Page 1

LIVING ON THE EDGE Reinventing the Amphibiotic Habitat of the Mesopotamian Marshlands

1


2


3


Course Directors Studio Master Studio Tutors

Michael Weinstock George Jeronimidis Evan Greenberg Manja van de Worp Elif Erdine

Architectural Association School of Architecture Emergent Technologies and Design, 2016

4


Living on the Edge -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- Reinventing the amphibiotic habitat of the Mesopotamian Marshlands

M.Sc Candidates Georgios Berdos Sebastian Lundberg M.Arch Candidates Sally Al-Badry Cesar Cheng

5


6


7


8


ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to use this opportunity to express our gratitude to everyone who supported us throughout the course of this dissertation project. We are thankful for the constant guidance, for the often constructive criticism and for the friendly advice during the work. Moreover we are sincerely grateful to many of our fellow students for sharing their truthful views on a number of issues related to the project. We would also like to thank various people outside the AA, who provided us with their empirical knowledge on the area of research and with many research resources required to conduct the present dissertation. Finally, we must express our very profound gratitude to our families abroad for providing us with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout the last year of study and through the process of researching for and writing this dissertation. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them. Thank you.

9


10


ABSTRACT The Mesopotamian Marshlands form one of the first landscapes where people started to transform and manipulate the natural environment in order to sustain human habitation. For thousands of years people transformed natural ecosystems into agricultural fields, residential clusters and other agglomerated environments to sustain long term settlement. Moreover, the Mesopotamian Marshlands, located in one of the hottest and most arid areas on the planet, formed a unique wetlands ecosystem, which apart from millions of people, sustained a very high number of wildlife and endemic species. Several historical, political, social and climatic changes, which densely occurred during the past century, completely destroyed the unique civilisation of the area, made all the wild flora and fauna disappear and forced hundreds of thousands people to migrate. During the last decade, many efforts have been made to restore the marshlands. However, these efforts are lacking central planing, coherent goals and deep understanding of the complex current geopolitical situation, making the restoration process an extremely difficult task. This dissertation project aims at providing strategies for recovering the Mesopotamian Marshlands, organising productive functions in order to sustain the local population and design a new inhabitation model, using advanced computational tools while taking into account the extreme climatic conditions and several unique cultural aspects.

11


“Of course, it was all about Iraq’s resources” Noam Chomsky interviewed by Simon Mars December 02, 2003

12


42˚30'

40˚00'

37˚30'

50˚00'

47˚30'

45˚00'

Caspian Sea

TURKEY 37˚30'

37˚30'

MOUSIL

35˚00'

SULAYMANIYAH

SYRIA

35˚00'

is

r Tig

IRAN

Eu

ph

ra

tes

BAGHDAD KUT

32˚30'

32˚30'

JORDAN AMARA

NASRIYA

BASRAH 30˚00'

30˚00'

4000 3000 1500

KUWAIT

1000 500 300

SAUDI ARABIA

N

Persian Gulf

150 0 42˚30'

47˚30'

40˚00'

27˚30'

45˚00'

37˚30'

27˚30'

13


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0.0 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0.1 BACKGROUND

0.1.1 THE URBAN QUESTION..............................................................................................................................................................................20 0.1.2 WHERE DID THE OYSTERS COME FROM MR.K?........................................................................................................................... 22 0.1.3 TOTAL URBANISATION............................................................................................................................................................................. 24 0.1.4 IN-BETWEEN STATES..................................................................................................................................................................................28

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.0 Domain ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1 WETLANDS

1.1.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF WETLANDS...................................................................................................................................................... 34 1.1.2 INHABITING WETLANDS......................................................................................................................................................................... 36 1.1.3 THE WETLANDS OF MESOPOTAMIA.................................................................................................................................................. 38 1.1.4 WETLANDS AS INFRASTRUCTURE.......................................................................................................................................................40 1.1.5 WETLAND FUNCTIONS............................................................................................................................................................................. 44

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2 CASE STUDIES

1.2.1 WETLANDS -INHABITING SEMI-AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS 1. CONTINENTAL ARTIFICIAL ISLAND CONFIGURATIONS............................................................................................. 50 2. THE FLOATING ISLANDS OF UROS IN LAGO TITICACA............................................................................................... 52 3. THE CHINAMPAS.............................................................................................................................................................................. 54 1.2.2 CONNECTIVITY. - NETWORKS, DISTRIBUTED SETTLEMENT PATTERNS 1.  ARCHIPELAGOS................................................................................................................................................................................. 56 2. CYCLADES ARCHIPELAGO........................................................................................................................................................... 58 3. RUHR VALLEY CONURBATION.................................................................................................................................................. 60 1.2.3 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY 1. KALUNDBORG ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK............................................................................................................................... 64 2. THE SAHARA FOREST PROJECT................................................................................................................................................ 66 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3 REGIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

1.3.1 POPULATION, HYDROLOGY AND MOBILITY.................................................................................................................................. 72

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4 CLIMATE AND LAND PRODUCTIVITY

1.4.1 CLIMATE............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 78 1.4.2 ECONOMIC ACTIVITY.................................................................................................................................................................................. 82

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5 TRANSFORMATION OF THE MARSHES

1.5.1 EVOLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES OF THE  MESOPOTAMIAN MARSHLANDS...................................................................................................................................................................... 94

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6 SITE CHARACTERISTICS

1.6.1 WATER SCARCITY....................................................................................................................................................................................... 104 1.6.2 WATER SALINITY....................................................................................................................................................................................... 108

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.7 TYPOLOGIES

1.7.1 LOCAL TYPOLOGIES................................................................................................................................................................................. 114 1.7.2 BIO-GAS SYSTEM....................................................................................................................................................................................... 118

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.8 AMBITION....................................................................................................................................................................................................122 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

14


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.0 Methods ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1 METHODS

2.1.1 DESIGN PROCESS OVERVIEW.............................................................................................................................................................. 128 2.1.2 AGENT-BASED MODELING AND SIMULATION...........................................................................................................................130 2.1.3 GENETIC ALGORITHMS.......................................................................................................................................................................... 132 2.1.4 URBAN NETWORK ANALYSIS............................................................................................................................................................. 134

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.0 Site

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1 SELECTED SITE

3.1.1 REGION OF INTERVENTION................................................................................................................................................................. 140 3.1.2 LOCAL LAND USE...................................................................................................................................................................................... 144 3.1.3 CURRENT INHABITATION..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 3.1.4 DEFINED SITE.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 150

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2 SITE STRATEGY

3.2.1 GENERAL STRATEGY................................................................................................................................................................................ 154 3.2.2 FLOW OF ENERGY AND MATTER....................................................................................................................................................... 156 3.2.3 MARSH RECOVERY STRATEGY............................................................................................................................................................ 158 3.2.4 LOCAL INHABITATION AND CONSUMPTION............................................................................................................................... 164 3.2.5 LAND DISTRIBUTION................................................................................................................................................................................ 168

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.0 Design Strategy ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1 PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION

4.1.1 DISTRIBUTION OF FUNCTIONS.......................................................................................................................................................... 174 4.1.2 RESERVOIRS VS WETLANDS................................................................................................................................................................ 176 4.1.3 SYNERGIES.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 178

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2 NETWORKS

4.2.1 NETWORK STRATEGIES.......................................................................................................................................................................... 186 4.2.2 GENERATION OF BASE NETWORK................................................................................................................................................... 188 4.2.3 GENERATION OF INTEGRATED NETWORK................................................................................................................................... 198 4.2.4 EMERGENT PATHS...................................................................................................................................................................................... 204 4.2.5 DISTRIBUTION PATH EVALUATION................................................................................................................................................... 206 4.2.6 SITE NETWORK AND PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION........................................................................................................................ 208

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.0 Design Proposal ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1 DESIGN PROPOSAL

5.1.1 DESIGN OUTCOME.................................................................................................................................................................................... 220 5.1.2 PLAN................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 222 5.1.3 INFRASTRUCTURE AS ARCHITECTURE...........................................................................................................................................234 5.1.4 LOGISTICS LANDSCAPES....................................................................................................................................................................... 242 5.1.5 TYPOLOGIES................................................................................................................................................................................................. 244

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.0 Conclusions

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1 CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 253 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

15


16


0.0 Introduction

17


18


0.1 Background

19


0.1.1 The Urban Question

Castells, M. (1977). The urban question. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

20

In order to situate this work within the context of urbanisation, it is important to examine a basic and fundamental question that is often taken for granted. What is urbanisation? And what defines the urban condition? This question has been long interrogated both in the design professions and in urban studies. The urban question (La Question Urbaine), was put forward by Manuel Castells in 1972. In his book, Castells elucidates the relativity of the term “urban”, showing the difficulties in defining the urban in statistical spatial units. The indicators and thresholds used to define urban areas vary greatly from country to country and are likely to be specific to individual societies. In this sense, defining the urban condition in terms of population growth is inaccurate and inadequate. One nation may measure and define a threshold of 2500 inhabitants as the criterion to define and urban district, while another nation may take 10.000 inhabitants as its criterion. A clear example of this is the Rhur-Rhine conurbation in Germany,

taken as a whole the Rhur-Rhine district would be the largest city in Germany and one of the first largest cities in Europe both in terms of population and Gross Metropolitan Product. However, the Rhur-Rhine area has no administrative centre and is therefore a conglomerate of many midsize cities and towns organised in a loose condition between agro-industrial land and urban concentrations. Therefore, according to Castells, “the urban/rural dichotomy loses all meaning, for one might equally well distinguish between urban and metropolitan.”(castells 11). While this has been an important question which continues to be subject of debate in urban studies, the fields of urban-design and architecture until very recently paid little attention to this fundamental question forgetting a rich history of architectural theory that understood the intricate dependence between cities and the countryside as inseparable from each other.


Cairo

Riyadh Baghdad Jerusalem Basrah Isfahan Kuwait

21


0.1.2 Where Did The Oysters Come From, Mr. K?

A few years after Castells published his book, architect Rem Koolhaas published Delirious New York (1978), perhaps one of the most influential books of the time, a book that all architecture students have enjoyed reading. As the author describes the tale of the ninth floor, or, in his own words, the story of the 20th century, where two naked men eat oysters with boxing gloves in a locker room of the New York Athletic Club over a view of the Hudson River. Koolhaas describes the stage where the play is taking place; Delirious New York renders an intoxicated celebration of the city, the metropolitan condition, manhattanism, the culture of congestion, the Empire State having sex with Chrysler building. However he forgets to tell us about what happens in the backstage, in the dark service corridors, in the back of house. There is a whole world that the metropolitanites do not see; the back of house that makes all activity that takes place in cities possible. The steel and concrete that make up the slab of the Athletic Club on which these men stand, the electric energy that powers the Otis elevator that brings up the fresh harvested oysters that will later lead

22

to the act of sex. Koolhaas forgets to tell us about the other side of story; a story that is perhaps more frenetic and intense than that of the metropolis, the story of how the oysters made their way up to the ninth floor. The story of the metropolis is only half the story of urbanisation. For many years urbanisation has been almost uniquely associated with one type of settlement; the city. The city as the ultimate form of urbanisation has become the focus of discussion. Recent work in urban design and urban studies as well as in popular media outlets constantly make reference to the UN proclamation that says that by year 2050, 75% of the world population will live in cities. While it is true that there is major population growth and increase of concentration in cities, the more important question to be examined is how the activity that takes place in these cities is going to be sustained. This, translates into two basic questions, what are the resource requirements of future urbanisation? and where are these resources going to come from?


23


0.1.3 Total Urbanisation

Lyster, C. (n.d.). Learning from logistics.page 35

24

To speak of self-sufficient or sustainable cities is a naive supposition. To look at the city in isolation or as a self-contained unit is inadequate. After all, the very notion of city is a changing category. Cities and the definition of what a city is will always be under construction. The city, in a way, is defined and bounded by the non-city. Cities are dependent and intricately linked to that that is not the city. The process that bonds the city and the noncity is urbanisation; a widespread and totalising condition that has taken over the entire surface of the earth. The notion of complete urbanisation was first put forward by French sociologist Henri Lefebvre in the 60s, in his writings about the mesh condition, a term that illustrates the explosion of urban areas beyond their boundaries absorbing territories and extending its borders across rural and agricultural land. Geographer Jean Gottman suggested a similar categorisation of the urban condition and coined the term megalopolis to describe the uninterrupted urban corridor along the northeast coast of North America, a territory that expands from Boston to Washington DC and developed into a continues urban region. Around

the same time Greek planner and architect Constatinos Doxiades, predicted a city that would expand to a continental scale as a continuous urbanised zone which he called the Eperopolis. “Doxiades estimated that by year 2000 twelve Eperopolises would exist around the world comprising fifty to fifty five megalopolises, the largest of which would have a population of 250 to 300 million people� ( page 35 Lyster). The constant reshaping of the definition of city is evidence of the very unstable but at the same time widespread effects of urbanisation. More recently, urban sociologist Neil Brener, in his research work at the Urban Theory Lab at the Harvard GSD, has revived and advanced this conversation of planetary urbanisation. Brener distinguishes between two interrelated but distinct landscapes that compose urbanisation. Rather than producing a homogeneous condition across the landscape, urbanisation produces patterns of uneven and asymmetrical development. On the one hand, the broader urban landscape is composed of landscapes of agglomeration. These are built-up core areas where infrastructure and population


25


concentrate allowing activities that benefit from close proximity to exist. Agglomeration is beneficial for certain types of social and economic activities such as the service and retail industries. Concentration provides access to labour markets, information exchange and human capital. On the other hand, there is another set of activities that does not benefit from agglomeration. Activities that belong to the primary sectors of the economy, such as agriculture and resource extraction are land intensive and geographically bound to specific sites. These geographies are described as operational landscapes. Brener describes the structure of urbanisation and the patterns of human occupation of the planet as the relation between agglomeration landscapes and operational landscapes. Urbanisation is a much broader condition that cannot and should not be limited to the study of the city. The scope of action of the architect and those involved in urban design has been restricted by an incomplete categorisation of urbanism

26

and the city. This project aims at presenting a more comprehensive view of urbanisation that addresses the transformations that are happening to the countryside. At the same time, this work attempts to revive and revisit the work of those architects who recognised the intricate connections between the city and the country side. An important reference is the work of Claude Nicolas Ledeux whose famous Salt Works of Lorraine (Fig.1) orchestrate an architectural vision of industrial activities and infrastructure. The work of Ebenezer Howard which integrates social, industrial and natural processes within one scheme; the Garden City. Similarly, Frank Lloyd Wright’s visionary drawings for Broadacre City (Fig.2) which suggest the coexistence of advanced technology and architecture framed within an ecological setting. The work of this architects and their interest in challenging the notion of the city becomes relevant in a time where the greatest geospatial transformations are happening in the countryside not in cities.


Fig.1

Fig.2

27


0.1.4 In-Between States

Castells, M. (1977). The urban question. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press

28

Historically human civilisation developed with some connection to natural resources. It is no coincidence that human society developed next to a spring, a river or close to a waterway. It is no coincidence that the great ancient civilisations developed along the Nile River and between the Tigris and Euphrates, where rich silts and fertile soils facilitated agriculture. At the same time technological development occurred as a need to transport and process resources. The Egyptians and Sumerians developed boats made out of reeds in order to take advantage of the river not only as source of food but as infrastructure and transportation arteries that would start to define the logistical frameworks of advanced forms of civilisation. With this in place, the combination of technological development, social organisation and natural advantage allowed cultivators to produce more than they needed to subsist, which lead to a system of labour division and product distribution. “The cities were the residential form adopted by those members of society whose direct presence at the places of agriculture was not necessary. That is to say, these cities could exist only in the basis of the surplus produced by working the land.�(castells) For more than 5000 years the land of Mesopotamia has continually been transformed making it one of the most highly engineered environments to be found on earth. It was here were humans began to transform ecosystems into pastures, agricultural land and other engineered

environments in support of long term settlements. In this sense, the land of Mesopotamia is intricately linked to the history of urbanisation and city development. In an era of intense urbanisation it is important to examine the relationship between urban centres where activity concentrates and the productive landscapes that make this activity possible. In this regard, this project investigates urbanisation from the perspective of its operational and logistical processes. These processes happen in a space of transition. A space that exist between people and resources. A space between the city and the wild-lands. A space between natural and built environments. The land of Mesopotamia has always been defined by this condition. Etymologically, Mesopotamia refers to the land between two rivers, a space between land and water. Mesopotamia exists in a transitional space, where ecological systems meet human systems. This work presents a new model for human habitation that integrates agro-industrial activity with social functions framed within an ecological setting. Urbanisation is a condition that extends far beyond cities and new forms of settlement are yet to be explored. This work aims at suggesting the possibility of a new form of settlement to reinhabit the marshlands of Mesopotamia and seeks to reevaluate the role of ecology, infrastructure and architecture in shaping the countryside.


URBANIZATION

WILDLANDS

SEMINATURAL ANTHROMES RANGELANDS

CROPLANDS

USED ANTHROMES VILLAGES

DENSE SETTLEMENTS

SUN

WATER

ECOLOGIC LANDSCAPES

OPERATIONAL LANDSCAPES

NATURAL RESOURCES

EXTRACTION & PROCESSING

ECONOMIC LANDSCAPES CONSUMPTION & DISPOSAL

29


30


1.0 Domain

31


32


1.1 Wetlands

33


1.1 Wetlands.

1.1.1 The Importance of Wetlands

The Economic Value of Wetlands. , WWF, Gland/Amsterdam, January 2004.

Wetlands are the meeting point between terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. A wetland can be defined as an area of land that is completely saturated with water throughout the year or partially covered with water periodically. As such, they are transitional zones, which provide unique habitats that sustain a vast number of plant communities and a wide range of animal life. In this sense, they are one of the most biologically diverse ecosystems to be found in nature. The ecological functions of a wetland and the values of these functions to humans shouldn’t be underestimated. Instead of being isolated and inaccessible environments, wetlands are vital to the health of other biomes and to many forms of animal and human life. Wetlands are ecosystems that can generate numerous products and services that have economic value, not only to local populations living close to these environments but also to other communities living outside the wetland area.

Unep.org. (2016). More than a Billion People Depend on Wetlands for Livelihoods, Says Ramsar Convention Secretariat on World Wetlands Day - UNEP. [online] Available at: http:// www.unep.org/newscentre/ Default.aspx?DocumentID=26862&ArticleID=35883 [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016].

34

Wetland products range from basic food staples, such as fish and rice for human consumption, to steams and leaves for weaving, timber or reeds for construction material and fodder for various animals. Additionally, wetlands provide important ecological services that benefit humans and wildlife. Wetlands filter, clean, control and store water. Acting like a sponge, wetlands help reduce damage caused by floods by collecting excess

water and regulating the level of rivers. During periods of drought, wetlands recharge groundwater supplies and control stream-flow by providing water to streams. Through various mechanisms, wetlands filter and purify water as it flows through the wetland system. Furthermore, plants that grow in wetlands help control water erosion by regulating the flow of water and sediments transport. All of these ecological services help create more robust and resilient environments to protect communities from natural hazards and the effects of climate change by storing huge amounts of carbon and prevent it from entering the atmosphere. A report from the UNEP estimates that more than a billion people around the world depend directly on wetlands for making their living, in activities that include fishing, rice farming and hand-made crafts. Furthermore, wetlands provide recreational opportunities for travel and ecoturism. Despite the great benefit that wetlands represent to sustain life in the planet, around 64 per cent of the world’s wetlands have disappeared or have been endangered since 1900; many of these ecosystems are suffering from irresponsible agricultural practices or have been transformed or altered for urban development, putting plant and wildlife at risk. The fast decline of coastal, marine and inland wetlands is estimated to be approximately 40 per cent in just over 40 years and this decline is continuing at an accelerated rate of 1.5 per cent annually.


DISTRIBUTION OF WETLANDS FIG.1 World distribution of wetlands. Source: US dep. of agriculture.

Upland Lowland Organic Salt affected Permafrost affected Inland water bodies No Wetlands (or too small to display)

35


1.1 Wetlands.

1.1.2 Inhabiting Wetlands

Unep.org. (2016). More than a Billion People Depend on Wetlands for Livelihoods, Says Ramsar Convention Secretariat on World Wetlands Day - UNEP. [online] Available at: http:// www.unep.org/newscentre/ Default.aspx?DocumentID=26862&ArticleID=35883 [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016].

The urbanisation of the world has come at the cost of environmental degradation and loss of natural habitats. Cities have become the most prominent form of human settlement creating a divide between production and consumption of natural resources. Far from being self-sufficient entities, cities are strongly dependent on the extraction of resources that most of the times lie outside its boundaries and form a different type of landscape. Cities are the focal point of human activity while productive landscapes are the support mechanism for human activity. In this regard, it is critical to rethink the relationship between patterns of human occupation and utilisation of natural resources. In search of new models of human habitation, wetlands offer a fertile ground for investigating the relationship between human settlements and natural resources. Throughout time the development of human settlement has been tightly linked to a productive relationship between land and water.

36

Early forms of human settlement originated in close proximity to river ways, coastal lines and water basins. It is no coincidence that ancient civilisations appeared next to major rivers. First, Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates, then Egypt along the Nile river and later other civilisations also emerged along the Yellow river in modern day China. It is precisely in this transitional zone between land and water, where humans first began to transform native ecosystems into agricultural fields, pastures and other engineered environments in support of long term settlement. By doing this, humans triggered a process of unprecedented population growth, societal development and planetary transformation. In this sense, the land of Mesopotamia can be thought of as the first productive landscape, where extensive tracts of land were transformed to serve human occupation.


37


1.1 Wetlands.

1.1.3 The Wetlands of Mesopotamia

The wetlands of Mesopotamia continue to be an area of inmense importance for investigating alternative models of human occupation. While the history of human settlement concentrates on the evolution of the city from small town to large metropolis, there are other examples of patterns of occupation that offer an alternative models for human settlement in which the relationship between human and natural environments are integrated more productively.

S. Alwash, Eden Again: Hope in the Marshes of Iraq

38

Up until the 1970’s, it was estimated that a population that ranged between 300,000 to 500,000 people, who called themselves “the marsh arabs�, lived in the surrounding areas of the Mesopotamian wetlands. Most of them were farmers whose lives depended on the natural resources of the marsh for rice production, raising livestock and fishig. A fraction of them, a population estimated to be between 50,000 to 100,000, were marsh dwellers who lived within the marsh area and owed their entire existence to the marsh ecology. The marsh dwellers constructed a human habitat intricatelly linked to the wetlands blurring the line between human-

made and natural environments. This model of human settlement is not unique to Messopotamia. Other examples of wetland occupation can be found today in different regions of the world such as the wetlands of Lake Titikaka in Peru or the wetlands of Sudd in South Suddan. Little attetnion has been directed to more integrated models of human settlement in wetlands and much can be learnt from these existing communities. Apart from the rich biodiversity that wetlands have to offer, there are significant climatic advantages that promote ideal conditions for life to take place in them. Particularly in regions with high summer temperatures such as Iraq, wetlands can have a possitive effect on the climate of a region by providing natural cooling. Wetlands are special in their microclimate because they display climatic properties of both, terrestrial and water systems. Due to surface evaporation and plant transpiration, the degree of humidity of wetlands can have significant impacts on the climate of the region. The precense of water and vegetation make the wetland operate as cooling device for the area covered.


39


1.1 Wetlands.

1.1.4 Wetlands as Infrastructure

With the exeption of a few historical examples, the importance of wetlands has only recently come to the forefront with various initiatives around the world aiming at recovering, reclaiming or constructing wetlands in support of human settlements. Many cities around the world are starting to recognize the advantages that exist in integrating wetland ecologies within urban settings. Seen as “ecological infrastructure�, wetlands have the capacity to provide infrastructural support to human habitats by regulating flows of air and water, remediating polluted sites and providing resources from its rich biodiverse environment. An early examples of ecological infrastructure can be traced back to the work of Frederick Law Olmsted in the mid-19th century. In one of his most representative projects, the Emerald Necklce, Olmsted created a 4.5-kilometer chain of parks along the Boston Peninsula in Massachusetts. His design approach was grounded on the integration of engineering and ecological systems in support of human activities. The Emerald Necklace

Opposite page: Red Ribbon Park. Turenscape. Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China. 2007

40

integrates various land features including wetlands to serve functions of recreation, transportation, storm drainage, flood control, and waste water management. An essential part of the project was to solve a drainage problem resulting from water stagnation and poor sewage control which were causing health concerns for the city of Boston. To solve these problems, Olmstead proposed the construction of a tidal marsh suggesting a way in which wetlands could be used as infrastructural frameworks for urban development. In recent years, a renewed interest in the role of wetlands as support infrastructure has emerged on number of projects, mostly in North America but increasingly around the world. Two cities in particular, New York and Toronto, have been the testing ground for projects involving the trasnformation of post-industrial sites into landscape projects that aim at reclaiming land for parks and wetlands to serve as infrastructural elements within the city.


41


1.1 Wetlands.

Opposite page: Fresh Kills Park. James Corner. New York 2012

In Toronto, international competitions such as “Downview Park” and “The Lower Don Lands”, called to reimagine the future of large territorial underutilised brownfields and former industrial portlands. In New York, the competition for Fresh Kills landfill and various developments along the costline of New York city such as Battery Park and Brooklyn Bridge Park, involved the provision of constructred wetlands in former industrial sites to provide necesary infrastructure to protect the city from flooding. These competitions have brought attention to the potential use of constructed wetlands as critical elements that promote alternative models for urbanism. Outside of North America, other cities are also investing in similar projects. On the

42

oposite end of the world, the chinese landscape practice Turenscape has built a portfolio with multiple projects involving the construction or recovery of wetlands as critical infrastructure in the service of human habitats. The increasing interest in introducing wetlands to cities proves the many benefits that these ecosystems have to offer in supporting human settlements. From Olmstead’s work in the mid19th century which stands today as a successful example of ecological infrastructure, to recently completled projects like Brooklyn Bridge Park which has attracted new development to its surroundings, are evidence and suggest the latentpossibility of inhabiting wetlands.


43


1.1 Wetlands.

1.1.5 Wetland Functions

Natural wetlands perform various functions that are beneficial to both humans and wildlife. Natural wetland systems have often been extolled for their capability to filter pollutants from water that flows through on its way to receiving lakes, streams and oceans. As the water flows through a wetland, it slows down and many of the suspended solids get trapped by vegetation and settle out. Other pollutants are transformed to less soluble forms taken up by plants or become inactive. Wetland plants also foster the necessary conditions for various microorganisms to live and reproduce there. Through a series of complex chemical processes, these microorganisms also transform and remove pollutants from the water. Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, are deposited into wetlands from storm water runoff, from areas where fertilisers or manure have been applied and from leaking septic fields. These

44

excess nutrients can be absorbed by wetland soils and taken up by plants and microorganisms. For instance, wetland microbes can convert organic nitrogen into usable, inorganic forms (NO3 and NH4 ) that are necessary for plant growth and into gasses that escape to the atmosphere. Controlled wetlands, as it is already mentioned, have started to appear as part of the urban infrastructure for existing or emerging cities around the globe. The ability of these systems to improve water quality makes engineers, architects and other scientists to collaborate in order to construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are “living� treatment systems that use natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soils and their associated microbial assemblages to improve water quality, prevent destructive water floods and provide a fertile terrain for social interaction.


45


1.1 Wetlands. 300mm minimum FISH FARMS

1m minimum

precipitation and water settling

aeriation and bio-purification

water intake and screening

water intake

precipitation and screening and water settling

subsurface filtration

heavy metal removal and bio-purification

water intake and screening

nutrient removal

precipitation and water settling

aeriation and biological purification

terraces for aeriation and bio-purification

water quality stabilisation and control

nutrient removal subsurface filtration

sand filter for final polishing

aeriation heavy metal nutrient removal removal and biological andpurification bio-purification

clean water impoundment

terraces for aeriation precipitation and bio-purification

water qualitypathogen stabilisation removal aeriation and water settling and control and bio-purification and biological purification

subsurface terraces filtration

sand filter

for aeriation for final polishing water quality stabilisation and bio-purification and control

heavy metal removal and bio-purification

46

clean water impoundment

subsurface filtration

sand filter for final polishing

heavy metal removal and bio-purification

clean water impoundment

pathogen removal and bio-purification

pathogen removal and bio-purification


300mm minimum RESIDENTIAL ISLANDS

THE WATER CLEANING MECHANISM OF A TYPICAL “CONTROLLED” WETLAND pathogen removal and bio-purification

nutrient removal water quality stabilisation

water intake and screening

nutrient removal

precipitation and water settling

aeriation and biological purification

terraces for aeriation and bio-purification

water quality stabilisation and control

ater intake nd screening

nutrient removal subsurface filtration

sand filter for final polishing

recipitation nd water settling

aeriation heavy metal removal and biological andpurification bio-purification

clean water impoundment

erraces for aeriation nd bio-purification

water qualitypathogen stabilisation removal and control and bio-purification

ubsurface filtration

sand filter for final polishing

eavy metal removal nd bio-purification

clean water impoundment

athogen removal nd bio-purification

clean water

47


48


1.2 Case Studies

49


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.1 Wetlands -Inhabiting Semi-Aquatic Environments 1. Continental¹ artificial island configurations The artificial inhabitable floating islands of Uros in Lake Titicaca and the artificial islands used by the Aztecs to grow crops on the shallow lake-beds of the Valley of Mexico are two of the cases that have been studied. 1In his short essay “L’île déserte” (Desert islands), Gilles Deleuze segregates islands into oceanic and continental. The oceanic are “originary, essential islands”. The oceanic islands are isolated, geographically and topologically. Therefore they need to contain “everything”. The continental islands are “accidental” and “born out of fracture”. The continental islands are linked to each other and to the context that exists around them. They are acting as nodes within a network.

50

These case studies examine the inhabitation of wetlands from different perspectives. The Uros floating islands emerged as a defensive response of the Uros people to the often attacks of the neighboring populations. The Chinampa islands created a very efficient and adapted to the local environmental parameters agricultural system,

which contributed to the prosperity and growth of the Aztec population before the colonisation of Central America. Many climatic, historical and cultural parameters differ significantly between those two examples of artificial islands and the islands found in the Mesopotamian marshlands. Nevertheless, their informal design and fabrication processes, which harness their proximity to marshes, the unique climatic conditions and the locally sourced materials, include interesting design principles that could be extracted and compared with the respective processes found in the Iraqi marshlands.


51


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.1 Wetlands -Inhabiting Semi-Aquatic Environments 2. The floating islands of Uros in Lago Titicaca² The artificial floating islands of the Uros people can be found in lake Titicaca, about 3 miles east of the port town of Puno in Peru. Their basic construction material is the totora reed, a floating type of reed that can be found in abundance on the shallows of the lake. The Uros islands in lake Titicaca were originally constructed for defensive purposes and they could be moved if a threat arose. The islands contained mainly houses, providing the main terrestrial means of inhabitation; semi-stable ground and some of them also contain watchtowers largely constructed of reeds. Each island usually hosts about five families, the large islands can host up to ten and the small ones, which are about 30m wide, host two to three families. To construct their islands, the Uro people harvest the soil root base of the totora reeds, which can float due to the air trapped between the roots and the sloppy soil. They cut these root-soil blocks

52

into rectangular pieces with their size varying from 2m to 3m per side, which they lash together using large stakes in order to compose the base of the floating island. This first layer of the island acts as floating foundation and is normally 1m to 2m thick. This first layer is either anchored to the bottom of the lake or connected to another neighbouring island. The second layer is made out of cut totora reeds and is also about 1 meter deep. This layer creates a spongy and mostly dry surface with a lot of spring that exceeds the lake’s water level. Over time the reeds in touch with the water rot, while those out of the water deteriorate because of their exposure to the sun. The Uro people have to continually add new reeds (every 1-3 months depending on the season), replacing the decaying ones, in order to ensure the island’s floatability. If an island is well preserved, it can last for 15-20 years before they will need to construct a new one.


fresh/brakish water irrigation ditches decaying vegetation lake sediment mud lake’s bottom level

plinth made of totora reeds, ensures that the houses remain dry dry totora reeds, 1m thick

blocks of totora reeds roots and loose soil - oating foundation, 1m-2m thick

anchoring to the bottom of the lake

Located between Peru and Bolivia, lake Titicaca is the highest navigable lake of the world (3,812 meters) and the largest lake in South America in volume (893 km3).

53


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.1 Wetlands -Inhabiting Semi-Aquatic Environments 3. The Chinampas The Chinampas are artificial islands that the Aztecs created by building up soil extensions into the shallow areas of lakes and wetlands. Chinampas were commonly used in pre-colonial Central America and especially in the Valley of Mexico. Before 1519, when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in Mexico for the first time, 5 to 6 million people inhabited the Aztec empire. Therefore, the Aztecs had to intensify the agricultural production by exploiting efficiently the land available. Consequently, they developed the Chinampas, which maximized the productivity of the available land giving up to 7 harvests per year. The Aztecs were cultivating various crops on the Chinampas including tomatoes, peppers, beans maize and flowers. The exact dimensions of Chinampas are not known, since they were abandoned and not in use for the past five centuries. However, most scholars agree that Chinampas were linear, organized between a system of canals where canoe could fit to transfer people and goods and their dimensions

54

were varying according to their geographical location (roughly 2.5m*30m, 4.5m*90m, 9m*90m). The first step of the Chinampas’ construction process was the positioning of wooden stakes that defined the outline of the structure. The stakes were weaved using wattles and a rectangular fence was created. Then the fenced enclosure would be filled with layers of mud, lake sediment and finally decaying vegetation, until the level of the Chinampa plot is above the lake’s level. To ensure the stability of the plot, trees (usually willows or cypresses) were planted along the perimeter and acted as anchors while reducing the effects of soil erosion due to their dense root system. Furthermore, the Chinampa beds had ditches that allowed the plants to have constant access to the lake’s water and grow independently of rainfall or artificial irrigation. The Chinampas were always separated with canals, which were wide enough to allow for canoe movement and transportation.


willow/cypress trees

wattles (fenching)

fresh/brakish water irrigation ditches decaying vegetation lake sediment mud lake’s bottom level

plinth made of totora reeds, ensures that the houses remain dry dry totora reeds, 1m thick

blocks of totora reeds roots and loose soil - oating foundation, 1m-2m thick

anchoring to the bottom of the lake

The Chinampas are a type of Mesoamerican agriculture which uses rectangular areas of arable land to grow crops in the shallow lake beds of the Mexican valley.

55


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.2 Connectivity -Networks, Distributed Settlement Patterns 1. Archipelagos

Some of the most iconic and celebrated examples of the use of archipelago as an architectural metaphor are included in the work of OMA from the seventies and the eighties. More specifically “The City of the Captive Globe” project (1972) by R. Koolhaas and M. Vriesendorp, “The City Within the City – Berlin as a Green Archipelago” (1977) by R. Koolhaas and O.M. Ungers, and OMA’s proposal for “Melun Senart” are representing sophisticated archipelago models designed for different social and environmental context

56

The island is a piece of land surrounded by water. In more abstract terms island is any object placed inside the endless extension of a uniform element. It is a remote landmark inside a homogenous scenery, creating the sense of place, distance and scale through an elemental differentiation. Archipelago is the term used to describe a natural distinctive cluster of islands. Archipelagos have been remarkably suitable places for the emergence and development of civilizations. The notion of archipelago has been introduced into the architectural discourse almost half a century ago, being a compelling metaphor

that describes a set of isolated yet interconnected nodes within a network. The natural geographic model is being borrowed to describe how autonomous parts (of a city or other manmade constellations) are organised in and operating as a united organism. In that sense we studied two different cases of archipelagos; one being literal and the other metaphorical. The Archipelago of Cyclades in the Aegean Sea and the Ruhr valley conurbation in West Germany.


Strategy

TRUCTURE DISTRIBUTED NETWORK DE-CENTRALIZED NETWORK S CENTRALIZED NETWORK CENTRALIZED DISTRIBUT

STRUCTURE

Centralized

Decentralized

Distributed

DE-CENTRALIZED NETWORK CENTRALIZED NETWORK

C

57


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.2 Connectivity -Networks, Distributed Settlement Patterns 2. The Cycladic Archipelago The Cyclades The word archipelago comes from the Latin “archipelagus” (derived from ancient Greek ἄρχι - chief and πέλαγος – sea), initially used by the Latin as the name of the Aegean Sea. The most distinctive Archipelago example in the Aegean Sea is the island group of Cyclades. The name Cyclades was used since the ancient times to refer to the islands surrounding (Κυκλάδες from the ancient Greek κύκλος meaning circle) the sacred island of Delos. Distributed Population The Petropolis of tomorrow, p90, White Mason, Archipelago from metaphor to geography

Hellenic Statistical Authority

Cyclades is an island group containing 220 islands, 33 out of which are the major ones. Most of the major islands are inhabited or have been populated at some point of their history. The total permanent population is estimated to be around 125,000 inhabitants. This number presents a significant seasonal fluctuation, due to the large amount of tourists (several millions) that visit the islands during the summer. The capital of Cyclades is in the island of Syros; Ermoupoli with 11,407 inhabitants while the biggest settlement and the most populated island is Naxos with 21,143 inhabitants. Geography and Natural resources The total area of Cyclades is 2,572km2. Most of the 220 islands that are included in the archipelago are unoccupied with the population density being 46 inhabitants per km2. Since antiquity the Cycladic islands were trading

58

various goods between them, being part of an important autonomous yet interconnected network in ancient Greece. Although nowadays the influx of merchandise produced outside the islands is increased, the exchange of resources is still an integral aspect that keeps the islands economically sustainable. For instance Naxos is the mainly an agricultural island, Milos and Serifos contain important mining sites, Santorini produces unique varieties of wines, many shipowners are descendent from Andros, Syros is the political and cultural center while all of the islands having tourism as their main industry during the summer months. Transportation - Connectivity Corresponding to its ancient archipelagic condition, each island has a very distinctive position-identity within the broader island network. In aggregate, the Cycladic Archipelago seems to possess all of the traits of human inhabitation compartmentalized into distinct parts, yet each island remains entirely dependent on one another. There is very little redundancy or programmatic repetition within the collective. The connections between the islands are very dense during the summer months to support the large “floating” number of visitors. During the rest of the year the sea connections are less frequent with the major islands remaining better integrated within the network. There is a hierarchical gradient in the sea-connections frequency, following each island’s role within the network. The major islands remain connected with the mainland throughout the year while the rest of the islands ferry routes are regulated according to the seasonal traffic.


Andros Gauvrio

Kea

Tinos

Ioulis

Mykonos Kythnos Ermoupoli

Syros Naxos

Paros

Serifos

Donousa

Naoussa

Sifnos Kou fonisi

Antiparos

Iraklia

Kimolos Adamas

Milos

Amorgos

Ios Folegandros

Sikinos Oia

Santorini

Thira

Resource Extraction Agriculture AnaďŹ

Tourism Capital Primary Ship Route Secodnary Ship Route

59


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.2 Connectivity -Networks, Distributed Settlement Patterns 3. Rhine-Ruhr Valley Conurbation Polycentric Urban Region The concept of the “archipelago” can be extended to other forms of spatial order. A group of distinct, yet interdependent, cities scattered on a region may act collectively as a coherent whole and be tied together on a functional level. A region comprising a number of individual cities that exist in close proximity to each other may form a conurbation, which through shared population, physical expansion and economic dependency, form a continuous development. In most cases these are dispersed agglomerations and polycentric in nature with no one city holding more importance than the others. Examples of this type of regional configurations are the Ruhr valley in Germany, the Randstadt region in the Netherlands and the West Midlands in England. The archipelagic urban configuration of the Ruhr Valley illustrates the case of an alternative model to mono-centric urbanisation. An argument can be made that compared to typical monocentric metropolitan areas such as New York, London or Paris; polycentric urban regions may be as

60

competitive by integrating multiple centers into one functional larger territory. This type of urban configuration offers the advantages of both collective and individual behaviour. Similar to the way islands interact within an archipelago, smaller city units are able specialize and compete with each other while at the same time collaborate and form strong alliances to collectively operate as a larger whole. Distributed Population A combined population of about 13,4 million makes the Ruhr the largest metropolitan area of Germany and the third largest urban agglomeration in western Europe only falling behind London and Paris in population size. Geographically dispersed, the Ruhr has no central administrative center, there are 5 major cities (Essen, Dortmund, Dusseldorf, Koln and Duisburg) ranging between 500.000 – 1 million inhabitants and 10 cities with populations between 100.000 – 500.000 inhabitants among other smaller towns spread across an area of 7,110 square kilometers.


Lippe Hamm Wesel Reckilnghausen Emscher

Dinslanken Gelsenkirchen

Dortmund

Bochum

Hörde

Oberhausen Essen Duisburg

Witten

Mülheim

Wetter

Hattingen Duisburg

Rhine

Sprockhövel

Ruhr

Barmen Elberfeld Düsseldorf

Wupper Solingen

Hagen Ennepe

City Industrial Site Volme

Remscheid

Road Canal River

61


1.2 Case Studies

Geography and Natural Resources The development of the Ruhr metropolitan area is defined by a strong historical connection to natural resources and geographical features. The sporadic constitution of the Ruhr makes its territory difficult to be defined within a clear boundary, however in most accounts, the core of the region is agreed to be the area bounded by the Rhine River, the Ruhr River, the Lippe River and Dortmund. Like other metropolitan areas, the Ruhr developed next to major riverways which offered a highway for transporting goods and mobilizing resources, however, instead of being a localized moment of urban concentration along the river, the towns in the Rhur spread across the entire length of the rivers. Originally, a vast area of rural land, was quickly transformed into the industrial heart of heavy industry in Germany. The discovery of the region’s natural resources and its massive exploitation by the coal and steel industry gave rise to an intense period of industrialisation and urban growth.

62

Unlike cities like London or Paris which grew by absorbing nearby towns, the cities of the Ruhr grew independently and stayed relatively small forming a landscape of towns around industrial land. The economic strength of the cities due to the coal boom prevented the formation of a centralized government. Despite no central government, the Ruhr taken together as a whole is regarded as one functional unit with distinct economic specialisation. Transportation The functional integration of the Ruhr is supported by one of the densest infrastructure systems in the world. No region in Europe is as well connected as the Ruhr in terms of transport. The network of infrastructure that connects the region includes the densest road network (4,600km of regional roads), the largest rail complex (1,600 km of track), the densest canal and harbor system (272 km of inland waterways), the largest inland harbor and five international airports.


63


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.3 Industrial Ecology 1. Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park

[1] Lombardi, D. and Laybourn, P. (2012). Redefining Industrial Symbiosis. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16(1) [2] Ehrenfeld, J. and Gertler, N. (1997). Industrial Ecology in Practice: The Evolution of Interdependence at Kalundborg. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 1(1), [3] RouteYou. (2016). Kalundborg Eco-industrial Park. [online] Available at: http:// www.routeyou.com/en-dk/ location/view/48087417/ kalundborg-eco-industrial-park [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016].

64

Kalundborg Eco-industrial Park is located in the seaside industrial town of Kalundborg, Denmark. It is one of the most cited examples of industrial ecology and it has been operating successfully as an eco-industrial park for the last 25 years. Industrial ecology is a concept that emerged in the field of the environmental management. The Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park is the first full realization of industrial symbiosis which is a subset of industrial ecology. It describes how a network of diverse organizations can foster ecoinnovation and long-term cultural change, create and share mutually profitable transactions - and improve business and technical processes.[1] The key theme in industrial ecology is moving from a linear process to closed-loop material and energy use. Industrial activity based on this ecological concept can greatly reduce the harmful impact associated with pollution and waste disposal, while easing the drain and systematic depletion of resources. One of the main goals of industrial symbiosis is to make goods and services that use the least-cost combination of inputs. [2] At the center of the exchange network is the Asnæs Power Station, a 1500MW coal-fired

power plant, which has material and energy links with the community and several other companies. Surplus heat from this power plant is used to heat 3500 local homes in addition to a nearby fish farm, whose sludge is then sold as a fertilizer. Steam from the power plant is sold to Novo Nordisk, a pharmaceutical and enzyme manufacturer, in addition to Statoil power plant. This reuse of heat reduces the amount thermal pollution discharged to a nearby fjord. Additionally, a by-product from the power plant’s sulfur dioxide scrubber contains gypsum, which is sold to a wallboard manufacturer. Almost all of the manufacturer’s gypsum needs are met this way, which reduces the amount of open-pit mining needed. Furthermore, fly ash and clinker from the power plant is used for road building and cement production. These relationships were formed on an economic and environmental basis. [3] The environmental and economic efficiency have been highly increased by the exchange of water, wastes and material in addition to other benefits like sharing of personnel, equipment, and information.


65


1.2 Case Studies

1.2.3 Industrial Ecology 2. The Sahara Forest Project

The Water Project. (2016). Water In Crisis - Spotlight Middle East. [online] Available at: https://thewaterproject.org/ water-crisis/water-in-crisismiddle-east [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]. Inhabitat.com. (2016). Sahara Desert Project to grow 10 hectares of food in Tunisian desert. [online] Available at: http:// inhabitat.com/sahara-desertproject-to-grow-10-hectaresof-food-in-tunisian-desert/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Sahara Forest Project. (2016). Sahara Forest Project -. [online] Available at: http://saharaforestproject.com/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016].

66

In general the Middle East is currently experiencing many environmental challenges. Water resources are becoming scarce, especially in countries that share the same problems, like poor water management and lack of water resources. For example Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Yemen and Iraq face similar challenges. The Middle East has some of the largest oil reserves in the world. Nevertheless, the region’s climate and environment make life conditions harsh, creating a need for finding alternative solutions for accessing water resources and suitable land for agriculture. The Sahara forest project is a sustainable solution that aims to provide fresh water, food and renewable energy in hot and arid climates. The project proposes a combination of saltwater-cooled greenhouses with Solar Power technologies, either directly using Photovoltaic (PV) or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP) and technologies for desert re-vegetation.

Seawater Greenhouses use solar power to convert salt water into fresh water, which is then used to grow fresh vegetables and algae (to absorb CO2). Concentrated solar power (CSP) utilises mirrors to generate heat for a steam turbine, which produces the electricity necessary to power the seawater greenhouses while purifying the water and pumping it through the space. Together, these two technologies ensure that food can be grown throughout the year. Seawater is also used to cool and humidify the facility while the extracted salt is sold commercially. The desalinated water is used to irrigate the plants and can even be used for as fresh drinking water. The Sahara Forest Project was created by architect Michael Pawlyn, Seawater Greenhouse designer Charlie Paton, and structural engineer Bill Watts.


Sea

3,5 % Water Salinity

Saltwater

Water Tanks

5-7 % Water Salinity

Mariculture & Algea

Food & Biomass

15-20 % Water Salinity

Saltwater - cooled greenhouses

30 % Water Salinity

Food Evaporation Hedges

Revegetation Salt Ponds

Salt

67


1.2 Case Studies

The Sahara Forest Project, 2016

68


69


70


1.3 Regional Relationships

71


1.3 Regional Relationships

1.3.1 Population, Hydrology and Mobility

The total area of Iraq is approximately 440 000 km2. The country is divided into eighteen governorates. The marshland covered 20,000 km2 (4.5% of the total area of Iraq) before the desiccation processes while nowadays it covers 10,000 km2 (2.25%).

Fao.org. (2016). Iraq country profile. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/ agpc/doc/counprof/iraq/iraq. html [Accessed 5 Jun. 2016]. Kazem, H. and Chaichan, M. (2012). Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(8), pp.6007-6012. Fao.org. (2016). Natural Resources and Environment: Land and Water Division. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/ aglw/aquastat/countries/iraq/ index.stmS. [Accessed 5 Jun. 2016].

72

The growth rate of the population in Iraq has increased from 2.75% in 1980–1985 to 3.23% in 1995–2000. The growth rate then decreased to 2.72% in 2000–2005 and is expected to reach 1.09% in 2045–2050. [Fig.1]. In the 1970s the population of “Marsh Arabs” varied between 300,000-500,000 before the desiccation. At the present time there are only an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 living in the marshes and around one million and a half in the villages along Euphrates River.

The population of Iraq increased from 14 million in 1980 to 36,004,600 in 2014 and is expected to increase to approximately 64 million in 2050 [2]. The current density varies from 5 inhabitants / km2 in the western desert to more than 170 inhabitants / km2 in the fertile lowlands towards the south east parts of Iraq. Approximately 75% of the population is concentrated in urban centers.

37500000 34812,326.0

35000000

32500000

30000000 27,716,983.0 27500000

25000000 2006

2007

2008

Fig. 1 - Population of Iraq

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015


TURKEY

Mosul 3,524,300

Sulaymania 2,039,800

SYRIA IRAN Baghdad 7,665,300

JORDAN

35

30 25

20

SAUDI ARABIA

15 10 N

- Level 2 administrative unit boundaries and the corresponding population estimates for 2014 were attained through the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA).

KUWAIT

Nasryah 1,979,600

0

Basrah 2,744,800

73


1.3 Regional Relationships

TURKEY

MOUSIL SULAYMANIYAH

SYRIA IRAN BAGHDAD

KUT

JORDAN

AMARA

NASRIYA

SAUDI ARABIA

N

Lakes & Wetland River Tributary Major City

74

BASRAH

KUWAIT


TURKEY

MOUSIL SULAYMANIYAH

SYRIA IRAN BAGHDAD

KUT

JORDAN

AMARA

NASRIYA

SAUDI ARABIA

N

International boundary Rail way

BASRAH

KUWAIT

Major Roads Major City

75


76


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity

77


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity

1.4.1 Climate

Regional Climate

Local Climate Effects of the Marshes

Extreme high temperatures and shortage of rain throughout the year make much of Iraq’s territory a desert. During summer time temperature rise above 40 degrees and during winter temperature can drop below 0 degrees. Especially in the southeast region, the climate is mostly hot and dry with few cloud formation and little precipitation. The mean annual rainfall is less than 100 mm.

The presence of water features in desertarid climates has important effects on the microclimate of the surrounding areas. Because of evaporation, water features can provide natural cooling in regions with high temperatures. Water bodies are noted to be remarkably good at absorbing radiation while showing very little heat response due to its relatively high specific heat capacity. Nearby or above a body of water like a river or a lake, the air temperature is much different from that over land due to differences in the way water heats and cools. In this sense, wetlands provide similar climatic effects from having high concentrations of water. Moreover, the presence of vegetation provides shading and additional moisture from plant transpiration. This is the case of South-West Iraq, where the area of land in between the Tigris and Euphrates river is covered with water creating an extensive marsh within a larger desert area.

Rainfall increases gradually to 1000 mm towards the mountain regions in the north-east. Dominant winds come from the northwest and north in the central and northern parts of the country. In the south winds come from the west and northwest, so north-westerly winds are the most dominant. The combination of arid-dry climate and wind currents generates dust storms in the desert and the Mesopotamian plain. Wind speeds can reach 100 km per hour. Sometimes the whole country is covered by a cloud of very fine dust. It is estimated that on average about 2.5 mm of dust falls on the whole area of Iraq every year. As a result of high temperatures, strong winds and low rainfall, the evaporation is very high; it is 2170 mm at Abu Dibbis Lake in the central part of the country. During summer (June, July, and August) the evaporation is 250 mm to 300 mm per month or about 10 mm per day.

78


30

60

20

40

10

20

Average Temperature (°c)

Average Temperature (°c)

Average Rainfall (mm) Graph for Basra International Airport

0

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

N

Precipitation 0

100 250 500 750 1250 2500

Average Temperature (°c) Graph for Basra International Airport Average Temperature (°c)

60 44

46

46 42

39 40 25 20 20

36

32

17 8

10

25

28

30

29

26

25 20

19

19 14

14

9

14

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Average High Temp (°c)

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Average Low Temp (°c)

N

Avarage annual sum < 1700

1850

2000

2150 kWh/m2

79


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity 20-09-2015 - Fall

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h 0.000 kg/m2

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 11 km/h 39.4 °C

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h 1003 hPa

31.00° N,47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h

31.00° N,47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h

31.00° N, 47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h 17.7 °C

31.00° N, 47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h 1022 hPa

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h 25.7 °C

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h 1011 hPa

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h 34.7 °C

20-12-2015 - Winter

31.00° N,47.43° E 335 @ 14 km/h 0.158 kg/m2

20-3-2016 Spring

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145 @ 32 km/h 0.000 kg/m2

20-5-2016 Summer

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315 @ 33 km/h 0.000 kg/m2

Total cloud water

80

Wind at surface

Wind direction

Temperature

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h 1005 hPa


31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 11 km/h 39.4 °C

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h 1003 hPa

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h 15.738 kg/m2

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h 9%

31.00° N,47.43° E 310° @ 7 km/h 0.1253 T

31.00° N, 47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h 17.7 °C

31.00° N, 47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h 1022 hPa

31.00° N, 47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h 17.203 kg/m2

31.00° N, 47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h 41 %

31.00° N,47.43° E 335° @ 14 km/h 0.1535 T

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h 25.7 °C

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h 1011 hPa

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h 18.433 kg/m2

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h 20 %

31.00° N, 47.43° E 145° @ 32 km/h 0.6648 T

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h 9.111 kg/m2

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h 11 %

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h 0.1880 T

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h 34.7 °C

31.00° N, 47.43° E 315° @ 33 km/h 1005 hPa

Mean sea level pressure

Total precipitable water

Humidity at surface

Dust extinction 81


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity

1.4.2 Economic Activity

Globally, the need for natural resources and energy is increasing which encourages the investigation for new renewable resources. In Iraq there are various natural resources from multiple geographic sources but oil is the most important raw material to the economy of Iraq which makes Iraq mostly dependent on oil industry. The certified oil reserve in Iraq is estimated at 115 billion barrels. Therefore, Iraq is considered to have the second largest oil reserve in the world after the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [2].

[1]Fao.org. (2016). Iraq country profile. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/ agpc/doc/counprof/iraq/iraq. html [Accessed 5 Jun. 2016]. [2] Kazem, H. and Chaichan, M. (2012). Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(8), pp.6007-6012. Fao.org. (2016).

82

On the other hand, Iraq is heavily dependent on imported food to satisfy local demand. Agriculture and agribusiness support nearly 7.5 million people (27% of the population) in Iraq. The total area which has been used for agricultural production is about 80 000 km2 which is almost 67% of the cultivable area. However, It is estimated that the average area of cultivated land is decreasing due to certain limitations such as soil salinity, drought, shortage of irrigation water in summer, following the unstable political situation [1]. Fishing was a major economic activity in the marshland area. However, after the lands

were drained, many marsh dwellers turned to agriculture in an attempt to earn a living. Based on the soil map of Iraq there are two main zones for agriculture first one is located in the northern part of the country where the soil is Mountainvalley Soil and the climate is transitional to semi-arid and the other is the central to southern zone which is approximately 30% of Iraqi territory Formed by the combined deltas of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This region begins north of Baghdad and extends to the Gulf passing by the marshland where generally the climate is hot desert climate but the micro climate of marshland makes it more humid and suitable for agriculture. Iraq has 19 governorates, Due to the climatic, geographical and topographical changes in these governorates; the productivity concentration varies from one governorate to another. The following maps illustrate the variety of different products in each governorate. Every two products from the same category are combined in one map which makes it comparable to each other.


TURKEY

SYRIA IRAN

JORDAN

SAUDI ARABIA mountain valley soil brown soil N

gypsiferous gravel soil

KUWAIT

gypsum desert soil withgravels silty river basin soil pebbly, sandy desert soil

83


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity 1.4.2 Economic Activity - Energy

2.2% 1% Erbil The solar energy in Iraq is among the highest in the world, viability of solar radiation data is vital for the economical use of solar energy. Studies have shown that Baghdad only receives more than 3000 hours of solar radiance per year. The hourly solar intensity varied between 416 W/m2 in January to 833 W/m2 in June. Solar radiation increases strongly from north towards south and south west and decreases in winter and increases in summer. There is a much more uniform distribution of solar radiation throughout the Iraqi territories in summer (from June to August) which makes solar PV technology suitable for producing solar energy throughout Iraq. [1]

1%

13.4%

Al-Anbar

13%

28.5%

Al-Muthana N

[1] Kazem, H. and Chaichan, M. (2012). Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(8), pp.6007-6012. Fao.org. (2016).

84

Oil and Gas Solar Energy


1.4.2 Economic Activity - Oil and Natural Gas Middle East Proven Oil Reserves Saudi Arabia 262.3 bn barrels Iran 136 bn - Oil is the most important raw material to the economy of Iraq. There is a cluster of supergiant fields of southeastern Iraq forms the largest known concentration of such fields in the world and accounts for 70 to 80% of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proven oil reserves. The main two oil fields in the marshland are West Qurna I and West Qurna II which produces 3.9 million barrels/day. [1]

Iraq 115 bn Kuwait 101.5 bn UAE 97.8 bn

- Natural Gas (NG) is currently considered the Iraqi economyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s second most important raw material. The fixed reserve of Iraqi gas is approximately 1.3 trillion cubic meters; therefore, Iraq possesses 8.1% of the worldwide fixed reserve of natural gas. With this amount of natural gas reserve, Iraq ranks tenth in the world among countries rich in natural gas. [2]

West Qurna 3.9 million barrel per day Rumaila 2.85 million barrel per day

N

Supergiant oil field (5bn barrels in reserve) Other oil fields Oil pipeline

[1] Pike, J. (2016). Oil. [online] Globalsecurity.org. Available at: http://www.globalsecurity. org/military/world/iraq/oil.htm [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. [2] Kazem, H. and Chaichan, M. (2012). Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(8), pp.6007-6012. Fao.org. (2016).

85


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity 1.4.2 Economic Activity - Rice and Alfalfa

- Crop production is the main source of income for most of the Iraqi farmers, while the rest depend on livestock or mixed crop and livestock enterprises. Rice is an important summer crop which is cultivated in the wet areas. The marshland produces around 6% of Iraqâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rice poroduction but there is a high potential of recultivating the land with rice fields. [1] 3%

- Alfalfa production concentrates in the western zones of Iraq which is used mainly for grazing.

Thi-Qar

0%

131.7%

Al-Anbar

39%

2.7% Najaf

[1] Agriculture Reconstruction and Development Program for Iraq (ARDI). (2004). Bethesda, Maryland: Development Alternatives, Inc.

86

N

Rice Alfalfa

16.5%


1.4.2 Economic Activity - Wheat and Barley

25%

53% Naynawa

Wheat and Barley production plays an important role in the economic activities of Iraq. The area of wheat and barley is estimated to be 80% of the cultivated area. Wheat and barley production concentrates in the north and central rain fed areas. On average, farmers in Iraq cultivate about 3 million hectares of combined wheat and barley each year. Between 0.7 to 1 million hectares of wheat and 0.4-0.8 million hectares of barley may be irrigated each year. Barley requires less water than wheat and it is more tolerant to soil salinity. [1]

6%

0.5% Anbar

N

Wheat Barley

3.4% Thi-Qar

8%

[1] Agriculture Reconstruction and Development Program for Iraq (ARDI). (2004). Bethesda, Maryland: Development Alternatives, Inc.

87


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity 1.4.2 Economic Activity - Shrubs and Palm Trees

Shrubs concentrates in the western desert area which has a very limited use for grazing of goats, and sheep where grasses and shrubs that come up only after the rain during two or three months in winter and spring.

0.5%

12% Dyala

Dates have long been an essential product of the local diet. Until 1996, Iraq has been one of the three leading countries in terms of date palms planted area, number of trees, production and export. [1]

53% [1] Lucani, P. (2016). Iraq agriculture sector note.

Najaf N

Shrubs Palm Trees

88

5%

0%

10% Basra


1.4.2 Economic Activity - Onion and Tomato

Vegetable production is on the increase (about 10 percent of total cultivated area), particularly near urban centers, where a comparatively sophisticated marketing system has developed. Vegetable gardening usually employs relatively modern techniques, including the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticidesâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;when they are available. Tomatoes are the most important crop. About 60 to 70 percent of vegetables consumption is supplied by imports from neighboring countries. [1]

26%

4%

Al-Anbar

N

Onion Tomato

[1] Lucani, P. (2016). Iraq agriculture sector note. 10%

8%

Thi-Qar

0%

36%

Al-Basra

89


1.4 Climate and Land Productivity 1.4.2 Economic Activity - Sheep and Goat

5.6%

5.7%

8%

16%

Sulaimanya

Naynawa Livestock (sheep, goats, Cow, buffaloes), inland fisheries and poultry raising are important as a source of protein and income for the rural population. Livestock production in the past represented 30-40 % of the total value of agricultural production and contributed significantly to household nutrition. Small ruminants, specifically sheep and goat productions were severely reduced during the last two decades, in comparison with international and regional standards due to massive selling outside the Iraqi borders, loss of genetic potential and reduction in herd size.

N

[1]ALsaedy, J. (2010). IRAQI BUFFALO NOW. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 6(2s).

90

Sheep Goat

1%

5.5% Thi-Qar


1.4.2 Economic Activity - Cow and Buffalo

8.8%

0.6%

Sulaimanya

10%

17%

Baghdad

N

One third of Iraqâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s buffaloes wallow in marshes all year round, They swim far and wide for feeding and when the water is high, they stand on platforms made of papyrus, reeds and mud. Sometimes the farmers build huts on these platforms to house the buffaloes and the platforms can be pushed to different parts of the marshes. The overall numbers of cow and buffalo population are dropping in the marshland; some of the main reasons for this decline may be industrialization, the increasing demand for buffalo meat but a lack of replacement of the slaughtered animals and farming diversification and income. [1]

Cow Buffalo

6.7%

[1]ALsaedy, J. (2010). IRAQI BUFFALO NOW. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 6(2s).

17.3%

Thi-Qar

2.5%

20.3%

Basra

91


92


1.5 Transformation of the Marshes

93


1.5 Transfomation of the Marshes

1.5.1 Evolution and Environmental Changes of the Mesopotamian Marshlands

R.W. Fitzpatrick, CSIRO Land and Water

94

The Mesopotamian marshlands have gone through a series of transformations over the past 5000 years. Most of these changes have taken place in the last 50 years. Historically the marshes were spread out over an area of 20,000 km2. Due to anthropogenic manipulation the area of the marshes had decreased to 10% of its original size by 2003. The once fertile land that accommodated the dawn of civilization, has now been transformed into salt-encrusted desert.

Following the draining of the marshlands in Saddam Husseinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attempt to search out the rebels, the dried areas were burned in order to fully dessicate the marshes and ensure that nothing would grow there again. The burning of the dried marshland soils have severely destroyed the original soil components and formed high concentrations of magnetic cemented/ceramic-like gravel in the upper 1-50 cm restricting the root growth of plants.

Around 3000 BC the marshes went through its first transformation. Humans started inhabiting the area and modifying the landscape to make it inhabitable. Small islands were developed in the marshes in order to house reed huts and buffalo farms. Over time, these islands were reinforced and gradually built up with reeds and mud as they would be eroded by the annual spring flood. In the 1970â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the construction of dams began along the Euphrates and Tigris. Dams used for hydro power, flood control, water reserves and irrigation, disturbed the natural flow of the rivers and significantly reduced their annual discharge. This marked the first step of the dessication of the Mesopotamian Marshes. Later in the early 90â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the deliberate dessication took place during the former regime when Saddam Hussein attempted to find the rebels forces that were taking refuge in the reeds. New dams and embankments were constructed, and large systems of ditches and canals were dug out in order to drain the marshes, which left them at only 10% of their original size.

The dessication forced the local marsh dwellers out of the marshes. The nearly 500,000 people had to move out to the rivers where they had access to water. This is how regions like Al-Chibayish and Al-Hammar changed from the historical inhabitation of vernacular islands to the more compact riverside settlements that can be seen today.

Without any water supply, the remaining water in the marshes was left to evaporate, leaving salt affected soils in the former marshland sediments .

After the dessication some marsh dwellers made an attempt to level the dry land in the marshes for agricultural purposes. However, the soil had been severely harmed by the dessication process and was no longer suitable for growing crops, due to its reduction in water storage capacity and loss of organic matter. After the change of regime in 2003, the former marsh dwellers re-flooded the marshes by breaching embankments along the Euphrates river. Large areas that were re-flooded were unable to be restored due to the unproductive soil. The input water merged with the saline soil and remains of burnt reeds, leaving red toned ponds of water without any natural growth.


Fresh Water

Before humans started inhabiting the marshes, the marshlands spread out over approximately 20,000 km2. They consisted of shallow lakes and reeds and accommodated a wide range of wildlife. Reeds

Anthropogenically manipulated landscape

Around 3000 BC humans moved in to the marshlands. They manipulated the landscape by constructing islands which they inhabited and used for buffalo farms. They built their homes out of reeds, and used a specific boat called mashoof to get around the marshes and collect the reeds.

Mashoof

Drainage canals

After what came to be known as the “Era of Dams”, the Euphrates’ and Tigris’ water discharge to the marshes decreased significantly. During the dessication period in the early 90’s, ditches were dug in order to extract the marshes’ water using giant pumps. Ponds left to evaporate

95


1.5 Transfomation of the Marshes

Dried reeds

When the marshes had been drained the remaining water was left to evaporate, leaving large areas of salt encrusted soil. Without any water supply the natural growth died and the land was covered with dried reeds.

Salt-affected soil

Burnt soil

In the mid 90â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the next step of the dessication process took place. The dry lands of the former marshes were burned in order to prevent any possibilities of restoring the marshes.

96


Salt-affected soil mixed soil materials

After the dessication local marsh dwellers made an attempt to recover the unproductive land by leveling it for agricultural purposes. The burnt soil lacked necessary qualities and was no longer suitable for growing crops.

Land leveled for agriculture

Salt and iron mobilised in the water

In 2003 the locals breached embankments along the two rivers in order to restore the marshes. However, due to the burnt and TDS(Total Dissolved Solids) effected soil, large parts of the marshlands could not be recovered. Instead the input water caught a red tone from the iron and salt in the soil and red colored ponds covered the dry land.

97


1.5 Transfomation of the Marshes

AMARA

AUDA MARSH

HAWIZEH MARSH

SOUTH HAWIZEH

NASRIYA

ABO ZIRIG MARSH

KARMASHIA MARSH

CHUBAYSH MARSH

SHAFI MARSH GARMAT ALI MARSH

During the desiccation process in the early 90â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s embankments, dams and canals were constructed in order to redirect the water from the marshes .

98

BASRAH


In 2003 the reflooding process began. Pumps that were constantly draining the marshes were stolen by local residents and the embankments along the rivers were breached.

AMARA

AUDA MARSH

HAWIZEH MARSH

SOUTH HAWIZEH

NASRIYA

ABO ZIRIG MARSH

KARMASHIA MARSH

CHUBAYSH MARSH

SHAFI MARSH GARMAT ALI MARSH

BASRAH

99


1.5 Transfomation of the Marshes

AMARA

IRAQ

IRAN

NASRIYAH

PERMANENT MARSH EDGE MARSH SEASONAL MARSH 1970â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MARSH EXTENT RIVERS CITY

100

BASRAH


AMARA

IRAQ

IRAN

NASRIYAH

PERMANENT MARSH FLOOD PLAIN AGRICULTURAL LAND OIL FIELD

BASRAH

1970â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MARSH EXTENT RIVERS CITY

101


102


1.6 Site Characteristics

103


1.6 Site Characteristics

1.6.1 Water Scarcity - Current Problems

One of the great problems that prevents the restoration of the Mesopotamian Marshes is the lack of water. The marshes are supplied with water through the two main rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Both rivers originate in the highlands of south Turkey. Although tributaries from Syria, Iran and Iraq contributes to the rivers’ flow along their expanse, Turkey still generates their majority of water (Euphrates 88%, Tigris 56%). H. Partow, UNEP The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem N. Al-Ansari, Hydro-Politics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins

104

After the 1970’s the water flow of both rivers change drastically due to what is referred to “The Era of Dams”. Within a few years over 30 dams were constructed along the two rivers, to be used for hydro power, flood control, water reserves and irrigation. The construction of dams was the first step to cause the decrease in size of the Mesopotamian Marshes.

The dams did not just decrease the mean flow of the rivers by redirecting the water to other uses, but the large reservoirs that are supported by the dams, contain shallow still water, which in combination with the hot lowpressure climate results in high levels of water evaporation. The total evaporation loss from the reservoirs on the two rivers is 8 BCM (Billion Cubic Meters = Km3), which is approximately 60% of the current annual flow of the two rivers. Evaporation is also occurring further down along the rivers within irrigation canals and in the marshes, due to poorly constructed irrigation systems and minimal change in altitude resulting in very low water velocity.


ary Inflow

TURKEY IRAN Sajur

Feesh Khabour

Balikh/ Jallab

Greater Zab Khabour Sajur

TURKEY

Lesser Zab Feesh Khabour

Balikh/ Jallab

TIGRIS RIVER

SYRIA

IRAN

Khabour

Greater Zab

Diyala Lesser Zab

Baghdad TIGRIS RIVER

SYRIA EUPHRATES

Diyala

RIVER

Baghdad

EUPHRATES RIVER

Qurnah

IRAQ

Karkheh QurnahKarunKarkheh

IRAQ

Karun

PERISAN GULF

Dam

PERISAN GULF

City Tributary Inflow River

EVAPORATION

TURKEY / SYRIA

EVAPORATION

EVAPORATION

EUPHRATES

EUPHRATES

EUPHRATES

SHATT

TIGRIS

TIGRIS

TIGRIS

AL-ARAB

INCREASED TDS

INCREASED TDS

INCREASED TDS

RESEVOIRS

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

PERSIAN GULF

MARSHES

105


1.6 Site Characteristics

1.6.1 Water Scarcity - Solutions

https://www.researchgate.net/ post/what_ways_for_reduce_ evaporation_of_surface_water_lake_river http://www.irrigationfutures. org.au/imagesDB/topicItem/ NWC-Schmidt.pdf http://www.yourarticlelibrary. com/water/evaporation/ top-3-methods-of-reducing-evaporation/60462/ https://moreprofitperdrop. files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ bap_suspended_covers.pdf http://www.awtti.com/hexprotect_cover.php

106

Evaporation occurs due to three factors, temperature, pressure and surface area. In order to prevent water evaporation the ideal scenario would be low temperature, high air pressure and minimal exposed surface area.

the water surface, which prevents evaporation while still allowing the penetration of raindrops. These monolayers are cost efficient and can cover large areas. They reduce evaporation with approximately 30%.

When dealing with large mass of water such as basins and reservoirs, the only solution for preventing evaporation is covering the surface, which will minimize the surface area and reduce the temperature of the surface. There are three different types of covers: Monolayers, Shadecloths and Floating covers.

Shadecloths are fabric cloths suspended above the water surface with a cable structure. They are only suitable to cover an area under 5ha. The shadecloth reduces wind speeds at the water surface and reduces evaporation by 70%.

Evaporation suppressing monolayers are materials which when applied to water will selfassemble and create a thin film on the surface. Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re usually created from the compound hexadeconal, which can be extracted from tallow, sperm oil or coconut oil. It is able to form a 15 x 10-4 mm thick monomolecular film on

Floating covers has shown to be the most effective way of preventing evaporation. The most efficient floating cover is the AWTT INC. Hexprotectâ&#x201E;˘ cover system. The system contains of self-assembling hexagonal plastic modules that creates a thermal insulation barrier on the water surface. The system is wind proof, allows penetration of rain and is able to reduce evaporation up to 95%.


The Hexprotect units selfassemble on the surface of a resevoir or basin and creates a floating cover which follows to the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s movement and reduces water evaporation with 95%, while still letting in rain water.

107


1.6 Site Characteristics

1.6.2 Water Salinity- Current Problems

During the re-flooding of the marshes in 2003 it was found that large areas could couldn’t be restored when flooded, due to high levels of salinity in the soil.

N. Al-Ansari, Hydro-Politics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins S. AlMaarofi, A. Douabul, H. Al-Saad, Mesopotamian Marshlands: Salinization Problem A. Hussein Al Bomola, Temporal and Spatial Changes in Water Quality of the Euphrates River - Iraq

108

Salinity in water is usually expressed as TDS(Total Dissolved Solids). It is measured in ppm(parts per million = mg/l). Increased salinity in rivers is a worldwide problem. If water’s salinity level rises above 1000ppm, it is no longer potable for human consumption. At 3000ppm it looses its ability to be used for agriculture. Because of the reduction in water discharge along with the increased amount of agricultural irrigation, the salinity concentrations at the water inputs of the marshes were significantly

increased. During the pre-dam era (-1973) levels of salts and other TDS could be detected in the water, and in late summer when the highest rate of evaporation would occur, salinity would increase and large pieces of land would be left dry leaving the soil salinized. What made the marshes survive the annual drought and resist getting over salinised, was the annual spring flood. The two rivers’ fresh spring pulse would flush away all the surplus salts that remained after the later summer drought, and restore the seasonal marshes. The constructions of dams along the two rivers diminished the spring pulse, which took away the natural purification process of the marshes. This necessary process has not been replaced and this has lead to an annual increase of salinity, which has left large parts of the marshes unrecoverable.


Mean monthly discharge (m3/s) 3000

Mean monthly discharge (m3/s)

Tigris Euphrates Euphrates Tigris Tigris Euphrates Tigris

Tigris mean monthly discharge (m3/s) 2500

2000 3000 1500 2500 1000 2000 500 1500 0 1000 3000 500 2500 3000 0 2000 2500 1500 2000 3000 1000 1500 2500 500 1000 2000 0 500 1500

T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

OC

T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

OC

OC

OC

T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

(Pre dam construction)

Mosul Kut Jarablus, Syria Hit Hindiyah Syria Jarablus, Hit Hindiyah

(Post dam construction)

Euphrates mean monthly discharge (m /s) 0 1000 3000 500 2500 0 3000 2000

R T Y N V3 C N P G R L B OC NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

R T Y N V C N P G R L B OC NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

Mean monthly discharge (m3/s) T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

OC

T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

OC

OC

OC

T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

T

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

Jarablus (Syria)Syria Jarablus, Hit (Euphrates inlet to Iraq) Hit Hindiyah (further down along Euphrates) Hindiyah

1500 2500 4000

1000 2000

3450

3000 500

1500

2000 0 4000

1000

1000 3000

5000 2000

Euphrates

Mean monthly discharge (m3/s)

Mosul Kut Mosul (Tigris inlet to Iraq) Mosul Kut Kut(further down along Tigris)

T V EC AN EB AR PR 1200AY UN UL UG EP S J J M A J OC NO D1100 A 3450 M F 1150 1000 1000

(Pre dam construction) 2000

Qa'im

0 1000

1000

0 4000

Qa'im

T

467 OC

485

495

Faloja

Hindiyah

1100

1150

Faloja

Hindiyah

510

525

Kufa

Samawa

1200

Nasiriyah 1000

Samawa

TDS(ppm) 1975-1998 (post Dam construction) Kut TDS(ppm) 1924-1973 (pre Dam construction) (Post dam construction) TDS(ppm) 1975-1998 (post Dam construction) TDS(ppm) 1924-1973 (pre Dam construction)

T

OC

R PR 525 Y N V EC AN495 EB A510 P G L M A D J MA JU JU AU SE F NO 485 Kufa

The Euphrates’ monthly fluctuation of discharge is now close to nothing. There is more or less a constant flow of water, which prevents salinity in the marshes from being washed away.

Mosul

2000

467

After the construction of dams along the two rivers, the monthly flux in water discharge decreased severely. The spring flood of the Tigris still exists, however it has decreased to less than 1/3 of its historical flow.

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

T

OC

R Y N V C N P G R L B NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE

Nasiriyah 3450

3000 3000

Percentage of of contribution theflow flowofofEuphrates Euphrates and Tigris Percentage contribution to to the and Tigris

100 1000 2000 80 0 1500 60 100

TDS(ppm) 1975-1998 (post Dam construction) TDS(ppm) 1924-1973 (pre Dam construction)

2000

2500 2000

1200

1000

1100

1150

467

485

495

510

525

Qa'im

Faloja

Hindiyah

Kufa

Samawa

1000

Percentage of contribution to the flow of Euphrates and Tigris Euphrates Euphrates Tigris Tigris

40 1000 80 20

60 500

0 40

0

20 100 0 80

Jarablus, Syria Hit Hindiyah

Nasiriyah

Turkey

Syria

Iraq

Euphrates

Iran

R RTigris T T Percentage Y N to Y N V V C N ofB contribution C N and Pflow of Euphrates G R R L the B OC NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU JU AU SE OC NO DE JA FE MA AP MA JU Tigris

Turkey

Syria

Iraq

L

JU

The majority of the two rivers’ water originates from the highlands of south Turkey.

G EP S

AU

Iran

60

Euphrates TDS the “Era of dams” 40 levels of Euphrates before and after Tigris

20 4000 0

3000

3450

Turkey

Syria

Iraq

2000

2000 1000 0

Iran

1200

1000

1100

1150

467

485

495

510

525

Qa'im

Faloja

Hindiyah

Kufa

Samawa

1000

Nasiriyah

After the consruction of dams in the 70’s, the rivers have TDS(ppm) 1975-1998 (post dam construction) TDS(ppm) 1975-1998 (post Dam construction) become significantly more polluted. The input water to the TDS(ppm) 1924-1973 (pre dam construction) TDS(ppm) 1924-1973 (pre Dam construction) marshes contain such high levels of TDS that it’s no longer suitable for agriculture.

Percentage of contribution to the flow of Euphrates and Tigris 100 80 60 40 20

109

Euphrates Tigris


1.6 Site Characteristics

1.6.2 Water Salinity - Solutions

http://science.howstuffworks. com/reverse-osmosis.htm http://www.unep.or.jp/Ietc/ Publications/Freshwater/ FMS2/1.asp http://www.solaqua.com/ solstilbas.html

110

TDS increases in water through pollution from industries and mainly agriculture. When the water is exposed to conditions that allow for high evaporation, the surface water evaporates and leaves a higher concentration of TDS. As over salinised water is a world-wide problem, several solutions have been explored over time. The most efficient ways of de-salinising water are: Reverse Osmosis, Phytoremediation and Solar Still. Reverse Osmosis is a water purification technology process where TDS are removed from water through a semipermeable membrane. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mostly used for desalination of seawater for coastal cities without any fresh water supply, like Dubai and San Diego.

Phytoremediation is the natural process of water, air and soil purification through plants. This method has been used in restoring abandoned mines where the soil has been severely polluted. The plants donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t just reduce TDS remains but can also reduce contaminates such as crude oil. Solar Still is a method of producing distilled water through heating up saline water within an enclosed space and collecting the evaporated water. This is a method developed by the US military as a emergency solution for getting drinking water. At a large scale this method could solve both evaporation and salinity problems.


The Solar Still uses a simple method of destilling water through collecting evaporated water.

Solar Radiation

Evaporation Collecting Membrane

Condensation

Evaporation

Fresh Water

Fresh Water

Salt Water

111


112


1.7 Typologies

113


1.7 Typologies

1.7.1 Local Typologies

Atlasobscura.com. (2016). Mudhif Houses â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Al-Chibayish, Iraq| Atlas Obscura. [online] Available at: http://www. atlasobscura.com/places/ mudhif-houses [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]

114

Mudhif or the guest house is a grand arched structure which was first built over 5000 years ago. The Mudhif is made out entirely from reeds that grows abundantly in the marshes and considered to be the cheapest building material to be found. This building type used to be constructed locally by the Maâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;dan (marsh Arabs). Its main function is to serves as a guest house and it plays the role of a social, religious and cultural center. Additionally, it is also used as a gathering place for weddings, funerals and other community events.

The typical Mudhif dimension are 5 meters wide and 10-12 meter long, while the smaller houses dimensions are a little more than 2 meter wide and less than 3 meter long.

The Mudhif consists of huge parabolic arches and walls which are made out of reed mats curving over to form a roof. The front and back sides of the mudhif are flat walls which are created out of reed lattice panels to allow daylight and air to pass through.

Influenced by the vernacular architecture of the Mudhif, a mosque and market is introduced as a new typology in the marshland.

Houses built out of reeds have the advantage of being portable. In the spring, if the marsh water rises too high, the house can be taken down and relocated to higher ground. The process of reerecting the small houses takes up to one day while re-erecting the Mudhif takes up to three days.


Mudhif - Guest House 5m

11 m

5m

5m

Mosque 13 m

5m

13 m

5m

Market 8m

5m

5m

4m

115


1.7 Typologies

1.7.1 Local Typologies

Yahkchal Ice towers or Yahkchal is a type of evaporative cooling system found in the desert which originated in ancient Persia. The ice tower was used to store ice and food. The ice tower consists of a domed shape structure which is positioned above the ground and a subterranean storage space.

Mahdavinejad, M. and Javanrudi, K. (2012). Assessment of Ancient Fridges: A Sustainable Method to Storage Ice in Hot-Arid Climates. ACH, 4(2). Mahdavinejad, M. and Javanroodi, K. (2014). Natural ventilation performance of ancient wind catchers, an experimental and analytical study - case studies: one-sided, two-sided and four-sided wind catchers. IJETP, 10(1),

116

The ice was either brought from a nearby mountain during the winter season or alternatively, the more common way of supplying water, was to use a qanat system (traditional Persian well) which would channel water to the north side of a wall that was built along an eastwest direction. The shadow of the wall made the water freeze more quickly so that more ice was produced during a winter day. Ice was stored in a specially designed, passively cooled subterranean space. This space would function as a refrigerator and was coupled with thick heat-resistant construction material which insulates the storage space around the year.

Bâdgir The wind catcher or bâdgir is a traditional Persian architectural device which provides natural ventilation without any moving

parts. Fresh air is brought into the room and warm air is expelled taking advantage of the differential pressure created by wind. The Wind catcher is essentially a tall, capped tower with faces open at the top. One or two of the faces should be facing the prevailing wind direction to catch the wind. The system works through normal atmospheric properties where warm air rises and decreases the air pressure within a room so that cooler air falls into the room. This subtle change in air pressure produces enough airflow to make the room comfortably fresh. Stables The stables found in the Mesopotamian marshes are basic buildings made out of reeds. Typically an enclosed reed-shaded area accommodates up to 5 buffaloes. On average the required indoor area for one buffalo is 10 sqm. The architecture of the buffalo stables is influenced by the vernacular construction system. The stables are made out of reeds; the most available building material in the Mesopotamian marshlands.


10 M

BuďŹ&#x20AC;alo Stables 5M

3M

Ice Tower Stack Ventilation

Thermal mass

Natural refridgerator connected to Windtowers and Cistern to provide constant temperature stability

Wind Catchers

Food Storage

Qanat

Windcatcher

Wind Direction

Exhust Wind

Cooled Basement

117


1.7 Typologies

1.7.2 Bio-Gas System

Bio-gas a product harnessed from waste material is a mixture of around 60% methane, 40% carbon dioxide and traces of other contaminant gases. The exact composition of bio-gas depends on the type of feedstock being digested. GmbH, p. (2016). General information | PlanET Biogas Global GmbH. [online] En.planet-biogas.com. Available at: http://en.planet-biogas. com/info/ [Accessed 7 Sep. 2016]. Biogas-info.co.uk. (2016). Biogas | Anaerobic Digestion. [online] Available at: http:// www.biogas-info.co.uk/about/ biogas/ [Accessed 7 Sep. 2016].

118

Methane is the enriching component, which is used for energetic benefits. Sludge, bio-waste and leftovers, farm residues such as dung and slurry and selective energy crops are ideally suited as input for energy production. Bio-gas develops through microbial degradation of organic substances without oxygen. The bio-gas can be transferred to a Combined Heat and Power Unit (CHP). The electricity and heat produced in this way can be used off site. Alternatively, the bio-gas

can be â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;upgradedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to pure methane, often called bio-methane, by removing other gases. This pure stream of bio-methane can then be injected it into the main gas grid or used as fuel for vehicles. One cubic meter of bio-gas at 60% methane content converts to 6.7 kWh energy. Slurry and solid biomass are suitable for bio-gas production. A cow weighing 500 kg can be used to achieve a gas yield of about 1.5 cubic meters per day. In energy terms, this equates to around one litre of heating oil. Additionally, (see Fig.1) Re-growable raw materials supply between 6 000 cubic meter (meadow grass) and 12 000 cubic meter (silo maize/fodder beet) bio-gas per hectare arable and annually.


Biogas

Gas treatment plant The methane content and the quality of the biogas are increased to make it like conventional natural gas

Natural gas network The treated biogas can be fed directly into existing natural gas networks

Biogas petrol station Can be used as fuel

Combined heat and power station (CHP) the biogas is incinerated to produce electrici-

Electricity for houses

Digestion residue storage If this biomass has been fermented in the digester, it is ďŹ rst placed in the digestion residue storage facility from where it can be removed later and used as high-quality fertiliser

Gas storage The resulting biogas is stored in the top of the fermenter, directly above the fermenting biomass

Crops (maize, grain, reeds)

Feed

Livestock farming

Pet Collection tank for biomass

Digester In this tank, with light and oxygen excluded, the biomass is digested by anaerobic micro-organisms. This digestion process produces methane and carbone dioxide the biogas

119


120


1.8 Ambition

121


1.8 Ambition

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Value Of Wetlandsâ&#x20AC;?. Wwf. panda.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Sept. 2016.

Wetlands are among the most productive and bio-diverse ecosystems in the world. These environments produce a wide range of products and services that are essential to support life on the planet. Apart from being vital reservoirs of plant and animal life, wetlands can be used to extract and process resources to support human life. Wetlands also provide a number of ecological functions; they can filter, clean, control and store water. In this regard, they can be thought of as ecological infrastructure, as it naturally regulates water supply. Additionally, wetlands are unique in their microclimate as they display climatic properties of both, terrestrial and aquatic systems. Due to surface evaporation and plant transpiration, wetlands can provide natural cooling in regions with high temperatures or intense hot summers. Despite the great benefit that wetlands represent to sustain life in the planet, around 64 per cent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wetlands are at risk of disappearing. Many of these ecosystems are suffering from irresponsible agricultural practices or have been endangered as a result of urban development. Nonetheless, there are many vernacular examples around the world that show evidence of the possibility of a more integrated co-existence between human habitats and natural environments. As wetlands exist in a transitional zone between land and water, they offer a unique opportunity to rethink the relationship between natural resources, water supply and human occupation. In order to examine this subject, the wetlands of Mesopotamia have been selected as an area of intervention. Throughout history, the Mesopotamian Marshlands have been a significant site where land has been exploited to support human activities and urbanization. Initially and for many centuries, the fertile soil of

122

the marshes was harnessed to support large scale agricultural activities. During the past fifty years, the character of the site has changed multiple times due to various environmental, political and social transformations in the broader area. Today, this site still serves the urban growth by providing enormous amounts of oil while being populated by nearly one million people who are occupied with small scale agricultural activities. Unlike previous forms of land use, the oil extraction industry is leaving long-lasting traces, which combined with the climate change; pose a big challenge concerning the future of the wetlands and those who depend on them. The goal of this research is to offer a new model of human settlement for re-occupying the wetlands of Mesopotamia integrating agro-industrial functions in a sustainable way. By reorganizing the territory, based on an appropriate distribution of land use and human occupation, the wetlands of Mesopotamia can be used as a platform to integrate ecological processes with human activity in a more proactive way. On a regional scale the proposal aims at understanding the relations between the existing human settlements and the productive sites around them. This territorial mapping and understanding process will lead to suggest a comprehensive system of aquatic infrastructure and natural ecological corridors for the purpose of regional integration. Apart from the territorial scale design, another key aspiration of the project is to address localised interventions focused on reorganizing the existing settlements, introduce small and medium scale infrastructure and propose a series of island typologies that will facilitate ecological, economic and social functions.


Research Question Recovering the wetlands of Mesopotamia and restoring its ecological functions is essential for the future of the region. In a time of intense urban growth and increasing resource demand, this project investigates the following question: - Can the integration of agricultural and industrial functions lead to recover, re-inhabit and enhance the ecology of the Mesopotamian marshlands? MARSH ECOLOGY

Design Aims

SUN

Recover The Marshes

BIOMASS

Organize Productive Functions Inhabit the Marshes WATER photosy

nthesi

s radiati

on

REEDS

b

SOCIAL waste

food

food

OM ON EC

Integration of Processes

BUFFALO

fresh water

Y

OG

OL

EC

IC

FISH

electricity

MARSHES RESOURCES EXTRACTION

DATES

work

DI RE SPO CY SA CL L IN G

ENERGY

work

N IO PT N UM TIO S C N CO ODU PR

work

WASTE

RICE

W Prod W W

HUMANS

Matter Energy Flows

123


124


2.0 Methods

125


126


2.1 Methods

127


2.1 Methods

2.1.1 Design Process Overview

Part of the aim of this project is to advance the use of computation and explore the opportunities that these design tools afford. To this end, a design workflow involving various analytical and generative design tools was established. The design experiments were conducted using parametric models in Rhino 3D and Processing. Generative algorithms and associative modeling was implemented throughout the design process, with only a few number of instances where explicit modeling was necessary for the experiments. The working method involved the use of evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective optimization and agent based simulations for developing multiple instantiations of design options. For analytical purposes, at multiple stages throughout the design process, the design was evaluated with various network analysis tools (Space Syntax, UNA toolbox, Syntactic). The design process focuses on the integration of ecological, social, agro-industrial and infrastructural systems. Multiple variables need to be coordinated and used as inputs for the design. Data gathering and research was conducted to identify the key parameters that would form the basis of the design. The workflow initiates with data collection from GIS databases. In order to define the initial parameters for the project basic spatial, environmental, geographical information is gathered. Starting from the whole area of the Middle East to understand the regional context and moving down to the country of Iraq and marshes of Mesopotamia, various sets of data are collected to inform the design. At the same time, the design goals and the overall design objectives of the project are established and translated into

128

measurable (geometric and numeric) inputs. The collected data from GIS and the design objectives are used as the starting parameters for a parametric model. This model is based on an initial algorithm applied to the defined area of intervention. The algorithm is used to determine the distribution of uses and settlements and the possible configurations that can be achieved in the site. Multiple design alternatives for landuse distribution are achieved by means of an algorithm based on the circle packing theorem. Simultaneously, clusters of residential units are generated by using a magnetic field algorithm which works in combination with the results obtained by the circle packing distribution. This results in a number of network configurations that are evaluated through network analysis tools. The design option that best matches the design criteria is selected to be further developed. Using agent based simulations (ABMS), the base network is extended to connect all the residential clusters with each other. The design option that has the highest integration and connectivity values between the residential clusters is selected to be further developed. At this point, the information obtain from the previous processes can be used to inform design decision for developing specific areas of the project. A sample area of the project is selected to distribute social functions (education, health, recreation, etc.).. A network based model (UNA) is used to distribute these functions. The final outcome is a model that comprises all the uses and functions tied together by a network that connects residential units to productive and ecological zones.


Data

Generative Algoritm (GA)

Output

ABMS

re-evaluation

Circle Packing Magnetic Field

Base Network

Agents-based Simulation

Residential cluster distribution

Inputs

Selection

Network Based Model

Output

Urban Network Analysis

Final Model

re-evaluation

Product function distribution

_Hydrology _Topography _Location _Production _Connection

Output

Integrated Network

Social function Distibution

Selection

Selection

129


2.1 Methods

2.1.2 Agent-based modeling and simulation

Abbas, M. and Machiani, S. (2016). Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Connected Corridors—Merits Evaluation and Future Steps. IJT, 4(1), pp.71-84. [2] Bonabeau, E., Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems. 2002. 99 Fig.1 redrawn from: Abbas, M. and Machiani, S. (2016). Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Connected Corridors—Merits Evaluation and Future Steps. IJT, 4(1), pp.71-84.

130

Agent-based modeling is a computer simulation based on a bottom up approach that mimic collective behavior and interactions between individuals. Unlike a top-down modeling approach, where the designer prescribes all actions, AMBS is a bottom-up approach, where the agents or the decision makers follow given rules that are defined by the designer. Agent-based modeling methods are widely used in simulating natural behaviors. In urban design and architecture, this method has been used in exploring various areas of transportation including simulation the flow of vehicles and pedestrian movement, route choice modeling, lane changing, car-following models, and traffic simulation. [1] When the

interactions between the agents are diverse, complex, non-linear, separate and the agents’ location in the space is not fixed, more complex results can be achieved from the simulation. [2] The mathematical model of the agents’ behavior in this work is developed to follow the basic rules of flocking behavior. In flocking simulations, there is no central control and each agent behaves autonomously. There are four distinct advantages in using an agent based system to develop artificial decentralized networks: Flexibility, robustness, decentralization, self-organization. This tool was used in this work to generate and instantiate design options for various networks.


Bottom-up Approach

Complex Emergent Behavior of the system

Interaction

Top-down Approach

Environment

Agent 1 Behavior

Agent 2 Behavior

Agent 3 Behavior

Agent 1

Agent 2

Agent 3

Fig1: top-down , bottom-up ABMS modelling

Fig2: Flocking behaviors simulation

131


2.1 Methods

2.1.3 Genetic Algorithms

A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search algorithm based on ideas of evolution, natural selection and genetics. Genetic algorithms are used as a problem solving method to generate optimised or trade off solutions to a given problem. In this sense, the algorithm can search for solutions even when the objectives contradict each other. Multi-criteria optimisation or multi-objective optimisation algorithms is a powerful unbiased optimisation technique that takes into account multiple criteria simultaneously. When the criteria in the system are contradicting then a range of options for solutions is produced. [1]

[1] Tabassum, M. (2014). A GENETIC ALGORITHM ANALYSIS TOWARDS OPTIMIZATION SOLUTIONS. IJDIWC, 4(1), pp.124-142. [2] M. Melanie (1999), “An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms”, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780585030944.

If set correctly, the genetic algorithm optimisation technique can produce several and nondominant individuals in the generations without determining the best solution which gives the decision maker the opportunity to decide which individual of the provided solutions is the fittest. [2] Selecting the individuals is based on the specific criteria of the given model; the principle of selecting the solutions is “survival of the fittest”. Based on an evaluation function the operator identifies and chooses the ‘better’ individual in the population for reproduction. [1] In this work the genetic algorithm optimisation is used to optimise the function distribution and the

132

relationship between uses. Additionally, the script is used to optimise the shortest pipe network that would be needed to distribute water supply to each productive area. Circle packing Circle packing is a method that uses the technique of arranging circles of different sizes in a way that they touch each at tangent points without overlapping. In this project each type of the production is represented as circles with a fixed radius which were assigned as input values for the circle packing algorithm to distribute the different productive functions across the site. Through the use genetic algorithms, the circle packing is optimised to achieve a desirable configuration. Magnetic field Magnetic field algorithm is a method used to visualise the strength and direction of a vector field that is generated through a field of magnetic charges. In this research the magnetic field was used to generate the residential clusters as the paths from the residential nodes were pushed out from the production areas and forced to connect, creating clusters with a central path.


FIELD LINES GENERATION

133


2.1 Methods

2.1.4 Urban Network Analysis

City Form Lab. (2016). Urban Network Analysis Toolbox for ArcGIS â&#x20AC;&#x201D; City Form Lab. [online] Available at: http:// cityform.mit.edu/projects/ urban-network-analysis.html [Accessed 10 Sep. 2016].

134

UNA is an urban network analysis tool. This toolbox can be used to evaluate five types of graph analysis on spatial networks: Reach; Gravity; Betweenness; Closeness; and Straightness. Redundancy Tools additionally calculate the Redundancy Index, Redundant Paths, and the Wayfinding Index.

nodes and edges, UNA can include buildings in the network analysis. Thirdly, the UNA tool allow the user to assign different values to nodes according to their particular characteristics, volume, population and importance, therefore, buildings can be specified to have stronger or weaker effect on the network.

The tool integrate three main features which make it specifically suitable for spatial analysis on street networks; the first feature is that the tool can account for both geometry and topology in the input networks. Secondly, in addition to evaluating

UNA tool is used in this research to find the location of the distribution centres by running a reach and centrality analysis. The outcomes were evaluated in search of the highest average reach index for the whole site.


135


136


3.0 Site

137


138


3.1 Selected Site

139


3.1 Selected Site

3.1.1 Region of Intervention

23-Alwash, S. (2013).Eden again. Fullerton,wCalif.: Tablet House Pub

140

Tigris and Euphrates are the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia. Originating from eastern Turkey, Euphrates River flows through Syria down to Iraq. When approaching southern Iraq Tigris and Euphrates begins to split like tree branches, forming vast inland deltas. The levees gradually become lower and broader, ground water rises to the surface and eventually the channels disappear and the marshland begins. After passing through the marshes Tigris and Euphrates meet again near the city of Qurna where they form the river known as Shatt Al-Arab which continues down towards the city of Basra in the south of Iraq.

from the Tigris near the town of Amara. During the 1990s the Iraqi government desiccated the central marsh by diverting its water to a massive engineered canal known as the “Glory canal”. The central marsh remained dry until late 2003 when local initiatives aimed to breach the left bank levees of Euphrates and water returned to the marshes by summer of 2004. The restored water allowed the marshes to turn green as algae population began to re-establish itself in the area, thereafter reeds and other vegetation began to regrow. By 2005, a lush permanent marsh covering around 440 sqkm had been restored.

The Mesopotamian marshes can be divided into three broader areas defined by the natural boundaries of the two rivers: the central marshes between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; the Hawizeh marsh east of Tigris River; and the Hammar marsh south of the Euphrates River. This vast ecosystem historically covered around 13,000 sqkm and exists in a state of fluctuation between permanent and seasonal marsh, shallow and deep-water lakes, mudflat and flowing rivers. The central marsh has the highest potential for human habitation. Historically, it covered about 2,600 – 3,800 sqkm. Between the Tigris and Euphrates river, hundreds of water-based villages existed within its reed forests. Prior to 1990s, water had poured into the marshes from the north through tributary channels that branched off

The studied area in this work is situated in the central marsh along the Euphrates River between the cities of Al-Nasriyah and Al-Basra. The site of intervention spans between Al-Hammar village to Qurna where Euphrates meets Tigris. Along the area of intervention, various types of agroindustrial activity are observed. The primary economic activities centre around agriculture, livestock and the oil industry. Contrary to historical patterns of habitation which occupied the land of the marshes, most villages today are positioned along the river forming a linear pattern of habitation structured by the spine of the river. This work explores the possibility of re-inhabiting and distributing productive functions in the central marsh.


KUT

ris Tig

Eu

ph

ra

AMARA

tes

Huwaizah Marsh

Central Marsh NASRIYA

Hammar Marsh BASRAH

TURKEY

MOUSIL SULAYMANIYAH

SYRIA

IRAN

BAGHDAD KUT

JORDAN

AMARA

NASRIYA

BASRAH

KUWAIT

SAUDI ARABIA

141


3.1 Selected Site

Al-Chibaysh Marsh The site of intervention reaches along the Euphrates from Al-Hammar to where the river joins with Tigris to become Shatt-Al-Arab.

Al-Hammar Village Population: 10.000

142

Organic waste

Al-Chibaysh Village Population: 150.000

Euphrates River


Al-Qurna Village Population: 450.000

Tigris River

Central Marsh Al-Hwair Village

Population: 110,000

Al-Khas Village 150.000

Bani Mansour Village

Tigris and Euphrates confluence.

Al-Sharish village Al-Mdaina Village Population: 255.000

West Qurna oil field 2.85 million barrels perday

Agricultural Land

143


3.1 Selected Site 3.1.2 Local Land Use

CENTRAL MARSH Eu

ph

Eu

ph

rat

es

PASTURE

AL HAMMARCENTRAL AL CHIBASYISH MARSH V V

rat

V

PASTURE

es

AL HAMMAR

AL CHIBASYISH

V

ABU SABAYA

V

AL H

V

V

AGRICULTURE

The site includes several different types of land use, which all are dependant on the Euphrates river.

T

AGRICULTURE

HAMMAR MARSH

WET-LAND

V V T

WET-LAND

VILLAGE

T

TOWN

AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE

TOWN

OIL FIELD

V

OIL FIEL

IRRIGATED IRRIGATED

VILLAGE

AL KHAS

AL-MDAINA

AGRICULTURE

HAMMAR MARSH

144

OIL FIELD

ABU SABAYA

LAND

EMBANKMENT

OIL FIELD

RIVERS

DRY-LAN

EMBAN

RIVERS

MARSHLAND

MARSHLAND GLORY CANAL

GLORY

PASTURE

PASTURE

DRAINA

DRAINAGE


AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE

Tigris

Glory Canal AGRICULTURE

OIL FIELD

QURNA AL HWAIR

V

T

AL KHAS

T

V

AGRICULTURE

AL-MDAINA

D

LAND

OIL FIELD

DRY-LAND

AGRICULTURE

IRRIGATED LAND

EMBANKMENT RIVERS GLORY CANAL DRAINAGE

145


3.1 Selected Site 3.1.3 Current Inhabitation

In the settlement of Al-Mdaina, the houses are arrayed along the main roads. Each house usually hosts a family, with the family members being from 5 to 25 (“extended” family). Most of the family members are occupied with agricultural activities and each house has normally it’s own agricultural land, which appear as their “backyard”. In most cases, these settlements does not involve any kind of social provisions and public infrastructure. Therefore the inhabitants of these settlements, including Al-Mdaina, are forced to travel many kilometers to the major neighbouring cities for many aspects of their social lives.

146


The majority of the former island configurations that once hosted thousands of people are nowadays surrounded by dry land. Most of the land surrounding them that used to be flooded and covered by reeds has been reclaimed as agricultural land. The canals that were constructed to drain the marshlands are now widely used as irrigation systems. A few houses have been built around these islands, used as temporary residencies for people working on the surrounding agricultural land.

147


3.1 Selected Site

Since the re-flooding efforts started in 2003, the authorities have been trying to re-flood the Central Marsh using the water from Euphrates river, which is the southern natural border of the Central Marsh. To regulate the water flow, they have been using a series of locks along Euphrates, which interrupt both the agricultural land and residential areas. There are also many man made rectangular platforms which operate as collection points for goods or waste that can be used or shipped elsewhere through Euphrates.

148


Al-Qurna is a town located at the confluence point of Tigris and Euphrates, about 74km Northwest of Basra and is the starting point of the river Shatt al-Arab. Al-Qurna has population of 500,000 and is thereby the largest town within the selected site.

149


3.1 Selected Site

3.1.4 Defined Site

After gathering data for the whole area between Al-Hammar village and the city of Qurna, a 30sqm plot including Al-Chibaysh was selected to be further analysed and designed. Choosing to work on this specific site contextualised the project and offered some very interesting local and regional input that informed most of the design decisions that followed. First of all, the selected plot is part of the Central marsh area that has been re-flooded with water from Euphrates since 2003. The area above AlChibaysh contained more than 1,200 artificial islands until the late 70â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. These islands included small and bigger residential units, communal houses (Mudhif), markets, schools, etc. The community of the Marsh Arabs living there were completely self-sufficient by cultivating a few crops, fishing, hunting and trading with the neighbouring tribes. Back then Al-Chibaysh was nothing more than a small village along the Euphrates with relatively important position as a small trading centre because of its proximity to the river. After the complete draught of the marshes, most of the people living there migrated to either Al-Chibaysh or other small villages

150

along Euphrates, creating bigger semi-urban constellations and leaving almost no trace of the earlier inhabitation patterns in the marshes. AlChibaysh has been established since then as an important small city of the broader area. The partial re-flooding of parts of the central marsh (including the Chibaysh area), which started in 2003 and is still in progress, was not a part of a coherent sustainable plan but a spontaneous act from some locals. This caused many problems and challenges that are mostly related with the water quality and with the ability of the marsh area to recover and be re-inhabited by humans and wildlife. A detailed analysis of these challenges will be given in the following pages and will drive in a large extend the design of the proposal. A novel strategy for recovering and re-inhabiting the marsh area above Al-Chibaysh is following in the rest of the document, suggesting that the people who are going to gradually relocate there will form a novel self-sufficient interconnected community. A similar approach could be then expanded to greater areas of the marshes.


iver Tigris R

Al Khas Central Marsh

Al Qurna

Euphrates River

Hammar Marsh Al Chibayish Al Mdaina

Central Marsh

Al- Chibayish

151


152


3.2 Site Strategy

153


3.2 Site Strategy

3.2.1 General Strategy

Marsh ecologies are complex adaptive systems, as such they exist at the border between order and chaos, they are too complex to be treated as machines and too organized to be treated as random. In this sense, rather than looking at the constituent elements that make up the system, it is more important to understand the processes and patters underlying the interaction between its elements. The ecosystem of the marshes emerges out of the distributed interaction of multiple elements. The stability of the system depends on its dynamics and its capacity to process movement, fluctuations and change.

Jørgensen, Sven Erik and Brian D Fath. Encyclopedia Of Ecology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008. Print.

154

While traditional approaches to ecology study ecosystems with little reference to human society; an integrated design approach would include social and economic processes as integral to the system. The initial strategy for the site is based on the idea of bringing together these processes to form a complex web of interactions. The three main aims of the project are: [1] To help

recover the marshes and restore its ecological functions. [2] Organize productive functions to take advantage of the marshes while coexisting and enhancing the natural ecology. [3] Provide a new model of human habitation that suggests the possibility of a settlement type that exists between land and water. Ecosystems are macro-scale systems composed of biotic and abiotic elements. Plants and animals are the biotic components, while water, sun energy, air and rain are the abiotic components. The networks of interaction that are established between the biotic and abiotic elements give rise to the complex system of an ecology. Wherever there is interaction a system is prone to instability, however, in an ecosystem the biotic and abiotic components could establish productive relationships with each other and bring the system to a state of temporal balance.


Design Aims

SUN

Recover The Marshes

BIOM

Organize Productive Functions Inhabit the Marshes

photos

SOCIAL WASTE

RIC ON TI P N UM TIO S C N CO ODU PR

DI RE SPO CY SA CL L IN G

MARSHES food

OM ON EC

RESOURCES EXTRACTION

Y

OG

OL

EC

IC

FIS

Integration of Processes

155


3.2 Site Strategy

3.2.2 Flow of Energy and Matter

Sanford Kwinter, “soft systems” in culture lab, ed. Brian Boigon, Princeton architecture press. 1993 P.208

156

An important goal of this project is to set up the conditions that would make it possible for the system to be adaptable over time and resist disturbances. This involves understanding the flows of energy that run through the system. Sanford Kwinter describes this condition as a “Soft System”. A system is soft when it is flexible, adaptable and evolving. A soft system is supported by a dense network of active feedback loops and is capable of sustaining flows. Functions and activities can be organised relative to the flow of energy and movement of material. The network relations established between the biotic and abiotic elements of an ecosystem regulate the flow of energy and matter. These flows provide the connection between the different parts of the system and transform a community of random species into an integrated whole.

The constant consumption of energy by the ecosystem puts the system in a state far from thermal equilibrium. This creates a special condition which allows for the emergence of order out of chaos. In a state of perfect equilibrium matter is inactive, but if some pressure is applied the system self-organises and moves into higher and lower levels of order through which there is a constant flux of energy and material transformation. Take for example the sun. The sun radiates energy, this energy is trapped and stored in the form of biomass(Plants) by means of photosynthesis. Plants, in turn, are eaten by herbivore animals that store this energy in the form of flesh in their bodies, which then is burnt as the animal ploughs the fields of rice which, in combination with water and sun energy, will produce food for human consumption.


MARSH ECOLOGY SUN

BIOMASS

WATER photos

ynthes

radiati

on

REEDS

biogas

food

gas food

work

EC O

BUFFALO

fresh water

NO MI C

FISH

electricity

work

DATES

waste

ENERGY work

WASTE

RICE

ON TI N IO CT

es

is

HUMANS

Sun Water Products Work Waste

Matter Energy Flows

157


3.2 Site Strategy

3.2.3 Marsh Recovery Strategy

Water flow Regarding the ecological aspect of the marsh, as earlier mentioned, there is a severe salinity problem that needs to be dealt with. The rising salinity levels are mainly due to evaporation and the decreasing amount of input water to the marshes. In 2003 when the locals breached the embankments along the Euphrates river large parts of the former marshland were temporarily recovered to its original state. The locals had then created a new water inlet, without planning for an outlet. Without an outlet the water is left to evaporate rapidly in this hot climate. When evaporation occurs, fresh water is released into the atmosphere, leaving a brine behind. This is the main cause for the increasing salinity.

158

In order to recover the marshes permanently, more water would have to be provided and lead through the marshes, to an outlet. The natural flow of water came from Tigris, went through the marshes, and was lead out to the Euphrates. Re-implementing this strategy of water flow would be the first step the the restoration of the marshlands. Due to the current annual flow of Tigris, this can not be achieved without an alternative water source. By desalinating water from the sea and leading it through pipes to the marshes, the natural water flow could be artificially restored.


TIGRIS A

Amara 10m 8m 5m

AMARA

2m AUDA MARSH

HAWIZEH MARSH

Section A-A

SOUTH HAWIZEH

NASRIYA

ABO ZIRIG MARSH

1- Supply fresh water to

CHUBAYSH MARSH

KARMASHIA MARSH

SHAFI MARSH GARMAT ALI MARSH

A

BASRAH

During the re-flooding attempt in 2003,2theFlush locals provided the soil to clean water to the dries marshes without3-Control having a strategy theforamount of the water flow. This lead to a sustain the life in the m temporarily recovered marsh with annually increasing salinity. TIGRIS

A

AMARA

CENTTRAL MARSH

FLOODING

Current Reflooding strategy

EUPHRATES

TIGRIS

TIGRI

EUPHRATES HAMMAR MARSH

BASRAH

FLUSHING

NASRIYA

The natural water flow through the Central Marsh came from Tigris, flushed through the marshes, and went out to Euphrates.

A

EUPHRATES

Original natural waterflow in the marshland

159


3.2 Site Strategy

Tanks Restoring the natural water flow though the marshlands is a necessary action. Although, this would not be enough to sustain their restoration since they were highly dependent on another natural phenomenon, the annual spring flood. Every spring when the snow would melt in the Turkish highlands, a vast amount of water would run through the two rivers and flush out the contaminates from the marshes to the sea. This flush was a natural cleaning mechanism that regulated the levels of salinity and other TDS in order to keep the marshlands alive. If the water thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s being pumped from the sea to the marshes was to be stored in a tank that could regulate the inflow and release a certain amount of water at specific times, this would be a way of mimicking the natural flushing system. By implementing this technique the marshes would be kept clean, allowing its content to survive. However, due to the required amount of water, this tank would have to be divided into

160

many smaller tanks that would be distributed over the marshes. At this point there would be a network of water tanks serving an ecological function, restoring the marshes. With the desire to implement the other aspects of the projects aims, the tank could be utilized to serve more functions. As the project aims to organise productive functions, these productions would require a large amount of water that has to be accurately regulated. The tank would be able to control the water which is required for the different types of production by both storing reserves and regulation the outflow. When having these large infrastructural buildings spread out over a rural area one can argue that the actual tank structures should be designed differently and be used to serve as various social functions such as markets, schools, etc.


Distributed Tanks

Wat er

Inle

Each Tank Supplies Water Locally

t

sup

ply

Storage Filtration Combined Area of Intervention

Wat er

Outl

et The water tank regulating the inflow to the marshes would have to be divided into many tanks and be distributed over the marshes due to the large volume of required water.

161


OM ON

low tide

SO CIA L

emergent

riparian

upland

recharge

litoral

TANK

EC

ecological function

ECOLOGY

supply litoral

emergent

riparian

upland

Y

EVERY TANK IS A BUILD high tide

5- 7 %

salt extraction

rice

dates

15- 20 %

brine water by-products

fish

30 %

162

buffalo

people

algae (oil) and mariculture

salt water cooled greenhouse

brine fresh

fresh water by-products

flush


Social Functions ECOLOGY

Market

OM ON

SO CIA L

EC

TANK Y

EVERY TANK IS A BUILDING

Storage silo

Workshops

brine fresh

rice

Cultural Center

(oil) and mariculture

ouse

program

163


3.2 Site Strategy

3.2.4 Local Inhabitation and Consumption

The Mesopotamian Marshlands used to be, and partially still are, inhabited by Marsh Arabs, who are usually referred to as Ma’dāns. The Ma’dāns are a self-sufficient people that are mainly occupied with agriculture, fishing, buffalo farming and weaving reeds. They use reeds for building their homes and they also use it in combination with mud for constructing the island which they inhabit.

Average Consumption / Iraqi

Average Consumption / Iraqi

A research was conducted on the annual consumption of the average Iraqi. The most important products were chosen to be further

explored. For each of these products a ratio was calculated between production requirement and area. So for every type of production, it was calculated for one square kilometer, how much water is consumed, how many worker are required and how much of the product is produced. These ratios in combination with the annual consumption of an Iraqi informs how much productive land is required to sustain a certain population. This data could then be used to define the exact boundaries of the site.

Marsh Inhabitants

Marsh Inhabitants

164

Typ. Household size: 5 members 4.5 Million People Target population 150.000


Marsh Arabs are also known as Ma’dāns

Annual Consumption of the Average Iraqi Rice 33 kg Fish 100 kg Dates 6.5 kg Dairy 60 litres Water 93 tons Energy 1600 KWh The Ma’dāns are a selfsufficient people that are mainly occupied with agriculture, fishing, buffalo farming and weaving reeds

The Ma’dāns use a specific boat called Mashoof to navigate through the shallow waters in the marshes

165


3.2 Site Strategy

Rice Field

Rice 450 Tons/SqKm

0.6 mcm

Water Tank

Rice 450 T

Rice Paddy

Dimensions : VARY. TYP DIMENSION ( 10 X 20 M ) Total Number of Paddies: 880 Number of Paddies per SqKm: 5,000 Amount of workers required: 1000

Rice Paddy 10 M

20 M

Dimensions : VARY. T Total Number of Padd Number of Paddies pe Amount of workers re

Solar Field

Energy 6822 GWH/SqKm

6M

Energ 6822

CSP (concetrated solar power)

Dimensions : TYP DIMENSION ( 6 x 2 M ) total Number of units: 1875 Number of units per SqKm: 31,000 Amount of workers required: 45 2M

1 mcm

Fish 10.000 Ton/SqKm Fish Cage

Dimensions : VARY. TYP DIMENSION ( 5 M diameters ) Total Number of units: 1800 Number of units per SqKm: 40,000 Amount of workers required: 550

CSP (concet

Dimensions : TYP DIM total Number of units Number of units per S Amount of workers re

Aquaculture Water Tank 5M

Fish 10.00 Fish Cage

Dimensions : VARY. T Total Number of units Number of units per S Amount of workers re

166


Date Palm Field Date Palm Field

3.65 mcm 3.65 mcm Water Tank Water Tank

Dates Dates Tons/SqKm 1150 Palm tree orchard 1150 Tons/SqKm Palm tree Dimensions : The leaves are 4–6 metres Number of Palm trees per SqKm: 16,000

1.86 mcm Dweling Units Dweling Units

1.86 mcm Water Tank Water Tank

1 mcm 1 mcm Buffalo

Water Tank

Buffalo

Water Tank

Amount oftree workersorchard required: 960 Palm

Palm tree Dimensions : The leaves are 4–6 metres Number of Palm trees per SqKm: 16,000 Amount of workers required: 960

Population Population 500 People/SqKm Dwelling unit 500 People/SqKm Dimensions : Typ. Dimensions 15 x 5 x 4 m Total Number of units : 2000

Dwelling unit

Dimensions : Typ. Dimensions 15 x 5 x 4 m Total Number of units : 2000

Dairy Dairy Tons/SqKm 16500 Buffalo Stable 16500 Tons/SqKm Dimensions : 600 Sqm Total Number of units : 330 (30 Buffalo each)

Buffalo Stable Amount of workers required: 2000

Dimensions : 600 Sqm Total Number of units : 330 (30 Buffalo each) Amount of workers required: 2000

167


3.2 Site Strategy

3.2.5 Land Distribution

While organising productive functions in the marshes it is important to not overtake their natural wild character. Since the area of the different production types were set to a fixed size, calculated from the requirements to provide for the average Iraqi, a ratio between the seperate productive areas could be set. This could then be use to calculate the required production area for any population size. The aim was set to keep 75% of the area as marsh, of which more than half would be kept as wild

168

marsh. Wild marsh refferes to the type of marsh that isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t intended for grazing or being used for any of the other types of productive activities which are being introduced to the site. The wild marsh serves as a purely ecological function. The other type of marsh is the controlled marsh, which is intended for grazing. This part of the marsh would be constantly changing as the buffaloes feed on it, and its size ratio has been calculated to fit enough reeds required to feed the amount of buffaloes that are needed to meet the demand for dairy consumption per capita in Iraq.

2.6 %

8.8 %

4.9 %

34.6 %

6.5 %

42.0 %


Required Areas: 1

Production Area

2

3

4

Buffalo

Rice

Energy

Buffalo Production = 360 km2

Rice Production = 145 km2

Energy Production = 60 km2

Buffalo

Rice

Energy

Fish Fish Production = 45 km2

5

6

Dates

Inhabited Land

Dates Production area = 26 km2

Population of 465,600 (50m each) = 24 km2

24 sqkm 26 sqkm 45 sqkm 60 sqkm 145 sqkm 360 sqkm

Required Water: (volume)

Water Volume

50 mcm 67 mcm 74 mcm 90 mcm 145 mcm

Fish

Dates

Rice

Buffalo

Inhabited Land

Energy

Fish Dates Pop.

169


170


4.0 Design Strategy

171


172


4.1 Program Distribution

173


4.1 Program Distribution

4.1.1 Distribution of Functions

Field Conditions by Stan Allen in Points + Lines, 1985

In order to introduce and distribute productive functions in the marshes, it is important to ensure that some percentage of the area is preserved as wild marsh. The ecosystem of the marshes provides a number of ecological services that can benefit the productive functions that are to be introduced. This ecological services are: [1] Filtration. Wetlands can clean water by slowing water letting particles settle and absorbing exess nutrients. [2] Storage. Wetlands can store water; acting like a sponge excesses water can be retained and slowly released over time. [3] Biomass Productivity. Due to high concentration of nutrients in the wetland waters, biomass can grow faster than in any other ecosystem. [4] Wildlife Habitat. Wetlands provide a suitable environment for permanent and periodic animal occupation. For example migratory birds would occupy temporarily areas of the wetland. For a given area of marsh, the percentage of a certain product needs to meet the demand established to feed a target population based on the average consumption of produce per capita (see 3.2.4 Local Inhabitation and Consumption). Production should sustain the population inhabiting the selected area and generate

174

surplus product to generate additional value. This numbers are allowed to fluctuate as long as about 50 % of wild marsh is preserved. The marsh ecology needs to be preserved not only for environmental conservation reasons but also because the different products can benefit from interacting with the marsh ecology and its services. Threfore, the distribution strategy aims at increasing the interaction between the various productive fucntions and the marsh. Instead of separating and concentrating functions in zones, the goal is to create a semi-radom distribution of uses in order to establish the most connections between product to products and marsh to products. This condition can be described as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;field conditionâ&#x20AC;? to borrow Stan Allen terminology. A field is capable of unifying distinct elements while preserving its individual identity. Fields are characterized by being permeable and porous. Fields promote interaction between its parts. Fields are loosely bound and its overall shape is less important than its internal relations. In this sense, the field condition offers an ideal arrangement of uses that can extend or contract without destabilizing the whole.


LAND-USE DISTRIBUTION

Separation of Functions

P M

Distributed-Field Condition

P

P

Productive Functions

Wetland Functions

Buï¬&#x20AC;alo

Marsh

Filtration Storage

MARSH / PROGRAM

Rice Energy

Biologial Productivity

Fish

Wildlife Habitat

Dates Inhabited Land

175


4.1 Program Distribution

4.1.2 Reservoirs vs Wetlands

There are many benefits from coupling productive functions with wetland ecologies. Conventional irrigation schemes rely on a dam and a canal system to supply water to the crop. In a typical irrigation scheme, water flows from a river stream into a reservoir. Water is collected in the reservoir and regulated by a dam. A certain amount of water is allowed to pass through, this water is lead to a main irrigation canal and subsequently distributed to secondary canals until it reaches the crop. Reservoirs are the most common system used to contain large amounts of water. However, in regions with hot climates, like in the case of Iraq, this water management strategy can result in large amounts of water lost. High temperatures produce evaporation which can amount to billions of cubic meters in water loss (see 1.6.1 Water Scarcity - Current Problems). Additionally, the flow of water in a conventional irrigation schemes is

176

mostly monofunctional. Water is used for one single purpose instead of passing through various stages to serve multiple functions. A wetland, on the other hand, offers various ecological services such as water filtration, water storage, biological productivity and wildlife habitats (see 1.1.5 Wetland Functions). Similar to a reservoir, a wetland can store water and regulate water naturally. In the event of an overflow of water, the wetland can absorb the water back minimizing losses. Additionally, wetlands are covered with various layers of plants and trees that prevent evaporation from happening. Furthermore, water can be cleaned and treated through a natural process of filtration. Water with different levels of salinity, silt and nutrients can be distributed to a diverse range of products making the system serve multiple functions.


Water Reservoir

Wetland

EVAPORATION

Dam water treatment guide banks river

reservoir

river

Weir

river

Canal System

Canal System

WETLAND IRRIGATION FLOW

TYP. IRRIGATION FLOW Storage

Loss of Water

Filtration

Biologial Productivity

Regulate Water

Mono-functional

Storage

Wildlife Habitat

177


4.1 Program Distribution 4.1.3 Synergies

Whereas most industrial processes follow a linear behaviour, an alternative designed strategy can be established to promote cyclic and non-linear behaviour by harnessing synergistic relations between the marsh ecology and the set of products that are to be introduced in the site. In simple linear systems, a process constantly utilises the same inputs and produces the same outputs. This results in inputting resources that are extracted from the environment and outputting waste to the environment. The distinction between linear and non-linear has become fundamental and constitutes a paradigmatic change in the new sciences that can also inform design strategies. Linear systems obey, what is often referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x153;the superposition principleâ&#x20AC;? which states that the net gain at a given place and time caused by the interaction between two or more elements is equal to the sum of its parts or equal to the response that would have been caused by each individual element acting separately. Non-linear systems, on the other hand, cannot be explained in terms of its individual parts because their essential properties depend the interaction between its parts. These systems are capable of exhibiting emergent behaviour, which means that the outcome from the interaction of its parts produces a result that is greater than the sum of its parts. Not all interactions are beneficial and not all combinations are possible. All biotic and abiotic elements in an ecosystem have some boundary condition that defines whether synchronised behaviour and cooperation can take place. [Workshop to Produce an Information Kit on Farmerproven. Integrated Agricultureaquaculture Technologies (IIRR, 1992, 119 p.)

178

Synergetic interactions occur when two or more elements work together to create an effect that is greater than or less than that of each element in isolation. Synergies can be positive or negative. In

biological systems, these elements can produce an amplifications or cancellation effect. In order to produce synergies, the main focus of design needs to shift from the parts to the relations. To achieve synergetic relations there needs to be some degree of diversity of processes taking place on different but parallel levels. When parallel action takes place, different components in the system process different resources and it is possible to connect what is waste for one component to what is an input for another. In designing these relations the goal is to make positive sum gains the attractor state. To do this, network relations need to be established. This requires an investment in the infrastructure that sets up the relations through which the different elements of the system would interact. In order to establish productive relations between the marsh ecology and the productive functions a set of rules for combining positive adjacencies was established. Positive combinations were identified in order to use them as rules to inform the distribution of functions across the site of intervention. For example, rice production benefits from being close to fish. Rice yield can increase by 10-15% from being close to fish. Fish helps control certain weeds and eats insects such as stemborer and brownplant hopper. Fish bio-waste contains uneaten feeds which can add as fertiliser to the soil. Fish promotes the movement of water increasing the availability of nutrients increasing floodwater productivity. Fish reduces loss of ammonia through volatilising by preventing floodwater pH rise over 8.5. During the time fertilisers are applied, increased plankton production tends to raise the value o pH beyond 8.5, at this level ionised ammonia converts into unionised form and is easily lost.


SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS FRESH WATER

DESALINISATION

WATER

ENERGY

BIOWASTE WATER

RICE CROP

FOOD

PEOPLE

BUFFALO

SHELTER

DATE PALM

FISH FARM

REEDS

BUILDING MATERIAL

BUILDING MATERIAL

FOOD WATER FILTRATION

Date Palms

Buï¬&#x20AC;alo

Energy

Fish

Reeds

Rice

MUTUALISM

People Waste

COMMENSALISM OUTPUT

179


4.1 Program Distribution Each productive or residential island has a different sectional relation with the water, according on the needs of each activity taking place there. Moreover the seasonal fluctuation of the water mainly created by the spring floods (artificially produced by the tanks or not, see distributed tanks site strategy), which is temporary changing the water level, was taken into account.

Site Condition Sections The reeds can only grow on soil covered with fresh or brackish water. The maximum depth of the water where reeds can grow is 1m. There are two types of reeds found on the marshlands; one growing in the areas where water is up to 200mm deep and one growing in the deeper areas.

Various different techniques are used for growing rice around the globe, which are mainly dependent on the soil and water types and the local climatic conditions. The water level on the rice patties cultivated for rice production the depth of the water changes based on the time of the year and the specific needs of the crops (different level when growing, collecting, etc).

650mm minim REEDS

1m maximum

RICE

20mm - 100mm

100mm minim

300mm minim Fishes can be found almost everywhere in the marshes, from the shallow waters covered by reeds to the deeper ponds and canals. In order to systematically produce fish farm the deeper waters (more than 1m) must be chosen for installing aquaculture equipment.

1m minimum

precipitation and water settling

180

FISH FARMS

aeriation and bio-purification

subsurface filtration

heavy metal removal and bio-purification

pathogen remo and bio-purifica


650mm minimum ENERGY

The islands used for electricity production harnessing solar energy must be levelled at least 650mm above the water level, ensuring that their ground remains above the water level throughout the year.

100mm minimum

PALMS The islands where palm trees are being cultivated to produce dates should be above the water level but they can be partially or fully flooded for short periods of times. This could naturally fertilise the palm trees by adding layers of beneficial organic waste and other nutrients.

300mm minimum RESIDENTIAL ISLANDS The inhabited islands, covered by houses made of reeds and mud, should be above the water level. Traditionally, layers of mud and dry reeds where added on the islands’s surface throughout the year to ensure that the reed houses remain out of reach of water.

THE WATER CLEANING MECHANISM OF A TYPICAL “CONTROLLED” WETLAND pathogen removal and bio-purification

nutrient removal water quality stabilisation

clean water

181


4.1 Program Distribution

Biogas production benefits from close proximity to buffalos as the waste from the animal can be harnessed to generate electric energy.

WATER

BUFFALO

RICE

PRODUCTIVE INTERACTIONS

BI

Date palms and humans benefit from being close to each other as palm trees provide shade for humans while humans help to artificially pollinate the palm population.

DATES

RICE CROP

FISH

FISH FARM

Wild fish benefits from close proximity to reeds as reeds protect fish from predators. Reeds benefit from fish as they can act as fertilizer increasing biomass renewal and biological productivity.

REED

WATER FILTRATIO

Fish Productive Sequence

182

Date Palms


SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS

TIONS

Fish and rice benefit from being close to each other as fish can act as a fertilizer for rice and rice can provide supplemental food for fish.

FRESH WATER

DESALINISATION

WATER

ENERGY

BIOWASTE WATER

RICE CROP

FOOD

PEOPLE

BUFFALO

SHELTER

DATE PALM

FISH FARM

REEDS

BUILDING MATERIAL

BUILDING MATERIAL

FOOD WATER FILTRATION

Date Palms

Buï¬&#x20AC;alo

Energy

Fish

Reeds

Rice

Buffalos benefit from being close to reeds as reeds provide the main source of food for the animal.

MUTUALISM

People Waste

COMMENSALISM OUTPUT

183


184


4.2 Networks

185


4.2 Networks 4.2.1 Network Strategies

Watts, Duncan. 2004. Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age.

Caldarelli and Catanzaro. 2012.Networks: A Very Short Introduction.

Sole and Valverde (2004). Information Theory of Complex Networks: on evolution and architectural constraints.

186

In its simplest form, a network is a collection of elements connected to each other in some type of arrangement. “A network (or graph) is simply a collection of nodes (vertices) and links (edges) between nodes. The links can be directed or undirected, and weighted or unweighted.”[1] In complex systems, a series of interconnected events occur as the result of local interactions between its constituent parts. If two nodes are not linked, they cannot communicate, interact or affect each other, they exist in different systems and their individual behaviour cannot possibly have an impact on each other. When a network is established, events that happen at one location of the network have the potential to impact any other location of the system. In the absence of a network events are only felt locally. [2] Networks can range from a highly ordered state to a very disordered one. A highly ordered network structure is a regular graph; a grid or tree structure. These types of network topologies are usually man-made and the origin of the order may come from a variety of reasons. For example, trading routes are set up in specific patterns due to commercial interests and geographical proximity. Often times, connections are established based on particular reasons instead of simply made at random. The type of network that represents a highly structured order is the grid. However, many real networks that we found in the world, especially those that evolve without central control, display some degree of disorder; these networks are often referred to as random networks or ER (Erdos-Renyi) graphs. The difference between a grid (regular graph) and a random network (ER graph), is that the latter one is capable of displaying emergent behaviour by reaching a critical point and suddenly switching from a highly disconnected state to highly connected one in a similar process to what is

known in physics as a phase transition. While regular graphs such as grids and trees tend to have long average paths (nodes are far from each other) and a high clustering coefficient (groups of nodes form clusters), random networks have short average paths and a low clustering coefficient. What is common to these two types of networks is that they both have a homogeneous distribution, meaning that the number of connections each node has is very similar. In general most real life networks are not homogeneous, more often than not, networks have a heterogeneous distribution. Most networks have some degree of regularity and some degree of disorder, therefore they fall somewhere between a regular graph and a random graph. In 1988, Watts and Strogatz, proposed a model to describe these types of networks, which they called “Small World Networks” (SW). SW networks have a heterogeneous distribution, a high clustering coefficient and average short paths (hence the name “small world network”). The small world phenomena is a striking feature of this type of networks. Contrary to a regular grid, where the average length path becomes larger in a linear fashion as the system grows, in a SW network the average length path becomes smaller as the system grows. Another important class of network topology are referred to as Scale Free networks (SF), this model was proposed, in 1999 by Barbasi & Albert, to describe networks that have a high heterogeneous degree of distribution and some degree of randomness. An important characteristic of this type of network configuration is that its distribution follows a “power law”, with a few important nodes that are highly connected and a “fat tale” of nodes with very few connections. In this type of networks it is easy to identify hubs, which is nodes that are particularly important within the network because of the number of connections they hold.


Function Distribution Strategy HOMOGENEOUS STRUCTURE

Function Distribution Strategy HOMOGENEOUS STRUCTURE

DISTRIBUTED NETWORK

DISTRIBUTED NETWORK

HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION

HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION MESH

MESH

HETEROGENEOUS STRUCTURE

HETEROGENEOUS STRUCTURE

DE-CENTRALIZED NETWORK

DE-CENTRALIZED NETWORK

SEMI-RANDOM DISTRIBUTION

SEMI-RANDOM DISTRIBUTION MODULAR

MODULAR

HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE

HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE

CENTRALIZED NETWORK

CENTRALIZED NETWORK

CENTRALIZED DISTRIBUTION

CENTRALIZED DISTRIBUTION TREE

TREE

187


4.2 Networks

4.2.2 Generation of Base Network

Brelsford, Christa et all. 2015. The Topology of Cities, Santa Fe Institute Working Paper: 2015-06-021

188

At the macro-scale of a complex system like a city, an ecosystem or an interconnected rural formation, the underlying structure and organisation of a network is more significant than the individual geometrical or morphological characteristics of its component parts. Take for example an animal food chain in ecological systems; provided that an animal is equipped with a basic level of functionality, meaning that the animal is not impaired to perform basic operations such as moving or eating, when considering the system as whole, the individual characteristics of the animal are not as important as the set of activities and interactions the animal engages with. Events that may appear to be unrelated are actually intricately linked by means of the underlying structure of a network. Similarly in urban systems, a building may be shaped in any way; as long as its form allows for the minimum requirements to fulfil a certain function its morphological characteristics are not particularly important. Building morphologies are subject to change over time; buildings are demolished and re-built, they are expanded and subdivided, they transform to give way to new uses and inevitably adapt to respond to new demands and requirements posed by changing circumstances. What is more important, at the macro-scale of the urban system, is where the building is positioned in relation to the rest of the city and how it is connected to other buildings and people. Therefore,

in the design of urban systems and other types of human settlements, the essential spatial characteristics of the cities, villages, conurbation, etc are topologic relations not geometric configurations. [1] In order to position the different productive uses, a semi-random distribution strategy was selected, as described before. The uses were initially distributed (circle packing), while the ratio of each productive activity was being optimised in order to approach the desired pre-set percentages that would allow for a certain amount of production, with the use of a genetic algorithm. Then another genetic algorithm was used in order to minimise the pipeline networkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total length (connecting the tanks position in the centres of the circles shown) and to ensure that the most possible beneficial symbiotic neighbouring conditions between the productive functions would be achieved (as described in the program distribution, symbiotic relationships part). A series of â&#x20AC;&#x153;keyâ&#x20AC;? diagrams will follow that use a generic square as a reference border. These diagrams are going to explain the process of generating the residential clusters/canals in the selected plot and consequently the complete infrastructural canals network that hosts boats serving productive or residential activities.


Network Generation Strategy Distribution of Uses

Cluster of Paths (Mag

Functions

Clusters D

F

D

R

F

R

189


4.2 Networks

Residential Cluster Generation PRODUCTIVE AREAS

The functions have been distributed with different circles containing different productive activities, as explained before. Furthermore, each circle is representing the area for which the water tank (triangle) will store and provide fresh water according to the different production needs throughout the year.

FIELD LINES GENERATION

190


n INTENSITIES OF PRODUCTION

A different intensity is assigned to every centre of the circles (water tanks), according to the intensity of the productive activity that is taking place there. This ensures that there will not be much interruption to the more labour or land -intensive the productive activities.

EVALUATION OF FIELD PATHS

191


4.2 Networks

RESIDENTIAL NODES

The area of intervention is populated with randomly distributed points. Every point represents a residential unit. The number of points is dependent on the desired population density for that specific area. The amount of inhabitants per unit ranges from 5 to 20 people, according to the residential typologies that will be later placed there.

FINAL RESIDENTIAL CLUSTERS

192


FIELD LINES GENERATION

The field lines/canals are created, starting from the residential nodes placed on the previous step and converging along the periphery of the production areas. The field lines are leaving enough space for both the productive activities to happen with the least possible residential interruption and for the wild marsh to grow in order to ensure that no large, solely productive zones will be created along the plot.

193


4.2 Networks

EVALUATION OF FIELD PATHS

In this stage a preliminary evaluation of the field paths is happening. The field paths that are not forming clusters (less than 4 intersecting lines) and those that are interrupting a productive activity are eliminated.

194


FINAL RESIDENTIAL CLUSTERS

These are the final field lines/ canals, which are going to serve as the paths that connect the residential islands with the rest of the network.

195


4.2 Networks eneration Strategy

Uses

Cluster of Paths (Magnetic Field)

Clusters The residential clusters are wrapping around and enclosing a productive activity, leaving enough space for the wild marsh to grow.

D

F

R

196

Convergence of Paths

Central Paths


(Magnetic Field)

Convergence of Paths

Central Paths The central paths were chosen after counting the number of intersections within each cluster. The curve with the most intersections per cluster was selected as the central path. These paths/canals are wider and deeper than the rest of the canals within the cluster as they have to accommodate more small and bigger boats. Agent based modelling was used to connect the central paths with each other and form a complete hierarchical network within the site.

197


4.2 Networks

4.2.3 Generation of Integrated Network

In order to generate a network, all residential clusters need to be connected with each other. Each one of these clusters has a common central path formed by the convergence of multiple local paths. To connect the clusters with each other, an agent based simulation is used which through a mechanism of indirect coordination generate a network by self-organisation without any need for planning. There are four distinct advantages in using an agent based system to develop an artificial decentralised network. Flexibility: The system can react to internal and external changes in the environment. Robustness: Tasks are completed even if some individuals fail.

198

Decentralisation: There is no central control over the system. Self-Organisation: Paths to solutions are emergent rather than pre-defined which leads to better utilisation of resources and gives a dynamic character to the solution finding process. The system is based on a set of simple rules but through a collective collaboration they can perform complex tasks. The agentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; movement pattern is sign-based and hence indirect, which means they follow the trace left by other agents. The trace of the agents movement is left in the environment making an indirect contribution to the task being undertaken and influencing the subsequent behaviour of other agents performing the same task.


Network Generation Strategy (Flows Behaviour) Agents Connection Paths

Agents Origins

Agents High Probability Path

State 1

State 2

Network Connections

State 3

199


4.2 Networks

The mathematical model of the agentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behaviour is developed to follow the basic rules of flocking behaviour. In flocking simulations, there is no central control; each agent behaves autonomously. In other words, each agent has to decide for itself which flocks to consider as its environment. Basic models of flocking behaviour are controlled by three simple rules: Separation - avoid crowding neighbours (short range repulsion) Alignment - steer towards average heading of neighbours Cohesion - steer towards average position of neighbours (long range attraction)

200

By following these three rules the agents moves and creates complex motion and interaction which results an emerging path network. Over much iteration many paths emerge but the agents start using the shorter path and the most exclusively used path thus further reinforcing it which makes it the desired path. (Fig 2) The rules and the variables (velocity, the rotation axis and the distance they can travel) can be related to the Mashoof boat which is the traditional way of transportation in the marshland). (Fig 1)


a

b

A

A

A

1

2

3

Initial path High probability path Shortest path

V1

1

1 d1

2

1

V2

d2

2

d3

d1

V3

d2

d2

V4

d4

4

3

SEPERATION

Agent

F

Vcohesion

Mashhoof

d4

R

R

R

4

4

ALIGNMENT

Move to avoid crowding local flockmates

V

V

2

d3

R

d4

d1

V

3

3 d3

V align

v

θ

COHESION Move towards the average position of local flockmates

Move towards the average heading of local flockmates

V: Velocity R: Radius of the field d: distance F: Field of vision θ: Blind spot

FIELD OF VISION Radius of Mashhoof rotation limits

Fig.1

B

B

A

A

A

1

2

3

B

a

b

Fig.2

Initial path High probability path Shortest path

1

3 d3

d1

3

d2

2

V

V Vcohesion

F

Agent Mashhoof

201


4.2 Networks Frame: 50

S.E 1 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 0.5 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 0.3 Speed: 3

S.E 2 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 0.0 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 0.3 Speed: 3

S.E 3 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 1.0 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 0.3 Speed: 3

S.E 4 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 0.1 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 0.3 Speed: 3

202

Frame: 200


Frame: 50

Frame: 200

S.E 5 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 1.5 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 0.3 Speed: 3

S.E 6 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 1.0 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 0.7 Speed: 3

S.E 7 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 1.0 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 0.5 Speed: 3

S.E 8 Parameters: Population: 1500 Steering: 0.1 Pheromone: 0.5 Separation: 1 Speed: 3

203


4.2 Networks

4.2.4 Emergent Paths

In contrast to working in a typical city or town, a unique condition about the marshland is that there is no need to build physical infrastructure as the paths in the marshland can be created as a consequence of erosion caused by human movement and animal foot-fall. These paths usually represent the shortest or the most easily navigated routes. They can constantly be updated, as they emerge and dissolve according to change in use making the marshland a dynamic system. Fagherazzi, S., Kirwan, M., Mudd, S., Guntenspergen, G., Temmerman, S., Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Alpaos, A., van de Koppel, J., Rybczyk, J., Reyes, E., Craft, C. and Clough, J. (2012). Numerical models of salt marsh evolution: Ecological, geomorphic, and climatic factors. Rev. Geophys.

204

The formation of these paths can be described as follows: the path starts from a nearly flat bottom configuration. Small perturbations of bottom elevations enhance flux concentration, leading to bottom erosion and the initiation of a channel in which tidal fluxes further concentrate, thus increasing channel cross-section dimensions in

a self-sustained process. (Fig.1) for example the boat or an animal would transit from one point to another leaving a trace, the more trips they make on the same path the deeper and more permanent this path will be. If the trips are reduced or infrequent nature will start to grow erasing the path and eventually the path will disappear. Based on the set of rules and the agentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behaviour explained in the previous sections, a set of experiments is conducted to simulate varieties of paths configurations to connect the clusters by gradually changing the alignment values in the first four experiments followed by a gradual change of the separation values in the last four experiments.


LOCAL BOTTOM PERTURBATIONS FAVOR FLUX CONCENTRATION AND ENHANCE LOCAL BED SHEAR STRESS THUS PROMOTING LOCAL SCOUR AND CHANNEL INITIATION

CHANNEL INITIATION PROMOTES FURTHER FLUX CONCENTRATION: THE FORMING CHANNEL INCREASES ITS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA IN A POSITIVE FEEDBACK BETWEEN EROSION AND CHANNEL FORMATION

THE CHANNEL EVOLVES TOWARD AN EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATION CHARACTERISED BY A VANISHING LOCAL NET SEDIMENT FLUX

205


4.2 Networks

4.2.5 Distribution Path Evaluation

206

The movement canal network has been created taking into account the logistics of moving products, workers and residents in the unique aquatic environment of the Mesopotamian marshes. The paths have been hierarchically classified according to their expected usage judging by the principle nodes that they accommodate (distribution centres, processing centres, residential islands, productive islands, etc). Thus the canals differ in width (from a few meters to 30m wide) and in depth (from 0.6m to 3m deep) allowing usage for different kinds of boats (see 5.1.4 Logistics Landscapes). The primary and secondary canals have been selected using an almost top down approach, because they facilitate the products movements that should be as efficient as possible, while the tertiary canals are mainly emergent, bottom-up and reinforced by use (as described before).

The following step was to position the distribution centres. The distribution centres were placed along the most integrated parts of the network, ensuring that they can be easily reached by as many parts of the network as possible. Local and regional parameters as the position of the distribution centre in relation to the neighbouring productive uses and its proximity to “densely” populated residential clusters further informed the positioning of the centres. After that, the distribution centres were connected to each other (primary canal - distribution path). The canals created were drawn following the existing base network, being within a small deviation from the “optimal” straight connections. Furthermore, the main distribution paths were also drawn in a way that leaves the main productive areas uninterrupted and therefore some connections between them were discarded.

After connecting the main paths of the residential clusters with each other (using the already mentioned agent based simulations), the resulting networks were evaluated and ranked using network analysis softwares (integration analysis).

For graphic representation and explanatory reasons the above-described process is shown on the next page using a generic square as a reference “plot”, in the same way as in the “residential clusters generation” diagrams.


Network Generation Strategy (Reach Analysis) Base Network

Reach Analysis

Distribution Path

Internal Node (Distribution Center) Boundary Node

207


4.2 Networks

4.2.6 Site Network and Program Distribution

The earlier mentioned techniques for generating networks were applied to the selected site. The area of the site was calculated to fit the total area of production which is needed to sustain the adjacent town Chibayish, while keeping enough natural marsh to retain its wild character. Each type of production is represented as; a circle with a fixed radius. These circles are used as inputs for circle packing algorithm that distributes the different productive functions across the site. Through the use genetic algorithms, the circle packing is optimised to achieve a desirable configuration. The script was set to optimise for the shortest pipe network that would distribute the desalinised input water to each productive area. This water is assumed to be pumped up from the sea. At the same time, the algorithm is set to optimise for the highest number of beneficial relationships between productive zones(see 4.1.3 Synergies). This was measured through counting the number of connections achieved between products that benefit from interacting with each other. The algorithm evaluates these connections through a proximity reach set within a set radius. Additionally, the algorithm searches for a solution that maintains the set target area for each individual product. Having completed the land distribution with different circles containing different productive

208

activities, different intensities were assigned to the circles, according to the intensity of the productive activity that is taking place there. This was then used to generate the residential clusters through a magnetic field simulation(see 4.2.2 Generation of Base Network). When the residential cluster had been generated, a network could be found through connecting the central paths of the clusters through an agent simulation of coordinated behaviour(see 4.2.3 Generation of Integrated Network). The networks were then evaluated through integration using Space Syntax. In order to find the location of the distribution centres a reach analysis was conducted using Urban Network Analysis toolbox. The outcomes were evaluated in search of the highest average reach index of the whole site. When having generated the network and the location of the distribution centres, the main distribution paths could be defined. The canals following these paths would have to be wider and deeper in order to be able to fit the larger ships and traffic of export, creating a hierarchy in the network. These paths were evaluated through calculating the deviation from the virtual straight path from the distribution centres to the canals connecting to the Euphrates river.


Gen.60 Ind.1

Gen.60 Ind.2

Gen.60 Ind.3

Gen.60 Ind.4

Gen.60 Ind.5

Gen.60 Ind.6

Gen.60 Ind.7

Gen.60 Ind.8

Gen.60 Ind.9

209


4.2 Networks

The residential clusters were generated through a magnetic field simulation. The paths from the residential nodes were pushed out from the production areas and forced to connect, creating clusters with a central path.

210

Gen.60 Ind.1

Gen.60 Ind.2

Gen.60 Ind.3

Cluster Count: 29

Cluster Count: 24

Cluster Count: 39

Gen.60 Ind.4

Gen.60 Ind.5

Gen.60 Ind.6

Cluster Count: 34

Cluster Count: 33

Cluster Count: 27

Gen.60 Ind.7

Gen.60 Ind.8

Gen.60 Ind.9

Cluster Count: 28

Cluster Count: 40

Cluster Count: 35


2: 0.346 95: 0.374 44: 0.382 61: 0.392 62: 0.395 132: 0.397 106: 0.398 126: 0.406 43: 0.408 128: 0.409 1: 0.41 92: 0.412 133: 0.413 47: 0.413 78: 0.416 63: 0.416 84: 0.416 32: 0.418 56: 0.428 97: 0.436 18: 0.437 19: 0.439 48: 0.439 33: 0.441 91: 0.444 122: 0.444 127: 0.445 0: 0.446 131: 0.446 121: 0.447 105: 0.447 76: 0.447 73: 0.452 34: 0.453 107: 0.453 29: 0.456 77: 0.456 8: 0.46 7: 0.466 129: 0.469 55: 0.471 9: 0.474 130: 0.474 30: 0.476 101: 0.477 72: 0.478 46: 0.478 102: 0.481 28: 0.482 90: 0.482 31: 0.483 69: 0.485 104: 0.486 79: 0.487 70: 0.489 83: 0.489 64: 0.489 68: 0.49 103: 0.493 71: 0.497 80: 0.5 98: 0.502 111: 0.502 110: 0.504 65: 0.505 109: 0.506 16: 0.509 108: 0.51 49: 0.515 138: 0.52 45: 0.52 75: 0.521 27: 0.523 96: 0.524 112: 0.526 81: 0.527 119: 0.528 4: 0.529 82: 0.53 67: 0.53 140: 0.533 66: 0.538 120: 0.538 41: 0.54 141: 0.543 113: 0.546 5: 0.546 13: 0.549 85: 0.55 26: 0.55 124: 0.551 74: 0.552 17: 0.554 15: 0.554 50: 0.555 54: 0.555 114: 0.557 59: 0.559 93: 0.559 10: 0.561 115: 0.566 12: 0.567 42: 0.57 21: 0.572 14: 0.577 137: 0.58 89: 0.581 58: 0.581 123: 0.588 11: 0.592 39: 0.596 94: 0.597 3: 0.597 53: 0.601 20: 0.603 38: 0.605 100: 0.611 6: 0.611 60: 0.613 86: 0.615 118: 0.619 136: 0.619 57: 0.623 88: 0.623 99: 0.626 23: 0.627 116: 0.63 52: 0.631 117: 0.632 40: 0.633 51: 0.634 125: 0.634 135: 0.64 36: 0.64 24: 0.641 139: 0.644 87: 0.645 37: 0.645 22: 0.648 35: 0.648 134: 0.649 25: 0.657

Gen.60 Ind.1

137: 0.302 132: 0.309 76: 0.315 75: 0.315 143: 0.331 18: 0.331 115: 0.333 17: 0.333 124: 0.334 110: 0.335 118: 0.342 68: 0.342 77: 0.353 131: 0.353 133: 0.356 111: 0.357 119: 0.358 81: 0.359 69: 0.36 27: 0.36 71: 0.361 116: 0.373 139: 0.373 74: 0.376 129: 0.376 86: 0.383 26: 0.383 99: 0.386 50: 0.387 28: 0.388 67: 0.388 49: 0.388 4: 0.392 130: 0.399 51: 0.4 135: 0.402 62: 0.403 138: 0.404 80: 0.405 25: 0.413 48: 0.414 52: 0.418 70: 0.419 82: 0.419 134: 0.42 5: 0.427 98: 0.431 63: 0.433 107: 0.436 2: 0.438 117: 0.442 73: 0.447 83: 0.45 108: 0.45 47: 0.451 123: 0.453 54: 0.454 84: 0.455 72: 0.458 100: 0.46 29: 0.461 85: 0.462 3: 0.463 16: 0.466 53: 0.467 128: 0.467 136: 0.473 122: 0.478 87: 0.481 30: 0.485 91: 0.485 106: 0.487 114: 0.492 112: 0.493 101: 0.497 55: 0.5 45: 0.5 127: 0.502 15: 0.507 95: 0.507 31: 0.515 46: 0.525 58: 0.534 10: 0.535 24: 0.536 113: 0.537 56: 0.542 66: 0.548 13: 0.549 140: 0.553 94: 0.555 88: 0.556 97: 0.556 57: 0.56 6: 0.569 105: 0.573 23: 0.582 9: 0.583 43: 0.588 78: 0.59 109: 0.595 141: 0.598 125: 0.598 104: 0.603 7: 0.604 1: 0.604 142: 0.606 44: 0.61 79: 0.613 19: 0.614 14: 0.614 8: 0.618 126: 0.621 93: 0.623 0: 0.627 12: 0.629 36: 0.634 103: 0.636 89: 0.639 96: 0.64 33: 0.64 34: 0.642 32: 0.644 35: 0.644 20: 0.647 61: 0.655 21: 0.655 11: 0.659 120: 0.667 92: 0.674 39: 0.677 102: 0.678 90: 0.678 60: 0.681 38: 0.681 40: 0.682 42: 0.69 37: 0.693 22: 0.695 41: 0.698 59: 0.71 121: 0.71 65: 0.712 64: 0.722

0.0884

0.0439

HH Integration: 0.0439 33: 0.303 34: 0.303 4: 0.325 35: 0.325 66: 0.332 133: 0.332 5: 0.349 51: 0.35 47: 0.358 65: 0.358 45: 0.365 46: 0.368 96: 0.375 50: 0.379 74: 0.382 119: 0.382 15: 0.384 115: 0.386 79: 0.387 48: 0.389 108: 0.392 49: 0.393 128: 0.397 132: 0.404 107: 0.404 94: 0.406 75: 0.409 111: 0.412 16: 0.419 78: 0.42 77: 0.421 68: 0.426 9: 0.426 8: 0.427 76: 0.428 52: 0.43 38: 0.433 0: 0.441 130: 0.442 53: 0.445 117: 0.452 67: 0.454 72: 0.456 114: 0.456 44: 0.456 43: 0.456 87: 0.464 11: 0.465 110: 0.469 37: 0.473 131: 0.474 1: 0.478 120: 0.48 54: 0.482 135: 0.484 134: 0.484 17: 0.484 55: 0.492 18: 0.493 10: 0.493 86: 0.495 101: 0.495 73: 0.495 129: 0.495 14: 0.499 40: 0.511 112: 0.516 95: 0.522 36: 0.523 97: 0.526 39: 0.527 106: 0.529 90: 0.529 109: 0.531 127: 0.531 61: 0.535 113: 0.535 12: 0.537 59: 0.54 13: 0.541 62: 0.542 58: 0.547 85: 0.557 88: 0.561 60: 0.563 137: 0.564 80: 0.575 22: 0.576 63: 0.576 89: 0.576 82: 0.577 100: 0.579 42: 0.581 64: 0.584 102: 0.584 3: 0.59 118: 0.592 29: 0.593 30: 0.595 21: 0.598 125: 0.606 99: 0.606 57: 0.612 136: 0.612 83: 0.615 2: 0.619 92: 0.621 41: 0.622 27: 0.627 116: 0.631 91: 0.631 31: 0.632 56: 0.635 20: 0.638 19: 0.638 103: 0.638 23: 0.639 122: 0.642 28: 0.644 121: 0.645 105: 0.647 104: 0.652 123: 0.66 26: 0.667 6: 0.672 84: 0.673 81: 0.678 98: 0.678 32: 0.678 126: 0.681 93: 0.691 124: 0.703 25: 0.704 7: 0.708 71: 0.709 24: 0.713 70: 0.715 69: 0.733

Gen.60 Ind.2

Gen.60 Ind.4

10: 0.291 5: 0.311 69: 0.311 66: 0.311 11: 0.326 67: 0.333 120: 0.333 64: 0.35 22: 0.353 82: 0.353 83: 0.353 122: 0.358 121: 0.358 93: 0.377 125: 0.379 54: 0.382 81: 0.382 26: 0.386 88: 0.387 80: 0.387 87: 0.39 63: 0.392 27: 0.396 59: 0.397 126: 0.403 86: 0.405 23: 0.41 94: 0.411 21: 0.416 65: 0.417 90: 0.418 75: 0.419 89: 0.419 72: 0.42 71: 0.425 2: 0.437 17: 0.437 85: 0.441 95: 0.441 129: 0.447 4: 0.448 58: 0.449 96: 0.45 55: 0.451 9: 0.452 128: 0.453 68: 0.454 52: 0.457 127: 0.457 8: 0.46 62: 0.466 56: 0.47 29: 0.474 53: 0.474 31: 0.477 84: 0.479 76: 0.481 0: 0.485 92: 0.488 70: 0.488 99: 0.49 91: 0.49 116: 0.495 12: 0.496 18: 0.5 73: 0.501 16: 0.505 32: 0.505 98: 0.511 1: 0.514 74: 0.521 50: 0.522 30: 0.525 130: 0.525 77: 0.526 60: 0.527 57: 0.531 100: 0.533 24: 0.533 109: 0.533 102: 0.535 15: 0.535 25: 0.542 108: 0.544 97: 0.546 131: 0.547 40: 0.552 35: 0.554 115: 0.554 33: 0.555 78: 0.558 48: 0.566 124: 0.568 103: 0.568 61: 0.569 41: 0.572 101: 0.573 123: 0.573 28: 0.579 34: 0.579 47: 0.587 112: 0.591 46: 0.596 132: 0.599 49: 0.6 79: 0.602 51: 0.603 3: 0.609 104: 0.612 13: 0.615 36: 0.619 7: 0.621 117: 0.622 133: 0.623 134: 0.623 20: 0.624 114: 0.626 137: 0.634 19: 0.634 136: 0.637 107: 0.638 6: 0.639 39: 0.641 118: 0.65 105: 0.652 135: 0.654 14: 0.654 45: 0.673 37: 0.675 44: 0.675 111: 0.681 106: 0.683 119: 0.684 113: 0.688 43: 0.688 42: 0.698 110: 0.704 38: 0.708

HH Integration: 0.1014 5: 0.353 60: 0.377 81: 0.378 21: 0.383 33: 0.384 80: 0.384 79: 0.384 25: 0.404 83: 0.41 84: 0.413 82: 0.413 67: 0.416 113: 0.419 20: 0.419 8: 0.419 32: 0.419 98: 0.42 26: 0.421 35: 0.433 111: 0.435 112: 0.436 118: 0.442 41: 0.443 29: 0.444 117: 0.448 53: 0.448 51: 0.45 15: 0.45 66: 0.453 10: 0.453 14: 0.457 3: 0.46 99: 0.46 49: 0.461 115: 0.462 19: 0.463 22: 0.464 18: 0.465 77: 0.471 96: 0.478 16: 0.479 28: 0.481 59: 0.481 93: 0.489 11: 0.49 34: 0.49 54: 0.492 52: 0.494 114: 0.499 78: 0.5 64: 0.501 4: 0.503 116: 0.503 42: 0.504 65: 0.505 61: 0.506 55: 0.511 13: 0.511 44: 0.512 45: 0.512 30: 0.516 48: 0.516 72: 0.517 97: 0.522 46: 0.525 56: 0.525 100: 0.527 12: 0.531 91: 0.531 63: 0.534 27: 0.536 9: 0.536 92: 0.538 103: 0.541 17: 0.542 50: 0.546 74: 0.554 31: 0.556 68: 0.558 94: 0.563 86: 0.565 47: 0.567 58: 0.568 73: 0.568 57: 0.569 106: 0.569 62: 0.574 119: 0.578 101: 0.58 102: 0.582 95: 0.586 69: 0.587 7: 0.597 75: 0.598 107: 0.599 120: 0.609 24: 0.61 6: 0.616 76: 0.618 105: 0.621 85: 0.631 108: 0.632 0: 0.633 2: 0.638 37: 0.639 109: 0.641 71: 0.643 40: 0.643 1: 0.646 110: 0.651 104: 0.657 43: 0.66 36: 0.667 70: 0.676 23: 0.677 87: 0.683 38: 0.687 89: 0.689 90: 0.701 88: 0.707 39: 0.719

Gen.60 Ind.5

Gen.60 Ind.7

0.0325

Gen.60 Ind.6

0.0821

Gen.60 Ind.8

HH Integration: 0.0821 33: 0.303 34: 0.303 4: 0.325 35: 0.325 66: 0.332 133: 0.332 5: 0.349 51: 0.35 47: 0.358 65: 0.358 45: 0.365 46: 0.368 96: 0.375 50: 0.379 74: 0.382 119: 0.382 15: 0.384 115: 0.386 79: 0.387 48: 0.389 108: 0.392 49: 0.393 128: 0.397 132: 0.404 107: 0.404 94: 0.406 75: 0.409 111: 0.412 16: 0.419 78: 0.42 77: 0.421 68: 0.426 9: 0.426 8: 0.427 76: 0.428 52: 0.43 38: 0.433 0: 0.441 130: 0.442 53: 0.445 117: 0.452 67: 0.454 72: 0.456 114: 0.456 44: 0.456 43: 0.456 87: 0.464 11: 0.465 110: 0.469 37: 0.473 131: 0.474 1: 0.478 120: 0.48 54: 0.482 135: 0.484 134: 0.484 17: 0.484 55: 0.492 18: 0.493 10: 0.493 86: 0.495 101: 0.495 73: 0.495 129: 0.495 14: 0.499 40: 0.511 112: 0.516 95: 0.522 36: 0.523 97: 0.526 39: 0.527 106: 0.529 90: 0.529 109: 0.531 127: 0.531 61: 0.535 113: 0.535 12: 0.537 59: 0.54 13: 0.541 62: 0.542 58: 0.547 85: 0.557 88: 0.561 60: 0.563 137: 0.564 80: 0.575 22: 0.576 63: 0.576 89: 0.576 82: 0.577 100: 0.579 42: 0.581 64: 0.584 102: 0.584 3: 0.59 118: 0.592 29: 0.593 30: 0.595 21: 0.598 125: 0.606 99: 0.606 57: 0.612 136: 0.612 83: 0.615 2: 0.619 92: 0.621 41: 0.622 27: 0.627 116: 0.631 91: 0.631 31: 0.632 56: 0.635 20: 0.638 19: 0.638 103: 0.638 23: 0.639 122: 0.642 28: 0.644 121: 0.645 105: 0.647 104: 0.652 123: 0.66 26: 0.667 6: 0.672 84: 0.673 81: 0.678 98: 0.678 32: 0.678 126: 0.681 93: 0.691 124: 0.703 25: 0.704 7: 0.708 71: 0.709 24: 0.713 70: 0.715 69: 0.733

Gen.60 Ind.9

0.1014

0.0579

HH Integration: 0.0325

HH Integration: 0.1326 97: 0.294 62: 0.315 47: 0.338 18: 0.338 98: 0.338 17: 0.338 95: 0.357 44: 0.362 46: 0.365 81: 0.366 117: 0.387 66: 0.388 45: 0.394 63: 0.395 1: 0.398 111: 0.405 50: 0.41 58: 0.411 116: 0.411 99: 0.424 110: 0.425 0: 0.426 42: 0.428 41: 0.428 43: 0.43 64: 0.431 96: 0.431 72: 0.432 56: 0.433 57: 0.439 118: 0.443 51: 0.452 109: 0.453 91: 0.456 112: 0.456 79: 0.46 22: 0.462 5: 0.465 68: 0.466 12: 0.467 65: 0.468 4: 0.469 49: 0.477 93: 0.48 100: 0.492 15: 0.492 80: 0.495 21: 0.496 11: 0.5 73: 0.502 82: 0.509 38: 0.514 67: 0.514 101: 0.517 113: 0.525 16: 0.53 48: 0.531 115: 0.533 102: 0.538 20: 0.541 114: 0.548 69: 0.552 10: 0.56 92: 0.56 39: 0.563 34: 0.563 84: 0.566 3: 0.571 87: 0.572 55: 0.576 2: 0.578 85: 0.578 94: 0.582 120: 0.591 19: 0.591 60: 0.596 70: 0.597 53: 0.601 7: 0.601 54: 0.608 40: 0.611 52: 0.612 6: 0.615 14: 0.622 108: 0.631 121: 0.631 83: 0.631 119: 0.634 86: 0.643 32: 0.65 59: 0.653 13: 0.657 24: 0.658 71: 0.659 23: 0.661 8: 0.663 25: 0.674 78: 0.681 28: 0.681 26: 0.682 89: 0.684 31: 0.686 33: 0.687 90: 0.691 61: 0.691 9: 0.695 105: 0.701 77: 0.707 76: 0.713 27: 0.714 75: 0.716 107: 0.72 104: 0.724 29: 0.732 37: 0.742 88: 0.743 103: 0.744 106: 0.752 30: 0.76 74: 0.763 35: 0.78 36: 0.784

HH Integration: 0.0945 112: 0.345 19: 0.354 60: 0.356 61: 0.363 129: 0.367 18: 0.367 130: 0.37 107: 0.377 104: 0.383 71: 0.383 103: 0.383 100: 0.383 121: 0.384 92: 0.385 106: 0.388 70: 0.389 68: 0.408 91: 0.411 124: 0.412 36: 0.413 69: 0.414 105: 0.414 13: 0.414 93: 0.415 117: 0.418 131: 0.418 97: 0.423 37: 0.436 99: 0.441 96: 0.442 90: 0.447 14: 0.448 38: 0.449 35: 0.451 125: 0.453 73: 0.455 94: 0.459 54: 0.459 119: 0.46 15: 0.461 16: 0.465 128: 0.467 118: 0.469 67: 0.483 17: 0.487 34: 0.488 123: 0.489 55: 0.497 72: 0.501 120: 0.501 95: 0.502 122: 0.513 137: 0.513 74: 0.514 102: 0.533 116: 0.534 66: 0.536 138: 0.536 33: 0.538 2: 0.54 88: 0.541 59: 0.549 113: 0.55 87: 0.567 58: 0.568 5: 0.575 89: 0.576 76: 0.583 3: 0.584 86: 0.59 136: 0.591 23: 0.591 114: 0.591 133: 0.594 30: 0.594 65: 0.596 139: 0.598 98: 0.604 132: 0.605 110: 0.609 109: 0.617 4: 0.625 6: 0.636 12: 0.636 31: 0.64 77: 0.64 140: 0.642 56: 0.644 46: 0.646 126: 0.646 57: 0.646 41: 0.649 75: 0.65 47: 0.651 7: 0.651 43: 0.651 21: 0.652 64: 0.653 40: 0.653 141: 0.656 10: 0.658 78: 0.658 115: 0.661 135: 0.666 32: 0.666 85: 0.677 1: 0.677 28: 0.679 48: 0.68 39: 0.681 27: 0.683 24: 0.684 81: 0.684 49: 0.684 42: 0.685 11: 0.686 101: 0.688 111: 0.694 108: 0.695 63: 0.7 62: 0.7 9: 0.701 45: 0.706 20: 0.709 8: 0.71 44: 0.712 29: 0.715 50: 0.719 82: 0.721 79: 0.724 127: 0.728 134: 0.729 0: 0.729 84: 0.731 22: 0.733 51: 0.734 25: 0.735 26: 0.737 83: 0.739 80: 0.739 53: 0.742 52: 0.742

Gen.60 Ind.3

0.1326

HH Integration: 0.0919

0.0945

0.1014

38: 0.265 99: 0.265 2: 0.28 100: 0.28 21: 0.285 36: 0.297 68: 0.297 51: 0.304 3: 0.315 151: 0.316 6: 0.321 17: 0.323 19: 0.324 18: 0.324 104: 0.335 152: 0.336 43: 0.344 53: 0.346 52: 0.347 14: 0.352 40: 0.356 34: 0.357 73: 0.357 103: 0.358 58: 0.36 149: 0.37 150: 0.371 5: 0.371 16: 0.372 55: 0.373 72: 0.379 88: 0.38 35: 0.38 7: 0.381 15: 0.383 102: 0.383 20: 0.388 98: 0.395 54: 0.399 41: 0.4 42: 0.401 105: 0.407 107: 0.408 87: 0.409 69: 0.41 108: 0.41 101: 0.412 128: 0.413 50: 0.415 44: 0.422 97: 0.427 106: 0.428 31: 0.429 83: 0.432 10: 0.435 37: 0.436 13: 0.438 71: 0.438 86: 0.439 4: 0.439 133: 0.44 138: 0.441 1: 0.442 85: 0.443 82: 0.445 0: 0.445 74: 0.452 129: 0.452 8: 0.453 9: 0.454 39: 0.457 139: 0.457 67: 0.459 56: 0.459 70: 0.461 130: 0.462 132: 0.462 22: 0.463 131: 0.464 57: 0.467 66: 0.467 81: 0.468 127: 0.469 61: 0.471 112: 0.473 94: 0.475 28: 0.476 59: 0.478 62: 0.478 30: 0.479 60: 0.482 126: 0.486 117: 0.489 140: 0.491 33: 0.492 63: 0.495 12: 0.496 115: 0.497 11: 0.497 49: 0.5 141: 0.502 95: 0.502 93: 0.503 124: 0.507 79: 0.51 113: 0.51 114: 0.51 135: 0.513 80: 0.514 75: 0.516 23: 0.517 116: 0.522 142: 0.528 24: 0.529 120: 0.53 125: 0.533 84: 0.534 144: 0.536 76: 0.536 96: 0.542 64: 0.544 32: 0.545 134: 0.547 77: 0.55 91: 0.555 147: 0.556 143: 0.56 26: 0.565 48: 0.569 146: 0.569 119: 0.57 123: 0.572 27: 0.573 92: 0.575 29: 0.576 45: 0.576 148: 0.582 136: 0.589 145: 0.594 47: 0.595 78: 0.603 118: 0.603 137: 0.603 122: 0.609 46: 0.614 111: 0.615 25: 0.627 65: 0.627 121: 0.63 90: 0.63 89: 0.642 109: 0.65 110: 0.659

HH Integration: 0.0579

HH Integration: 0.0726

The network was generated by finding connections between the central paths of the residential clusters. The connection were generated through an agent based simulation of coordinated behaviour

211


4.2 Networks

Urban Network Analysis toolbox was used to find the location of the distribution centres and evaluate the outcome through the average reach index

212

Gen.60 Ind.1

Gen.60 Ind.2

Gen.60 Ind.3

Average Reach: 78 D.C. Count: 5

Average Reach: 67 D.C. Count: 3

Average Reach: 69 D.C. Count: 3

Gen.60 Ind.4

Gen.60 Ind.5

Gen.60 Ind.6

Average Reach: 68 D.C. Count: 3

Average Reach: 69 D.C. Count: 4

Average Reach: 65 D.C. Count: 2

Gen.60 Ind.7

Gen.60 Ind.8

Gen.60 Ind.9

Average Reach: 70 D.C. Count: 4

Average Reach: 66 D.C. Count: 2

Average Reach: 68 D.C. Count: 2


Gen.60 Ind.1

Gen.60 Ind.2

Gen.60 Ind.3

Deviation Path: 0.67

Deviation Path: 0.69

Deviation Path: 0.71

Gen.60 Ind.4

Gen.60 Ind.5

Gen.60 Ind.6

Deviation Path: 0.73

Deviation Path: 0.74

Deviation Path: 0.80

Gen.60 Ind.7

Gen.60 Ind.8

Gen.60 Ind.9

Deviation Path: 0.52

Deviation Path: 0.65

Deviation Path: 0.72

The distribution paths were defined through finding the shortest path from the distribution centres to the existing canals connecting to the Euphrates river. They were evaluated in search for the least deviation to the virtual straight path.

213


4.2 Networks Comparison

214

Cluster count: 29

Cluster count: 24

Cluster count: 39

Cluster count: 34

Cluster count

HH Integration: 0.0439

HH Integration: 0.0919

HH Integration: 0.1326

HH Integration: 0.1014

HH Integratio

Average Reach: 78

Average Reach: 67

Average Reach: 69

Average Reach: 68

Average Reac

Deviation Path: 0.67

Deviation Path: 0.69

Deviation Path: 0.71

Deviation Path: 0.73

Deviation Pat


: 34

Cluster count: 33

Cluster count: 27

Cluster count: 28

Cluster count: 40

HH Integration: 0.0945

HH Integration: 0.0821

HH Integration: 0.0325

HH Integration: 0.0579

h: 68

Average Reach: 69

Average Reach: 65

Average Reach: 70

Average Reach: 66

h: 0.73

Deviation Path: 0.74

Deviation Path: 0.80

Deviation Path: 0.52

Deviation Path: 0.65

on: 0.1014

215


216


5.0 Design Proposal

217


218


5.1 Design Proposal

219


5.1 Design Proposal

5.1.1 Design Outcome

After analysing, comparing and ranking all the individuals generated through the program distribution phase the solution that best responded to all the criteria presented before was selected and further designed. Some of the criteria were conflicting and there was no solution that was the fittest according to all the criteria. Therefore the selected solution was the one that responded the best to all the criteria on average and in relation with the existing context of the city of Chibaysh and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing main canals-water inlets. The selected individual solution contained the best

220

integrated network, a big amount of residential clusters, high average reach and the deviation of the main distribution path was within the limits. The expected amount of production fitted in the selected plot exceeds the current consumption needs of the inhabitants of Chibaysh plus the new inhabitants needed to work/live in the marsh area itself. To design a more elaborated version of this plan we further zoomed in, choosing a 3km*3km patch, which includes all the different features found in the biggest plot.


residential clusters’ canals

primary products’ distribution canals

Al- Chibayish

Date Palms - 0.8km2 - 2.6% Fish - 1.5km2 - 4.9% Energy - 2.0km2 - 6.5% Rice - 2.7km2 - 8.8% Grazing- 10.8km2 - 35.3% Marshland - 12.7km2 - 41.4%

221


5.1 Design Proposal

5.1.2 Plan

The 3km*3km plot, marked out on the previous page, has been further designed and contains most of the different residential, production and infrastructural typologies that were explored throughout this project. First of all, the water canals vary in width and length, depending on the ships that use them. The primary canal is 30m wide and several meters deep. This canal is designed to fit several medium to big cargo ships and many more smaller ones and it connects the distribution centres to each other and to the Euphrates river. The secondary canals are around 15m wide and connect all the water tanks -

222

collection points with the processing centres and the main canal. The tertiary canals are branching out from the secondary canals and their width and depth are dependent on their usage. The busier the canal, the wider and deeper it becomes (see 4.2.4 Networks, Emergent paths). The residential islandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; clusters are formed along the tertiary paths. Furthermore, the residential islands can range from islands with a single family house, a multi-family house to bigger islands with several residential units and small stables for their water buffaloes or poultry.


223


5.1 Design Proposal

The outline of the various productive zones has been deformed - the circle that was used to signify the area is no more readable - based on the local interactions between the different productive or residential zones. The water tanks, however, remained on the centre of the circles used before, in order to ensure the controlled distribution of water for agricultural reasons or for the periodical “flushing”, done to clean the soil from the various dissolved solids. Moreover, the islands used for dates production have acquired this elongated shapes in order to provide land connections between different residential clusters. By doing so, they could host various social activities and provide a terrain for social interaction, harnessing the shadows of the palm trees and their proximity to various residential clusters. The distribution centre acts as the logistics centre of a broader area. It is the place where various processed or raw products are gathered to be sent

224

away to the rest of the country through Euphrates. It is also the input gate for those products that are not available in the marshes and are being imported or exchanged. The processing centres are the intermediate nodes between the collection points - water tanks - and the distribution centres. Each product is served by a different processing centre (PC), in order to maximise the efficiency of the production. The frequency of use differs significantly between different processing centres. The fish processing centre can be used daily while the rice pc is used twice per year, the dates pc once a year, etc. The frequency of use depends on how many harvest is each product giving per year. Thus, in order to utilise and inhabit the infrastructure throughout the year, the pieces of built infrastructure that are land intensive but necessary for only short periods of time are being “charged” with another, social function (schools, health centres, markets, communal houses, etc), which they carry for the rest of the year.


Fish P.C Fish Distribution Center P.C

Rice

Fish Fish

Energy

Energy

Fish

Energy

P.C

Fish Fish

Distribution Center Distribution

Rice Rice

Center

Dates Fish

Energy

Fish

Energy

Dates

P.C Dates Rice Dates

Dates

Rice

Dates P.C P.C

Dates

Rice

Rice

Dates

Rice

Rice

P.C

Dates Fish

Dates

Fish

Dates

P.C P.C

Fish Fish

Fish

Dates

Fish

Dates

Dates

Dates

Dates

Dates

Fish

Fish Dates Dates Dates

Fish Fish

Fish

Energy Dates Dates Energy Energy

P.C Fish

Dates

P.C P.C

Palm trees

Dates

Energy

Dates

Fish Palm trees

Rice

Palm trees Energy

Processing Center

Energy Fish

Distribution Center

Fish Rice Rice Processing Center Processing Center

225


5.1 Design Proposal

226


227


5.1 Design Proposal

228


229


230


231


232


233


5.1 Design Proposal

5.1.3 Infrastructure as Architecture

The series of images of industrial structures (seen in previous page) that photograhers Bernd and Hilla Becherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s put together in their work â&#x20AC;&#x153;typologiesâ&#x20AC;? suggest a space of possibility for design and calls attention to everyday buildings that are often ignored and unacknowledged by the design professions. Water tanks, silos, factories and processing facilities of different shapes are arrayed on a grid allowing the viewer to focus on the little details that make them unique and different. Despite the enormous importance that these buildings have in supporting human activities, the planning of infrastructure has been relegated to the engineering professions with very little input from architects and design professionals. Perhaps the shift of interest away from infrastructure coincides with the loss of interest in the countryside where most of these buildings and their related functions take place. This has not been always the case, the visionary work of Claude Nicolas Ledoux, the house for the waterworks managers (maison des directeurs de la loue) is evidence of a time when architects were invested in the design of infrastructure as an architecture that could take on multiple forms and serve various purposes. As the main infrastructural element and backbone of the project, the water tank fulfills three main functions. ecological function tank can ((x For * y) -its (z*y))+(pwr*z)) tvs = store and supply fresh water to the marshes t (tvs) tank volume size (x) marsh area (y) marsh depth (z) product area (pwr) product water req. (t) months

234

facilitating the movement of water throughout the ecosystem. For its economic function, the tank controls and regulates the amount and time at which water is supplied to the various productive areas. For its social function, the tank provides a space for human occupation which can take on a variety of uses relative to its location within the network and its size. The size of the tank is dictated by calculating the volume of water required for a year supply of water to the marshes and the productive areas. The diagram on the right shows the process of sizing the tanks and the variables involved in the calculations. In this example, a sample area was selected to illustrate the process. The water demand requirements for the marsh and rice production are calculated to obtain the volume needed to contain the water for a year supply. Because the size obtained would typically be very large to be built, the volume is divided by twelve to provide a monthly supply bringing down the size of the building to a working planning dimensions. In this case, the planning depth of the base of the building is close to 10 meters from envelope to core providing a space about 600 SqM, which could hold an occupancy load of 50 people. This building could be used as a workshop space or learning center to serve a community of 300 people.

tvs =

((x * y) - (z*y))+(pwr*z)) t

(tvs) tank volume size (x) marsh area (y) marsh depth (z) product area (pwr) product water req. (t) months


2 AREA FOR CROP

3

Volume of Water Per Year

4 SIZE OF TANK For Year Harvest

Water for Rice

1 MARSH AREA

Rice Area

100 m

Water for Marsh

100 m

Radius: 50 m

200 m

Market 200 m

TANK

ON

6. TANK

EVERY TANKForISMonthly A BUILDING Supply

Social Functions 7 Tank + Social Function Market

high tide

L

10 m

SO

Y OM

CIA

ON 50 m

TANK

SOCIAL FUNCTION ELEVATED BASE

Social Functions

EVERY TANK IS A BUILDING

buï¬&#x20AC;alo

Storage silo

TANK

EC

LOGY

15 m

35 m

litoral

Y

SO

OM

5. TANK

For Year Harvest ECOLOGY

100 m

L

EC

low tide

Height 50 m

ECOLOGY

100 m

CIA

litoral

Social Functions

Storage silo

50 m

30 m

volume: 11000 m3

volume: 9000

Workshops

Market

Room: 80 SqM Base: 615 SqM Num. of Rooms: 4 rooms Occupancy Load: 50 people

NK SO CIA

L

28 m

Social Functions Market

S A BUILDING

brine fresh

rice

Storage silo

Cultural Center

Cultural Center

program

5- 7 %

Workshops

algae (oil) and mariculture brine fresh

er cooled greenhouse

Storage silo Workshops

235


5.1 Design Proposal

TANK

Collection Boat Irrigation canal

Tank Base ( Social Function)

Fish Ponds

RICE READY FOR HARVEST

water level Canal Outlet

As described earlier in this book, the water tank fulfills three main functions. [1] Provide water to the marshes. [2] Supply water to products. And [3] provide space for a social function such as a school or learning center. The following diagrams illustrate the relation between the tank, the marsh and the productive zones during a harvest season.

SUPPLY TO PRODUCTS RICE READY FOR HARVEST water lvl

NO WATER ďŹ sh pond

1. During this time of the year rice is ready to be harvested. At this point, water is no longer being supplied to the rice fields. Water is stored in the tank and in the marshes.

236


TANK

Collection Boat Irrigation canal

Tank Base ( Social Function)

Fish Ponds

RICE HARVESTED

water level

FILL

Canal Outlet

canal

RICE HARVESTED

water lvl ďŹ sh pond

At this point the rice produce has been collected and moved to the collection center. There is no water in the rice fields and rice straw is left to decompose. Water keeps accumulating in the tank and stored in the marshes.

237


5.1 Design Proposal

TANK Irrigation canal Tank Base ( Social Function)

INLET OPENED FOR FLOODING

water level Canal Outlet

INLET OPENED FOR FLOODING rice straw decompose and provides food ďŹ sh

water lvl ďŹ sh pond

A couple weeks after, the inlet of water is opened for the first flooding. The level of water rises and fish can now move from the fish ponds to the rice fields. Decomposed rice straw lying on the soil of the field provides food for fish and other animals.

238


TANK

ANNUAL MARSH FLOOD FISH HARVEST

Tank Base ( Social Function)

water level Canal Outlet

FULL WATER DISCHARGE

ANNUAL MARSH FLUSH FISH HARVEST

water lvl

Finally water is fully discharge from the tank simulating the annual spring flood. Fish can be first harvested from the productive zones and when the water level rises wild fish can move into the fields for a second fish harvest.

239


Map of internet submarine cables

240


Global trade and movement networks

241


5.1 Design Proposal

5.1.4 Logistics Landscapes

The entire global industrial economy can be understood as a network of industrial processes though which resources are extracted and transformed into goods and commodities to meet the needs of human society. The intensification of demand for consumer goods due to urbanisation has generated the emergence of complex distribution networks and logistics landscapes. Susan Synder and Alex Wall, in their essay “Emerging Landscapes of Movement and Logistics” offer a clear argument for the increasing role of logistics in shaping and reordering the spatial conditions of the global economy. Wall’s essay notes that “the organisation of movement, infrastructure and new industrial ensembles has traditionally been at the fringes of design”. However, he argues that distribution networks are precipitating new urban assembles and could become the basis for the design of new settlements. A distribution network is composed of multiple nodes where resources are extracted, refined and synthesised throughout various production stages, moved through logistical and commercial routes and then consumed by end users. Distribution networks are not homogeneous, instead they organise hierarchically at multiple levels generating hubs where activity concentrates. Hubs are nodes that are particularly important within the network because of the number of connections they hold and amount of movement of people, goods and information that passes through them. With this in mind, a network was developed to

242

bring together the different elements of the project and organise the movement of people throughout the site. Different nodes create different amounts of movement and establish different flows throughout the site. The basic structure of nodes starts at the dwelling unit which holds around 2 to 5 people. From a dwelling unit, a worker would move into a productive zone to work on a particular produce. The product would be collected by the worker and move to a collection centre. At the collection centre, the produce is packed into boxes or containers to be moved in bulk to the processes sing centre. At the processing centre, workers would take the raw product and processes it for human consumption. The final output would be packed in larger containers to be moved to the distribution centre. At the distribution centre, multiple products and workers come together to sell and buy their products. The collection centre, processing centre and distribution centre provide additional social functions, such as health, recreation, culture and learning facilities. These functions are distributed according to the position and weight (amount of connections) particular to each node. Despite the hierarchical order set up by the design, the network is scale free and is able to grow and contract over-time. A scale free network has a high degree of heterogeneous distribution and randomness. As described in previous sections, this type of networks can be described by a “power law” distribution; there are few important nodes with many connections and a “fat tale” of nodes with very fewer connections.


DISTRIBUTION NODES

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK PORT

PORT

DISTRIBUTION CENTER WORKING ZONE DWELLING UNIT

PROCESSING CENTER COLLECTION CENTER

C H

H

H

p p

H

PRODUCTIVE ZONE

DWELLING UNIT TRANSPORT VESSELS SMALL CARGO

MEDIUM CARGO

LARGE CARGO

H

DISTRIBUTION CENTER

H

H

c H

H

PROCESSING CENTER H

H

H

H

PROCESSING CENTER

H

DRAUGHT: 100 cm

H

25m

12m

6m DRAUGHT0: 20 cm

H

p

H

H

3.4 m

H

H

PROCESSING CENTER

120m

H

H

c

p

H

0.8 m

p

H

H

H

PRODUCTIVE ZONE

WORKING ZONE

MASHOOF

COLLECTION CENTER

7.5 m

15 m

DRAUGHT: 200 cm

DRAUGHT: 600 cm

H

c

p H

CANAL SIZE

H

H

H

H

H

TERTIARY PATH:

SECONDARY PATH

PRIMARY PATH

EUPHRATES RIVER

5m

15 m

30 m

250 m

H

p H

H

PRODUCTIVE ZONE

243


5.1 Design Proposal 5.1.5 Typologies

Tonnage: 5 m3

The Mashoofs are used as a pleasure craft as well as collecting products and transporting them to a collection point. They are the only boats that are fit to use the thirtary network

The Mashoof is a small draft boat used by locals to easily navigate through the shallow waters of the marshes

Mashoof Residential Network

Tonnage: 5 m3

The modern Mashoof has a similar design to the traditional one, but is equiped with an outboard engine.

Motor driven Mashoof Residential/Thirtiary Network

The width and depth of the secondary network is defined by the dimensions of the small cargo ship

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tonnageâ&#x20AC;? specifically refers to a calculation of the volume or cargo volume of a ship

Tonnage: 50 m3

Small Cargo Ship Secondary Network

The small cargo ship is used to transport products from the collection point to the processing centre and then further to the distribution centre

Tonnage: 200 m3

The width and depth of the primary network is defined by the dimensions of the large cargo ship

244

The large cargo ship is used to export products from the distribution centre to Chibayish and out to the harbour on the Euphrates

Large Cargo Ship Primary Network


Single Unit Island - Residential

Multi Unit Island - Residential

Single Unit Island - Fish

Multi Unit Island - Fish

Single Unit Island - Buffalo

Multi Unit Island - Buffalo

Single Unit Island - Date Palms

Multi Unit Island - Date Palms

There are two types of configurations that can be used when modifying the landscape to inhabit wetlands. The original vernacular islands of the Mesopotamian Marshlands were constructed as an archipelago of multiple small islands. The islands were constructed with the intention to provide enough space for one family to live there with their reed house and a few buffaloes. The other option is to construct larger islands that would be populated by multiple families. These islands are then modified and designed specifically to support the needs of the residents occupation.

245


5.1 Design Proposal

Storage Silos

Loading Station

Staff Harbour

Processing Facility

Unloading Station

Outdoor Processing Space

Loading Station

Staff Harbour

The processing centres would be connected to the distribution centres through the secondary distribution network. Each type of production has its own processing centre, where the products go through all stages of processing before it gets packaged and shipped of to the distribution centre.

246

Processing Facility

Unloading Station


The large cargo ships have rotating loading stations because their deep hull and large turn radius do not allow them to do such maneuvers in the dredged canals

After being processed, all different products are shipped to the distribution centre. Here the products are stored and then exported. It is also the receiving point for all the import to the marshes. This island would also serve as the main node of the area providing different necessary functions such as shipyards and wholesales markets as well as social functions like theatres and leisure centres.

As all transport is happens by boat the presence of a shipyard is of high importance A tall lighthouse marks the location of the distribution centre in the flat marshlands

The distribution centre also provides a wholesales markets for the local retailers The distribution centre island also serves as a main node for social functions which are accessible through a guest harbour

247


248


6.0 Conclusions

249


250


6.1 Conclusions

251


252


6.1 Conclusions

Conclusions and Limitations The scope of research of this work aimed at interrogating the urban question and presenting a more comprehensive view on urbanisation. Urbanisation is understood as a totalising condition that has taken over the entire surface of the earth. The goal of the project was to address the transformations that are occurring in the countryside as a result of urbanisation. This work also aimed to touch upon a number of issues that are being discussed in current debates of architectural and urban design. The increasing interest in landscape urbanism, resource management, sustainability, the expansion of cities and the role of infrastructure and the countryside in supporting human societies. This project presents a framework for the reoccupation of the marshlands of Mesopotamia. Historically this site has been altered and transformed in many ways. Mesopotamia continues to be a land in state of constant transition. It was in this land between the Tigris and Euphrates where humans began to transform large territories into productive land to meet the needs of human societies. The site is linked to the history of urbanisation as a support landscape that has for centuries sustained the development of human society. From the early days of agriculture to the current presence of the oil extraction industry, the land of Mesopotamia has been defined by its operational character. In searching for alternative models of human occupation, this work looked at various historical precedents of vernacular architecture as well as the work of other architects who were invested in establishing

a connection between urban growth and the countryside. This work also attempted to bring forward ideas from the emerging body of knowledge that is often referred to as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;science of complexityâ&#x20AC;?. This work moves away from traditional modes of practice which rely on static and stable states. Instead, this work attempted to develop an approach to urban design informed by the concepts of network thinking, evolution theory, complex systems and ecology. To this end, advanced computation was a central aspect to the explorations. Computer models and simulations were utilised to coordinate and analyse large sets of data involved in the design. The design experiments aimed at producing a model of function distribution for different productive activities [rice, dates, buffalo, energy and fish]. These were distributed by using a custom circle packing algorithm in combination with a magnetic field algorithm that would create clusters of units for human habitation in between the productive zones. The design options would be evaluated according to target levels of production for which a certain amount of area for each product would need to be satisfied. The distribution patterns generated by the algorithm would later be analysed through network analysis. A network based model would evaluate the movement of products and people across the site of intervention and rate them according to network evaluation indices such as reach, accessibility and integration.

253


254


6.1 Conclusions Results The custom circle packing algorithm developed in this project was successful in offering a technique for semi-random distribution. Contrary to other computation methods for random distribution such as Cellular Automata, where patterns simply evolve from initial seeds without any desired goal, the custom circle packing algorithm used in this project allows users to gain a higher level of control over areas by granting the user the opportunity to input specific numeric values(weights) for the radius of the circles. Because of this the search algorithm (Genetic Algorithm) was able to optimise target areas and distribute them in accordance to desired adjacencies across the site while keeping the total areas close to the target. The use of the magnetic field algorithm was successful in offering a solution for clustering a random distribution of elements based on basic rules of distance, direction and avoidance. Magnetic fields allow the designer to assign charges (weights) and cluster elements in relation to a force of attraction and repulsion. They generate convergence points that cannot be anticipated and can only be generated by the computer. This method proved efficient to establish some degree of order and structure to what otherwise is a random distribution of elements. The magnetic charge introduces a force, or intensive difference, that prompts the elements to self-organise into clusters. The algorithm provides a lot of flexibility as values can be updated and re-instantiated in relation to changes in the productive areas. The marshes offered a unique environment for testing Agent Based Simulation. Unlike cities where infrastructure is costly, fixed and highly engineered, the infrastructure of the marshes is â&#x20AC;&#x153;softâ&#x20AC;?, movement happens through shallow canals created by boat and animal movement. As in any other aquatic environment movement is

not prescribed. In this context the use of Agent Based Simulations provides a more accurate picture of the movement that would occur in reality. The experiments were successful in generating multiple possible scenarios for network configurations with more or less similar results. One major limitation for evaluating the work was the difficulty to assign numeric values to the interaction between products and simulate the complex behaviour that occurs in natural environments. Using ecological processes as design drivers is an area that deserves further exploration. However, in many cases, this knowledge lies outside the scope of the designer. Serious research in this area requires the participation of multiple disciplines with experts in various fields. Another limitation was posed by the scale of intervention of the project. Most of the efforts went into establishing a clear strategy at the macro-scale which outlined the basis for developing specific areas of the project at the scale of architecture. Due to time limitations, only one case was explored at this scale. An area of rice and fish production was selected to understand the relationship between the tank and the productive zone throughout a harvest season. Further exploration will look at further developing key areas of the project at the architectural scale. The design of the various typologies that make up the project was restricted to basic schematic design. The development of residential units based on vernacular construction systems and locally material sourced materials suggests an intriguing area of future research. Parallel to this, further exploration on the development of infrastructure should also be considered. The tank typologies which are central to the project should be further investigated. Finally, further exploration on networks should take place to respond to changes in the development of typologies at the architectural scale.

255


â&#x20AC;&#x153;We believe the distribution landscape is a testing ground for new kinds of settlement, spatial patterns and possibly an architecture where the shape of urban life is free to take on a new formâ&#x20AC;? Alex Wall, 1998

256


257


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thus, I propose the idea that there is a new spatial form characteristic of social practices that dominate and shape the network society: the space of flows.â&#x20AC;? Castells, 1996

258


259


260


Bibliography and Image references

261


Bibliography 0.0 Introduction Castells, M. (1977). The urban question. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delirious New York. New York: Monacelli Press. Lyster, C. (n.d.). Learning from logistics.page 35

1.0 Domain: The Economic Value of Wetlands. , WWF, Gland/Amsterdam, January 2004. Unep.org. (2016). More than a Billion People Depend on Wetlands for Livelihoods, Says Ramsar Convention Secretariat on World Wetlands Day UNEP. [online] Available at: http://www.unep.org/newscentre/Default.aspx?DocumentID=26862&ArticleID=35883 [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. Alwash, S. (2013). Eden again. Fullerton, Calif.: Tablet House Pub. Bhatia, N. and Casper, M. (n.d.). The petropolis of tomorrow. Lombardi, D. and Laybourn, P. (2012). Redefining Industrial Symbiosis. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16(1), pp.28-37. Ehrenfeld, J. and Gertler, N. (1997). Industrial Ecology in Practice: The Evolution of Interdependence at Kalundborg. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 1(1), pp.67-79. RouteYou. (2016). Kalundborg Eco-industrial Park. [online] Available at: http://www.routeyou.com/en-dk/location/view/48087417/kalundborg-eco-industrial-park [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Ellenmacarthurfoundation.org. (2016). Case Studies. [online] Available at: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/case-studies/effective-industrial-symbiosis [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. The Water Project. (2016). Water In Crisis - Spotlight Middle East. [online] Available at: https://thewaterproject.org/water-crisis/water-in-crisis-middle-east [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]. Inhabitat.com. (2016). Sahara Desert Project to grow 10 hectares of food in Tunisian desert. [online] Available at: http://inhabitat.com/sahara-desert-project-to-grow-10-hectares-of-food-in-tunisian-desert/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Sahara Forest Project. (2016). Sahara Forest Project -. [online] Available at: http://saharaforestproject.com/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2016]. Fao.org. (2016). Iraq country profile. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/ agpc/doc/counprof/iraq/iraq. html [Accessed 5 Jun. 2016]. Natural Resources and Environment: Land and Water Division. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/ aglw/aquastat/countries/iraq/ index.stmS. [Accessed 5 Jun. 2016]. Fao.org. (2016). Iraq country profile. [online] Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/ agpc/doc/counprof/iraq/iraq. html [Accessed 5 Jun. 2016]. Kazem, H. and Chaichan, M. (2012). Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq. Renewable and Sustain - able Energy Reviews, 16(8), pp.6007-6012. Fao.org. (2016). Pike, J. (2016). Oil. [online] Globalsecurity.org. Available at: http://www.globalsecurity. org/military/world/iraq/oil.htm [Accessed 6 Jun. 2016]. Agriculture Reconstruction and Development Program for Iraq (ARDI). (2004). Bethesda, Maryland: Development Alternatives, Inc. Lucani, P. (2016). Iraq agriculture sector note. ALsaedy, J. (2010). IRAQI BUFFALO NOW. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 6(2s). R.W. Fitzpatrick, CSIRO Land and Water H. Partow, UNEP The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem N. Al-Ansari, Hydro-Politics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins Researchgate.net. (2016). What ways for reduce evaporation of surface water (lake, river, ...)?. [online] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ post/what_ways_for_reduce_evaporation_of_surface_water_lake_river [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. Irrigationfutures.org.au. (2016). CRC for Irrigation Futures. [online] Available at: http://www.irrigationfutures.org.au/ [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. YourArticleLibrary.com: The Next Generation Library. (2015). Top 3 Methods of Reducing Evaporation. [online] Available at: http://www.yourarti-

262


clelibrary.com/water/evaporation/top-3-methods-of-reducing-evaporation/60462/ [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. Narayanamoorthy, A., Devika, N. and Bhattarai, M. (2016). More Crop and Profit per Drop of Water: Drip Irrigation for Empowering Distressed Small Farmers. IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review, 5(1), pp.83-90. Inc., A. (2016). Hexagonal Tile Cover: Hexprotect. [online] Awtti.com. Available at: http://www.awtti.com/hexprotect_cover.php [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. N. Al-Ansari, Hydro-Politics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins S. AlMaarofi, A. Douabul, H. Al-Saad, Mesopotamian Marshlands: Salinization Problem A. Hussein Al Bomola, Temporal and Spatial Changes in Water Quality of the Euphrates River – Iraq HowStuffWorks. (2008). How Reverse Osmosis Works. [online] Available at: http://science.howstuffworks.com/reverse-osmosis.htm [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. Unep.or.jp. (2016). What Is Phytoremediation. [online] Available at: http://www.unep.or.jp/Ietc/Publications/Freshwater/FMS2/1.asp [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. Solaqua.com. (2016). Solar Still Basics. [online] Available at: http://www.solaqua.com/solstilbas.html [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. Mahdavinejad, M. and Javanrudi, K. (2012). Assessment of Ancient Fridges: A Sustainable Method to Storage Ice in Hot-Arid Climates. ACH, 4(2). Mahdavinejad, M. and Javanroodi, K. (2014). Natural ventilation performance of ancient wind catchers, an experimental and analytical study - case studies: one-sided, two-sided and four-sided wind catchers. IJETP, 10(1) GmbH, p. (2016). General information | PlanET Biogas Global GmbH. [online] En.planet-biogas.com. Available at: http://en.planet-biogas.com/info/ [Accessed 7 Sep. 2016]. Biogas-info.co.uk. (2016). Biogas | Anaerobic Digestion. [online] Available at: http:// www.biogas-info.co.uk/about/ biogas/ [Accessed 7 Sep. 2016]. “The Value Of Wetlands”.Wwf. panda.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Sept. 2016.

2.0 Methods: Bonabeau, E., Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems. 2002. 99 Abbas, M. and Machiani, S. (2016). Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Connected Corridors—Merits Evaluation and Future Steps. IJT, 4(1), pp.71-84. Tabassum, M. (2014). A GENETIC ALGORITHM ANALYSIS TOWARDS OPTIMIZATION SOLUTIONS. IJDIWC, 4(1), pp.124-142. M. Melanie (1999), “An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms”, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780585030944. City Form Lab. (2016). Urban Network Analysis Toolbox for ArcGIS — City Form Lab. [online] Available at: http://cityform.mit.edu/projects/urban-network-analysis.html [Accessed 10 Sep. 2016].

3.0 Site: Sanford Kwinter, “soft systems” in culture lab, ed. Brian Boigon, Princeton architecture press. 1993 P.208

4.0 Design Strategy: [Workshop to Produce an Information Kit on Farmerproven. Integrated Agricultureaquaculture Technologies (IIRR, 1992, 119 p.) Fagherazzi, S., Kirwan, M., Mudd, S., Guntenspergen, G., Temmerman, S., D’Alpaos, A., van de Koppel, J., Rybczyk, J., Reyes, E., Craft, C. and Clough, J. (2012). Numerical models of salt marsh evolution: Ecological, geomorphic, and climatic factors. Rev. Geophys.

5.0 Design Proposal: Snyder Susan Nigra, Wall Alex. 1998. Emerging landscapes of movement and logistics. Architectural Design Profile 134:16–21.

263


Image references

(In order of appearance)

Hussain Koole

0.1

Hussain Koole Koolhaas, Rem. Delirious New York. New York: Monacelli Press, 1994. Print. Koolhaas, Rem. Delirious New York. New York: Monacelli Press, 1994. Print. “US MEGALOPOLISES (2200X1139) • /R/Mapporn”. reddit. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Saltworks, Claude Nicolas Ledoux Broadacre City, Frank Lloyd Wright

1.1

Hussain Koole US dep. of agriculture “Can Iraq’s Lost Marshes Be Restored?”. America.aljazeera.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Sudd In Southern Sudan, Photographs By Yann Arthus Bertrand | Gessato Blog”. Blog.gessato.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Lake Titicaca And The Floating Islands Of Uros”. Linda & Craig’s Big Trip. N.p., 2013. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Hussain Koole S-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Lecture 02: Abstraction, Time-Based Systems **DRAFT**”. UO Design Communication II. N.p., 2013. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Blogs.agu.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

1.2 Hussain Koole “STRATO”. Zoom-earth.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Archinect | Connecting Architects Since 1997”. Uk.archinect.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. http://gomezpompa.blogspot.co.uk/ Planetay.com.br. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Wikiwand.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Case Studies”. Ellenmacarthurfoundation.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Bradleydibble.authorsxpress.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Cleantechnica.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

264

1.3

Hussain Koole

1.4

Hussain Koole “Basra Climate Basra Temperatures Basra Weather Averages”. Basra.climatemps.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Earth :: A Global Map Of Wind, Weather, And Ocean Conditions”. Earth.nullschool.net. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

1.5

Hussain Koole Msnbcmedia2.msn.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Unep.or.jp. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. https://farm4.staticflickr.com/3411/3498341514_9a5cb2f2cd_b.jpg R.W. Fitzpatrick, CSIRO Land and Water R.W. Fitzpatrick, CSIRO Land and Water R.W. Fitzpatrick, CSIRO Land and Water http://ngjyra.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/keneta111.jpg

1.6

Hussain Koole

1.7

Hussain Koole

1.8

“Eden Restored: The Mesopotamian Marshes Of Iraq By Esme Allen, A Review By Sammy Simpson”. Grizedale Sculpture. N.p., 2015. Web. 13 June 2016.


2.1

“Esme Allen - Professional Photographer, Scottish Borders, Melrose - Home”. Esmeallen.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

3.1

“STRATO”. Zoom-earth.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “STRATO”. Zoom-earth.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

3.2

Hussain Koole Hussain Koole

4.1

Hussain Koole “Date Harvest In Dahshur - Christina Rizk Photography”. Christinarizk.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Ecosystem-Based Farming Comes Of Age”. Eco-Business. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. “Floating Drum Biogas - Build A Biogas Plant - Home”. Build a Biogas Plant - Home. N.p., 2014. Web. 11 Sept. 2016. Hussain Koole Hussain Koole

4.2

“Marsh Dwellers In The Euphrates-Tigris Swamps | Georg Gerster”. Georggerster.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

5.1

Guardian of the River, Claude Nicolas Ledoux Lumberjacks Home, Claude Nicolas Ledoux “Typologies”, Bernd Becher and Hilla Becher “Submarine Cable Map”. http://www.submarinecablemap.com/. N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

265


For Every 200

gm of Dates, 100 gm of Date syrup

Dates Harvested in

can be extracted

Mesopotamia

Sold in London for

ÂŁ 2.70 on Edgward rd.

Produced and processed in

The Netherlands Collected and shipped from Basrah

City

Distributed through

Stockholm, Sweden

266


Rotterdam

Mesopotamian Marshlands

London Basrah Stockholm

Sold and Consumed

Distribution Center Collection Point Processing Center Harvest

267


268


269


31° 0’19.5”N 47° 26’27.4”E

270

Living on the Edge  

Restoring the ecology of Wetland Environments.

Living on the Edge  

Restoring the ecology of Wetland Environments.

Advertisement