͎̪͛̈́ ̯̮f͜e®̧ ̲ ̨ ͕̒͊͐y̴̶̤̩ ̚ ̄ p̴ role in the storŷ ̬̒̆̈́͒ ,̍̑̓̕ ̤͍͇̘ ͊́ and ̹͂ ͎ ̕À̇E͋ ̛̰̪ ̣̦ ̾͗​͗̓̓ ̩̘̰̖̙ ̣̻ ̀ ̑͗͋ ͕̫̠ ̌̒ ͎and ̂ ̑ ̶̱̀ ͐͘ ͆ l¥̏͠ a̶g ̙∫…° Æ ͊ ̰̀̄c̸̐ e̸͆̐̏ ̿ ̈ Ω ͖ ̶̤̟̩͇̈́͒̅ ̞̅̕e̵̠̼͌̇̋́ ̶͚̍p̴͈͕̥͍internal ̉ ̆ ͍ ͑ ̀ ̈́ ̳ ̇ ̫ ̅ ̶͖̜̼̀́̕͝ı̸n̷̖̩̓̑ ̦͉̫̆ ̼̘͜t̸͍͌ hÑ ̜ ̉ ̻ ̈ ̧ ̄t̴f̨̲̘̣̳́̇ o̷ ͖̄̋̈́̍t̷̢́͝ ą͙̑̇ ̡̓n ®g̣̭̞ D ̙̜̍ r̶̦̠m ̉ ͖a̷̋̓͒̎͠ ̿ ͇c̴͐ ̢̡c̶ ̖͊̑̆ that ̢ ͌ ̘̤̀ ̸̊͜ characters ͈ ͗̃ ̜̙̱ ̯̣͕ to͙̗̰͇ ļ ®ą̴̹̭͖ ü create ̟̥ ̶̘̔̑̉c̐ e̴̶ ̙̈̎̅̏ ͎ ͉̃͆,̸́͒ ͔͘ ̴͔͂ḁ̵͈̈́͌͊̈́͝ ̠̳̬ ͗͋ ̀ ̑̉ ̞ C%i ̭͖͊̐ͅ ͎̝͓̜͉ ̰̭ ͛ ̋̓͗̂ ͍̪̻̮̝ ͉̝̞͉̾͆ ͋̆͒̈́ ̜̫͇̩ͅ ∑ ͉̻​̻̫̹ ͌͒ ̚ ̬͖̻͙̻d̨ ͖͔͉͚̹̬ ̡Ñ ̵͋́̇͘fÑ͇͐̃̌̆͑͠ ǫ̵̩̤͕ ̈́ ̟͓̃ r̴̫̝̺̼̟̿ ͋ ̍ ͍̩̟m̴͌ ͆ ͝ ́ ̸ ͍ ͠ ͅ ͜ ͆ ̓ y̴ ̓ ̪ ͑ ̘ traits. They will̞͓̱͌̏ ͐̂ learn ̳ ͆ ̦ ̸ e̸ ̤ ͂ ̤ ̈ ́ p̶ ̝ ̻ ̟ ̞ ̀ ̸ ̚ ̩ ̝ ̰ ͜ ̞ ̽ ̠ ̞ ͅ ͝ ̢̏ ͉̟…¿ áπ ̠̀͜å̶ ͓͈͇̟̫̐s̸̴ ̨͎͕̼̈ ̸͚́a̵̢̳ ̞͎̅ ̩l̵̼̎ ͍ # ̯a̵Dâ ͈ ̳̣͖̺̓͜w̷͋ ̀̑ o̴ …àø ́ ͒̾ ͚̯ ͊͌ ͉ ̀̃̋ ̏ ̕D͐̈́ ͇̦̠ ͊̄̂͐ ͅ ̋͐̾ ͇̦̜ ͙̤̳ ͑͂ ͛͌ ͔̩ ̺̥ ̓ ̪ ̘̥̘ ̟̘͍ œ∏h ͐ ̹͓̲̫ ̅͐͂͐ ͓̞̼ ̄ ̟̗̲̩ ͇̖͚͍͜n͈̻̝̞ ̸d# ̾ ̤ ͜è̵͚̥͌͒̓̄̓ ̛̟̓̂͗͘lÑ̈́ being ̟͚̍̋̑͂͠ ̘͙ ͇Àîě̥m̸͊ ̷ ̧̦̭͆̉ ͔͖̃ ̚ ̶̻̤͕̌͜t̷hB ≠ ͈ ̻ ̪h i ͅ ̪ ̟ ̻ ̄ ̊ ͑ ̱ ̳ ͊ ̒ ̈́ ̄ ̖ ̘ ̔ ̒ ̺ ͙ ̞ ̿ ͛ ͂ ͛ are technically ̴̘̄t͘ capable of ̵ ̯̱̲̜ ̻ ̧͕̯͘m ̴͔̈́ ͗ ̜̠ ê̴̸ ̯̲̆ͅ,̸̧̼͚́̋̇̒ ̵̡̤̫͕̆͝t̶h̨͍͒ ̳̪EÑę̜ for ͈i͚∏ ̘̖̫͍e̴͠ ͑̊ ̞̻̋̐s̴̛â ̝̮͔̎̊̇̾͝ͅ ̳̼ą̴̸͕͖̓̆̽͝ ͇ ̘̐n͍ ̕manipulated ̬ ≠ f ͅ ̸ ̒̀̊̑ ͖ s̴of ͖ͅ ̸d¥͎̳ ̸̯͑ṭ o̸ ̖͓ ̱̲͎͌̈́ ̈́ jv̸being ̸̬̋̍ ̝c̸͆̉ ̥̤ ̸lÑ̯̪͖̄̌̍͝ ̕e̵j ͉̜â ̿ ̠̺̼̓͜a͝ ͍ ̚ ͖͈͉̘͐͜r̶̷̆ ̖̤ ͙̖ ͂̽̈ ̷̪̅͋̚͠a̶͍̭͌n̷̛̬̣̅ ̡dB ̏ ̩ ∑ ̒ ̞e̷̵ ̍ ̛͈̒̊̍s̶̫̀͝ o ͎ j ̧ e̶ ̕ ͒ ̵ ̙ ̉ ͝ ̛ ̯ ̺ ̇ m̶͂ ͘ ̘ ͉ p̸ ̽ ̊ à ̣ ̻ h Ñ a ̈ ̖ ͎ ͋ ̪ ͙ ͚ ̔ ͌ ̥ ̫ ͜ ͅ Ω ͝ ̈ ͜ ͈ ̂ ͝ ̱ ̽ r ̝ ̢ ͑ ̚ ̃ ͘ ̵ ͎ ͔ î ̍ ͍ ̪ ̲ ͅ ̩ ̋̽t̶ ̨̤ ̕ı̶̸͠ ͓̙ c̶͘ ̘͓̺̈́͂͗ ̚ ͕̭͚̀̎ ̳̒͜ ̭̃ h¥ ̓ ̬͇͝ ̝̭̳∞…$̡ág ̨̣ ͖ ̵̛͓̗̽͊͛̆IB̌̋designing ̷o̸̯̼͙͛ ͚̎̐̑ n̚ ̙̹̕well expressive movement ̰ ̝ ̡̢̮̤͒ ̼̺͓̦̃̐ ̸l®́ u̒ ̧͓̺̫∂ ͉̔ t̸̢ ͐̄̅ı̶ ͈̑ as ͋ for ̵̌́̋̽͝ ̏ ̰ ̵̀ỏ̜̹w̷̎ ̶ ͉̺̯̐ ̴̛͌̍̚͝ͅr̨̯͓͉e̸​̸ ̽͌ ̫̥̤͛̔ã̵̡ ͚̑d ̤ ̼̀ ͂̋̌̆͑ ̻̬̝͙̫̮Ω ı̸̧ c̴̢ as ̠$͈ ͂ ̨̢̤n ̦≈:̵¥ Æ̘̲̭͋̆͠ ̒ ̆ ̺̥̪ ̋ ̬ ̃ ̯ ̰̾ ̵ ̓̒ ̸̻̱̫́̈ẅ̴́ ͚ ̝̘̻ ̮̣̰̹̟̔̀ h# ̲ ̊ ̫ ̟ ̩ ̜ ̝ ̈́ ͅ ̖ f ̉ ̜ ̙ ̭ ≈ ͒ ͎ ̎ ͈ ̟ ̞ ͌ ̑ œ ̍ ͐ ͒ ͑ ̛ ͙ ̦ ̬ î ̒ ̪ ̺ ̆ ͝ ̉ π ̍ ̶̜̭̈́͜ ̱͔f̥ n̶ ͝ ͓̫ ͕͒ c̷ẗ̵̨͕́̓ ̕ı̨̧̹̀͐͆͋͠ ̴o̷͇̒́ ̩̆̽ n̴ ͗́d#≠ ∏î ̙̪ ̎́ ̄ ̔ ͝ ͛​͛ ̑̃̉͝ ̄̓̕ ̃̏ ̇̍̓ e∞∆ ̐ ̓ ̆̎̄ ̃͗ ¥ ̞̘͂ ̡̧̱̯̠ı̴̴̗̔͂̈́́͘̚̕̕n̶͋ ̘̾͆ ̜͕̅ t̶̨aṙ̶̼̹ ͘ ̨̻̰o ͎ style and designing member ̭̖̜̭̽̏ ̘̝ ̟͋ ͝ f®̵͇͊ au ͝ ͎̤̅̂͐̾̕ ͠ ̣ṫ̷̷̙̅̎͝ as ̯ ̫͐ ̵d͕͙f̔ #̀u̶ ̃ character e ͈̳͎̃́̽n̶ ̰̙A o̸ ̀ π à ̨ ̵ ̘ ͎ ̎ ͂ ͎ ͠ ̘ ̭ ̏ ͝ a̵ j ̦ ̍ ̝ ̽ ̈́ ͛ ̈ ̟ ̻ m ̭ ͇ ͌ ͘ ̓ â ͊ ̚ ̗ ̬ ̆ ̖ ̡̬ e̷ ̸͂ ͎ ̭ ̼ ̇ n̷ ̌ ̈́ ͅ t̸ ̘ ͈ ̱ ͑ ̧ ́ a ̊ ̓ ̮ ̉ ̅ ͑ ̱ ̓ ͝ ̷ ̢ l ͍ s B ͍ ͆ ̈́ g ̰ ̨ ͙ ͠ ̍ ̴ ̳ ̧ ̘ ͉ ̹ ̈́ ̶ ̤ ̚ o̶ ̩ ̦ ̄ ̓ ̓ ͕ ̆ Ö ͈ ̟ ́ f¥ ̵̧̫̺̑ ̻̭â e̶̡ ̒̈́̊ ͈͔̈s̵ı̘̑ ̵̢g̀ ̩n̴ ̷ ͙̌ ,̚ ͘ ̵͇̍ ̈́ of a cast. ̷͎̓̊̎͗̕̚͠ ̘ ̷̡̧́ä͇̹t̵​̵ ̚ ̢ḛ̡̀͂̾ ̘̩̜͒̐͜r̶ ̪̥ı̸̶̮͉̰̀́͐͝ à̸̝͖̥̬̞̍̈́​̈́ ̚ ̛̮̬͐͊l#́ ̏ ͜ı̵‘ ̼͎̥̽ͅ†̈́%̔i t̸͝ ̬̻ ÿ̸̭̘̄ ́̚ ͙ ̦,̸̀͗ ̡̹̜̺̅ ̸̨̝̼̖̀̊̏c̤ ̗͚ ̕r̵̷ ̜̒̄ ͈̮̬͕ ̟e̸͝ ̇̓͗ ̚ ͉̐͊̋́̕a͝ ̬͈ ̫͍͚͑t̷̴͔̳͐̈́̑͠ ı̵̢ ̖̜̩̮̙̬̈̉̽̓ n̵̖͋̀ ̓̏ ͓ ̯̰̳̣̾̾g̶̱̰ ͕ ̓͐͑͐ t̴̶̘̂̈ ̕ę̍̎̑̅͗ ̈́ ̤ ̛͑ ̛̿ ̆̏ ̯͇ f…i ̈͛̆͝ ͅ ͝ ̈́̏ ̟̻̤̞ ̔͐ ͝ ̖̱ ͜ ̰͈ ̱̞͇ ̭̙͎̼̖ ͒ ́ ≠ ̝͙ Ω ͘ ̢ ̫͓ ̒̉ ̝̙̼d# ̇ ̊ ̟ ̾ ̣ ̡̰̩̟m ́ ̏ ̼ ̅ ̣ ̮ ̝ ̟ ̝ ͇ ͆ ̮ ̝ ̹ ͚ ̰ ͇ ̝ ̝ ̣ ͔ ͅ ̖ ͓ ̩ ̿ ̦ ͇ ̪ ̊ ̞ ͖ ̞ ̝ ̿ ̘ ̞ ͍ ̌ ̸m ̷͛ ͘ ͇​͇̈̂ l¥a̷j ̬̤̘∆≈ ̛̻͔̅t̸̕e͙̣͆ ̘À̧̗̺̎s̵̶ ͘ ̢̼̘̑͆ ̡̟ã̷͈͝ ̵̦͎̾n̷̺̰̔͐̍̕d¥̟̙e ̶̨̇p ͊ ̏ ̈́ ̐ ̊̎ ̳͔̐̉ ̐̅ ͛ ͋ ͘ ̟̽̓͗̉ ͋̊̓n̴͊̈̅͑ ̑́ ̳​̳ p̸ ̭ ̮ ̶̢̤̃̾ ̠̃ ̷f̢B ̖͎̳ $ s̴̶͎̐̑̋͐͘͝ ç̸̈́̆͝ ́ ͍ ̃̓̈ ̖ ∞¡ ̲̫̠ͅ ͊ ̣̬̰͝ ̯̞͗͌͗ ̐ ̪̻̫ ͎̪̺̄̓̆̂̀r̡͝ ̧͎̞̜ͅà̸̷ ̠͗͋͑ ̝̙ ̯̤̒̔lÑj ̯C̠∏¿C ̴̡͙̗͗o o ̼ ̌͂̐͝ ̖ ̄̂ ÜD̙∫̱ ̘̺͆͗̈́ ̲̤̻̝ ̆ ̥̹͙ ̬̹̥̾ ͌́̋ ́ ̈̌ ͇̫̼͇̇ͅ ̡r̵ ∫̈́ ͔̤e̷̡ ̐ ̑̍̌ ̗̼̬̆s̴̷ ͜ẹ̶̖͖̀̐ ̏ ̋ ̘̥̟̺̼̟̓n̨ ̝̃̽ͅ ̷t̸̡a̋̑ ͘ ̧̍̓ ̴͔̩̟̼̓̔t̶͠ ı̷̝̺̰̙̎͠ o̸ ̈́̉d¥ ̪͊ ͖͇͐ ̴b®̘̹îȷ̶e̵̥ ͕͈͜ ̭͜ ͑ ̈̇̓ ̡̪̩̤̓͜ć ͎ t̷̶́ ̼͙̾́̌̂ ̟̩ š̸̖̜͋̅ ̢̹̣͕̘̀̓͐ ̷̛̘͎̹̺͉̎̍̏͒a̶͛͐ ̙͙̑̈́n̵ ̀ ͆ ̰ ̄ Ö ̀ ̀ ͝ ̠ ̯ ͓ ̗ ͓ ͍ ͉ ̟ ̋́ ́ ̗ ͛ ̅ ͑ ̓ p̵ ̭ ͜ ̫ ̓ ͘ ͐ ̷ ̇̈́ ̙͂̾̏ ̦ ̆ ͓ ̘͉͎ ͝ ̦͔̮̻ ≠u̵͕͉͌ fD ͖͈̒͜ĺB̢ ̗̜̘̙p̸f ͙̟͇͎͓√͂œţ ̵u̴ ̄ ̘ ͝ ̋ a ̢ ̛ ͠ g % ͆ ̭̈́#r̷̨̗̠̀ı̆̌͊ ̶̚c̷̬̽ ̿ ̕a̵̠̼̾̒̉͋ ̦̓͐t̸ı̴̨̬̒̈͆͝ ̞̚ o̵͇͊̑ ̧͔̤ n̶ ͇ ̊ ̝ ̶ ̢ c̶ ̜ ̇ ¿ ̎ ͔ aàø̦ º ̢͇̻͉͐͜b ͚ ̡ kB ̅ ̙ a̷ ̟ ́ ͅ ͍ ̫ ͌ ̈ g̴ ̘ ͑ ͌ ̪ ̒ ̝ ͐ ı ̢ ̪ ̛ ̴ n̷ ͌ ̱ g ̯ ̈́ ͔ ̤ ̒ ̈ ̴ .̸ ͜ ̟ ̪ ͛ ̱ ̲ ͉ ̂ ̵ ̭ ̈́ ͘ FB ͝ ͆ ̎ ̮ ̻ ͅ ̚ ̠ ̘ ̘ ̶ ͜ ̫ ͗ ̰ ͕ ̎ ̓ ͙ ͊ ͉ ̲ ̼ ̋ ̘ ̰ ͚ ̇ ̫ ̞ ̯ ͖ ̟ ́ ̔ ̤ ̞ ̂ ͂ ͎ ͈ ̃ ́ ̠ † ̘ ̝ ̩ ̴̭̉ ̭ é̸̸̢ ̨ ͎̦̂t̷h® ͚ ̈́ ̘ ͉ ̞ ̽ ͇ ͈ ̦ ̒ ͌ ̣ ͐ ̫ ̙ ̟ ̾ ̖ ̹ ̣ ͈ ͅ ̯ ̥ ̖ ͉ ̰ ̤ ̦ ́ ̹ ̖ ̫ ̰̇ ́ ̐ ́ ̐ ͙̱̻̼ şj ̨̹ ̵̫̼̱́̈́͗͐ ̵̝͖͛̐͝ı̵n̶̨͙͇̍́ ̢̙̫͓̃̈́ ̷̧̨̤͂̔͝a̵͖͛̈́̅́̕ ͘v̷̵͍̊̂͠ ̼a͝ ̷͕̺͑r̷͊ ͚ı̸̉́ ̿́̕ ̘e̴͒̓ ͚́t̵͘ ỳ̶ ̪̈̋̓̏ ̀̈́͂̿͝ ̗ ̥o ̰̒ ̻ ̝ ̳m ̩ ̡ ̘̞͓ͅ ̐͆̑̐ ͇̜͔̘â o̷͈͓͙̟̿͆ dÑ ̷̪̀͘ ̫ ͓͖̈́̆ à̴̵ ̊ ̩̜̑̂͜t̛̾͝ė̸̵̮͈̼̑ ̏ ͇͍͌̌̋ŕ̶ ̻͓ı̸̊ ͖ ͆á̵͠ ͕͍̇̑̊ ͚ ̣̀̇̊̈́l̀̊͠ s̷# ̗̙Ü% ü ̨͇͍̪̬̬̲̏ ̗(̶​̶͓̒ ̺͒̈́͠͝w̶ ̒̏ ͒͛ ̥ ̗̝ ͓̬ͅ ̰͕ͅ ̦̩ ́ ̲̬͍ ̪̹̟ ø ͈ ͌​̺͇̩̭͌͜ ̦̣ ͔ ̳̺̞ ̞̩ ̸͋ ̌̋́ ̳̼̳͆ ̷f¥̛̈̇ ͔͈ ̓ ͕m ̐ ͋ ̀͠ ̲̃̈́o̚ ̴̩̓̈͊̕d® ͝ ̭̈́̋̈́,̵́π̙ ̺̏̑̕͝ ̴̐̒͝m̵̽ ̘ ̏ ̇ ̛ ͇ ̽ ̏ ̟ ̠̎ ̄ ͝ ̪ ̏ ̓ ̄ ̒ ̌ ̈́ ̑ ̇ ̺ ͐ ͝ ̽ ̮ Ü ́ ̔ ͖ ͔ ̈́ ͔ ̬ ̀ ̭ ̺ ̆ ͅ ͚ ͐ ͐ ̄ ̫ ͔ ͗ ̯̬̗̫̆ͅ o̷ ̸̟̂ ̯̥̓̂̕ l®̀a̴͔͙Ü ̗̤̟ś̶ t̼̀̈́̌ e̵ ͎̒ ͈ ̧͙̀̈́r̴ ̦̻͘ ̵͚͖̇,̵͗ ̛̠͇̆̑ ͙fÑ̴̞̽͆ o̷̖͙ ∂ ͓͑ u̸ ͝ ͠ ̚ ̶͉̃̔d̩√¨ Ñj ̵̔o̸ ͅp̵ ͋̀ ͆ ̘ ̕Ö͑́̅ ͛̉͑ ͈̮̼̞ ͈̠̲̭̜ ͈̯͉̰ ̜̱͚̙͇ e̷̥͎​͎̞̼̈́t̵̚ ͜ȧ̶̪̭̟̜͔ ͕̤̺͇̆́l̡ ͘,̴B ͈͕̠ ̱͉̣͗ ̞͓≠ ̖$Üe̴‘gœ∫º ̭͈̘ ̏ ̩̊ ̱͔̦̯͠ ͎e̴͛​͛̑͒ ̶͚̃̂x̸̄̊ ̰̯ ̧p̶ ̈́͋ ̥̙ ̛̑͌̽̊ ̧ı͝ ̚lÑ̷ ̡̙̾̿͋̕ļ̗̀̈́̈ ̡B ̨̟͖̻̟f¡∏ ü ̸͆́bB ̨̝̩̅ ̿̄̉ ͉͙̃͆bÑà͍̰¡ȷ̧gî e̸̶͠ ̺͉̆ ͓̭̰̇̂͑c̶̀ ẗ̸̨̖̻́̂̐̎̌͠ͅ ̙ ś̷ ͚̃̀̌​͚ ̛)̵̮̪͒̈́̊ ͈ ̢̣̳͙͊̊̂͑͝ͅ ̣w̷ ̋ ͑ ͌ ̸ ̍ ͝ ̮ ̅ ̕ ͈​͈ ̪͎ E ̮͙ ͋̋ ̓̈́ ̇ ͔̥̑̍ ̯̬̟ ͌ ̊ ̦͔​͔ ̑̽̈́ ̡̩̆̈́͜n ̫ ̼ ̉ ̩ ͂ ̕ ̬ ̳ ̧ ̇ ̣ ͑ ̓ ̘ ̱ ̹ ̑ ͝ ͠͝ ̤̈͝ ̓ ̊̓ ̥̺̼ ̈́ ͐̉̍ ̨̙ ͓ ͋͐̇̔ ͠ ͙̳͎͐̈́̇ ͔̗͉ ́ ̏ ̳͎̳ ͝ ̿ ̤ ̽̒͂͝ ̌ ̤ ͚ àC¨∫ ̆̌͂ ̗ ̫̭̹ ̑͌ ̫̲͉​͉ ͗͒͆͐ ͎ ̤̼͈͙ͅ ̚ ̗̭̯ l®͛ o̶̩̤͉̪ ̨̢̜̘͚̭r̍͘ ̞͔e̶̸ ́ ͕̤̹̰̍dB̟͍̭iû̢͜.̵̣̋͒̕̚ ͚ ̦ ͕̯ ̓ ̒̔͐ ̵̣̇T#̆ h® º ̗ Ü¿ ͝ ͊̄ ̍ ̛͕̗̀̽ ͘ ̮̖̍͑u̶ ́ ̩̈́́ ͈e e̴̩̔̊ ͠ m̶ ͍̘̬ ̓͌ ̱̳̮͇̜̼ ̃ ͖̿ ͇̘̬͇ ı̵j ̽͗͂ ü Æ̛s̸̐ͅ ̚ ̈͐ ̟̻͙̱ͅ ̡̧̘͔̬͘c̵̴̒ o̸ ̱ ̘̭̱̍̋͜ŕ ̨͓̹̭̙s̸ ͛̌ ̴̙̰ẹ̷͔́​͔̃̂́ ̣̾ ͕̪̣̊̄̋͌e̷̶͓̎̐͝ ̰̞̦̳̓̈x̶̚ ̄̓ ͇̱͎a̷͙͆̇ ͕̭͈m ͎̰͒ ı̶̴ n̨̗̹͙͂ ̺ ̥̜̓ ̵e̴≈͘ ̼̞͙̒̑s̸͘ ͈̤̗̰̈̂ ̞̙t̸̸̡͚͙̒͝ hB ̴̧͍͓̓͊̆͘̚͠ ̏ ̈ ͠ ̿ ͛ ͝ ͝ ͂ ̈́ ͒ ͝ ̍ ̳̖ ̆̇ ̅ ̛ ͋ ̓ ̅ ̸̧̙̪̇͐͠ ̞̤f∏≈¥e̸̢jg ü ̼̺̃̽o ̊̏ ̾ ̝ ͚ ̩ ͎ ̆ ̍ ͝ ̳ ̆ ͝ ̐ ̏ ͝ º ̰͖͎ ̍̔̂ ̭ͅ â ̥ ͗͂ ͍̳̪̺̕ ü̈́ ̬͍̪͖ ̾̋̃͝ ͉̜̭ͅ ̓ ̿ ̖̥ ̒ a̵̧ ̘̤̦͓̌ȷ̈͐̕ ̴o̶̦̗͈̒ ̯̥͂̉r̶̻̜̙͈ ͌ ̻̞̲t̸̶̢̡̩̻̂ ̒͒ r̢ ̧̩̤̅ ̶̖̮̘̜̕ĕ̷ ̈͌ ̧͉̄͆n͙̼̖̳̰̈́ ̶d#̹͔̳ø̓ s̴̨̙ ̆ ,̴̨̮̯̰̞̫̬͛̆͝ Dû̬͈̺̠͑̌ ̩t̶̎͒ h ͔ ̎́ ̱ ͗̓͆ ̡̀͝ ̚ ̺̮̘̄͌ ŕ̷̶ ̓̊ ͘ ͉̙͚ı̶̃̊ e̴͗̃ͅ ̘͘ ̧̛̳͇͈͐̈́͆s̶͌̒̐ ̡̕,̭̀͊ ̵̧͕̀ ̎ 1961 ̔ ͅ ȇ̷͚͙͗t̸͐͂͠ h ȃ̸͕̤̖̣̘͝ ̭͚̩̗̥̓t̶​̶ ̿ ı̴̡́ ̯̰̤̱̍̃̏ ͜v̸͕̲͗̉ ̯̪e̒ ̓͛͊̍ ͈ ̶̯̑̊́͒ ̣̥̲ ̗̣m̵̍ ͙ ͠͝ ̅ ̣ ̒ ̗ ¨ Ω Ñ o ̞̱ı̷​̷̧͍́̽͜ n̴%͓̭̝̃ ̫ ͗̇ ͚̙̠̤̌ t̴̡ȩ̶͎̗̭̓ͅ ̣̯͙̦̈́̾r̴͊ ̟p̏ ̞̘̙͐͗̕ ̷ṛ̸̛̹̟̿e̴̡͠͝ ̑ ̛̽̓ ̝̪̄t1963 ̇ ̴ ̖ ̉ ̀ ͜ g ͝ ͊ % ̒ ̓ º ̩ ̀ ͖ ͝ ͎ ͒ ͂ ͠ ̇ ̶ ̡ d Æ ∞ ͘ ͛ ̏ Ñ ͅ o̸ ͚ ̯ ̽ Ö ̤ ̈́ ̇ l # ̆ ̙ ̈ $ ͎ ̊ ̡ g̸ ̱ ̐ ̫o̸ ı ͓ ̾ ̇ ̸ e̶ ̂ ̱ s̶ ̌ ̠ ̀ ,̵ ̕ ̗ ̣ ̘ ̉ ̜ ̡ ̑ ̝ ͜ ̳ ̒ ͍ ̑ ̷ a̷ ̉ ̼͎ ̽ ̈́ ̢ ̅ ͉â ̸̨͇͗̄͝t̝ ̶̢́e̸̬̓ ̛̇̆c̸̪ ̪̘̃̕ ̟͚â n̴ ̧̊ ̵̛͕̀̇̈́̋̉́͊ͅe̸͚̪̯̽̾s̢ ̴̧̛͓̳̃̋̑ ̘o̶ ̮ ̗ ̣ ̰ ̚ ̰̓n̷̥̲̾ d¥ ̫ ̮̣ ̅ ͊ ̄̆ ̛̈́Ö͊ ̄ ̏ ͝ ̋ ̉ ̔ ̀̍ 1963 1961 ͍ πg ̣̤͕̥͍ ı̵q̸̼̣͖̤̜͋ ̦͐͐̃̅u ͕̳͖ ̿ ̫͌̓lBg ̜t̵ø¡û̈́̋̉ u̷͋̔̐ ̰̚ ̲̙ ̻͛̍̂r̆̃ ̸a̔̎͑͆ ͇̬͓̘ ̷̓͆̒́̀l̡͝ ͉ eg ̐̃̓ ̙̭̫̠ ̫͑͠ ͈̗̳̼̤ ̌̓͒̾ ̩̭ ̒̌̇͠͝ ̿ ̮̬͙̝ ̈́͌̀̉͊ ͝ ̠̞̰ ̈̒ ̟͔̜ ͜ ̝̠͕ ͗ ͉̰͈̥͎͗͆̌͐̂͆ ̓͂̈̓͛̏ h¥ ̠̌ ͍̦ ̑̉ ̴̢̞̤̦̺͌ ̯̿ ̟̇f̏ ͆ ̢®͓͍̮̦ ∂° ̔ ̗̯a̵̸̩̞̿͜ ̭̹̕͜n̨̳ ͐ ̸̡d̟âC∂∫¥ ̨͉̙c̶̋̑͑ u̷ ̸ŕ̷̝̭͓ ̚ ͘ ̡̹̜͜ı̒ ̿ ̵t̶̨̙͈̹ ı̴̨̱̠͉̼͗͐ c̵̡͝ ̡̤̱͉̺̪ ͂̂̾͊̑ ̚ ı̗͋̈́ ̶s̵̗̥̒̓̉ Hall, ̒ ͔ ͙ m̷̃ ͚ ̳ Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. ̻̩͍̤̔͑̽̔lB̶͙͌ ı̶̭̱̻̲͛̉¡̠̌̏̕ ẗ̨̬̙͉̼͓́ ͘ ̸̒ȩ̜̝̱̻̠͂͆ ͘ ̞͉̻̹̔̄r̸​̸̄ ̈͒ ͉̲͜a͝ ̐̽̉ ̈́​̳̦͉̈́̊̏̈r̵​̵ ̨̦ ̛̰ͅÿ̴̡͗ ̡c̷͂͋͊͘ Harris ͊ ̴ ͚ ͇ ͋ ̖ ̥ ͉ ͘ ® s ̡ ̆ ̵ ̙ ̱ Ö ̘ ̼ ͂ t̷ ̴ ̖ ∂ ̼ ̖̭î º ̸̟͛2̷ ͖ ͈ ̈̇͌ ̬̞ ̦̠ ͓̬ ͒ ̱͇ ̌̉ ̳ ̊̐ ̬̞͉ ̳͔̾͊ ̣̺̤̖ ͍͉ ̚ ͕̭ ̑ ̚ ̭̼ ̳̬̗ u̷̹̥̬ ̳̾ d͉̼∞ ͋ı® e̶̸ ̳̲̣ ̏ ͎͇̫̑s̢ ̊ ̵.̶̟͕̊ ̟̞̌͜ ̶̝̥͒E®N# ̸͇̫̂͜ ̢̯͇̪͚͕͊ͅ​͊̎̅ ̿ ̧̮̀ı̴̛͗̅̓ ̵ ̘s̴̾̒̑̔̏ ͘ ̡̔̎̊̌̂̈͜ ̯̠ ̂́ ͈ ̆̕ ̳ ̂ ͒ ̙ ̷̏ Harris ͚ ͌͝ ̾ ̈́ ͝ ͑̅ ͅ ͎̯ ̑͑ ̬ ͊ ̉͊ ̰͖ ̀ ͎ ͒̉ ͔ ͛ ̣̖ͅ ̋ ͍̩͔g̗h º ü ̲̞̬¡ ̂ ͜G¥ Rev. Martin Luther King ̲ ̼̩̬ͅ i∆ ͉̀̂5̃ ͍6̴ ͌ ̯c̷​̷̼̌ o ̨̹̙̂͝ Hall, ͂r̴͖̯͠completed ̛̣̝̫̥̋̎ a̸̴̔ ͠ ̋̽ͅyMorlan ͋̅ ̚ ̎͋ ̨͘ ̠f̷̛̛̎̀̈͗̆o̷ ̴̊u̵̥̣͒̓r̶̿ ͈͖s̷͝ ͐̉ ͜e̸͇̹͓̗̅Hall ͎ ̕ ͊ ̽ ͖ ̑ ̇ ̃ ̧ ̢ ̴ ͂ ̈ ͙ ̆ ̕ ̳ ͑ ̮ # speaks In Memorial HallJr. ̺t̸̐ hB̸͇̩͕ ̤ ̢ĕ̴̪̯̥̳̮̳̮̐́ ̶̗͇̹̜̲̤̾̀̌g̴̿ ͍​͍̱̬̄a̸̯ ̞̬̰̄t́ ̨̙ é̶ ̧͉͍̪̬̲ ̪w Old ̩ ̉ ͐ ͒ ̗ ͝ ̫ ̎ ̶ t ͎ ̨ ̜ ̑ ∂ º ̒ e ̺ h ̷ ͑ ̒ ͐ ̈́ ̳ B j ̧ e ̉ ͆ ̱ ͎ ̿ ̚ ̸ ͠ ͘ ͂ ̵ l ̦ ̐ ̚ ͐ ̀ ̠ ̧ ͖ ı ¥ ̟ ̃ ̴ ́ ̓ ̧ t̴ ̨ ̦ ͎ͅ e̵̙ ͖̳̄r̴̢ ̙ẳ̵ ̘̍̽t̸͘ u̴̧̺̐ ̜̎ r̸e̵̎ ̽ ́ ̋ ̱̣ † ̈͠ ͌̌̎ ̀ ̈́͗ ̇ ͛̈́ ̄͛ ̜ ͍ ͅ ̬ ͇ ͉ ̰ ̥ ͕ ͕ ͈ ̲͉̣ ̤̺ ͚ ͖ ̼ ͖̘̦ Morlan ͓ ̖ ̱̠̯ ̗͙̣̱ ̣͈̤̪ ̙͈̠ ̮̖͇ ̼ ̘̳͕̗ ̟ ̱͚̼͍ ̰̩ ̨ ̷̠̭̻̔̍͝ë̵̪̦̣́m̷̥̘̬̰̗̊ p̷̛̾̍ ̧h̳̟͈͕°®jȧ̵̩͌s͘ ̷ı̶̠̯̱̀̆̑̂ s̸̗͍̉ ̬̓̈ ̴̝̰̓ı̵̫͑͝ n̴̘͇̊͗ ̛̠͂̌͋ speaks In Memorial Hall Old ̺̟ Hall̫̻ completed ̝̬̗

Honors Program begins • Honors Program begins International Club • International Club established established

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 1 CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 12

This course examines the major trends, trend theories , t heo r i , interpretive methodologies, and techniques of literary criticism and cultural studies . ENG 256 is ̾ ̍̒ ̔̅ ̈́͂ literature emphasis in the gateway course for ̾ ̏the ̀ A#% ͝ ̈́̌ ̕͠ ̷̇͋͂́͝ ͍CDE ̧ıB ̴̛s̴͖͈ ̕c̴̝̼͌͆͋ ̛͜e͔͈̼̓͐̔̂͠ͅ ͕̇̈́̕​̈́̆n ̵̏͠ ̠͑̋̆ heif g ̆ ͗̐͂ ̸̦̒͐̒̕͝ ͔̰i̠ r̵̢̖̩̞̪s̸̍̆ ̚ ̭͎̈́̉ ̸̭̇EÑ̠͐̊ àán Öâ Ü ́ ͐ ͠ ͊ ͠ ͂ ̒ ͐ ̂ ̌ ̍ the English major. ̾ ͈$ r͍s̴ ̇̓ ̶̨̤͖͗ ̖͜D ̑ ̉ ͍̱ ̮ ͖̜̣ ̵d#͘ ͇̱̝ ̧ıj ̷,̷̀ ̮͛̋ ̚ ̥̲͊̋͠ ̥̟A# ͖ ͓ g͎D ̆̉ ̛͙̜̙̺̒͜t̸̵̡ ı̨͙͕̅ ̷s̵͕̑ ̳̗ ̏ ̒

1962 1962

First research First research grant awarded from grant awarded National Sciencefrom National Science Foundation Foundation

North Vermont North campusVermont sold, earning $600K to campus sold, gaining $600K to begin Chapman College endowment begin Chapman College endowment


PAGE 2 Ars Discendi, Ars Entis on the occasion of 160th anniversary of Chapman University

Consider it necessary to exist, all the while open to all—

̛̕c̴e̵̥͔̽͑̉ ̢̛̠̱̯̦͍̈́͛ ̠ ͍ ̛͚

knowledge made this and more than this:

͐̄ ě̴̡͙̝.̃̏ ̶̬̘͎̍̀̕"̸̎̈́̇ ̨̮̯͉̒̉ ͖ ̲͖ ̟̮ ͌ ı̶ǫ̱̒ ̛͖̪͓͑̂͛n̸ ̴ ̬̇ ͑ ̏ ̚ ̪ ̙̩ ͜

creating objects and methods in a variety of explored trends, theories, techniques and studies: the gateway for an emerging. We will examine change and formations, policies and practices and the relationships between

y̵͘ ̪̺͂͒͑̂̈ ͘ ̘̠͕

and will organize and will explore equity, access, and experience embedded together to learn the complex art of creating

̓ ̎ ̈́ ̔̅ ́ ͗͛ ̄ ̈ ̍ ̞̤$¿a̴#̧ ͇̓v̵̧̯͂e̓ ̴͉̈́̎͛̾ ̚ ͎n ë̵̮̺͎́͊l¥̈́ jg̢ı̯̹̭ ̵è̸̳̥̤̄͛ ̮̄̉̈́v̨̫̹̕e̷̢ ̶͚̥͌͑͗ ̴̩̰̒I¥̡ ̲͚̜̖̤√̈́ ̳̭h ̛ ͝ ̸ ̅ ̰ ̤ ̧ ̶̆̽ ̻̀ ̴o̴̓̋̐͆̕ ̊ û ̀ ̽ ̍̒̉ ¥ ̬̫ √ ̦͖͛͋ͅ l̡̀ ̚ ͘¥̢ ̫̩͎D ̙ ̮ ̯ ̠ ͎ ̙̱̳ ̖̜ ̞̟ ͚̬ ͕̟͔̤ ̯ ͅ ̮ͅ ̬̤͉͍ ̬̖̠̪ ̰̣̬ ͜ ͇̣̥lÑ̷̢̡̙̣̀͑̽ a̴̖̯̼̥͚C ̳͓̰̭̄w̸͍͎̑​͎̙ ̨fu̵ ̙̟ ̟͉ ̜ ̥̦ ̮

a thinking, feeling, living role in the story of being.

Poem: Anna Leahy, Professor of Creative Writing Poem Design: Claudine Jaenichen, Professor of Graphic Design Typeface: Atkinson Hyeperlegible, created in partnership with the Braille Institute

1965 1965

New Morlan Hall completed • New Morlan Hall completed Seven Seas Division launched, later renamed • Seven Seas Division launched, later renamed World Campus Afloat World Campus Afloat

1964 1964

Career Development Center Career Development Center established established

1966 1966

President's Council President's Council established established

1967 1967

Economic Forum established • Economic Forum established Chapman Radio begins • Chapman Radio begins broadcasting broadcasting Academic centers established • Academic centers established on Navy and Air Force bases on Navy and Air Force bases • Chapman

Library opens

Chapman Library opens • Faculty Constitution Faculty Constitution established established • Black Student Union founded Black Student Union founded FALL 2021 2 13 FALL 2021


UP FRONT

‘WELCOME HOME’ That simple message of reunion was proclaimed on banners and voiced all across the university’s two campuses as students returned to Chapman in August. “Nothing makes me happier than to see this field full of students and families all excited for the years ahead,” President Daniele C. Struppa said during Opening Convocation on Wilson Field. From the “Aims of Education” speech, given this year by new provost Norma Bouchard, Ph.D., through the Candle Lighting Ceremony in Attallah Piazza and the Affinity Socials in the Cross-Cultural Center, events of Orientation Week were particularly special this year. After an academic year dominated by remote learning, the week of in-person activities was expanded to include second-year students as well as those just joining the Chapman Family. “Don’t wait for the perfect opportunity, instead create it,” advised Alfredo Cruz-Garcia ’22, an orientation coordinator. “You are starting a completely new adventure,” added graduate assistant Breil Bonaguro ’21 (MA ’22). “Meet new people, and most importantly, know that you are meant to be here.”

Welcome home, indeed.

Orientation Week events this year were expanded to include second-year students as well as those just beginning their Chapman experience. Traditions of the week include fireworks at the conclusion of Opening Convocation on Wilson Field, as well as the Candle Lighting Ceremony in Attallah Piazza, where students learn about the significance of the Chapman Window of Opportunity.

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CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


UP FRONT

MEET CHAPMAN’S STUDENT BODY INCOMING STUDENTS

1,675

first-year students and

400

23%

identify as first-generation

Total aid awarded: nearly

$60 million

transfer students

high schools represented

7,404

undergraduates and

2,357

professional, graduate and law students

31%

48%

identify as BIPOC

40%

are involved in other organizations

Average first-year student

GPA

1,704

OVERALL STUDENT BODY

3.8

of undergraduates participate in Greek Life

78

countries are represented Also

48 U.S. states and 4 territories

FALL 2021

15


UP FRONT

A

fter four weeks in her new role as provost of Chapman University, Norma Bouchard happily reported that her first impressions had been confirmed.

“The more I meet with new colleagues, the more I understand that there’s great pride in this institution,” said Bouchard, Ph.D., speaking the day after she delivered the “Aims of Education” address at Opening Convocation, launching the 2021-22 academic year. “Last night, I spoke with a mother who is third-generation Chapman. It’s clear that pride is embedded deep in the university and deep in the region, while at the same time there’s also a global perspective. I would call it ‘glocal,’ where the global and local come together.” Bouchard joins Chapman as an internationally recognized scholar and innovator with extensive experience leading diverse academic programs. Her selection culminated a nationwide search to replace Glenn Pfeiffer, who retired in July after five highly effective years as provost. Following a sabbatical, Pfeiffer will return to his position as a professor of accounting in the Argyros School of Business and Economics. Bouchard served most recently as dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University in Philadelphia.

A Vision That Bridges Disciplines Norma Bouchard, Ph.D.

Internationally Known Scholar Named New Chapman Provost

“Dr. Bouchard is uniquely prepared to lead our academic community into the next phase of Chapman’s forward momentum,” said Chapman President Daniele C. Struppa. “She brings an impressive depth of experience as a researcher, scholar and leader who shares our belief in the importance of a collaborative culture that includes a wide range of diverse voices.” At Drexel, Bouchard led a college that is home to 13 academic departments covering disciplines that range from biodiversity to justice studies, philosophy to mathematics, communications to computational sciences. “Her experience positions her extraordinarily well to help us build on our interdisciplinary approach as well as foster an exceptional and diverse faculty and student body,” said Janeen Hill, Ph.D., dean of Chapman’s Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences and leader of the search committee.

Prepared to Lead a Nimble Academic Community

By Dennis Arp

In addition, Bouchard “is acutely aware of the issues facing universities today, including what needs to be done to embrace what we are learning from the pandemic,” Hill added. “She will help us rethink how we operate so we are even more nimble and better able to realize the full potential of Chapman.”

Norma Bouchard is respected for leading diverse and collaborative academic programs.

Before moving to Drexel in 2019, Bouchard was dean of the College of Arts and Letters at San Diego State University. A native of Italy who has also held faculty positions at the University of Puerto Rico and the University of Connecticut, Bouchard has overseen a number of research centers and institutes. Along the way, she has adopted a model of leadership that invites collaboration. “One of the greatest privileges of working at an institution like Chapman is that you have an incredible talent pool,” she said. “As we imagine the post-pandemic university, I think it’s so important to tap into this collective expertise.” In her short time at Chapman, she has already found that “we have a lot of problem solvers on the faculty and staff,” she said. “I think Chapman is very well positioned to continue to thrive.”

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CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


UP FRONT

R

eginald Chhen Stewart, Ph.D., an unwavering advocate for access and opportunity in higher education, has been named Chapman’s first vice president of diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI). As part of President Daniele C. Struppa’s senior team, Stewart will work to elevate Chapman’s commitment to inclusion, diversity, equity and belonging. Of the appointment of Stewart, Struppa said, “Reg is an exceptionally accomplished leader who I believe will have an immeasurable impact at Chapman. He joins us at a critical time as we work to elevate and advance our commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion and continue to improve the experience for our students, faculty and staff.” Stewart joins Chapman after serving as vice president of diversity, equity and inclusion at Iowa State University. Prior to Iowa State, he held a similar role at the University of Nevada, Reno. “Installing the senior diversity officer role in higher education takes both patience and persistence,” said Stewart. “This will be the third university where I have led such an effort, and I am thankful Chapman has a strong leadership team in place to move from aspiration to actualization.” Stewart’s experience leading diversity and inclusion efforts is wide ranging. Over the past three decades, he has provided support and leadership for a broad spectrum of DEI initiatives, having worked at both public and private institutions with student enrollments ranging from 650 to more than 36,000. He brings that same expertise and passion to Chapman, as he leads the university’s development of a strategic vision for diversity, equity and inclusion. “In my initial days on campus, I have met with some truly dedicated professionals eager to advance the Chapman DEI footprint,” said Stewart. “The first order of business for me has been to seek to understand our current capacity before introducing strategic enhancement and innovation ideas. I want our students, faculty, staff, alumni and trustees to be proud of this work because this is not about checking boxes, or some performative display of care. To be a leading university, Chapman must excel in this area.” During his distinguished career, Stewart has received recognition from the U.S. Department of Education, former Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, the College Board, Excelencia in Education, the NAACP, the Nevada System of Higher Education and the Ames (Iowa) Chamber of Commerce. His TEDx Talk, “Cultural (il)Literacy: What Modern America Needs to Know,” is widely used as a teaching tool in both corporate and educational settings. In 2019, Stewart was recognized with the Ames Humanitarian Award. “If you’re not strong in DEI, your organization becomes obsolete,” said Stewart. “Does the senior DEI officer fix racism in America? No. But we work to look at how Chapman’s history and policy affects procedures and impacts populations. The aim is to make DEI a central part of every conversation at Chapman.”

Reginald Chhen Stewart, Ph.D.

New Vice President of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Aims to Build Trust, Center DEI By Michelle Anguka Reginald Chhen Stewart aims to “make DEI a central part of every conversation at Chapman.”

"I have met with some truly dedicated professionals eager to advance the Chapman DEI footprint.” Reginald Chhen Stewart FALL 2021

17


“Compare and contrast,” goes the old essay prompt. Here we answer that challenge with a handful of thenand-now photos for a lighter look at physical changes around the Orange campus since Chapman relocated from Los Angeles in 1954. The physical transformation is exciting, and the old photos are a delight. And yet, the thing that stands unchanged is the Chapman heart and its steadfast and optimistic drive toward a brighter future.

THENNOW & BY DAWN BONKER

First, a few numbers.

At Commencement 1955, then-Chapman College enrolled 237 students and handed out 24 bachelor of arts degrees and two bachelor of music degrees. At the close of the 2020-21 academic year, the university awarded 1,734 bachelor's degrees, 556 master’s degrees, 325 professional doctorates and 36 Ph.D.s. Then, citrus groves still dominated the landscape, and a place called Disneyland had just opened its gates. Now, more than 3 million people call Orange County home, manufacturing and health care fuel the county economy, and Disneyland leadership counts many Chapman alumni among its ranks. Chapman has been there at every stage of development, expanding its programs to meet growing needs, helping the county evolve while marking its own achievements as a nationally ranked university. Happily, some things are timeless, though. Stately Memorial Hall still impresses, Pete the Panther hasn’t changed his name, and that abiding Chapman Family spirit lives on, carrying the momentum forward.

18

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


THEN

&

This 1955 aerial view shows the Chapman campus, then just 18 acres. Buildings include: 9) the Auditorium, Library and Administration Building (now called Memorial Hall); 6) the Art and Education Building (now called Reeves Hall); 7) the Dining Hall and Home Economics Building (now called Roosevelt Hall): 8) the Music, Speech Arts and Religion building (now called Wilkinson Hall); and 10) the Science Building (now called Smith Hall).

NOW

Today, 11 schools and colleges and two campuses comprise Chapman University with 90 acres in Orange and 25 acres in Irvine.

.

In Orange, the historic core classroom

buildings have been modernized and most recently joined by the Keck Center for Science and Engineering, seen here

at center, adjoining Wilson Field.

FALL 2021

19


THEN All the dorm comforts of the day — including a rotary phone — were among the features of student housing in the late 1960s.

NOW Olivia Medina ’21, left, and Jessica Amato ’21 enjoy their fully equipped kitchen at Chapman Grand, an all-apartment residence hall where students enjoy fully equipped kitchens and a pool and courtyard area decked out with grills, a hot tub and cabanas.

Photo/Livi Dom ’20

THEN Alumni recall him as Snack Bar Scotty, a purveyor of burgers and friendly advice, shown here in a 1971 CEER yearbook photo. “He was a character,” says Willy Hall '64 (MA '75).

NOW Gourmet food stations are a hallmark of the Randall Dining Commons within the Sandhu Residence and Conference Center. 20

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


& THEN

With a little imagination, the aroma of chalk dust is almost perceptible in this 1960s-era classroom photo.

NOW

Classroom technology like that at Swenson Family Hall of Engineering is typical across campus now. Here

Rene German ’05 (MS ’15), a faculty member in computational and data science, teaches in the Arnold and

Mabel Beckman Computational Science Laboratory.

THEN For years, a clutch of garages and even a gas pump flanked a shady lawn near Wilkinson Hall. Built in 1905, Wilkinson is the oldest building on campus.

NOW Even with the myriad changes on campus, the area around Wilkinson Hall still affords students a quiet place to study and take a break. FALL 2021

21


HISTORIC JOURNEY Chapman’s founding spirit of inclusion and opportunity springs vibrantly to life during a heritage tour built on inspiration. BY DENNIS ARP

On the desk of the Rev. Cisa Payuyo in the Fish Interfaith Center sits an evocative photo rich with Chapman history. The image of students from the Philippines was given to her by her mentor at Filipino Disciples Christian Church in Los Angeles, Royal Morales ’54, who told stories of generosity and opportunity made possible by Charles Clarke Chapman, the namesake of Chapman University. Payuyo was intrigued by the stories, so she took the photo to Leatherby Libraries and searched through 1930s Chapman yearbooks until she could identify each of the 11 students pictured. Still, the photo kept nudging her to learn more about the man who brought those students to Chapman during a time when few immigrants, especially from Asia, enjoyed such educational opportunities. She knew that C.C. Chapman was a banker, citrus grower and Disciples of Christ church leader who in the early decades of the 20th century steadfastly stoked the flame of a struggling L.A. college then known as California Christian. He was the first chairman of the college’s Board of Trustees and was instrumental in raising funds to keep the school going. The school’s trustees were eternally grateful, and on Commencement in 1934 they announced that henceforth the school would carry the Chapman name. C.C. Chapman was moved to tears by the gesture. Later, he would share that the honor “seems only a dream.” Payuyo draws inspiration from the countless dreams C.C. Chapman fulfilled through his generosity and philanthropy. “He’s someone who reflects the idea of ‘anything imaginable,’” says Payuyo, associate director in Chapman’s Office of Church Relations. “He’s someone who came from humble beginnings, grabbed onto what was beautiful in his time and enhanced it.”

THE LIFE AND LEGACY OF C.C. CHAPMAN This summer, Payuyo decided it was time to do more historical digging into the life and legacy of C.C. Chapman. To make his impact more tangible, she planned a day trip to some of the places where his presence is still felt and his influence endures. On a warm Saturday in July, she and two Chapman Disciples on Campus students inaugurated what Payuyo is calling the Chapman Heritage Tour. She hopes it will be the first of many opportunities for members of the Chapman community to visit sites that illuminate the university’s

22

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

Hazel Thurston '24, left, and Isabelle Garcia '21 joined in the Chapman Heritage Tour, which included a stop at the Chapman Market, a 1929 Los Angeles building first developed by university namesake C.C. Chapman.

history and provide a window to the impact of its founding spirit of inclusion. “Now when I see the C.C. Chapman statue outside the Fish Interfaith Center, I have a vision of who he is and I better understand his place in history,” said Isabelle Garcia ’22, a psychology major from Michigan who joined in the tour. “I hope Cisa does the tour again when there are more students on campus, because it was super interesting.” Hazel Thurston ’24, a creative writing major from Washington, D.C., says she wanted to participate because “Chapman has a rich history in California that I think needs to be commemorated. Going back to the roots of our institution allowed me to greater appreciate the changes and improvements that have been made, as well as acknowledge our shortcomings. Continued improvement is something that I think Charles C. Chapman would approve of.”


“C.C. Chapman is someone who reflects the idea of ‘anything imaginable.’ He’s someone who came from humble beginnings, grabbed onto what was beautiful in his time and enhanced it.” The Rev. Cisa Payuyo, associate director in Chapman's Office of Church Relations

Left: The Rev. Payuyo holds a 1930s photo of Filipino Panthers that helped inspire her to develop a Chapman Heritage Tour. Bottom: A statue at the gravesite of Charles Clarke Chapman. As developed by Payuyo, the heritage tour has seven stops, starting in Fullerton, where C.C. Chapman was the city’s first mayor, and ending in Los Angeles, where he conducted business and helped college dreams blossom. Along the way, she and the students visited: • The Chapman Building, 110 East Wilshire Ave., Fullerton C.C. Chapman maintained his mayoral office in the building, which, at five stories, was the tallest in Orange County when it was built in 1923. • Final resting place of Charles Clarke Chapman, Forest Lawn Memorial Park, 1712 S. Glendale Ave., Glendale Buried alongside Chapman are his first and second wives as well as other members of his extended family. The site includes a marble statue, a replica of “La Carita,” or “Carità Educatrice (Charity the Educator), by Lorenzo Bartollini (1777-1850). • Previous location of Chapman College (California Christian), 4133 Marathon St., Los Angeles.

The site is now a parking lot owned by Los Angeles City College and is used as a swap meet on weekends. • Chapman Market, 3465 West 6th Street, Los Angeles Featuring Spanish Colonial Revival architecture with Art Deco details, this beautifully restored 1929 structure was initially developed by C.C. Chapman as one of the first markets designed for motorists. A rooftop sign invited drivers to turn off Wilshire Boulevard into the building’s parking lot. Now the structure is occupied mostly by chic Korean shops and restaurants. “I think C.C. Chapman would like that,” Payuyo said. • Former location of Wilshire Boulevard Christian Church, 634 Normandie Ave., Los Angeles Built in 1927 with funding by C.C. Chapman, the building also housed the college before a campus was built. In its heyday, the Romanesque-style structure with Byzantine influences was considered the Disciples Cathedral of Southern California.

FALL 2021

23


• Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools, 701 S. Catalina St., Los Angeles Across from the Wilshire Boulevard Christian Church are six K-12 pilot schools on the former site of the historic Ambassador Hotel, where Chapman College Founders Day galas once were held. In 1968, Sen. Robert Kennedy was assassinated in the hotel after winning the California Democratic Presidential Primary. • Chapman Flats, 756 S. Broadway, Los Angeles Once known as the Charles C. Chapman Building, this 13-story Beaux Arts edifice dates to 1912, when it was one of first office buildings in Los Angeles with a steel frame. It housed Bank of America when C.C. Chapman was the first chairman of the board. Restored to its historic luster, the building now is home to elegant apartments.

PRIDE IN CHAPMAN’S HISTORY OF INCLUSION A chance to look inside the Chapman Flats apartments and imagine the space as C.C. Chapman’s banking office was one highlight of the tour for Payuyo and the students. Another was walking around the Chapman Marketplace, where a security guard noticed their interest and pridefully shared stories of the building’s history.

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CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE

The whole tour experience reinforced Payuyo’s own pride in Chapman as a place where a chance meeting in 1928 between a banker/citrus grower in Los Angeles and a college-age visitor from the Philippines could open a pipeline for numerous other students, including her mentor. A 2019 exhibit in Leatherby Libraries, curated by John Carlo Encarnacion and Annie Tang, took visitors through the vibrant history of Filipino- and Filipina-American students at Chapman, using photos and documents from the university’s archive. “When you look at 1930s Chapman yearbooks, there are a lot of people from different ethnic groups,” Payuyo says. “There are African Americans, Japanese Americans, Koreans, Filipinos. Their dreams grew at Chapman.” That history also connects to the founding of Chapman as Hesperian College in 1861, Payuyo added, noting Hesperian’s commitment to welcoming women and people of color when few such institutions did. “To me, it all rings true to the spirit of Chapman,” she said. “The place and the man.”

C.C. Chapman helped open doors to higher education for students from the Philippines in the early decades of the 20th century.


Sacred Texts of Tradition As Chapman celebrates its Disciples of Christ heritage, the university also embraces a tradition that provides many paths to a spiritual life. “We are proud that our Fish Interfaith Center supports the spiritual lives of students, faculty and staff from a wide variety of traditions as well as those not claiming any religion but who are interested in exploring spirituality,” said the Rev. Nancy Brink, director of church relations. Brink shared her reflections with incoming students during the annual Candlelighting Ceremony of Orientation Week in August. “What [we want the community] to take most clearly from our history is that Disciples’ commitments to diversity, compassion and social justice are part of the DNA of this school,” she added. Reflecting Chapman’s commitment to the dignity of all people and all religions, the Office of Dean Gail Stearns of the Wallace All Faiths Chapel includes the leadership and teaching of Rabbi Corie Yutkin, director of Jewish life and chaplain, and Shaykh Jibreel Speight, director of Muslim life and chaplain. In addition, the Fish Interfaith Center is home to a variety of spiritual texts. Alongside a changing display of C.C. Chapman’s personal Bibles is a Torah smuggled out of Lithuania during the Holocaust, an illuminated Quran, an original imprint of the Book of Mormon and a replica of the Golden Temple of Sikhism. Each is in a sculptural showcase with intricate wood inlays created by artist William Tunberg and on display in the Wallace All Faiths Chapel. The latest work on display is the Saint John’s Bible, which features calfskin vellum pages that display the calligraphy and illuminations of more than a dozen artists from around the world. Chapman now has edition 101 of 299 limited editions commissioned by the monks of Saint John’s Abbey in Collegeville, Minn. “As stunningly beautiful as this Bible is, I was interested in having a Heritage Edition as a permanent installation at Chapman because of the 21st-century progressive Christian theology portrayed in the art,” said Brink, who led the fundraising effort to purchase the work for the Chapman community. With its illuminations, the Saint John’s Bible especially celebrates the biblical stories of women and the prophetic theology of inclusion as well as science, technology and discovery. The Bible travels throughout campus to classes in art, history and other disciplines. In summers, Brink hopes to have days when the public can come and see all seven volumes open and displayed in the chapel.

The Rev. Nancy Brink examines illuminations in the Saint John's Bible, which has joined other spiritual texts on display in the Wallace All Faiths Chapel.

FALL 2021

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C H A P M A N U N I V E R S I T Y | 1 6 0 TH A N N I V E R S A R Y

The Munemitsu Family Collection also includes ephemera, photographs and these handmade Japanese-style kites.

ARCHIVE

DIVE A

rchives are not just about keeping old things tidy and safe. They’re workplaces in support of teaching and research, providing evidence of where we’ve been and who we are as a society today.

A visit to Frank Mt. Pleasant Library of Special Collections and Archives within Chapman University’s Leatherby Libraries proves the point. Several well-lit tables and chairs fill the small reading room. Everyone from first-year undergraduates to visiting scholars can schedule time to examine and – often – touch some of the rare objects that teach us about our history, culture and values. Of course, many items are digitized now, a benefit for scholars and the public near and far. One of the most viewed digital collections is the Center for American War Letters Archive, a collection of letters written from every American conflict. (See story on Page 39.) Still, there’s no substitution for the real deal, says Rand Boyd, Chapman’s special collections librarian.

Tucked into the papers of Charles C. Chapman is the academic regalia of the university’s foundational benefactor and namesake. C.C. Chapman wore the simple black robe in the 1930s for ceremonial events and Commencements at then-California Christian College, renamed Chapman College in his honor in 1934.

“Unless the metadata for the digital surrogate is very detailed, information can be missed out. For example, a digitized photograph might not record the type of photography used, or the image does not accurately reproduce the tones and colors of the original,” Boyd says. “This is why access to the original is essential for good scholarship.”

160

1969

YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

1970

1968 • Town

and Gown founded

• Annual 26

Hashinger Science Center opens

giving tops $1 million

-• First NCAA (Div II) championship in baseball

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

First interterm

1971

Donald C. Kleckner • The Fashionables women’s becomes president organization founded, later becomes Women of Chapman


Step into any archive and it’s hard not to ask, “What’s the oldest thing here?” At Chapman, it’s a single page – what collectors call a leaf – from an Armenian Bible dating to 1121. The page is translated by Mesrop and written in the Haikian alphabet of 38 characters.

ABOUT THE ARCHIVES • When Leatherby Libraries opened in 2004, it included the Frank Mt. Pleasant Library of Special Collections and Archives, which was endowed by Trustee C. Stanley Chapman Jr. and his wife, Joan Mt. Pleasant Chapman, in honor of her uncle, Frank Mt. Pleasant, a Tuscarora Indian and Olympic athlete. The department traces its lineage to the Heritage Room in the former Thurmond Clarke Library on campus.

• In addition to the Center for American War Letters, the department includes the California’s Gold and Huell Howser archive. • The department houses in its special collections 17,356 cataloged items, 16,783 of which are books.

The landmark 1947 Mendez v. Westminster case was the first successful federal school desegregation decision in the nation. But a confluence of landmark events set the stage case in the early days of World War II. “Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez would never have been in Westminster, nor would have they been able to afford the lawsuit, if they had not been leasing the farm from the Munemitsu family, who as Japanese Americans were being incarcerated during WWII in Poston, Arizona,” explains Annie Tang, coordinator of Special Collections and Archives. This document in the Munemitsu Family Collection with the archives was drafted near the war’s end and includes provisions for the Munemitsu family to work and live on their farm during its lease. Additionally, the archives hold the Mendez et al. v Westminster collection, which includes documents, photographs, school records and family papers related to the case.

The complete works of Shakespeare nestle into this bookcase, published and created in New York by Knickerbocker Leather & Novelty Co. The item is part of the Miniature Book Collection and connects with the archive’s Pop-Up Book Collection, the Fine Bindings Collection and the Artist’s Book Collection. All are devoted to the book as an art form and are heavily used and studied by art students.

1973

• Infamous

“pink” campus buildings get a new coat of brown paint

• Women’s

Intercollegiate Athletics program begins

1974 1972

Chapman Library named Thurmond Clarke Memorial Library

Davis Apartments and Community Center open

• The

President’s Circle founded

1975 • Music

Building completed, later named Bertea Hall

Davis Chamberlain becomes acting president

• Original Orange Union High School campus buildings placed on the National Register for Historically Preserved Buildings

FALL 2021

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C H A P M A N U N I V E R S I T Y | 1 6 0 TH A N N I V E R S A R Y

A CHAPMAN TRADITION CONNECTS A FAMILY ACROSS GENERATIONS

You could say that Maxine Todd-McIntosh ’57 has lived a life in a full circle. Maxine grew up in Silverado Canyon and, in the early 1950s, attended Orange High School. After graduating, she made the adventurous decision to attend Chapman College, located at the time in Los Angeles. “Here I was up in the big city. We could hop a trolley — and we always waited for the old-fashioned trolleys in the middle of the street, not the modern ones that came on electricity — open all the windows in the middle car and sing our college songs, sometimes 20 or 30 of us in there,” says Maxine. “We just had so much fun. We were so close to Hollywood and we met so many interesting people.”

Maxine Todd-McIntosh ’57 and Don McIntosh ’58 (MA ’64) met while they were students. Maxine had a close relationship with her aunt, who left Chapman at the start of World War II to join the WAVES. Aunt Kathryn even tried to talk Maxine out of coming to Chapman. “She said, ‘Oh, Maxine, you need to go to a big university and really get the experience of a lot of famous professors.’” But after a weekend visit to the college, Maxine was adamant that it was Chapman or nothing. “It was just so wonderful; everybody was so friendly, and I really didn’t care too much about how highly rated every single professor was. I was looking for a good campus experience.”

Imagine her surprise when, partway through her college career, Chapman packed up and relocated — to the very campus in Orange where she had once attended high school. “Where does Chapman decide to move out of all the places in the world? My high school. I couldn’t believe it. I went home and I told Daddy how sad I was because I was sure he’d want me to live at home, but he said, ‘No, you can live in the dorm, Maxine,’” she says. There’s another full circle in Maxine’s life, too, and that’s a family connection to Chapman that has lasted for generations. Kathryn Margaret Todd, Maxine’s aunt, was the first in the family to come to Chapman, in the early 1940s, right about the time that the college campus was leased to the United States Navy and the student body temporarily relocated to Whittier College.

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YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

1976 •

Moulton Hall, Waltmar Theater, Guggenheim Art Gallery completed

• 28

Aurelia Todd, Maxine’s cousin, started at Chapman at the same time as Maxine, but departed after the first year to get married. Maxine stayed, determined to become a teacher. “I stayed all four years. It just became my world.” That world included Don McIntosh ’58 (MA ’64) — the Chapman student who would eventually become Maxine’s husband.

1977

• G.T. “Buck”

Smith becomes president

• First • First

50th class reunion held

School of Business and Management established

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

Economic Forcecast

1978

Harold Hutton Sports Center opens

1980

Schweitzer Institute established

1979

• A. Gary Anderson Center

for Economic Research established

• Athletics

Hall of Fame established


Top: Kathryn Margaret Todd, seen here in the 1939 CEER, was the first in the family to attend Chapman. Bottom: Sierra Detar ’22 with her grandfather, Don. Now, a new generation is joining the family circle of proud Panthers. Maxine and Don’s granddaughter, Sierra Detar ’22, is completing her final year at Chapman University. “I’ve been hearing about Chapman my whole life,” says Sierra, whose grandmother brought her to Orange to visit the campus long before she was ready to choose a college. “She showed me the campus and she was so excited,” she says. “It’s just such a special place, it felt exactly right for me.” Sierra’s experience so far has been very different from her grandparents’ — as a transfer student, she spent her first year at Chapman in virtual classes, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. She’s looking forward to being on campus for her senior year and creating her own Chapman memories to share with her family. “I’ve already met so many great people and I haven’t even met them in person,” she says. “I love them already and I can’t wait to be around them.” Will the family’s Chapman tradition continue? Sierra hopes so. Her younger sister, Brooklyn, currently a sophomore in high school, is already in love with the campus and Old Towne Orange. If she chooses to apply, her whole family of Panthers will be cheering her on. “What happens when you’re at Chapman is you become a Chapmanite,” says Maxine. “You become a Chapman Panther. Whether you’ve been there a year or longer, you inherit a wonderful tradition that is not in the course descriptions. And now, in the world today, that means a lot.”

1983

Enrollment reaches 1,175 on Orange campus.

1981 First American Celebration

1984

1989

Former President Richard M. Nixon speaks on campus

Allen E. Koenig becomes president

1988

1992 • Argyros

Forum opens

1991

James L. Doti becomes first university president

James L. Doti becomes Seminar acting president program begins

• Chapman College

of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences established

• School

• Pralle-Sodaro

Residence Hall opens

1987

• Freshmen

Tennis wins NCAA (Div II) championship

becomes Chapman University

• Wilkinson College

of Education established FALL 2021

29


C H A P M A N U N I V E R S I T Y | 1 6 0 TH A N N I V E R S A R Y

ARTFUL

VISION BY DAWN BONKER

As new collaborative spaces take shape, history informs a reimagining of campus as an evolving source of creative energy. PLACE HAS ALWAYS MATTERED AT CHAPMAN. From the post-World War II days when growing pains prompted it to leave Los Angeles for the citrus-scented opportunities of Orange County, to its decision to reimagine historic buildings as inspiring learning spaces, Chapman has continually focused on creating a place that best serves the next generation of students.

Above, artist's rendering shows no square corners in the firstfloor dance studio, a design that contributes to seismic framing of the historic building and conveys the fluidity of dance.

160

Today, that commitment continues to shape the university, as planners, donors and campus leaders collaborate to build the physical spaces essential to a maturing institution of higher education now ranked among the nation’s best universities. Those spaces spring from strategic planning that sparks collaboration. Barriers to creativity come down, and fledgling ideas take wing. Students work with high-tech tools that prepare them to thrive in fast-changing industries, from the health sciences to computer engineering to the creative arts. The momentum is palpable across

Korean-American Student Association established

30

What might a vintage citrus packinghouse, a defunct wire and cable manufacturing plant and a former auto shop have in common? At Chapman, they’re the anchors of an evolving west campus. Planning for new teaching spaces equipped with technology and designed for flexibility, the university has purchased several properties west of Glassell Street in recent years. In signature Chapman style, the vintage industrial buildings are being reimagined to honor the past while meeting the future. “I love projects that are so able to balance that respect and celebration of history with an embrace of where we are and where we’re going,” says

1994

YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

1992

the Orange campus and extends to the Rinker Health Science Campus in Irvine. Here we spotlight just three of the venues where the work of creating a campus of the future is transforming the learning experience of today and setting the stage for tomorrow.

• Stadium named Football program officially Ernie Chapman restarted after 62 years Stadium

1993 •

Asian Pacific Student Association established

Queer Student Association/CU Pride Association established

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

Founders’ Hall is renamed Roosevelt Hall


Plans for Hilbert Museum’s redesigned entry courtyard include a dramatic display of one of the historic Millard Sheets mosaics that once adorned Home Savings banks throughout Southern California. (Image courtesy of Johnston Marklee Architects)

Collette Creppell, Chapman’s vice president of Campus Planning and Design. Most of these buildings sit along North Cypress Street, all are within sight of the trains that stop at the historic Santa Fe Depot, and several are links in what Creppell envisions as an academic arts corridor connecting student experiences to California industries such as film, digital media, fine art and dance. Newest on the Cypress Street scene is the Sandi Simon Center for Dance, supported by a $5 million naming gift from Orange County philanthropists Ron and Sandi Simon. The center is set to open in the redesigned packinghouse by fall 2022. The adaptive reuse of the building will provide nearly 33,000 square feet for teaching studios, including one that can flex into a performance space, a training center dedicated to dancer health, along with classrooms and a third-floor mezzanine adaptable for multiple uses. An architectural bonus reflecting both the energy and philosophy guiding the building’s redesign is the array of windows at the ceiling. These clerestory windows still function and will fill the interior with gentle northern light.

1996

• School

1995

• Chapman

School of Law opens

• Softball Team

NCAA (Div III) championship

wins

“It will have a feeling of open possibilities,” says Julianne O’Brien, chair of the Department of Dance. Nearby, the Hilbert Museum of California Art thrives in a transformed warehouse and is planning for an expansion to further its mission of collecting and celebrating the unique genre of California Scene Painting. In total, the expansion will almost double the exhibition space. Among the features of the proposed plan are a multipurpose conference and lecture hall, research library, outdoor event space and a redesigned front entry, with a inviting courtyard to showcase a historic Millard Sheets mosaic. The Digital Media Arts Center of Dodge College of Film and Media Arts continues to flourish in a former manufacturing building, as does Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences a block away. Just steps from Crean is The K Residence Hall, a new 400-bed student housing complex that incorporates the architectural heritage

of Film and Television established

• MeChA

Established

of the adjacent packing plant, with which it shares an open courtyard. The growing effect of west campus is not that it’s unto itself, but instead full of character and adding to the sense of place of the whole campus, Creppell says. It’s no secret that some folks used to refer to the area as “off campus.” Those days are history. “The centers of gravity have shifted,” she says. “There’s a little more critical mass there. It doesn’t feel that remote anymore.” A spirit of breakthrough learning guided Chapman planners as they built out Swenson Hall, the new home of the Fowler School of Engineering. The stateof-the-art wing opened this fall in the Keck Center for Science and Engineering, completing the most ambitious building project in university history. In addition to high-tech tools, Swenson Hall features an immersive layout that promotes collaboration and innovation.

1998 •

Pua'ikeana (Hui O Hawai'i) established

1997

Muslim Student Association established

• Argyros

School of Business and Economics established

1999 • Kennedy

Hall opens

• Beckman

Hall opens

• Berilin Wall

and Liberty Plaza dedicated FALL 2021

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C H A P M A N U N I V E R S I T Y | 1 6 0 TH A N N I V E R S A R Y

Such is the new virtual reality for students in Dodge College. A recently installed LED virtual production wall allows them to conjure digital settings for film and TV scenes as wild and diverse as their imaginations. This is where Hollywood is headed, and Chapman students are already there.

The flow of activity in labs and other spaces replicates the real-world engineering product development cycle. (Photo by Carlota Crespo ’21)

Don’t look for rows and rows of sterile cubicles, offices and meeting rooms, nor single-purpose labs. What predominates are welcoming spaces for ideation that flow into equally inviting areas for prototyping and manufacturing. The vision is that electrical engineers excited about hardware will interact with computer scientists excited about software, says Fowler Engineering Dean Andrew Lyon. To make interaction easy, desks are all movable, accommodating groups of all sizes. Writable surfaces abound, allowing ideas to quickly turn into tangible next steps. In the research labs, dividers permit resizing of spaces for a wide range of research endeavors. Where students of various interests meet, collaboration grows.

enthusiasm for different aspects of engineering,” Lyon says. Truckloads of mission-critical equipment went into the new engineering space, including the world’s most powerful platform for deep learning and AI research in the high-performance computing facilities. And dogs, of a sort. The Robotics Shop will house enterprise-level Boston Dynamics “Spot” four-legged robots for teaching and research in autonomous systems. (Read more on Page 38.) Cameras rolled across a vast stretch of treeless tundra. The next day the setting shifted to an elegant ballroom, and then to the far reaches of space. All without filmmakers ever having to leave the Digital Media Arts Center.

“From day one, we push all interests together so we’re cross-fertilizing students’

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YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

2000

• Sunken

The vaulted ceiling at Keck Center comes to life at night with science-themed projections.

2001

Doy and Dee Henley Residence Hall opens

Lawn • Rodgers Center for filled in, named Bert Holocaust Education Williams ’35 Mall opens

32

The cutting-edge equipment not only gives students a leg up on career success, it also reflects Dodge College’s commitment to leveraging new technology as a tool of collaboration. The college is exploring ways to involve computational science students in Chapman’s Fowler School of Engineering in team learning projects that maximize the creative potential of the LED wall.

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

2003

• Baseball

wins College World Series

2002

• Millennium Campaign

rasies more than $215M

• Partridge

Dance Center opens

• Latinx Club

(Student Organization of Latinos) established


Ethan Ganouna ‘21 and his crew were the first Chapman students to test the new technology, which is inspired by the platform being pioneered for Disney’s “The Mandalorian.” It’s thought that Dodge is the first film school to install an LED wall for students to learn virtual production, blending the live-action and digital filmmaking worlds. “At Dodge, we really want to be the film school of the future,” says Madeline Warren, associate professor of film, media arts chair and director of the Institute for Creative Reality at Chapman. “We want to prepare students to enter an industry that’s rapidly changing so they can jump right in and keep up with new technology.” Ganouna and his student team were in with both feet as they shot a music video that was Ganouna’s thesis project. The video showcases a new album by his band, North Morlan, named for the Chapman residence hall where he and his bandmates first met. The film production major figures he now has a jump on the industry, which is just beginning its journey with virtual production. “I definitely think this is the future,” Ganouna says.

A ballroom dancer waits for her scene, at the new LED virtual production wall in the Digital Media Arts Center, which combines live-action and digital filmmaking

2004

• Four

Dodge College of Film and Sodaro-Pankey Undergraduate School of Media Arts

2005

buildings open: Fish Interfaith Center, Glass Hall, Leatherby Libraries and Oliphant Hall.

• Samueli Holocaust

• Schmid Gate

dedicated

Memorial Library dedicated

2006

Marion Knott Studios opens

2007

• College

of Performing Arts established

• Attallah

Piazza dedicated

2008

• School

of Education becomes College of Educational Studies

Erin Anderson Athletics Complex opens

Schmid College of Science and Technology established

• Economic

Science Institute opens, headed by Nobel Laureate Vernon Smith FALL 2021

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C H A P M A N U N I V E R S I T Y | 1 6 0 TH A N N I V E R S A R Y

COURTING EXCELLENCE CHAPMAN ATHLETICS CELEBRATES A CENTURY OF SUCCESS.

I

t started with a small group of students wanting to play basketball for what was then known as California School of Christianity. A century later, those earnest beginnings have blossomed into an athletics program at Chapman University that includes more than 500 studentathletes competing in 21 sports. Seven NCAA championship trophies now sit in Chapman display cases, along with a 2011 national title won by the women’s lacrosse club team. Dozens of Chapman athletes have earned recognition as All-Americans. As Chapman celebrates its 100th anniversary of intercollegiate competition, success resonates across a landscape of historic venues, from the cozy Vermont Avenue gymnasium known as “The Box,” to the state-of-the-art pool, courts and playing fields of today’s Erin Anderson Athletics Complex.

FIRST TEAMS HAVE LASTING IMPACT

Irvin "Ernie" Chapman '33, for whom the university's stadium is named, helped revive the football program in 1994.

It took just a couple of years for that 1921 basketball team to turn into a cohesive program featuring multiple sports. Cal Christian added football, tennis and women’s basketball in 1923, and a baseball team was formed in 1926. The varsity football program was discontinued in 1932, but the impact of those early teams is still felt today. The current football team takes the field in Ernie Chapman Stadium, named for the grandson of university namesake Charles C. Chapman. Irvin “Ernie” Chapman ’33 not only was an outstanding player in the “leatherhead” era of football, but he also became a longtime university trustee as well as an outspoken advocate for reinstating the football program. He was on the sidelines when that dream was realized in 1994. In that same year, Chapman made the transition from NCAA Division II to Division III, which meant that the university would no longer offer athletic scholarships. But the change also made room for more student-athletes to enjoy the benefits of competitive sports. The program more than doubled the number of sports offered at Chapman as it nearly tripled the number of students participating.

160

2010

Elie Wiesel named Distinguished • Rinker Health Presidential Fellow Science Campus opens in Irvine • Physics Professor Yakir 2009 Aharonov awarded National 2011 • Sandhu • Ambassador George L. Medal of Science Crean Hall Conference Argyros Global Citizens opens • Escallete Permanent center opens Plaza dedicated Collection of Art dedicated

YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

34

2013

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

Doti Hall opens

Huell Howser archive created

Fowler School of Law named • School of Pharmacy established •


VICTORIES MARK TRANSITION TO DIVISION III The football team enjoyed immediate success after the program was reinstated. Over the 1995-96 seasons, the Panthers won 13 consecutive games and achieved a top-25 national ranking. Another success story of the move to Division III involves the softball program. The team won the national championship in 1995, its first year of eligibility, and has been a national runner-up four other times – in 1996, 1998, 1999 and 2000. Also during this era, the Chapman women’s and men’s basketball teams enjoyed great success, combining for 12 NCAA playoff berths during the 2000s. Achievement has been a hallmark of Athletics throughout its 100-year history, including in the late 1950s, when men’s basketball rose to national prominence with trips deep into the NCAA College Division National Tournament. The Panthers made the championship game in 1960, finishing second in the nation. Bob Hamblin ’59 was the star of those late 1950s teams and became Chapman’s first All-American. The baseball team achieved Chapman’s first NCAA championship when the Panthers took the Division II crown in 1968. Two more baseball championships have followed, in 2003 and 2019. Among many standouts, Chapman’s baseball program has produced a Major League Cy Young Award-winner in Randy Jones ’72, as well as the first Black umpire in MLB history in Emmett Ashford ’41 and the founder of MLB’s Reviving Baseball in the Inner Cities program in John Young.

Success by Chapman men's teams is reflected in numerous championships, notably in baseball, tennis and track and field. Top left: Bob Hamblin '59 was the Panthers' first All American.

2017

2014

Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences established

2016

Cross Cultural Center opens

Daniele C. Struppa becomes 13 th president

Hilbert Museum of California Art opens • School of Communication establsihed • Musco Center for the Arts opens •

LGBTQIA+ Staff & Faculty Forum established

2018 Keck Center for Science and Engineering opens

Chapman’s first Rhodes Scholar

FALL 2021

35


C H A P M A N U N I V E R S I T Y | 1 6 0 TH A N N I V E R S A R Y

WOMEN’S PROGRAM IS OFFICIALLY LAUNCHED In 1973, Chapman officially started its Women’s Intercollegiate Athletics Program. University Hall of Famer Penny Brush paved the way for women’s sports at Chapman as she oversaw the addition of women’s volleyball, basketball, softball, cross country, track and field, swimming, water polo and crew. The Hutton Sports Center opened in 1978 and remains the home of Chapman’s basketball and volleyball teams. In the late ’70s and into the early ’80s, the men’s track and field team became a small but mighty squad. The Panthers were led by national champion javelin thrower and Hall of Famer Joe Phillips as well as fellow Hall of Famer Brad Breen and All-American Eric Van Skike. The men’s tennis team became a dominant force in the 1980s as the Panthers won national titles in 1985, 1987 and 1988. Mike Edles coached the Panthers from 1982-88 as the program produced a dozen AllAmericans. Across the Chapman athletic programs, success has come in the classroom as well as on the fields of play. More than 30 Academic AllAmericans have competed for the Panthers, including Mary Cahill ’86, who continues to make a difference at Chapman more than 30 years later as the Panthers’ women’s volleyball head coach. Continuity is a theme for Chapman Athletics, ever since that first basketball team took the court in 1921. What those first athletes started is still bouncing through Chapman history 100 years later.

Examples of excellence in women's sports abound, including in basketball (Kimi Takaoka '13, Academic All American), softball (Stephanie Carew '99, three-time All American and Chapman Hall of Famer) and volleyball (Mary Cahill '86, Academic All American and now the longest-tenured head coach in Chapman history).

160

YE A R S O F M I L E S T O N E S

Fowler School of • President George • Chapman ranks Engineering opens W. Bush visits #125 nationally

36

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

2019

• Chapman

launches chapter of Phi Beta Kappa

• Baseball •

• Elevated To

R2 status for “High Research Activity”

wins College World Series

First Annual Giving Day


CHAPMAN NOW

SEEING SPOTS BY RACHEL MORRISON • PHOTOS BY DENNIS ARP

Fowler School of Engineering’s new Spot robot dogs are trained on teaching and machine-learning research. You really can teach an old dog new tricks. Although at Chapman, the dogs are brand new and they aren’t really dogs. Meet Spot, one of two latest additions to the Fowler School of Engineering’s collection of cutting-edge technology tools. The robots, which are modeled on the canine form and branded Spot by technology firm Boston Dynamics, were acquired this past summer by Chapman to be used for teaching and as a research tool for exploring potential applications for machine learning. Leading this pack is Erik Linstead ,01, associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science. “When we were looking at these robots, originally we were thinking they would be a great teaching tool,” explains Linstead. “But obviously, with an investment like this and this kind of capability, it takes half a second before you start thinking of research angles.”

“One thing we are keen to do is see if fusion algorithms — also known as deeplearning algorithms — can be used on a data acquisition platform like Spot to get high fidelity models of environments and then provide insight into how humans interact with those environments,” he says. “Chapman’s own Swenson Hall, for example, was built with labs that flow from ideation through prototyping and finally to manufacturing, so Spot can tell us if people are really moving through the building in the way we had envisioned.” For now, Spot’s prime directive is to serve as a learning tool for students in Linstead’s fall 2021 course, “Artificial Intelligence for Robots.” “If the students don’t get their hands on them, what’s the point?” Linstead asked. “With Spot, for both student learning and potential research, the sky's the limit.”

Linstead’s research centers on machine learning, the field within computational science that focuses on the automatic improvement of algorithms through data and experience. Machine learning can be found in domains that span medical informatics, software engineering, remote sensing and advertising. Specifically, Linstead is interested in pursuing the dogs’ ability to collect data through sophisticated imaging equipment — the type of equipment used to create high-fidelity images of crop fields or urban development taken from space. Erik Linstead '01, associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science, demos Spot's capabilities in Swenson Family Hall of Engineering with help from students.

2020

Chapman shifts to remote learning during pandemic

2021 •

Sandi Simon Center for Dance opens

• Swenson

Family Hall of Engineering opens

• Reginald Chhen

Stewart named first vice president of diversity, equity and inclusion FALL 2021

37


CHAPMAN NOW

CHAPMAN CLIMBS IN NATIONAL RANKINGS Recognized for excellence in undergraduate teaching, innovation and serving needs of veterans.

CHAPMAN CLIMBS IN U.S. NEWS NATIONAL RANKINGS

The university rises to

No. 122

among more than 400 national research universities

Third straight year of upward movement since achieving entry into U.S. News & World Report’s top national category Also selected one of the Best 387 Colleges and Best Regional Colleges by The Princeton Review

Now No. 4 in both prominent national rankings (TheWrap.com) Remarkable jump from

No. 4

in prestigious Hollywood Reporter rankings

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CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

DODGE COLLEGE RISES TO NO. 4 IN THE NATION Dodge ranks ahead of many legacy film programs Praised for quality of diverse faculty, Careers Office and COVID response


CHAPMAN NOW

CHAPMAN FILM SCHOOL RISES TO NO. 4 IN HOLLYWOOD REPORTER RANKINGS BY DENNIS ARP

Faculty mentorship and diversity are praised as Chapman’s Dodge College of Film and Media Arts jumps two places to earn its highest-ever ranking. Chapman University’s Dodge College of Film and Media Arts has been named the fourth best film school in the nation by The Hollywood Reporter. It’s Dodge’s highest-ever national ranking in The Hollywood Reporter’s highly anticipated annual rankings, released Aug. 11. Chapman moved up two places to No. 4 out of 25 schools featured. The Reporter cited Dodge’s emphasis on diversity in faculty hiring and in establishing a mentorship program for underrepresented high school students. Additionally, Chapman was applauded for its investment in a full-time COVID officer and $750,000 in COVID protections.

Chapman President Daniele C. Struppa, Ph.D., said, “I want to congratulate Stephen and all the faculty and staff. This is a reflection of their dedication to our students. Stephen came to Chapman with a vision to lead our film school to a new level of excellence. His progress in less than two years has been remarkable.”

4

NO.

Ranked The Hollywood Reporter & The Wrap

Another highlight is the fall 2021 opening of the new Dodge Careers Office, to be led by Joe Rosenberg. Alumnus Carlos López Estrada ’12, director of “Blindspotting” and co-director of the Disney animated feature “Raya and the Last Dragon,” says in the Reporter article that his “closest collaborators are still the peeps that I made my first film projects with more than 10 years ago.” Chapman’s leap of two places in the rankings “is a remarkable achievement for a film school that’s only 25 years old,” says Stephen Galloway, Twyla Reed Martin Dean's Chair in Film and Media Arts and dean of Dodge College. The Reporter ranking comes just a few months after TheWrap.com also placed Chapman at No. 4 in the nation. “None of this would be possible without the most extraordinary faculty and staff I’ve ever known, along with an exceptionally generous group of donors and — of course — the best students on the planet!” Galloway added.

The success of Dodge College students is linked to hands-on opportunities early in students’ academic experience.

FALL 2021

39


CHAPMAN NOW

Chapman University President’s Gift to Endow Bernardino Telesio Professorship in Italian Studies The $1 million legacy gift will ensure a strong future for the study of Italian language and culture at Chapman.

C

hapman Daniele C. Struppa, Ph.D., 13th president of Chapman University, has created a $1 million legacy gift for Chapman. He has named Chapman University’s Department of Italian Studies as the beneficiary of a life insurance policy that, upon his passing, will endow the Bernardino Telesio Professorship in Italian Studies. Following the creation of the Sebastian P. (Paul) and Marybelle Musco Chair in Italian Studies, and the recent Musco Endowment for Travel Courses in Italian Studies, this new gift ensures an even stronger future for the study of Italian language and culture at Chapman.

This fellowship is named after Bernardino Telesio, a 16th‑century philosopher from Cosenza, in Calabria. While he was a professor of geometry at the University of Calabria, Struppa co-founded the International Association Bernardino Telesio, which was devoted to the internationalization of research carried out at the University of Calabria. “Now, after so much time, I still remain indebted to Calabria for giving me the happiest of my years, and for allowing me to learn from its great minds,” he said. “Among those minds Telesio has remained an inspiration that still guides me in my scholarly reflections.”

In making his gift, Struppa thanked Paul Musco, who first invested in the Italian Studies program almost 15 years ago and has supported the program continuously since then. Struppa also expressed his admiration and support for Professor Frederico Pacchioni, who leads the program with “enthusiasm, intelligence and a great sense of vision.”

Expanding Opportunities for Italian Studies

Continuing the Legacy of the Italian Renaissance

Sheryl Bourgeois, Ph.D., Chapman’s executive vice president and chief advancement officer, shared her gratitude for the gift, but was not surprised about its focus. “President Struppa has shared his love of Italian culture with the Chapman Family since he first came to the university in 2006,” she said. “The significance of including Chapman University in his legacy plans is a true indicator of his esteem for and commitment to Chapman.”

Above all, Struppa wants to share his love for Italian culture. “I still believe that everything I have achieved in my life has been due to my parents and to the kind of education that I received in Italy — an education based on hard, consistent work, and that even hundreds of years later still displays its connection with the great Italian humanists of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. It is this legacy that I intend to honor with my gift,” he stated.

In response to this news, Pacchioni stated: “This is a truly wonderful gift that will allow us to keep building upon the exceptional foundation already in existence and enable us to open even more doors to Italy for Chapman students and faculty.”

Henrietta Berk: In Living Color Hilbert Museum revives the legacy of a forgotten Bay Area colorist.

T

he Hilbert Museum of California Art at Chapman University presents a collection of works by Henrietta Berk (1919-1990), on view from August 28, 2021, through January 15, 2022. “Henrietta Berk: In Living Color,” curated by Gordon McClelland, will introduce museum patrons to this gifted (and unjustly overlooked, until now) California artist whose paintings dazzle with bold, brilliant color and brash, vigorous application of paint.

Henrietta Berk (1919-1990), “Picnic,” c. 1962-1964, oil on canvas, 40 x 50 inches. The Hilbert Collection.

Berk had no formal professional art training at the outset. In a typical 1950s-era “traditional marriage” with two children and a husband — all of whom were ambivalent about her art leanings — she merely dabbled in painting at first. Then, increasingly entranced by the medium, she began taking evening painting classes at California College of the Arts in Oakland, where she was twice the age of many of her classmates. Berk observed the “boys’ club” mentality of the professional art scene. She soon decided to sign her paintings “H. Berk,” using her first initial only — as had many women artists before her, obfuscating their gender to forestall any prejudice from potential buyers.

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CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE


CHAPMAN NOW

Transfer of Brandman to UMass Allows Chapman to Focus on Strengths The transaction also grows the university’s endowment – a vital source for scholarships. BY DENNIS ARP

For more than six decades, Chapman University has served the needs and aspirations of adult learners, creating pathways to life-changing degrees for thousands of working students. Now those opportunities will grow, thanks to Chapman’s transfer of Brandman University to the University of Massachusetts (UMass). The transaction, announced Sept. 2, creates UMass Global, a nonprofit affiliate of UMass that will deliver expanded online education to adult learners across the nation and around the globe.

Bernardino Telesio, a 16th‑century philosopher from Cosenza, Italy, is the inspiration behind a new professorship in Italian Studies. Shown is Telesio’s statue in front of Teatro Comunale Rendelli in the center of old town Cosenza.

Berk incorporated representational art into an Abstract Expressionist style. As she rose in prominence, she began winning numerous art prizes and had a solo show while still a student, which led to many more exhibitions, awards and critical acclaim. At the height of her fame in the 1960s, Berk’s paintings were avidly collected. She was profiled in art journals, in newspaper society pages and in popular women’s magazines. However, Berk fell into unjustified obscurity when she developed diabetes and her eyesight failed, and her career subsequently waned. Her last major exhibition was at the Hoover Gallery in San Francisco in 1981. Now the Hilbert Museum re-introduces Berk’s life story and her passionate, color-drenched paintings to a new generation with this exhibition of works from the Hilbert Collection and on loan from other museums and private collectors.

For Chapman, the transfer allows the university to intensify its focus on its core strengths of personalized instruction and research. The transaction also enhances Chapman’s endowment, a key source of scholarships for the next generation of Chapman graduates and community leaders. “The time is right for Brandman’s next step,” said Chapman University President Daniele C. Struppa. “We built and elevated it as an institution, establishing 25 campuses in California and Washington, including six campuses on military bases. Now there’s a need to scale up even more. It’s an excellent partnership for Brandman and for UMass as UMass Global prepares to meet the growing needs of adult learners.”

A 63-Year History of Serving Adult Learners Brandman’s origins date to 1958, when Chapman began providing on-base classes to active-service members of the military. Eventually Chapman established Brandman as an independent university within the Chapman University System. Brandman is now widely recognized as a leader in blended and online education, with a strong record of serving a diverse range of adult learners. “Finalizing the relationship allows both institutions – Chapman and UMass – to truly focus on their core strengths, which for Chapman is continuing our meteoric rise as a research institution,” Struppa said.

The president emphasized that Chapman wasn’t looking for just any institution with which to partner. “We strategically reached out to UMass because of its strong reputation,” Struppa said. “We know that UMass will pursue the same commitment to the students of Brandman that we have pursued.”

Funding Investment in a Thriving Future Going forward, Chapman will focus its energy and resources on continuing the university’s upward trajectory, Struppa said. In recent years, Chapman has earned recognition as an R2 institution, for “high research activity.” It is home to a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, and it produces students who earn Fulbright Awards and Rhodes Scholarships.

A vital factor in Chapman’s continuing rise is the university’s endowment. “The first time I connected with our Board of Trustees, I emphasized the importance of growing our endowment so we could fund the scholarships that the next generation of students would need to achieve their dreams,” Struppa said. “Like those students, we’re determined to realize our full potential as an institution. This infusion of capital helps us continue to build our endowment as a source of investment in our mission and in a thriving future for our students.” Many of those Chapman students share traits with Brandman adult learners, and that pleases Struppa. “Often Brandman students represent their family’s first generation to attend college. They’re single mothers, veterans and others who traditionally struggle to find a path to higher education. This is a heritage we’re committed to continuing at Chapman,” Struppa said. “The additional capital will support those universal dreams of personal growth and achievement.”

FALL 2021

41


Who embodies the best of Chapman?

In celebration of the 160th anniversary of Chapman University, we are honoring Chapman Family members who display our values today, tomorrow and forever. Nominate students, alumni, faculty, staff, volunteers and donors who are changemakers, show bold leadership, demonstrate kindness and compassion, or show innovation that solves problems locally or around the globe.

Scan the QR code to submit your nomination. The deadline to nominate is December 15, 2021. Honorees will be invited to a reception during State of the University and recognized in Chapman publications.


CHAPMAN NOW

ENDOWMENTS POSITION CHAPMAN AS A HUB OF PRESIDENTIAL STUDIES BY DAWN BONKER

Multimillion-dollar donations from Emeritus Chairman of the Board Doy B. Henley and James H. and Esther M. Cavanaugh have established a pair of endowed chairs in presidential studies at Chapman University, ensuring the university’s strong commitment to the study and teaching of the U.S. presidency, its history, influence and global impact. The gifts will advance a field of study with lasting significance and contribute to a greater understanding of the American experience, said Jennifer Keene, Ph.D., dean of the Wilkinson College of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences, where the chairs are centered. “These two endowed chairs are recognition of the enduring importance and relevance of the humanities and social sciences. We cannot understand politics or the world today without an appreciation of how the American presidency has evolved historically,” Keene said. Moreover, such scholarship will be a profound benefit for Chapman students, who also have the unique advantage of benefiting from the resources of the Nixon and Reagan presidential libraries in Southern California, Keene says. Both donors said their gifts were inspired by their commitment to deepening students’ understanding of the democratic process and the vital role that public service and citizenship play in American life.

“A nonpartisan center of research and scholarship dedicated to the study of the American presidency has never been more important for the future of our country. These faculty and programs will equip students with the skills they need to solve problems, serve with integrity and turn their passions into meaningful careers that support the greater good,” Henley said. “It’s a privilege to help provide this opportunity for students and scholars alike.” James H. Cavanaugh, Ph.D., chairman of the Nixon Foundation Board of Directors and a key advisor in the Nixon and Ford administrations, spoke to Chapman’s commitment to elevating faculty and student research. “This is an exciting time to support such important work at Chapman University. Both faculty members are renowned scholars in this field and exemplify the best of Chapman,” Cavanaugh said. Two nationally recognized scholars have been selected as inaugural holders of the chairs. Lori Cox Han, Ph.D., a presidential scholar, author and professor of political science at Chapman, will hold the Doy B. Henley Endowed Chair in American Presidential Studies, made possible by a $2 million gift from Henley. Luke Nichter, Ph.D., an author and scholar of American history previously of Texas A&M University, will hold the James H. Cavanaugh Endowed Chair in Presidential Studies, created by a $2 million gift from the Cavanaughs. For Han, this new role opens opportunities to further her research and writing. She has authored several books on the presidency, and the third edition of her book “Presidents and the American Presidency” will be published with Oxford University Press in 2022. “Through campus events, including a speaker series, conferences and research opportunities for students, I want American presidential studies at Chapman to model civil discourse at a time in our history when a more substantive understanding, beyond political personalities, is needed on the role presidents play in governing,” Han said. Nichter is a New York Times bestselling author of five books, including “Richard Nixon and Europe: The Reshaping of the Postwar Atlantic World.” He also served as editor for two books by presidential historian Douglas Brinkley. Nichter’s next book is tentatively titled “The Making of the President, 1968: Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Nixon, George Wallace, and the Election that Changed America.”

Generous support from James. H. Cavanaugh and Doy B. Henley, from left at top, created the endowed chairs in presidential studies, to be held by Lori Cox Han and Luke Nichter, below.

“Chapman is getting into a space that others have not in recent years and so has a chance to really build a flagship in the region and become something that can be known nationally as well,” Nichter said.

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CHAPMAN NOW

PREPARING FOOD PRODUCERS FOR AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE BY HOLLY SECON

How do rangeland systems respond to changes in weather? With funding from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Schmid College researchers are eager to provide answers. For Chapman University postdoctoral research associate and plant ecologist Andrew Felton, Ph.D., it’s all about timing.

POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS STRENGTHEN COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS

Felton received a two-year fellowship from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA-NIFA) for a project that aims to find out exactly how — and when — Western U.S. rangeland systems respond to variations in weather. Most research to date on rangeland systems has centered on how much grasses grow given annual amounts of rainfall. But annual time scales may not be detailed enough for ranchers who use those grasses as forage to feed their animals. What happens after a particularly dry June or an unusually wet August?

Felton joins a growing cohort of impressive postdoctoral research associates at Chapman, including those who serve as teaching and research fellows in the Grand Challenges Initiative.

Felton’s research is set to answer such questions so that ranchers can make informed decisions amidst a changing climate. For example, irrigation must be timed to most effectively grow forage before the end of a season, so knowing which day they need to decide whether or not to irrigate by could immensely help ranchers, especially in a drought.

Felton will work in the lab of Greg Goldsmith, Ph.D., in the Schmid College of Science and Technology for his fellowship. Professors Anu Prakash, Ph.D., and Lilian Were, Ph.D., also were instrumental in making the fellowship possible as co-directors on the project. Felton said he is looking forward to collaborating with partners at the USDA, including social scientists and ranchers, to conduct his research and turn it into valuable and effective recommendations. While Felton’s postdoctoral USDA-NIFA fellowship is the first in Chapman’s history, it certainly isn’t the university’s only funding from the USDA. Faculty at Chapman received

Andrew Felton’s rangeland research seeks to help ranchers adapt to a changing climate. nine USDA awards from 2005-2018; they received an additional nine awards in the last three years alone.

STUDENTS GAIN FROM MENTORSHIP Students, in particular, will benefit from such research programs, including via hands-on internship experience working with industry professionals. Those students, in turn, mentor high school students from underrepresented backgrounds, a crucial push for equity, diversity and inclusion in food science. For Felton, “climate change frames the whole context of the project,” he says. In California and across the West, an ongoing megadrought threatens the state’s natural resources, including water, healthy soils, clean air and biodiversity. Moreover, more than a third of the country’s vegetables and two-thirds of the country’s fruits and nuts are grown in California. Western U.S. states can expect to see more droughts and wildfires going forward, Felton says. “Our science can help mitigate the uncertainty that comes with such rapid change,” he says.

Rangeland research by plant ecologist Andrew Felton includes shelters as he seeks to better understand how weather affects the resilience of systems.

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CHAPMAN NOW

SEARCHING WITHIN CELLS FOR CLUES TO BETTER ASTHMA TREATMENTS BY DAWN BONKER

For years, physicians have prescribed fast-acting inhalers and other therapies to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. Once inhaled, treatments bind to receptors on the surface of airway cells and “tell” them to relax. These drugs work pretty well for most people. Until they don’t. Over time, the treatments lose their effectiveness and even worsen patients’ conditions. Finding solutions to that problem is the focus of a Chapman University School of Pharmacy professor who studies the inner workings of the cells at play in those ailments that together afflict more than 40 million Americans. Funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, Rennolds Ostrom aims to learn more about the complex signaling mechanisms deep within cells that scientists suspect influence the dwindling efficacy and long-term harm of those medications. “We need better drugs that open up airways and give people relief but don’t trigger these longterm effects,” says Ostrom, Ph.D. This work builds on a program he developed at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center before bringing his research to Chapman. The element he studies is a signaling molecule called cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP. Specifically, he looks at how it works within the sub-compartments of cells. Understanding these functions will help scientists create new therapies for cardiovascular disease, asthma and other diseases. Indeed, there is great potential for widespread application. Signaling systems utilizing cAMP exist in all human cells, stimulating myriad responses throughout the body – from appropriate ones like a burst of adrenaline in a fight-or-flight situation to less apparent reactions that can trigger disease or defeat medications. More knowledge about these mechanisms could offer insights into factors driving cell behavior in a multitude of diseases. “Every cell in all organisms uses this signaling molecule,” Ostrom says. “In a fundamental way, what we are investigating could have applications across all cell biology.”

Aided by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, Rennolds Ostrom seeks to learn more about the science behind treatments for asthma and COPD. Scientists understood the basics of this molecule some 50 years ago, when they identified cAMP as an internal signaling molecule. Ostrom’s work dives deeper, aiming to learn how different proteins are altered by cAMP signaling within discrete areas inside the cell. The work is vital because the traditional strategy of drug design is to target a specific protein or receptor. But scientists need more targets.

“We need better drugs that open up airways and give people relief but don’t trigger these long-term effects.” School of Pharmacy researcher Rennolds Ostrom, Ph.D.

too small to see. Nevertheless, Ostrom, who has published more than 70 peer-reviewed publications, review articles and book chapters as well as 80+ meeting abstracts about cAMP, says scientists know the compartments are there because of laboratory observations. So what might those compartments be like? Ostrom says they are likely an assemblage of pre-arranged complexes of molecules. Or think of an office chock full of work cubicles, where the activity of one might trigger a reaction that affects everyone across the office, or might not because the cubicle walls contain the activity. “Does disease happen because something goes wrong with these compartments? The bottom line is we don’t know yet,” he says. “Once we know the normal biochemistry of those compartments, then we can problem solve.”

“We’re running out of targets. We need to get down to the finer, nitty-gritty details. We need to target the compartments within a cell,” he says.

In his Chapman lab and in collaboration with Drs. Robert Harvey (University of Nevada, Reno), Raymond Penn (Thomas Jefferson University) and Reynold Panettieri (Rutgers University), Ostrom is puzzling out those biological mysteries through experiments with human airway smooth muscle cells to see cAMP patterns in both diseased and healthy tissue.

The technical challenge is that those compartments within compartments are

He hopes to have new findings in publication later this year.

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SWEET MEMORIES THAT NEVER FADE

IN MEMORIAM

BY JIM DOTI President Emeritus and Professor of Economics, Chapman University On the morning of my first day in school, my mother gave my older brother, Frank, strict marching orders, “Stay close to Jimmy, and always hold his hand when you cross a street.” After the shock of hearing the tragic news that Frank was killed in an automobile accident, my first memories were of those early years when he’d hold my hand while crossing streets. Even when I was old enough to walk alone, we’d still walk together — not only to and from school but in life as well. Many people were surprised when they found that Frank and I were both professors at Chapman. That academic collaboration started at an early age when we’d play school together. Frank was usually the teacher, and I was the mostly obedient student. Frank liked teaching more qualitative subjects like reading and writing. When I was at the front of the class, my interests were more quantitative, like arithmetic. Our play acting as teacher-student even continued after school. We’d stop at our favorite burger dive for a bag of French fries. As Frank pilloried me with questions about what I learned at school that day, we’d walk home while he’d ration out the fries  — two for him and one for me. Even then, my interest in statistics helped me figure out that I was getting the short end of the stick … or, in this case, the French fry. After I resigned as president at Chapman and rejoined the faculty, Frank and I were suddenly teachers again, just as we were 65 years earlier. Like the way we walked to and from Reinberg Grammar School to home in Chicago, we’d walk from Chapman and have lunch together at the Orange Public Library, where we’d sit by the historic Orange City fountain. As we ate our peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, we’d talk about Chapman and reminisce about old times. Not long ago, I reminded him about how he’d short-changed me in the rationing of French fries. He asked, “Hey, what was the name of that burger joint where we’d get those fries?” Neither of us could remember. Late that night, it dawned on me — Peter Pan’s Burgers. I immediately called Frank and told him. “Yes, yes, that’s it!” he shouted. Recalling that name was like a time machine transporting both of us back to a distant time. Now that Frank is gone, I’ll still make it a point to walk over to the Orange Public Library and sit by the fountain while eating my sandwich. I’ll think about Frank holding my hand as we’d cross the streets. I’ll think about our teaching pretend school and real school. I’ll think about him doling out French fries while I’d tell him about what I learned in school. And I’ll rekindle all the other sweet memories of our lives together — memories that I hope will never fade. But, oh, who will I call when I need Frank to share a blast from our past? "This piece was adapted from Jim Doti's original remembrance printed in Bay Window Magazine, with permission.

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FRANK DOTI, JD, was tragically killed in

an automobile accident on July 14, 2021, as he and his family returned from their summer home in Colorado. Frank was a professor of law at the Fowler School of Law at Chapman University, where he was a beloved member of the faculty. He received the Katherine M. Darby Professor of the Year Award in 2012. He also authored a textbook in contract law and numerous law review articles. One of his former students, Chapman University Trustee Zeinab Dabbah, MD (JD '12), made a generous gift to name the Frank Doti Lecture Hall in Dorothy Kennedy Hall.


ANNE BEATTS

Emmy winner Anne Beatts, one of the original writers on “Saturday Night Live” (SNL) and a beloved professor who mentored young writers and producers at Chapman University, passed away April 7, 2021. She was 74. At “SNL,” Beatts and writing partner Rosie Shuster created many of the show’s most memorable characters, including Todd DiLaMuca (Bill Murray) and Lisa Loopner (Gilda Radner), as well as Laraine Newman’s Child Psychiatrist and Irwin Mainway and Fred Garvin, both played by Dan Aykroyd. Beatts was also a creator and producer of the critically acclaimed CBS sitcom “Square Pegs,” and co-executive produced the first year of NBC’s long-running hit series “A Different World.” Her work appeared on Broadway in “Gilda: Live,” and she was honored by the Museum of Television & Radio (now the Paley Center for Media) as one of the medium’s most influential women.

JAMES “BEN” CROWELL Philanthropist and longtime Chapman University Trustee James “Ben” Crowell passed away on March 7, 2021. “Insightful, determined and generous are only some of the words that come to mind when I think of Ben,” said Chapman University President Daniele C. Struppa. “He demonstrated his generosity and leadership consistently through the years, impacting the entirety of Chapman University.” A former captain in the Air Force Strategic Command, Crowell became a leader in the banking industry, launching Eldorado Bank in Tustin in 1972 and growing it to include 13 branches. He and his wife, Lynn, raised four sons in Orange County. “Without a doubt, our university’s current national ranking and the renown of the Argyros School are tied to Ben and his incredible vision,” Struppa said, further praising Crowell for his “unerring business sense” as well as his eagerness to collaborate.

“I’m heartbroken about losing Anne,” said Stephen Galloway, dean of Chapman’s Dodge College of Film and Media Arts, where Beatts had been a faculty member since 2009. “She was a pioneer in so many ways — as the first female editor of the Harvard Lampoon and one of the first women writers on ‘Saturday Night Live.’ But she wasn’t just the Queen of Comedy; she was also an extraordinary mentor to many of our students. She’ll live on through them.” After her passing, many students of Beatts shared heartfelt remembrances, with one describing her as “an incredible professor, mentor, writer and, for those of us lucky enough, a friend.”

While Crowell’s counsel on the Board of Trustees served all facets of the university, he was particularly invested in the growth of the Argyros School of Business and Economics, Dodge College of Film and Media Arts and the Erin J. Lastinger Athletics Complex, Struppa said.

“She contributed so much to comedy history, and she will be missed,” another said.

“It is exciting that Ben’s incredible spirit and memory will always be a part of the Argyros School, and it is my hope that all who pass by his name will be inspired in their pursuits,” Struppa said.

Beatts is survived by her daughter, Jaylene.

ANTHONY GARCIA Anthony Garcia, a former English professor and administrator in the Office of Admission at Chapman University who nurtured in students a love of language and literature, passed away Aug. 28, 2021. He was 85. The son of a draftsman who worked on the Manhattan Project, Garcia served a decade in the Navy, studying at the Naval School of Music and serving with a number of Naval music units. After retiring from the Navy in 1968, he joined Chapman in the Office of Admission. During his early years, he also played violin with the Chapman Orchestra. Later, Garcia found his true calling as a professor of English and comparative literature, serving a stint as department chair. He

“With his deep connection to the progress and advancement of the Argyros School, it is fitting that his name is permanently housed within its halls,” the president added, citing the Ben and Lynn Crowell Elevator Foyer in Beckman Hall and the Ben & Lynn Crowell Conference Room, part of the Janes Financial Center.

especially enjoyed his seminar courses for first-year students, including a course he developed on the psychology of war in literature and film. He was named Faculty Member of the Year in 2008. While Garcia was assigned to the 13th Naval District Band in Seattle, he met his wife of 44 years, Ann Walsh Garcia. Ann passed away in 2009. Garcia is survived by his younger sister, Annette Martin, and his twin sons, James Anthony Garcia, a senior trial attorney with the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and Jon Dominic Garcia, a coordinating White House producer for ABC News. A funeral Mass will be celebrated later this fall at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle in Washington, D.C. A separate memorial event is planned for early next year in Southern California. At a date to be determined, Garcia’s ashes will be laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery beside those of Ann.

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DON GUY

A longtime professor who created Chapman University’s theatre technology major and launched the careers of many students in the entertainment industry, Don Guy passed away April 24, 2021. “Don was respected in the professional world and beloved as a teacher. He singlehandedly established a technical theatre major at Chapman and strongly advocated for it and for his students, connecting them to many professional opportunities, thanks to his own industry connections,” said Giulio Ongaro, dean of the College of Performing Arts. “He was a huge presence on campus and we are all still in shock at his passing. He will definitely be missed.” Among Guy᾽s projects was Technology for Live Performance, an interdisciplinary course created with his wife, Professor of Dance Alicia Guy, that leveraged their working connections and educational partnership with Cirque du Soleil. As a highly sought after lighting designer, Guy worked on six continents and in 48 states, using his skills to create settings for cruise lines, dance, theatre, themed entertainment, theme parks and architectural projects.

BARBARA PARKER ’64 Alumna, donor, board member and dedicated keeper of the Chapman flame, Barbara Parker ’64 passed away in March 2021. She was 90. “She was one of the most compassionate and warm people I ever met,” Chapman President Daniele C. Struppa recalled in a message to the Chapman University community after Parker’s death. “It was impossible not to love Barbara. She was one of the first people to reach out to me when I took on the role of president. She was always reaching out to others, and her encouragement was an incredible light.” Parker was an active member of the Chapman Family throughout the life she shared with Bill Parker ’52, whom she met when both were students before Chapman’s move from Los Angeles to Orange.

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NANCY DICKSON-LEWIS A dance educator who elevated the caliber and strength of the Department of Dance during her tenure as department chair, Professor Emerita Nancy DicksonLewis died March 23, 2021. “I served with Nancy on a few faculty committees, and I can personally attest to her dedication to Chapman students. Teaching and mentoring young artists was always her passion,” said Chapman Provost Glenn Pfeiffer. “At Chapman she taught many courses and instituted a new curriculum that contributed greatly to the current excellence of the Department of Dance” While at Chapman, Dickson-Lewis received two awards for excellence in teaching, just one measure of her tireless work on behalf of students, said Giulio Ongaro, dean of the College of Performing Arts (CoPA). “Time after time, when talking to alumni who studied with Nancy, what comes through is her deep concern for each individual — the way she continued relationships with her students and provided mentorship, advice and friendship well after their graduation from Chapman. By doing so, she touched many lives very deeply.” Ongaro said. CoPA has started a fund to name a space for Dickson-Lewis in the forthcoming Sandi Simon Center for Dance (see page ??). Details about the fund are available from Bobby Reade, CoPA development coordinator, at reade@chapman.edu.

Though she put her education on pause to start a family with Bill, Barbara was elated to return to Chapman to earn degrees in teaching and art after the university’s move to Orange, where the Parkers made their home. Together, Barbara and Bill were spirited advocates for student scholarships, Town & Gown, the Alumni Association, Leatherby Libraries and Fish Interfaith Center, as well as the Panther baseball, basketball, volleyball and football programs. They invited hundreds of students, faculty and staff to their home for meals, and they attended countless events over the decades of their support. A particularly heartwarming moment came when Giulio Ongaro, dean of the College of Performing Arts, presented Barbara and Bill with a “Golden Ticket,” granting them admission to all CoPA events in recognition of their love for student performances. As Barbara and Bill arranged many years ago, Barbara’s ashes are interred within the Columbarium of the Fish Interfaith Center.


CARL HILL ’78 Carl Hill ’78, an active volunteer who demonstrated the utmost integrity as well as an incomparable spirit for his alma mater, passed away on August 5, 2021. He was 64. “Carl was the embodiment of steadfast commitment and leadership,” said Chapman President Daniele C. Struppa. “His relationship with Chapman extended more than 40 years, during which he remained a generous member of the Chapman Family. Inspiring, engaged and dedicated are just a few of the words that come to mind when I think of him.” Hill’s long relationship with Chapman was highlighted by numerous initiatives and acts of generosity. In 1975, when Hill was a first-year student at Chapman, he contributed to Chapman’s first fundraising campaign. That initial gift foreshadowed his enduring legacy. He annually gave to the Chapman Fund and regularly supported Chapman Celebrates, athletics and many capital campaigns for new construction projects. Hill was not one to stand on the sidelines. He joined several committees to help steer new programs. Over the past decade, he was active with Chapman academics, including with Attallah College of Educational Studies, Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, and Wilkinson College of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences. Hill made a point to attend key university events and established personal connections with deans, administrators, faculty members and students.

CLAS WIHLBORG Clas Wihlborg, an internationally distinguished economist and holder of the Fletcher Jones Chair in International Business in Chapman University’s Argyros School of Business and Economics, died March 13. Colleague and fellow Argyros School professor Niklas Myhr remembered Wihlborg, Ph.D., as a dedicated teacher who possessed a great commitment to student success and a joy for living. Those traits helped make study abroad experiences valuable and memorable, says Myhr, Ph.D.

IN MEMORIAM Recently, he helped lead the Chapman Transfer Admission Guarantee (C-TAG) for Future Educators. This Attallah College program creates a bridge to Chapman for future elementary and special education teachers from Santa Ana College and Santiago Canyon College. Hill served on the advisory committee that did the groundwork for the program. In addition, Hill served for more than a decade on the Alumni Association Board of Directors, including two terms as president. He also served on the Alumni Association’s Past Presidents Advisory Council, established in 2018. Strengthening the connection for other alumni, Hill named the Carl R. Hill ’78 Family Room in Elliott Alumni House. “He specifically chose the Elliott Alumni House for his gift because he believed the Chapman experience continues to resonate and shape the lives of alumni long after graduation,” Struppa said. Hill’s philanthropy included an additional commitment to Elliott Alumni House through his living trust. “Carl Hill demonstrated a lifetime commitment to Chapman University,” Struppa said. “His decision to establish a legacy gift, the Carl R. Hill ’78 Endowed Opportunity Fund, exemplifies his permanent bond with the university. We, as an institution, are incredibly honored to carry forward his memory and spirit through his endowment.” To make a gift in Hill’s memory, contact the Office of Legacy Planning at legacy@chapman.edu or (714) 516-6150.

“Thanks to Clas’s network, we were able to set up meetings with very senior executives of all the Scandinavian central banks, many large corporations, academic institutions, etc.,” Myhr said. “Clas kept his inner child alive to enjoy the moment and was never far from a good laugh. During our travels, a highlight every summer was when Clas delivered an inimitable rendition of Jimi Hendrix’s ‘Purple Haze’ in a live karaoke session.” At the Argyros School, Wihlborg founded the Chapman Conference on Money and Finance and along with Myhr led the MBA “Business in Scandinavia” travel course. A prolific author in international finance, institutions, law and economics, Wihlborg served on the European Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee and the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA).

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The Muscos demonstrated their can-do work ethic often in their enthusiasm for Chapman. When the couple first chaired Chapman Celebrates (then called American Celebration) in 2006, their hands-on approach vaulted the event to new heights. They set an unprecedented goal of $2 million and then recruited what they called “The Magnificent Seven” – donors who contributed $100,000 each to help build momentum toward the goal. The event netted $2.1 million to support Chapman scholarships, setting an Orange County philanthropic record for a one-day fundraising event. The Muscos continued to help Chapman Celebrates grow and set records. Musco grew up in a family of 12, but there were still opportunities to enjoy the arts. “Saturday mornings, 10 o’clock, we’d sit down to listen to the Metropolitan Opera on the radio,” he told Chapman Magazine in a 2010 interview. “You develop that love almost through osmosis.”

SEBASTIAN PAUL MUSCO Emeritus Trustee S. Paul Musco, a leading Orange County philanthropist, entrepreneur and one of Chapman University’s most beloved supporters, passed away Sept. 19. He was 95. Chapman University President Daniele C. Struppa described Musco as a dynamic presence whose visionary philanthropy transformed the university. Together with his wife Marybelle, Musco helped establish the Marybelle and S. Paul Musco Center for the Arts and supported a multitude of other campus programs, from the humanities to the sciences. “Charismatic is the first word that comes to many minds when hearing his name,” Struppa said. “It’s undeniable that his presence, his passion for life, was tangible whenever he walked into a room. But his personal trappings and at times easygoing demeanor should not deceive you. Paul was a tremendously hard worker who was always the first to roll up his sleeves when there was work to be done.” Musco’s trademark gusto will be dearly missed, said Sheryl Bourgeois, Ph.D., executive vice president and chief advancement officer. “Paul Musco was larger than life. Everything he touched was changed for the better. His passing will leave a huge hole in our philanthropic community, not to mention our hearts. His passion and enthusiasm will not soon be replaced,” Bourgeois said.

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Those early experiences with the arts influenced his giving as he achieved success with Gemini Industries, a gold and silver refinery he founded in 1974. At Chapman, the Muscos made major gifts to the Escalette Permanent Art Collection, Argyros Global Citizens Plaza, Dodge College of Film & Media Arts, Leatherby Libraries, Wilkinson College (through the Musco Endowed Chair in Italian Studies and the Musco Endowment for Travel Courses in Italian Studies), Argyros School of Business and Economics, Economic Science Institute, Economic Forecast and Update, Rodgers Center for Holocaust Education and Fish Interfaith Center. The Hall-Musco Conservatory of Music in the College of Performing Arts was named in their honor and that of founding CoPA dean William Hall. In addition, Paul continued his lifelong support of opera, serving as vice-chair of the LA Opera board of directors. In recognition of his generosity supporting a host of causes in his community, Musco earned many honors, including the 2011 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Orange County Association of Fundraising Professionals, the 2013 Helena Cultural Legacy Award for Community Visionary from Arts OC, the Bishop's Award for Exemplary Business Integrity from the Orange Catholic Foundation in 2015 and the Ellis Island Medal of Honor in 2017.


IN MEMORIAM HARRY RINKER Trustee Harry S. Rinker, a titan of the real estate industry and generous philanthropist who helped drive the growth of Chapman University, died Aug. 22. He was 100. “Harry was an individual of incomparable integrity and a catalyst for tremendous change in Southern California. Honesty, generosity and community were his core principles,” said Chapman University President Daniele C. Struppa. Rinker’s philanthropy reflected his passion for education and helping others realize the California dream. In 2013, he and his wife Diane made a $15 million gift to name the Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus in Irvine, significantly addressing the critical need for a new generation of health care professionals. “His visionary gift built a foundation for Chapman to help and lead during unprecedented times. I’m so grateful he could see his generosity in transforming Southern California into a hotbed for the sciences, especially health care, bear fruit,” Struppa said. Rinker ventured into Southern California’s real estate market in the middle of the 20th century and established Rinker Company, a real estate investment and development company specializing in retail, commercial, industrial and residential spaces. He served Chapman for decades, becoming a member of the Board of Trustees in 1976 and provided his service and leadership for more than four decades, impacting scholarships, annual events and numerous other critical areas of the university. A boundless enthusiasm for Chapman was among his hallmark traits, said Sheryl Bourgeois, Ph.D., executive vice president and chief advancement officer at Chapman. “Harry was such a gracious person and so devoted to Chapman. You would have thought he was an alumnus,” Bourgeois said. “Any time something good was written about the university, he would send a note of congratulations. And his notes would always end with an encouraging phrase, such as ‘Thank you for all the wonderful things that you are doing for Chapman.’ He knew just how to make someone feel appreciated and proud of their efforts. He was a great man, and I will miss him.” Indeed, earlier this year Rinker marked his 100th birthday in a letter to friends to commemorate the occasion, remarking on his and Diane’s long friendship with Chapman. “I have thoroughly enjoyed watching Chapman grow… to a nationally ranked university that has nearly 10,000 undergrad and graduate students, features one of the most beautiful campuses around, and is one of the finest and most respected institutions in this country,” he wrote. “Diane and I are honored to have been a part of this growth and even more honored to have a campus in Irvine named the Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus.”

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“Chapman certainly planted the seed and helped me cultivate the skills that have been instrumental in my success as an artist, administrator and business leader.”

Teren Shaffer ’08

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ALUMNI NEWS

FROM THE STAGE TO THE C-SUITE BY MICHELLE ANGUKA

Teren Shaffer ’08 is appointed the second president and CEO in the history of the Orange County School of the Arts. For Teren Shaffer ’08, the conductor’s baton is the quintessential symbol of leadership. But not for the reasons you might expect. As a former award-winning conductor, Shaffer knows that even the most subtle stroke of a baton can cause an ensemble to snap to attention. But since his early days conducting and serving as an adjunct faculty member in Hall-Musco Conservatory of Music at Chapman University, Shaffer has always known that the art of conducting is less about exerting control and more about collaborating toward a shared vision. As a conductor, you don’t really make the music,” said Shaffer. “I’m not directly responsible for creating any of the beautiful sounds. What I do is provide a vision, inspire the musicians and shape the architecture of the music.” Today, Shaffer is stepping onto a different stage and applying the lessons he learned at the podium to his new role as president and CEO of the Orange County School of the Arts (OCSA). Shaffer credits much of his professional development to a well-balanced and robust undergraduate career at Chapman. “While I never in a million years would have imagined I’d be running an arts school like OCSA, reflecting back, the experiences I had at Chapman certainly planted the seed and helped me cultivate the skills that have been instrumental in my success as an artist, administrator and business leader,” he says. From arts management opportunities to production support on stage, Shaffer immersed himself in an array of hands-on activities during his time at Chapman. These opportunities, he says, helped him realize that possibilities within the arts industry extend far beyond the stage.

As the new president and CEO of the Orange County School of the Arts, Teren Shaffer '08 makes use of leadership skills acquired as a conductor to shape and inspire students.

CARRYING OUT THE VISION A passion for the people he serves is ingrained in Shaffer’s creative vision. As he embarks on this new chapter in organizational leadership, he’s guided by the philosophy of his longtime mentor, OCSA founder Ralph Opacic: “People, quality relationships and culture are everything.” Asked about his priorities at OCSA, Shaffer doesn’t hesitate. It’s about cultivating a unique, nurturing environment where people feel appreciated and where innovation and creative thinking are embraced.

"Just as a conductor relies on the ensemble to create the art and move the audience, leading an organization is the exact same thing."

For Shaffer, this comes down to collaboration. “Just as a conductor relies on the ensemble to create the art and move the audience, leading an organization is the exact same thing,” says Shaffer. “I can’t do anything by myself. All I can do as a leader is commit to a vision, create an environment that supports that vision and have an uncompromising focus on organizational culture and community.”

– Teren Shaffer '08

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HARVESTING A LEGACY BY STACE DUMOSKI

Tiquette Bramlett '07 reflects on her achievement as the first Black woman appointed to run a U.S. winery. Tiquette Bramlett, who studied leadership and organizational studies at Chapman, grew up with an appreciation for wine, visiting tasting rooms on family road trips in California and abroad. But it wasn’t until a brush with thyroid cancer cut short her career as a singer that wine became a major part of her life. Since training as a sommelier, she has worked as a tasting room associate and brand ambassador for wineries in Oregon’s Willamette Valley. Now she has been appointed president of Vidon Vinyard, the first Black woman to hold such a position at a winery in a major U.S. wine region. In 2020, in response to the summer’s social justice protests, Bramlett founded Our Legacy Harvested and hosted an open-air market designed to help support Black, Indiginous and People of Color (BIPOC) businesses. She is also organizing efforts to bring more BIPOC wine lovers into the industry, and hopes to build a community where everyone feels welcome and safe. “I come from an interracial family. Having the uncomfortable conversation is secondhand to us, and I'm very comfortable having those conversations,” she said in a recent interview. “I'm not going to sit there and call somebody out. But I will call you in, and we'll have an honest conversation about it, with no hard feelings.”

WHO WAS THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PERSON FOR YOU AT CHAPMAN? WHY? “Both Nathan Lundy and Cesar Guerrero, because they always pushed me to be my best self, no matter what that looked like. They never wanted me to be conventional, and allowed me to express my personal views. To

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have the most successful college experience, I had to do what made me happy. So if it meant I had to change majors, then that’s OK. It’s all a part of your journey. It’s all a part of your story. They never gave up on me. They always believed, supported and encouraged my potential. And I’m thankful that they are two men who are still in my life today.”

IF YOU COULD GO BACK IN TIME AND EXPERIENCE ONE MOMENT AGAIN FROM YOUR TIME AT CHAPMAN, WHAT WOULD IT BE? IS THERE ANYTHING THAT YOU WOULD DO DIFFERENTLY? “First, I’ll answer if I would do anything differently. No, I would not because I believe that all my experiences at Chapman led me to where I am today. That said, if I could go back, I’d return to the Galápagos Islands. It was a transformative experience because it cemented a friendship, pushed me out of my comfort zone and ignited a new wanderlust for travel.”

WHAT DO YOU WISH YOU KNEW AT THE TIME OF YOUR GRADUATION (ABOUT LIFE, CAREER, FAMILY, BEST PLACE FOR TACOS, ETC.) THAT YOU KNOW NOW? WHAT ADVICE CAN YOU GIVE TO THE STUDENTS AND/OR RECENT GRADUATES OF TODAY? “I wish that I had known that Chapman will always hold a special place in my heart, but it does not need to be my whole world. There are friendships that last, moments that will never be forgotten, but it is also the start of a whole other chapter. It has prepared you, but it is also up to you to take those moments and build them into something even greater.”

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HOW DID CHAPMAN PREPARE YOU FOR YOUR CAREER? HOW DID YOUR EXPERIENCE PREPARE YOU FOR THE REAL WORLD? “Chapman allowed me to find my voice. Learning to express my thoughts, face dissenting opinions while finding a way through, and declaring what I needed to succeed. Unapologetically. Those lessons have found their way into my daily life, whether working in a tasting room, a board room, or with family and friends.”

WHAT WERE THE MOST CHALLENGING SOCIAL/SOCIETAL ISSUES IN OUR COUNTRY/ WORLD THAT YOU FACED AS A YOUNG COLLEGE STUDENT? “I came into Chapman knowing some of the societal issues happening in the world. As one of the few BIPOC members of the student body, I knew what to expect, but I didn’t know the full extent of the experience. From the dorm room to the classroom, there were experiences I chose to involve myself in because it was an opportunity for all sides to learn. Where we are in society today with learning about what it means to be a global citizen. We’ve learned that being a global citizen needs to be redefined, and the moments of self growth are fantastic, but your actions matter and are what really count. Those values have only been enhanced as time has passed.”


ALUMNI NEWS

“We’ve learned that being a global citizen needs to be redefined, and the moments of self growth are fantastic, but your actions matter and are what really count. ”

Tiquette Bramlett ’07

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“I enjoy being connected to the university and still try to help out wherever I can.”

Roger Craig Smith ’03

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ALUMNI NEWS

THE VOICE OF BATMAN IS THE VOICE OF CHAPMAN BY STACE DUMOSKI

From Cartoon Network to CU Commencement, Roger Craig Smith ’03 brings distinctive talents that enhance the experience for audiences. What do Sonic the Hedgehog, Captain America and the announcer who welcomes you to Ernie Chapman Stadium all have in common? They are all the voice of Roger Craig Smith ’03, a voice actor and Chapman University alumnus who’s been featured in some of media’s most prominent properties over the last decade and a half. A screenwriting major at Chapman’s Dodge College of Film and Media Arts, Smith was aiming for a career in stand-up comedy when he discovered a talent for making funny character voices. His first official voiceover job was decidedly “un-glamourous” — a

“Voice acting work is a perfect blend of all the things that I've done in life — performance in musical theatre as a kid, theatre arts in high school, standup comedy and education in screenwriting,” – Roger Craig Smith ’03

training video for a medical device company in Cypress. “They wanted a versatile guy who could just do a bunch of different character voices,” he says. “It was a perfect blend of all the things that I've done in life — performance in musical theatre as a kid, theatre arts in high school, stand-up comedy and education in screenwriting.” Smith has made a career providing voiceovers for ads, movies, television and video games, giving voice to such prominent characters as Captain America, Batman and Kylo Ren. In 2013, he was the voice of the villain Ripslinger in Disney's hit animated feature “Planes.” He is the longestrunning voice actor of Sonic the Hedgehog — including in Disney’s “Wreck-it Ralph” movies — and he’s played more than 170 characters for the Emmy-winning Cartoon Network series “Regular Show.” In the video game market, he is Ezio in “Assassin’s Creed,” Chris Redfield in “Resident Evil” and Mirage in “Apex Legends.” If cartoons or video games aren’t your thing, you may have heard Smith as the announcer on NBC’s “World of Dance,” TLC's “Say Yes to the Dress” or the DIY Network series “Crashers.”

You can also hear Smith in a number of recent promotional videos for Chapman. For the last five years, he’s been creating voiceovers for the university’s marketing efforts, and he recorded the stadium announcements used during Commencement. “Roger Craig Smith embodies the spirit of the Chapman Family,” says Heather Breen, the university’s video and photography manager. “Not only is he incredibly talented, but he is also generous and humble. I always look forward to working with him on projects.” “I enjoy being connected to the university and still try to help out wherever I can,” says Smith, who has also helped out as a mock guest for broadcast journalism students. “It's strange to go from being a student to being an alumnus of note because of something that you've done in the industry. I was more than happy to come back and help out in any way that I can. It’s always flattering and kind of surreal to be asked.” What’s next for Smith? You’ll just have to keep your ears open. “The worst part about my job is that anything that I know that is actually coming down the pipeline is stuff I can't talk about,” he says.

Still not sure where you might have heard his voice? Smith contributes to a wide variety of regional promotional campaigns and has been the voice of Ram Trucks for the last 10 years.

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HIS OWN ROAD TO THE WHITE HOUSE BY DENNIS ARP

As official videographer for the president, Drew Heskett ’14 draws on his global student experience creating award-winning documentary films. After 18 frenetic months documenting Joe Biden’s presidential campaign, Drew Heskett ’14 barely had time to catch his breath before opening the door to a new opportunity — as official White House videographer. The transition hit home on Inauguration Day. He was there with his camera as President Joe Biden and First Lady Jill Biden stepped off the parade route and into their new residence. Heskett admits it felt a bit otherworldly to grab the front door to the White House and follow the first couple inside. “It’s the weirdest front door I can imagine walking through,” Heskett says. “It was one of those moments — ‘This is where I work now.’ ” His Chapman experience as a nonfiction storyteller helped prepare Heskett to take on this influential role, in which he’s part documentarian and part daily contributor to messaging that advances the president’s agenda. Inside the White House, his goal is to document the Biden presidency while staying as inconspicuous as possible. “More than anywhere I’ve ever been,” he says, “I’m trying to be invisible here.”

DOCUMENTING HISTORY AND SHAPING PRESIDENTIAL MESSAGING As he captures video of everything from historic White House events to smaller meetings in the Oval Office, Heskett calls on skills honed as a student in Dodge College of Film and Media Arts.

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He majored in broadcast journalism and documentary film while also studying cultural anthropology and other humanities subjects. He learned to shoot in far-flung locations, including in Africa, studying up on his story subjects so he could quickly earn their trust and adapt on the fly as circumstances changed by the minute. His chance to join the Biden campaign team arrived thanks to a recommendation by Chapman friend and fellow filmmaker Nathan Flanagan-Frankl ’14. Heskett was up to the challenge in large measure because of Chapman faculty mentors like Sally Rubin and Jeff Swimmer. “I’ve had a lot of hard-working students over the years, but the way that Drew was so positive and so open to feedback really stands out,” says Rubin, associate professor in Dodge College as well as the director of acclaimed feature documentaries such as “Hillbilly.” “Drew’s work has always been ambitious. When you combine that with his artistry and skill, plus his commitment to political and social issues — I think that’s exactly what the White House was looking for.”

STUDENT FILMMAKING EXPERIENCES HELPED HIM “BE OK WITH UNCERTAINTY” Heskett has a great creative eye and an intense curiosity, adds Swimmer, an associate professor at Dodge. For his part, Heskett says, “I wouldn’t be here without Chapman University.”

CHAPMAN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE • 160TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE

He cites his student experiences making films in Mozambique for Destination Africa; in India for the Sikhlens Festival; at the MexicoCalifornia border for Community Voices; and in North Dakota and Montana for Project W. The last of these documentaries — “We Are the Land,” about an activist’s battle to eliminate fracking on her ancestral lands — earned Heskett and Ryan Westra ’14 the top student award from the American Society of Cinematographers. “All of those experiences acclimated me to be OK with uncertainty,” Heskett says. He didn’t realize it at the time, he adds, “but I was getting ready for campaign life.” As principal videographer for the Biden campaign team, Heskett traveled as many as 26 days a month, often capturing content at multiple stops a day, then editing during the plane flight or bus ride to the next destination. Along the way, his work was viewed by tens of millions via social media, TV advertising and videos posted to YouTube.

“THE EYES OF THE WORLD ARE ON THIS MOMENT” In his White House role, lessons and rewards just keep coming, as do experiences he never could have imagined. At the end of Inauguration Day, as the Bidens viewed a spectacular fireworks display from a White House balcony, Heskett took up his own extra-special vantage point, shooting over the shoulders of the president and first lady, capturing the show from their perspective. “I was lost in the viewfinder but also aware that the eyes of the world are on this moment,” Heskett says. “I’m standing just on the other side of it — capturing it but also part of it. Friends sent me a lot of screenshots that night — ‘Hey, buddy, I saw you on CNN.’” Try as he might, sometimes it’s just impossible for Heskett to be invisible. “I got my five seconds [of footage] and I got out of there,” he says with a laugh. “Totally worth it.”


ALUMNI NEWS

Drew Heskett’s Chapman filmmaking experiences, in places like Mozambique and tribal lands in North Dakota, “acclimated me to be OK with uncertainty,” he says. That includes the variables of the presidential campaign trail.

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CHAPMAN IN

HOLLYWOOD BRINGING A UNIQUE VOICE TO DISNEY ANIMATED FEATURES The creative approach of Carlos López Estrada ’12 springs from his indie success and “the practical edge” he gained during his collaborative experience at Chapman. By Dennis Arp Maybe it’s the Disney influence, but filmmaker Carlos López Estrada ’12 seems extremely happy these days as he moves through a variety of creative and enchanted lands. He still has a foot in his familiar worlds of independent filmmaking and music videos, even as he begins work on his second feature project for Walt Disney Animation Studios. López Estrada recently enjoyed a breakthrough opportunity to co-direct the 2021 animated release “Raya and the Last Dragon,” starring Awkwafina, Sandra Oh and Kelly Marie Tran. “Raya” is the first Disney animated film to feature Southeast Asian characters, and reviewers called it “sumptuous,” “engaging” and “a vibrant action-fantasy with a revolutionary heroine.” It was also López Estrada’s first experience working with a big budget and a crew of about 500.

‘A Lot of Learning and a Lot of Adjusting’ “I’m used to working with friends making something substantial out of very little,” says López Estrada, a native of Mexico City who earned a degree in film production from Chapman’s Dodge College of Film and Media Arts. “There are a thousand people at Disney Animation, so the scale is impossibly different. There was a lot of learning and a lot of adjusting.” López Estrada credits “Raya” co-director and Disney Animation veteran Don Hall for “serving as my guide into this world,” he says. “It took about a year to find my bearings and understand how things work.” All the while, López Estrada was also at work on the home-grown, shoestringbudget project “Summertime,” which he directed, co-wrote and co-produced for

Whether he’s directing indie features like “Summertime” [top photo, with executive producer Kelly Marie Tran] or big-budget studio films like “Raya and the Last Dragon” [bottom photo], Carlos López Estrada ‘12 seeks to achieve a creative balance.

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the independent studio Good Deed Entertainment. The well-reviewed film, which opened in theatres in July, interweaves the stories of 25 Angelenos from diverse backgrounds and neighborhoods, drawing inspiration from their poetry. The Disney and indie experiences “overlapped quite a bit,” López Estrada says. That’s the way he likes it.


ALUMNI NEWS

Thriving in the Overlap of Indie and Studio Experiences “I feel everything is about finding that balance,” he says. “The [independent and studio] experiences are not mutually exclusive. I feel like a happy place for me is to thrive in both of those universes.” López Estrada can’t yet say much about his new Disney animated film, for which he is helping to develop the script. He started at the studio in 2019 after a scout in the Disney development department saw his debut feature “Blindspotting” and invited him to meet with new Disney Animation Chief Creative Officer Jennifer Lee. “They were looking to diversify their directing department, and they wanted to bring in young voices from the outside,” López Estrada says. “I guess they saw something in me that caught their eye.”

Contributing to Disney’s Focus on Inclusion Beyond his influence as a filmmaker at the company, López Estrada is helping to shape the Disney culture as a member of its Creative Inclusion Council. “Disney is making efforts to tell stories that are more inclusive and from more diverse perspectives, and I feel like I’ve been able to become an important voice in that initiative,” he says. “I’ve learned so much as I’ve been exposed to the different departments.” Building creative teams comes naturally for the filmmaker, who says that “most of my closest collaborators are people I met at Chapman.” Even as a student, López Estrada was directing high-profile music videos as he built a creative portfolio that has grown to include projects with artists such as Billie Eilish, Katy Perry and Carly Rae Jepsen. “There are so many ways that my experience is rooted in what I took away from Chapman,” he says. “I developed my voice making movies right from the start of my student experience. Whether it was on sound stages or in editing suites or with professors who made themselves available, I feel like I gained a practical edge that became the foundation for everything I’ve done.” Back then, he didn’t envision himself directing Disney animated films. But now that he is, he’s finding rewards in “bringing aspects and edges to their films that are unique to me,” López Estrada says. “I’m exploring ideas I care about. It really does feel like it’s where I’m meant to be.”

Top photo: Lopez Estrada, co-director of "Raya and the Last Dragon," speaks at the "Summertime" premiere.

There are so many ways that my experience is rooted in what I took away from Chapman. I developed my voice making movies right from the start of my student experience. CARLOS LÓPEZ ESTRADA ’12

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CHAPMAN IN

HOLLYWOOD

FRIENDS REACH OSCAR HEIGHTS WITH ‘TWO DISTANT STRANGERS’ By Dennis Arp The first time Alex Odesmith ’13 sat down to edit “Two Distant Strangers,” he struggled to “live in the space” of the challenging film. He walked away from the computer, stepped outside and said to himself, “I think I did a good job, because I feel awful.” A few months later, Odesmith entered a far different space as he shared in a joyous celebration when the film won the Oscar for Best Live Action Short Film at the 93rd Academy Awards. For Odesmith and fellow Chapman University film alumni David Markun ’13 and Colin Lupe ’13, who also worked on the

Dodge College of Film and Media Arts. “That emotional connection is the point, and the fact that I could feel that on the first rough cut told me that this was quite powerful.” The impact of the story was also palpable on the set, says Markun, a camera operator on the film. “You could feel that we were making something important,” he says. Lupe did additional editing and was also on the camera team. He, Markun and Odesmith first met as Dodge film students at Chapman, and now the friends are professional partners in their own production company, Rafiki Creative, which also includes Brian Bell ’13. They credit the filmmaking community at Chapman for helping them to succeed creatively and technically. The three also worked on the Netflix series “We Are the Champions,” which earlier this year was nominated for two Sports Emmys. “Chapman is a hub of creativity and a very special place,” Lupe says. “All credit to the professors and staff and the program they’ve created.”

project, the triumph culminated a journey full of vivid emotions and rich rewards. Odesmith’s editing plays an integral role in the film’s compelling story of a Black artist/illustrator stuck in a time loop that repeatedly ends with his death at the hands of a white NYPD officer. Travon Free wrote the screenplay and co-directed with Martin Desmond Roe. Odesmith said that as he edits, he typically focuses narrowly on his craft. But this time he couldn’t help but be affected by the content. “I started feeling deeply what I was seeing on the screen,” said Odesmith, who honed his skills in collaboration with student colleagues at Chapman’s

Joining in the Oscar night celebration for “Two Distant Strangers” are [from left] writer/co-director Travon Free, editor Alex Odesmith ‘13 and co-director Martin Desmond Roe.

STUDENT ACADEMY AWARD FINALISTS There are more high-quality student films these days than ever before, which means Chapman nominees for Student Academy Awards are in some prestigious company. Congratulations to Phumi Morare (MFA ’20) for “When the Sun Sets” and Chloe Aguirre ’20 and Hailey Burns ’20 for “Le Prince Oublié,” as well as to the many Chapman students who contributed as cast and crew members. Both films were selected as finalists in the Narrative (Domestic Film Schools) category.

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DEBUT FEATURE SUCCESS Producers Yusef Chabayta ’17 and Andrew Chennisi ’17 celebrated the release of their first feature film in March 2021. “North Hollywood,” the story of a young skateboarder pursuing his dream of a pro career, stars Ryder McLaughlin, Miranda Cosgrove and Vince Vaughn. The film reached No. 3 on the iTunes top chart, and Chabayta and Chennisi connect their success in their own young careers to their experiences as first-year Dodge students “producing no-budget music videos” as well as finding mentors “right out of the Chapman gates.”


ALUMNI NEWS

EMMY IS A PANTHER When the Primetime Emmy Awards were handed out Sept. 19, Chapman was well-represented. Among the nominees were Hannah Einbinder ’17 and Daysha Broadway (MFA ’12). Einbinder, daughter of “Saturday Night Live” original cast member Laraine Newman and comedy writer Chad Einbinder, was nominated for her supporting role alongside fellow Emmy nominee Jean Smart in the acclaimed HBO Max comedy “Hacks.” Einbinder, who studied television writing and production as well as narrative and dramatic literature at Chapman, has made the most of her breakout acting opportunity. Broadway’s Emmy nomination was for Outstanding Picture Editing For Variety Programming on HBO’s “A Black Lady Sketch Show.” It’s her second nomination, with the previous coming in 2018 for “Born This Way.” Broadway, a veteran of scripted and unscripted television as well as documentary film, has also earned a Peabody Award for her editing on the Lifetime documentary series “Surviving R. Kelly.”

DOOR OPENS TO VMA TRIUMPH Troy Charbonnet '21 won an MTV Video Music Award during the starstudded show Sept. 12 at the Barclays Center in New York. Charbonnet, who earned a BFA in film production from Dodge College, won for best editing on the video for "Leave the Door Open" by Silk Sonic, a super-duo made up of Anderson Paak and Bruno Mars.

Meanwhile, at the Los Angeles Area Emmys, Tori Edgar ’17 earned top honors as a producer on the informational series “I Was There.”

FROM ‘AMAZING RACE’ TO ‘TABLE WARS’ The media impact of Derek Helwig ’05 spans the globe. Since earning a a BA degree in production from Chapman, as well as a master’s in international conflict studies from King’s College London, Derek has produced 12 seasons of the hit CBS series “The Amazing Race,” for which he oversaw filming in more than 35 countries. His other series work includes “Best Bars in America” for Esquire, “United Shades of America” for CNN, “Huang's World” on VICE and “Ultimate Expedition” for YouTube Red.

Wars,” due out in November 2021. It’s a competition show about tablescaping, featuring Martha Stewart as main judge. Two other Chapman alumni helped create the series: Hunter Jignson ’07 and Yael Egnal ’17. Helwig also teaches documentary filmmaking at Dodge College and serves as an elected member of the Chapman University Alumni Association.

Currently, Helwig is vice president of development at Xpedition Media and the creator of a new series for HGTV called “Table

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CLASS NOTES

1980s Alford Harrison (need grad year)

and Sarah Mackay ’85 wrote and illustrated “The Land of Spoons” series, published by 8 Minute Education. The four educational picture books were published in November 2020.

1990s Echo Baker ’93 had her artwork displayed in the California Art Club’s 110th Gold Medal Exhibition at the Hilbert Museum of California Art at Chapman University. The exhibition ran through Aug. 10, 2021. Baker is also an exhibitor at the Laguna Beach Festival of Arts. 1 Philipp Garcia ’96 was promoted

to executive vice president, chief information officer, at Pacific Mercantile Bank in Costa Mesa.

2000s Sean Naughton ’04 graduated summa cum laude with a Master of Fine Arts in acting from Ohio State University this spring.

Mitch Miller ’06, the co-founder of CirQ Technologies, a health-tech company focused on creating noninvasive technologies, had his product, BreathTechS3, featured by the World Economic Forum for sustainable innovation.

2010s 2 Tyler Holtman ’10 was post-

production coordinator for “Space Jam: A New Legacy,” starring LeBron James. The film debuted in theaters and on HBO Max on July 16, 2021. 4 Andrew Merrill ’10, writer and director of the horror film “Rot,” had his film released on Amazon after a successful festival run. Other Chapman alumni who contributed to the project include Michael Pizzuto ’10,

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David Janove ’10, Clay Keller ’10, Jonathan Katz ’10, Nora Jobling ’09, Alex Exline ’10, Samantha Mehlinger ’10, Elise Holowicki ’10, Robby Campbell

2019-2020 Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Travel and Adventure Program for his work on "The Zimmern List," produced by Intuitive Content out of Minneapolis, Minn.

’10, Matt Schwartz ’10, Austyn

the Huntington Beach City Council after serving four years on the city’s Human Relations Task Force, including two years as chair. In 2020, Moser was honored with the Diverse Community Leader Award from Orange County Human Relations for leading and supporting numerous programs and youth activities. 2

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April Griffith (MFA ’09) published a science fiction romance novel, “Electra Rex,” (Pride Publishing/Totally Entwined Group) on March 9, 2021. 3

Dan Olson ’04 was awarded a

Natalie Moser ’05 was elected to

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Jeffs ’10, Reece Miller ’11, Tom Ptasinski ’08, Derek Wibben, Katherine Botts, Dante Gabiati, Juliet Nicole, Kari Granlund, Britt Keller ’13, Kevin Swanstrom ’13, Grant Olin ’12, Mark Hammer ’09, Traci Hayes (need class year), Kate Alden (need class year)and Jack Litchfield ’11. Merrill

is also developing two new feature screenplays. 5 Chapman sweethearts Erika Gates ’09 and JC Ruffalo ’11 were married

in Maui in April 2021. 6 6

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CLASS NOTES Eric Baril ’11 donned his Chapman

Chris Watkins ’15 (MS ’19, Ph.D.

lacrosse jersey to share the colors with his new son, Future Panther Beauden “Beau” Thomas Baril, born July 27, 2021. Eric’s mother, Bridgett Baril, is a member of the Chapman Board of Governors, and his grandfather, Tom Malloy, formerly served on the Board of Trustees. 7

’20) was promoted to junior data

Alex Monaco ’11 is hosting a daily podcast called “Sports Gambling w/ Moneyline Monaco,” part of Colin Cowherd’s new sports podcast network, The Volume. 8 Ryan Bengford ’12 received the

Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Television Political Journalism for his 12 News, KPNX (Phoenix) documentary “The Work Is Hard and Not Done: Being Black in the Valley.” Jurors described the work on systemic racism as “highly compelling.” The documentary was also an official selection for the Phoenix Film Festival in August 2021.

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Sarah Faulkner ’12 wrote the

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introduction to Mary Shelley’s classic novel, “Frankenstein” for Flame Tree Publishing, published May 11. Faulkner also finished her Ph.D. in English at the University of Washington in June 2020. 9 Steven Kanter ’13, writer, director and

producer of the indie comedy “The End of Us,” had his film premiere on March 16, 2021, at the South by Southwest Film Festival. The film was one of eight in competition for a jury award. 10 10

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Anna Lisa Lukes (MBA ’13) has launched, along with Jay Lukes, The Lukes Network, LLC, a marketing and sustainability consulting firm in Aliso Viejo, Calif. On Feb. 9, 2021, she hosted an event called “TasteMakers: Conversations with Entrepreneurs in Food, Wine, Art and Travel,” featuring Chef Rob Wilson, owner and chef of Glasspar restaurant in Dana Point. On July 24, 2021, The Lukes Network sponsored a Habitat for Humanity of Orange County team build at a new development in Stanton. Anna Lisa serves on the Habitat OC Board of Directors. 11

scientist at Farmers Insurance. Watkins is also a lecturer at Chapman, and in May 2021 he published his first paper, “Pitcher Effectiveness: A Step Forward for In Game Analytics and Pitcher Evaluation,” with Chapman professors Vincent Berardi, Ph.D., and Cyril Rakovski, Ph.D. Christine Hughes ’18 is a writer,

producer and actor working on her film “Unwavering,” which is inspired by real events and tells the fictional story of a Korean American college student who fights to start an Ethnic Studies program at her campus in 1968.

2020s Marian de Pontes ’20 won a Horizon Award for her film “Etana,” which she wrote and directed. The Horizon Awards honor up-and-coming female filmmakers. Others who worked on the film include Mai Amalie Bak ’20, Maomao Chen ’20, Olivia Wu ’20, Mike Xu (class year?) and Dina Mustakim ’20. Natura De Pinto ’20 co-founded an online vintage clothing shop called Dazed & Delirious, which ships worldwide and can be found at dazeddelirious.com.The e-commerce business has more than 500 pieces available online, with warehouses in San Diego and Denver. De Pinto says her undergraduate work as an assistant with the John Fowles Center for Creative Writing and co-leader of the Orange High School Literacies Partnership “equipped me with the leadership and problem-solving skills now manifested in my business.” 12

Lyz Reblin-Renshaw ’13 published

“Ludonarrative Synchronicity in the BioShock Trilogy” (Palgrave MacMillan) in December 2020. The book presents a new methodology to analyze the interplay between narrative and gameplay in video games.

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CLASS NOTES

’12   MEGAN DEMSHKI

(JD ’15)

BY PJ PEREZ Megan Demshki recently helped attain a settlement worth more than $11 million in favor of a motorcyclist who was left a quadriplegic in the wake of a 2015 car collision. Demshki, the managing attorney of Aitken Aitken Cohn’s Riverside, Calif., office, led the case with the support of partner Chris Aitken and co-founding partner Wylie Aitken, emeritus chair of the Chapman Board of Trustees and a member of the Fowler School of Law’s Board of Advisors. Demshki says the injured party was referred to her by a “friend of a friend” in August 2016, when she barely had a year under her belt as a licensed attorney. She was humbled that the friend placed such “incredible trust in a brand-new attorney.” “This case is such a great example of how creativity in the law can be rewarded and can be ultimately advantageous,” Demshki said. “I think that we took a no-rock-unturned approach with this case, given the magnitude of the client’s injuries.” Demshki has been with Aitken Aitken Cohn since 2013, when she started working as a summer law clerk. She met Wylie Aitken as an undergraduate at Chapman while serving as the 2011-2012 Student Government Association president. “I served as the student trustee on the Board of Trustees,” said Demshki. “[Wylie] helped encourage me to stay at Chapman for law school.” During her Fowler School of Law student experience, Demshki also volunteered at the Alona Cortese Elder Law Clinic, which provides legal assistance to low-income seniors. She says the clinic provided “an incredible opportunity. “To have a few hearings under your belt before truly practicing law was invaluable,” she said. Since being promoted to associate at Aitken Aitken Cohn after passing the bar in 2015, Demshki has won the Consumer Attorneys of the Inland Empire President’s Award for Distinguished Service in 2019 and been selected as a Super Lawyers’ Southern California Rising Star every year since 2018.

Megan Demshki ’12 (JD ’15) and husband Brenton Burke ’14 welcomed son Hayden Demshki Burke on July 11, 2021.

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FRIENDS WE WILL MISS ZACHARY CHICK ’02 passed away July 1, 2020. While at Chapman, the film and television production student was part of the ballroom dance team and won first place in the newcomers category at the California Star 14 Ball. He performed the tango and was the first wheelchair user to compete at the collegiate level. His senior project, “I Can’t Dance,” can be seen on YouTube. His friends and family miss his funny, engaging and caring personality.

KEN REED ’61 passed away March 2, 2021, due to complications from COVID-19. He was 85. Reed and his wife, Judy, were active members of Town and Gown and regularly attended 50 Year Club events. Reed, who earned a BA in education from Chapman and a master’s from the University of LaVerne, was a longtime 15educator in the Brea Olinda Unified School District. In addition to teaching, he was principal at three different district schools, including Brea Junior High School. He is remembered for his love of learning and teaching, and for his deep commitments to friends and neighbors through his volunteer work. In addition to Judy, he is survived by his children, Felicia, Kriss and Aron; brother, Ed; and four grandchildren. JOHN SIDEN ’62

passed away Dec. 3, 2020. John’s record of community service in West Sacramento and Yolo County is long and enduring. He was a founder and president of the organization that created the Salud Health Clinic in Broderick, Calif. John also served for 17 years on the Washington Unified School District Board. He is survived by his wife of 58 years, Sharon (Long) Siden ’61, as well as their son, daughter and four grandchildren.


CLASS NOTES

As a Fowler Law student and later as a fellow in Chapman’s Military and Veterans Law Institute and Legal Clinic, Joshua Flynn-Brown felt a growing “pull toward public policy,” he says. Now Flynn-Brown ’07 (JD ’11) is in Washington, D.C., working for Sen. Chuck Grassley as his deputy chief investigative counsel on the Senate Judiciary Committee. The oversight role working for Sen. Grassley is perfect for him, Flynn-Brown says, “because I have a passion for ensuring that the federal government is operating efficiently and isn’t abusing its authorities.”

’07   JOSHUA FLYNN-BROWN

(JD ’11)

He developed that passion for protecting civil liberties thanks to the mentorship of Kyndra Rotunda, JD, professor of military and international law and executive director of the Military and Veterans Law Institute at Chapman. As a Fowler School of Law student in the AMVETS Legal Clinic, Flynn-Brown represented clients and litigated cases, with Rotunda guiding the clinic team.

“By the time I graduated, I had real cases under my belt,” he says. “Every day I draw on those experiences and what Kyndra taught me.” Rotunda says Flynn-Brown was a go-getter from the start, “and he never took his foot off the gas,” she adds. “I always knew he was going places.” Flynn-Brown also excelled during his undergraduate experience as a standout on the Panther men’s basketball team. He was the Association of Division III Independents Player of the Year and Student Athlete of the Year as a senior. From both Professor Rotunda and men’s head basketball coach Mike Bokosky, Flynn-Brown learned that details matter. “When you’re precise, you have the leverage,” he says. “If you have the facts on your side, if you have the ball on your side, if you have the evidence on your side, then you have to bring it home with precision. That’s how you win for your client.”

Learn More Explore the Military and Veterans Law Institute at chapman.edu/research/institutes-and-centers/ military-law-institute. To learn more about competitive, funded fellowships with the institute, contact Professor Kyndra Rotunda at krotunda@chapman.edu.

Since earning a degree in communication studies from Chapman University in 2004, Tiffany Lewis has thrived in the culinary industry. A graduate of Le Cordon Bleu, Lewis has done it all – worked as a food stylist and in recipe development for celebrity chefs such as Curtis Stone and Giada De Laurentiis, served as the culinary director for two food festivals in California, and most recently started her own cookie company based in her hometown of Seattle. In 2020, Lewis founded Cookies With Tiffany, fulfilling her goal to create high-quality cookies with the best ingredients she can find. Her team has grown to include five employees, but Lewis is still in the kitchen daily, creating her popular S’mores, snickerdoodles and chocolate chip cookies, among other varieties.

’04   TIFFANY LEWIS

As she deploys her considerable baking talents, she also depends on skills she honed at Chapman.

“We take great pride in crafting our cookies, and I have to be able to communicate how our cookies are different,” she adds. “Whether it’s masscommunicating, public speaking or just meeting people at a farmers’ market, I want to connect and to make an impression.” Lewis’ cookies are available wholesale and in stores as well as via e-commerce and catering. She ships nationwide and delivers locally in the Seattle area, packaging with a personalized note. Her cookies are also sold in specialty shops and, starting this fall, in major grocery outlets. You can find Lewis on Instagram at @cookieswithtiffany, on Facebook as Cookies With Tiffany, and at her website, cookieswithtiffany.com. “Chapman has helped make me this strong entrepreneurial person who’s able to have national success,” she says. “Now I’m building an infrastructure to support my continuing growth.”

“Chapman is where I blossomed,” says Lewis, who enhanced her team-building skills as a fouryear player on the Panther tennis team and as a Chapman Ambassador.

FALL 2021

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