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Planning Dilemmas: Heritage, Conservation and Design in Neighbourhood Planning 16th November 2017 #leedsplanning

Chair Introduction Dr Lindsay Smales Leeds Beckett University #leedsplanning

Neil Stanley University of Leeds #leedsplanning


What is public concern?

It is the fear(s) generated, amongst a ‘host community’, by a proposed development.

Why is public concern relevant to planning? • Section 70(2) Town and Country Planning Act 1990 provides that local planning authorities in dealing with an application for planning permission ‘shall have regard to the provisions of the development plan, so far as material to the application, and to any other material considerations’

Why is public concern relevant to planning? • Primary focus upon the decision-making end of the process. • Possible, but difficult, to capture real expressions of public concern in planmaking.

Illustrations of proposed development generating public concern

‘LULU’s/’Bad neighbour development’ • COMAH Directive sites • Activities which generate noise/odour/vibration/gases/dust • Landfill • Waste incinerators • Quarrying (open cast)

Illustrations • • • • •

Fish processing Pig farming Wind farm Mobile ‘phone base stations Electricity generating and transmission systems • Crematoriums • Prisons/bail hostels

Illustrations • • • • •

Roads Airports/flight paths Rail Homeless hostels Fast food outlets

Why is the public concerned? How does a host community assess the threat? 1. Rules of thumb 2. Media coverage 3. What the host community values 4. Trust 5. Is the hazard imposed

Why is the public concerned? • • • • • •

Personal control Number exposed The identity of the victims How the threat manifests itself Familiarity Man-made hazards

Sandman’s risk model RISK = HAZARD + OUTRAGE

‘Weighting’ • West Midlands Probation Committee v SoSE and Walsall MBC (1998) JPL 388 • Fear of crime – planning permission to extend bail hostel with history of problems documented by host community

Public concern and plan-making • Sequential planning process • Consultation based plan making and assumptions made regarding public input into the system • The public as information consumers • Newcastle Fairness Commission and Hampshire County Council’s incinerator siting experience

Craig Broadwith Yorkshire Planning Group #leedsplanning

Planning Dilemmas: Heritage, Conservation & Design in Neighbourhood Planning 16th Nov 2017 How Heritage can strengthen your Neighbourhood Plan Craig Broadwith, Historic Places Adviser, Yorkshire

Introduction  Why am I here?  Who Historic England are and what we do?  Historic England’s role in the Neighbourhood Planning process.  Yorkshire activity & consultations  Heritage Assets  Guidance  Questions

Why am I here?

Who we are  Historic Buildings & Monuments Commission for England  Historic English Heritage until 2015  English Heritage Trust  Historic England  Our role

Our role in Neighbourhood Planning Localism Act 2011 Regulation 14 consultations Regulation 16 consultations Strategic Environmental Assessment Screening & Scoping Opinions  Informal advice    

Consult us early     

Identifying Heritage Assets Best practice Opportunities NPPF compliance Environmental Assessment issues

Historic England Consultations  2012-13: 4 consultations •

2 boundaries; 2 informal

 2013-14: 17 consultations •

7 boundaries; 6 informal; 4 SEAs

 2014-15: 26 consultations •

15 boundaries; 5 informal; 3 SEAs; 3 Presubmission

 2015-16: 33 consultations •

8 boundaries; 6 informal; 16 SEAs; 3 Presubmission

 2016-17: 58 consultations •

6 boundaries; 4 informal; 21 SEAs; 20 Presubmission; 4 Submission; Designation 3

 2017-18: 32 to date •

3 boundaries; 3 informal; 13 SEAs; 7 Presubmission; 5 Submission; Designation 2

Neighbourhood Planning in Yorkshire  Made Neighbourhood Plans: 6  Designated Neighbourhood Plan Areas: 115

Neighbourhood Planning in Yorkshire

 Barnsley: 0 made Plan •

2 Designated Areas

 Bradford: 3 made Plan •

9 Designated Areas

 Calderdale: 0 made Plans •

7 designated Areas

 Craven: 0 made Plans •

1 imminent

3 designated areas

 Doncaster: 2 made Plans •

9 designated Areas

 East Riding: 0 made Plans •

12 designated areas

 Hambleton: 0 Plans •

6 Designated Areas

Neighbourhood Planning in Yorkshire

 Harrogate: 0 made Plans •

4 Designated Areas

 Hull: 0 made Plans •

3 Designated Areas

 Kirklees: 0 made Plans •

5 Designated Areas

 Leeds: 2 made Plans •

22 Designated Areas

 North York Moors: 0 made Plans •

1 Designated Areas

 Richmondshire: 0 made Plans •

1 Designated Areas

 Rotherham: 0 made Plans •

2 Designated Areas

Neighbourhood Planning in Yorkshire  Ryedale: 0 made Plans •

0 Designated Areas

 Scarborough: 0 made Plans •

3 Designated Areas

 Selby: 0 made Plans •

4 Designated Areas

 Sheffield: 0 made Plans •

3 Designated Areas

 Wakefield: no made Plans •

4 Designated Areas

 York: 1 made Plan •

14 designated Areas

 Yorkshire Dales : no made Plans •

1 Designated Areas

What they can do for heritage  Add to understanding/ evidence base  Designate historic areas  Create a local list  Designate local green space

What they can do  Create heritage asset specific policies  Heritage policy to: • Support/enhance use, value or appreciation • Address heritage at risk

 Design Guidance Policy

What they have to do  Identify heritage assets that could be affected by plan proposals at an early stage  Include sufficient information about them to inform decision making  Promote ‘sustainable development’ • Avoid or minimise harm to heritage assets through choices • Not compromise local authority responsibilities

What they can’t do  Define the Green Belt  Designate: • Listed Buildings • Conservation Areas • Scheduled Monuments


Listed Buildings  31,501 Listed Buildings in Yorkshire  Designated by the Secretary of State for Culture Media & Sport.  93 Grade I & II* are “At Risk”.  93 Places of Worship “At Risk”

Locally Listed Buildings  Locally important buildings  Guidance:  Local Heritage Listing

Scheduled Monuments  2644 Scheduled Monuments in Yorkshire  Designated by the Secretary of State for Culture Media & Sport.  365are “At Risk”.

Local Archaeological Sites  West Yorkshire Archaeological Advisory Service Historic Environment Record

Conservation Areas • • • • •

888 Conservation Areas in Yorkshire Designated by Local Authorities 46% don’t have Appraisals. 56% don’t have Management Plans 51 are Conservation Areas At Risk. •

Details can be found in the 2017 Heritage at Risk Register for Yorkshire.

Local Historic Areas  Candidate Conservation Areas  Plan can include Historic Area policies  See Pool-in-Wharfedale draft Policy Intentions Document  Assess potential by referring to: “Conservation Area Designation, Appraisal & Management”

Registered Historic Parks & Gardens  124 Registered Parks & Gardens in Yorkshire  Designated by the Secretary of State for Culture Media & Sport.  12 are “At Risk”.

Local Historic Landscapes • • •

Designed Landscapes Historic Landscapes Guidance: • • •

Local Heritage Listing Using Historic Landscape Characterisation Landscape Character Assessment

Checklist 1. Does your neighbourhood include any heritage assets (they don’t need to be protected by designation to be of interest)? 2. Have you looked at your local Historic Environment Record? 3. Have you discussed your proposals for a Plan with your local authority historic environment advisers and the person at your local planning authority responsible for Neighbourhood Plans?

4. Does the Plan have a clear vision for the historic environment? 5. What are the key conservation issues? 6. How can the historic environment / heritage assets be used to help achieve your overall goals for development?

Checklist 7. What are the opportunities for protecting or improving the heritage of your neighbourhood, or for developing a better understanding or appreciation of it? 8. Have you considered as part of your design policies local characteristics and how new development can be made locally distinctive? 9. What impact will your Plan proposals have on heritage assets or their settings or the local character?

10. Have you consulted Historic England’s “Heritage at Risk Register� or any risk register held by your local authority - can your plan proposals make any use of heritage assets on these registers? 11. Have you consulted Historic England where you consider our interests to be affected? You should also consult us on all Neighbourhood Development Orders and Community Right to Build Orders.

Other Sources of Guidance • West Yorkshire Archaeological Advisory Service Historic Environment Record • Advice Note on Neighbourhood Planning & the Historic Environment • Knowing Your Place

Questions & Actions?

Jenny Fisher Leeds City Council #leedsplanning


Highlighting the work of several neighbourhood planning forums (Aireborough, Otley, Walton and Boston Spa) to explore the benefits of including policies that encourage local distinctiveness and high quality design.

Jenny Fisher, Principal Design ‌..Officer,Leeds City Council

What is local distinctiveness? ‘To encourage recognition and improvement of the individual quality of places’

What is good design? “Good design provides the background to everybody’s lives and can help bring communities together. It develops a sense of local pride and creates lasting confidence” • Positive urban design can improve health and wellbeing, safety and security and community cohesion. • Poor design can have very negative impacts, contributing to social isolation, a reliance on the car and anti-social behaviour.

‘Accordia’ in Cambridgeshire

RERF ‘Veolia’ Waste Recycling Centre

‘Blackburn Wing’ at Bowcliffe Hall

There is a wealth of Design Guidance available to NP groups: Conservation Area Appraisals Village and Neighbourhood Design Statements etc

Village/Neighbourhood Design Statements – adopted SPD’s Valuable guidance but what impact have they had in raising design quality in new developments?

Indicative drawing showing the transformation of a busy road into a pedestrianised street

Aireborough Characterisation Study

East of Otley Housing Site (SAP) analysis


Walton Site Analysis and Concepts for non-designated housing sites

• • • • •

Opportunity to provide dwellings within the historic centre of the village; Site is close to village amenities; Re-development of a commercial site within a residential context; Brownfield site; Site is generally ‘hidden’ from many aspects within and around the village and therefore would have little impact upon view of the village; Mature landscape features to the site edge assist in screening any development within the site from it’s surroundings and provide an attractive setting;

Constraints •

• •

Access to the site is likely to require upgrading as it is currently narrow and on a relatively steep slope (further investigation needed); Narrow dimensions would require a creative approach to layout; Mature landscape features at the site boundary combined with dimensions will require a careful approach to layout to avoid loss of landscape features; Topography at site entry would require careful consideration – may affect the type of housing the site would be most suitable for; Current use of the site is likely to leave contamination and therefore this would require remediation; Maintaining suitable aspects to the adjacent land and properties;

Walton – Coal Yard, Main Street

Walton – Spring Lane

Boston Spa’s ‘People Friendly Village Centre’

EVIDENCE! Where has this been achieved elsewhere?

Cottingham Design Codes

Is this a good use of rear garden space?

Or is this?

‘Green Streets’ – creating a greener, healthier environment!


Street trees improve air quality in four main ways (Peper et al., 2007)

ABSORBING GASEOUS POLLUTANTS  (ozone [O3],  nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) through leaf surfaces  Releasing oxygen through photosynthesis  Intercepting PM Particulate Matter (e.g., dust, ash, dirt, pollen, smoke) NOTE: Estimated reduction of PM by 15-20 % immediately behind a single tree (Bealey et al., 2007; Mitchell and Maher, 2009)

Trees lower local air temperatures and thereby further reduce (ozone) O3 levels

A mature leafy tree produces as much oxygen in a season as 10 people inhale in a year

LONDON Annual pollution removal by trees valued at £126.1 million

ENVAC waste recycling

Holbeck Neighbourhood Plan’s Viaduct Project Photos courtesy of Rick Harrison of the Holbeck Viaduct Project

The Holbeck Viaduct Project - Edward Architecture

The Holbeck Viaduct Project



Thanks for attending! Don’t forget your feedback forms!


NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANS & DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES How to ensure high quality design through your Neighbourhood Plan A Toolkit for Neighbourhood Planners

Environment & Design Group

Work in progress. Prepared for discussion with Neighbourhood Planning groups in Leeds




1 Why is good design important? 2. Why include design in your Neighbourhood Plan?

3 3



1. What guidance is available? 2. What is the policy context? 3. What evidence do you need? 4. What else should you consider?

4 5 6 7-9



1. How to allocate housing sites through your Neighbourhood Plan 2. How to approach sites allocated through the Local Plan 3. How to write character area policies 4. How to develop design guidance and design codes

10 11 - 12 13 - 14 15



1. Where to go for further information?



There is a lack of existing guidance on how Neighbourhood Planners can effectively and robustly include high quality design as part of their Neighbourhood Plan. Whilst there is plenty of material on what constitutes “good design�, there is little that demonstrates how to put this into practice in terms of planning policy. This toolkit will help your Neighbourhood Planning group to write planning policies that assist in the delivery of high quality design, show you how to make use of different types of evidence to support design policies and outline the step-by-step process that you must go through to include design in your Neighbourhood Plan. This document outlines the options for your Neighbourhood Plan, signposts you to other useful information and includes a step-by-step guide to ensuring that your Neighbourhood Plan facilitates the delivery of good design through policy. Included for information are relevant extracts from Neighbourhood Plans that have been independently examined, made, and tested in practice.

WHY 1. Why is good design important? The design of buildings and places has many impacts. Positive urban design can improve health and wellbeing, safety, security and community cohesion as well as adding value to development. Conversely, poor design can have very negative impacts and can contribute to social isolation, a reliance on the car and anti-social behaviour. It is difficult and costly to rectify the damage done by poor design, and so it is very important to consider carefully changes that are made to the built environment.

’The art of making places, urban design involves the design of buildings, groups of buildings, spaces and landscape in villages, towns and cities, and the establishment of frameworks and processes which facilitate successful development.’ Urban Design definition ‘By Design’, Department for Communities and Local Government/ Design Council CABE

2. Why include design in your Neighbourhood Plan? Good design is an important consideration in the planning process. Embedding a design approach in your Neighbourhood Plan’s policies is a positive way to inform developers about your expectations for how new buildings and the spaces between them should look and feel. It also provides a clear basis for the local authority to make decisions on planning applications. Well-designed developments can encourage local communities to be more amenable to new housing, as noted in the Government’s Housing White Paper (2017), which encourages the use of ‘design codes’ (see How? section 4) to help define acceptable layouts and appearance.

Street landscaping improves air quality and creates a ‘sense of place’ in Boston Spa

The Basic Conditions require Neighbourhood Plans to contribute to the achievement of sustainable development. Good design can positively influence the economic, environmental and social sustainability of an area in a number of ways. For example, economic sustainability can be encouraged by the inclusion of live-work spaces within a new development. Environmentally, design can improve air quality through street planting, reduce energy consumption through high standards of insulation or reduce flood risk through the inclusion of sustainable urban drainage systems. Socially, good design can facilitate social interaction and physical activity through the inclusion of public space in a scheme or improve security through Secured by Design principles. Design principles should be included in the strategic aims and vision statement of your Neighbourhood Plan and supported by your objectives. This will provide sound reasoning for the rest of your plan. 3

Using design to slow traffic and create a space for social interaction and children’s play in the Methleys, Chapel Allerton


1. What guidance is available? There is a range of useful guidance on design, which is a good starting point for design considerations within your Neighbourhood Plan. Building for Life is a set of 12 criteria which was developed by the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment and sets the benchmark for positive and well considered residential design. Neighbourhood Plans can refer to the Building for Life standard and require developers to meet the conditions within it. Neighbourhoods For Living is Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG) which has been adopted by the Council to provide comprehensive guidance on the design of housing development. Building for Tomorrow Today is an adopted Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) which promotes sustainable design and construction methods to prospective applicants. It should be a starting point for your Neighbourhood Plan when considering climate change and environmental sustainability objectives. Neighbourhood or Village Design Statements are adopted SPDs that provide comprehensive analyses of areas across the city. Be sure to check whether or not you have a Village or Neighbourhood Design statement for your Neighbourhood Area as this would provide a useful starting point for your analysis. Conservation Area Appraisals and Management Plans. There are 78 Conservation Areas across the district, and 50 have up-to-date Conservation Area Appraisals. If your neighbourhood has a Conservation Area Appraisal, be sure to look at the analysis that can be found within. It is important to stress that your Neighbourhood Plan should not simply repeat the guidance set out in the Conservation Area Appraisal. You should use the Appraisal to inform your approach to design outside of the Conservation Area.


WHAT 2. What is the policy context? Neighbourhood Plans provide an opportunity to write locally-specific planning policies to be used by a decision maker when considering planning applications within a designated Neighbourhood Area. However, the planning system is a multi-tiered framework and Neighbourhood Planning has to fit within the wider planning context.

guidance and clarity to applicants and are a material consideration in the determination of planning applications. In practice, this means that the Neighbourhood Plan can be used to shape how planned development can be locally responsive. Neighbourhood Plans are an opportunity to shape development in their area and one of the most important facets of this is the design of the built environment.

NATIONAL POLICY National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) Section 7 ‘Requiring good design’, paragraphs 56-68 and particularly para. 56 below: ‘The Government attaches great importance to the design of the built environment. Good design is a key aspect of sustainable development, is indivisible from good planning, and should contribute positively to making places better for people’. Also of relevance is paragraph17 ‘Core planning principles’ which notes: ‘always seek to secure high quality design and a good standard of amenity for all existing and future occupants of land and building’.  

At a national level, the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) provides nationwide planning policies that define sustainable development and how this can be achieved. Neighbourhood Plan policies must have regard to the NPPF and must contribute to the achievement of sustainable development.

Importantly, paragraph 58 of the NPPF states that design policies in NPs should be based on set objectives for an area and on a sound understanding of local circumstances and characteristics.

At a city-wide level, the Local Development Framework (LDF) is the name for the suite of documents that together form the Local Plan for Leeds. This consists of a wide range of documents, including the Core Strategy, the Natural Resources and Waste Local Plan (NRWLP) and the Site Allocations Plan (SAP). Until the Local Development Framework is complete, saved policies from the Unitary Development Plan (UDP) are also used when determining planning applications. Neighbourhood Plans must be in general conformity with the policies found within the Local Plan. They also cannot be used to plan for less development than set out in the Local Plan.

‘Policy P10: Design

In addition to the statutory Local Plan, Leeds has a number of Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs) and Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPGs) . Whilst these are not examined by a Planning Inspector, they build on adopted policies to provide further

LOCAL AUTHORITY POLICY Leeds Core Strategy New development for buildings and spaces, and alterations to existing, should be based on a thorough contextual analysis and provide good design that is appropriate to its location, scale and function. New development will be expected to deliver high quality inclusive design that has evolved, where appropriate, through community consultation and thorough analysis and understanding of an area. Developments should respect and enhance existing landscapes, waterscapes, streets, spaces and buildings according to the particular local distinctiveness and wider setting of the place with the intention of contributing positively to place making, quality of life and wellbeing’

NEIGHBOURHOOD DEVELOPMENT PLAN Extract from Planning Practice Guidance: ‘Neighbourhood Planning gives communities direct power to develop a shared vision for their neighbourhood and shape the development and growth of their local area. They are able to choose where they want new homes, shops and offices to be built, have their say on what those new buildings should look like and what infrastructure should be provided, and grant planning permission for the new buildings they want to see go ahead.’


WHAT 3. What evidence do you need? Evidence must be used to support the decisions you are making and the policies you are developing to include in your Neighbourhood Plan.

Things to consider: • Has the local community expressed a view on design? If so, what does this say? • What work has been done already in your local area? Does this need updating? • What existing documents and strategies exist for your area? These could be housing needs and housing market assessments, design statements, community action plans or parish plans, for example. Map showing different character areas in Malpas reflecting the era in which development has taken place. The map demonstrates how the village has grown, with a number of village extensions occuring over the previous 100 years.

Collated comments made by local residents with regard to housing in Thame

Photograph and map showing lines of site to be retained from Frome’s Neighbourhood Plan

Sarah James, head of policy, Civic Voice, said: “Neighbourhood Plans are undermined by speculative developments, so we need a mechanism to ensure that those Neighbourhood Plans, once agreed or when close to agreement, are not subverted.” 6

The table below shows how this data can be tabulated to provide historic housing density information, and the size of historic developments to provide precedents for futuer development in Malpas


4. What else should you consider? Phasing Phasing a development allows it to grow more organically. Subtle changes in building materials can result in an appropriate amount of variation between buildings to produce a balance between continuity and a sense of place, but also of individuality. Housing Mix Housing Mix refers to both the size and tenure (sale/ market rent/affordable rent). Evidence to support the need for smaller dwelling sizes or non-market housing can be found in a Housing Market Assessment or a Housing Needs Assessment and is important in formulating Neighbourhood Planning policy. An appropriate mix of housing contributes to creating sustainable and mixed communities. However, careful consideration of the impacts of housing mix requirements in a Neighbourhood Plan policy is required. Having affordable or housing mix requirements in a policy can impact on the viability of the development. If your Neighbourhood Plan is looking to achieve a higher proportion of affordable housing, strong local evidence is required. You will need to consider viability testing if you wish to introduce tighter requirements on affordable housing than the policies in the Core Strategy.

Public Realm A Neighbourhood Plan can include public realm projects that the community wishes to implement but that would not necessarily be delivered by private development. These projects can be pivotal in shaping the feel of a settlement. Though implementation can be difficult, provision for them within the Neighbourhood Plan is an important step in realising these aspirations. A project schedule could include: • • • • • • • •

‘Gateway’ features at the entrances to key areas Installation of street furniture Traffic calming measures Rationalisation of street ‘clutter’ to make streets more accessible and pleasant Creation of new squares and parks Improvements to new paths or the creation of new paths Improvements to lighting Tree planting

Highway improvements Branch Road, Armley

Useful documents: Useful Locality: How todocuments: work with landowners and Does housing meet local demand? May need to consider a better mix with more affordable housing.


Locality: How to work with landowners and developers developers Self-build toolkit Self-build toolkit


4. What else should you consider? Gardens, Green Space and Trees The shape that gardens and open space can take is an important design consideration. A requirement for a minimum area of usable amenity space already exists in the Leeds City Council SPD Neighbourhood for Living, however the form that private amenity space takes can vary. For example, should housing always offer both a front garden and a rear garden? Would large front gardens begin to erode the sense of an enclosed street? Will large side gardens begin to disrupt a strong building line? These questions can be addressed in the Neighbourhood Plan. Boundary treatments (walls, hedges, fences etc. have a huge impact on the look and feel of open space. It is important to consider their height and material carefully. There may be a local vernacular to reflect - stone or brick walls for example. Low walls around front gardens will help children and those sitting down to see into their street and encourage socialising with neighbours. Hedges are beneficial for air quality and biodiversity and add a soft edge to development.

The fact that trees significantly improve air pollution by absorbing particulate matter, and are crucial to climate change and flood risk mitigation, is well documented. Tree planting can also help development look more established by screening and breaking up the form of housing developments. Trees within the public realm add value to spaces, providing colour and variety. A Neighbourhood Plan can state a requirement for street tree planting if desired. Particular species of tree might be associated with a given location, and existing biodiversity may require certain species of tree to be introduced. Policies to ensure that any existing trees to be removed are replaced at favourable levels can help in improving tree coverage in an area.

Using water, landscaping and building positioning to create a safe, pleasant communal space at LILAC, Bramley

The design of the space between buildings will have an impact on whether or not children play outdoors, and this in turn encourages adults to socialise, with associated benefits for physical and mental health and community cohesion. Development should offer a variety of open spaces that are easily and safely accessible from residential areas. If there are open spaces within the neighbourhood area that would benefit from improvement, a village green status can be conferred by the Neighbourhood Plan to protect spaces from development.

Useful documents: xx Open green space should be easily accessible



Green and Blue Infrastructure “Green infrastructure is the network of multifunctional green space, both new and existing, both rural and urban, which supports the natural and ecological processes and is integral to the health and quality of life of sustainable communities” (from Department for Communities and Local Government’s Planning Policy Statement 12: Local Spatial Planning). ‘Blue infrastructure’ is infrastructure relating to water. The two are often considered together when assessing a site. Blue and green infrastructure ranges from parks, rivers and woodlands to street trees, green roofs and private gardens, threading through and surrounding the built environment and connecting the urban environment to its wider rural setting. Features can include “Green Bridges” or underpasses that connect GI across busy roads; Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) e.g. swales & ponds with recreational features; sustainable travel features including avenues with segregated footways etc. GI differs from other open space by the fact that it provides strategic functions for the city, promoting health and wellbeing through active travel. The GI corridors within Leeds are shown on Map 16 in the Leeds City Council Core Strategy. The Map also includes opportunity corridors (shown with arrows on the map), these are areas where there is a potential to connect GI corridors or to enhance existing linkages. LCC Planning policy requires any development falling within a GI corridor (including the Opportunity Corridor) to incorporate special features that retain, enhance, or extend the functions of the

GI corridor in which it falls. The special features must be above and beyond general policies such as the provision of green space or the provision of a landscape scheme.

SUDS scheme Upton, Northamptonshire

LCC is in the process of producing an Interactive GI map which will greatly assist Neighbourhood Planners in understanding the GI context of their area and any specific site. Sample extracts of Holbeck are shown here. It will also provide specific guidance for development management regarding sites that actually fall within any of the corridors and how the policy can be applied, providing greater protection and allowing green corridors to be connected. Neighbourhood Planners will need to look beyond their boundaries to connect with neighbouring corridors.

Map 16. Strategic Green Infrastructure


A1 (M)

















GI policies to consider:







A1 (M)


• Planting new trees and hedges to be beneficial for air quality and biodiversity? • Should housing always offer both a front garden and a rear garden? • Would large front gardens begin to erode the sense of an enclosed street? • Would setting housing back from the road frontage reduce the immediate impacts of air pollution? • Perhaps consider more communal rear gardens? • Make connections to green corridors


















Leeds Boundary





Strategic Green Infrastructure (SGI) M62

Adjoining GI




SGI Opportunities Railways River / Canal

A653 M1

Motorways A Roads (c) Crown Copyright and database right 2011 Ordnance Survey LA100019567

Useful documents: xx


1. How to allocate housing sites through your Neighbourhood Plan A very important design consideration is the siting and volume of new development that will be carried forward through the planning period. This will impact on movement through the area and its appearance, density and scale. A Neighbourhood Plan is an opportunity to put forward additional sites for consideration. It should not be used as a tool to restrict development.

Things to consider: • Look at all available options, use the SHLAA (Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessment) and consider a local “call for sites” • What evidence is there of local housing need? Has a housing market and/or needs assessment been conducted? Are there enough affordable homes? • What are the opportunities for you to allocate sites? Are there brownfield sites or derelict areas which would benefit from being regenerated? • Would infill development be more beneficial to the community, or would a new extension to the settlement be more appropriate? • Can local services cope with increased demand generated by new development? • Does the development require new infrastructure? How will this be funded? • Is a number of smaller development sites desirable, or should development be contained in a larger land allocation? • What does your engagement and consultation say? • Is there a clear settlement boundary in which development should be contained, or can it be ‘rounded off’? • Assess potential sites and score them, filtering out those that are unsuitable

Concept site layout and sketch at the Coal Yard, Walton

• Use individual policies for each site and justify them through your established evidence • Consider using indicative drawings as appendices

Useful documents: xx



2. How to approach sites allocated through the Local Plan Consider the policies relating to the site and your overrarching objectives: • What has the site been allocated for? • What do the site requirements already say? Can your Neighbourhood Plan go beyond this? - you will need additional local evidence

• What is the history of the site? Should this be reflected in the new layout and buildings? • What is the topography like? Does this provide views which should be exploited or prohibit development in certain areas?

• How can your guiding principles be more site-specific? • What are you hoping to achieve through including key guiding principles? • What does your engagement and consultation say about this site? • Reflect the difference between aspirations and requirements in your policy wording: ‘should’, ‘must’, ‘consider’, ‘reflect’, etc.

Aireborough Analysis Map

• Where do paths and ‘desire lines’ (commonly used short cuts and informal paths through undeveloped land) cross the site and how do they link with the surrounding development?

KEY (to all following maps)


Copyright TheUrbanGlow July 2017


Aireborough Neighbourhood Forum Characterisation Project TheUrbanGlow Design & Heritage 2017

Master Key to Maps

Carry out a site analysis The first consideration when masterplanning should be an understanding of what can already be found on the site. ‘Site capital’ could include existing structures, boundary walls, trees, level changes, streams or paths. A thorough audit of the geography and history of the site can reveal elements that are vital for retention and fostering a sense of place. Typical questions addressed by a site analysis are:

Useful documents: xx

• What are the important physical features of the site - existing structures, trees, hedges, boundary walls?

NB: Purple Areas represent Designated Conservation Areas 45

Aireborough Neighbourhood Forum Characterisation Project TheUrbanGlow Design & Heritage 2017



Integrating new development into the existing built form is key to any masterplan, and the design should consider how connections to the existing built form will be made. Both physical and visual connections are important in helping people find their way around, making journeys more efficient, discouraging car use and increasing physical activity. Creating more than one connection from new development can encourage movement through it. It may be possible to offer numerous connections to the surrounding environment from new development, but restrict vehicular access to one point of entry. This will avoid new ‘rat-runs’ and make spaces safer for pedestrians. Building relationships and spacing Consideration of the space between buildings is important for privacy and light. The size and shape of gardens and distances to boundaries are also important design considerations, as is how parking spaces will be distributed. The standards expected from the spatial layout of new development can be found in Neighbourhoods for Living.

Density and mix of building types AND HIGH DENSITY DEVELOPMENT Varying theLOW density throughout a In general, lower density development is more development site can result in a layout suitable for rural locations where a sense that mirrors the historic settlement growth of openess is desired, while higher density development is able to maintain a tighter patterns, with more intense developmentgrain for more urban locations. found nearer intersections, radiating out to lower densities.



Development principles: Example: Cot- C Concept Statement, July 2014 Extract from Cot-C Concept Statement, Cottingham Neighbourhood Plan

A vit deve it re feat mus deve


Movement and connections Historically, development would gradually occur along channels of movement (roads, paths, waterways etc.). This could be a starting point for new residential layouts. Informal paths should be considered and incorporated into new layouts where possible.

Site char to a

Similarly, variety in housing type makes for a development that will appear more interesting and distinctive, assisting people in finding their way through it. This can be achieved when masterplanning a layout through stipulating dwelling sizes and format, for example a mix of terraced dwellings and Typical rural house: 1.5 storey detached detached dwellings. courtesy of google street view Applying a variety of housing designs, formats and materials throughout the site can also add to a sense of place, avoiding repetition and monotony. A mix of terraced dwellings and detached dwellings can also offer a mixture of size and affordability. Sites for selfbuilding could also be distributed throughout a site to enhance the diversity of architectural styles. SUB-RURAL

Including a concept masterplan in the Neighbourhood Plan is a good way of setting out expectations from developers while leaving some flexibility for building placement, style and phasing. It can indicate layout, massing (the scale and form of buildings), landscaping and density while allowing for changes to be made if needed.

Masterplanning provides a good opportunity to create spaces that prioritise non-vehicular uses and are child friendly, promoting physical activity. Creating housing and street layouts to provide natural surveillance (where windows are positioned to overlook public spaces) promotes security and social interaction. Ensuring that trees and other landscaping features are included improves air quality and ‘sense of place’.

Typical sub-rural house: 2 storey semi detached URBAN

A Concept Masterplan

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COT C (Rural)

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higher density development

lower density development

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Useful documents:

Cot C is a rural site on the edge of the village, Locality: How to work with landowners and with excellent views and developers good biodiversity.

Self-build toolkit


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Low density housing and generous plot sizes will protect these site assets.

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3. How to write character area policies for your Neighbourhood Area To integrate new developments, it is important to understand the local architectural character and incorporate some of this language into the treatment of new buildings. In this way it is possible to enhance the whole settlement and accentuate the ‘sense of place’. To help develop design guidance for prospective developers, it may be worth conducting a character appraisal of a settlement to establish vernacular architectural language, to encourage recognition and improvement of the individual quality of places. This guidance can then be referenced during the planning process, as a Neighbourhood Plan may stipulate a need for new development to demonstrate how it responds to the local character appraisal.

Many places around Leeds already have character appraisals in place that can be referred to by a Neighbourhood Plan.

Things to consider: • Collect evidence for distinctive character in the settlement (density, materials, layout, etc.) • How has development taken place over time? • Would you want new development to reflect traditional developments? • Is your neighbourhood area characterised by one distinct style? Or do you need more than one character appraisal? • Define the character areas on a map • Detail the elements of each character area carefully • Consider use of photographs as an appendix

A character appraisal may show how a settlement has developed over history, using maps to show patterns of settlement growth and the rate of settlement expansion. This can then feed into aspirations for the rate and patterns of future settlement growth. It can also provide a compendium of vernacular architectural features, and design language on which new development can draw upon for inspiration. This is beneficial for both the developer and the local community, offering a clear and precise direction for architects to follow during the planning process. Useful documents:

A character appraisal may also highlight aspects of previous development that have been unsuccessful, possibly having not been sympathetic to the history of the settlement or a sense of place. Examples of poor development in the plan may assist a potential developer to understand what the community is looking to avoid in development.



HOW Character photos - Leeds Streetscene

Scale & massing

Roof Form




Garforth Audlem



Little Preston Methley Micklefield

Rothwell 14





Guide to Using the Guide to Using the









Cottingham Vernacular


P 74 - P 81

P 82 - P 91

Rural parking

Rural Rural Rural frontages boundary street treatments furniture



Living Landscapes


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P 102- P 109




P 110- P 121

5. See reference

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Rural streets

Rural SUDs

Rural house types

Rural Rural building materials details and colour

Rural green space


P 76

P 78

Subrural streets

Subrural parking

P 80

Subrural SUDs

P 84

P 86

P 88

P 94

SubSub-rural Sub-rural rural boundary street frontages treatments furniture

Subrural house types

P 96

Subrural building details

P 98

Subrural materials and colour


P 78

Urban streets

Urban parking

P 80

Urban SUDs

P 84

P 86

P 88

P 94

Urban Urban Urban frontages boundary street treatments furniture

Urban house types

P 96

P 98

Urban Urban building materials details and colour

Rural snickets

P 104 P 106 P 108

Subrural green space


P 76

Rural green factor





The scope of a design code can vary. It can consist of broad guidance on scale, building orientation and lines, or be more prescriptive, including limitations on materials, landscaping, detailing and colour. It might recommend, for example, that for particularly sensitive developments, a building material requires approval as part of a planning condition. However, it is important to recognise that very tight constraints imposed by design codes may stifle creativity and can result in repetition of rather pastiche building types.

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Routemap 1. Locate

3. Read across

A Neighbourhood Plan can refer to a set of design principles or a ‘design code’ as part of a policy. A design code is a useful tool for ensuring quality and consistency in new development. It aims to guide the look and feel of new buildings and places and ensure that they fit into a family of styles which are distinctive.

Movement, Infrastructure and Spatial Harmony

Cottingham Routemap Cottingham

4. Note General

4. How to develop design guidance and design codes

Subrural green factor

Subrural snickets

Home Alterations


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Urban green space

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Urban green factor

Urban snickets

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Green Network



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P 104 P 106 P 108

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Useful documents: Extracts from Cottingham Neithbourhood Plan giving development principles and design guidance for Market Green


Locality: How to work with landowners and xx developers Self-build toolkit


1. Where to go for further information • PAE Guide: how to write planning policies • Locality toolkit: viability in Neighbourhood Planning • Locality: housing needs assessments at a neighbourhood level • Locality: site assessments in Neighbourhood Plans • Locality: how to work with landowners and developers • Self-build toolkit • Locality: how to prepare a character assessment • Locality: design in Neighbourhood Planning


Planningdilemmas 16thnovember2017 fullslides  
Planningdilemmas 16thnovember2017 fullslides  

Planning Dilemmas: Heritage, Conservation and Design in Neighbourhood Planning Event. Slides and documents from our event which took place o...