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COMPREHENSIVE, GENERIC HAIRCOLOR STUDY GUIDE


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The American Board of Certified Haircolorists Mission Statement THE AMERICAN BOARD OF CERTIFIED HAIRCOLORISTS is dedicated to the

development of standardized criteria in certification, promoting credibility and consistent quality in the professional haircolorist.

Bringing predictability and ethical professional behavior for the well being of the consumer and enhancing excellence in customer service. Encouraging mentors to share their knowledge with aspiring professional haircolorists. Making available to them the confidence needed to excel in their chosen profession by creating opportunity for success and a prosperous future. Totally devoted to supporting and endorsing the status of the Board Certified Haircolorist with a goal to overcome the inadequacies of the past and become an integral part of the future evolving professional haircolor.

This printing of the ABCH Study Portfolio is dedicated to the memory of Lyal McCaig who passed away in July of 2007

He served as a charter member of the Board of Directors for eight years. He will be remembered for his passion for the beauty industry and his dedication to educating and inspiring others. His commitment to raising the level of professionalisum was unequaled. The imprint he leaves behind will be felt for years to come.

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INTRODUCTION The certification of haircolorists has been a vision of many professionals in our industry; with a goal to establish a standard by which to judge competence and acknowledge a level of excellence achieved in haircolor, thus creating credibility in the eyes of the consumer. Developing a protocol to determine the level of excellence has been a sensitive and difficult task due to the need for a common language among haircolorists. Manufacturers, haircolorists and organizations dedicated to the art of haircolor were consulted to develop a consensus of terms pertaining to proper language, techniques and test procedures needed to accomplish our vision. After all background research was completed, the committee set forth to create the exam. Dr. Richard Resurreccion, a professor of vocational education, acted as an advisor to our committee. He was instrumental in establishing the examination to certify paramedics for the Los Angeles Fire Service.  These qualifications have made him uniquely qualified to advise our Board on the preparation of the testing procedure. Candidates who are to be considered board certified must rise to the same standard of excellence; candidates must feel the examination has been a valuable educational experience. A method of feedback has been established to show the candidates their areas of difficulty or weakness. This study portfolio contains all the information and guidelines needed for the written and performance exams. The comprehensive material is written in easy to understand language providing in depth knowledge of the inner workings of haircolor. It is our hope these materials will become the standard by which haircolor is taught and evaluated. The title, American Board Certified Haircolorist, will set qualified individuals apart from the masses and establish a higher level of professionalism and credibility for the consumer. As in all professions, the consumer will seek out those certified for their expert knowledge and service excellence.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge and express deep appreciation to the many wonderful people who have made this project possible: • International Haircolor Exchange, Haircolor Education Committee and guests who attended the first meeting in August, 1988:

Patricia Ackerman, Fran Bertrand, Donna Blackmore, Ryan Boyd, Ann Briggs, Tootie DeRosa, Belinda Gambuzza, Dennis Gebhart, Lynné Gross, Gia, Darlene Hakola, Ann Hilley, JoAnn Hubrich, Dee Levin, Cal Martini, André Nizetich, Maria O’Cero, Helene René, Lois Shirley, Charlotte Vitalich, Thia Spearing, and Sheila Zaricor. • Clairol, L’Oreal, Redken, Wella, and Schwarzkopf. Members of their educational teams:  Tom Dispenza, Jackie Easterling, Linda

Gately, Aubrey Maugeri, Vicky Melesko, Charlet Ridell, Victor St Sure, Phillip Sutton, and Mark Wofford. • Dr. Richard Resurrection, without whom this task would have been impossible. His directive “Keep it fair, make it uniform, and

give those who fail the feedback necessary to support them in growing from the experience,” made our mission clear. His

encouragement in developing an evaluator training manual was a giant step in removing as much subjectivity as possible. • Tom Berger, former Vice President of Avanstar International Beauty Show Group, for assembling the first meeting of

manufacturers and Board of Directors. • Subject Matter Expert Participants:

Sharon Acino, Julie Arnold, Geri Bakkie, Beverly Bandy, Jami Boccella, Brent Bauer, Peg Brown, Pamela Callan, Katherine Capelli,

Jan Caruso, Tamara Dahill, Susan De Araujo, Joanne Devito, Peggy Drake, Ling Eng, Kelly English, Cindy Farr, Toi Lee Fowler, Lori Gage, Leonard Galkowski, Bobby Green, Jean Geller, Barbie Goldberg, Jody Haley, Darel Harrison, Sheryl Hermason, Michael

James, Marianne Klein, Rosemary Larocca, Susan Maccoy, Chi Mai Markley, Kathleen Mattie, Kris McGinnis, Mark Melter, Patricia

Militello, Dolores Morelli, Paul Morrison, Kamal Musleh, Tamara Cope Musleh, Thanh Nguyen, Jocelyn Northcutt, Marge Navratil,

Kathy Partin, Marie Palmisano, Lisa Peterson, Sue Reed, Babak Sariaslani, James Sheppard, Kathy Smith, Kathy Tapp, Bob Turner,

Cindra Turner, Anthony Tuzzolino, Kimberly Villella, Mary Walker, Norma Watson, Sandra West, Teresa West, Tina White, Mary

Wiegert, and Cynthia Zahn. Their courage, honest appraisal, and assistance will always be deeply appreciated. • First team of evaluators: Julie Arnold, Brent Bauer, Katherine Capelli, Tamara Dahill, Ling Eng, Bobby Green, Barbie Goldberg,

Kathleen Mattie, Kris McGinnis, Paul Morrison, Marge Navratil, Jocelyn Nothcutt, Kathy Smith, Mary Walker, and Cynthia Zahn.

All of who recognized the need and have gone that extra mile to make certain the certification program is a success. • The first ABCH Board of Directors: Andre Nizetich, President: Lyal McCaig, Vice President; Thia Spearing; Olive Benson, David

Stanko, and Sheila Zaricor; warriors one and all. Committed to making a difference in our industry.

To each one taking the time to study, working toward self improvement, taking a stand and being recognized in the pursuit of excellence.

Thank You




EXAMINATION OBJECTIVES FOR THE CERTIFICATION COMMITTEE

It is important that the examinations is professionally conducted in an efficient manner and generally meet or exceed accepted testing standards. There must be strong evidence that the written examination and performance task test the skills and abilities required for excellence on the actual job. Information provided to the candidates prior to taking the certification examination must be well prepared and of high quality. Moreover, the open examination procedure allows non-candidates to observe the procedure in an unobtrusive manner, thus encouraging others to participate in the certification process. It is important that the procedures used by the evaluation team are of a consistently high standard; they require formal documentation necessary for defense against failed candidates. It is necessary to validate materials, instructions and procedures to make certain they conform to professional test construction techniques.

SUMMARY OF THE COMMITTEE OBJECTIVES

OBJECTIVE #1 Document a task analysis for each work sample. Specify relation of tasks to rating scale. Verify test procedures with a professor of vocational education. OBJECTIVE #2 Determine the extent to which candidates are provided information before the examination. OBJECTIVE #3 Implement a formal procedure for feedback to candidates who have failed the examination and be able to comment on areas of weakness. OBJECTIVE #4 Determine a method by which Evaluators are selected, qualified and trained. OBJECTIVE #5 Construct a test manual for Evaluators that standardizes instructions. OBJECTIVE #6 Address the needs of candidates for whom English is not their primary language. OBJECTIVE #7 Evaluate and analyze the testing process on an annual basis. OBJECTIVE #8 Construct a general test administration manual for candidates.

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OBJECTIVE #1 Document a task analysis for each work sample. Specify relation of tasks to rating scale. Verify test procedures with a professor of vocational education. Ensuring validity in performance examinations is no different from ensuring validity in written examinations. It requires careful adherence to an examination development process. Content validity is a necessity of professional certification examinations. To ensure content validity one needs to follow a comprehensive job analysis and utilize the certification committee to review and approve the examination process. It is also necessary to review the examination tasks annually to ensure validity and update, if necessary. OBJECTIVE #2 Determine the extent to which candidates are provided information before the examination. One of the features that make an examination outstanding is the quality of information given to candidates prior to the examination. Candidates should receive current information and be aware of what work samples will be included in the examination. They should also have a clear understanding of the materials needed to bring to the examination. OBJECTIVE #3 Implement a formal procedure for feedback to candidates who have failed the examination, and be able to comment on areas of weakness. The committee will provide feedback to candidates who have failed the examination. As part of the notification, the candidate will be provided with a summary of his/her score sheet reflecting each area of the work samples and any comments about any low scoring areas, including the location of the correct information in the study materials. The scoring system and judgments made by the Evaluators is derived from a clearly stated set of behavioral observations. The criteria will provide a defense mechanism to address any issues of unfair scoring. OBJECTIVE #4 Determine a method by which Evaluators are selected qualified and trained. It is important that every effort be made to minimize subjectivity of the Evaluators and improve their competency. Therefore, score sheets utilizing behaviorally anchored rating scales are the best format to use for practical examinations. Evaluators are trained, monitored and assessed regularly to maintain scoring consistency. OBJECTIVE #5 Construct a test manual for Evaluators that standardizes instructions. There are a series of oral questions posed to the candidates during the performance examination. The questions are designed to measure the knowledge, composure, and confidence of the candidate. The oral questions contribute to a portion of the performance examination score. The Evaluator manual will specify exact terms to be used to ask questions, as well as the acceptable and unacceptable answers. The way a question is presented, and how much restating, leading, or prodding should be clearly outlined to reflect predictable grading. Simulation questions will be constructed using committee members so that all of the alternatives are relevant and plausible. The test manual includes the necessary forms and rating system. The evaluators must be prepared to defend their scores when asked by the candidates for an explanation. The candidate must feel that he or she was treated fairly and with the utmost consideration. OBJECTIVE # 6 Address the needs of candidates for whom English is not their primary language. English as a second language candidates will be evaluated on a case by case basis. Considerations are: Additional time, use of a dictionary, or the use of an interpreter.

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OBJECTIVE #7 Evaluate and analyze the testing process on an annual basis. The committee will compute statistics on the percentage of candidates who pass the practical exam work samples. Those work samples will be reviewed to determine their reliance in reflecting industry standards. OBJECTIVE #8 Construct a general test administration manual for candidates. A manual will provide information on testing procedures, test subject matter, equipment needed, refund policy, absence or tardiness, special accommodations for non-English speaking candidates and other pertinent information.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III Introduction to Haircoloring. . . . . . . . . IV Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V

Accreditation Committee Objectives. . . VI STUDY MATERIAL INFORMATION, WRITTEN EXAMINATION

Haircolor Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 1)

1

Identifying Natural Haircolor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 2) 19

Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 3) 37 The Study of the Porosity of Hair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 4) 51 Coloring Textured & Chemically Treated Hair. . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 5) 69 Guideline for Perming Hair Treated with Haircoloring. . . . . . (Chapter 6) 79 Psychology of Haircolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 7) 93

Coloring Gray Hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 8) 105 STUDY MATERIAL INFORMATION, PERFORMANCE EXAMINATION

Instructions for Preparation of the Mannequin & Swatches. . (Chapter 9) 127 Performance Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 10) 141

Performance Criteria and Evaluation Score Sheets. . . . . . . . (Chapter 11) 155 Performance Examination Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 12) 165

Interactive Assessment Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 13) 183 SCORING THE PERFORMANCE EXAMINATION

Performance Examination Evaluation Process . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 14) 205

Techniques Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 15) 227 Glossary of Haircoloring Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 16) 241 Haircoloring Tools And Marketing Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Chapter 17) 251

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“You learn haircolor everyday, you will never learn it all at once.”



Aura Mae, ABCH Board Member


1

chapter

Haircolor Chemistry • Haircolor • Bleaches • Hydrogen Peroxide

Revised March, 2009


“If prayer had an influence on the outcome of haircolor services, there would be far more successful haircolor services.�



Chapter 1 Chemistry

Charles Traina, Evaluator


1 There are many different types of haircoloring products available. They include pigmented shampoos, weekly rinses, semi-permanent, permanent lift/deposit haircolor and deposit-only haircolor. The focus of this chapter is permanent lift/deposit haircolors.

2 The weekly rinse or temporary haircolor is primarily used to add color to gray hair, faded blondes or brassy hair. This haircolor is not generally used to cover gray. It does not have the ability to lighten hair. The color is applied at the shampoo bowl or working station and left in the hair. The color will rub off if applied excessively.

3 Semi-permanent haircolor is not mixed with peroxide. It is simple to use because the color you see is the color you get. It is a direct dye and does not require oxidation for the color to stain the hair. In areas where the hair is more porous, this type of color will show greater intensity. Caution must be exercised when utilizing a semi-permanent haircolor on porous hair; it can stain the hair permanently.

4 Deposit-only haircolor utilizes oxidative and direct dyes, and requires peroxide. The peroxide is generally a low volume oxidative solution. Deposit only/demi-permanent haircolors are longer lasting than semi-permanent haircolor. The major distinction between semi-permanent and deposit only/demipermanent colors is that peroxide is required with deposit only and demi permanent color. NOTE: Some deposit only haircolors may create a small degree of lift.

Chapter 1 Chemistry




5 Permanent (lift/deposit) haircolors are available in a variety of forms: Gels, liquids and creams. They are packaged in tubes, as well as bottles. The majority utilize equal parts of peroxide, although some utilize a one to two ratio of haircolor to peroxide. Permanent haircolor works in basically the same manner; they create a certain degree of lift and deposit. Permanent haircolors are the only haircolors that are formulated to lighten hair.

0

1

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12

6

The international system of defining the lift/deposit ratio of haircolor is called the level system. The level system gives the haircolorist an indication of the lift/ deposit ratio in a bottle or tube of haircolor. Although most manufacturers of haircolor products utilize the level system, not all manufacturers utilize the same level system. When comparing products that are labeled the same level from two different manufacturers, the haircolorist must be aware that the product could vary as much as two levels, therefore it may not produce the same results.

7

A RULE TO REMEMBER WHEN SELECTING A COLOR IS: The darker the color, the smaller the number. This may vary depending on the manufacturer. Some start with #0, others with #1. The same variance can be found on the other end of the scale. Some manufacturers choose to use #10 as the lightest haircolor, while others choose to use #12. Permanent haircolor contains ingredients which create lift and color deposit.

8 The lift/deposit ratio in a container of haircolor is defined by this chart. This chart depicts the relationship between lift and deposit. The parts on the left side of the chart will correspond to the level. The more parts lift the higher the level.



Chapter 1 Chemistry


9 A haircolor product with a low number is indicating a small amount of lift and a corresponding greater amount of deposit.

10 The level system is one tool the haircolorist can use to determine what color to choose when formulating for a client. If there is a greater number of levels in a line of haircolor, there is a smaller difference between those levels. In some of the highlift colors there could be as little as one tenth of 1% color deposit. Please note: Level systems will differ among manufacturers

11 Another way of looking at haircolor is the concentration of color deposit as seen in this prop. The level 10 haircolor has the least amount of color deposit. As the numbers decrease, there is a greater concentration of color deposit.

12 LIFT DEPOSIT

Ammonium Hydroxide or Alkali Substitute

Dyes Alkali Detergents Emulsifiers Conditioners Stabilizers Fragrance

Permanent (lift/deposit) haircolor contains dye, alkaline substances, conditioners, stabilizers, fragrance, detergents and emulsifiers. These are all utilized in various proportions to create the vast numbers of haircolors that are available to the haircolorist. The advantage of professional haircoloring over mass marketing haircoloring is greater selection, professional formulation and professional application techniques.

Chapter 1 Chemistry




13

The level system only indicates lift/deposit ratio. The tone or shade defines the actual color and is generally listed on the product. Manufacturers often add a letter or series of numbers to identify level and indicate tone. While this information is provided to help the haircolorist determine formulation, the final color is determined by a number of factors that the colorist must consider: category of natural haircolor, presence/amount of gray hair, porosity and condition of the hair. The colorist cannot rely on level and tone indicators from a manufacturer alone to accurately predict the final color.

14 A variety of terms are used to describe the tone of a haircolor. neutral, natural, drab, gold, ash, smoky, red, and auburn red; to mention a few. It is important to know the degree of concentration of the tone. For example: the color identified as gold could be a very intense yellow gold, or have slightly more gold than a neutral. Working with the color and making swatches will help the haircolorist recognize the actual color.

15 Hydrogen peroxide is the catalyst that causes permanent haircolor to work. A qualified haircolorist should be able to utilize various volumes of peroxides. Twenty (20) volume peroxide is the typical developer used in most cases. Clients with sensitive scalps may not be able to withstand additional activity from higher volume peroxide.

16 Higher volumes of peroxide are utilized when a greater degree of lift is desired. As the volume of peroxide increases, the color deposit diminishes. The opposite occurs when the volume of peroxide is lowered.



Chapter 1 Chemistry


17 When haircolor is mixed with peroxide, a chemical action takes place. The higher the level of color (more lifting action), or the higher the volume of peroxide, the more aggressive the chemical reaction. The lower the level of color (more color deposit), or the lower the volume of peroxide, the less aggressive the chemical reaction. When first mixed, the chemical reaction is most active. When the formula is applied to hair, the peroxide and ammonia begin to dissipate. The color remaining in the bowl or applicator bottle is oxidizing at a slower rate than the product applied to the head.

18

Hydrogen peroxide affects the lifting and depositing cycle of the haircolor process. The majority of the lifting occurs during the initial stages of the application and will continue to a lesser degree during the entire haircoloring process. This graph illustrates how the peroxide decomposes after mixing with bleach or haircolor. This occurrence will differ slightly depending on the level of color.

19 The amount of color deposit is attributed to the amount of color in the formula. If coverage of gray hair is desired and does not occur, it is possible the level of color being used does not contain enough color deposit. There isn’t enough color in the higher level of tints to cover gray hair completely. The level of color being used should be the first consideration when gray coverage is poor. If there is ample color in the formula and the gray hair is still not being covered, the hair itself would be considered resistant.

Applications

6

5

4 3

2

1

20

An alkali contained in the color product swells the cuticle and allows the haircolor to penetrate. The combination of hydrogen peroxide with an alkali creates a chemical reaction, which breaks down the melanin and develops the dyes. Depending on the level of color, the color will penetrate further into the hair on subsequent applications.

Chapter 1 Chemistry




21 Hydrogen peroxide in combination with an alkali is responsible for releasing peroxide's free radicals. The peroxide and alkali break apart the melanin causing it to diffuse and give the hair a lighter appearance. The peroxide is primarily responsible for dissolving the melanin.

22

It is important to know the relationship between volume and percentage when discussing peroxides. Hydrogen peroxide manufactured for haircolor use is labeled according to strength. In the United States, peroxide strength is stated as a numeric value followed by the word “volume”; e.g. 20 volume peroxide. In other countries such as England and Canada, peroxide strength is measured and labeled by percentage; i.e. 6% peroxide. 6% - 20 volume 3% - 10 volume 9% - 30 volume 12% - 40 volume

23

Soap bubbles are used to illustrate one volume of peroxide. One volume is a container filled with air.  This is considered to be one volume of oxygen.

24 The bubbles simulating oxygen are forced to the bottom of the glass by compressing the oxygen with a ram. This would make one volume of peroxide.



Chapter 1 Chemistry


25 This simulated bottle of peroxide would represent one volume of peroxide with the oxygen squeezed to the bottom.

26 This is the same container, once again filled with bubbles representing oxygen in place.

27 The ramming process is repeated again, pushing the ram down to the bottom of the glass. This gives two volumes of oxygen. If this is done twenty times, you squeeze twenty volumes of air into this glass. This gives the container 20 volume peroxide or 6% of the container is peroxide.

28 All of the oxygen that was squeezed into the bottom of this container takes up 6 percent of the container, thus the term 6% peroxide. Three (3)% is 10 volume, 6% is 20 volume. For every additional 3% add 10 volume. NOTE: This is not the method used to actually make peroxide. This prop is used only to aid the reader to better understand the volume/percent ratio.

Chapter 1 Chemistry




29

The oxygen attempting to escape is what makes peroxide an unstable solution. The more oxygen in the container, the more unstable the solution. The maximum amount of oxygen in peroxide is 35%, 130 volume. There are no laws which regulate the volume of peroxide a cosmetologist may use. Pour 4 ounces of 20 volume peroxide into one glass. Pour 4 ounces of 5 volume peroxide (1 oz. of 20 volume peroxide and 3 oz. of water) into the second glass. The contents of both glasses appear the same.

30 The physical appearance of varying strengths of peroxide is identical to water, making it impossible to identify its strength by sight alone. In this exercise, an equal amount of a product that releases oxygen (contains catalyze) is added to the peroxide. This additive will decompose the peroxide, releasing all of its oxygen.

31 All of the oxygen is now escaping from the liquid. This gives an indication of the strength of the peroxide. Notice the bubbling action that is taking place. The more bubbles, the more activity in the product. Both of these volumes will stop working at the same time. The 20 volume peroxide generates more activity than the 5 volume peroxide.

32 The difference between 5 volume and 20 volume peroxide is apparent when the peroxide is completely decomposed. The 20 volume peroxide has much more activity, which can clearly be seen. This exercise helps gain a better insight on how peroxide decomposes.

10

Chapter 1 Chemistry


33 Utilizing Alka-Seltzer, another prop has been devised to indicate how peroxide decomposes. The Alka-Seltzer are stacked into piles. Each pile indicates the percentage of peroxide for that volume. 10 volume peroxide is 3% so there is 3 tablets. 20 volume is 6% so there are 6 tablets, all the way to 40 volume which is 12%, so there are 12 tablets.

34 An equal amount of water is placed into each of the glass containers as marked. The Alka-Seltzer is then put into the containers at the same time and the tablets start to dissolve.

35 The action of the simulated volumes of peroxide can be seen in this prop. The 40 volume peroxide reacts with much more intensity than does the 30, 20, and 10 respectively.

36 All of the peroxides stop working at the same time. The 40 volume does not continue working twice as long as the 20 volume, but works at twice the strength. Further explanation of how peroxides affect lifting action will be demonstrated later in this chapter.

Chapter 1 Chemistry

11


37 Lift/deposit action of a haircolor may be altered by the use of a higher volume peroxide. If a haircolor is formulated to be utilized with 20 volume, the lifting action is increased as much as one level by increasing the volume of peroxide to 30 volume. This also, affects the deposit of color; the more lifting action, the less color deposit.

1-1/2 ounce 20 vol.

1 ounce 20 vol.

1/2 ounce 20 vol.

Add 1/2 oz. water 15 vol.

Add 1 oz. water 10 vol.

Add 1- 1/2 oz. water 5 vol.

38

The strength of peroxide may be decreased by diluting it with distilled water. The formula for diluting peroxide is: 1 part 20 volume peroxide 1 part water (0 volume = 10 volume peroxide) When mixing equal parts add the two volumes together and divide by two. Example: 1 part 40 volume + 1 part 20 volume 60 volume divided by 2 = 30 volume A hydrometer may also be used to measure the volume of liquid peroxide.

39 Heat affects lifting action in the same manner that higher volumes of peroxide affect haircolor. The addition of heat to a color formula increases the lifting action. As a result of the lifting action, it is important to remember that color deposit will be reduced. Powder bleach is applied to this strand and will process at room temperature for 30 minutes. All of the strands are in the dark brown category

40

For this next strand, a new mixture of bleach was mixed at the same strength and allowed to process for 30 minutes. We added heat while the hair was processing. The temperature was raised to 90 degrees with the use of a heat lamp.

12

Chapter 1 Chemistry


41

Nat

Room Temp

90

100

110

The same process was repeated with two other swatches. The temperatures were raised with the heat lamps to 90, 100, and 110 degrees. Each strand was allowed to process for 30 minutes, with the same strength bleach mixture. The result of this experiment shows the degree of lightness achieved by the various degrees of heat. The heat settings on the typical hair dryer are; low70 degrees, low-80 degrees, medium-90 degrees, and high-110 degrees.

42 5 volume

10 volume

15 volume 20 volume

Another experiment shows how lightening action is affected by the various volumes of peroxide. Each of the batches of bleach were mixed with 5, 10, 15 and 20 volume peroxide. Each batch of bleach was mixed with exact proportions. Each group of 4 swatches were saturated with bleach.

43 The swatches were covered with foil and allowed to process. One of the swatches from each group was shampooed at intervals of 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes and 60 minutes.

15 Min. 20 Vol. 15 Vol. 10 Vol. 5 Vol.

30 Min.

45 Min.

60 Min.

44 This shows the result of that experiment. Note how the strands become closer together in color as time increases. As the processing times increase, the bleaching slows down considerably. The graph on the next page explains how this process occurs.

Chapter 1 Chemistry

13


45

The longer the bleach is on the hair, the slower bleaching action becomes, regardless of the starting strength of peroxide. The strength of peroxide has a greater effect on the bleaching action initially; then slowly it diminishes. Powder bleach will lighten the hair even if mixed with water.

46

A foil packet is utilized when lightening selected strands of hair to keep the strands isolated. This method serves to confine the bleach mixture, keeping the product moist and active for a longer period of time. Without foil or other material to isolate the bleach on the hair, the bleach will dry out and stop working.

20 vol. liquid 40 vol. creme 40 vol. liquid

47

In this exercise, powder bleach was used to show differences in bleaching action. When using creme peroxide verses liquid peroxide, less bleach powder is used in the mixture. Most haircolorists generally mix bleach to consistency rather than measure. If a higher volume creme peroxide is used, greater bleaching action will not be achieved because less bleach is used. The bleach powder is the stronger of the two ingredients and determines the bleaching action.

48

This exercise shows the differences in using the various volumes of peroxides. Three sets of swatches were processed with three different formulas of bleach mixed as follows: 1. One part 20 volume liquid peroxide to two parts powder bleach. 2. One part 40 volume liquid peroxide to two parts powder bleach. 3. One part 40 volume creme peroxide to one part powder bleach.

14

Chapter 1 Chemistry


Ha ir Vo 40 lu Vo me 40 lu L Vo me iqu lu Li id m qu e Cr id em e

49

20

30 Minutes

60 Minutes

90 Minutes

4 Hours

50

The same type of exercise was performed using a high-lift tint. The purpose of this experiment was to determine how long high-lift tints stayed active and to determine the difference between the proportions and volumes of peroxides. The batches were mixed in the following manner: 1. High-lift tint with equal parts of 20 volume peroxide. 2. High-lift tint with double parts of 40 volume peroxide.

51

The swatches were thoroughly saturated and allowed to process.

30 Minutes

60 Minutes

20 ua l

Na t

ur

al Ha i

Eq r ua Do l 20 ub le 40

52 Eq

Na

tu ra l

The swatches were removed at 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. One of the swatches processed for four hours. Once again, the processing times resulted in the color coming closer together the longer the bleach was on the hair. The swatch bleached for four hours was not a great deal lighter than the 90 minute swatches.

90 Minutes

4 Hours

The swatches were removed after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. The color of the three groups of swatches became closer the longer the tint stayed on the hair. It is apparent that tint formulas continue lightening the hair over a long period of time. The swatch that processed for four hours is evidence of this. Most of the lightening action created by the various volumes of peroxide occurred with the first 30 minutes.

Chapter 1 Chemistry

15


Foil Shiny

Foil Shiny

Foil Dull

Foil Dull

Paper

Paper

Saran

Saran

Uncovered

Uncovered

53 The length of time a bleach continues to work is affected by how rapidly the alkali and the peroxide dissipates. If the solution is contained in a foil packet, between papers, or cellophane wrap the bleaching action will continue to stay active over a longer period of time. Once bleach mixture becomes dry, it no longer continues to work.

54 The materials used to form packets seems to be irrelevant. As long as the bleach is enclosed in a manner to keep it from drying out, the bleach will continue working. Here, various strands were enclosed in shiny side foil, dull side foil, papers, saran and one was left uncovered.

55 Foil Shiny

Foil Dull

Paper

Saran

Enzyme Peroxide Deposit Only Processing Lotion

16

Chapter 1 Chemistry

Uncovered

The result of the hair strands being bleached in various forms of materials is irrelevant. The only swatch that is visibly not as light, is the swatch left uncovered. The same bleach was applied to all of the swatches and processed for the same amount of time.

56 A comparison was made with enzymes, 20 volume peroxide and a deposit only processing lotion. The purpose was to determine the amount of oxygen in each of these products.


57

Deposit Only Enzyme Peroxide Processing Lotion

A product containing catalyze was poured into the beakers. The amount of foaming action will determine how much oxygen is present in each of these products.

Deposit Enzyme Peroxide Only Processing Lotion

Natural

Enzyme

Peroxide

58 The results of this test are apparent: The 20 volume has the most oxygen followed by the enzyme. The deposit only catalyst has the least amount of oxygen.

59 To further compare the enzyme, we mixed the enzyme and 20 volume peroxide with powder bleach. Each was allowed to process for 30 minutes

60 The result shows that the enzyme strand is slightly lighter than the 20 volume peroxide. The reader will reach his/her own conclusion from this exercise.

Chapter 1 Chemistry

17


61

Many of the tools printers use are helpful to understand haircolor formulation. Printers have to deal with similar problems as haircolorists in their work. They are applying inks which are transparent, to colored papers. The color of paper being used effects the final color. The colored paper is therefore placed below the ink color to determine how the ink will look various colors of paper.

62

Another printer’s tool contains thousands of colors and the formulas, containing percentages of each of the primary colors used to achieve each color. The name of this system is called ‘Pantone’ colors. All ink manufacturers adjust their inks to the ‘Pantone’ system. How much easier it would be if the haircolor industry could standardize their haircolors. Learning the color wheel is important information. It would be more pertinent to our industry if the percent of primary colors in the various haircolors would be taught.

63

The American Board of Certified Haircolorists provides a do it yourself color chart. You may color prepared swatches with the haircolors you use most often. This exercise will help the haircolorists better understand how a haircolor will react on given hair types.

64

This chapter should encourage every Board Certified Haircolorist to take the time to perform individual experiments. Learn about the products you work with. By doing so, you will be better prepared to deal with critical decisions when working on your clients hair.

18

Chapter 1 Chemistry


2

chapter

IDENTIFYING NATURAL HAIRCOLOR • Haircolor Categories • Stages of Lightening • Rules of Natural Haircolor • Color Formulations • Recommended Techniques

Revised March, 2009


“A good haircolor service is like good music or good anything else. It is not the completion of the first service that brings satisfaction, rather having the client grow on the haircolorist the more times they visit them.�

Pamela Pacheco, Evaluator

20

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


1 Natural haircolor, when and how hair grays, texture and abundance are all determined by DNA genetic coding. There are instances where illness will override the DNA genetic coding but it is rare.

2 Natural haircolor changes as one matures. Research indicates that worry, stress, fright, or trauma have little to do with this.

3 Natural haircolor is determined by the genes of one’s parents. Occasionally, certain haircolors will skip a generation.

4 Although the parents in this family have no history of red hair, they have an offspring who has red hair. The red hair can be traced back a generation. In this family, we have the entire spectrum of haircolors. As the children mature their natural haircolor differences will lessen.

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

21


5 Although the ‘level system’ has been an accepted method for identifying natural haircolor, the ‘CATEGORY SYSTEM’ takes this one step further in refining the process. The level system makes no accommodation for gray hair nor does it help the haircolorist anticipate undertones. It places everyone in one giant group. Moreover, the level system uses the same swatch chart to define natural haircolor as well as the stages of lightening. The category system makes it easier to understand by separating the two.

6 The world’s population is divided into four categories. Each category has its own personality and will respond to haircolor differently. Each category will go through different stages of lightness and will expose different undertones. Understanding the four haircolor categories is essential reference material during a client consultation. The category of an individual never changes throughout their lifetime.

7 Often, clients describe their haircolor based on memories from high school. This is indicative of how they view themselves and is a factor when anticipating a new haircolor. Hair darkens as one grows older, but the undertones remain the same and are based on childhood haircolor.

8 The first of these categories is DARK BROWN/ BLACK (B) category. These are individuals who were born with dark hair; and their hair remains unchanged throughout their lifetime, until they begin to gray.

22

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


9 The next category is WARM BROWN (W). The individuals in this category are born with blonde or sandy brown hair. Their hair darkens to a brown shade before they reach their teens. Someone in the W category would not consider themselves blonde in high school, although their hair generally lightens considerably from the sun.

10 SOFT BROWN (S) category individuals are born blonde. Their hair remains blonde into their teenage years and may remain blonde into their twenties and thirties. They consider themselves as blonde during their high school years. Their hair may begin to darken while they are in high school.

11 The last category is the RED (R) category. These are the individuals who consider themselves red heads during their teen years. Those who are reddish blonde during their toddler years, but whose hair turns dark before their teens would be placed in the warm brown category.

12

DARK BROWN/BLACK (B) Each category can be broken down into three subcategories. Individuals in the B category: B-1, B-2 and B-3. B-1 is the darkest B-2 is the mid range B-3 is the lightest The father is a warm brown the mother is a dark brown, therefore the children are all in the B category from B-1 to B-3. Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

23


13 (B) category clients generally have natural haircolor with cool tones. These clients generally don’t like the warm tones that occur when lightening their hair, and will often allow their hair to gray without coloring.

14 As gray hair becomes a dominant factor in the overall haircolor (30% or more), the hair may be colored and achieve a minimum of warm tones. It is possible when clients are in the B-3 category and have a minimum amount of gray, blonde highlights may be added to the hair. Lightening the remaining hair slightly after the highlighting service removes the cool tones and adds a pleasing contrast to the highlights. Sub categories B-1 and B-2 are not good candidates for highlighting to a blonde color without toning. Dark Reddish Brown Dark Black

Medium Reddish Brown

Reddish Brown

Gold Orange

Light Orange Red

Gold

Light Gold

Pale Yellow Blonde Yellow

Palest Yellow Blonde

15 The (B) category goes through the following stages to reach palest yellow blonde: 7. Gold 1. Dark brown 2. Dark reddish brown 8. Light gold 3. Reddish brown 9. Yellow 4. Medium reddish brown 10. Pale yellow blonde 5. Light orange red 11. Palest yellow blonde 6. Gold orange

16 Individuals in the (W) category have parents whose natural haircolor varies widely. One parent may be from the (B) category, the other from the (S) category; this may produce a (W) offspring. These genetic influences produce a (W) whose red undertones are not as strong. This mother can recall having haircolor the same as her child.

24

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


17 The W category clients are generally more accepting of warm tones, because their hair lightened from the sun in their high school years. Because their hair goes through so many changes growing up they are good candidates for red hair colors. The W category can wear most any color well.

18

W-1 1 yr.

5 yr.

9 yr.

13 yr.

15 yr.

18 yr.

1 yr.

5 yr.

9 yr.

13 yr.

15 yr.

18 yr.

1 yr.

5 yr.

9 yr.

13 yr.

15 yr.

18 yr.

W-2

W-3

The following information describes how to determine in which sub-category a W category client would be placed. The W-1 category would have the client’s hair turning brown by age 5. The W-2 category would have the client’s hair turning brown by age 10. The W-3 category would have the client’s hair turning brown by age 13. Although only 15% of the worlds population have hair in the W category, this group accounts for 35% of salon haircolor clients.

19 It is impossible to determine the amount of undertone by observing only the surface color. You must investigate the changes the haircolor has gone through. During the consultation, questions asked regarding the color of the clients hair as a young child and at what age the hair started to darken will give an indication of how that hair will respond when lightened and the stages of lightening the hair will go through.

Medium Light Warm Golden Brown Brown

Dark Medium Golden Golden Blonde Blonde

Palest Light Yellow Pale Golden Blonde Yellow Yellow Blonde Blonde Blonde

20 The W category (warm brown) goes through less stages than the B category (dark brown/black). They are as follows: 1. Medium warm brown 2. Light golden brown 3. Dark golden blonde 4. Medium golden blonde 5. Light golden blonde 6. Yellow blonde 7. Pale yellow blonde 8. Palest yellow blonde Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

25


21 Here are three children in the warm brown category. This is typical of both parents being warm brown. Although the sub-categories vary slightly, they all fall into the warm brown (W) category.

22 This combination of parentage has produced two children in the W category. Tracing the parents color back to their childhood, the mother was a W-3, while the father was a W-2. The mother colors her hair. Note the lack of strong red tones coming from her single process color. Red undertones would be present if she was in the B category. She is closer to being a W-3, based on her undertones. You can anticipate the natural haircolor of the children becoming much the same as the father.

23 The two children in this family have haircolor similar to that of each parent. The son’s haircolor is reminiscent of his mother’s childhood haircolor; likewise, the daughter’s haircolor is similar to her father’s when he was young. The mother is in the W-2 category with dominant warm tones. The father is in the S-1 category with few warm tones. It’s a common trait for children to reflect the haircolor genes from one parent.

24 If a child is born with sandy brown hair, but the hair darkens at a young age, he would still be placed in the W category. This child’s hair lightens easily from the sun. A child in the dark brown category would not lighten from the sun in this manner. These undertones are not the same as someone the B category.

26

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


25

Undertones determine if the client is a good prospect for highlighting. Clearly some natural haircolors that are dark and cool do not make a flattering background for warm highlights. Altering the background color by bumping the base could make the highlights more flattering. Bumping the base can be done before the highlighting service or after the highlighting service if tone is desired on the highlights.

26 W category clients appear to lose all of the warmth in their hair as they begin to gray. Their hair first starts to become flat and lifeless, and continues to lose warmth as the gray hair appears. However, coloring with permanent (lift/deposit) haircolor will create warm undertones if the level of haircolor used is lighter than their natural haircolor.

27

SOFT BROWN

The S category (soft brown) is the lightest of the four categories. At least one of the parents is in the S category if any offspring is in the S category.

SOFT BROWN CATEGORY “S” Percent Of World Population

9% Percent Of Colour Clients

28 Approximately 9% of the world’s population are in the S (soft brown) category. People in the S category consider themselves blonde, and do not adjust well when their hair begins to darken. For this reason, S category people account for 50% of salon haircolor clients. Their goal is to remain blonde.

50% Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

27


29 S category individuals whose hair starts to darken will go to any means to keep their hair blonde. They will use lemon juice, spray on lightener, or pull a cap over their head and use a home frosting kit in order to keep their hair blonde. Those who can afford it will go into the salon to have their hair professionally colored. These clients start the haircoloring habit early, and will continue to color their hair for the remainder of their lives. This is why there are a large percentage of haircolor clients who are in the S category.

Light Brown

Dark Golden Blonde

Light Golden Blonde

Yellow Blonde

Pale Yellow Blonde

Palest Yellow Blonde

30 The soft brown (S) category goes through fewer stages of decolorizing than the W or B categories. They are as follows: 1. Light brown 2. Dark golden blonde 3. Light golden blonde 4. Yellow blonde 5. Pale yellow blonde 6. Palest yellow blonde

31

S-1 1 yr.

5 yr.

9 yr.

13 yr.

15 yr.

18 yr.

1 yr.

5 yr.

9 yr.

13 yr.

15 yr.

18 yr.

1 yr.

5 yr.

9 yr.

13 yr.

15 yr.

18 yr.

S-2

S-3

The S category, like the other categories, has sub categories that depend on when the hair starts to darken. If the hair starts to darken by age fourteen to fifteen they would be S-1. If the hair darkened between age fifteen to seventeen, they would be S-2 Hair darkening after age seventeen would be S-3. Some blondes do not darken until they are in their thirties and forties. These clients seem to go from blonde to gray without much contrast. Single process blonde permanent haircolor is most effective when used on clients in the S category.

32 When the S category client starts to gray, the hair seems to change from blonde to gray. For those with cool blonde tones, gray hair is generally not apparent. Those clients who have gold in their hair lose the gold tone as they start to gray.

28

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


33

RED (R) The R individual generally has red hair in their heritage. The color can range from a light strawberry blonde-red, (the daughter in this picture) to a deep, rich copper-red.

34 It is not unusual for someone in the R category to have parents that do not have red hair. This would be an example of haircolor type skipping an entire generation. People in the R category account for 1% of the world’s population. They account for less than 5% of salon haircolor clients.

35 Redheads receive so much attention from their hair color that they generally do not color their hair until it starts to turn flat and gray. At that time they will most likely color their hair the same color it was while growing up. The R category falls into the same levels as the W category.

36 By the time an R category client starts to turn gray, the natural hair would no longer be considered red. The hair tends to lose most of its warmth. This client (formerly red) chooses to have her hair highlighted with red color, as opposed to coloring 100% of her hair.

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

29


37 A review of the four haircolor categories is appropriate. The B (black/dark brown) category accounts for 75-80% of the world’s population. People in the B category are those who are born with dark hair, which remains dark until it starts to gray.

38 People in the W (warm brown) category are born with light hair that gradually darkens before the age of 13. W category hair will tend to lighten from exposure to sunlight. W clients make better prospects for blonde highlighting and can wear most any haircolor.

39 S (soft brown) category individuals consider themselves to be blonde. In many cases they will begin coloring their hair when it darkens and continue to do so throughout most of their life. Blonde haircolors outsell others by 5 to 1. They do not have brassy undertones and their hair lightens easily. They are the only clients you can feel comfortable using a high lift single process color.

40 R (red) category accounts for a small percentage of the world population. Most redheads will remain red and will not color their hair until it starts to fade. At this point they want the red color they wore when they were younger.

30

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


41 One of the most important reasons for placing your clients into a haircolor category is to accurately anticipate the stages of lightening and undertones of the different categories. When using permanent haircolor, the undertones are generated by the lifting action. The undertones combined with the color deposited is what gives the hair its final color result.

42 In a retouch situation, you may have a small regrowth area to indicate the client’s natural category. It is beneficial to discuss with that client his or her natural color and how it has changed over time. This recollection will help you determine the category, and provide you with a key to formulate for the desired results.

43 It is important to remember that while an individual’s hair color changes naturally throughout the life cycle, the category in which they are classified never changes.

44 This knowledge will help you to determine what tones are most complimentary for each category. In situations where a new retouch client is not entirely pleased with the current color, determining his or her category will help you provide an alteration of tone that will result in a more complimentary effect.

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

31


45 Determining a client's natural category can be challenging. This young lady is W-1. If her hair were short and the sun lightened ends were not visible, she could easily be mistaken for a B.

46 Father and son are both in the W category. The father’s hair was lighter than the son’s when he was a child. The young man on the right is also in the warm brown category. Note the lightness on the ends of the young man's hair.

47 A person in the W category is a more likely candidate for highlighting than someone in the B category. W category hair augment the warm tones in the natural hair color. The undertones in the B category make it more difficult to get a pleasing contrast. Highlights placed in the hair can become overly contrasting.

48 A client in the W category who has turned gray can wear warm tones in the hair when covering the gray.

32

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


49 RULES OF NATURAL HAIRCOLORING

Exposure to the sun, shampooing, hot rollers and curling irons cause the haircolor to change. Looking carefully at a child’s hair, there are color changes that occur naturally from exposure to the elements. As a result of studying these changes, we have devised ‘the rules of natural haircoloring.’

50 1. THE ENDS OF THE HAIR SHOULD BE LIGHTER THAN THE HAIR CLOSEST TO THE SCALP

Seldom will you find longer hair where the ends are not lighter than the hair at the scalp. This rule is broken most often when color is applied to the hair that is absorbed into porous ends. This is also true of hair that has been permed, then colored. This rule is also broken when a high-lift haircolor is applied for the first time from scalp to ends. The hair will lighten more at the scalp than the ends.

51 2. THE SURFACE HAIR SHOULD BE LIGHTER THAN THE HAIR UNDERNEATH

Surface hair will tend to lighten more due to its unprotected exposure to sunlight, as well as direct combing, and application of styling tools. In the case of shorter hair, the hair on the top of the head will always be lighter than the perimeter hair. This rule is most often broken when colors are absorbed into the porous surface hair.

52 3. THE HAIR AROUND THE FACE SHOULD BE LIGHTER THAN THE HAIR IN THE BACK

It is acceptable if the hair around the face is the same color; it should never be darker. This rule is broken when the hairline is avoided when doing highlights. Often the client requests that the haircolorist do this to avoid an obvious outgrowth. This rule is also broken when applying a darker haircolor around the face to cover gray hair. Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

33


53

4. THE DARKER HAIR DOMINATING COLOR.

SHOULD

BE

THE

Of all of the rules, this is the rule most often broken. The client’s request for more blonde hair makes this a rule difficult to keep. The more frequently highlights are added to the hair, the faster the lighter hair will become the dominating color. Breaking the rules of natural haircolor is not something that is unacceptable. The rules of natural haircoloring only state what occurs with natural hair.

54

This client’s hair has been colored back to her natural haircolor. The ends of the hair have become darker because they are porous. As a result, the haircolor does not look natural.

55 Compare this child’s hair with the client. This child’s hair incorporates all the rules of natural haircolor. The clients hair does not.

56 By darkening the hair slightly at the scalp and adding low lights, the hair is natural looking. This client has 80% gray hair; so the depth of color is light enough to minimize the contrast of the new growth.

34

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor


57 The same technique was utilized on this client. In an attempt to add more brightness to her highlighted hair, the client applied a single process blonde color to her hair.

58 With the introduction of a darker color at the scalp and a few strategically placed low lights, a more natural haircolor is produced. In this case, a darker haircolor was used at the scalp so the new growth would not show. This client had no gray hair.

59

The finished result looks more natural, and changes the overall esthetics by darkening the hair at the nape and avoiding color application to the ends. This technique is referred to as “Shadowing.�

60 The American Board of certified Haircolorists provide a client consultation swatch chart. This swatch chart will help the client to understand undertones and the stages of lightening the hair must go through in order to become blonde. As haircolorists we are asked to achieve haircolors which are unreasonable based on the clients undertone. This swatch chart will help in these situations.

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

35


“The most natural logical way to learn haircoloring is to learn all about the strand of hair and progress through the chemistry. It is easier to make haircolor work for you and make the proper decisions when you have a basic understanding of haircolor.�

36

Chapter 2 Natural Haircolor

Tamara Dahill, ABCH Board Member


3

chapter

PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HAIRCOLORING • Hair Structure • Chemical Effects On the Hair • Color Deposit On the Hair • Melanin and Its Effects

Revised March, 2009


“There is no type of miracle that can’t happen at least once in coloring hair.”

38

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring

Julie Arnold, Evaluator


1 Human hair is a unique fiber. The construction of this fiber allows it to withstand a great deal of abuse. Hair that is over-pro足cessed, neglected and abused by the haircolorist will directly affect the outcome of the final color result. The haircolorist must understand the limitations of the hair and not put the clients hair through undue stress.

2 This prop simulates a strand of hair magnified several hundred times. It shows the cortex and the cuticle.

3 The cortex of the hair is made up of a wood like substance that is soft and pliable. The cuticle layer surrounding the cortex is comprised of several layers of keratin protein, like the fingernail. The function of the cuticle is to protect the cortex and to add strength to the hair.

4 If it were possible to separate the cortex from the cuticle and spread the cortex apart revealing the interior, the serrations of tissue that give the cortex its strength would be evident.

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring

39


5 Melanin is contained in the cortex layer of the hair. Melanin is what gives hair its color. Using colored sand we are going to simulate melanin and how it becomes part of the cortex. The melanin is im­preg­nat­ed through­ out the cortex.

6 Melanin not only covers the surface of the cortex; it is an intricate part of the construction of the cortex. Melanin is to the cortex what chocolate chips are to a cookie.

7 Pictured is a simulation of two natural virgin hair strands; one with color and one without. The strand on the left has colored sand that is adhering to the cortex and is visible through the translucent cuticle layer. This appearance would give the impression that the cuticle layer contains color. The strand on the right has no colored sand on the cortex and therefore it appears colorless.

8 Observing the thumbnail, push on the thumb with the forefinger and roll back and forth. Notice that the color beneath the fingernail changes. The change of color is not the fin­ger­nail changing; it is the color of the blood and tissue directly below the fingernail that chang­ es. The color we see in natural hair is located beneath the cuticle.

40

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring


9

Cuticle Layers

The cuticle layer can range anywhere between 4 to 12 layers. It is constructed in a manner that allows it to stretch and then rebound to its orig足i足nal size.

10 The cuticle layers are held together with a sub足stance that is similar to rubber cement. This sub足stance allows the cuticle to stretch and contract. The cuticle is translucent, like a shower enclosure, not transparent like clear glass. The substance that holds the cuticle together is like the material that binds muscle to the bone. This rubber like material not only bonds the cuticle layers together, but it also bonds the cuticle layer to the cortex.

11 The construction of hair can be compared to a king crab leg. The outside of the king crab is a hard, resilient substance, much like the hair cuticle. The inside is soft muscle, much like the cortex.

12 Melanin cells are in small clusters held together by a melansome. These clusters vary in size and shape, and are found throughout the cortex of the hair.

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring

41


13 When a lightener comes in contact with the hair, the melanoprotein is dissolved and the melanin is dispersed in the hair. The lightener then begins to dissolve the melanin. The melanin goes through a series of color changes depending on the natural haircolor and the concentration of melanin present. Bumping the base is the process of the melansome dissolving but not long enough for much of the melanin to begin to dissolve.

14 As the lightening action continues, the melanin disperses and goes through a series of color changes. Lifting artificial haircolor is quite different. With artificial color you are removing stain from the cuticle and the cortex. High lift haircolor can lift old color slightly, but bleach or removers are necessary for reliable results. NOTE: This dissolving of clusters theory is based on observation. Various theories exist on the subject of lightening action of melanin.

15 This prop simulates an individual melanin cell. Melanin cells are microscopic in size; millions could fit on the head of a pin.

16 The interior of a melanin cell is colored in a way that causes the hair to become lighter as the melanin dissolves. The darker colors are on the outside, graduating to lighter colors on the inside. The distribution of color within the melanin varies, depending on the category of natural haircolor. B will have a thicker layer of orange, S will have almost no orange layer at all.

42

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring


17 Melanin is what gives natural hair its color. Most of the melanin is located in the cortex of the hair. The darker the hair, the more dense the melanin. The lighter the hair, the less dense the melanin. Chocolate chip cookies are utilized here to illustrate the relationship of melanin and cortex.

18 If the chips were removed from the cookie, the remainder would be crumbs. Similarly, if all of the melanin were removed, the integrity of the hair would be considered severely compromised. It is not possible to lighten hair without causing a degree of damage.

19 We will further illustrate what occurs when hair is bleached. Pieces of Alka-Seltzer will be used for this demonstration.

20 The Alka-Seltzer tablets were imbedded into styrofoam to replicate melanin in the cortex. The cuticle layer surrounds the cortex.

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring

43


21 The melanin will slowly dis­solve, much like an Alka- Seltzer would when placed in water. It is estimated that the same type of chem­i­cal re­ac­tion occurs when mel­ a­nin is exposed to peroxide and an alkali. Bleaches and high-lift color affect melanin at a faster rate than low volume mild alkali formulas.

22 For this exercise, the cuticle layer has been removed in order to observe what occurs to the melanin and the cortex when the hair is bleached.

23 Water is poured into the glass. The dissolving AlkaSeltzer sim­u­lates the chemical reaction between peroxide and alkali within the cortex.

24 One theory is that the chemical reaction creates bubbles inside the cortex which must find their way out through the cuticle layer of the hair.

44

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring


25 At the end of the bleaching process, “voids” or “porous areas” are created. The greater the degree of porosity, the weaker the hair.

26 Bleaching hair slowly allows the bubbles from the chemical reaction to escape through the cuticle layer without extreme damage. Lightening hair quickly causes more violent bubbling and the cuticle layer becomes damaged.

SLOW

FAST

27 Illustrated is a single strand of hair being lightened and viewed while under a microscope. The dark rod is the hair strand, and the circles represent air bubbles emerging from the hair.

28 Cuticle

This is a close up view of the random cuticle layers as they are beginning to disengage.

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring

45


29

As the hair continues to lighten, bubbles emerge.

30 Over processing with bleach causes the hair to become gelatinous. A hollow or empty drinking straw is easy to pinch closed. Natural pigments present in the cortex provide strength to the hair structure.

31 This photograph shows how fragile a strand of bleached hair can become when bleached excessively. Both strands were placed between two pieces of glass and pressed together; the more fragile bleached strand was ‘dented’ by the darker strand. Proper application and formulation of lightening products should not cause hair to become excessively damaged.

32 The body temperature, being a number of degrees higher than room temperature, will cause the bleach to work faster closest to the scalp. The higher the tem­per­a­ ture, the faster the bleach lightens. The body temperature is 98.6, the room temperature is 72 degrees. The hair closest to the scalp will lighten faster. See graph on page 47 #34.

46

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring


33 The cuticle layer of the hair is softer as it emerg­es from the scalp. The fingernail is soft close to the nail bed and gets harder towards the free edge; the cuticle of the hair develops similarly. Think of the strand of hair like a green onion. It’s soft and tender close to the ground, but becomes tough and stringy as it moves to the ends. The softness of the cuticle at the scalp allows the bleach to penetrate easier and further contributes to the area lightening faster.

34 This chart indicates that the faster the hair is bleached, the greater the difference in lightness between the scalp, midshaft and ends. When we say faster we don't mean the difference between 20 and 10 minutes, we mean when you bleach the hair in 10 minutes when you should be taking 45 minutes. This is very destructive and the hair may never recover. The words "conditioning bleach" should never be used. With slower bleaching, there is less difference in color between the scalp and ends.

35 Bleach was mixed with 40 volume and a high lift tint mixed with 20 volume. The ends of both strands light­ ened close to the same degree. The bleached strand has a greater degree of lightness closer to the scalp. The strand with the tint processed for 90 minutes, the bleached strand for 45 minutes. It is more natural looking for the ends of the hair to be lighter. The opposite happens when the hair is lightened with chemicals. The faster the hair is bleached, the greater the difference in color between the hair at the scalp and the hair at the ends.

36 Although the cuticle is translucent on natural hair, it becomes stained once haircolor is applied. A black tint was applied on a healthy strand of blonde hair and processed

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring

47


37 After processing, a single strand was then sliced in half with a razor blade to observe the penetration of tint. The inside has only a trace of tint; most of the stain occurred on the cuticle layer. The reason the color on this enlarged photograph does not appear black is that when the photo is enlarged the color becomes lighter. It is very much like blowing up a colored balloon the larger the balloon becomes, the lighter the color.

Applications

6

5

4

3

2

1

38

Color mixture penetrates into the cortex only after it has saturated the cuticle layer. This is further reinforcement that the cuticle of the strand absorbs color. On subsequent applications, the color penetrates further into the strand.

39

This photograph shows a dark spot, which is an accumulation of blood under the fingernail. It appears as though the fingernail is stained. This same effect is what causes the cuticle to appear colored.

40 To illustrate similarities in the fingernail and the cuticle layers of the hair, we placed a tint stain on the tip of the fingernail.

48

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring


41 Now the fingernail has two stains: One an accumulated blood area under the nail and the other a tint stain. The area where the stain occurred below the fingernail is scraped on the surface. Notice that the scrapings are clear and without color.

42 The fingernail was then scraped where the tint stain occurred. The scraping from this area are colored. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that haircolor is a stain and it will stain almost anything it comes in contact with. Permanent haircolor does not open the cuticle and magically enter the hair strand then have the cuticle slam shut locking the color inside. These are fairy tales and are not true.

43 One should not attempt to judge color when the hair is wet as wet hair appears darker and warmer in tone.

44 When tint is removed from the hair after processing, it is easier to see the lightened melanin (interior color). When hair is wet, the cuticle layer is more translucent than when it is dry. When the hair is dry, the color de足pos足it足 ed on the cuticle is more of a factor in the overall color.

On dry hair the color on the cuticle is dominate

When hair is wet, you can see more clearly through the cuticle layer.

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring

49


45 Natural, virgin hair has a cuticle that is translucent and void of color. All of the color you see comes from the melanin located beneath the cuticle in the cortex. Like the blood and tissue beneath your fingernail..

46 The final color produced from using a permanent ammonia haircolor is dependent on two things: The color of the lightened melanin (undertone) and the level of the color used. The color you see is a combination of the cuticle with color deposit and the melanin which has been lightened. It is the combination of these two elements which give you the final color result. (see #48 below)

47 With the lack of undertone, such as gray hair, the final color will take on a different result. It is for this reason red haircolors applied to gray hair will often turn an unnatural pink or orange.

48

REMEMBER THIS RULE WHEN FORMULATING The color of the tint will dominate the final result when the tint is two levels darker than the lightened melanin. The color of the lightened melanin will dominate the final result if the tint is the same level or lighter than the natural haircolor. The effect the lightened melanin has on the colored hair becomes more visible as the tint fades. Once you learn this rule of formulating, you will understand that you can not lift dark natural color and achieve a cool tone.

50

Chapter 3 Physiological Aspects of Haircoloring


4

chapter

THE STUDY OF THE POROSITY OF HAIR • Defining Porosity • Porosity Grading System • Understanding and Preventing Porosity • Excessive Porosity

Revised March, 2009


“Miscalculation of porosity is the number one cause of unsuccessful haircolor.�

52

Chapter 4 Porosity

Deborah McCann, Evaluator


po•rous (por’es, pôr’-), adj. 1. full of pores. 2. permeable by water, air, etc. [late ME, var. of porose < ML poros(us). See pore2, -ous] –po’rous•ly, adv. –po’-rous•ness, porosity n.

1 The dictionary definition of the word “porous” is “full of pores or openings” and “permeable to fluids.” One could interpret this to mean the more porous the hair, the more haircolor it will absorb. This is not necessarily true. In haircoloring terms, when we speak of porosity, we are actually discussing the structural integrity of the hair. The integrity of the hair structure is affected by many things: The physical structure of the hair, the environment, cleansing and conditioning products and products used to affect the color and/or texture of the hair. The hair is not just porous or non- porous; there are varying grades of porosity.

e

2

Various hair textures respond to haircolor differently, as do different fabrics. Manufacturers of clothing must consider the physical structure of fabrics when dyeing. The texture and porosity of a fabric affects the finished color. Fabric manufacturers produce test strips to indicate how color responds on various types of cloth. Adjustments must be made to assure the color is consistent on various fabrics. Haircolorists must make similar adjustments when matching haircolors for different hair textures and porosities.

3 A warm brown permanent haircolor is applied to the test fabric and allowed to process for 30 minutes. The types of fabrics are listed next to their respective materials

Wool

4 The results show a variety of colors. This experiment is designed to illustrate how the physical structure will affect the resulting color. The same dye used on several different fabrics caused varying results. Note the red tones on the two strips on the left. The color applied to the fabric the most similar to the manufacturer’s color chart was the wool section located on the far right.

Chapter 4 Porosity

53


5 Penetration of color and how it is affected by porosity is demonstrated by using various objects that have different grades of porosity. The objects are blocks of wood with differing degrees of hardness, an egg, a tennis ball, a potato and a bar of soap. All of the objects are light, so the amount of haircolor penetration can be seen. A warm brown tint as well as a deposit only color was applied side by side and left on the objects for 60 minutes.

6 The wood shows varying degrees of penetration based on the hardness of the surface. The egg and potato which are not as porous, show little or no penetration. Other objects show varying degrees of penetration. There is no difference in penetration between the tint and deposit-only color. Hair with different texture and porosity will have varying color deposits as well. One must remember permanent ammonia haircolor causes porosity in the hair.

7

INTRODUCTION TO POROSITY GRADING SYSTEM

The porosITY grading system has been developed to provide a concise means of identifying levels of porosity. It is important to observe the hair both dry and wet to have an accurate reading of porosity.

Grade 1 – compact tight cuticle; minimal to no chemical treatment or exposure to excessive sun or mechanical styling tools; very little resistance to combing when wet. Grade 2 – slightly raised cuticle; mild chemical treatments; some environmental exposure. May be up to 3 stages lighter than natural haircolor; good elasticity.

Grade 3 – moderately raised cuticle.; exposure to chemical treatments, and/or regular use of heat implements. May be up to 5 stages lighter than natural haircolor; resistance to combing without conditioning treatment; fair elasticity. Grade 4 – excessively raised cuticle; excessive exposure to chemical treatments and heated styling implements; frizzy appearance when dry. May be up to 7 stages lighter than natural color; poor elasticity and retangles when combed wet. Grade 5 – loss of cuticle layer; exposed to chemical treatment to the point of breakage; hair feels mushy or slimy when wet. May be 8 or more stages lighter than natural haircolor; breaks off when wet.

8 When identifying the grade of porosity on a particular head of hair, one indicator is the color change along the hair strand. As a general rule, the greater the difference in color from the scalp area to the ends, the greater the porosity. The client in this photograph would be identified as having virgin hair. She has had no chemical treatments and does not use heat or styling products. The porosity indicated by the color change along the length of hair has been caused by the environment and cleansing products. Her porosity is grade 1 at the scalp area and grade 3 at the ends.

54

Chapter 4 Porosity


9 This client has virgin hair. The ends have lightened due to environmental exposure. The lightness along the length of her hair indicates a higher grade of porosity on the ends. The ends on longer hair generally become more porous, particularly if the client spends time outdoors. She has grade 1 porosity at the scalp, grade 2 at mid-shaft and grade 3 on the ends.

10 This client has highlighted hair. The result of repeated highlighting and daily use of heat implements causes the hair to become porous. As this hair becomes longer, it’s much more inclined to develop split ends. This client has a grade 1 porosity at the scalp and a grade 4 at the ends.

11 This client highlights and blow dries her hair. There is also some environmental exposure. She has grade 1 at the scalp area, grade 2 at midshaft and grade 3 on the ends.

12 This client colored her hair green using ‘temporary’ haircolor. She has grade 2 porosity at the scalp and grade 4 porosity at the ends. Hair with higher grades of porosity tend to ‘grab’ cool tones.

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55


13 This client had an improper highlight resulting in grade 5 strands throughout her grade 2 porosity hair.

14 This photo shows a client with grade 1 porosity at the scalp, and grade 5 midshaft through ends. The combination of a medium length hair, perm and hair lightener used improperly, will result in grade 5 porosity, particularly with hair this dark. Coloring this hair could be a challenge.

15 This client uses permanent haircolor and perms each time she colors her hair; the haircolor has been pulled through the ends of her hair for ten minutes. Repeated exposure to chemicals has created a grade 5 porosity. The ends are not as light as grade 5 porosity but every other factor fits the grade 5 description.

16 This client has grade 1 porosity at the scalp and grade 4 midshaft through ends. The porosity is the result of straightening her hair with heat implements. For more information, refer to the chapter on coloring naturally textured hair.

56

Chapter 4 Porosity


17 This client has grade 4 porosity from scalp to ends as a result of chemical relaxers and styling with heat implements.

18 This client does not use haircolor. Her grade 2 porosity at the scalp, 3 at midshaft and 4 at the ends is the result of permanent waving and environmental exposure. The hair was shampooed, and half dried to demonstrate porosity.

19 In most instances, the degree of porosity can be observed by the difficulty in combing the hair while wet. The untreated hair combs smoothly until it reaches the area of the perm. Combing becomes difficult towards the ends.

20 As the comb moves toward the mid section of the strand (where the hair has been previously permed), there is greater resistance. The ends of the hair become snarled and difficult to comb. This client has grade 1 porosity at the scalp (no perm), grade 2 at the mid-shaft (one perm) and grade 4 at the ends (several perms).

Chapter 4 Porosity

57


21 When coloring hair with various grades of porosity, a preliminary test strand is highly recommended.

22 Unequal grades of porosity create a challenge to the haircolorist. When low-lights are desired, it may be necessary to mix more than one formula.

Leave Natural

23 A method to document the effect of haircolors and environmental influences on the different grades of porosity is shown. To create grade 2 porosity on swatches a high-lift haircolor using 40 volume developer was used for 40 minutes.

24 In this example, there were seven thin strips of hair. The color was applied in small increments to assure complete coverage.

58

Chapter 4 Porosity


25 The next application of haircolor was again a highlift product with 40 volume, processed for 30 minutes.

26 Foil was placed over the tint to maximize the lifting action by confining the chemical action. This lifted the hair three more stages, creating a grade 3 porosity.

27 The next application was an on the scalp bleach mixed with 40 volume developer processed for 60 minutes. This lifted the hair to a gold stage, producing a grade 4 porosity.

28 Next, a powder bleach mixed with 20 volume lightened the hair to a pale yellow stage. To create a grade 5 porosity, the bleach was left on the hair for three hours.

Chapter 4 Porosity

59


29 The same experiment was repeated on hair strands in the soft brown category. Porosity in grades 1 through 5 were created.

30 All of the strands were dried and made into individual swatches by stapling them together.

Grade 1

Grade Grade Grade 2 3 4

Grade 5

31 The swatches in the “B” category and the “S” category have porosities ranging from grade 1 to grade 5.

32 One of the characteristics of grade 5 porosity is the rigid nature of the hair when left to dry undisturbed. When dry the ends feel like a styling gel was placed in the hair.

60

Chapter 4 Porosity


33

These swatches will now be colored to demonstrate how haircolor responds to the various grades of porosity.

34 The swatches bleached to various grades of porosity will now be colored. The dark strand will have a permanent cool blonde haircolor, mixed with 20 volume applied and processed for 35 minutes.

35 manufacturers rendition of color

swatch after application of haircolor

The experiment has been completed. The color as the manufacturer designates is on the swatch shown above. The degree of deposit is in direct proportion to the grade of porosity. The greater the porosity, the more the cool tone is absorbed. The grade 1,2 and 3 porosities show no color deposit.

swatch before application of haircolor

36 Red color mixed with 20 volume peroxide is now applied to a different swatch with the same porosities. The swatch processed for 30 minutes.

Chapter 4 Porosity

61


37

swatch after application haircolor

manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s swatch

swatch before application of color

The results of this experiment show that haircolor is not always absorbed in proportion to the porosity of the hair. Variation of color absorption is based on the tone. Cool tones are absorbed more readily by porous hair. Warm tones are not accepted by porous hair, but have a stronger deposit with less porous hair. Red colors need natural undertones in order to achieve a strong color deposit.

38 This deposit only color is the same shade of red as the permanent haircolor used in photo #41.

39

swatch after application of color

manufacturers swatch

swatch before application of color

soft brown before application of color

soft brown after application of color

manufacturer color swatch

dark brown after application of color

dark brown before application of color

62

Chapter 4 Porosity

This experiment illustrates the effects of permanent and deposit-only haircolors on grade 1 to 5 porosity hair. Clearly, the deposit-only haircolor is more uniform in color. When hair is porous, permanent haircolor should not be applied when attempting to make the color more uniform. The results will not be uniform and the ends will be further damaged.

40 Pictured are swatches from different categories with varying grades of porosity. Cool color deposited on two of the strands (inside swatches) render different results. The application was from the same batch and processed for the same period of time. In this case, both strands have the same grade of porosity; the results are still dramatically different. The soft brown hair has a stronger color deposit. Notice how much further deposit goes up the strand. That is because there is less undertones to overcome.


dark brown after application of color manufacturers color swatch dark brown before application of color soft brown before application of color soft brown after application of color

dark brown after permanent color

manufacturer permanent color swatch dark brown before application of color manufacturer deposit only color swatch

41

Red tint from the same batch was applied to two of the swatches pictured left. The results are dramatically different. The contributing pigment in the soft brown category strand differs from the dark brown category swatch. The lighter swatch indicates a true red, while the darker one reflects a red-violet tone. This is another example of the same tint producing different results, depending on the category, undertones and grade of porosity.

42 Using deposit only colors for any type of tint back or corrective haircolor is generally a safe approach. The comparison of these strands shows the permanent haircolor becoming flat and losing warmth on the less porous area of the strand. Study the results of permanent brown color and a deposit-only brown color applied to these dark swatches. The permanent haircolor is on the top the deposit only is on the bottom.

dark brown after deposit only

43 permanent color after seven shampoo's

Pictured left are the results of the red swatches after seven shampoos. Much of the color has washed out. The permanent color is on the top. The deposit only strand is on the bottom.

deposit only after seven shampoo's

44 This experiment will illustrate the grades of porosity created by environmental exposure. Ten dark brown category swatches were saturated with high-lift tint.

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63


45 The swatches were processed for 30 minutes, shampooed and dried.

46 Five of the colored swatches and one natural were left in the sun for 30 days. The remaining five strands were kept indoors and shampooed daily.

47 At the end of 30 days four of the outdoor strands and four of the indoor strands were colored again. The same high lift tint was used. Again, half of the swatches were returned outdoors for more exposure. The remaining swatches were shampooed daily.

48 Each half went through the same process for another 30 days.

64

Chapter 4 Porosity


49 After the 60 days three of the swatches were colored again and returned to their respective positions. This process continued for a period of six months.

50 Comparing the indoor and outdoor swatches, one can see the degree of lightness resulting from environmental exposure. The lower strands were from a combination of tint and environmental exposure Little change in the natural swatch occurred. It is apparent that a combination of elements would cause the hair to lighten. Environmental exposure rays alone had little effect on the hair in the dark brown category.

51 When checking the grades of porosity created by environmental exposure and permanent haircolor as opposed to chemical action alone, the addition of environmental exposure renders a slightly different result. Environmental exposure combined with haircolor goes through different stages of lightness than swatches that have not been exposed to the environment. Swatches exposed to the environment have a much higher grade of porosity at the same stage of lift.

52

Haircoloring is affected by various grades of porosity. This client is a candidate for reverse highlighting; she has grade 4 and 5 porosity. The hair has been processed as a bleach and toner for years.

Chapter 4 Porosity

65


53

Test strands are necessary to determine how the haircolor will be affected by the various porosities . The results of the test strands will help determine proper formulations.

54

The success of this reverse highlighting was based on the haircoloristâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to determine how porosity affects haircolor.

55

Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s haircolorist is constantly being confronted with corrective situations. The knowledge of porosity is paramount for successful haircoloring. The success of this high low lighting is the result of understanding the porosity grading system.

66

Chapter 4 Porosity


DESCRIPTION OF GRADES OF POROSITY: This grading system has been developed to provide a concise means of identifying and communicating grades of porosity. It’s important to observe the hair both dry and wet to have an accurate reading of porosity. Grade 1 – compact tight cuticle; minimal to no chemical treatment or exposure to excessive sun or mechanical styling tools; very little resistance to combing when wet.

Grade 2 – slightly raised cuticle; mild chemical treatments, some environmental exposure. May be up to 3 stages lighter than natural haircolor, good elasticity.

Grade 3 – moderately raised cuticle, exposure to chemical treatments and/or regular use of heat implements. May be up to 5 stages lighter than natural haircolor; resistance to combing without conditioning treatment; fair elasticity.

Grade 4 – excessively raised cuticle; excessive exposure to chemical treatments and heated styling implements; frizzy appearance when dry. May be up to 7 stages lighter than natural color; poor elasticity; retangles when combed wet. Grade 5 – loss of cuticle layer; exposed to chemical treatment to the point of breakage; hair feels mushy or slimy when wet. May be 8 or more stages lighter than natural haircolor; breaks off when wet.

The porosity will vary slightly, depending on the texture of the hair. The coarser the hair, the more porous it may become.

If the hair is over-processed or has been permed more than once, the porosity can increase two full grades.

If the hair is permed, it will raise the porosity one full grade.

Categories W, S and R will reach grades 4 and 5 porosity more readily if continually exposed to chemical and mechanical damage or excessive exposure to environmental exposure. Grade 5 on the porosity scale – perm is not recommended.

Chapter 4 Porosity

67


“Some clients have a way of making even the most competent haircolorist feel like a beginner. Even when you feel the haircolor service is a roaring success, it can be regarded as a flop by the client. Move on and and don’t let it get you down.”

68

Chapter 4 Porosity

Kris McGinnis, Board Member


5

chapter

COLORING TEXTURED AND CHEMICALLY TREATED HAIR • Characteristics of Hair Types • Hair Relaxers and Hair Coloring • Haircolor Guide For Textured Hair • The Buffer Zone

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Successful haircolor is not so much the science of performing services of which you are capable as it is avoiding services of which you are incapableâ&#x20AC;?

70

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color

Olive Benson, Former ABCH Board Member


1 The visible characteristics of different types of hair can be divided into four basic cat足e足go足ries: STRAIGHT WAVY HELICAL SPIRAL These types or varieties of combinations can be found in every race depending on genetic background.

2 There are two main theories to explain the differences in hair shape: 1. The angle of the papilla through which the hair grows dictates the shape of the strand and the amount of bend, wave or curl. 2. Uneven keratin deposit around the opening of the follicle; when the hair grows, it hardens unevenly to form a variety of shapes. The strongest DNA genes determine the texture, color and abundance of the hair.

3 African-American hair is commonly helical (forming coils of constant diameter) or spiral (forming coils that diminish in diameter outward). This hair is flat and elliptical in shape, because of the angle of the papilla. Other racial backgrounds and genetic combinations also produce hair that is helical or spiral, although usually found to be stronger and more resistant to curl pattern changes.

4 Asian hair generally has a straight or non-angled papilla. Caucasian hair seems to be the most variable, and ranges from straight to wavy, helical and sometimes spiral. The hair shape is usually round to oval. As our cultures intertwine, genetic combinations can produce a large variety of hair types and conditions.

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color

71


5

FINE 0.0018

MEDIUM 0.0022

COARSE 0.0026

The shape and strength of the cortex are derived primarily from bonds between amino acids that make up the hair. The cortex is responsible for the majority of the strength and elasticity of the hair. A micrometer is a device used to measure the diameter of a single hair. The diameter can be noted by the following differences in mea足sure足ments: FINE 0.0018 MEDIUM 0.0022 COARSE 0.0026

6 To easily determine hair diameter, place one hair between the thumb and index finger. If you feel nothing, the texture is fine; if it feels like a fine sewing thread, the texture is medium; if it feels like a heavy sewing thread, the texture is coarse. The characteristics are: soft, downy, pliable, processes quickly or slowly, FINE . . . depending on genetics. MEDIUM . . . bouncy, substantial body, processes well. COARSE . . . thick in appearance, firm body, usually resistant to chemicals.

7 Natural textures may have been subjected to heat in the form of pressing, curling irons, flat irons, etc. The condition may be dry due to lack of conditioning, metallic water deposits, or exposure to the elements. In all cases, consultation is a must to assure proper selection of the type of color service to be recommended.

Pressing comb (midget)

Curling iron

Electric heater

8 When coloring hair that has been previously processed with permanent waves or relaxers, one must take into consideration all the material that has been presented to this point. Both thr present condition of the hair and the type and frequency of future chemical services must be taken into account.

72

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color


9 This is a graphic simulation of excessively curly hair, either in helical or spiral form. Though the chemical process used to curl hair changes the structure and alters the ability to accept and hold color, more risks are encountered when coloring hair that has been chemically treated.

10 This simulates a strand of hair that has been made straight with a chemical relaxer. The hair is considerably weakened due to the strength of product used.

11 This simulation shows two examples of hair that have been relaxed in varying degrees, which could be achieved with varying product strengths or processing times. The hair has become weak due to the chemical relaxing.

12

pH 9.5

pH 13

A good working knowledge of the chemical products that have been previously used is important when making haircolor decisions. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s examine the pH of the products used to chemically change the curl pattern in the hair: PERMANENT WAVES. . . The pH of most perms is between 7.5 and 9.5. RELAXERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . The pH of most relaxers is between 10 and 13. The difference between a pH of 9 and a pH of 13 does not seem like much until you realize a pH of 10 is 10 times stronger than a pH of 9. USE ONLY MILD RELAXERS WHEN WORKING OVER AMMONIA HAIRCOLORS. Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color

73


13

Because of the differences in the pH of various products, coloring hair that has been permanent waved, and/or relaxed, must be treated cautiously. Color products that are less aggressive, and contain less peroxide and alkali are better choices for any hair subjected to high pH relaxing procedures. Use a mild relaxer strength when considering haircolor.

14

If only a portion of the hair has been treated with chemicals, it is advisable to treat the entire head as though it has been treated. The recommended type of haircolor to use on hair the same day a chemical relaxing service is performed, is a non-peroxide, non-ammonia color. (semi-permanent)

15

If the relaxed hair is in good condition, has good strength and elasticity, and a mild relaxer was used on the hair, then haircolors that lift can be used (with caution) one week following the chemical service. Damage and porosity occur in direct proportion to the amount of curl removed, exposure to the relaxing chemical and the type of hair color selected. It is also important to say that damage to relaxed hair does not occur when the haircolor is performed but WHEN THE NEXT RELAXER IS APPLIED. Working and smoothing hair can easily cause overlapping into the area previously colored. Extreme damage could occur.

16

Clients who smooth their hair with the use of heat implements can use permanent haircolor more readily. However, the temperature of the implements used should be regarded with caution. The greater the lifting action of the haircolor, the less heat should be used in the styling implements. Your role as a haircolorist is to advise the client about the possible damage that can occur when exposure to heat and chemicals are used in combination.â&#x20AC;&#x2C6;You should also explain conditioning procedures that will avoid damage. A COMPLETE CONSULTATION is a must.

74

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color


17

Bleaches can be used on most natural textured hair, but great caution must be taken when used on hair that has been relaxed. If the desired result requires bleaching, use a mild strength relaxer and wait one week after the relaxer before bleaching. The client must be completely informed of the damage that could result and the extreme importance of an ongoing conditioning program.

18

Achieving lighter shades on chemically relaxed hair with a lifting ammonia haircolor or bleach, is an aggressive procedure and should only be done when circumstances will allow.

19

When coloring natural textures that have had no previous chemical treatments, the porosities are more uniform and haircolor is relatively simple. (Caution must be used when retouching curly and overcurly hair because the hair shrinks into the product. The application should be checked carefully to insure that the color is not overlapped.) The strength of a product and processing time is a major factor in coloring hair that is porous due to previous chemical services. Multiple products of an aggressive nature used on the hair will cause eventual damage.

20 A buffer zone is established when applying haircolor 1/2 to 1 inch away from the scalp. This technique will allow for some overlapping of relaxer when that process needs to be retouched. BUFFER ZONE NEW GROWTH

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color

75


21 Pictured left is a client who had a chemical relaxer. Her hair has highlights placed away from the scalp area. She has the benefit of a shaded color, but there is no danger of extreme damage from future relaxers if the color is applied approximately 1 inch away from the scalp, to create a buffer zone.

22 This is a client with naturally curly hair that has used a mild relaxer. Her hair is treated with an ammonia based color and 20 volume peroxide. To avoid problems during regular relaxer retouches, the hair should be closely monitored to make certain it does not become weak.

23 This client has curly hair without any type of relaxer. Note the amount of gray hair and the degree in which the color has faded since the last retouch. In this case, a deposit-only haircolor was advised. The gray hair is completely covered, and the curly hair has accepted the color on the ends. The hair is darker than would be indicated on the manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s haircolor chart. More color could be absorbed in porous hair when using deposit-only haircolor. The color will also tend to fade more readily.

24 Using haircolor on chemically relaxed hair demands close attention to detail and sound value judgments. Caution and care must be used in the salon and at home. The hair can withstand only so many chemical treatments, until it shows signs of weakness that could lead to breakage. Do not resume the coloring procedure until the hair has had time to recover. At that point, it may be determined whether this type of chemical procedure should be used on this client again.

76

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color


25 Permanent haircolors may be used on relaxed hair if all conditions are optimal and: 1. The integrity of the hair has not been compromised. 2. The hair is treated as delicate. 3. Conditioners are used properly. 4. Heat is kept at a minimum. 5. Future retouch relaxers do not come in contact with previously colored hair. (Note: High-lift colors and bleaches should not be used near the outgrowth area where overlapping of relaxers may occur.)

Haircolor Guide for Textured Hair

COLOR TYPES

CHEMICAL TYPES

TEMPORARY COLOR

DEPOSIT ONLY COLOR

5-10 VOLUME COLOR

15-20 VOLUME COLOR

25-40 VOLUME COLOR

BLEACH

VIRGIN TEXTURED HAIR

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

MILD RELAXER

Y

Y

Y NSD

Y NSD

NR

NR

REGULAR RELAXER

Y

Y

Y NSD

NR NSD

NR

NR

SUPER RELAXER

Y

Y

NR

NR

NR

NR

PERMANENT WAVE

Y

Y

Y NSD

NR

NR

NR

DAMAGED PRESS AND CURLED HAIR

Y

Y

Y

NR

NR

NR

SD = NOT THE SAME DAY N Y = YES NR = NOT RECOMMENDED THIS CHART IS DESIGNED AS A REFERENCE. EACH CASE MUST BE CONSIDERED ON AN INDIVIDUAL BASIS.

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color

77


“The trouble most of us have with the new line of Italian haircolor, it doesn't know any more about       coloring hair than the old line of haircolor.”

78

Chapter 5 Relaxed Hair and Color

Victor St. Sure, Board of Directors


6

chapter

GUIDELINES FOR PERMING HAIR THAT HAS BEEN TREATED WITH HAIRCOLORING • Selection of Appropriate Products • Timing • Affects on the Hair • Perms and Porosity

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;If you depend on experience to learn haircolor and you lack confidence to experience it, you will never learn haircolor.

80

Chapter 6 Perms

Ty Isobe, Evaluator


1

Permanent wave solutions are available in many forms and strengths. The first category is an alkaline perm. Alkaline so­lu­tions are also referred to as al­ka­line, buff­ered al­ka­line, exothermic, and mild alkaline. For the pur­pose of simplicity, all alkaline perms will be placed into the same cat­e­go­ry. The alkaline perm is generally a single so­lu­tion; with the ex­cep­tion of the chem­i­cal added to make the exo­ther­mic perm create heat. It is considered to be the stron­gest perm and will generally have a pH between 8.0 and 9.0.

2

The second category is an acid wave. This type requires mixing an additive in the solution prior to use. The solution added to the pro­cess­ing lotion is the catalyst which makes the so­lu­tion active. Once the solution is added it must be used im­me­di­ate­ly. The activity level of the perm drops off dramatically after 20 minutes. Acid perms have a pH between 6.9 and 8.2. Acid perms with a pH between 6.9 and 7.2 normally require the use of heat during pro­cess­ing.

3 The third category is ammonia free. This perm was in­tro­duced because of the alleged excess damage caused by the pre­vi­ous perms. The pH of the am­mo­nia free perms are still be­tween 8.2 and 8.6.

4

The fourth category of permanent wave solution is the Non-Thio perm. The pH of this perm is between 6.9 and 8.5; however it is not a factor in wav­ing because the so­lu­tion does not swell the cuticle like oth­er perms. Non-thio perms with a pH of 6.9 generally re­quire heat.

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81


5 Swatches in both the soft brown and dark brown cat­e­go­ries will be used to conduct the tests. Some of the swatch­es were processed to create 4 grades of porosity as defined in the porosity chapter. Some of the swatches in the soft brown category were left natural so curl on the natural hair could be compared to curl on the col­or treat­ed strands. The swatches were pro­cessed to create a va­ri­ety of porosities. The pur­pose for this was to sim­u­late hair as it is found on the head.

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 4

6

Grade 3

Grade 5

The porosity of the swatches tested were: Grade 1: Virgin hair. Grade 2: Sin­gle ap­pli­ca­tion of high lift haircolor. Grade 3: Single ap­pli­ca­tion of high lift haircolor and sin­gle application of on the scalp bleach, processed for 1 hour on dark brown hair. Grade 4: Same application as grade 3 applied to soft brown hair. Grade 5: Sin­gle ap­pli­ca­tion high lift haircolor, sin­gle ap­pli­ca­tion of on the scalp bleach, and single ap­pli­ca­tion of off the scalp pow­der bleach pro­cessed for 4.5 hours.

7

The deposit-only haircolor was applied to some of the hair swatches and allowed to process for 35 minutes. The hair was then shampooed and dried. This was done 3 successive times. These swatches will be used as part of the test to de­ter­mine how porous hair with deposit only color will respond to perming.

8

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grade 1

grade 1

grade 1

grade 2

grade 2

grade 2

grade 3

grade 4

grade 3

grade 5

grade 5

grade 5

From left to right: Natural hair in the soft brown category, dark brown category, soft brown category and dark brown category covered with three consecutive applications of deposit-only color.


9 Each of the swatches were wrapped with two dif­fer­ent size rods. One-half of each swatch was wrapped with a pink rod, the other half was wrapped with a pur­ ple rod. The hair was wrapped with water and a single end paper. The hair was then sat­u­rat­ed with an alkaline per­m. Pro­cessed for 10 min­utes which is the time specified for “tinted hair” according to manufacturers directions. Tinted hair was in­ter­pret­ed to mean grade 2 and 3 po­ros­i­ty.

10 After processing for 10 minutes the hair was rinsed, blot­ted and air neutralized for 15 min­utes. The swatch­es were then neutralized for 5 minutes. The neutralizer was then rinsed and the rods removed. Results of the perm on wet hair are pictured. The curl is very weak through­out.

11

The hair was left undisturbed for an entire week, The same swatches were then wrapped once again with the same size rods. This time the hair pro­cessed for 25 min­utes. The in­struc­tions suggested a 20 minute processing time for nor­mal hair. An ad­di­tion­al 5 min­utes were given to com­pen­sate for the lack of body heat. The re­main­der of the perm was car­ried out as it was the first time. Even with the ad­di­tion­al pro­cess­ing time, the curl ap­pears to be very weak. The nor­mal (grade 1) hair does not have the snap to the curl one would come to ex­pect from an al­ka­line perm.

12

The hair was allowed to dry naturally, undisturbed. After the hair was dry, the hair was combed through to “fluff up” the hair. The natural hair combed out smoothly, as did the grades 2 and 3 hair. The grades 4 and 5 hair were very rigid and were difficult to comb through. The grade 5 po­ros­i­ty exhibited some breakage.

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13

Hair loss is apparent in the dark brown category swatch. There appears to be no difference in hair loss on the swatches that had three applications of deposit-only haircolor and those that did not. One can conclude there is no detrimental effect in perming over hair which has been treated with deposit-only haircolor. Additionally the deposit-only haircolor seems to act as a cuticle con­ straint on porous hair, preventing an excessive amount of solution from entering the cortex. The condition of the swatch with de­pos­it-only haircolor appears to be healthier and in better condition than the swatches without. The swatch from the soft brown category suf­fered the great­est amount of damage and breakage.

14

An acid based perm will be used in this test. The same type of swatches will be utilized. As in­di­cat­ed ear­li­er in this chapter, the acid type perm is preferred over all other perm types, by a ratio of three to one. The hair was wrapped with the same size rods and processed for 20 minutes. The instructions included in the perm indicate this particular perm may be used for all hair types. Un­like the alkaline perm, processing times were the same for all hair types.

15 A test strand was taken on the natural swatch at the end of twenty minutes and the curl formation indicated the perm was processed. The hair was then rinsed, blot­ted and air neutralized for 15 minutes. At the con­clu­sion of 15 minutes the hair was neutralized for 5 min­utes. The neutralizer was then rinsed from the rods, and the rods re­moved. Although the acid perm was designed to ren­der a softer perm, the results of the perm was much firm­er and livelier than the alkaline perm.

16 The hair was left to dry naturally, then combed out. Grades 1, 2 and 3 combed through without incident; the hair was soft and undamaged. The perm on the grade 5 porosity left the hair impossible to comb. Although the hair was wet with only water, it was left rig­id and “crispy” when dry. The grade 5 porosity broke off in chunks. This perm on grade 5 porosity would leave the hair in­tol­er­a­ble con­di­tion.

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17 The swatch with the deposit-only color shows no more damage than the swatch without the depositonly color. Although there was some color loss on the deposit- only swatch, it was not significant. The amount of hair that broke off from each swatch can be seen on the corresponding tape

18 The hair was left alone for a period of two weeks undisturbed, another perm was given in the same manner. The result of this perm was much the same as the first perm. While the perm was wet, there was no difference in the feel and appearance of the hair. After the hair dried, the porous hair was stiff and rigid, as though a wave set or gel had been applied to the hair.

19 By combing the hair after it has dried, the location of overly porous damaged hair is easy to identify. The hair combs out smoothly until the comb reaches the hair with the grade 4 po­ros­i­ty, then the comb stalls. The soft brown swatch appears to be more prone to break­age than the dark brown swatch.

20 The swatch in the dark brown category, that had de­pos­it-only haircolor applied to the strand, combs out with less resistance than the strand without the deposit-only haircolor. Deposit-only haircolor applied to the hair prior to perming, appears to aid in the curl and condition of the hair.

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21 A small amount of additional hair loss is evident when the swatches are combed out. When comparing the con­fig­u­ra­tion of the curl between the natural hair and the hair with varying degrees of porosity, there is little doubt the effect po­ros­i­ty has on the curl.

22 A close look at the curl reveals the soft rounded lines of the natural hair while the porous hair has an uneven curl with sharp ridges.

23 To further test the acid perm, four iden­ti­cal swatches are used. This experiment is to de­ter­mine how var­i­ous pro­cess­ing times affect the swatch­es. The in­struc­tions contained in the perm specify the pro­cess­ing times for all hair types is 20 minutes.

10 minutes

20 minutes

40 minutes

60 minutes

24 The hair was wrapped with purple and pink rods. The swatch­es pro­cessed for 10, 20, 40 and 60 min­utes. As the swatch reached the targeted processing times, it was rinsed, blotted and air neutralized, then neu­tral­ized.

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10 minutes

20 minutes

40 minutes

60 minutes

25 The neutralizer was rinsed and the rods removed. The results of the permanent waves are consistent be­tween swatches. Additional processing time minimally in­creases the “bounce” or “snap” of the curl. It does however, cause the grade 5 po­ros­i­ty to degenerate the longer the so­lu­tion is left on the hair.

10 minutes

20 minutes

40 minutes

60 minutes

26 The hair was allowed to dry naturally. It was then combed and fluffed up to observe the degree of curl. There does not appear to be enough of a dif­fer­ence be­tween swatches to justify the additional pro­cess­ing time.

27 In some instances the processing time is linked to the durability of the curl. The notion exists that un­less the curl is completely processed, it will not last. To check the longevity of the curl, the hair was smoothed with a round brush and blown dry.

28 All of the smoothed out swatches appear to be in excellent condition. The grade 5 po­ros­i­ty also appears healthy and shiny, although not visible in the photograph.

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29 The photo depicts the results of the hair’s condition after being blown out five times. The amount of re­lax­ ation be­tween the swatches is con­sis­tent. The more the hair was blown dry, the more the grades 4 and 5 hair “grabbed” the brush while wet. This test shows it is not beneficial to pro­cess acid perms on the hair with vary­ing de­grees of porosity, for a longer pe­ri­od of time. The dis­ad­van­tag­es far outweigh the ad­van­tag­es.

30 With a dark background, the grade 5 porosity is more visible. The curl all but disappears in the grade 5 hair. The remaining hair maintains a good curl formation even though the hair has relaxed from its original form.

31 The next two perms to be tested will be specialty perms designed for delicate hair. One is a no am­mo­nia low-thio perm with a pre-wrap. The other is an acid perm without a pre-wrap. Only the swatches with varying degrees of po­ros­i­ty will be used with the test perms. Each of the two perms have a processing time of 20 minutes, sug­gest­ing a test curl after five min­utes. The difficulty with test curls, is the hair that is most porous and susceptible to damage is generally located on the ends of the hair.

32

The hair is wrapped in the same manner. The al­ka­line perm on the right is wrapped with the pre-wrap lo­tion; the acid perm on the left is wrapped with water. Each is saturated for the same length of time and al­lowed to process for 20 minutes.

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33 The hair is then combed out to evaluate the curl. Hair loss is less on the grade 5 porosity than in both the acid and alkaline perms tested at the beginning of this chap­ter. Note the strong curl on the grade 1 hair. Perms formulated for use on delicate hair are also ef­fi­cient in perming virgin hair.

34 When comparing regular acid perms with normal strength, to perms formulated for del­i­cate hair, there appears to be little difference in the re­sults. Each cat­e­go­ry of perm tend to treat the various po­ros­i­ties of hair in the same manner. Knowing this should reduce the number of perms a salon would have to inventory.

35 The final perm to be tested will be the non-thio, non-acid perm. For the purpose of this chapter the perm tested will be formulated especially for color treated hair. Three swatches are tested. The swatch on the right has been treated with deposit-only haircolor. The hair is wrapped in the same manner.

36 The hair was processed according to manufacturers in­struc­tions for col­or treat­ed hair. It was then rinsed, blot­ted and air neutralized for 15 minutes; then neu­tral­ized for 5 min­utes. The neu­tral­iz­er was rinsed with the hair on the rods. The perm was true to form. The hair that was grade 3, 4 and 5 porosity did very well The 1 and 2 grade of porosity re­sult­ed in a very weak curl. The results on the grade 5 po­ros­i­ty was the best of all the other perms, with very little hair breakage. Chapter 6 Perms

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37 The conclusion drawn from these experiments would indicate there is no perfect perm when pro­cess­ing all grades of porosity on the same hair strand. If a perm must be given, the acid type perm for all hair types is rec­om­mend­ed. If a perm is to be given on hair grades 4 and 5 porosity, a nape perm is recommended. This will give the hair fullness without exposing the surface hair to chemical abuse that results from perming this type of hair. This should be done just prior to doing a color re­touch.

38

To prevent dryness from re-perming hair, a root perm technique is sug­gest­ed. Regardless of the strength of the perm given, an attempt should be made to avoid perming over hair with a pre­vi­ous perm. This is especially true on hair that is col­lar length and fine in texture. Apply a creme conditioner or gel on the hair with a tint brush holding a foil un­der­neath. (Paper or cellophane may also be used.)

39 Cover the hair with another foil sandwiching the hair between The hair is then wrapped with a perm rod as would be done with a tra­di­tion­al perm. A smaller perm rod is used to compensate for bulk created by the foil. By putting gel or a conditioner on the hair not to be permed, perm solution will not reach the hair ends, preventing dryness.

40 Perms are an important factor when considering haircoloring. Perms increase the grade of porosity by at least one grade. On curly textured perms, it can increase by as much as two grades. It may be necessary to alter the haircolor formula to accommodate the additional porosity created by the perm. When the hair is straight the cuticle is tight and compact.

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41 The greater the bend in the hair,(tight curl) the more the hair becomes stressed. When the cuticle is flat and compact it is the equivalent to coloring the surface of the fingernail. When the cuticle is abraded, it is the same as the coloring the surface of the nail and the free edge of the nail.

42 This hair is given a slight bend,(soft curl) therefore displacing the cuticle less, and creating less stress and lifting of the cuticle, as a result less porosity occurs.

43 Deposit-only color is compatible with perming. In many cases the condition of the hair remains the same with the use of deposit-only color. When color fad足ing occurs as a result of perming, the use of deposit only color is strongly recommended. When combining perming and haircolor there is no substitute for pro足fes足 sion足al judgement.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Confidence, of course is an admirable asset to a haircolorist, but it should be an unspoken confidence. It is perilous to put into speech. The gods of haircolor wait to chastise the presumptuous.â&#x20AC;?

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Paul Morrison, Evaluator


7

chapter

PSYCHOLOGY OF HAIRCOLORING • Client Consultation • Psychological Affects of Haircoloring • Clients Fears • Problem Clients • Professional Ethics

Revised March, 2009


“The most important haircolor service is the next one.”

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Chapter 7 Psychology

Ginger Jacobellis­­­­­, Evlauator


1 We, as professional haircolorist’s, should never lose sight of our role in society. We have the op­por­tu­ni­ty to make dramatic changes in the lives of individuals seeking to improve their appearance. Often times, a change of haircolor can be the catalyst to start the individual in a positive direction. Because a change of haircolor is so immediate and relatively inexpensive (compared to cosmetic surgery), it’s often the choice for many clients.

2

Just as we must first acquire the skills to perform the necessary techniques, it is equally important we never lose sight of the fact that we are working on a living, breathing human being. Our pallet is never a canvas or a piece of clay. All of us has been exposed to apathy by someone who just didn’t care or who may have been having a bad day. Bad service and apathy is something a client should not have to tolerate. We must fight apathy toward someone because of their ap­pear­ance.

3 We have the opportunity to take someone less attractive and make them more attractive by simply chang­ing their haircolor. The color change will create a pos­i­tive change.

4 We, as haircolorists, are similar to the artists who restore paintings. Through the years, paintings become veiled with a cover of soot and lose their vibrant color. Artists have the ability to remove the veil of soot and restore the painting to its original vivid colors.

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5 As haircolorists, we have the ability to perform the same service on our clients. We can take a client, who through the years has lost the vibrancy in their hair, and restore it to its original youthful appearance. This is not to say we should attempt to color everyone who visits the salon. We must approach only those we feel could benefit from our services.

6 Client consultation, communication and negotiating are key skills. As one gains confidence and becomes more proficient in his/her technical skills, consultation becomes much easier. There is a saying; “ if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail.” The more ‘tools’ you have at your disposal, the easier it is to solve a greater variety of haircolor challenges and in turn, the more you will grow your business.

7

During the consultation, you must recognize that most people have a subjective opinion regarding their ap­pear­ance. Understanding this can induce a sense of empathy toward your client. Empathy is having the ability to put yourself in the client’s shoes and view the world as they see it. This is never completely accomplished; we all have our own individual filters through which we view the world. Nevertheless, we should strive to accomplish this. This does not mean acceptance or agreement, only a recognition that the client has their own point of view.

8 Direct eye contact is important. Position yourself at eye level with the client and look directly at them when consulting. Avoid looking at the client in the mirror. One of the biggest challenges we face as haircolorists is negotiating with our clients. Compromise is the key. Terminology and presentation must be professional. Clients have never been lost because the haircolorist is too professional.

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9 Making a photo album with a variety of haircolors is a great aid for helping the client find the color they are attempting to describe. Clients will often describe or refer to a celebrity who has a haircolor they are attracted to. It is a good practice to have them find the same haircolor in your photo album. Taking the haircolor off the celebrity's face and placing it on a “regular person” could make your client view the haircolor differently.

10

Showing a client a book of various hair colors is insurance that both of you are talking about the same color. It can also be used to give direction and make recommendations. Without common ground to start from, formulating for the client becomes a gamble. Some clients come to the salon knowing exactly what they want. The haircolorist should verify the color with a photograph. The haircolorist may approve of the haircolor or may make suggestions of their own. This is when the professionalism becomes important.

11 An important point to remember when consulting with the client is their natural haircolor category. If they wore a color at one point in their life, they can wear that same color again. People in the warm brown category can wear the greatest variety of haircolor. Review the natural haircolor category, and remember that when a client is placed into a natural haircolor category, she stays in that cat­e­go­ry for his or her lifetime.

12

Do not show the client a manufacturer's haircolor chart, regardless of how beautiful it looks. The haircolor chart is a tool used by the haircolorist to help formulate. The color chart will not help the client select a haircolor; rather it conveys apprehension on the part of the haircolorist. What a color chart will often do is put the client in charge of the consultation. Soon, the client is selecting her own haircolor. When the client returns for the next ap­point­ment, she will once again ask to see the color chart to adjust the formula. Soon, the haircolorist is taking direction from the client. Chapter 7 Psychology

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13 A manufacturer’s haircolor chart can be utilized by taking the color you would recommend for the client, and placing only that swatch next to her skin to give her re­as­sur­ance the haircolor would be suitable. This would require disassembling some charts so that you may expose only the swatch you want the client to observe.

14

We should always remember the salon on the next block or in the next city is not our only competition. Our major competition is the drug store and the super market. We must always strive to use professional techniques and methods of application to create hair colors that can not be duplicated at home. Our goal should be to do what­ ev­er possible to keep haircoloring a professional service and draw a distinct line between professional haircolor and home haircolor. IT IS NOT THE PRODUCT YOU USE AS MUCH AS IT IS YOUR PROFESSIONAL APPLICATION

15

If the client is coloring their hair for the first time, there is usually some apprehension. These fears of a client are real. If you can erase these fears you will have a comfortable relaxed client when per­form­ing the haircolor service. The most common fears a client will have are as fol­lows:

16 1. HOW WILL MY NEW HAIRCOLOR LOOK ON ME? WILL I LIKE IT? The number one fear of the first time client is how the new color will look. "Will I like the new haircolor?" This fear becomes stronger as the client becomes older. Re­mem­ber this client may not be as bold as many of us who tried on a variety of hair colors in beauty school. This client has been observing haircolor on other people since she decided to take the plunge. Both good and bad haircoloring has been observed and remembered.

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17 2. WILL MY FRIENDS AND FAMILY LIKE MY NEW HAIRCOLOR? There is a great deal of apprehension for a first-time haircolor client regarding how the individuals close to her will respond to her new haircolor. Will they think I am vain, or think I am trying to look young? “Why is she coloring her hair? I liked it just fine the way it was.” Make no mistake about it; these are real fears. The way to overcome these fears is with subtle haircolor changes and the reassurance that the haircolor will look natural.

18

3. WHAT WILL THE INVESTMENT BE IN TIME AND MONEY? Some would rank this as their number one fear but most consider the others before the cost in time and money. A good way to overcome this fear is to break down the cost of the haircolor over the period of one year and divide it by the days in the year. You can finish by saying, “60 cents a day for looking 10 years younger.” The same technique can be accomplished with the number of visits within a year to maintain her hair.

19

4. IF I DON'T LIKE IT, WHAT WILL IT LOOK LIKE WHEN IT IS GROWING OUT? "How long will it take if I decide to let it grow out?" At this point, the client is sold on the change of haircolor; she's already wondering what it will be like while it is growing out. It may appear trivial at this point, but you should discuss a strategy for growing out. Remember, the client has probably observed some pretty awful out growths and wants to be assured she will never have to endure the same pro­cess.

20

The consultation period is one in which all aspects of the above concerns should be addressed. The ability to put the client at ease during her first visit to your salon is paramount. It does no harm to em­bel­lish the haircolor service by utilizing descriptive terms such as “growing out gracefully” or “give your hair a youthful glow” or “soften your appearance.” Utilizing your own terminology will make the client feel good about the upcoming service. Terms which will help with the consultation are included in this chapter. Chapter 7 Psychology

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21 Share as much information as possible with your client. Let him/her know how long the service will take, what the cost will be and what the growing out period will be like. Any concern your client may have about the up­com­ing service should be addressed. The ABCH client consultation swatch book dis­play­ing the undertones of various natural haircolors help the client better un­der­ stand all natural haircolors are not alike.

22 As your years of experience increase, the easier it will become to recognize clients who may cause prob­ lems. There is nothing worse than having a dis­rup­tive person in your color department, making the other clients feel un­com­fort­able. We have placed these problem clients into groups for the purpose of identifying them and avoid having to deal with them.

23 The "I have never had anyone do my hair as well as I can" client. When you run across this client, you will know it. The first thing she asks for is a color chart. Then she proceeds to give you all the colors she has tried. She is generally a beauty school drop out who thinks she knows it all!

24 The best approach to this client is to dazzle them with your knowledge. Ask the client a lot of technical ques­tions until they become completely frazzled. Avoid a stand off. Refrain from performing any service unless you are in complete accord.

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25

There are clients who have been coloring their own hair for years. In many cases their hair is ruined. In some cases the client realizes the condition of their hair is a disaster, in other cases she is unaware. It took years to get it in this condition, and they would like you to restore it in one visit. The haircolorist must explain the time it will take to repair. In most cases they can’t be bothered, and will return to doing their hair at home. This client is not worth fretting over. Don’t be misled into believing that if you perform an outstanding service that the client will become a regular client.

26

We must also learn to deal with clients who want to know what you are doing at all times: Why you apply a haircolor in a certain manner, what volume of per­ox­ide is being used, what percent of ammonia is in the formula, how long you've been in business and whether this formula will work? She can recite the latest haircolor article that ap­peared in the fashion magazine and the newest haircolor trend. You must main­tain an air of confidence with this client. The haircolorist needs to evaluate if you really need this client.

27 Another type of problem client is the name drop­per. This is the client in search of the 'perfect haircolorist' Chances are, this haircolorist does not exist. This client comes to your salon and rattles off a list of haircolorists’ names who have failed to please them. Rest assured your name will be added to that list. As a professional, the haircolorist proceeds in an appropriate manner.

28

Another common type of problem clients are the individuals who are not happy. They hate their life, their husband, their work, their children and their physical appearance. Usually, they are not emotionally healthy. They expect you to solve all of their problems with a new haircolor. They often talk of how busy they are and how little time they have for themselves. Attempting to solve their problems by doing their hair is futile. Do not confuse this person with the person who genuinely wants to make changes in their life. The latter is humble and a bit embarrassed with their appearance. They are also very open to your suggestions. Chapter 7 Psychology

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29

It is never a good practice to have the client leave the salon unhappy with his/her haircolor. By the same token, the client should be able to describe what it is about the haircolor that makes them unhappy. It's not always possible to get the haircolor the client expects on the first visit. This can happen for a variety of reasons. One of the most difficult situations a haircolorist is confronted with is a request to do a correction that the haircolorist feels does not needs correcting. This is where empathy comes in. If it is a reasonable client, you must make the proper ad­just­ments. To charge or not charge for the adjustment would depend on many factors.

30

Professional ethics play a major role in a suc­cess­ful haircolor salon. There are many individuals and salons who do not offer haircoloring services. When one of these salons refers a client to your salon, it is im­per­a­tive you preserve the clients relationship with the other salon, and thank them for sending you a client. It's only through these relationships with other salons that we will be able to grow as an in­dus­try.

31

If we fail to please a client, we may lose her to home haircoloring. Currently, the vast majority of clients who color their hair do so at home. We must strive to attract these clients to professional haircoloring services.  The majority of clients are unaware of the differences between home haircoloring and professional haircoloring. The haircolorist is what distinguishes professional haircolor services from home haircoloring, not the product being used.

32

As haircolorists, we are constantly being exposed to new tools, products, and techniques to make our job easier. We view a demonstration of a new tool that appears easy to use. We purchase the new tool and take it to the salon and attempt to use it on a paying client. Often times we find the new tool is not as easy to use as we observed, and we end up making a mess of our clients hair. Always take the time to practice with a new tool. Try it on a mannequin first, mannequins won't get upset, clients will.

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CONSULTATION VOCABULARY Positive Terms

Negative Terms

Grow out gracefully

Your roots won't show so much

Out of character

Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t look like her/him

Could be aging

Looks old

Most economical

Cheapest way to go

Rolls Royce of haircolor services It cost a lot Richness Loud Glow

Garish

Warmth

Flat

Glazing

Muddy

Softness

Drab

Subdued

Mousey

Nuance

Dingy

Caramelizing

Flashy

Buttery

Blinding

Tortoise shelling

Cheap

Wheat

Screaming

When consulting with a client it is very important that you both are describing and thinking of the same haircolor so you can fulfill the clients expectations. A haircolor portfolio with colored pictures is always a good way to understand the clients expectations and your professional opinion of their expectations. Other haircolorists choose to use descriptive words pertaining to nature, food or animal color tones to describe the haircolor they plan to achieve. Be creative but beware you both must be on the same wave length with these descriptions or someone will not be satisfied.

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104

â&#x20AC;&#x153;An unsuccessful haircolor service is not like a unsuccessful haircut, with haircolor you always have a second chance.â&#x20AC;?

Chapter 7 Psychology

Tracy Casarola, Evaluator


8

chapter

COLORING GRAY HAIR • Identification of gray hair • Pattern / percentage dictate method • Sensitive consultations • Common problems when coloring gray • Various strategies for the different categories

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Let us never forget, gray hair is the haircolorists best friend, it causes more clients to color their hair and it reappears every four weeks.â&#x20AC;?

106

Chapter 8 Coloring Gray Hair

Andre Nizetich, Board of Directors


1 For as long as recorded history, there’s been an attempt, by those turning gray, to disguise it. Every imaginable concoction was used in an attempt to retain a youthful appearance. It’s been a curse to those whose demeanor is youthful. It’s been a mixed blessing to the haircolorist. The introduction of gray hair is often the catalyst to prompt individuals to color their hair. At the same time, gray hair presents a special challenge to the haircolorist.

2 No one has really determined why hair turns gray. Stories have been circulating as long as there has been gray hair, as to why and how gray hair turns. Hair turns gray (or more accurately white) because at some point mel­a­nin stops being produced. Why it stops is still un­known. It’s believed by most scientific com­mu­ni­ties that gray­ing hair is a result of genetics. When a person is born, each follicle on the head is genetically coded to stop producing melanin at a certain point in their life. Transplanted Hair

Transplanted Hair

3 This client had the top frontal portion of his head transplanted with hair from the back of his head. When the sides of his hair started to turn gray, the hair from the back of the head transplanted to the front remained dark and did not turn gray. Even if you move a follicle to another part of the head, it will retain the original genetic coding.

4

Anagen

Catagen

Telogen

The three stages of hair growth

There are three stages of hair growth: anagen, catagen and telogen. At a certain age, when the pigmented hair falls out of the follicle, and the follicle stops producing melanin, the new hair will be white. The hair can remain in the anagen stages as much as five years, so the notion someone can turn gray overnight is unlikely. There have been cases where the follicle stops producing melanin during the anagen stage. Thus, resulting in a strand of hair that is spotted with melanin. Chapter 8 Coloring Gray Hair

107


5 Five years ago this client had no gray hair. Her hair now reaches down to her waist. The ends of her hair are still warm and without gray. The hair closest to her scalp is now 30% gray. As her hair reaches the telogen stage and the hair falls out, many of the follicles will stop producing melanin.

Hair Ends

6 A towel has been draped over the styling chair so the warmth left in the hair can be observed. When the hair starts to turn gray, the remaining pigmented hair stops producing warmth in the melanin. The hair looks flat and drab. Notice the difference in the color of this clients hair when the ends are draped over the hair closer to the scalp.

7 The perception of the general public is that gray hair is associated with aging. In­di­vid­u­als in today’s society are constantly being bombarded with advertising to persuade them to retain their youthful appearance. The youth ori­ented of our society is a benefit to the haircolorist. The vast ma­jor­i­ty of the pop­u­la­tion is seeking ways to retain their youthful image. The pres­sure of retaining a youthful ap­pear­ance in the work­place is constant. Some indi­vid­u­als color their hair at home with a fair degree of success, but home haircoloring can never replace the skilled hands of the Board Certified Haircolorist.

8

In the majority of cases, gray hair is the catalyst for clients to begin col­or­ing their hair. This is a blessing to the haircolorist. Much of the advertising for ‘at home’ haircoloring focuses on covering gray hair. For the clients seeking to make a change in their life, haircoloring is often the first step. Haircolor manufacturers who advertise mass market haircoloring to the consumer draw attention to the benefits of coloring gray hair to look younger. In so doing, they also drive business into the salon.

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9 There are many more types of gray hair than there are natural haircolors. When you consider all of the different patterns of graying hair and the number of natural haircolors multiplied by the number of people whose hair is turning gray, you are confronted with an over-whelming variety of haircolor challenges.

10 7

After identifying the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural haircolor category, it is necessary to identify the percentage of gray hair. It is also important to identify the placement and distribution of gray hair. A person who is 50% gray, with the gray hair sprinkled equally throughout the pigmented hair would require a different approach than a person whose is 80% gray in the front and 20% gray in the back. In each case, half the hair is gray and half is pigmented.

PERCENTAGE OF GRAY HAIR BY COUNT

5%

15%

30%

50%

70%

80%

90%

11

The process for identifying gray hair is as follows: 1. Identify the natural haircolor category. 2. Locate the areas of gray hair. 3. Identify the percentage of gray hair. 4. Use all three of the above to determine formula and technique. Each category grays with slightly different pigmented haircolor. As the percentage of gray increases, the difference in the remaining pig­ment­ed hair becomes less of a factor when determining color formulation. Chapter 8 Coloring Gray Hair

109


CROWN

TOP

TEMPLE FRONTAL NAPE

12 The areas of the head used to identify the gray are as follows: 1. If the hair is gray around the face it’s called the frontal area. 2. If the hair is gray on top it is called the top area. 3. If the hair is gray at the temples, it’s called the temple area. The top area may extend to the crown. The temple area may extend to the back of the ear. It is important to develop a common language for identifying gray hair.

13 This client is in the ‘B’ category, has 5% gray hair throughout her hair, and 80% gray in the temple area.

14 The next client is in the ‘B’ category, with 80% gray in the top area, and 30% gray throughout her remaining hair.

15 This client has 40% gray throughout most of her hair, with the temples being 90% gray. Notice the different distribution of the gray hair from the previous client.

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1â&#x20AC;?

9

PREPARING THE LEFT REAR QUADRANT

The left rear quadrant shall be bleached to a yellow stage with a one inch outgrowth. To achieve this, you may use foil, paper or plastic to keep the lightener the correct distance away from the scalp. When using foil, apply the bleach one inch from the scalp. It is suggested you do not attempt to prepare your mannequin between clients, you could become rushed and do a poor job.

10 Continue applying bleach and foils until the quadrant is completed. It is not unusual for hair to bleach in excess of four hours to reach pale yellow. Using excessive heat is not recommended, it could cause banding. Test the bleach you will be using on just one section to make certain it is not one of the bleaches that will creep and cause banding. When you test leave the bleach on for the full 4 hours. Bleach may not band in one hour, but may in 4 hours.

11

Utilizing cotton to keep the bleach away from the scalp is not recommended. To bleach the hair to a yellow stage will take an excessive amount of time. Without the bleach being confined, it will dry out and require reapplication. This type of application will not produce a clean demarkation line. The time required for bleaching hair to a yellow stage is at least four hours. Exact times are impossible to predict because of the variety of bleaches. Remember bleach continue working as long as long as it remains moist.

12 This is an example of what would receive an excellent score. A consistent demarcation line, no banding or bleeding and the hair is left in excellent condition. It is impossible to bleach to this degree without porosity, but every attempt should be made to minimize the porosity. This is possible by taking thin sections and using NO heat.

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13 Dragging the hair toward the center at the widest point of the quadrant will cause the demarcation line to become uneven. This would draw a minor deduction. When completed, the hair should be yellow or pale yellow. This color would be considered light gold, which would constitute a further deduction.

14 This is an example of what can happen if patience is not exercised when preparing the mannequin. Heat and high volume peroxide have left this hair in poor condition with banding down to the scalp. The wrong bleach can also cause this to happen. This would receive a fail score on the mannequin preparation. This would also prevent the candidate from receiving good or excellent scores in the optional technique for this quadrant.

15

PREPARING THE RIGHT FRONT QUADRANT

11/2â&#x20AC;?

On the right front quadrant of the mannequin, the hair should be prepared in a manner consistent with how hair would look with a 3 and a 6 month highlighting outgrowth. The first step is to highlight the hair applying bleach one and one-half inches from the scalp. Do this to the entire right front quadrant.

16

1 â&#x20AC;? 1/2

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The candidate may use the weave or slice technique in the application of the highlights. Larger weave sections are easier to locate when doing the highlight retouch portion of the examination. Here we are completing the the one and one half inch section throughout the quadrant before starting the three inch section. you may find it easier to alternate the one and one half inch section with the three inch or 6 month section. You do whatever is easiest for you to complete this task.


17

11/2â&#x20AC;?

Bleach the hair to a yellow or pale yellow stage. This hair bleached for four hours to reach this stage of lightness. Do not become impatient and apply heat. The bleach will lift to a yellow or pale yellow stage. The bleach will continue working as long as the bleach is moist.

18 If completing the task by performing the three months first, the quadrant will look as though it has a highlight that has grown out for three months.

19

3â&#x20AC;?

The next phase is to highlight the hair as if it were grown out for six months. This requires applying the bleach three inches away from the scalp. The strands are to be processed to the same degree of lightness as the three month outgrowth. Weave or slice whichever you prefer. The advantage of alternating the three and six month sections and having them process together is they will be more apt to be the same color when completed.

20 When completed, the hair should look as though it has two highlights, one grown out three months, the other grown out six months. The amount of hair lightened is left to the discretion of the candidate. Read the performance examination chapter to gain some insight as to what will be required for this quadrant during the performance examination.

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21 This candidate showed no constraint when preparing the mannequin. There is an excessive amount of blonde hair, all one and one half inches from the scalp. This would be a deduction on the mannequin preparation. It would also mean a lower score on the highlight retouch. This mannequin preparation would make it extremely difficult to do a highlight retouch and receive an excellent score.

22 PREPARATION OF SWATCHES With the study materials, you received a bundle of hair that you will use for making swatches. The finished swatch足es should be one inch wide with a hair length of at least four inches.

23 Spread the hair evenly over a hard surface such as formica or glass. For best results, keep the hair spread out as uniformly as possible. The ends of the hair that attaches to the tape should be thin to the point of being transparent.

24 Cut a piece of duct tape the length of the hair that has been spread out. Do not attempt to use another type of tape. Duct tape is the only type of tape that will hold up under the abuses of bleaching and shampooing. Rub the tape aggressiveley with your finger tips so as to maximize the amount of hair that attaches to the tape.

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25 Turn the tape over so that the sticky side of the tape faces up. Further spread out the heavy sections of the hair so the majority of the hair will stick to the tape.

26 Place another piece of duct tape over the first piece of duct tape holding the hair. Line up the two strips of tape as closely as possible. It helps to have the tape a little longer and stick it to the surface just above the first piece. doing this makes it easier to control. Rub the tape firmly so the sticky part of the tape grasps the hair.

27 Continue this procedure until there is enough hair to make 12 completed swatches. This exercise of making swatches will encourage you to make swatches from your clients cuttings, you may learn more about the brand of haircolor you use.

28 With the hair firmly sandwiched between two pieces of tape, trim off all of the excess tape.

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29 To create a one inch band of tape that holds the hair, remove the top half of the tape by cutting with heavy household scissors.

30 Cut the strips of tape into four inch pieces. These will be used for making bleach and color swatches.

31 Stack the strips and cut the hair so as to maintain the maximum length. Cut off the scraggly ends.

32 STAGES OF LIGHTENING Using the bleach of your choice, apply to 6 strips. Make certain the hair is completely saturated. Stack swatches on top of each other, making certain the swatches are completely saturated with bleach. Use the client consultation swatch book to gain some insight as to the aproximate length of time required between stages. Exact times are impossible to give because of the variety of bleaches. It is important to make note of your processing times.

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33 Lighten the hair to the following stages:â&#x20AC;&#x2C6;medium golden brown, light golden brown, gold, pale gold, yellow and pale yellow. There should be a clear distinction between the color of the swatches. Nicely finished swatches will help enhance your score. It is not necessary to post the manufacturer of bleach being used.

34 Lighten the hair through the stages of lightening indicated. Make certain the time the bleach is removed from each strip is recorded. Questions may be asked by the evaluators regarding the stages of lightening.

35 Fold the strip of tape over twice and staple. This should produce thick uniform swatches. One natural swatch should be on display.

36 Label each swatch with the time it took to bring the hair to that particular stage of lightness. The candidates will be asked to display the swatches during the performance examination.

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37 The swatches may be displayed by mounting on cardboard. Make your display of swatches as neat as possible.

38 Apply bleach to the lower half of four additional strips of hair.

39

Process the hair to a gold stage, shampoo and dry.

40

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Fold strip into thirds and staple.


41 Using the permanent haircolor of your choice and fol足low足ing manufacturers instructions. Apply the haircolor to the entire swatch, from the tape to the ends, with each of the following colors. Level 8 golden blonde, level 7 ash blonde, level 9 natural blonde and level 5 ash brown. Observe the lift and deposit on the natural and prelightened hair.

42 The completed swatches will be on display for the evaluators during the performance examination.

43 Swatches illustrated would receive a fail score. None of the criteria was followed. The candidate did not show the patience necessary to receive passing score. Make no mistake, the swatch production is an important part of the examination. It gives the evaluators an indication of how serious you are about the examination. You perform these tasks alone without anyone overseeing your progress. Nerves can not be an excuse for not doing your best. Strive to receive an excellent score.

44 It is advisable to condition and blow style your mannequin prior to your arrival at the examination site. It makes the evaluation process of the mannequin preparation easier and gives a better appearance. One should strive to receive as many excellent scores as possible.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Never practice new techniques on your clients, perfect them on your clients.â&#x20AC;?

Jaclyn Bravo, Evaluator

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10 chapter

PERFORMANCE EXAMINATION • Preparation and Layout • Mandatory Tasks • Selected Optional Techniques • Unacceptable Procedures

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Learn, formulate, execute, experience, learn, formulate, execute, experience. You will never learn all there is to knowâ&#x20AC;?

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Ty Isobe, Evaluator


1 The candidate will proceed to the assigned station that matches their team registration number. Lay out all of the materials necessary to perform the mandatory techniques, as well as all of the optional techniques. Display the swatches. Any tools or materials that will not be used during the examination should be placed under the table. Deductions will be made under "organization" for reaching under the table during the examination. You will also receive deductions for using notes for reciting formulas. optional techniques can be done in any order

second mandatory highlight retouch

gray reduction or tone on tone

highlow lighting, reverse highlighting or bleach retouch

first mandatory slice and weave

2 All candidates will perform the same tasks on the right side of the mannequin. All tasks will be carried out without an assistant. An off the scalp powder bleach is recommended so the eval­u­a­tors may clearly see the application. Candidates will not be evaluated on the finished result. Proceed in the following order: • Right rear: weave and slice. The candidate may start at the nape or crown. • Right front: highlight retouch. • Left front assigned optional technique: Tone on tone or gray reduction. • Left rear assigned optional technique: high-low lighting, reverse highlight or bleach retouch.

3 On the right side of the mannequin, the mandatory tasks shall be completed by placing the hair in any type of foil, paper or plastic that the candidate desires. Although the candidate may utilize a variety of tools when working in the salon, for this examination you must use one of the accepted methods. Do not come to the test site with the an­tic­i­pa­tion of doing the same work as you do in the salon. We ask that you follow the prescribed method outlined in this chapter for the mandatory tech­niques.

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3 (continued) The candidates are being evaluated on fol­low­ing in­struc­tion as well as workmanship. If the meth­ods pre­scribed in the chapter for the mandatory techniques are not familiar, it would be in the candidate’s best interest to practice until he/she is comfortable and the application is smooth. The candidate is being tested in the psychomotor skills, therefore the use of hairpainting, frosting cap, Spatula and Super Streak cups will not be allowed for the mandatory tasks.

4

Dividing line

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On the right rear quad­rant, the can­di­date will perform a weave and a slice. A medium weave will be performed on the top portion of the right rear quadrant. A fine slice will be performed on the bottom right rear quadrant. There is a dividing line between the weave and slice to indicate where they both should take place. Observe the number of sections to be bleached and come as close as possible to duplicating them. The dividing line is not in the same position on each of the mannequins. NOTE: The weave and slice may be started in any order.


Space between weaves larger than weaves

Weave 1/4”

5 A medium weave is described as one-eighth of an inch sections with one-quarter of an inch subsections. There must be enough natural hair between the hair being bleached to create a distinct sep­a­ra­tion.(See #12) The hair left natural between highlightened sections must be greater than the hair being lightened. Apply the bleach as close as possible to the scalp without bleeding.

6 This packet would receive a poor rating because of the inconsistency and application. The size of the strands are inconsistent as well as the application of bleach. Deduction:

Space between weaves larger than weaves

APPLICATION CONSISTENCY

7 This packet would receive no deductions even though the strands are slightly inconsistent. If all packets were of this ranking, the candidate would receive an excellent score for consistency. Deduction: NONE

Weave 1/4”

8 Each packet con­tain­ing bleach will be separated by one quarter of an inch of natural hair. In portions of the quadrant it will require more than one packet to go from one edge of the quadrant to the other. Keep the packets in line rather than using a brick laying pattern.

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9 If the candidate follows directions and leaves the proper amount of hair between the packets, there will be ample space to apply the necessary num­ber of packets to receive an excellent score. You are encouraged to go through the performance examination using a conditioner as a bleach and making notes of your timing.

1/4”

Deduction: NONE

10 Leaving too much hair be­tween packets would not allow the candidate to have the cor­rect number of packets for a good or excellent score.

Deduction: FOLLOWS INSTRUCTIONS CONSISTENCY

11

Dividing Line

Here, the upper portion of the right rear quad­rant is com­plet­ed with foil packets. The candidate may also start the foil application at the nape and work upward toward the crown. There is a ridge between the slice and weave sections. If there is an odd amount of hair between the weave and slice after completing your first portion, it may be pinned out of the way before proceeding.

12 1/4” 1/4” 1/8”

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SLICING PROCEDURE On the lower portion of the quadrant, the slice tech­ nique will be performed. The slice technique requires the can­di­date to take a section‑ of hair that is as thin as possible, (the thinner the better.) The lines indicate the hair to be light­ ened, the spaces between indicate the distance between the packets. The number of sections indicated on this mannequin is 12 sections. Not all mannequins are alike.


13 SLICE TECHNIQUE

The slice technique would require the sec­tions to be thin and consistent. This degree of con­ sis­ ten­ cy is acceptable. Deduction: NONE

14 This slice too thick. The slice should be as thin as possible.

Deduction: FOLLOW DIRECTIONS

15 The bleached sections are separated by one quarter inch of hair left natural. The entire lower portion of the quadrant must be com­plet­ed before proceeding to the weave slice section.

16 The candidate may also start the slicing pro­ce­dure at the bottom of the section and work up. When the weave and slice techniques are completed, move on to the next task. Do not wait for the evaluators to tell you to proceed. Go directly to the highlight retouch quadrant.

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17 HIGHLIGHT RETOUCH TECHNIQUE The right front quadrant of the mannequin is utilized for the highlight retouch. The candidate must have prepared the mannequin in advance as detailed in the chapter 'PREPARING THE MANNEQUIN.' When retouching the highlights in this section, an attempt should be made to maintain the same degree of blonde.

18 The retouching of highlights is one of the most challenging aspects of haircoloring. The proper de­ci­sions made during this process will insure the client of healthy hair and the haircolorist a faithful client. It is for this reason that the highlight retouch is a mandatory technique for the examination. Avoiding all of the previously bleached hair and bleaching all virgin hair, as in this photograph, is discouraged. If this behavior is repeated throughout this section, it would result in a major deduction.

19 The evaluators will be checking the manner in which the candidate avoids the previously lightened hair. The evaluators understand avoiding the previously lightened hair entirely is nearly impossible, but much can be done to retain the integrity of the hair. The amount of over­lap­ ping shown here is acceptable, also the small amount of virgin hair on the ends would not draw deductions.

20 With each section of hair placed in the packet, there is a decision to be made. Evaluating the entire section will give the evaluators a sense of how carefully the bleach was applied. This packet is also ac­cept­able.

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21 In this foil, the virgin hair is all bleached with a small section of previously bleached hair avoided. This behavior shows sensitivity to the client’s hair. The candidates need to demonstrate to the evaluators the ability to utilize “stagger” technique. The “stagger” technique is defined as “staggering” the bleach application in the packet and not stopping the bleach at the first sign of previously bleached hair.

22 When folding the packet, caution should be taken to not have previously bleached hair that has been avoided, come in contact with bleach being applied. The previously bleached hair was first avoided, then when folding the packet the hair was folded into the bleach.

23 Here the previously bleached hair has been avoided and only the new growth bleached. This is a method used on clients in order to minimize a blonde build-up. This is a technique that is encouraged.

24 This pattern repeated would result in blonde scalp and darker ends. Repeating this application throughout the quad­rant would be a major deduction. When the right side of the mannequin is com­plete, move directly into the optional techniques. Candidates will be approached by an evaluator to allow them the opportunity to draw the optional techniques.

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Gray reduction

25

Reverse highlight

SELECTED OPTIONAL TECHNIQUES

High-low lighting Tone on tone

Bleach retouch

The left side of the mannequin will be utilized for two of five optional techniques. These tech­niques are: Gray reduction, high low lighting, bleach retouch, tone on tone and reverse high­light­ing.

26 GRAY REDUCTION The left front quadrant shall be used for the gray reduction. This section is 50% gray hair. For gray reduction optional tech­nique, the candidate will be asked to reduce the amount of gray hair by 25%. Thus when completed, the quadrant should appear to be 25% gray. The photo shows 10 fine slices. This would receive a good score. NOTICE: Not all of the mannequins have the same percentage of gray hair, nonetheless the gray should be reduced by 25%.

27 Gray reduction is accomplished by isolating sections of hair with a fine weave and dark­en­ing the hair in the packet. The candidate should formulate as though the client is in the dark brown category. When doing a gray reduction with a substantial amount of pigmented hair, an effort should be made to minimize the the lift on the pigmented hair. This can be accomplished by reducing the volume of peroxide to 10 volume and processing the color longer, or using a deposit only color.

28 Here is another method of accomplishing gray re­duc­ tion by utilizing papers and fine slices. For the best score, the dark color should be applied as close to the scalp as possible without touching the scalp. Keep the packets horizontal.

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1â&#x20AC;?

9

PREPARING THE LEFT REAR QUADRANT

The left rear quadrant shall be bleached to a yellow stage with a one inch outgrowth. To achieve this, you may use foil, paper or plastic to keep the lightener the correct distance away from the scalp. When using foil, apply the bleach one inch from the scalp. It is suggested you do not attempt to prepare your mannequin between clients, you could become rushed and do a poor job.

10 Continue applying bleach and foils until the quadrant is completed. It is not unusual for hair to bleach in excess of four hours to reach pale yellow. Using excessive heat is not recommended, it could cause banding. Test the bleach you will be using on just one section to make certain it is not one of the bleaches that will creep and cause banding. When you test leave the bleach on for the full 4 hours. Bleach may not band in one hour, but may in 4 hours.

11

Utilizing cotton to keep the bleach away from the scalp is not recommended. To bleach the hair to a yellow stage will take an excessive amount of time. Without the bleach being confined, it will dry out and require reapplication. This type of application will not produce a clean demarkation line. The time required for bleaching hair to a yellow stage is at least four hours. Exact times are impossible to predict because of the variety of bleaches. Remember bleach continue working as long as long as it remains moist.

12

This is an example of what would receive an excellent score. A consistent demarcation line, no banding or bleeding and the hair is left in excellent condition. It is impossible to bleach to this degree without porosity, but every attempt should be made to minimize the porosity. This is possible by taking thin sections and using NO heat.

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13 Dragging the hair toward the center at the widest point of the quadrant will cause the demarcation line to become uneven. This would draw a minor deduction. When completed, the hair should be yellow or pale yellow. This color would be considered light gold, which would constitute a further deduction.

14 This is an example of what can happen if patience is not exercised when preparing the mannequin. Heat and high volume peroxide have left this hair in poor condition with banding down to the scalp. The wrong bleach can also cause this to happen. This would receive a fail score on the mannequin preparation. This would also prevent the candidate from receiving good or excellent scores in the optional technique for this quadrant.

15

11/2â&#x20AC;?

PREPARING THE RIGHT FRONT QUADRANT

On the right front quadrant of the mannequin, the hair should be prepared in a manner consistent with how hair would look with a 3 and a 6 month highlighting outgrowth. The first step is to highlight the hair applying bleach one and one-half inches from the scalp. Do this to the entire right front quadrant.

16

11/2â&#x20AC;?

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The candidate may use the weave or slice technique in the application of the highlights. Larger weave sections are easier to locate when doing the highlight retouch portion of the examination. Here we are completing the the one and one half inch section throughout the quadrant before starting the three inch section. you may find it easier to alternate the one and one half inch section with the three inch or 6 month section. You do whatever is easiest for you to complete this task.


17

11/2â&#x20AC;?

Bleach the hair to a yellow or pale yellow stage. This hair bleached for four hours to reach this stage of lightness. Do not become impatient and apply heat. The bleach will lift to a yellow or pale yellow stage. The bleach will continue working as long as the bleach is moist.

18 If completing the task by performing the three months first, the quadrant will look as though it has a highlight that has grown out for three months.

19

3â&#x20AC;?

The next phase is to highlight the hair as if it were grown out for six months. This requires applying the bleach three inches away from the scalp. The strands are to be processed to the same degree of lightness as the three month outgrowth. Weave or slice whichever you prefer. The advantage of alternating the three and six month sections and having them process together is they will be more apt to be the same color when completed.

20 When completed, the hair should look as though it has two highlights, one grown out three months, the other grown out six months. The amount of hair lightened is left to the discretion of the candidate. Read the performance examination chapter to gain some insight as to what will be required for this quadrant during the performance examination.

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21 This candidate showed no constraint when preparing the mannequin. There is an excessive amount of blonde hair, all one and one half inches from the scalp. This would be a deduction on the mannequin preparation. It would also mean a lower score on the highlight retouch. This mannequin preparation would make it extremely difficult to do a highlight retouch and receive an excellent score.

22 PREPARATION OF SWATCHES With the study materials, you received a bundle of hair that you will use for making swatches. The finished swatch足es should be one inch wide with a hair length of at least four inches.

23 Spread the hair evenly over a hard surface such as formica or glass. For best results, keep the hair spread out as uniformly as possible. The ends of the hair that attaches to the tape should be thin to the point of being transparent.

24 Cut a piece of duct tape the length of the hair that has been spread out. Do not attempt to use another type of tape. Duct tape is the only type of tape that will hold up under the abuses of bleaching and shampooing. Rub the tape aggressiveley with your finger tips so as to maximize the amount of hair that attaches to the tape.

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25 Turn the tape over so that the sticky side of the tape faces up. Further spread out the heavy sections of the hair so the majority of the hair will stick to the tape.

26 Place another piece of duct tape over the first piece of duct tape holding the hair. Line up the two strips of tape as closely as possible. It helps to have the tape a little longer and stick it to the surface just above the first piece. doing this makes it easier to control. Rub the tape firmly so the sticky part of the tape grasps the hair.

27 Continue this procedure until there is enough hair to make 12 completed swatches. This exercise of making swatches will encourage you to make swatches from your clients cuttings, you may learn more about the brand of haircolor you use.

28 With the hair firmly sandwiched between two pieces of tape, trim off all of the excess tape.

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29 To create a one inch band of tape that holds the hair, remove the top half of the tape by cutting with heavy household scissors.

30 Cut the strips of tape into four inch pieces. These will be used for making bleach and color swatches.

31 Stack the strips and cut the hair so as to maintain the maximum length. Cut off the scraggly ends.

32

STAGES OF LIGHTENING Using the bleach of your choice, apply to 6 strips. Make certain the hair is completely saturated. Stack swatches on top of each other, making certain the swatches are completely saturated with bleach. Use the client consultation swatch book to gain some insight as to the aproximate length of time required between stages. Exact times are impossible to give because of the variety of bleaches. It is important to make note of your processing times.

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33 Lighten the hair to the following stages:â&#x20AC;&#x2C6;medium golden brown, light golden brown, gold, pale gold, yellow and pale yellow. There should be a clear distinction between the color of the swatches. Nicely finished swatches will help enhance your score. It is not necessary to post the manufacturer of bleach being used.

34 Lighten the hair through the stages of lightening indicated. Make certain the time the bleach is removed from each strip is recorded. Questions may be asked by the evaluators regarding the stages of lightening.

35 Fold the strip of tape over twice and staple. This should produce thick uniform swatches. One natural swatch should be on display.

36 Label each swatch with the time it took to bring the hair to that particular stage of lightness. The candidates will be asked to display the swatches during the performance examination.

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37 The swatches may be displayed by mounting on cardboard. Make your display of swatches as neat as possible.

38 Apply bleach to the lower half of four additional strips of hair.

39

Process the hair to a gold stage, shampoo and dry.

40

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Fold strip into thirds and staple.


41 Using the permanent haircolor of your choice and fol足low足ing manufacturers instructions. Apply the haircolor to the entire swatch, from the tape to the ends, with each of the following colors. Level 8 golden blonde, level 7 ash blonde, level 9 natural blonde and level 5 ash brown. Observe the lift and deposit on the natural and prelightened hair.

42 The completed swatches will be on display for the evaluators during the performance examination. This swatch production is a learning process for the candidate. It shows the lift deposit for the various levels of color.

43 Swatches illustrated would receive a fail score. None of the criteria was followed. The candidate did not show the patience necessary to receive passing score. Make no mistake, the swatch production is an important part of the examination. It gives the evaluators an indication of how serious you are about the examination. You perform these tasks alone without anyone overseeing your progress. Nerves can not be an excuse for not doing your best. Strive to receive an excellent score.

44 It is advisable to condition and blow style your mannequin prior to your arrival at the examination site. It makes the evaluation process of the mannequin preparation easier and gives a better appearance. One should strive to receive as many excellent scores as possible.

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139


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Never practice new techniques on your clients, perfect them on your clients.â&#x20AC;?

140

Chapter 10 Performance Examination

Jaclyn Bravo, Evaluator


10 chapter

PERFORMANCE EXAMINATION • Preparation and Layout • Mandatory Tasks • Selected Optional Techniques • Unacceptable Procedures

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Learn, formulate, execute, experience, learn, formulate, execute, experience. You will never learn all there is to knowâ&#x20AC;?

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Ty Isobe, Evaluator


1

The candidate will proceed to the assigned station that matches their team registration number. Lay out all of the materials necessary to perform the mandatory techniques, as well as all of the optional techniques. Display the swatches. Any tools or materials that will not be used during the examination should be placed under the table. Deductions will be made under "organization" for reaching under the table during the examination. You will also receive deductions for using notes for reciting formulas. optional techniques can be done in any order

second mandatory highlight retouch

gray reduction or tone on tone

highlow lighting, reverse highlighting or bleach retouch

first mandatory slice and weave

2

All candidates will perform the same tasks on the right side of the mannequin. All tasks will be carried out without an assistant. An off the scalp powder bleach is recommended so the eval­u­a­tors may clearly see the application. Candidates will not be evaluated on the finished result. Proceed in the following order: • Right rear: weave and slice. The candidate may start at the nape or crown. • Right front: highlight retouch. • Left front assigned optional technique: Tone on tone or gray reduction. • Left rear assigned optional technique: high-low lighting, reverse highlight or bleach retouch.

3 On the right side of the mannequin, the mandatory tasks shall be completed by placing the hair in any type of foil, paper or plastic that the candidate desires. Although the candidate may utilize a variety of tools when working in the salon, for this examination you must use one of the accepted methods. Do not come to the test site with the an­tic­i­pa­tion of doing the same work as you do in the salon. We ask that you follow the prescribed method outlined in this chapter for the mandatory tech­niques.

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3 (continued) The candidates are being evaluated on fol­low­ing in­struc­tion as well as workmanship. If the meth­ods pre­scribed in the chapter for the mandatory techniques are not familiar, it would be in the candidate’s best interest to practice until he/she is comfortable and the application is smooth. The candidate is being tested in the psychomotor skills, therefore the use of hairpainting, frosting cap, Spatula and Super Streak cups will not be allowed for the mandatory tasks.

4 Dividing line

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On the right rear quad­rant, the can­di­date will perform a weave and a slice. A medium weave will be performed on the top portion of the right rear quadrant. A fine slice will be performed on the bottom right rear quadrant. There is a dividing line between the weave and slice to indicate where they both should take place. Observe the number of sections to be bleached and come as close as possible to duplicating them. The dividing line is not in the same position on each of the mannequins. NOTE: The weave and slice may be started in any order.


Space between weaves larger than weaves

Weave 1/4”

5 A medium weave is described as one-eighth of an inch sections with one-quarter of an inch subsections. There must be enough natural hair between the hair being bleached to create a distinct sep­a­ra­tion.(See #12) The hair left natural between highlightened sections must be greater than the hair being lightened. Apply the bleach as close as possible to the scalp without bleeding.

6 This packet would receive a poor rating because of the inconsistency and application. The size of the strands are inconsistent as well as the application of bleach. Deduction:

APPLICATION CONSISTENCY

7

Space between weaves larger than weaves

This packet would receive no deductions even though the strands are slightly inconsistent. If all packets were of this ranking, the candidate would receive an excellent score for consistency.

Deduction:

NONE

Weave 1/4”

8 Each packet con­tain­ing bleach will be separated by one quarter of an inch of natural hair. In portions of the quadrant it will require more than one packet to go from one edge of the quadrant to the other. Keep the packets in line rather than using a brick laying pattern.

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9 If the candidate follows directions and leaves the proper amount of hair between the packets, there will be ample space to apply the necessary num­ber of packets to receive an excellent score. You are encouraged to go through the performance examination using a conditioner as a bleach and making notes of your timing.

1/4”

Deduction: NONE

10 Leaving too much hair be­tween packets would not allow the candidate to have the cor­rect number of packets for a good or excellent score.

Deduction: FOLLOWS INSTRUCTIONS CONSISTENCY

11

Dividing Line

Here, the upper portion of the right rear quad­rant is com­plet­ed with foil packets. The candidate may also start the foil application at the nape and work upward toward the crown. There is a ridge between the slice and weave sections. If there is an odd amount of hair between the weave and slice after completing your first portion, it may be pinned out of the way before proceeding.

12 1/4” 1/4” 1/8”

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SLICING PROCEDURE On the lower portion of the quadrant, the slice tech­ nique will be performed. The slice technique requires the can­di­date to take a section‑ of hair that is as thin as possible, (the thinner the better.) The lines indicate the hair to be light­ened, the spaces between indicate the distance between the packets. The number of sections indicated on this mannequin is 12 sections. Not all mannequins are alike.


13 SLICE TECHNIQUE

The slice technique would require the sec­tions to be thin and consistent. This degree of con­sis­ten­cy is acceptable.

Deduction: NONE

14 This slice too thick. The slice should be as thin as possible.

Deduction: FOLLOW DIRECTIONS

15 The bleached sections are separated by one quarter inch of hair left natural. The entire lower portion of the quadrant must be com­plet­ed before proceeding to the weave slice section.

16 The candidate may also start the slicing pro­ce­dure at the bottom of the section and work up. When the weave and slice techniques are completed, move on to the next task. Do not wait for the evaluators to tell you to proceed. Go directly to the highlight retouch quadrant.

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17 HIGHLIGHT RETOUCH TECHNIQUE The right front quadrant of the mannequin is utilized for the highlight retouch. The candidate must have prepared the mannequin in advance as detailed in the chapter 'PREPARING THE MANNEQUIN.' When retouching the highlights in this section, an attempt should be made to maintain the same degree of blonde.

18 The retouching of highlights is one of the most challenging aspects of haircoloring. The proper de­ci­sions made during this process will insure the client of healthy hair and the haircolorist a faithful client. It is for this reason that the highlight retouch is a mandatory technique for the examination. Avoiding all of the previously bleached hair and bleaching all virgin hair, as in this photograph, is discouraged. If this behavior is repeated throughout this section, it would result in a major deduction.

19 The evaluators will be checking the manner in which the candidate avoids the previously lightened hair. The evaluators understand avoiding the previously lightened hair entirely is nearly impossible, but much can be done to retain the integrity of the hair. The amount of over­lap­ ping shown here is acceptable, also the small amount of virgin hair on the ends would not draw deductions.

20 With each section of hair placed in the packet, there is a decision to be made. Evaluating the entire section will give the evaluators a sense of how carefully the bleach was applied. This packet is also ac­cept­able.

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21 In this foil, the virgin hair is all bleached with a small section of previously bleached hair avoided. This behavior shows sensitivity to the client’s hair. The candidates need to demonstrate to the evaluators the ability to utilize “stagger” technique. The “stagger” technique is defined as “staggering” the bleach application in the packet and not stopping the bleach at the first sign of previously bleached hair.

22 When folding the packet, caution should be taken to not have previously bleached hair that has been avoided, come in contact with bleach being applied. The previously bleached hair was first avoided, then when folding the packet the hair was folded into the bleach.

23 Here the previously bleached hair has been avoided and only the new growth bleached. This is a method used on clients in order to minimize a blonde build-up. This is a technique that is encouraged.

24 This pattern repeated would result in blonde scalp and darker ends. Repeating this application throughout the quad­rant would be a major deduction. When the right side of the mannequin is com­plete, move directly into the optional techniques. Candidates will be approached by an evaluator to allow them the opportunity to draw the optional techniques.

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Gray reduction

25

Reverse highlight

SELECTED OPTIONAL TECHNIQUES

High-low lighting Tone on tone

Bleach retouch

The left side of the mannequin will be utilized for two of five optional techniques. These tech­niques are: Gray reduction, high low lighting, bleach retouch, tone on tone and reverse high­light­ing.

26

GRAY REDUCTION The left front quadrant shall be used for the gray reduction. This section is 50% gray hair. For gray reduction optional tech­nique, the candidate will be asked to reduce the amount of gray hair by 25%. Thus when completed, the quadrant should appear to be 25% gray. The photo shows 10 fine slices. This would receive a good score. NOTICE: Not all of the mannequins have the same percentage of gray hair, nonetheless the gray should be reduced by 25%.

27 Gray reduction is accomplished by isolating sections of hair with a fine weave and dark­en­ing the hair in the packet. The candidate should formulate as though the client is in the dark brown category. When doing a gray reduction with a substantial amount of pigmented hair, an effort should be made to minimize the the lift on the pigmented hair. This can be accomplished by reducing the volume of peroxide to 10 volume and processing the color longer, or using a deposit only color.

28 Here is another method of accomplishing gray re­duc­ tion by utilizing papers and fine slices. For the best score, the dark color should be applied as close to the scalp as possible without touching the scalp. Keep the packets horizontal.

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29 Deductions will be made for large chunky streaks, color applied too far from the scalp and inconsistent application of color. Candidates should use common sense when doing gray reduction. What the evaluators are looking for is to have the hair look as natural as possible.

30

TONE ON TONE Another task you may be asked to complete on the left front quadrant is tone on tone. For the purpose of the examination, the tone on tone is described as coloring all of the hair two different colors. Tone on tone may be accomplished in a number of ways. When completed the gray hair should be com­plete­ly covered with the darker color and there will be another complimentary tone of hair. The colors used should be at least two levels apart.

31 The tasks on the left side of the mannequin may be completed with any tools or technique desired. The difference between gray reduction and tone on tone is that gray reduction adds dark strands of color through the gray hair matching the natural pigmented hair, while tone on tone covers all of the gray hair utilizing two dif­ fer­ent colors. This tone on tone a level 7 color is used in the packets, then a level 4 golden brown was applied around the packets.

32 The tone on tone in this photograph is accomplished by first applying a light brown haircolor through­out the strand, applying the cups and placing bleach in the cups. This will produce a light brown haircolor with golden highlights. The darker color may be applied first, as in this method or it may be applied around the packets as in the previous technique.

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33 Your two selected optional techniques may be accomplished in any order you wish, however it is recommended you first do the rear quadrant. If the front quadrant on the left side is done first, you are left working between two rows of foils and it can be somewhat awkward.

34

HIGH- LOW LIGHTING The high-low lighting technique is used for a variety of situations. It is used for the client whose hair is growing out from a too blonde look, either single or double process blonde. The client whose hair has become too blonde from multiple highlights, wants to remain blonde but disguise the demarcation line. With this client it was necessary to use a heavy dose of low lights to give the hair a chance to heal.

35

High-low lighting is utilized to restore a look of naturalness to the hair. The left rear quadrant has the look of bleached hair that has grown out for two months. The candidate is asked to restore the haircolor to a natural looking highlighted effect. This is ac­com­ plished by highlighting the new growth while adding darkness to some of the bleached ends. The candidate may utilize any tool or method of ac­com­plish­ing this task.

36

The high low lighting technique used here is being completed with the use of foils. When utilizing the high low technique, you are at­tempt­ing to maintain as much of the new growth such as you would in a highlight. In these situations, the client desires to have their natural hair grow out and only highlight their hair. In order to receive a good score, the candidate must place no less than seven highlight packets and seven low light packets. An attempt should be made to distribute the packets throughout the quadrant.

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Some of the foils in the high-low quadrant contain bleach at the new growth. Other foils contain color from the demarcation line to the ends. Some of the pale yellow hair has been left untreated between each of the packets. When doing the high-low lighting you can start at the nape or at the crown. First you do a highlight, then you leave some untreated hair, then you apply a low light, then leave some untreated hair. Continue this process until at least seven highlights and seven low lights have been applied.

38

REVERSE HIGHLIGHTING Reverse highlighting is for the client who is tired of coloring their hair and wants to return to their natural color. Some of the existing blonde is isolated in order to give the client a highlighted effect. Both the high-low lighting and reverse highlighting can be used to darken the hair to disguise the demarcation line. With reverse highlighting only the existing blonde hair is in the packets

39 Reverse highlighting differs from high-low lighting. In reverse highlighting, the virgin haircolor at the scalp is not preserved. Multiple folded foils are being used here to isolate some of the blonde hair. By folding the foil several times makes the hair to be colored more accessible The formula used to darken the lightened ends should reflect the fact there is no red undertones in the hair.

40 To accomplish the reverse highlighting in this instance the blonde hair was isolated in foil with a thick conditioner. Color was then applied to the new growth and the blonde ends. For the examination, make certain the hair being isolated is also colored from the scalp to the demarcation line. If conditioner is used to isolate the blonde hair, red food color should be used. The food color is furnished by the examination committee.

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41 The result should be the same as if the hair has been highlighted in reverse. Thus, the name reverse highlighting. The degree of lightness or darkness is determined by the amount of blonde hair isolated, as well as the depth of the color being used.

42

BLEACH RETOUCH

Bleach retouch will be another task the candidate may be asked to perform. Evaluators will be looking for the method of application, the amount of overlapping, amount of bleach used and neatness of the application. The bleach may be applied in whatever manner the candidate prefers. Applicator bottle or brush and bowl are both acceptable. Care should be taken to not get bleach on the other quadrants.

43

Questions will be asked of the candidate on what­ ever optional tasks are drawn. At the con­clu­sion of the assigned tasks, the candidate will step away from the mannequin and raise his/her hand until rec­og­nized by the time­keep­er. Do not leave the room unless given permission. (This is an option of the evaluator captain). Do not clean up until you return to pick up your mannequin. The eval­u­a­tors will indicate when your man­ ne­quin may be picked up. The time required to remove the packets and evaluate the mannequins is determined by the number of candidates.

Note: None of the procedures in the performance examination require the mannequin be shampooed and dried. All of the evaluation will be done during the procedures and when the packets are being taken down.

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11 chapter

PERFORMANCE AND EVALUATION CRITERIA • Natural Highlighting Criteria • Natural Highlight Retouch Criteria • Gray Reduction Retouch • Tone on Tone Criteria • Bleach Retouch Criteria • High-Lowlighting Criteria • Reverse Highlighting Criteria 

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Many haircolorists agree that a challenging haircolor is what gives rise to pleasurable excitement and makes their day fulfilled.â&#x20AC;?

156

Chapter 11 Examination Criteria

Andi Makowski, Evaluator


PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR NATURAL HIGHLIGHTING The candidate will apply highlights to the top portion of the right rear quadrant of the mannequin that is consistent with a weave highlight as specified in the study portfolio. On the lower portion of the right rear quadrant, the candidate shall perform a slice highlight technique as indicated in the study portfolio. Applicant will utilize bleach and the material of choice, within established guidelines, for the isolation of the hair that will be lightened. Candidates will be evaluated on the mixture of bleach, neatness of the work, care of the application, processing judgment, amount of bleeding and the sectioning of the hair. The evaluations will take place before, during and after the work has been completed. EVALUATION CRITERIA RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate is able to give exact bleach formula, works in a neat professional manner, applies highlights that are consistent with natural highlights, gives exact bleaching times, applies bleach in a neat consistent manner with no bleeding, follows instructions perfectly and completes task well ahead of schedule. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate recites acceptable bleach formula, carries out task in a neat manner with slight exceptions, does a good job of following the patterns established in the study materials, knows with a degree of accuracy how long the hair will bleach, workmanship is good and application is consistent with slight amount of bleeding, does a good job in following instructions and works smoothly and rapidly. RATING 3 - AVERAGE The candidate displays average workmanship, does a fair job in application technique, shows some signs of bleeding or applies bleach too far from scalp, does an average job of following instructions, lacks confidence and displays speed of application consistent with an average haircolorist. RATING 2 - POOR The candidate does not recite accurate bleach formula, is not tidy in application, comes close to following the patterns established in the study materials, fairly accurate in determining bleaching times and the stages of lightening the hair, some inconsistencies in the bleach out, several spots of bleeding, follows instructions with some inconsistency and is slightly late in completion of task. RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate is not able to recite the bleach formula, works in a sloppy manner, does not apply highlights according to the study portfolio, has no indication of how long it will take to bleach or the stages of lightening, results of the bleach out are spotty and inconsistent, bleeding in many areas, does not follow instructions and is extremely slow.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR NATURAL HIGHLIGHT RETOUCHING The candidate will apply highlights to the right front side of the mannequin, in a manner that is consistent with the professional standards for retouching highlights. The hair will have been prepared by the candidate to have two sets of highlights, one grown out for 3 months, the other 6 months. The goal during this exercise is to maintain the amount of highlight present in the hair. Candidate is free to utilize the off the scalp bleach and material of choice, within established guidelines, for the isolation of the lightened strands. Candidate will be evaluated on the mixture of bleach, neatness of work, care during application (sensitivity to previously lightened hair), processing judgment, amount of bleeding, correct distance from scalp and avoidance of previously lightened hair. The evaluations will take place during the application and at completion of the task. â&#x20AC;&#x192; The task must be completed within the 1 hour and 30 minute performance examination time frame. EVALUATION CRITERIA RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate is able to give exact bleach formula, works in a neat professional manner, applies highlights consistent with highlight retouch, gives exact bleaching times and describes the stages of lightening. applies bleach in a neat consistent manner, follows instructions perfectly, and completes task well ahead of schedule. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate gives good bleach formula, carries out task in a neat manner with slight exceptions, does a good job of avoiding the previously highlighted hair, knows with a degree of accuracy how long it will take the hair to bleach, describes the stages of bleaching, uses staggered technique effectively, workmanship is good, application is consistent with no bleeding, does a fair job in following instructions and works quickly and smoothly. RATING 3 - AVERAGE The bleach formula is questionable, inaccurate in bleaching times and the stages of lightening, some inconsistencies in the bleach out, bleach in areas where it does not belong, tries to avoid previously bleached strands by staggering bleach, follows instructions with some inconsistency, and works with fair speed. RATING 2 - POOR The candidate does not give accurate bleach formula, is not tidy in application, has vague knowledge about what a 3 and 6 month outgrowth is, questionable work habits, mannequin not prepared properly, disregards previously bleached hair, shows no sign or uses staggered technique, too much bleeding, and works slowly. RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate is not able to recite bleach formula, works in a sloppy manner, completely disregards previously lightened strands, has no idea of what a 3 and 6 month outgrowth is, shows or has no idea about stages of lightening, the bleach application is spotty and inconsistent (bleach in areas it does not belong), does not follow instructions, works very slowly and stops bleach application in the same place on every packet.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA GRAY REDUCTION

The candidate will color the left front quadrant of the mannequin in a manner that is consistent with by professional standards for gray reduction, established in the study portfolio. NOTE: The candidate will be asked to reduce the amount of gray hair by 25 percent. The color should be formulated for the dark brown category. This task may be completed by any procedure or technique the candidate determines within the acceptable guidelines. The evaluation will take place during the coloring process and on the completed work. The candidate must complete the task within the1 hour and 30 minute performance examination time frame. EVALUATION CRITERIA RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate approaches the task with professionalism and confidence, selects just the right formula for the haircolor category, the application technique is neat and organized, the distribution of color is as it should be and the candidate moves through the task at a brisk pace. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate works in a fairly organized manner, makes the proper formulations and is able to recite the reasons for doing so, the application technique is fairly consistent but not perfect, approaches the task in a somewhat confident manner, works well under pressure, and finishes the task on time. RATING 3 - AVERAGE The candidate does not show a great deal of confidence in what 25 percent reduction is, appears to have not done a gray reduction before, the formula is one level off what it should be, workmanship is average and candidate struggles through the task. RATING 2 - POOR The candidate is not well organized and approaches the task with apprehension, the color formula is acceptable, but not the best choice for the color category in question, the application techniques are not consistent or well thought out inconsistent and the work is slow and messy. RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate works in a careless and unorganized manner, the formula selected for the gray reduction would be improper for the category of haircolor, haircolor is applied at the scalp, is unable to communicate formulas or reason for using them, application procedures would not be acceptable by professional standards, distribution of the darker hair is uneven and clumpy and application is very slow.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR TONE ON TONE The candidate will color the left front quadrant of the mannequin in a manner that is consistent with professional standards for tone on tone, defined in the study portfolio. Hair will be colored in a tone selected by the candidate and highlights added to contrast, also determined by the candidate. The candidate may proceed in any order that he or she chooses. Any materials will be acceptable for the purpose of isolating the hair. The evaluation will take place during the coloring process and after the work is completed. Both colors must process simultaneously. The task must be completed within the 1 hour and 30 minute performance examination time frame. EVALUATION CRITERIA RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate approaches the task with confidence, the colors selected would give the hair maximum coverage, a beautiful contrast with a balanced amount of the lighter color, recites the formula with confidence and is able to predict results, application is neat and works expeditiously, completes the task well ahead of allotted time. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate is organized and approaches the task with confidence, the haircolors selected will cover the gray hair and in a harmonious contrast, lighter hair is well blended, the application procedure is neat and well executed, application procedure is effective and expeditious and completes the task in the allotted time. RATING 3 - AVERAGE The candidate works with some confidence, shows some hesitancy of where and how to proceed, has average workmanship and formulating skills, contrast between tones is not as good as could be, looks professional, but is awkward when working, and works at moderate speed with disregard to time. RATING 2 - POOR The candidate is not well organized and approaches the task with a degree of apprehension, unable to clearly recite the formulas, there is marginal coverage of the gray hair, the application procedures are time consuming, the contrast is not appealing and harmonious, distribution of lighter hair is either too heavy or not heavy enough. RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate works in a careless and unorganized manner, haircolors selected by the candidate would create a weak and unattractive contrast, lighter color is not well distributed, appears clumpy and unnatural, haircolor selected would not cover gray hair, is not able to communicate formulas, the application and procedure would not be acceptable by professional standards, carries out procedure in a time consuming manner, with disregard for the amount of time taken.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR BLEACH RETOUCH The candidate will apply a bleach mixture to the left rear quadrant of the mannequin that is consistent with the professional standards for a bleach retouch application. The candidate will use the left rear quadrant of the head, which was left dark at the scalp during the preparation of the mannequin, considered to be the new growth. The candidate will formulate a bleach to bring the hair to a stage as light as the remaining hair. Bleach may be applied with a bowl and brush method or with an applicator bottle. With this amount of outgrowth there would likely be a gold band occuring. The candidate will ignore that possibility. The task must be completed in the allotted 1 hour and 30 minute performance examination time frame. EVALUATION CRITERIA RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate is organized and works in a confident manner, bleach is mixed to the proper consistency and applied in a manner that would lighten the hair to the proper stage, application shows a minor amount of overlapping and the candidate completes the task very quickly. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate is somewhat organized and can formulate bleach for retouching, application is concurrent with professional standards, formula is applied to allow for ample degree of lightness without being runny, candidate works with confidence and completes the task in a timely manner. RATING 3 - AVERAGE The candidate is competent but awkward when applying bleach, manages to complete the task in a relatively orderly fashion, gets some bleach on the previously bleached hair, is somewhat unsure about the bleach mixture, and the formula is somewhat runny. RATING 2 - POOR The candidate is not well organized, not secure in mixing bleach for retouching, works in an unorganized manner, skips areas and has some overlapping and works in a slow, unsure manner. RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate works in a careless, sloppy, unorganized manner, does not have a grasp of how to mix bleach for on the scalp application, the application of bleach is inconsistent and overlaps (by a large degree) the previously bleached hair and the amount of bleach mixed is not enough to complete the task.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HIGH-LOW LIGHTING The candidate will perform a high-low lighting on the left rear quadrant of the mannequin. The task will be carried out to be consistent with the professional standards for a high-low lighting. This quadrant has a two month outgrowth. The desired end result is a highlighted look. The candidate will also apply color to portions of the bleached hair, avoiding application to the new growth. All of the color and bleach applied is in packets. Applicants are free to utilize any technique to complete the task. The candidates will be evaluated on the formulations, method of application, consistency of style, neatness of work and processing judgment. The candidate will complete the task within the 1 hour and 30 minute performance examination time frame allowed. EVALUATION CRITERIA RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate approaches the task in a confident manner, is organized, knows exactly what needs to be done and goes about it professionally, application is excellent and processing times are correct, formulations are exact and the tasks are completed well ahead of the allotted time. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate is well informed and proceeds in a confident, but guarded manner, the formulas are consistent with what would be used to correct the problem, works professionally and applies the colors in a manner consistent with professional standards, the timing is good and the results satisfactory and the tasks are completed on time. RATING 3 - AVERAGE The candidate is slightly disorganized, appears to not be completely familiar with the process, is slow to formulate and works slowly with considerable effort, workmanship lacks flow and is jerky, drops an unacceptable amount of color on the floor and on themselves. RATING 2 - POOR This candidate has an idea of what the task is, but is insecure in the approach, the formulation and timing is acceptable, but could be improved, candidate is unsure in the application and over colors the ends of the hair, judgment of the processing time is unacceptable, an unacceptable amount of bleeding is evident after the application, takes more time than is allowed for the process. RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate is not fully aware of what a high low lighting is much less how to perform one, the approach to the task is unorganized, sloppy and without any plan on how to proceed. Candidate formulates the wrong colors and completely loses direction and cannot complete task.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR REVERSE HIGHLIGHTING The candidate will color the left rear quadrant of the mannequin in a manner consistent with professional standards for a reverse highlighting. Some of the existing blonde hair is isolated to create a highlighted effect. The method of fulfilling this task may be accomplished in any manner the candidate chooses. The candidate must complete the task in the allotted 1 hour and 30 minute performance examination time frame. The evaluation will take place during the coloring process and after the task is completed. Note: One of the distinctions between reverse highlighting and high-low lighting is that no attempt is made to preserve the new growth when performing a reverse highlighting all of the non-isolated hair is colored. Only one formula will be utilized. The formulation should reflect the lack of warm undertones in the ends of the hair. EVALUATION CRITERIA RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate is organized and works in a confident manner, knows how to formulate for over bleached hair, the highlights are perfectly placed and sized, the application is consistent with professional standards and finishes the task well in advance of the time limit. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate is somewhat organized and can formulate accurately for over bleached hair, the placement and size of the highlights are acceptable and somewhat well planned, uses the tools for the task properly and works quickly and confidently. RATING 3 - AVERAGE The candidate works in an average manner, formulation is acceptable, the highlights selected are inconsistent, is somewhat neat, does not appear to be familiar with procedure, works with hesitation and is awkward in the application. RATING 2 - POOR The candidate is not well organized is not secure in formulating haircolor for overly bleached hair, the distribution and size of highlights needs improvement is not in command of the tools that are used for completing the task, lacks confidence and works slowly. RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate works in a careless, sloppy and unorganized manner, does not know how to formulate for over bleached hair, the distribution of highlights is inconsistent, the size of the highlights are unsatisfactory, the placement of highlights are not properly executed, the technique not considered appropriate for reverse highlighting and works in a extremely slow manner.

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR ORAL QUESTIONS The candidate will be asked to answer a series of questions regarding the various tasks the candidate will be asked to perform. The questions to be asked are found in the study portfolio. There should be clarity when the question is asked. If the candidate is unsure of the question they should ask to have the question repeated.

EVALUATION CRITERIA

RATING 5 - EXCELLENT (exceptional score) The candidate is able to give the exact answer to the question asked without any hesitation. He/she answers the questions with confidence and with using generic terms The formulations were always correct and on target. RATING 4 - GOOD (passing score) The candidate knows the answers but is hesitant in their answers. They answer the the questions correctly but are a little off in the formulations. They tend to ramble and give a lot of unnecesary material when answering the questions. RATING 3 - AVERAGE is unsure about their answer. The formulas they recite are not completely correct. They do not use generic terms when giving formulas, this requires the evaluators to ask further questions to determine if they are giving the proper answer. RATING 2 - POOR Either the candidate does not know the material or there is an indication the candidate was simply guessing at the answer. Candidate asked questions about the question even though it was recited clearly and to the point. The poor candidate differs from the fail candidate in as much as they think they know the material. They don’t say, ”I don’t know.” RATING 0 - FAIL The candidate was not able to recite any of the proper answers, “I don’t know” was the answer given by this candidate. If he /she attempted an answer it was always wrong.

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Chapter 11 Examination Criteria


12 chapter

PERFORMANCE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS • Natural Highlighting Criteria • Natural Highlight Retouch Criteria • Gray Reduction Retouch • Tone on Tone Criteria • Bleach Retouch Criteria • High-Low Lighting Criteria • Reverse Highlighting Criteria

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;When you color hair, just color hair. Here you are, there is the client, there is the goal. Go to it! Color the hair the best way you know how. Find another client and do it again. Experience, adjust, experience, adjust. This is an art form that will never be perfected.â&#x20AC;?

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Chapter 12 Examination Oral Questions

Lyal McCaig, Former ABCH Board Member


Some of the following questions may be asked of the candidates during the practical examination. The number of questions asked will vary. If the questioning occurs at a time at which you would prefer not answering, you may request the Evaluators return at another time. You may continue working or stop working when answering the questions. The Evaluators will attempt to ask questions pertaining to the task you are performing.

CANDIDATE QUESTIONS FOR NATURAL HIGHLIGHTING PERFORMANCE TASK 1. How would you explain the final outcome of a weave versus a slice? 2. Of the two highlight application methods, weave and slice, which requires less bleaching time and why? 3. If after 30 minutes of bleaching, the client that you applied packets on is lightened to the degree that you desired with the exception of the portion of the head that you applied last, what would you do? 4. If you mix two batches of powder bleach, one batch you use 20 volume liquid, the other batch you use 40 volume heavy creme peroxide, which would be lighter after 30 minutes and why? 5. What is the proportion of liquid peroxide to powder bleach? 6. At the conclusion of your application, how long will it take for the hair to be bleached to a yellow stage? 7. Name two things that determine how long it will take hair to bleach to a pale yellow stage. 8. In what way would the bleaching process be effected by adding heat?

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CANDIDATE QUESTIONS FOR NATURAL HIGHLIGHT RETOUCHING 1. How is doing a highlight retouch different than doing a virgin highlighting? 2. Describe sensitivity when doing a retouch to previously lightened hair. 3. If the client requested more blonde hair than she received in the initial highlighting, what are factors she should be made aware of? 4. When a client requests that the amount of lightened hair remain the same as the previous highlight, how would you handle this request? 5. When performing a repetitive highlighting, how do you avoid a blonde build-up? 6. To correct a highlight that has progressively become too light, what would you do?

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CANDIDATE QUESTIONS FOR GRAY REDUCTION PERFORMANCE TASK 1. When would you recommend a gray reduction to a client? 2. How do you formulate for a gray reduction so it won’t affect the pigmented hair as much? 3. How would you perform a gray reduction retouch? 4. When performing a gray reduction, which of the two foiling methods, weave or slice, is more suitable? 5. How do you determine the formula that’s used on a gray reduction client? 6. You are doing a gray reduction formula on a man with shorter hair, when you reach the area where the ‑hair is too short to put in a packet. What would you do? 7. Given the apprehension many clients have in coloring their hair for the first time, what can you say to ‑the client to put‑his/her mind at ease regarding gray reduction?

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CANDIDATE QUESTIONS FOR TONE ON TONE PERFORMANCE TASK 1. Describe the tone on tone technique. 2. How much contrast should there be when doing a tone on tone? 3. When would you use a tone on tone technique as opposed to a regular highlight? 4. Explain why you might use a tone on tone technique where gray hair is not present. 5. If after completing the tone on tone, the client felt her highlights were too light or too brassy, how would you handle it? 6. Explain how you would use the tone on tone technique if the clients hair is too brassy. 7. Is it necessary to apply packets all over the head when doing a tone on tone? 8. The tone on tone technique you did today required you to apply the haircolor from scalp to ends. What will you do a month from now when the client comes in for a re-touch? 9. There are two application techniques used for doing tone on tone. What are they?

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CANDIDATE QUESTIONS FOR BLEACH RETOUCHING 1. What is the difference in the application of a virgin bleach and a bleach retouch? 2. How should your application of a bleach retouch differ from a tint retouch? 3. How long should it take to bleach a client’s retouch in the warm brown category to get the hair to a pale yellow stage? 4. How often should a client in the dark brown category expect to bleach their hair to maintain double process blonde hair color? 5. Identify the ‘hot roots’ on a bleach retouch. 6. Would you use the same bleach for the new growth as you would for bleaching the ends of the hair on a virgin bleach? 7. Explain the two methods of performing a virgin bleach. 8. Why would you do a double process blonde as opposed to a single process blonde? 9. If, after an hour and a half of bleaching time on a bleach retouch, the client is still not as light as you would like him/her to be, what would you do? What would you do the next time she came in for a bleach retouch?

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CANDIDATE QUESTIONS FOR HIGH-LOW LIGHTING PERFORMANCE TASK 1. Describe the application technique used in high-low lighting. 2. In what situation would you perform a a high-low lighting? 3. When performing a high-low light service on an existing client, which color should dominate around the face and through the top? Why? 4. How do you formulate when applying color over bleached hair? 5. When would you use high-low lighting rather than reverse highlighting? 6. What are some of the factors in determining the formulation of the low light?

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CANDIDATE QUESTIONS FOR REVERSE HIGHLIGHTING PERFORMANCE TASK 1. When would you use a reverse highlighting technique? 2. Explain the difference in the final outcome between a reverse highlighting and a high-low lighting. 3. How do you compensate for missing pigment when youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re coloring the hair from a very light blonde with a grade 4 or 5 porosity, to a darker color? 4. How long do you expect a color to last without fading when doing a reverse highlight over very porous hair? 5. Why is the color formulation so important when doing a reverse highlight? 6. What is the procedure for retouching a reverse highlight? 7. What are some key elements critical to achieving a successful reverse highlight? 8. How would you ease the client into darker hair, when performing a reverse highlight for the first time. 9. Describe the final result of a reverse highlight.

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“I love fish,” says the client. “I love fish too,” says the haircolorist. Later they find the haircolorist is a gourmet cook, and the client has an aquarium. So it is with consultations. Never cut the consultation short, and learn as much as you can about your client.

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Chapter 12 Examination Oral Questions

Jay Marshlick, Evaluator


13 chapter

INTERACTIVE ASSESSMENT EXAMINATION • Interactive Assessment Defined • Score Sheet Procedures • Photographs and Script • Scoring Samples

Revised March, 2009


INTERACTIVE ASSESSMENT The interactive assessment portion of the ex­am­i­na­tion deals with real life situations. During the cer­ti­fi­ca­ tion ex­am­i­na­tion, you will be asked to offer your solution to some typical haircolor challenges. There will always be a number of possible solutions to any haircolor challenge. The examination was de­signed in this manner. The purpose was to determine what the candidate would do if he/she had a choice of so­lu­tions. The model answers to the various challenges were determined at the Evaluator Training Conference (ETC) then fur­ther re­fined by the Board of Di­rec­tors. It could be said there are no right or wrongs when it comes to haircoloring. To a degree that is true, although the interactive assessment is de­signed to meas­ure the can­di­dates sensitivity to a clients needs. The study portfolio includes how the interactive as­sess­ment score sheets are filled out. Samples are in­clud­ ed to prepare you for the examination. Listen carefully to the facilitator; they will give a brief overview of how the score sheets work prior to the examination. You will be given five different sets of pho­to­graphs of dif­fer­ent challenges. There will also be a script of pos­si­ble di­a­logue between the haircolorist and the client. The script will be attached to the proper set of pho­to­graphs. The candidate will also receive five score sheets. The score sheets are to be filled out with the can­ di­dates name, team color and client number. It is necessary to put the clients number on the score sheet. When reading the script, there will be a strong inclination to want to ask the client more questions. As a general rule, we select the color treatment based on a proc­ess of elimination. In this ex­am­i­na­tion, the candidate will not have that opportunity. The candidate will have to select the technique based on the limited dialogue included in the script. Read the dialogue carefully; there are strong clues as to “what not to do.” The examination is 1 hour long; you will have 12 minutes to spend on each scenario. Don’t be timid about asking for help from the facilitator in the room. It is important you mark the score sheet properly. Generally, there is one model answer for each chal­lenge, but not always. There may be as many as three model answers which will give the same score. This is an examination that measures the candidates sensitivity toward the client. It is important you read the scripts very carefully. An example of a major deduction would be the client indicating she has used a single proc­ess high lift blonde color in the past but it made her hair brassy. The candidates solution to the challenge is to use a single process high lift blonde color - this answer would draw a major deduction. There is no study ma­te­ri­als for the interactive assessment examination. The an­swers come from real life experiences and the can­di­ dates ability to make de­ci­sions. The candidate will assume the client will allow them to do what ever they choose; they will also be willing to maintain the color, unless oth­er­wise stated in the script. Carefully look over the sample scoring sheets so you will have a full understanding of how you should mark the score sheets. This is not an ex­am­i­na­tion on how to mark the score sheets. It is im­por­tant you understand all of the components of the score sheet. You will also have the opportunity to ask ques­tions of the individual hosting the examination.

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INTERACTIVE ASSESSMENT client #17

What happened to your hair? I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know, I have been bleaching my hair for the last fifteen years, nothing like this has ever happened before. Was there anything done different this time? I think she used a new bleach, she said it was real mild, she even rubbed some on her skin to show me how mild it was. How long was the bleach on your hair? About 45 minutes. Then what happened? When she took the bleach off, all of the hair was breaking off in the shampoo bowl. My hair was a bob length when I started. Chapter 13 Interactive Assessment

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Before this experience have you ever experienced any hair damage? Never. What would you like me to do? I don’t know what to do, I’m scared to bleach it anymore. My hair was a beautiful blonde bob and I had to cut it short to look decent. I went to see an attorney to see what he could do to recover some damages. I am really upset over this experience. What did the attorney say? He said he may be able to recover some damages providing the salon has insurance. If they don’t have insurance chances are I won’t be able to get anything. What would be your preference? I would like to keep bleaching it if it doesn’t break off any more. What is your natural haircolor? Dark brown. Have you ever been a blonde, even as a toddler? No. Are you willing to sign a waiver relieving me of responsibility if I bleach it? Will it break off again? It shouldn’t, but I can’t be certain. Yes, I will sign a waiver. Would you consider coloring it brown and let your hair rest? If I have no other choice. Have you considered making a darker shade of blonde? I made it a different color of blonde for awhile but it got brassy looking. 178

Chapter 13 Interactive Assessment


SCORING Now that you have scored the interactive assessment in this chapter, we will review the scores so they can be compared with our panel of haircolor experts. MODEL ANSWER Bleach to yellow stage; tone with deposit-only color........................................................................... SECOND PLACE Bleach to yellow stage; then tone with neutral blonde ammonia toner............................................................................................................... THIRD PLACE Do nothing............................................................................................................................................. FOURTH PLACE Bleach to golden blonde........................................................................................................................ FIFTH PLACE High-low lighting with medium gold brown deposit-only color, highlight the new growth with bleach................................................................................................... SIXTH PLACE Chunky reverse highlight with medium brown tint.............................................................................. SEVENTH PLACE High-low lighting with medium golden brown deposit-only color, highlight with high lift tint....................................................................................................................

44 Points 41 Points 35 Points 33 Points 27 Points 26 Points 20 Points

This challenge is used because of the variety of possible answers. Not all challenges have the variety or diver­ sity of this particular challenge. This challenge will give you the op­por­tu­ni­ty to observe the method of scoring.

If your answer did not appear on the list of possible options, depending on your answer the evaluator cor­rect­ing the score sheet will determine the number of points to be granted. The evaluator will use the listed answers as a guide for determining what the score should be. Example: If your answer is to bleach to a pale yellow blonde and not tone. The evaluator could grant a higher score than bleaching to a golden tone. This de­ter­ mi­na­tion is based on the fact the 5th place vote was to bleach the hair to yellow stage and tone. Your vote could rank higher because of your sensitivity to the porous ends. On the other hand, if your answer is to color the client’s hair back to her natural haircolor your score would likely rank very low, there is no sen­si­tiv­i­ty shown toward the client. One could argue the person who voted to do nothing did not show sensitivity toward the client as well. That argument is not valid because the greater number who elect­ed to do nothing received enough votes to make it valid.

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Even though score stands alone, the score is based on the points received. Each vote was one point. #1 44 points 10 #2 41 points 10 #3 35 points 9 #4 33 points 9 #5 27 points 8 #6 26 points 7 #7 20 points 7 The highest possible score for the interactive as­sess­ment portion of the examination is 50. A passing score is 40. Anything below 40 is failing. The interactive assessment portion of the ex­am­i­na­tion is designed to determine if a candidate has the knowledge to make the proper decisions when placed in a situation where a decision must be made individually. You need not have all of the model answers in order to pass the examination. In many situations individuals rely on others in their work environment to make color decisions for them. They may be excellent technicians but are unable to formulate or make the proper decisions. The interactive assessment examination is designed to de­ter­ mine who these individuals are. The interactive assessment portion of the ex­am­i­na­tion stands alone. Each challenge is corrected by a differ­ ent Evaluator. The score sheets are then gathered together and the scores compiled. You will receive a copy of the model answer(s) as well as your score sheets. There is a portion of the score sheet that allows for the candidate to briefly explain the outcome of his/her efforts. Comments should be limited to only a few words and not repeat what is evident on the score sheet.

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14 chapter

PERFORMANCE EXAMINATION EVALUATION PROCESS • Score Sheet Items • Criteria For Scoring • Deductions Defined • The Examination Process

Revised March, 2009


The haircolorist who is anxious to improve must be prepared to exchange unsound methods for sound ones. During the period of transition bear the annoyance of not being able to produce at the same speed as previous. A small price to pay for producing afterwards a best which is much better.

192

Chapter 14 Exam Evaluation Process

Courtney Von Berg, Evaluator


1

PREPARATION OF SWATCHES

The better the preparation of the swatches the higher the grade the candidate will receive. 1. Are the swatches consistent in size? 2. Are stages of lightening accurate? 3. Are times well marked and accurate? 4. Is the display neat and orderly? 5. Is there a clear separation between colors?         ‑‑‑‑‑The swatch­es displayed here should re­ceive        an ex­cel­lent (5) rating.

2

PREPARATION OF MANNEQUIN To properly prepare the mannequin takes time, care and patience. A great deal can be understood about the haircolorist by the care taken in the preparation of the man­ne­quin. 1. Are the highlights done properly? 2. Is there a 3 month and 6 month outgrowth? 3. Is the hair bleached light enough? 4. How consistent is the outgrowth in the rear quadrant?

The hair should be no more than a grade 4 porosity.

3

CONSISTENCY

The consistency score depends on how consistent the can­di­dates work is. If some of the weaves are thin and others thick, the candidate would re­ceive a lower score than if the weaved strands were all the same size. The same holds true for the slicing tech­nique. Are all of the slices the same thickness or are some thin and others thick? The hair left natural should also be consistent.

4

APPLICATION Application refers to the application of the bleach or col­or. Is the application of bleach or color smooth and even or is it spot­ty and uneven? Is there a proper amount of prod­uct used? The best grade would be given for a smooth, even ap­pli­ca­tion and a bleach or color mixed to the prop­er con­sis­ten­cy. Voids in application can often be found on the side of the hair laying against the packet.

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5

ORGANIZATION The organiztion score is based on how organized the candidate is. Do they enter the room and find their sta­ tion, set up their equipment, mix their bleach and wait for fur­ther in­struc­tions? Do they wan­der around, ask ques­ tions, borrow tools or col­or, look rattled and un­or­ga­nized. How do they respond to a crisis? Is the candidate search­ ing under the table for something they forgot? Most of this grade is given before the timer starts.

6

NEATNESS If candidates are neat, they will receive a good score. If they are untidy and sloppy, they will re­ceive a poor score. Getting bleach or haircolor any­where it does not belong is con­sid­ered un­ti­dy. Is there unnecessary staining on the face and neck of the mannequin? Are there drops on the floor and around their work station? You can keep a towel handy

7 FOLLOWS INSTRUCTIONS This is a score given to the candidate on how well they follow the instructions in the study portfolio. Did they start in the proper quadrant? Did they have to be told to continue their work? Following instructions “by the book” deserves a high score.

8 BLEEDING /TOO FAR

The amount of bleach seeping out be­tween the pack­ ets causes bleeding on the scalp. The de­gree of bleeding will determine the amount of de­duc­tions the candidate will re­ceive. The Eval­u­a­tors will determine if bleed­ing is a way of life for the can­di­date or if it is an unusual cir­ cum­stance. Applying the bleach too far from the scalp is also a deduction.

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9 FORMULATION The Evaluator must determine if the color se­lec­tion is com­pat­i­ble with the task being performed. Is the gray reduction for­mu­la too dark or too light? Are the colors used in the tone on tone technique far enough apart to be able to see the difference? Does the high-low lighting formula match? The Evaluator must an­tic­i­pate, from the colors be­ing used, what the color will look like when com­plet­ed.

10

PROFESSIONALISM How the candidate looks and how they carry them­selves is an important factor in being a certified haircolorist. If they do not look professional for the ex­am­ i­na­tion they will not project the image of a Board Cer­ti­ fied Haircolorist. Their attitude, confidence and skills are all important for certification. It is as important as his/her skills.

11

ORAL QUIZ

The candidate must answer the questions as out­lined in the study portfolio. Answering the questions correctly rates a good score. Answering the question correctly with confidence rates an excellent score. Giv­ing a partially correct answer rates an average score. Giv­ing a partially correct answer meekly yields a poor rat­ing. Giving the wrong answer meekly rates a fail. The candidates have been given the questions in advance so they should be able to recite the correct answers with con­fi­dence. Give answers in generic terms.

12

WORKMANSHIP

Workmanship is the ability of the candidate to breeze through the assigned tasks without effort. The smooth­ ness and lack of effort the candidate displays while accomplishing tasks is considered excellent work­man­ ship. A candidate with poor workmanship is some­one who bumbles through the task and appears to be strug­ gling. The task gets accomplished, but with a great deal of ef­fort. Chapter 14 Examination Evaluation Process

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13

TIMING

If candidates finish on time they should re­ceive a good score. If they finish more than five min­utes before the “bell” they should re­ceive an ex­cel­lent score. For an average score, all ex­cept one-third of the quadrant is completed. A poor score would be assessed if two-thirds of the quad­rant is unfinished. If the entire quadrant is in­com­plete when the exam ends, the candidate would receive a failing score.

14

SENSITIVITY

Candidates will be evaluated on their sen­si­tiv­i­ty toward the previously bleached hair. Be­cause there are no set rules established on how a highlight re­touch can be accomplished, the candidates have a de­gree of flex­i­bil­i­ty on how to avoid the pre­vi­ous­ly bleached hair and how successful they are. Deductions are taken for "application," " bleeding" and "following instructions."

15

STAGGERING "Staggering" is the ability of the candidate to avoid previously bleached hair. This is accomplished by bleaching all of the new growth, then bleaching all of the remaining virgin hair to the ends. Candidates will be evaluated based on the degree of accuracy.

THE EXAMINATION PROCESS

The following is a step by step process of what you will experience taking the American Board of Certified Haircolorist examination. The examination pictured here was administered in November of 2003, in Atlanta Georgia. At this examination there were 47 candidates taking the examination. The number of candidates vary depending on the time of year and the location. It is important, when you elect to take the examination, to give the office ample notice. The size of the examination rooms at the hotel and the numbers of Evaluators we enlist is predicated on the number of candidates we have signed up for the examination. It is for that reason we penalize you if you change or postpone the examination. If you choose to simply not honor your commitment, there will be no refunds of your examination fee.

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16

The schedule the candidate will receive prior to their arrival at the examination site will give the times of each portion of the examination. If traveling with another candidate and you wish to be tested together we can accommodate this, provided that this information is received two weeks prior to the examination date.

17 When you arrive at the examination site, the registration table will be located near the exam rooms. Check the hotel event calendar to find the location of the rooms for the ABCH Examination. Registration starts promptly at 8:00 AM.

18

At the registration table you will be assigned to the BLUE team or the RED team. You will be given a badge that corresponds with your team color. The badge will have your name as well as a team number. The team number will indicate where in the performance room you will set up to prepare for the performance exam. The blue team will take the Performance Examination first.

19 The candidates will now have their pictures taken before entering the general assembly room. The reason for the pictures is to make certain that the scores do not become mixed up. They are also used to publicize the high score in each portion of the examination.

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20

If you are on the red team you will place your mannequin in the Performance Examination room, on a table for that purpose. If you are uncertain where to place your mannequin, ask the Evaluator stationed in that room. Before leaving your mannequin in the room make certain you write your name and team number on the throat of the mannequin. Please use a ball point pen. Do not use a pen that will run when wet.

21 The blue team will go into the Performance Examination room, find their team number and set up their materials and tools necessary for the examination. All of the materials that will not be used will be placed under the table where the candidate will be working. The red team will bring their swatch charts and their tools and supplies into the General Assembly room. The General Assembly will start promptly at 8:30 AM and continue for an hour.

22

At the general assembly the candidates will be welcomed and introduced to the Evaluation Team. After the Evaluation Team has been introduced to the candidates they will be excused to start evaluations.

23

The candidates will now be briefed on the entire performance examination. This will give the candidates the opportunity to ask any questions they may have regarding the examination process. Only questions regarding the examination process will be taken at this time. Questions pertaining to when to expect the scores and how the failure of any of the portions of the exam will be handled will be addressed at the closing ceremony.

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24

During the briefing of the performance examination to the candidates, the Evaluators will be evaluating the mannequins, swatches and the organization and set up of their station. Taping a small trash bag to the table at the station and having a towel handy is advisable and will receive no deductions.

25

The candidates are allowed to section off the mannequin and mix their bleach prior to the start time of the examination. Although your time to finish the examination is limited, do not attempt to finish the examination first. Timing is just one line item. Finish on time and do the best work possible. THIS IS NOT A RACE TO THE FINISH!

26

At the conclusion of the briefing and a short recess, the red team will return to the General Assembly room and the blue team will go to the Performance room. There they will be briefed by the Evaluator Captain on what they are allowed to do and not do, prior to starting the exam. In this photo, the Captain is asking, "If you are not ready to start the examination, raise your hand."

27

The use of notes will generate a deduction in the line item "organization" portion of the score sheet. It is the opinion of the Evaluators that the candidates should be able to remember what to do and bring to the examination. The candidate must determine if the use of notes is worth the deduction.

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28 When the Evaluator Captain starts the examination. The candidates will have one hour and thirty minutes to complete the entire examination. The candidates must start in the right rear section, which would be the weaveslice section. You may start on the top of the section or, as this candidate has, at the bottom.

29 At the same time as the blue team is executing the Performance Examination, the red team is taking the Written Examination. The Written Examination has 250 true/false and multiple choice questions. There is a total time of one hour and forty five minutes to complete the exam. The exam is available in Spanish and must be requested prior to the arrival at the examination. English as a second language candidates must notify the office in advance and will be given additional time.

30 Part of the written exam is taken with a photo album. These questions are subjective and will require more thought prior to determining the answer. If candidates have not prepared properly they will have a difficult time finishing on time. It is recommended the candidates read the study portfolio no less than three times prior to attending the exam.

31 During the Performance Examination the candidates will continue to be observed by the evaluators. Workmanship, professionalism and neatness are factors that will be scored during the examination. Consistency and application will also be observed but will be scrutinized to a greater extent during the take down portion of the evaluation.

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32 Sometime between the beginning of the examination and before reaching the highlight retouch section the candidates will be asked to select the optional techniques for the left side of the mannequin. The optional techniques the candidate selects will be placed on the table next to the working area. Once made, the selections are final.

33 The candidates will continue to move around the mannequin in a smooth, deliberate manner, stopping only to mix necessary colors. On the optional side of the mannequin the candidate may proceed in any manner they wish, although it is recommended the left rear section be done first, in order to not have to work between two sections with packets already in place.

34

The highlight retouch section is the most challenging portion of the Performance Examination. Staggering the bleach in a way to show sensitivity to the previously bleached hair requires skill and dexterity in order to receive a excellent score. You will note there is no line item in the highlight retouch section. In the highlight retouch section as well as the optional sections the weave or slice may be used.

35 During the examination, the Evaluators will ask a series of oral questions. The Evaluators will make every attempt to ask questions about the procedure the candidate is working on. If the candidate would prefer not to answer the question, they may request the Evaluators return at another time AND there will be no penalty. When the Evaluators return, however, they will not ask the same question. The Candidates may stop working to answer the question or may continue with the task at hand. Answers about formulas must be given in generic terms. Chapter 14 Examination Evaluation Process

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36

If a candidate finishes prior to the conclusion of the exam, one of the Evaluators must recognize that they have concluded the examination. It is the determination of the Evaluator captain whether the candidate can leave the area. It should be noted that the timing is only one line item. It is not who finishes the examination first that wins. It is the candidate who makes the best use of his or her time.

37

When the time expires, the candidates will be asked to leave the area. The candidates are not to clean up their working area at this time Both the blue team and the red team will recess for lunch. Candidates will not be allowed to enter the Performance room until permission is granted. When granted permission, the blue team will enter, clean up and remove their tools and supplies. Shortly afterwards, the red team will enter and set up in preparation for their performance examination.

38

The Evaluators will now evaluate the mannequins. Each packet is taken down and carefully evaluated. The first thing the Evaluators do is count the packets to make certain the number of packets corresponds with the criteria.

39

The Evaluators work in teams but act independently in determining their own score. It is at this time that the evaluations of the "consistency," "application" and "follow directions" and "neatness" are determined. It is not unusual for the Evaluators to discuss among themselves, factors regarding the exam.

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40

The evaluation may reveal some excellent packets and others that are poor. The Evaluators must take all of the information into consideration to arrive at a score. Evaluating is a difficult position to hold. The determination on whether a candidate is qualified to be a Board Certified Haircolorist rests in the hands of the Evaluators.

41

After lunch, the candidates will be asked to return and pick up their mannequins and materials. If the candidate chooses not to take the mannequin with them they may leave it. In the afternoon the blue team will take the written exam while the red team participates in the performance portion of the exam.

42

In the afternoon, both teams will take the Interactive Assessment examination. This examination is one hour long. There is a one-half hour briefing prior to the examination. The briefing is to reinforce the ABCH terminology and learn to fill out the score sheets. There are five different challenges the candidate must complete. Each challenge is given a score from one to ten.

43

Immediately following the Interactive Assessment portion of the examination the closing ceremony will be held. At the closing, the candidate will learn when to expect the scores, what happens when the candidate passes or fails, what type of feedback to expect and the advertising program.

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1 ) CRITERIA FOR “PREPARATION OF THE MANNEQUIN” 5) Excellent. Highlights are distributed consistently throughout the correct section. The proportion of light to dark creates a visible difference. Highlights are 1 1/2 and 3 inches from the scalp. Bleached section starts from 1 inch away from the scalp through the ends. Hair is lightened to yellow-pale yellow. Hair is evenly lightened. Porosity is no greater than grade 4. No evidence of banding. Mannequin is conditioned and finished. 4) Good. A small degree of inconsistency of highlights in the correct section. A slightly greater or lesser amount of lightened hair to dark. Highlights are off the 1 1/2 and 3 inch marks by no more than 1/2 inch. Bleached section is off by less than 1/4 inch. Hair is lightened to yellow-pale yellow. There is a slight degree of banding. Porosity is no greater than grade 4. 3) Average. Some inconsistency in the distribution of highlights in the correct section. The proportion of lightened hair to dark is slightly too much or too little. Highlights are off by 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch from the 1 1/2 inch and 3 inch goals. Bleached section is off by more than 1/2 inch. Hair is lightened to yellow-yellow gold. Some inconsistency of lightness is evident. Porosity is no greater than grade 4. There is slight banding throughout the quadrant. 2) Poor. Inconsistency in the distribution of highlights in the section. The proportion of lightened hair to dark does not create a visible difference or is too concentrated. Highlights are off by 3/4 inch from the 1 1/2 and 3 inch goals. Bleached section is off by 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch from the 1 inch goal. Hair is lightened to yellow-yellow gold. Bleached section is off by 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch from the 1 inch goal. Porosity is no greater than grade 4. Majority of the strands contain banding and bleeding, mannequin disheveled. 0) Fail. Inconsistency of distribution of highlights. The proportion of light and natural hair disproportionate. Can be heavily blonded or hardly any highlights. Lightness is inconsistent throughout the section. Lightened hair is deep gold or white with grade 5 porosity.  Extensive amount of bleeding and banding. Candidate shows lack of patience in preparing mannequin.

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2) CRITERIA FOR “PREPARATION OF SWATCHES” 5) Excellent. Hair is evenly lightened throughout the swatch. Swatches are prepared according to the study portfolio. Porosity is no greater than grade four. Timing is accurately noted. Swatches are mounted and neatly displayed. 4) Good. A slight variation of lightness is evident in a swatch. Swatches are prepared according to the study portfolio. Porosity is no greater than grade four. Timing is accurately noted. Swatches are displayed fairly neatly. 3) Average. Some inconsistency of lightness is evident. Swatches are prepared according to the study portfolio, with a slight variation. Porosity is no greater than grade four. Timing is accurately noted. Swatches are slightly messy in appearance. 2) Poor. Lightness is inconsistent throughout the swatch with spots from 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch in size. Swatches are prepared according to the study portfolio, with significant variation in the tones. Porosity greater than a grade four. Timing is noted somewhat inaccurately. Swatches are fairly messy in appearance. 0) Fail. Lightness is inconsistent throughout the section with spots 1/2 inch in size or greater. Swatches are not prepared according to the study materials. Porosity is a grade five. Timing is noted inaccurately or not at all. Swatches are messy, uneven and poorly displayed. 3) CRITERIA FOR “CONSISTENCY” 5) Excellent. Sizes of weaves are correct. Spacing between sections is accurate. The ratio of treated to untreated hair is consistent throughout the section. 4) Good. Sizes of weaves and slices are fairly even. Spacing between sections shows a small variation. The ratio of treated to untreated hair is fairly consistent throughout the section. 3) Average. Sizes of weaves or slices are somewhat inconsistent. Spacing between sections shows variation. The ratio of treated to untreated hair varies somewhat throughout the section. 2) Poor. Sizes of weaves or slices are inconsistent. Spacing between sections shows variation. The ratio of treated to untreated hair is varied throughout the section. Difficulty in identifying difference between weave and slice. 0) Fail. Sizes of weaves or slices are inconsistent. Spacing between sections shows extreme variation. The ratio of treated to untreated hair is widely varied throughout the section. No difference between the weave and slice sections.

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4) CRITERIA FOR “APPLICATION” 5) Excellent. Candidate applies the product evenly onto selected strands. Product is applied the proper distance from the edge of the packet. Product is a workable mixture, neither crumbly or runny. Hair is thoroughly saturated with the product, but not excessively. 4) Good. Candidate applies the product fairly evenly onto selected strands. Product is a workable mixture, neither crumbly or runny. There are minor variations in the saturation of the hair with product. No apparent voids. 3) Average. Candidate applies the product with a little unevenness onto selected strands. Product is a fairly workable mixture, slightly crumbly or runny. There are variations in the saturation of the hair with product. Few voids. 2) Poor. Candidate applies the product unevenly onto selected strands. Product is a somewhat unworkable mixture, crumbly or runny. There are significant variations in the saturation of the hair with product. Many voids. 0) Fail. Candidate applies the product in a sloppy manner onto selected strands. Product is an unworkable mixture, crumbly or runny. There are extreme variations in the saturation of the hair with product. Much of the hair unsaturated.

5) CRITERIA FOR “ORGANIZATION” 5) Excellent. Candidate arrives on time and is ready to begin the procedure at the proper time. All materials needed for the procedure are set out in a neat orderly manner. 4) Good. Candidate arrives on time and is ready to begin the procedure at the proper time. All materials needed for the procedure are set out in a neat orderly manner. 3) Average. Candidate arrives on time and is ready to begin the procedure at the proper time. All materials needed for the procedure are set out in a fairly neat manner. Forgets to lay out some of the materials, requires going back under the table for more materials. 2) Poor. Candidate arrives just before testing starts, but is ready to begin the procedure at the proper time. Not all materials needed are brought to the examination site. Tools and products are set out in a somewhat disorganized manner. Some materials need to be borrowed. 0) Fail. Candidate arrives just before testing starts, is not ready to begin the procedure on time. All materials needed for the procedures are not set out. Requires borrowing from other candidates to complete tasks. Searching under table for materials during examination

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6) CRITERIA FOR “NEATNESS” 5) Excellent. Product is placed exactly where it belongs. Work station and candidate are completely free of drips or excess product. Work station tidy at end of examination. 4) Good. Product is placed where it belongs with only slight indiscretions. Work station and candidate are mostly free of drips or excess product. Some color on mannequin. Work station somewhat tidy at end of examination. 3) Average. Product is placed where it belongs with only a few indiscretions. Work station and candidate are somewhat free of drips or excess product. Color stains on face and neck of mannequin. 2) Poor. Product is not placed where it belongs. Excess color on the face and neck of the mannequin and some on another quadrant. Work station, tools and candidate show evidence of drips or excess product. 0) Fail. Product is not placed where it belongs. It is on the face and neck of the mannequin and a significant amount on another quadrant or quadrants. Work station tools and candidate are dripping with excess product. 7) CRITERIA FOR “FOLLOWS INSTRUCTIONS” 5) Excellent. Tasks are carried out in the proper quadrant and in the proper order. Materials used to enclose the hair are acceptable. The proper amount of hair is segregated into the packets and the hair left natural is correct. The weaves and slices are exactly the proper size and the proper amount of packets. Assigned optional techniques are properly executed and the correct product is used. 4) Good. Tasks are carried out in the proper quadrant and in the correct order. Materials used are correct. The hair being segregated is close to being correct. Most of the hair being segregated is the proper amount. The weaves and slices are mostly the proper amount. One of the assigned optional techniques are altered slightly from the prescribed method. 3) Average. Tasks are carried out in the proper quadrant and in the proper order. Materials being used are correct. Hair being segregated is improper. Weaves and slices show some variation and are not the proper size nor the proper amount. There are slight variations in both of the assigned optional techniques. 2) Poor. Task was carried out in the wrong quadrant but caught themselves before proceeding. Materials being used are improper. Hair being segregated is mostly wrong and inconsistent. Weaves and slices are highly inconsistent and improper size. Some in the wrong place on mannequin. One of the optional techniques borders on being wrong. 0) Fail. Wrong task in wrong quadrant. Unacceptable materials being used. No resemblance to instruction in study portfolio. Can not distinguish between weaves and slices. One of the assigned techniques completely wrong. For the purpose of scoring follow instructions, the score given for working out of order shall be deducted only to the quadrant in which the candidate starts, not both quadrants done out of order. Chapter 14 Examination Evaluation Process

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8) CRITERIA FOR “BLEEDING/TOO FAR” 5) Excellent. Product is inside packets, yet very close to the scalp (within 1/8 inch). No evidence of slipping, banding, or bleeding in the quadrant. 4) Good. Product is inside packets, yet very close to the scalp (within 1/8 inch). There are areas where the packet has slipped slightly, creating a banding at the bottoms of the weaves or slices, no larger than 1/8 inch. A very small degree of bleeding in the quadrant. 3) Average. Product is mostly inside the packets, but a small distance away from the edge of the foil (within 1/4 inch). There are areas where the packet has slipped slightly, creating a banding at the bottoms of the weaves or slices. A small degree of bleeding in the quadrant indicated by no more than four 1/4 inch spots. 2) Poor. Product is inside packets, but a significant distance away from the scalp (within 3/8 inch). There are areas where the packet has slipped, creating a banding at the bottoms of the weaves or slices. A degree of bleeding in the quadrant indicated by no more than six 1/4 inch spots or one 1/2 inch spot. 0) Fail. Product is inside packets, but a significant distance away from the edge of the foil (more than 1/2 inch). There are areas where the packet has slipped, creating an ooze of product onto the hair that is to be left untreated. Bleeding in the quadrant is indicated by more than six 1/4 inch or one spot larger than 1/2 inch, or the bleach is applied 3/4 inch away from edge of foil. 9) CRITERIA FOR “FORMULATION” 5) Excellent. Formulation will create a harmonious combination with existing hair, or with other color formulas being used. Color is light or dark enough to show. Formula compensates for existing natural color or pre-bleached hair to create the desired end result. Grey reduction formula perfect. 4) Good. Formulation will create a good combination with existing hair or with other color formulas being used. Color is light or dark enough to show. Formula compensates fairly well for existing natural color or pre-bleached hair to create the desired end result. Grey reduction formula close to being correct. 3) Average. Formulation will create an average combination with existing hair or with other color formulas being used. Color is slightly too light or too dark. Formula compensates somewhat but not completely for existing natural color or pre-bleached hair to create the desired end result. Grey reduction formula would work but not best choice. 2) Poor. Formulation will not combine well with existing hair or with other color formulas being used. Color is too light or too dark. Formula does not compensate for existing natural color or pre-bleached hair to create the desired end result. Too little contrast for tone on tone. Grey reduction too warm or too light. 0) Fail. Formulation will not combine at all with existing hair or other color formulas being used. Color is too light or too dark. Formula does not consider existing natural color or pre-bleached hair. No contrast for tone on tone. Grey reduction formula for soft brown category or too warm. 208

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10 ) CRITERIA FOR “PROFESSIONALISM” 5) Excellent. Candidate has a confident attitude and conveys an air of competence and integrity by their behavior and what they say. Appearance is fastidiously well put together. 4) Good. Candidate has a fairly confident attitude and conveys an air of certainty and reliability by their behavior and what they say. Appearance is well groomed. 3) Average. Candidate is nervous but determined, conveys an air of willingness to try and reliability by their behavior and what they say. Appearance is neat but somewhat unprofessional. Nails slightly chipped but free of stains. 2) Poor. Candidate is nervous and conveys an air of uncertainty by their behavior and what they say or is somewhat arrogant. Appearance is somewhat untidy and/or in bad taste or too casual. Chews gum, hands and nails stained. 0) Fail. Candidate is nervous and conveys an air of incompetence by their behavior and what they say or is arrogant, cocky and obnoxious. Appearance is ungroomed or dresses in extremely bad taste or too casual. Tint stains on hands and nails. Holds tools in mouth, chews gum. 11) CRITERIA FOR “ORAL QUIZ” 5) Excellent. Candidate answers the question using generic terms without hesitation, accurately and with a detailed explanation. 4) Good. Candidate answers the question uses some generic terms with slight hesitation, accurately and with a somewhat detailed explanation. 3) Average. Candidate answers the question with hesitation, accurately. Candidate talks excessively, answers questions. Non-generic terms used. 2) Poor. Candidate answers the question with hesitation, talks excessively and uses only non-generic terms. Obviously did not read questions in study portfolio. 0) Fail. Candidate answers the question inaccurately. Does not know the material or requires repeating of question, still does not understand.

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12) CRITERIA FOR “WORKMANSHIP” 5) Excellent. Work proceeds in a smooth effortless manner. 4) Good. Work proceeds fairly smoothly and without a great deal of effort. 3) Average. Work proceeds with a slight but manageable amount of effort. A little awkwardness is evident. 2) Poor. Work proceeds with a considerable effort. Some awkwardness is evident, shown by reaching for and/ or dropping tools and materials. 0) Fail. Work is a struggle. The task requires a great deal of effort and is accomplished awkwardness, drops tools and materials, changes hands and is always reaching. 13) CRITERIA FOR “TIMING” 5) Excellent. All parts of the performance exam are completed 5 or more minutes prior to the allotted time. 4) Good. All parts of the performance exam are completed within the allotted time. 3) Average. All except one third of one quadrant are completed within the allotted time. 2) Poor. All except two-thirds of one quadrant are completed within the allotted time. 0) Fail. One entire quadrant is left incomplete at the time the test ends. 14) CRITERIA FOR “SENSITIVITY” 5) Excellent. Candidate applies product demonstrating sensitivity to the previously bleached hair. All of the bleached hair is avoided. A small degree of blonde build up is evident. There is no strong lines where bleach was stopped abruptly, good staggering technique. 4) Good. Candidate applies product demonstrating a fair amount of sensitivity to the previously bleached hair. A small amount of bleached hair has bleach applied, care is taken not to fold the unbleached hair into the bleach. There is a small amount of blonde build up. There are a few defined lines where the bleach was stopped abruptly. Fair staggering technique. 3) Average. Candidate applies product demonstrating average sensitivity to the previously bleached hair. An average amount of bleach has been applied to the bleached hair. There is no folding of the hair into the bleach in the packet. There is an average amount of blonde buildup. Small amount of lines where bleach has stopped abruptly. 2) Poor. Candidate applies product demonstrating insensitivity to the previously bleached hair. An unacceptable amount of the bleached hair is treated, or candidate stops the bleach at the first sign of bleached hair leaving well defined lines of bleach hair close to the scalp and dark ends. 0) Fail. Candidate applies product demonstrating total insensitivity to the previously bleached hair. All of the bleached hair is ignored, no indication of the staggering technique or all of the packets have bleach applied only to the first sign of bleached hair. 210

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“Practicing highlights puts Brains in your hands.”

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Nancy Searle, Evaluator


15 Chapter

TECHNIQUES DEFINED • Highlighting • Highlight Retouch • Low Lighting • High-Low Lighting • Reverse Highlighting • Gray Reduction • Tone on Tone • Single Process • Double Process • Tint Back • Color Remover • Bumping the Base Revised March, 2009


“Unsuccessful haircoloring is not a result of what you don’t know. Rather what You know that is not so.”

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Chapter 15 Techniques Defined

Toni Mondragon, Evaluator


1 1. HIGHLIGHTING Highlighting is defined in broad terms as placing lighter strands into natural hair. The size of the strands and the degree of light­ness gives endless variations of the high­light­ing process. The strands can be as small as the lead of a pencil or as large as the entire pencil, the degree of lightness can render a high contrast or give a very subtle contrast.

2

The differences may be a subtle contrast on dark hair or a dramatic contrast on lighter hair. The variations are endless, it is one of the most creative and challenging concepts of coloring hair. High­ light­ing is one of the most sought after pro­fes­sion­al haircoloring services.

3 The strands to be lightened may be iso­lat­ed in a number of methods. Packets may be con­struct­ed of paper, cellophane, plas­tic, foil, cups or an endless array of tools used for separating the hair to be lightened from the hair left natural. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE EX­AM­I­NA­ TION THE CANDIDATES MUST UTI­LIZE ONE OF THE PRESCRIBED METH­ODS.

4 Illustrated are some highlighting effects achieved by a slightly different manner. The client on the left has a fine sliced effect giving the hair a gentle degree of overall lightness with­out defined streaks. The client on the right has shorter hair with larger streaks giving the hair more interplay of light and dark. Different results are achieved on the same natural base haircolor. Chapter 15 Techniques Defined

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5

The slice technique is illustrated on a mannequin. The packets with off-the-scalp bleach were placed in a pattern illustrated on the bald mannequin. There was a total of 17 fine slices placed from the center part to just over the ear. This rendered a very fine color change without any well- defined streaks.

6

Weaving the hair produces a different effect. The hair is not evenly distributed across the packet. Instead there are well defined streaks of hair. It should be noted that the greatest difference between the weave and slice occurs within the first 4 inches from the scalp. Once the hair spreads and becomes distributed, there is little difference in the appearance. There are a total of 49 streaks by actual count.

7

For a mild contrast in the hair (caramelizing or tortoise shelling), the slice technique gives the hair a softer effect by giving the hair an overall lighter look and avoid足ing streaks of lightness close to the scalp.

Natural Highlift

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On the scalp bleach

Off the scalp bleach

8

The amount of contrast in the hair is achieved by both the strength of the product used and the amount of time the product is on the hair. The product selected must be strong enough to achieve the desired color.


9

2. HIGHLIGHT RETOUCH The highlight retouch is one of the most chal­ leng­ing aspects of haircoloring. The ability to keep the hair highlighted and minimizing the build up of blonde is especially challenging for the haircolorist.

10

The challenge is much more difficult with clients who have longer hair and want to be blonde. With each highlight, the hair will be­come progressively lighter. This is a virgin highlight on long hair. With hair this length the client should have her hair highlighted no sooner than every four months. Two partial high­lights should be given for every full high­light.

11

The darker and longer the hair the more chal­leng­ing it is to maintain. The application of the bleach must be done in a manner that will protect the integrity of the previously lightened hair. As the hair be­comes longer and the application of bleach is confined closer to the scalp, the ends of the hair become darker and unnatural looking. The ends of the hair should be lighter than the hair closer to the scalp.

12

This highlight on dark hair is kept in healthy con­di­tion by utilizing a fine slice and lifting the base color slightly so the highlights will not have to be done as frequently. The slight lifting of the base color between highlights can prolong the highlighting service. This is known as “bumping the base.” READ THE CRITERIA FOR HIGHLIGHT RETOUCH CAREFULLY PRIOR TO THE EX­AM­I­NA­TION. Chapter 15 Techniques Defined

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13 3. LOWâ&#x20AC;&#x2C6;LIGHTING Low lighting is the term utilized for placing a darker color into the hair. Used for toning down overly lightened hair from repetitive highlights, environmental exposure, or a series of single process colors. Low light­ing can be performed to any degree desired. This client has low lights to tone down the amount of blonde. There is no attempt made to cover the new growth.

14 Low lights can also be the first step in growing the hair out from a double process blonde, a heavy highlight or single process blonde. This client is going to allow her hair to grow out to its natural haircolor with highlights. Low lighting gets her through the first step.

15 Low lighting is also used for corrective haircoloring to tone down hair that has become too light. In this case a darker color was applied at the scalp, while the color at the scalp is process­ing low lights are added to the hair to tone down the ends. Low lights can be applied with or without color at the scalp.

16 The result is a more natural looking blonde haircolor. This would be considered an extreme form of low lighting. Be certain you have consulted and reconfirmed the final results with the client before proceeding. This effect could be too extreme for the client who has been blonde for years.

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17 A more traditional approach to low lighting is adding a color just two levels darker than the existing hair in limited amounts. When applying low lights, the closer to the nape the low lights are applied, the closer together the low lights should be, just op­po­site of what is done in highlighting. In some cases where there is one legnth hair all of the hair at the nape could be colored.

18

4. HIGH-LOW LIGHTING This is typical of a home haircolor where there are multi colors on the hair with several lines of demarcation. Applying the bleach to the darker section of hair first, then adding low lights, gives the hair a more natural look. The amount of low lights added would be based on how comfortable the client feels about having darker hair.

19

High-low lighting is the process of adding high lights and low lights to the hair at the same time. The highlights may be applied to the hair first, After the highlights have been applied, low lights are then applied to the hair and both are allowed to process at the same time. High-low lighting is used here to disguise the demarcation line while the client grows out from a single process blonde.

20

High-low lighting can also be utilized to change the overall color of the hair. In this case the client wants to go from red hair to high­light­ed hair. This is accomplished by high­light­ing the hair, then placing the remaining hair in foils with a darker color. This is unlike a reverse highlight where only one color is used and the blonde hair is isolated to make the highlights.

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21 The result is a nice soft warm brown with highlights. High-low lighting allows the haircolorist to solve a variety of haircolor problems while maintaining the integrity of the hair.

22 The high-low lighting process may be used as an introduction to haircoloring a client with gray hair. Utilizing packets with a lighter color or bleach and other packets with a light warm brown, the client may have her hair colored with足out making a total commitment. For a client who has never colored their hair, this gradual effect may be the answer.

23 High-low lighting can be utilized for correcting a blotched haircolor. Adding lighter and darker strands to this clients hair disguised the undesirable haircolor experience.

24 Utilizing high-low lighting allows the haircolorist to add highlights and darken the remaining hair giving the hair a soft natural look. The alternative to high-low lighting would be to color all of the hair dark, then highlight the hair. In the examination, the high-low lighting task requires all of the haircolor and/or bleach to be in packets. There is no haircolor or bleach outside of the packets. 220

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25

5. REVERSE HIGHLIGHTING Reverse highlighting is doing a high­light­ing in reverse. Starting with blonde hair, some of the blonde hair is isolated in packets, then the remaining hair is colored darker. The amount of hair isolated and the depth of the color would depend on the sit­ u­a­tion. Length of hair, condition and how long the client was blonde are all factors. This technique is used to ease the client back to their natural haircolor.

26

Extensive consultation should be utilized when performing a reverse highlight. Make certain the client realizes the extent of darkness this technique creates. Whenever possible use a dual application. Pre-pigmentation gives a much more natural long lasting haircolor.

27

The hair can also be isolated in packets for the purpose of performing a reverse high­light­ing. With reverse highlighting, there is no at­tempt made to preserve the new growth. The new growth is generally colored at the same time as the remaining hair. There are instances where it is advisable to utilize a lifting formula at the scalp and a non lifting formula on the remaining hair. REMEMBER, FOR THE EX­AM­I­NA­TION, ALL OF THE HAIR NOT IN PACKETS MUST BE COLORED.

28

6. GRAY REDUCTION Gray reduction is utilized by the haircolorist to reduce the amount of gray the client is wearing. Gray reduction is utilized to introduce a client to haircoloring. It has a great deal of appeal to the client who is ap­pre­hen­sive about coloring their hair for the first time. Gray re­duc­tion overcomes many of the ob­jec­tives a first time client has in terms of com­mit­ting to haircoloring. It looks natural and grows out gracefully. Chapter 15 Techniques Defined

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29

Gray reduction works as well for men, as ir does for women. The amount of darkness added to the first time clients hair depends on the ap­pre­ hen­sion the client has to coloring their hair. It is advisable to start gradually and increase the amount of darkness on subsequent visits.

30

Gray reduction is truly a professional haircolor service impossible for the client to du­pli­cate at home. EXAMINATION RE­QUIRES THE CANDIDATE TO REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF GRAY BY 25%. In order to make the hair look as natural as possible a fine slice should be utilized.

31

7. TONE ON TONE Tone on tone is the art of coloring the hair with two different colors. When doing tone on tone haircoloring, it can be accomplished with a va­ri­e­ty of tech­niques.

32

Generally, the client has a single proc­ess service. While the color at the scalp is process­ing, packets or cups are added to the hair gen­er­al­ly with a lighter color or bleach.

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33

The haircolorist may also place packets in the hair with a lighter color or bleach, then color the remaining hair around the packets. This tech足nique is often utilized when the tone on tone is being executed on a virgin tint.

34 There are many variations of tone on tone haircoloring. Like highlighting, there is high contrast or subtle tone on tone. There are fine strands lightened or very bold streaks. Your creativity will open endless opportunities. It is also an acceptable method of toning down, or lightening haircolor that is too dark.

35

Tone on tone within the red tones are especially beautiful and create a dramatic effect. FOR THE EXAMINATION, BECAUSE THE CANDIDATE IS WORKING ON VIRGIN HAIR, IT IS NECESSARY TO COLOR ALL OF THE HAIR.

36

8. SINGLE PROCESS COLOR Single process color is the application of one color on the hair. Whether it is a retouch or a virgin application, single process color defines a single color being used on the client.

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37

Even if the haircolorist utilizes two dif­fer­ent formulas, applying a lifting haircolor at the scalp and a de­pos­it only color on the re­main­ing hair, would still be con­sid­ered a single proc­ess color.

38

VIRGIN DOUBLE PROCESS COLOR Double process haircolor is the application of a bleach, allowing it to process, sham­poo­ing the first bleach from hair and then ap­ply­ing a sec­ond bleach. Double process colors are generally utilized to remove more of the underlying pigment than a single process would allow.

39

HOT ROOTS BLEACH HOT ROOTS COLOR

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There are two accepted methods of doing a bleach and toner. The recommended method is to apply the first bleach from scalp to ends, when the color at the scalp has reached the desired lightness, shampoo the hair and apply the second bleach away from the scalp. The second bleach is generally stronger and kept off the scalp with cotton. This method allows the scalp to ‘rest’ between the bleach application and the toner. The second method is to apply the bleach away from the scalp, then at a given time bring the same bleach down to the scalp The toner may be a lifting color or a deposit only color.

HOT ROOTS is a term used to define the lightness that occurs to the hair closest to the scalp when lightening the hair. This is the result of the hair at the scalp being more immature as well as the additional heat generated from the scalp. Hot roots are a mixed blessing for the haircolorists. It allows the haircolorist to achieve a lighter color at the scalp when doing retouches, at the same time it creates difficulty when doing a virgin haircolor. When doing a virgin high lift color, the hair will lighten in a manner that is contrary to the “rules of natural haircolor.”


40

TINT BACK Tint back is a matter of coloring the hair back to the natural color. The selection of color and tone are very important because of the varieties of porosities that generally exist when performing this service. De­pos­it only color is the rec­om­mend­ed product for this service. It may be necessary to pre-pigment the porous hair

41

COLOR REMOVER There are two types of color removers that are recommended for professional haircolor services. One of the removers is mild solution utilized for mild lifting of artificial color from the hair. The other is a heavy duty color re­mov­er which acts more like a bleach. The dif­fer­ence between the heavy duty color re­mov­er and bleach is, the bleach is formulated to remove natural melanin, and color removers are for removing artificial pigment.

42

To remove colors which do not have strong penetration and are not the result of multiple applications can be easily removed with a mild color remover. The procedure is a simple one. it requires mixing two solutions together and combing through the hair until the color disappears.

43

In cases where there have been multiple applications of a black tint, even a strong color remover is incapable of removing these colors.

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44 When removing artificial color with natural color at the scalp, be aware the natural color will lighten much faster and lighter than will the artificial color. This will leave the client with an unnatural look. The ends of the hair should always be lighter than the hair at the scalp in order for the hair to look natural.

45 The more applications of a darker color, the more difficult it is to remove. If heavy duty color re足mov足ers do not do the job, it may be necessary to use a bleach as in this pho足to足graph. This client had multiple applications of deposit only color. Deposit only color penetrates into the cortex layer of the hair the same as a permanent type

haircolor.

46 Color removal should always be approached with caution. Even single application colors can be near impossible to remove. This client used what would be considered to be a semi permanent haircolor. A single application of this color penetrated her hair to such an extent it took several applications of bleach to remove.

47 4

When there is some natural color close to the scalp, removing the artificial color becomes more challenging. When attempting to correct these situations, it is advisable to use a semi-permanent type color when adding color back into the hair. This client's was finished with a semi-`permanent color.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Haircolor is the airplane, you are the pilot.â&#x20AC;?

Mary Walker, Evaluator

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227


Many haircolors are spoiled at the last instant by wanting to improve it. This often impedes a haircolor rather than improve it.

228

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Kathy Smith, Evaluator


16 chapter

GLOSSARY OF HAIRCOLORING TERMS

Revised March, 2009


â&#x20AC;&#x153;There are three ways of learning haircoloring; by study which is wearisome, by experimentation which can be bitter, or by imitation which is the most sensible.â&#x20AC;?

230

Chapter 16 Glossary of Terms

Brenda Amaral, Evaluator


GLOSSARY ACCELERATOR.............................. (See ACTIVATOR)

ACCENT COLOR............................ A concentrated color product that can be added to permanent, semi-permanent or temporary haircolor to intensify or tone down the color. Another word for concentrate. ACID................................................. An aqueous (water based) solution having a pH less than 7.0 on the pH scale.

ACTIVATOR.................................... An additive used to quicken the action or progress of a chemical. Another word for booster, accelerator, protenator or catalyst. ALKALINE...................................... An aqueous (water based) solution having a pH greater than 7.0 on the pH scale. The opposite of acid.

ALLERGY........................................ A physical reaction resulting from extreme sensitivity to exposure, contact and/or ingestion of certain foods or chemicals.

ALLERGY TEST............................. A test to determine the possibility or degree of sensitivity; also known as a patch test, predisposition test or skin test.

AMINO ACIDS................................ The group of molecules that the body uses to synthesize protein. There are 22 different amino acids found in living protein that serve as units of structure. AMMONIA....................................... A colorless pungent gas composed of hydrogen and nitrogen; in water solution is called ammonia water. Used in haircolor to swell the cuticle. When mixed with hydrogen peroxide, it activates the oxidation process on melanin, and allows the melanin to decolorize.

AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.......... An alkali solution of ammonia in water; commonly used in the manufacturing of permanent haircolor, lightener preparations and hair relaxers.

ANALYSIS (HAIR).......................... An examination of the hair to determine its condition and natural color. (SEE CONSULTATION, CONDITION) AQUEOUS....................................... Descriptive term for water solution or any medium that is largely composed of water. ASH.................................................. A tone or shade dominated by greens, blues, violets or grays. May be used to counteract unwanted warm tones. BASE (ALKALI).............................. (See pH; ALKALINE)

BASE COLOR.................................. (See COLOR BASE) BLEACH.......................................... (See LIGHTENER)

BLEEDING....................................... Seepage of tint/lightener from the packet containing the hair to be colored or frosting cap due to improper application. BLENDING...................................... A merging of one tint or tone with another.

BLONDING...................................... A term applied to lightening the hair.

BONDS............................................. The means by which atoms are joined together to make molecules. BOOSTER........................................ (See ACTIVATOR)

BRASSY TONE............................... Undesirable red, orange or gold tones in the hair. BREAKAGE..................................... A condition in which hair splits and breaks off.

BUFFER ZONE................................ Applying color away from the scalp to avoid chemical overlapping. BUILD-UP........................................ Repeated coatings on the hair shaft.

BUMPING THE BASE.................... A term used to describe the slightest degree of lift of the natural color. CATALYST....................................... A substance used to alter the speed of a chemical reaction.

CATEGORY...................................... A method of defining natural hair to help determine the undertones. Chapter 16 Glossary of Terms

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CAUSTIC......................................... Strongly alkaline materials. At very high pH levels, can burn or destroy protein or tissue by chemical action.

CERTIFIED COLOR........................ A color which meets certain standards for purity and is certified by the FDA. CERTIFIED HAIRCOLORIST........ A haircolorist who has passed a rigid examination process established by the American Board of Certified Haircolorists. Term is also utilized by Manufacturers for using a particular line of haircolor. Not to be confused.

CETYL ALCOHOL.......................... Fatty alcohol used as an emollient. It is also used as a stabilizer for emulsion systems, and in haircolor and cream developer as a thickener. CHELATING STABILIZER............ A molecule that binds metal ions and renders them inactive.

CHEMICAL CHANGE.................... Alteration in the chemical composition of a substance.

CITRIC ACID................................... Organic acid derived from citrus fruits and used for pH adjustment. Primarily used to adjust the acid-alkali balance. Has some antioxidant and preservative qualities. Used medicinally as a mild astringent.

COATING......................................... Residue left on the outside of the hair shaft. COLOR............................................. Visual sensation caused by light.

CLARIFYING TREATMENT.......... Used prior to chemical services to chelate and remove metals, medications and product builtup. Start with a clean surface. Crystal gel with heat, treatments can be used to remove demi stains COLOR ADDITIVE......................... (see ACCENT COLOR)

COLOR BASE.................................. The combination of dyes which make up the tonal foundation of a specific haircolor.

COLOR LIFT................................... The amount of change natural or artificial pigment undergoes when lightened by a substance. COLOR MIXING............................. Combining two or more shades together for a custom color.

COLOR REFRESHER..................... (1) Color applied to midshaft and ends to give a more uniform color appearance to the hair. (2) Color applied by a shampoo-in method to enhance the natural color. Also called color wash, color enhancer or color glaze. COLOR REMOVER........................ A product designed to remove artificial pigment from the hair.

COLOR TEST.................................. The process of removing product from a hair strand to monitor the progress of color development during tinting or lightening. COLOR WHEEL.............................. The arrangement of primary, secondary and tertiary colors in the order of their relationships to each other. A tool for formulating. COMPLEMENTARY COLORS...... A primary and secondary color positioned opposite each other on the color wheel. When these two colors are combined, they create a neutral color.

CONDITION.................................... The existing state of the hair; its elasticity, strength, texture, porosity and evidence of previous treatments.

CONSULTATION............................. Verbal communication with a client to determine desired result. [See ANALYSIS (HAIR)]

CONTRIBUTING PIGMENT.......... The current level and tone of the hair. Refers to both natural contributing pigment and decolorized (lightened) contributing pigment. (See UNDERTONE) COOL TONES.................................. (See ASH)

CORRECTIVE COLORING............ The process of correcting an undesirable color.

CORTEX........................................... The second layer of hair. A fibrous protein core of the hair fiber, containing melanin pigment. COVERAGE..................................... Reference to the ability of a color product to color gray, white or other colors of hair. CUTICLE.......................................... The translucent, protein outer layer of the hair fiber.

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CYSTEIC ACID............................... A chemical substance in the hair fiber, produced by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the disulfide bond (cystine). CYSTINE.......................................... The disulfide amino acid which joins protein chains together.

D & C COLORS............................... Colors selected from a certified list approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in drug and cosmetic products. DECOLORIZE................................. A chemical process involving the lightening of the natural color pigment or artificial color from the hair. DEGREE........................................... Term used to describe various units of measurement.

DEMI-COLOR................................. (See DEPOSIT-ONLY COLOR) DENSE.............................................. Thick, compact or crowded.

DEPOSIT.......................................... Describes the color product in terms of its ability to add color pigment to the hair. Color added equals deposit. DEPOSIT-ONLY COLOR................ A category of color products between permanent and semi-permanent colors. Formulated to only deposit color, not lift. They contain oxidative dyes and utilize a low volume developer.

DEPTH.............................................. The lightness or darkness of a specific haircolor. (See VALUE, LEVEL)

DEVELOPER................................... An oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, that reacts chemically with coloring material to develop color molecules and create a change in natural hair color. DEVELOPMENT TIME

(OXIDATION PERIOD).................. The time required for a permanent color or lightener to completely develop.

DIFFUSED....................................... Broken down, scattered; not limited to one spot.

DIRECT DYE................................... A preformed color that dyes the fiber directly without the need for oxidation. DISCOLORATION.......................... The development of undesired shades through chemical reaction.

DOUBLE PROCESS........................ A technique requiring two separate procedures in which the hair is decolorized or prelightened with a lightener, before the depositing color is applied. DRAB............................................... Term used to describe haircolor shades containing no red or gold. (See ASH, DULL) DRABBER........................................ Concentrated color used to reduce red or gold highlights.

DULL................................................ A word used to describe hair or haircolor without sheen. DYE.................................................. Artificial pigment.

DYE INTERMEDIATE.................... A material which develops into color only after reaction with developer (hydrogen peroxide). Also known as oxidation dyes. DYE REMOVER (SOLVENTS)...... (See COLOR REMOVER)

DYE STOCK.................................... (See COLOR BASE)

ELASTICITY.................................... The ability of the hair to stretch and return to normal.

ENZYME.......................................... A protein molecule found in living cells which initiates a chemical process. FADE................................................ To lose color through exposure to the elements or other factors.

FILLER............................................. (1) Color product used as a color refresher or to replace undertones in damaged hair in preparation for haircoloring. (2) Any liquid-like substance to help fill the need for natural undertones. (See COLOR REFRESHER)

FORMULA....................................... Mixture of two or more ingredients.

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FORMULATE.................................. The art of mixing to create a blend or balance of two or more ingredients.

FROSTING....................................... The introduction of lighter strands to the hair; generally executed with a frosting cap.

GLAZING......................................... A term used to describe a translucent color used on the hair after a previous haircolor; a blending color.

GRAY HAIR..................................... Hair with decreasing amounts of natural pigment. Hair with no natural pigment is actually white. White hairs look gray when mingled with pigmented hair. GRAY CARD RULE........................ A means of determining the level of haircolor to be used on a client with gray hair. Comparing a clients haircolor to levels on card with shades of black to white give an indication of how light or dark to make the haircolor. (Chapter.8)

HAIR................................................. A slender threadlike outgrowth on the skin of the head and body.

HAIR ROOT..................................... That part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the scalp.

HAIR SHAFT................................... Visible part of each strand of hair. It is made up of an outer layer called the cuticle, an innermost layer called medulla and an in-between layer called the cortex. The cortex layer is where color changes are made. HARD WATER................................. Water that contains minerals and metallic salts as impurities.

HENNA............................................. A plant extracted coloring that produces bright shades of red. The active ingredient is lawsone. Henna permanently colors the hair by coating and penetrating the hair shaft. (See PROGRESSIVE DYE) HIGH LIFT TINTING...................... A single process color with a higher degree of lightening action and a minimal amount of color deposit. HIGHLIGHTING............................. The introduction of a lighter color in small selected sections to increase lightness of the hair.

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE............... An oxidizing chemical made up of 2 parts hydrogen, 2 parts oxygen (H2O2) used to aid the processing of permanent haircolor and lighteners. Also referred to as a developer; available in liquid or cream.

LEVEL.............................................. A unit of measurement used to evaluate the lightness or darkness of a color, excluding tone.

LEVEL SYSTEM............................. In haircoloring, a system colorists use to analyze the lightness or darkness of a haircolor.

LIFT.................................................. The lightening action of a haircolor or lightening product on the hairâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural pigment. LIGHTENER.................................... The chemical compound which lightens the hair by dispersing, dissolving and decolorizing the natural hair pigment. (See PRE-LIGHTEN)

LIGHTENING.................................. (See DECOLORIZE)

LINE OF DEMARCATION............. An obvious difference between two colors on the hair shaft.

LITMUS PAPER.............................. A chemically treated paper used to test the acidity or alkalinity of products.

MEDULLA....................................... The center structure of the hair shaft. Very little is known about its actual function.

MELANIN........................................ The tiny grains of pigment surrounded by melasome in the hair cortex which create natural hair color. MELANOCYTES............................. Cells in the hair bulb that manufacture melanin. MELANOPROTEIN......................... The protein coating of melanosome.

METALLIC DYES........................... Soluble metal salts such as lead, silver and bismuth produce colors on the hair fiber, by progressive build-up and exposure to air.

MODIFIER....................................... A chemical found as an ingredient in permanent haircolors. Its function is to alter the dye intermediates. MOLECULE..................................... Two or more atoms chemically joined together; the smallest part of a compound.

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NEUTRAL........................................ (1) A color balanced between warm and cool, which does not reflect a highlight of any primary or secondary color. (2) Also refers to a pH of 7. NEUTRALIZATION........................ The process that counter-balances or cancels the action of an agent or color. NEUTRALIZE.................................. Render neutral; counter-balance of action or influence. (See NEUTRAL)

NEW GROWTH............................... The part of the hair shaft that is between previously chemically treated hair and the scalp.

NONALKALINE.............................. (See ACID)

OFF-THE-SCALP LIGHTENER..... Generally a stronger lightener (usually in powder form), not to be used directly on the scalp. ON THE SCALP LIGHTENER....... A liquid, cream or gel form of lightener that can be used directly on the scalp. OPAQUE........................................... Allowing no light to shine through; flat; lack of translucency. OUT GROWTH................................ (See NEW GROWTH)

OVER-LAP....................................... Occurs when the application of color or lightener goes beyond the line of demarcation. OVER POROUS............................... The condition where hair reaches an undesirable stage of porosity requiring correction.

OXIDATION..................................... (1) The reaction of dye intermediates with hydrogen peroxide found in haircoloring developers. (2) The interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the natural pigment.

OXIDATIVE HAIR COLOR........... A product containing oxidation dyes which require hydrogen peroxide to develop the permanent color. PARA TINT...................................... A tint made from oxidation dyes.

PARA-PHENYLENEDIAMINE...... An oxidative dye used in most permanent haircolors, often abbreviated as P.P.D.

PATCH TEST.................................... A test required by the Food and Drug Act. Performed by applying a small amount of the haircoloring preparation to the skin of the arm, or behind the ear to determine possible allergies (hypersensitivity). Also called pre-disposition or skin test. PENETRATING COLOR................. Color that penetrates the cortex or second layer of the hair shaft.

PERMANENT COLOR................... Haircolor products that do not wash out by shampooing, Containing ammonia so as to have lifting action. A category of haircolor products mixed with developer, that create a lasting color change. PEROXIDE....................................... (See HYDROGEN PEROXIDE)

PEROXIDE RESIDUE..................... Traces of peroxide left in the hair after treatment with lightener or tint.

PERSULFATE.................................. In haircoloring, a chemical ingredient commonly used in activators that increases the speed of the decolorization process. (See ACTIVATOR)

pH...................................................... The quantity that expresses the acid/alkali balance. A pH of 7 is the neutral value for pure water. Any pH below 7 is acidic; any pH above 7 is alkaline. The skin is mildly acidic, and generally in the pH 4.5 to 5.5 range.

pH SCALE........................................ A numerical scale from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline), used to describe the degree of acidity or alkalinity. PIGMENT......................................... Any substance or matter used as coloring; natural or artificial haircolor.

POROSITY....................................... Ability of the hair to absorb water or other liquids. See porosity grading system. (Chapter 4) POWDER LIGHTENER.................. (See OFF THE SCALP LIGHTENER)

PREBLEACHING ........................... (See PRELIGHTEN) PREDISPOSITION TEST................ (See PATCH TEST)

PRELIGHTEN.................................. Generally the first step of double process haircoloring. To lift or lighten the natural pigment. (See DECOLORIZE) Chapter 16 Glossary of Terms

235


PRESOFTEN.................................... The process of treating gray or very resistant hair to allow for better penetration of color. PRIMARY COLORS........................ Pigments or colors that are fundamental and cannot be made by mixing colors together. Red, yellow and blue are the primary colors.

PRISM.............................................. A transparent glass or crystal that breaks up white light into its component colors -the spectrum. PROCESSING TIME....................... The time required for the chemical treatment to react on the hair.

PROGRESSIVE DYES OR

PROGRESSIVE DYE SYSTEM..... (1) A coloring system which produces increased absorption with each application. (2) Color products that deepen or increase absorption over a period of time during processing. REGROWTH.................................... (See NEW GROWTH)

RESISTANT HAIR.......................... Hair that is difficult to penetrate with moisture or chemical solutions. RETOUCH........................................ Application of color or lightening mixture to new growth of hair.

SALT AND PEPPER........................ The descriptive term for a mixture of dark and gray or white hair.

SECONDARY COLOR.................... Colors made by combining two primary colors in equal proportion; green, orange and violet are secondary colors. SEMI-PERMANENT

HAIR COLORING........................... A pre-oxidized hair color requiring no catalyst that lasts through several shampoos. It stains the cuticle layer, slowly fading with each shampoo. SENSITIVITY.................................. Skin that is highly reactive to the presence of a specific chemical. Skin reddens or becomes irritated shortly after application of the chemical. The reaction subsides when the chemical has been removed.

SHADE............................................. (1) A term used to describe a specific color. (2) The visible difference between two colors.

SHEEN.............................................. The ability of the hair to shine, gleam or reflect light.

SINGLE PROCESS COLOR........... Refers to an oxidative tint solution that lifts or lightens, while also depositing color in one application. (See OXIDATIVE HAIR COLOR)

SOFTENING AGENT...................... A mild alkaline product applied prior to the color treatment to increase porosity, swell the cuticle layer of the hair and increase color absorption. Tint that has not been mixed with developer is frequently used. (See PRE-SOFTEN)

SOLUTION....................................... A blended mixture of solid, liquid or gaseous substances in a liquid medium. SOLVENT......................................... Carrier liquid in which other components may be dissolved.

SPECIALIST.................................... One who concentrates on only one part or branch of a subject or profession.

SPECTRUM..................................... The series of colored bands diffracted and arranged in the order of their wavelengths by the passage of white light through a prism. Shading continuously from red (produced by the longest wave visible) to violet (produced by the shortest): red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. SPOT LIGHTENING....................... Color correcting using a lightening mixture to lighten darker areas.

STABILIZER.................................... General name for ingredient which prolongs life, appearance and performance of a product.

STAGE.............................................. A term used to describe a visible color change that natural hair color goes through while being lightened. STAIN REMOVER.......................... Chemical used to remove tint stains from skin.

STRAND TEST................................ Test given before treatment to determine development time, color result and the ability of the hair to withstand the effects of chemicals. STRIPPING ..................................... (See COLOR REMOVER)

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SURFACTANT................................. A abbreviation for Surface Active Agent. A molecule which is composed of an oilloving (oleophillic) part and a water-loving (hydrophilic) part. They act as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix. Wetting agents, emulsifiers, cleansers, solubilizers, dispersing aids and thickeners are usually surfactants.

TABLESPOON................................. 1/2 ounce; 2 teaspoons. (T)

TEASPOON...................................... 1/6 ounce; 1/2 of a tablespoon. (t) TEMPORARY COLOR

OR RINSES..................................... Color made from preformed dyes that are applied to the hair for short-term effect. This type of product is readily removed with shampoo. TERMINOLOGY............................. The special words or terms used in science, art or business.

TERTIARY COLORS...................... The mixture of a primary and an adjacent secondary color on the color wheel. red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet. Also referred to as intermediary colors. TEXTURE, (HAIR).......................... The diameter of an individual hair strand. Termed: coarse, medium or fine.

TINT................................................. Permanent oxidizing haircolor product, having the ability to lift and deposit color in the same process. Requires a developer. TINT BACK..................................... To return hair back to its original or natural color.

TONE................................................ A term used to describe the warmth or coolness in color. TONER............................................. A pastel color to be used after pre-lightening. TONING........................................... Adding color to modify the end result. TOUCH-UP...................................... (See RETOUCH)

TRANSLUCENT.............................. The property of letting diffused light pass through.

TYROSINE....................................... The amino acid (tyrosine) which reacts together with the enzyme (tyrosinase) to form the hairs natural melanin.

TYROSINASE.................................. The enzyme (tyrosinase) which reacts together with the amino acid (tyrosine) to form the hairs natural melanin. UNDERTONE.................................. The underlying color in melanin that emerges during the lifting process and contributes to the end result. When lightening hair, a residual warmth in tone always occurs.

UREA PEROXIDE........................... A peroxide compound occasionally used in haircolor. It releases oxygen when added to an alkaline color mixture. VALUE............................................. (See LEVEL; DEPTH)

VEGETABLE COLOR..................... A color derived from plant sources.

VIRGIN HAIR.................................. Natural hair that has not undergone any chemical or physical abuse. VISCOSITY...................................... A term referring to the thickness of a solution.

VOLUME......................................... The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in water solution. Expressed as volumes of oxygen liberated per volume of solution. 20 volume peroxide would thus liberate 20 pints of oxygen gas for each pint of solution. WARM.............................................. A term used to describe haircolor. Containing red, orange, yellow or gold tones.

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“It doesn’t matter if your client looks dreadful during the haircolor service as long as she looks like a beauty at the end of the service.”

238

Chapter 16 Glossary of Terms

Jan Caruso, Evaluator


17 chapter

HAIRCOLORING TOOLS AND MARKETING TERMS

Revised March, 2009


Some haircolorists are never satisfied unless they are adding new colors to their shelves. . . . This is not good for the haircolorist but it is quite good for the manufacturer of haircolor.

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Chapter 17 Haircoloring Tools and Marketing Terms

Thia Daniels, Evaluator


1

MARKETING TERM BALAYAGE BAN DE SOLEIL

DEFINITION

2

BLONDE ON BLONDE

A technique utilized to create a blend of blonde shades on the same head of hair. May be utilized on a natural blonde or on someone that is coloring their hair blonde gives the hair a dimensional effect.

3

BROWN ON BROWN

A technique utilized to add dimension to a solid brown form by adding additional lightness with a mild contrast.

4

CARAMELIZING

See term "Tortoise Shelling"

5

COLLAGE

A mixture of colors weaving through the hair, generally achieved by various stages of lighting.

6

COLOR ON COLOR

7

FOILING

Referring to applying foils to the hair to create a dimensional effect.

8

FRAMING

Lightness around the face generally achieved by utilizing a dimensional color effect.

9

FUR LIGHT

Achieved on short hair that is standing out from the head like a porcupine. The hair is bleached then a dark color added to the ends. Also known as "Minking".

10

FROSTING

A method of lighting individual strands of hair. This term is generally associated with a cap that is placed on the head and the hair pulled through.

Touched by the sun. Lightness the way the sun would do it. This process is generally utilized on lighter hair and is accomplished with a form of hair painting.

The use of no lift color on the hair making the hair darker.

11 GLAZING

A deposit only color applied over a highlight. Can also be a lifting toner to change the natural color slightly.

12 GRABBING

With gloved hands, bleach or tint is painted on the hands, then you grab the hair depositing the tint or bleach in an irregular pattern. (see scrunching)

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242

MARKETING TERM

DEFINITION

13 GRAY REDUCTION

Adding additional natural color to gray hair to reduce the amount of gray.

14 HALOING

Creating a halo by lightening only the hair around the face on short hair, creating a halo effect.

15 HIGH-LOW LIGHTING

Lightening isolated strands and darkening strands on the same head at the same time.

16 ICICLING

Color or lightener added to the ends of highly teased hair.

17 ICING

Adding light strands to resemble gray hair.

18 INNER GLOW

Bleaching only the hair close to the scalp on dark hair.

19 LOW LIGHTING

A corrective technique used to tone down overly lightened hair by adding a darker color to selected strands. The opposite of Highlighting.

20 MARBLIZING

Thin ribbons of lighter hair weaving through darker natural hair.

21 MINKING

Darker hair at the scalp, lighter color on the endshair. Imitating a mink.

22 NATURALIZING

A technique using several colors within the same natural range.

23 NUANCES

A technique adding delicate shadings; reflections in a dimensional effect.

24 PAINTING

Painting color or bleach on the hair with an artists brush. Also known as hair painting.

Chapter 17 Haircoloring Tools and Marketing Terms


MARKETING TERM

DEFINITION

25 REVERSE HIGHLIGHTING

Doing a highlighting in reverse. The addition of a darker color to previously lightened hair. First isolating some of the blonde strands, then coloring all of the remaining hair, creating a highlighting effect.

26 SCRUNCHING

Painting color or bleach on gloved hands and scrunching the hair. This technique is done on dry backcombed or permed hair, allowed to process then shampoo off.

27 SHADING

The subtle blending of lighter to darker colors.â&#x20AC;&#x2018;

28

SHADOWING

Applying a darker color on the scalp then staggering the color out toward the ends.

29 SLICING

A foil technique placing long, fine, thin strands in the foil.

30 SHOE SHINING

Painting a layer of bleach or color on a long strip of foil and transferring it on to the hair as if you would if using a shoe shine rag.

31 STREAKING

Larger more well defined strands of hair.

32 TIPPING

A form of lightening at the ends of the hair, rather than the entire shaft.

33 TONE ON TONE

Changing the natural haircolor or covering gray, then adding lighter strands.

34

TORTOISE SHELLING Different amounts of tortoise colors added to a brown head of hair, aka Caramelizing.

35

WEAVE

The action of the rat tail comb, used for selecting strands for dimensional haircoloring.

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TOOLS

1

COLOR RODS

A tool that resembles a perm rod used for reverse highlighting.

2

FOIL TECHNIQUE

The use of aluminum foil for isolating segments of hair for bleaching or coloring.

3

SUPER STREAK CUPS

A cup shaped device used to isolate and contain strands for coloring or lightening.

4 PAPER WRAPS

Paper wraps used in conjunction with color sleeves or for isolating hair strands for bleaching or coloring.

5

TAIL COMB

A comb with a pointed end used to weave out and section hair.

6

CROCHET HOOK

A small device with a hook on the end used for pulling hair through a cap.

7 FROSTING CAP 8

9

A plastic, rubber or foam cap that fits snugly over the head. Once in place, hair is pulled through and lightener or color is applied to the hair outside the cap.

COLOR SLIPS

Coated paper used to isolate selected sections of hair.

LITHO PADS OR TRANSFER PADS

Pressed cotton pads used to isolate selected strands of hair to be lightened or colored.

10 COLOR SPATULA

A specialized color tool used to distribute powder bleach through the hair.

11 COLOR EASEL

A plastic or masonite board used to support the section of hair to be lightened or colored with foil or paper wraps.

12

244

DEFINITION OF TOOL

PLASTIC APPLICATOR

Chapter 17 Haircoloring Tools and Marketing Terms

A pliable, squeeze bottle used to apply all types of color and lighteners.


TOOLS

DEFINITION OF TOOL

13 PLASTIC WRAP

Transparent, reusable or disposal plastic sheets used to isolate selected sections of hair.

14 TINT BOWL

A container used to mix color or lightener.

15 TINT BRUSH

A tool used to apply color or lightener to the hair, used in conjunction with a tint bowl.

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245


American Board of Certified Haircolorists  

Study Portfolio for Certification

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