Can LEDs Make Code Compliance Easier? - a discussion on energy codes and compliance
Marty Salzberg, IALD, IES Senior Associate, Cline Bettridge Bernstein Lighting Design
Michael Mehl, LC, LEED速 AP, IES Director, Lighting Design, Jaros, Baum & Bolles
The Basis for Energy Code Requirements Energy Conservation and Production Act (amended by EPAct 1992) requires that States adopt energy codes. • U.S. DOE determines the effective stringency level to meet or exceed (currently 90.1-2007) – Changing SOON! • States adopt/develop various codes/standards to meet these requirements – including lighting!
CODE HISTORY: TWO MODELS
IECC - 2009 Residential & Commercial CODE
ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2007 Commercial Only STANDARD
EACH STATE CAN ADOPT ONE OF THESE CODES, OR DEVELOP ONE OF THEIR OWN. PERHAPS BEST KNOWN INDIVIDUAL STATE CODE IS CALIFORNIA TITLE 24.
Some states don’t have STATEWIDE Energy Codes http://www.energycodes.gov/states/ http://www.energycodes.gov/statusstate-energy-code-adoption
Status of State Adopted Energy Codes
PROJECTED Status of State Adopted Energy Codes
New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code is a version of IECC BUT allows use of ASHRAE 90.1 as an alternate compliance path for Commercial Projects. â€˘ What is a Commercial Project?
All trades must use the same code: NYS or ASHRAE, not allowed to split by discipline
Often asked Questions relating to Energy Code Issues: 1 – What code applies to this project?: • LEED projects generally have to comply with ASHRAE 90.1 – Currently 90.1-2007 with LEED 2009
2 – If not LEED, what is the current State Code? • Connecticut - IECC 2009 with Amendments • New Jersey - ASHRAE 90.1-2007 with Amendment 3 – NY City has its own modifications to NYS code
NYC Energy Conservation Code Adoption:
Originated out of Mayor Bloomberg’s PlaNYC 2007 initiative
In Concert with NYC LEED Chapter “Greening of the Codes” Task Forces were established for each discipline to develop new potential Code points
* Ultimately these points were adopted into the NYC Building Code
New York City Local Laws Lighting Related o LL 85 of 2009, LL 88 of 2009, LL 48 of 2010, LL 1 of 2011(NYCECC), (Rules of NYC DOB) - have the force of Law - 1 RCNY §5000-01 - 1 RCNY §101-07
Building Dept. Bulletins o 2010-032: Outlines issues regarding Additions, Alterations, Renovations or Repair to a lighting or electrical power system or control equipment…
The NYC Code: • NYCECC is now the Law • Applies to all buildings unless specifically stated otherwise.
The NYC Rules: • Rules are issued by the DOB for implementing ` The Code • They must go through formal public comment process • Have the force of Law once Enacted
The NYC Bulletins: • Issued by DOB to clarify interpretations of Code • They change more often than Code Cycles & Rules
LL 1 of 2011 (NYCECC) Based upon 2010 ECCCNYS, – Effective December 2010 Superseded LL 85 of 2009
LL 48 of 2010
Amends Section 505 of NYCECC Adds Appendix A amending ASHARE 90.1, Section 9
Occupancy Sensors Required for : 1- classrooms (not including shop classrooms, laboratory classrooms, and preschool classrooms), 2- conference/meeting rooms, 3- employee lunch and break rooms, & 4- offices smaller than 200 square feet (18.5 m2) in area. Exception: offices smaller than 200 sq. Ft. (18.5 m2) in area equipped with lighting controls activated by a photosensor
Rules of NYC DOB - have the force of Law 1 RCNY ยง5000-01 Defines Energy Code Submission process & the requirements for inspections to be called for in Construction Drawings
1 RCNY ยง101-07 Defines Energy Code Submission process & the requirements for inspections to be called for in Construction Drawings
Building Dept. Forms
NYCECC â€“ Summary of Recent Code History
• Quick Points on Code Topics
• Reference to Code locations & requirements
Quick List of…. • Rule type
• Required Forms for Permitting – before & after
NYCECC – Summary of Recent Code History IMPACT:
WHAT PROJECTS HAVE TO COMPLY WITH THE CODE EXTENT OF DOCUMENTATION REQUIRED TO PROVE COMPLIANCE
WHAT IT DID NOT DO: REDUCE LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES
WHAT PROJECTS HAVE TO COMPLY? ALMOST ALL EXEMPTIONS:
Exterior Lighting for Landmarked Exteriors Interior Lighting for Landmarked Interiors Work not required to have a permit
If ONLY the EXTERIOR of the building is Landmarked, the INTERIOR lighting
has to comply with code
50 % RULE
New York City made it simpler to figure out if the project must comply:
ELIMINATION OF THE 50% RULE Additions,
Alterations, Renovations & Repairs must ALL comply:
REGARDLESS OF SIZE
IECC 2009 CODES THAT ARE BASED ON IECC 2009 NEW YORK STATE 2010
CONNECTICUT IECC 2009 WITH AMENDMENTS
FIRST LIGHTING ENERGY REQUIREMENTS IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
NYS 2010 (IECC 2009 wording slightly different) RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY Definition of a Residential Building: For the purposes of this code, residential building includes detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories in height above grade, manufactured homes â€Ś
Residential Buildings over three stories above grade are considered Commercial Buildings and can choose the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Compliance Path
SECTION 404 ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS 404.1 Lighting equipment. A minimum of 50 percent of the lamps in permanently installed lighting fixtures shall be
IECC 2009 - RESIDENTIAL
HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:
1. 60 LPW for lamps over 40 watts, 2. 50 LPW for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts, and
3. 40 LPW for lamps 15 watts or less.
IECC 2009 and NYS 2010
There were no requirements for lighting in single-family homes in previous versions of the IECC.
Incandescent and MR16 lamps do not qualify In NYS 2010
900 รท 13 = 69 LPW
295 รท 6 = 49 LPW
1300 รท 21 = 61.9 LPW
1W length 100mm Energy efficiency : 75lm/W
75 LPW = 1 w x 75 lumen
149.3 รท 2.8 = 53.3 LPW
COMING SOON! D.O.E. has determined that ASHRAE 90.1-2010 is 18% more efficient than 2007. States have until October 2013 to report on compliance path
LEED IS OFTEN THE FIRST ADOPTER OF THE NEW STANDARDS
The next version of LEED ? 2014?
ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2010…… Major Changes From 2007 Version Expanded exterior LPD requirements • Exterior Lighting Zone Revised/corrected Interior LPDs
Alterations/Renovations/Expansion More Required Controls
Zonal Exterior Power Allowance SAMPLE CHANGE Base Site Allowance Tradable Surfaces
Uncovered Parking Areas Parking areas and drives
LZ-0 Lighting Zone 0 should be applied to areas in which permanent lighting is not expected and when used, is limited in the amount of lighting and the period of operation. LZ-0 typically includes undeveloped areas of open space, wilderness parks and preserves, areas near astronomical observatories, or any other area where the protection of a dark environment is critical. Special review should be required for any permanent lighting in this zone. Some rural communities may choose to adopt LZ-0 for residential areas. Recommended default zone for wilderness areas, parks and preserves, and undeveloped rural areas. Includes protected wildlife areas and corridors.
LZ-1 Lighting Zone 1 pertains to areas that desire low ambient lighting levels. These typically include single and two family residential communities, rural town centers, business parks, and other commercial or industrial/storage areas typically with limited nighttime activity. May also include the developed areas in parks and other natural settings. Recommended default zone for rural and low density residential areas. Includes residential single or two family; agricultural zone districts; rural residential zone districts; business parks; open space include preserves in developed areas.
LZ-2 Lighting Zone 2 pertains to areas with moderate ambient lighting levels. These typically include multifamily residential uses, institutional residential uses, schools, churches, hospitals, hotels/motels, commercial and/or businesses areas with evening activities embedded in predominately residential areas, neighborhood serving recreational and playing fields and/or mixed use development with a predominance of residential uses. Can be used to accommodate a district of outdoor sales or industry in an area otherwise zoned LZ-1. Recommended default zone for light commercial business districts and high density or mixed use residential districts. Includes neighborhood business districts; churches, schools and neighborhood recreation facilities; and light industrial zoning with modest nighttime uses or lighting requirements
LZ-3 Lighting Zone 3 pertains to areas with moderately high lighting levels. These typically include commercial corridors, high intensity suburban commercial areas, town centers, mixed use areas, industrial uses and shipping and rail yards with high night time activity, high use recreational and playing fields, regional shopping malls, car dealerships, gas stations, and other nighttime active exterior retail areas. Recommended default zone for large citiesâ€˜ business district. Includes business zone districts; commercial mixed use; and heavy industrial and/or manufacturing zone districts.
LZ-4 Lighting Zone 4 pertains to areas of high ambient lighting levels and limited to specific intense night uses within large metropolitan areas such as downtowns, entertainment districts or outdoor sales districts. LZ-4 should only be used for special cases and is not appropriate for most communities. May include professional sports, theme parks, and heavy industrial uses such as oil refineries. Not a default zone. Includes high intensity business or industrial zone districts.
Revised/corrected Interior LPDs - Examples Methodology – Reviewed Space Type Models & Technologies INCREASED ALLOWANCES • Restrooms - Why ?
Partitions STAYED THE SAME Library Stacks – Why? Improved Technology offset by partitions
DECREASED ALLOWANCE • Lobby – Why ? Model still had decorative lights • Classroom/Lecture/Training – Why ?
Improved Technology in the base
NEW CATEGORIES • Laboratory for Medical/Industrial/Research
Room Cavity Ratio Adjustment for unusual spaces •
Used only with the space by space method
Calculate Room Cavity Ratio (RCR) for a room
If greater than listed RCR threshold type, a 20% increase is allowed
ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2010…… Major Changes From 2007 Version • • • • • • • •
Daylighting control requirements and skylights Expanded occupancy sensor control Exterior after-hours lighting control Parking garage daylight and after-hours control Stairwell control (unoccupied 50% reduction) Control incentives for advanced controls Receptacle 50% auto shut-off control Functional Testing (commissioning) 30 total addenda – most are on controls
Some ASHRAE 2010 Changes CONTROLS….CONTROLS….CONTROLS !!! DAYLIGHTING Require the control of electric lighting when top and side daylight is present Require the control of electric lighting when top and side daylight is present ….AND…. Require the installation of skylights when applicable OCCUPANCY All occupancy sensor controls must function as “manual –on” or 50% “auto -on” Added more space types requiring occupancy controls
and more…..CONTROLS !!! BI-LEVEL SPACE CONTROL Control lighting must have at least one control step between 30-70% of full STAIRWELL 50% REDUCTION CONTROL Stairwells - enclosed, must reduce light level to 50% automatically after 30 minutes of non-occupancy ADVANCED EXTERIOR LIGHTING CONTROL Requires specific daylight & building operation lighting controls for exterior. ADVANCED CONTROL Incentives Additional Allowances in LPD for spaces that meet Mandatory Controls, and use Advanced Lighting Controls
Parking Garage Control Parking garage lighting must be automatically controlled including daylighting Reduce lighting power by 30% or more when no occupancy detected in a lighting zone (< 3,600 sf) Daylight transition zone lighting (66 ft wide by 50 ft) must be separately controlled for eye adaptation. Daylight control required for lights within 20 feet of perimeter wall with net opening to wall ratio of 40%. Exceptions apply
IECC 2012 Major Changes from 2009 Version
75% Residential Efficiency – Low Voltage Exempt Space-by-space LPD Tables
NYCECC Will probably cross the threshold into High Rise Residential
So what is in future Energy Codes ? ……
And where is the LOW HANGING FRUIT ?
Mix with Controls…..LEDs ……. • PARKING LOT LIGHTING CONTROLS – Dimmed or switched, allows for instant on and tailored operation ,maintaining min. security levels
• GAS STATIONS – Dimmed or switched, allows for instant on and tailored operation ,maintaining min. security levels
Mix with Controls….LEDs ……. • BRIDGES/TUNNELS Dimmed or switched OFF-hour operation
• TRANSIT Dimmed during OFF-hour operation
Mix with Controls….LEDs ……. PERSONAL CONTROLS Creates a level of intimacy/knowledge beyond the industry
Convenience of operation leads to savings Private applications pushes Commercial Development
Research areas for the NEXT Code Cycles: IECC 2015 &
ASHRAE 90.1 - 2016
Pressure to Reduce Lighting Power Allowances based on LED Technology Not just Lumen Output vs. Energy Usage • LIGHTING QUALITY • UNIFORMITY, • COLOR QUALITY
• The Next Code Development Cycle has Started • Where should Future Energy Standards Go?????
NYC DOB Energy Code Compliance Guidelines http://www.nyc.gov/html/dob/html/reference/ecccnys.shtml http://www.nyc.gov/html/dob/html/reference/nycecc_main.shtml